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Sample records for ecological studies hsf

  1. Lessons from the use of genetically modified Drosophila melanogaster in ecological studies: Hsf mutant lines show highly trait-specific performance in field and laboratory thermal assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Loeschcke, Volker; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård

    2009-01-01

    -down resistance relative to Hsf0 flies but in other assays on heat, cold and desiccation resistance there was either no difference between the two mutant lines or the Hsf0 line had higher performance. Also, the superiority of the wild-type flies under field conditions was trait specific.5.  The results emphasize...

  2. HSF2 autoregulates its own transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon-Mi; Kim, Soo-A; Ahn, Sang-Gun

    2015-10-01

    Heat shock factor 2 (HSF2) is one of the most important regulators affecting stress mechanisms, and is frequently amplified in the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Despite its significance, the mechanisms which regulate HSF2 expression remain unclear. In the present study, we describe the existence of a negative autoregulatory mechanism of HSF2. Transfection assays demonstrated that HSF2 decreased endogenous HSF2 mRNA expression in human K562 erythroleukemia cells. Luciferase reporter assays revealed that HSF2 inhibited the activity of its own promoter in a dose-dependent manner and that the downstream region (-1.5 kb) relative to the transcription start site was responsible for this inhibitory effect. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assat indicated that HSF2 is directly recruited onto its own promoter, which contains a putative heat shock element (HSE). Collectively, the findings of our studys suggest that HSF2 contributes to its own expression by forming a negative autoregulatory loop. PMID:26260034

  3. NEDD4-mediated HSF1 degradation underlies ?-synucleinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunhee; Wang, Bin; Sastry, Namratha; Masliah, Eliezer; Nelson, Peter T; Cai, Huaibin; Liao, Francesca-Fang

    2016-01-15

    Cellular protein homeostasis is achieved by a delicate network of molecular chaperones and various proteolytic processes such as ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) to avoid a build-up of misfolded protein aggregates. The latter is a common denominator of neurodegeneration. Neurons are found to be particularly vulnerable to toxic stress from aggregation-prone proteins such as ?-synuclein. Induction of heat-shock proteins (HSPs), such as through activated heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) via Hsp90 inhibition, is being investigated as a therapeutic option for proteinopathic diseases. HSF1 is a master stress-protective transcription factor which activates genes encoding protein chaperones (e.g. iHsp70) and anti-apoptotic proteins. However, whether and how HSF1 is dysregulated during neurodegeneration has not been studied. Here, we discover aberrant HSF1 degradation by aggregated ?-synuclein (or ?-synuclein-induced proteotoxic stress) in transfected neuroblastoma cells. HSF1 dysregulation via ?-synuclein was confirmed by in vivo assessment of mouse and in situ studies of human specimens with ?-synucleinopathy. We demonstrate that elevated NEDD4 is implicated as the responsible ubiquitin E3 ligase for HSF1 degradation through UPS. Furthermore, pharmacologically induced SIRT1-mediated deacetylation can attenuate aberrant NEDD4-mediated HSF1 degradation. Indeed, we define the acetylation status of the Lys 80 residue located in the DNA-binding domain of HSF1 as a critical factor in modulating HSF1 protein stability in addition to its previously identified role in the transcriptional activity. Together with the finding that preserving HSF1 can alleviate ?-synuclein toxicity, this study strongly suggests that aberrant HSF1 degradation is a key neurodegenerative mechanism underlying ?-synucleinopathy. PMID:26503960

  4. RSK2 represses HSF1 activation during heat shock

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaozhe; Asea, Alexzander; Xie, Yue; Kabingu, Edith; Stevenson, Mary Ann; Calderwood, Stuart K.

    2000-01-01

    Heat shock transcription factor 1(HSF1) activation is a multistep process. The conversion of a latent cytoplasmic form to a nuclear, DNA binding state appears to be activated by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In previous studies, we showed that HSF 1 is phosphorylated by the protein kinase RSK2 in vitro and that this effect is inhibited by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at the concentration that leads to the activation of HSF1 in vivo (Stevenson et al 1999). In the present study,...

  5. Ecological Field Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Field studies are an excellent way for students to learn ecological concepts and practice doing science. This article presents an approach for the secondary science classroom that permits students to ask and answer their own questions, a prerequisite for truly experiencing the process of science. Students explore a local natural area and, in

  6. BAG3 affects the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Young-Hee [Department of Biochemistry, Dongguk University College of Oriental Medicine, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang-Gun [Department of Pathology, Chosun University College of Dentistry, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo-A., E-mail: ksooa@dongguk.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Dongguk University College of Oriental Medicine, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-21

    Bcl2-associated athoanogene (BAG) 3 is a member of the co-chaperone BAG family. It is induced by stressful stimuli such as heat shock and heavy metals, and it regulates cellular adaptive responses against stressful conditions. In this study, we identified a novel role for BAG3 in regulating the nuclear shuttling of HSF1 during heat stress. The expression level of BAG3 was induced by heat stress in HeLa cells. Interestingly, BAG3 rapidly translocalized to the nucleus upon heat stress. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 under normal and stressed conditions and co-translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress. We also demonstrated that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 via its BAG domain. Over-expression of BAG3 down-regulates the level of nuclear HSF1 by exporting it to the cytoplasm during the recovery period. Depletion of BAG3 using siRNA results in reduced nuclear HSF1 and decreased Hsp70 promoter activity. BAG3 in MEF(hsf1{sup −/−}) cells actively translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress suggesting that BAG3 plays a key role in the processing of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress. - Highlights: • The expression level of BAG3 is induced by heat stress. • BAG3 translocates to the nucleus upon heat stress. • BAG3 interacts with HSF1 and co-localizes to the nucleus. • BAG3 is a key regulator for HSF1 nuclear shuttling.

  7. BAG3 affects the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bcl2-associated athoanogene (BAG) 3 is a member of the co-chaperone BAG family. It is induced by stressful stimuli such as heat shock and heavy metals, and it regulates cellular adaptive responses against stressful conditions. In this study, we identified a novel role for BAG3 in regulating the nuclear shuttling of HSF1 during heat stress. The expression level of BAG3 was induced by heat stress in HeLa cells. Interestingly, BAG3 rapidly translocalized to the nucleus upon heat stress. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 under normal and stressed conditions and co-translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress. We also demonstrated that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 via its BAG domain. Over-expression of BAG3 down-regulates the level of nuclear HSF1 by exporting it to the cytoplasm during the recovery period. Depletion of BAG3 using siRNA results in reduced nuclear HSF1 and decreased Hsp70 promoter activity. BAG3 in MEF(hsf1−/−) cells actively translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress suggesting that BAG3 plays a key role in the processing of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress. - Highlights: • The expression level of BAG3 is induced by heat stress. • BAG3 translocates to the nucleus upon heat stress. • BAG3 interacts with HSF1 and co-localizes to the nucleus. • BAG3 is a key regulator for HSF1 nuclear shuttling

  8. Audubon Ecology Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    The materials in the set include a student reader "The Story of Ecology," a leaders' guide, and a large, pictorial wall chart. The student reader is divided into 10 units relating to a definition of ecology, the sun and life, air and the water cycle, major divisions of the earth, plants and food chains, distribution of plants and animals,…

  9. Tomato HsfA1a plays a critical role in plant drought tolerance by activating ATG genes and inducing autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Cai, Shuyu; Yin, Lingling; Shi, Kai; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Zhou, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy plays critical roles in plant responses to stress. In contrast to the wealth of information concerning the core process of plant autophagosome assembly, our understanding of the regulation of autophagy is limited. In this study, we demonstrated that transcription factor HsfA1a played a critical role in tomato tolerance to drought stress, in part through its positive role in induction of autophagy under drought stress. HsfA1a expression was induced by drought stress. Virus-induced HsfA1a gene silencing reduced while its overexpression increased plant drought tolerance based on both symptoms and membrane integrity. HsfA1a-silenced plants were more sensitive to endogenous ABA-mediated stomatal closure, while its overexpression lines were resistant under drought stress, indicating that phytohormone ABA did not play a major role in HsfA1a-induced drought tolerance. On the other hand, HsfA1a-silenced plants increased while its overexpression decreased the levels of insoluble proteins which were highly ubiquitinated under drought stress. Furthermore, drought stress induced numerous ATGs expression and autophagosome formation in wild-type plants. The expression of ATG10 and ATG18f, and the formation of autophagosomes were compromised in HsfA1a-silenced plants but were enhanced in HsfA1a-overexpressing plants. Both electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with qPCR analysis revealed that HsfA1a bound to ATG10 and ATG18f gene promoters. Silencing of ATG10 and ATG18f reduced HsfA1a-induced drought tolerance and autophagosome formation in plants overexpressing HsfA1a. These results demonstrate that HsfA1a induces drought tolerance by activating ATG genes and inducing autophagy, which may promote plant survival by degrading ubiquitinated protein aggregates under drought stress. PMID:26649940

  10. Enhanced antitumoral efficacy and immune response following conditionally replicative adenovirus containing constitutive HSF1 delivery to rodent tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Rong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oncolytic adenoviruses are promising as anticancer agents but have limited clinical responses. Our previous study showed that heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1 overexpression could increase the anti-tumor efficacy of E1B55kD deleted oncolytic adenovirus through increasing the viral burst. Due to the important roles of heat shock proteins (HSPs in eliciting innate and adaptive immunity, we reasoned that besides increasing the viral burst, HSF1 may also play a role in increasing tumor specific immune response. Methods In the present study, intra-dermal murine models of melanoma (B16 and colorectal carcinoma (CT26 were treated with E1B55kD deleted oncolytic adenovirus Adel55 or Adel55 incorporated with cHSF1, HSF1i, HSP70, or HSP90 by intra-tumoral injection. Tumors were surgically excised 72 h post injection and animals were analyzed for tumor resistance and survival rate. Results Approximately 95% of animals in the Adel55-cHSF1 treated group showed sustained resistance upon re-challenge with autologous tumor cells, but not in PBS, Adel55, or Adel55-HSF1i treated groups. Only 50–65% animals in the Adel55-HSP70 and Adel55-HSP90 treated group showed tumor resistance. Tumor resistance was associated with development of tumor type specific cellular immune responses. Adel55-cHSF1 treatment also showed higher efficacy in diminishing progression of the secondary tumor focus than Adel55-HSP70 or Adel55-HSP90 treatment. Conclusions Besides by increasing its burst in tumor cells, cHSF1 could also augment the potential of E1B55kD deleted oncolytic adenovirus by increasing the tumor-specific immune response, which is beneficial to prevent tumor recurrence. cHSF1 is a better gene for neoadjuvant immunotherapy than other heat shock protein genes.

  11. Sulfide exposure results in enhanced sqr transcription through upregulating the expression and activation of HSF1 in echiuran worm Urechis unicinctus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolong; Zhang, Zhifeng; Ma, Xiaoyu; Li, Xueyu; Zhou, Di; Gao, Beibei; Bai, Yajiao

    2016-01-01

    Sulfide is a natural, widely distributed, poisonous substance. Sulfide: quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) is responsible for the initial oxidation of sulfide in mitochondria. To study transcriptional regulation of sqr after sulfide exposure, a 2.6-kb sqr upstream sequence from echiuran worm Urechis unicinctus was cloned by genome walking. Bioinformatics analysis showed 3 heat shock elements (HSEs) in proximal promoter region of the sqr upstream sequence. Moreover, an Hsf1 cDNA in U. unicinctus (UuHsf1) was isolated with a full-length sequence of 2334 bp and its polyclonal antibody was prepared using U. unicinctus HSF1 (UuHSF1) expressed prokaryotically with whole sequence of its open reading frame (ORF). In vivo ChIP and in vitro EMSA assays revealed UuHSF1 could interact with the sqr proximal promoter region. Transient transfection and mutation assays indicated that UuHSF1 bound specifically to HSE (-155bp to -143bp) and enhanced the transcription of sqr. Furthermore, sulfide treatment experiments demonstrated that sulfide could increase the expression of HSF1 protein, and induce trimerization of the protein which binds to HSEs and then activate sqr transcription. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed sqr mRNA level increased significantly after U. unicinctus was exposed to sulfide for 6h, which corresponded to content changes of both trimeric HSF1 and HSF1-HSE complex. We concluded that UuHSF1 is a transcription factor of sqr and sulfide could induce sqr transcription by upregulating the expression and activation of HSF1 in U. unicinctus exposed to sulfide. PMID:26675369

  12. Comparison of Copy Number of HSF Genes in Two Buffalo Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Shardul Vikram; Mukherjee, Ayan; Brahma, Biswajit; Gohain, Moloya; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Saini, Sushil Kumar; Mishra, Purushottam; Ahlawat, Sonika; Upadhyaya, Ramesh C; Datta, Tirtha K; De, Sachinandan

    2016-07-01

    The copy number variation (CNV) is the number of copies of a particular gene in the genotype of an individual. Recent evidences show that the CNVs can vary in frequency and occurrence between breeds. These variations reportedly allowed different breeds to adapt to different environments. As copy number variations follow Mendelian pattern of inheritance, identification and distribution of these variants between populations can be used to infer the evolutionary history of the species. In this study, we have examined the absolute copy number of four Heat shock factor genes viz. HSF-1, 2, 4, and 5 in two different breeds of buffalo species using real-time PCR. Here, we report that the absolute copy number of HSF2 varies between the two breeds. In contrast no significant difference was observed in the copy number for HSF-1, 4, and 5 between the two breeds. Our results provide evidence for the presence of breed specific differences in HSF2 genomic copy number. This seems to be the first step in delineating the genetic factors underlying environmental adaptation between the two breeds. Nevertheless, a more detailed study is needed to characterize the functional consequence of this variation. PMID:26953680

  13. HSF1 transcriptional activity mediates alcohol induction of Vamp2 expression and GABA release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence P. Varodayan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many central synapses are highly sensitive to alcohol, and it is now accepted that short-term alterations in synaptic function may lead to longer term changes in circuit function. The regulation of postsynaptic receptors by alcohol has been well studied, but the mechanisms underlying the effects of alcohol on the presynaptic terminal are relatively unexplored. To identify a pathway by which alcohol regulates neurotransmitter release, we recently investigated the mechanism by which ethanol induces the Vamp2 gene, but not Vamp1, in mouse primary cortical cultures. These two genes encode isoforms of synaptobrevin, a vesicular soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE protein required for synaptic vesicle fusion. We found that alcohol activates the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1 to induce Vamp2 gene expression, while Vamp1 mRNA levels remain unaffected. As the Vamp2 gene encodes a SNARE protein, we then investigated whether ethanol exposure and HSF1 transcriptional activity alter neurotransmitter release using electrophysiology. We found that alcohol increased the frequency of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-mediated miniature IPSCs via HSF1, but had no effect on mEPSCs. Overall, these data indicate that alcohol induces HSF1 transcriptional activity to trigger a specific coordinated adaptation in GABAergic presynaptic terminals. This mechanism could explain some of the changes in synaptic function that occur soon after alcohol exposure, and may underlie some of the more enduring effects of chronic alcohol intake on local circuit function.

  14. Downregulation of Chloroplast RPS1 Negatively Modulates Nuclear Heat-Responsive Expression of HsfA2 and Its Target Genes in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hai-Dong; Yang, Xiao-Fei; Chen, Si-Ting; Wang, Yu-Ting; Li, Ji-Kai; Shen, Qi; Liu, Xun-Liang; Guo, Fang-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Heat stress commonly leads to inhibition of photosynthesis in higher plants. The transcriptional induction of heat stress-responsive genes represents the first line of inducible defense against imbalances in cellular homeostasis. Although heat stress transcription factor HsfA2 and its downstream target genes are well studied, the regulatory mechanisms by which HsfA2 is activated in response to heat stress remain elusive. Here, we show that chloroplast ribosomal protein S1 (RPS1) is a heat-res...

  15. Heterotypic Signals from Neural HSF-1 Separate Thermotolerance from Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Douglas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrating stress responses across tissues is essential for the survival of multicellular organisms. The metazoan nervous system can sense protein-misfolding stress arising in different subcellular compartments and initiate cytoprotective transcriptional responses in the periphery. Several subcellular compartments possess a homotypic signal whereby the respective compartment relies on a single signaling mechanism to convey information within the affected cell to the same stress-responsive pathway in peripheral tissues. In contrast, we find that the heat shock transcription factor, HSF-1, specifies its mode of transcellular protection via two distinct signaling pathways. Upon thermal stress, neural HSF-1 primes peripheral tissues through the thermosensory neural circuit to mount a heat shock response. Independent of this thermosensory circuit, neural HSF-1 activates the FOXO transcription factor, DAF-16, in the periphery and prolongs lifespan. Thus a single transcription factor can coordinate different stress response pathways to specify its mode of protection against changing environmental conditions.

  16. Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Khumayni, S.

    2013-01-01

    Ecology is the study of interaction of living organisms in the environment. However the modern meaning of the concept of ecology has a wider meaning than in the early decades of the development of this science. Currently, most often under the mistaken environmental issues are understood, above all, the protection of the environment. In many ways, this shift is due to sense more tangible consequences of human impact on the environment. When you are citing the document, use the following lin...

  17. A Study on Cultivating College Students Ecological Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Junhong Tang; Wei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to cultivate modern college students ecological consciousness under the background of current deteriorating ecological crisis. The study shows some college students do not realize the harm of the ecological crisis and are not fully aware that it is each persons duties and responsibilities to relieve even solve the ecological crisis either. The study also conveys most students have realized the importance of ecological consciousness in solving the current ecological...

  18. The ecological study of memory.

    OpenAIRE

    Neisser, U

    1997-01-01

    The study of memory has long been dominated by the structural tradition, and especially by the experimental analysis of mechanisms of information processing. That dominance may soon be brought to an end by the progress of neuroscience, which offers more direct ways of studying the mechanisms in question. At that point functional issues may move to centre stage. Those issues include the act of remembering and its social functions, the skills and presuppositions of the remembered, the interacti...

  19. MARKING INSECTS FOR STUDYING ECOLOGY AND ETHOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different kinds of markers can be used for studying insect ecology and behavior, and each have special strengths, weaknesses, and applications. Various kinds of markers are described, including visual tags (e.g., paint, wires, dyes, pollen, and spores), rubidium, radiotracers, rare earth elements, ...

  20. A SNP in the 3'-UTR of HSF1 in dairy cattle affects binding of target bta-miR-484.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q L; Zhang, Z F; Xia, P; Wang, Y J; Wu, Z Y; Jia, Y H; Chang, S M; Chu, M X

    2015-01-01

    The heat shock transcription factor 1 gene (HSF1) plays a key role in the heat stress response. We previously found a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 3'-untranslated region (g.4693G>T) of HSF1 that was related to thermo tolerance in Chinese Holstein cattle through association analysis. However, it is not known whether other SNPs also affect thermo tolerance.In this study a novel SNP, g.1451G>T, was identified by DNA sequencing and genotyped using creating restriction site-polymerase chain reaction methodology. The g.1451G>T polymorphic site met Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). Association analysis demonstrated that this SNP had no effect on thermo tolerance traits in Holstein cattle. Findings of the study compared to the analysis of g.4693 G>T further indicated that g.4693 G>T may play an important role in thermo tolerance, although the mechanism is not clear. RNA hybrid and Targetscan prediction showed that the minimum free energy hybridization of bta-miR-484 with HSF1 3'-UTR was -31.9 kcal/mol and g.4693 G>T was in the seed sequence of bovine HSF1 that binds to bta-miR-484. Analysis by Luciferase assay indicated that HSF1 expression was directly targeted by bta-miR-484 in HEK 293T cells, and the Rluc/luc ratio of wildtype (GG) was lower than that of the mutant (TT) (P T affects binding of HSF1 to bta-miR-484. PMID:26505425

  1. 40 CFR 159.165 - Toxicological and ecological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under the criteria of 40 CFR 156.62. (b) Ecological studies. The results of a study of the toxicity of a... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Toxicological and ecological studies... Information § 159.165 Toxicological and ecological studies. Adverse effects information must be submitted...

  2. Thermal discharges and ecological studies - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal ecological studies (TES) formulated and funded by BRNS are fine examples of coordinated research program in our country. There were at least eight different research laboratories with various backgrounds involved in these studies with a commitment to study the effect of thermal discharge into water bodies scientifically. BRNS has already underlined the concern of the people living within the vicinity of the power plants on their livelihood which depends on fish catch etc., and the stipulations laid down by statutory bodies for the temperature rise due to thermal discharge to be viewed in a global perspective

  3. Expression of HSF2 decreases in mitosis to enable stress-inducible transcription and cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsing, Alexandra N.; Aspelin, Camilla; Björk, Johanna K.; Bergman, Heidi A.; Himanen, Samu V.; Kallio, Marko J.; Roos-Mattjus, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Unless mitigated, external and physiological stresses are detrimental for cells, especially in mitosis, resulting in chromosomal missegregation, aneuploidy, or apoptosis. Heat shock proteins (Hsps) maintain protein homeostasis and promote cell survival. Hsps are transcriptionally regulated by heat shock factors (HSFs). Of these, HSF1 is the master regulator and HSF2 modulates Hsp expression by interacting with HSF1. Due to global inhibition of transcription in mitosis, including HSF1-mediated expression of Hsps, mitotic cells are highly vulnerable to stress. Here, we show that cells can counteract transcriptional silencing and protect themselves against proteotoxicity in mitosis. We found that the condensed chromatin of HSF2-deficient cells is accessible for HSF1 and RNA polymerase II, allowing stress-inducible Hsp expression. Consequently, HSF2-deficient cells exposed to acute stress display diminished mitotic errors and have a survival advantage. We also show that HSF2 expression declines during mitosis in several but not all human cell lines, which corresponds to the Hsp70 induction and protection against stress-induced mitotic abnormalities and apoptosis. PMID:25202032

  4. Study of Teacher Development Based on the Ecological Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Bo; Xiao Qianyin; Xiong Feng

    2014-01-01

    Based on the understanding of the ecology background, the ecological system of Teacher Development (TD) is constructed and the influential factors, such as the natural, social environment, regulatory environment and the physiological and psychological environment, which have an effect on TD, are analyzed in the present study. Besides, with the combination of the ecological characteristics of TD, The sustainable model for TD is proposed. In accordance with the ecological principles of TD and w...

  5. Connecicut River ecological study: a synopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper recounts some salient features of an extensive study of the thermal effects of the Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company's electric generating plant on biota of the lower Connecticut River. The work includes a description of the plume, an examination of the anadromous shad population, a discussion of the affected ichthvofauna and entrainment, and an account of alterations in benthic fauna. This study has several distinctive attributes, among them that it was begun before the Water Quality Act (1965) and that it had a long-term before-and-after character, beginning in 1965 before the plant began operating and continuing during operation (1968-1973). Ecological alterations observed to date appear to be well within the limits of acceptability, and in large measure, wrought by mechanical rather than thermal factors

  6. Studies on rhizobial ecology using marker genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Not only traditional approaches such as serology, antibiotic resistance and plasmid profile analysis but also technologies based on molecular biology have been used for strain identification in studies on microbial ecology. Many methods suffer from certain limitations because they are often laborious and time consuming, requiring analysis of individual nodules, and therefore only a restricted amount of data can be collected. Use of marker genes has become popular, especially when they allow visual identification. The Escherichia coli gusA marker gene has proved to be a highly suitable tool for studying plant-microbe interactions. Nodules containing gusA marked rhizobia can be identified simply by their blue colour, which they produce after incubation in a phosphate buffer containing the substrate X-gluc, but marked bacteria can also be detected on plates or in liquid culture. Colorigenic markers have several advantages, since they are easy to use and it is possible to analyse a large sample size. They are suitable for competition studies of Rhizobium, detecting also double occupancy in nodules, and for studies on motility and survival. Marker genes greatly facilitate screening for successful strains in a specific environment and could be used in future for quality control of inoculants. (author). 30 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  7. Molecular mechanism of thermosensory function of human heat shock transcription factor Hsf1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentze, Nikolai; Le Breton, Laura; Wiesner, Jan; Kempf, Georg; Mayer, Matthias P

    2016-01-01

    The heat shock response is a universal homeostatic cell autonomous reaction of organisms to cope with adverse environmental conditions. In mammalian cells, this response is mediated by the heat shock transcription factor Hsf1, which is monomeric in unstressed cells and upon activation trimerizes, and binds to promoters of heat shock genes. To understand the basic principle of Hsf1 activation we analyzed temperature-induced alterations in the conformational dynamics of Hsf1 by hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry. We found a temperature-dependent unfolding of Hsf1 in the regulatory region happening concomitant to tighter packing in the trimerization region. The transition to the active DNA binding-competent state occurred highly cooperative and was concentration dependent. Surprisingly, Hsp90, known to inhibit Hsf1 activation, lowered the midpoint temperature of trimerization and reduced cooperativity of the process thus widening the response window. Based on our data we propose a kinetic model of Hsf1 trimerization. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11576.001 PMID:26785146

  8. Ecological effects in multi-level studies

    OpenAIRE

    Blakely, T; Woodward, A

    2000-01-01

    Multi-level research that attempts to describe ecological effects in themselves (for example, the effect on individual health from living in deprived communities), while also including individual level effects (for example, the effect of personal socioeconomic disadvantage), is now prominent in research on the socioeconomic determinants of health and disease. Such research often involves the application of advanced statistical multi-level methods. It is hypothesised that such research is at r...

  9. STABLE ISOTOPES IN ECOLOGICAL STUDIES: NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN MIXING MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotopes are increasingly being used as tracers in ecological studies. One application uses isotopic ratios to quantify the proportional contributions of multiple sources to a mixture. Examples include food sources for animals, water sources for plants, pollution sources...

  10. HSF-1 activates the ubiquitin proteasome system to promote non-apoptotic developmental cell death in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinet, Maxime J; Malin, Jennifer A; Abraham, Mary C; Blum, Elyse S; Silverman, Melanie R; Lu, Yun; Shaham, Shai

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis is a prominent metazoan cell death form. Yet, mutations in apoptosis regulators cause only minor defects in vertebrate development, suggesting that another developmental cell death mechanism exists. While some non-apoptotic programs have been molecularly characterized, none appear to control developmental cell culling. Linker-cell-type death (LCD) is a morphologically conserved non-apoptotic cell death process operating in Caenorhabditis elegans and vertebrate development, and is therefore a compelling candidate process complementing apoptosis. However, the details of LCD execution are not known. Here we delineate a molecular-genetic pathway governing LCD in C. elegans. Redundant activities of antagonistic Wnt signals, a temporal control pathway, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase signaling control heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1), a conserved stress-activated transcription factor. Rather than protecting cells, HSF-1 promotes their demise by activating components of the ubiquitin proteasome system, including the E2 ligase LET-70/UBE2D2 functioning with E3 components CUL-3, RBX-1, BTBD-2, and SIAH-1. Our studies uncover design similarities between LCD and developmental apoptosis, and provide testable predictions for analyzing LCD in vertebrates. PMID:26952214

  11. Promoter ChIP-chip analysis in mouse testis reveals Y chromosome occupancy by HSF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerfelt, Malin; Henriksson, Eva; Laiho, Asta; Vihervaara, Anniina; Rautoma, Karoliina; Kotaja, Noora; Sistonen, Lea

    2008-01-01

    The mammalian Y chromosome is essential for spermatogenesis, which is characterized by sperm cell differentiation and chromatin condensation for acquisition of correct shape of the sperm. Deletions of the male-specific region of the mouse Y chromosome long arm (MSYq), harboring multiple copies of a few genes, lead to sperm head defects and impaired fertility. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation on promoter microarray (ChIP-chip) on mouse testis, we found a striking in vivo MSYq occupancy by heat shock factor 2 (HSF2), a transcription factor involved in spermatogenesis. HSF2 was also found to regulate the transcription of MSYq resident genes, whose transcriptional regulation has been unknown. Importantly, disruption of Hsf2 caused a similar phenotype as the 2/3 deletion of MSYq, i.e., altered expression of the multicopy genes and increased mild sperm head abnormalities. Consequently, aberrant levels of chromatin packing proteins and more frequent DNA fragmentation were detected, implying that HSF2 is required for correct chromatin organization in the sperm. Our findings define a physiological role for HSF2 in the regulation of MSYq resident genes and the quality of sperm. PMID:18682557

  12. The heat shock transcription factor PsHSF1 of Phytophthora sojae is required for oxidative stress tolerance and detoxifying the plant oxidative burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yuting; Wang, Yonglin; Meijer, Harold J G; Yang, Xinyu; Hua, Chenlei; Ye, Wenwu; Tao, Kai; Liu, Xiaoyun; Govers, Francine; Wang, Yuanchao

    2015-04-01

    In the interaction between plant and microbial pathogens, reactive oxygen species (ROS) rapidly accumulate upon pathogen recognition at the infection site and play a central role in plant defence. However, the mechanisms that plant pathogens use to counteract ROS are still poorly understood especially in oomycetes, filamentous organisms that evolved independently from fungi. ROS detoxification depends on transcription factors (TFs) that are highly conserved in fungi but much less conserved in oomycetes. In this study, we identified the TF PsHSF1 that acts as a modulator of the oxidative stress response in the soybean stem and root rot pathogen Phytophthora sojae. We found that PsHSF1 is critical for pathogenicity in P. sojae by detoxifying the plant oxidative burst. ROS produced in plant defence can be detoxified by extracellular peroxidases and laccases which might be regulated by PsHSF1. Our study extends the understanding of ROS detoxification mechanism mediated by a heat shock TF in oomycetes. PMID:25156425

  13. Characterizing HSF1 Binding and Post-Translational Modifications of hsp70 Promoter in Cultured Cortical Neurons: Implications in the Heat-Shock Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Andrea V.; Córdova, Gonzalo; Munita, Roberto; Parada, Guillermo E.; Barrios, Álvaro P.; Cancino, Gonzalo I.; Álvarez, Alejandra R.; Andrés, María E.

    2015-01-01

    Causes of lower induction of Hsp70 in neurons during heat shock are still a matter of debate. To further inquire into the mechanisms regulating Hsp70 expression in neurons, we studied the activity of Heat Shock Factor 1 (HSF1) and histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs) at the hsp70 promoter in rat cortical neurons. Heat shock induced a transient and efficient translocation of HSF1 to neuronal nuclei. However, no binding of HSF1 at the hsp70 promoter was detected while it bound to the hsp25 promoter in cortical neurons during heat shock. Histone PTMs analysis showed that the hsp70 promoter harbors lower levels of histone H3 and H4 acetylation in cortical neurons compared to PC12 cells under basal conditions. Transcriptomic profiling data analysis showed a predominant usage of cryptic transcriptional start sites at hsp70 gene in the rat cerebral cortex, compared with the whole brain. These data support a weaker activation of hsp70 canonical promoter. Heat shock increased H3Ac at the hsp70 promoter in PC12 cells, which correlated with increased Hsp70 expression while no modifications occurred at the hsp70 promoter in cortical neurons. Increased histone H3 acetylation by Trichostatin A led to hsp70 mRNA and protein induction in cortical neurons. In conclusion, we found that two independent mechanisms maintain a lower induction of Hsp70 in cortical neurons. First, HSF1 fails to bind specifically to the hsp70 promoter in cortical neurons during heat shock and, second, the hsp70 promoter is less accessible in neurons compared to non-neuronal cells due to histone deacetylases repression. PMID:26053851

  14. Ginsenoside Rg3 induces FUT4-mediated apoptosis in H. pylori CagA-treated gastric cancer cells by regulating SP1 and HSF1 expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Faisal; Wang, Xiaoqi; Liu, Jiwei; Yan, Qiu

    2016-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) cytotoxin associated antigen A (CagA) plays a significant role in the development of gastric cancer. Ginsenoside Rg3 is a herbal medicine which inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in various cancer cells. Fucosylation plays important roles in cancer biology as increased fucosylation levels of glycoproteins and glycolipids have been reported in many cancers. Fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) is an essential enzyme, catalyzes the synthesis of LewisY oligosaccharides and is regulated by specificity protein 1 (SP1) and heat shock factor protein 1 (HSF1) transcription factors. Herein, we studied the mechanism action of Rg3 apoptosis induction in gastric cancer cells. We treated the gastric cancer cells with CagA followed by Rg3, and analyzed their ability to induce apoptosis by evaluating the role of FUT4 as well as SP1 and HSF1 expressions by Western blot, flow cytometry and ELISA. We found that Rg3 significantly induced apoptosis in CagA treated gastric cancer cells, as evidenced by nuclear staining of 4-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Annexin-V/PI double-labeling. In addition, Rg3 significantly increased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins and triggered the activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and PARP. Moreover, Rg3-induced apoptotic mechanisms indicated that Rg3 inhibited FUT4 expression through SP1 upregulation and HSF1 downregulation. Hence, Rg3 therapy is an effective strategy for gastric cancer treatment. Furthermore SP1 and HSF1 may serve as potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets for gastric cancer. PMID:26427350

  15. Stable isotope methods in biological and ecological studies of arthropods

    OpenAIRE

    Hood-Nowotny, R.C.; Knols, B G J

    2007-01-01

    This is an eclectic review and analysis of contemporary and promising stable isotope methodologies to study the biology and ecology of arthropods. It is augmented with literature from other disciplines, indicative of the potential for knowledge transfer. It is demonstrated that stable isotopes can be used to understand fundamental processes in the biology and ecology of arthropods, which range from nutrition and resource allocation to dispersal, food-web structure, predation, etc. It is concl...

  16. Ecology and evolution of invasive plants: what to study next?

    OpenAIRE

    Monty, Arnaud; Brown, Cynthia; Tepolt, Carolyn; Tsutsui, Neil; Vanparijs, Valérie; Atkinson, Sheryl; Mahy, Grégory; Vanderhoeven, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, a growing number of studies have addressed connections between ecological and evolutionary concepts in biologic invasions. These connections may be crucial for understanding the processes underlying invaders’ success. However, the extent to which scientists have worked on the integration of the ecology and evolution of invasive plants is poorly documented, as few attempts have been made to evaluate these efforts in invasion biology research. Such analysis can facilitate rec...

  17. Ecologic studies of rodent reservoirs: their relevance for human health.

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, J. N.; Childs, J E

    1998-01-01

    Within the past few years, the number of "new" human diseases associated with small-mammal reservoirs has increased dramatically, stimulating renewed interest in reservoir ecology research. A consistent, integrative approach to such research allows direct comparisons between studies, contributes to the efficient use of resources and data, and increases investigator safety. We outline steps directed toward understanding vertebrate host ecology as it relates to human disease and illustrate the ...

  18. Study of tourist motivation to Guangzhou urban ecological parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Wang, Fengtang

    2012-01-01

    Based on the push - pull theory, this article show the empirical studies of tourists' travel motivation to Guangzhou Ecological Park. We identified four push factors and three pull factors which are of the potential features of travel motivation, and on this basis, using analysis of variance to further test the significant differences of push and pull factors in the demographic characteristics of different groups. The conclusion has a certain reference value to the Ecological Park in Guangzhou to attract tourists.

  19. Escaping the Bonferroni iron claw in ecological studies

    OpenAIRE

    García, Luis V.

    2004-01-01

    I analyze some criticisms made about the application of alpha-inflation correction procedures to repeated-test tables in ecological studies. Common pitfalls during application, the statistical properties of many ecological datasets, and the strong control of the tablewise error rate made by the widely used sequential Bonferroni procedures, seem to be responsible for some ‘illogical’ results when such corrections are applied. Sharpened Bonferroni-type procedures may alleviate the decrease in p...

  20. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) in Studies of Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul

    2009-01-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is particularly suitable for studying substance use, because use is episodic and thought to be related to mood and context. This article reviews EMA methods in substance use research, focusing on tobacco and alcohol use and relapse, where EMA has been most applied. Common EMA designs combine event-based…

  1. Radiological Review Studies On Ismailia Canal Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is a brief review of pr-studies carried out on Ismailia Canal, Egypt, water ecosystem. Ismailia Canal water body is a bicarbonate stream with slight seasonal variations in its water chemical constituents. The canal water pH in all the stream locations are below 8.3 with low suspended matter(SM) content (22-33 mg.l-1). The mineralogical analysis of the canal bottom sediments consist mainly of quartz, smectite and kaolinite minerals. The ?- spectroscopic identification showed traces of naturally occurring radio nuclides (238U, 232Th and 40K). The average activity level of the dry samples ranged from 12 to 89 Bq.Kg-1 for the detected natural radio nuclides. Some parameters affected the sorption behaviour of radio nuclides on suspended matters and bottom sediments; such as solution pH, SM concentration, sediment grain size, carrier concentration and competing ions were studied. The reaction rates were investigated for each radionuclide studied. The distribution of the studied radio nuclides, between the liquid phase and the sediments phase was investigated, for both flowing and static systems. For both flowing and non-flowing (static), the depth penetration of the studied radio nuclides within the bottom sediment layers were found to vary from one radionuclide to the other. The total capacities of bottom sediments and the suspended matter were found to be low. As Ismailia Canal is an important source of water for public domestic uses, irrigation animals and the aquatic species; these situations have led to state that it is not recommended to release any liquid radioactive wastes to this canal. Furthermore, periodical radiometric analysis for the canal water and its components should be carried out.

  2. An ecological study on childhood autism

    OpenAIRE

    St-Hilaire Sophie; Ezike Victor O; Stryhn Henrik; Thomas Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background and methods Idiopathic autism, suspected to be caused by exposure of genetically susceptible individuals to unknown environmental triggers, has increased dramatically in the past 25 years. The objectives of our study were to determine, using a linear regression model, whether the county prevalence of autism in the Pacific Northwest of the United States was associated with the source of drinking water for that county and whether this relationship was dependent on the level ...

  3. Aquatic ecological studies around nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioecology occupies a highly important place in the system of natural sciences and interacts with different fields of knowledge on earth's biosphere. Use of nuclear energy for different purposes causes release of radionuclides into the atmosphere. Therefore, knowledge of the distribution pattern of both natural and anthropogenic radionuclides is an essential prerequisite for evaluation and control of public exposures at the site of any nuclear power station. Radioecological studies provide considerable information on the environmental behavior of many nucleotides. In recent times, particular emphasis is being given to research on radionuclide transport and accumulation in living organisms, since critical pathways of transport of the same are food chains and food webs in the environment. Inhalation and ingestion are the most likely routes for internal contamination from radionuclides, wherein, exposure continues until the radioactive material is flushed from the body by natural processes, or when it decays. Several studies on animals have demonstrated that chronic inhalation and oral exposure to certain radionuclides may lead to serious health hazards. Even though innumerable studies have been conducted in medical science on effects of radiation on the human and higher animal systems, little is known about migration of radionuclides across the producers and bioaccumulation at trophic levels in the tropical and subtropical aquatic environment. In order to supplement this research gap, radioecological studies have been initiated at CIFE, Mumbai, with backup support from the Department of Atomic Energy (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre and Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited), in the form of a mega mission mode project on 'Aquatic radioecology'. Presently two existing nuclear power plant sites at Tarapur and Kalpakkam, two proposed at Jaitapur and Jabalpur have been selected for providing first hand information on levels of radionuclides in micro and macro fauna in the marine and freshwater ecosystem in the vicinity of NPP sites. Further the projects aim at elucidating the bio-geochemical transfer mechanisms of radionuclides across the trophic levels of the aquatic environment. (author)

  4. Effect of democracy on health: ecological study

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, lvaro; lvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Ruiz, Maria Teresa

    2004-01-01

    Can political regimes be singled out as a factor affecting health? Rating countries by the extent of their freedom is a useful proxy for measuring the effects of democracy on health related variables. Although the influence of democracy in preventing famines has been reported, there have been no empirical studies on the relation between the extent of freedom allowed by political regimes and the effect on a nations health. We explored the effect of democracy on life expectancy and...

  5. Science and ecological literacy in undergraduate field studies education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapp, Kim J.

    There is an ever-increasing number of issues that face our world today; from climate change, water and food scarcity, to pollution and resource extraction. Science and ecology play fundamental roles in these problems, and yet the understanding of these fields is limited in our society (Miller, 2002; McBride, Brewer, Berkowitz, and Borrie, 2013). Across the nation students are finishing their undergraduate degrees and are expected to enter the workforce and society with the skills needed to succeed. The deficit of science and ecological literacy in these students has been recognized and a call for reform begun (D'Avanzo, 2003 and NRC, 2009). This mixed-methods study looked at how a field studies course could fill the gap of science and ecological literacy in undergraduates. Using grounded theory, five key themes were data-derived; definitions, systems thinking, human's role in the environment, impetus for change and transference. These themes where then triangulated for validity and reliability through qualitative and quantitative assessments. A sixth theme was also identified, the learning environment. Due to limited data to support this themes' development and reliability it is discussed in Chapter 5 to provide recommendations for further research. Key findings show that this field studies program influenced students' science and ecological literacy through educational theory and practice.

  6. Ecological investigations: vegetation studies, preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olgeirson, E.R.; Martin, R.B.

    1978-09-01

    The objective of the vegetation studies conducted on the research site is to produce a descriptive data base that can be applied to determinations of carrying capacity of the site and surrounding area. Additional information obtained about parameters that influence vegetation growth and maintenance of soil nutrients, and moisture and temperature regimes help define dynamic relationships that must be understood to effect successful revegetation and habitat rehabilitation. The descriptive vegetation baseline also provides a point of departure for design of future monitoring programs, and predictive models and strategies to be used in dealing with impact mitigation; in turn, monitoring programs and predictive modeling form the bases for making distinctions between natural trends and man-induced perturbations.

  7. E2F, HSF2, and miR-26 in thyroid carcinoma: bioinformatic analysis of RNA-sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J C; Zhang, Y P

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism of thyroid carcinoma (THCA) using bioinformatics. RNA-sequencing data of THCA (N = 498) and normal thyroid tissue (N = 59) were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Next, gene expression levels were calculated using the TCC package and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the edgeR package. A co-expression network was constructed using the EBcoexpress package and visualized by Cytoscape, and functional and pathway enrichment of DEGs in the co-expression network was analyzed with DAVID and KOBAS 2.0. Moreover, modules in the co-expression network were identified and annotated using MCODE and BiNGO plugins. Small-molecule drugs were analyzed using the cMAP database, and miRNAs and transcription factors regulating DEGs were identified by WebGestalt. A total of 254 up-regulated and 59 down-regulated DEGs were identified between THCA samples and controls. DEGs enriched in biological process terms were related to cell adhesion, death, and growth and negatively correlated with various small-molecule drugs. The co-expression network of the DEGs consisted of hub genes (ITGA3, TIMP1, KRT19, and SERPINA1) and one module (JUN, FOSB, and EGR1). Furthermore, 5 miRNAs and 5 transcription factors were identified, including E2F, HSF2, and miR-26. miR-26 may participate in THCA by targeting CITED1 and PLA2R1; E2F may participate in THCA by regulating ITGA3, TIMP1, KRT19, EGR1, and JUN; HSF2 may be involved in THCA development by regulating SERPINA1 and FOSB; and small-molecule drugs may have anti-THCA effects. Our results provide novel directions for mechanistic studies and drug design of THCA. PMID:26985959

  8. Decreased vitamin B12 availability induces ER stress through impaired SIRT1-deacetylation of HSF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghemrawi, R; Pooya, S; Lorentz, S; Gauchotte, G; Arnold, C; Gueant, J-L; Battaglia-Hsu, S-F

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a key determinant of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent epigenomic cellular regulations related to methylation/acetylation and its deficiency produces neurodegenerative disorders by elusive mechanisms. Sirtuin 1 deacetylase (SIRT1) triggers cell response to nutritional stress through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Recently, we have established a N1E115 dopaminergic cell model by stable expression of a transcobalamin-oleosin chimera (TO), which impairs cellular availability of vitamin B12, decreases methionine synthase activity and SAM level, and reduces cell proliferation. In contrast, oleosin-transcobalamin chimera (OT) does not modify the phenotype of transfected cells. Presently, the impaired cellular availability of vitamin B12 in TO cells activated irreversible ER stress pathways, with increased P-eIF-2α, P-PERK, P-IRE1α, ATF6, ATF4, decreased chaperon proteins and increased pro-apoptotic markers, CHOP and cleaved caspase 3, through reduced SIRT1 expression and consequently greater acetylation of heat-shock factor protein 1 (HSF1). Adding either B12, SIRT1, or HSF1 activators as well as overexpressing SIRT1 or HSF1 dramatically reduced the activation of ER stress pathways in TO cells. Conversely, impairing SIRT1 and HSF1 by siRNA, expressing a dominant negative form of HSF1, or adding a SIRT1 inhibitor led to B12-dependent ER stress in OT cells. Addition of B12 abolished the activation of stress transducers and apoptosis, and increased the expression of protein chaperons in OT cells subjected to thapsigargin, a strong ER stress stimulator. AdoX, an inhibitor of methyltransferase activities, produced similar effects than decreased B12 availability on SIRT1 and ER stress by a mechanism related to increased expression of hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1). Taken together, these data show that cellular vitamin B12 has a strong modulating influence on ER stress in N1E115 dopaminergic cells. The impaired cellular availability in vitamin B12 induces irreversible ER stress by greater acetylation of HSF1 through decreased SIRT1 expression, whereas adding vitamin B12 produces protective effects in cells subjected to ER stress stimulation. PMID:23519122

  9. Terrestrial ecology. Comprehensive study of the grassland biome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrestrial ecology and grassland biome studies are designed to characterize the biota of the Hanford Reservation, elucidate seasonal dynamics of plant productivity, decomposition and mineral behavior patterns of important plant communities, and, to study the response of these communities to important natural environmental stresses, such as weather, wildfire and man-induced alterations of communities (influenced by grazing cattle and severe mechanical disturbance of the soil, such as affected by plowing or burial of waste materials or construction activities). A detailed account of the important findings of a 5-yr study is currently being prepared by the terrestrial ecology section staff for publication as a contribution to the International Biological Program Grassland Biome project

  10. Proteasome activity or expression is not altered by activation of the heat shock transcription factor Hsf1 in cultured fibroblasts or myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David M; Kabashi, Edor; Agar, Jeffrey N; Minotti, Sandra; Durham, Heather D

    2005-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) with chaperoning function work together with the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway to prevent the accumulation of misfolded, potentially toxic proteins, as well as to control catabolism of the bulk of cytoplasmic, cellular protein. There is evidence for the involvement of both systems in neurodegenerative disease, and a therapeutic target is the heat shock transcription factor, Hsf1, which mediates upregulation of Hsps in response to cellular stress. The mechanisms regulating expression of proteasomal proteins in mammalian cells are less well defined. To assess any direct effect of Hsf1 on expression of proteasomal subunits and activity in mammalian cells, a plasmid encoding a constitutively active form of Hsf1 (Hsf1act) was expressed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking Hsf1 and in cultured human myoblasts. Plasmid encoding an inactivatible form of Hsf1 (Hsf1inact) served as control. In cultures transfected with plasmid hsf1act, robust expression of the major stress-inducible Hsp, Hsp70, occurred but not in cultures transfected with hsf1inact. No significant changes in the level of expression of representative proteasomal proteins (structural [20Salpha], a nonpeptidase beta subunit [20Sbeta3], or 2 regulatory subunits [19S subunit 6b, 11 Salpha]) or in chymotrypsin-, trypsin-, and caspaselike activities of the proteasome were measured. Thus, stress-induced or pharmacological activation of Hsf1 in mammalian cells would upregulate Hsps but not directly affect expression or activity of proteasomes. PMID:16184768

  11. Study on Evaluation of Rural Ecological Environment and Its Influencing Factors in Sichuan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Yingcong Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Rural ecological environment is the basic on human survival, analyze its structure and function is the key to crack the problem of agro-ecological environment. This paper studied the evaluation of rural ecological environment and its influencing factors. The results showed that: the rural ecological environment showed declining trend, the value of its input-output efficiency was low and its regional differences was significant; the quality of economic development affected the rural ecological...

  12. ERK-dependent phosphorylation of HSF1 mediates chemotherapeutic resistance to benzimidazole carbamates in colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, Christina T K; Taylor, Frederick R; Higa, Allan T; McAllister, Harvey A; Jacobs, Aaron T

    2015-07-01

    Drugs containing the benzimidazole carbamate scaffold include anthelmintic and antifungal agents, and they are now also recognized as having potential applications in the treatment of colorectal and other cancers. These agents act by binding to ?-tubulin, and in doing so they disrupt microtubules, arrest cell division, and promote apoptotic cell death in malignant cells. We have evaluated several commercially available benzimidazole carbamates for cytotoxic activity in colorectal cancer cells. In addition to cytotoxicity, we also observe activation of the transcription factor, heat shock factor-1 (HSF1). HSF1 is well known to mediate a cytoprotective response that promotes tumor cell survival and drug resistance. Here, we show that biochemical inhibition with the HSF1 inhibitor KRIBB11 or siRNA-based silencing of HSF1 results in a significant enhancement of drug potency, causing an approximately two-fold decrease in IC50 values of parbendazole and nocodazole. We also define a mechanism for drug-induced HSF1 activation, which results from a phosphorylation event at Ser326 that is dependent on the activation of the extracellular regulated protein kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2) mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Inhibition of the upstream kinase MEK-1/2 with U0126 attenuates the phosphorylation of both ERK-1/2 and HSF1, and significantly enhances drug cytotoxicity. From these data we propose a unique model whereby the ERK-1/2-dependent activation of HSF1 promotes chemotherapeutic resistance to benzimidazole carbamates. Therefore, targeting the ERK-1/2 signaling cascade is a potential strategy for HSF1 inhibition and a means of enhancing the cytotoxicity of these agents. PMID:25811962

  13. Temporal and Spatial Melanoma Trends in Austria: An Ecological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Haluza; Stana Simic; Hanns Moshammer

    2014-01-01

    Annual solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is mostly determined by latitude and altitude. Over the last decades, increasing UVR ground levels have been observed. Exposure to UVR is associated with a life-time risk to develop melanoma, a malign skin cancer. Thus, we hypothesized that melanoma incidence in Austria is associated with altitude of place of living and time of diagnosis. We investigated this hypothesis in an ecological study by district and year for Austrian melanoma incidence ...

  14. Effect of exogenous application of ascorbic acid on antioxidant enzyme activities, proline contents, and growth parameters of Saccharum spp. hybrid cv. HSF-240 under salt stress

    OpenAIRE

    EJAZ, Batool; SAJID, Zahoor Ahmad; AFTAB, Faheem

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of exogenous application of ascorbic acid (AA) through different modes on growth and associated biochemical parameters in Saccharum spp. hybrid cv. HSF-240, under salt stress. In a pot experiment, AA was applied through irrigation or foliar-spray at the concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, and 1 mM with or without 100 mM NaCl concentration. Vegetative growth measurements, antioxidant enzyme activities (POD and SOD), and protein and proline conten...

  15. Dietary restriction suppresses proteotoxicity and enhances longevity by an hsf-1-dependent mechanism in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkraus, Katherine A.; Smith, Erica D.; Davis, Christina; Carr, Daniel; Pendergrass, William R.; Sutphin, George L.; Kennedy, Brian K.; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Dietary restriction increases life span and slows the onset of age-associated disease in organisms from yeast to mammals. In humans, several age-related diseases are associated with aberrant protein folding or aggregation, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s diseases. We report here that dietary restriction dramatically suppresses age-associated paralysis in three nematode models of proteotoxicity. Similar to its longevity-enhancing properties, dietary restriction protects against proteotoxicity by a mechanism distinct from reduced insulin/IGF-1-like signaling. Instead, the heat shock transcription factor, hsf-1, is required for enhanced thermotolerance, suppression of proteotoxicity, and life span extension by dietary restriction. These findings demonstrate that dietary restriction confers a general protective effect against proteotoxicity and promotes longevity by a mechanism involving hsf-1. PMID:18331616

  16. A Novel HSF4 Gene Mutation Causes Autosomal-Dominant Cataracts in a Chinese Family

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Huibin; Huang, Chen; ZHANG Jing; Liu, Ziyuan; Zhang, Zhike; Xu, Haining; You, Yuchen; Hu, Jinping; Li, Xuemin; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Congenital cataracts are a significant cause of visual impairment or blindness in children. One-third of cases estimated to have a genetic cause. We carried out gene analysis and bioinformatics analysis to map the locus and to identify the underlying genetic defect in a 12-member, four-generation Chinese family affected with bilateral congenital cataracts. We screened individuals of the family and discovered a distinct missense mutation in HSF4 (a gene at this locus that encodes teat-shock tr...

  17. Suppression of heat-induced HSF activation by CDDP in human glioblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The kinetics of the accumulation of inducible 72-kD heat shock protein (hsp72) and the activation of heat shock transcriptional factor (HSF) after hyperthermia and/or CDDP treatment in two human glioblastoma cell lines, A-172 having the wild-type p53 gene and T98G having the mutated p53 gene were evaluated. Methods and Materials: Western blot analysis of hsp72, gel-mobility shift assay of HSF, cell survival, and development of thermotolerance were examined. Results: The prominent suppression of heat-induced hsp72 accumulation by CDDP was seen in A-172 cells, but not in T98G cells. This was due to the p53-dependent inhibition of heat-induced HSF activation by CDDP. The interactive hyperthermic enhancement of CDDP cytotoxicity was observed in A-172 cells, but not in T98G cells. In addition, the heat-induced thermotolerance was suppressed by the presence of CDDP in the pretreatment. Conclusion: Suppression of heat-induced hsp72 accumulation by CDDP contributes to an interactive hyperthermic enhancement of CDDP cytotoxicity in the cells bearing the wild-type p53 gene

  18. Ecological interaction and phylogeny, studying functionality on composed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Claudia P. T.; Fonseca, Carlos Roberto; Corso, Gilberto

    2012-02-01

    We study a class of composed networks that are formed by two tree networks, TP and TA, whose end points touch each other through a bipartite network BPA. We explore this network using a functional approach. We are interested in how much the topology, or the structure, of TX (X=A or P) determines the links of BPA. This composed structure is a useful model in evolutionary biology, where TP and TA are the phylogenetic trees of plants and animals that interact in an ecological community. We make use of ecological networks of dispersion of fruits, which are formed by frugivorous animals and plants with fruits; the animals, usually birds, eat fruits and disperse their seeds. We analyse how the phylogeny of TX determines or is correlated with BPA using a Monte Carlo approach. We use the phylogenetic distance among elements that interact with a given species to construct an index ? that quantifies the influence of TX over BPA. The algorithm is based on the assumption that interaction matrices that follows a phylogeny of TX have a total phylogenetic distance smaller than the average distance of an ensemble of Monte Carlo realisations. We find that the effect of phylogeny of animal species is more pronounced in the ecological matrix than plant phylogeny.

  19. A study of bioindicator selection for long-term ecological

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Gu Han

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It is very useful and important to see the status and change of necessary parts in a short period through selecting and observing the bioindicator continually to forecast and prepare the future. Especially, living things are so closely related to the environment that the indicator between the environment and living things shows close interrelationship. Also, the indicator related to environment provides information about representative or decisive environmental phenomenon and is used to simplify complicated facts. Considering wide range of background and application including various indicators such as the change-, destruction-, pollution-, and restoration of habitats, climate change, and species diversity, the closest category includes environmental indicator, ecological indicator, and biodiversity indicator. The selection and use of bioindicator is complicated and difficult. The necessary conditions for the indicator selection are flexible and greatly depend on the goals of investigation such as the indicator for biological diversity investigation of specific area, the indicator for habitat destruction, the indicator for climate change, and the indicator for polluted area. It should meet many various conditions to select a good indicator. In this study, eleven selection standards are established based on domestic and overseas studies on bioindicator selection: species with clear classification and ecology, species distributed in geographically widespread area, species that show clear habitat characteristics, species that can provide early warning for a change, species that are easy and economically benefited for the investigation, species that have many independent individual groups and that is not greatly affected by the size of individual groups, species that is thought to represent the response of other species, species that represent the ecology change caused by the pressure of human influence, species for which researches on climate change have been done, species that is easy to observe, appears for a long time and forms a group with many individuals, and species that are important socially, economically, and culturally.

  20. The translational study of apathy – an ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flurin Cathomas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Apathy, a quantitative reduction in goal-directed behavior, is a prevalent symptom dimension with a negative impact on functional outcome in various neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and depression. The aim of this review is to show that interview-based assessment of apathy in humans and observation of spontaneous rodent behavior in an ecological setting can serve as an important complementary approach to already existing task-based assessment, to study and understand the neurobiological bases of apathy. We first discuss the paucity of current translational approaches regarding animal equivalents of psychopathological assessment of apathy. We then present the existing evaluation scales for the assessment of apathy in humans and propose five sub-domains of apathy, namely self-care, social interaction, exploration, work/education and recreation. Each of the items in apathy evaluation scales can be assigned to one of these sub-domains. We then show that corresponding, well-validated behavioral readouts exist for rodents and that, indeed, three of the five human apathy sub-domains have a rodent equivalent. In conclusion, the translational ecological study of apathy in humans and mice is possible and will constitute an important approach to increase the understanding of the neurobiological bases of apathy and the development of novel treatments.

  1. Unmanned Aircraft Systems complement biologging in spatial ecology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulero-Pzmny, Margarita; Barasona, Jose ngel; Acevedo, Pelayo; Vicente, Joaqun; Negro, Juan Jos

    2015-11-01

    The knowledge about the spatial ecology and distribution of organisms is important for both basic and applied science. Biologging is one of the most popular methods for obtaining information about spatial distribution of animals, but requires capturing the animals and is often limited by costs and data retrieval. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have proven their efficacy for wildlife surveillance and habitat monitoring, but their potential contribution to the prediction of animal distribution patterns and abundance has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this study, we assess the usefulness of UAS overflights to (1) get data to model the distribution of free-ranging cattle for a comparison with results obtained from biologged (GPS-GSM collared) cattle and (2) predict species densities for a comparison with actual density in a protected area. UAS and biologging derived data models provided similar distribution patterns. Predictions from the UAS model overestimated cattle densities, which may be associated with higher aggregated distributions of this species. Overall, while the particular researcher interests and species characteristics will influence the method of choice for each study, we demonstrate here that UAS constitute a noninvasive methodology able to provide accurate spatial data useful for ecological research, wildlife management and rangeland planning. PMID:26640661

  2. Studies on the Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution of Palms (Arecaceae) with Focus on the Americas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.

    The palm family (Arecaceae) increasingly serves as a model system to study the ecology and evolution of tropical ecosystems. This volume covers a wide range of topics in the areas of palm community ecology, macroecology, biogeography, and phylogeny, with a focus on the bridge between ecological and...... diversity and distributions were found to depend on both current ecological processes and the dynamics of speciation, extinction, niche evolution, and secular migration in response to past environmental change....

  3. Ecological Compensation Mechanism of Agricultural Water Resources: An Empirical Study in Zhejiang, China

    OpenAIRE

    Qichang Hu

    2015-01-01

    Ecological compensation is a new area in the field of resources environment. In this study, we set an empirical analysis model about ecological compensation mechanism and analyze influential factors based on agricultural perspective. The result shows that: first, loss of development opportunities is the most important factor that will affect ecological compensation, the regression coefficient is 0.071; sec, environmental protection cost is the most significant variable in ecological compensat...

  4. Expression of hsp70, hsp90 and hsf1 in the reef coral Acropora digitifera under prospective acidified conditions over the next several decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Nakamura

    2012-02-01

    Ocean acidification is an ongoing threat for marine organisms due to the increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. Seawater acidification has a serious impact on physiologic processes in marine organisms at all life stages. On the other hand, potential tolerance to external pH changes has been reported in coral larvae. Information about the possible mechanisms underlying such tolerance responses, however, is scarce. In the present study, we examined the effects of acidified seawater on the larvae of Acropora digitifera at the molecular level. We targeted two heat shock proteins, Hsp70 and Hsp90, and a heat shock transcription factor, Hsf1, because of their importance in stress responses and in early life developmental stages. Coral larvae were maintained under the ambient and elevated CO2 conditions that are expected to occur within next 100 years, and then we evaluated the expression of hsps and hsf1 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Expression levels of these molecules significantly differed among target genes, but they did not change significantly between CO2 conditions. These findings indicate that the expression of hsps is not changed due to external pH changes, and suggest that tolerance to acidified seawater in coral larvae may not be related to hsp expression.

  5. Packaging and distributing ecological data from multisite studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R. J.; Voorhees, L. D.; Field, J. M.; Gentry, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of global change and other regional issues depend on ecological data collected at multiple study areas or sites. An information system model is proposed for compiling diverse data from dispersed sources so that the data are consistent, complete, and readily available. The model includes investigators who collect and analyze field measurements, science teams that synthesize data, a project information system that collates data, a data archive center that distributes data to secondary users, and a master data directory that provides broader searching opportunities. Special attention to format consistency is required, such as units of measure, spatial coordinates, dates, and notation for missing values. Often data may need to be enhanced by estimating missing values, aggregating to common temporal units, or adding other related data such as climatic and soils data. Full documentation, an efficient data distribution mechanism, and an equitable way to acknowledge the original source of data are also required.

  6. Ecological Building Design Criteria: A Case Study in Ankara

    OpenAIRE

    GULTEKIN, Arzuhan Burcu; Alparslan, Bengu

    2011-01-01

    Buildings cause environmental impacts through their life cycles. Ecological building design criteria, which appeared to decrease these impacts, aim to make designs sensitive to environmental problems, to protect the ecological balance, and to fulfill the required comfort and health conditions. In the context of this paper, ecological building design criteria were determined in global scale as energy conservation, water conservation, material conservation, and livable design, and applications ...

  7. Inequality in maternal mortality in Iran: An ecologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Tajik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Maternal mortality (MM is an avoidable death and there is national, international and political commitment to reduce it. The objective of this study is to examine the relation of MM to socioeconomic factors and its inequality in Iran′s provinces at an ecologic level. Methods : The overall MM from each province was considered for 3 years from 2004 to 2006. The five independent variables whose relations were studied included the literacy rate among men and women in each province, mean annual household income per capita, Gini coefficients in each province, and Human Development Index (HDI. The correlation of Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR to the above five variables was evaluated through Pearson′s correlation coefficient (simple and weighted for each province′s population and linear regression-by considering MMR as the dependent variable and the Gini coefficient, HDI, and difference in literacy rate among men and women as the independent variables. Results: The mean MMR in the years 2004-2006 was 24.7 in 100,000 live births. The correlation coefficients between MMR and literacy rate among women, literacy rate among men, the mean annual household income per capita, Gini coefficient and HDI were 0.82, 0.90, −0.61, 0.52 and −0.77, respectively. Based on multivariate regression, MMR was significantly associated with HDI (standardized B=−0.93 and difference in literacy rate among men and women (standardized B=−0.47. However, MMR was not significantly associated with the Gini coefficient. Conclusion: This study shows the association between socioeconomic variables and their inequalities with MMR in Iran′s provinces at an ecologic level. In addition to the other direct interventions performed to reduce MM, it seems essential to especially focus on more distal factors influencing MMR.

  8. HSF-1, HIF-1and HSP90 expression on recombinant Pichia pastoris under fed-batch fermentation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrea B., Zepeda; Carolina A., Figueroa; Dulcineia S.P., Abdalla; Andrea Q., Maranho; Patricio H., Ulloa; Adalberto, Pessoa Jr.; Jorge G., Faras.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pichia pastoris is a methylotrophic yeast used as an efficient expression system for heterologous protein production as compared to other expression systems. Considering that every cell must respond to environmental changes to survive and differentiate, determination of endogenous protein related to [...] heat stress responses and hypoxia, it would necessary to establish the temperature and methanol concentration conditions for optimal growth. The aim of this study is characterize the culture conditions through the putative biomarkers in different conditions of temperature and methanol concentration. Three yeast cultures were performed: 3X = 3% methanol -10 C, 4X = 3% methanol -30 C, and 5X = 1% methanol -10 C. The expression level of HIF-1?, HSF-1, HSP-70 and HSP-90 biomarkers were measured by Western blot and in situ detection was performed by immunocytochemistry. The western blot results of HIF-1? and HSP-90 did not indicate statistically significant in the culture conditions studied. Respect to biomarkers location, HIF-1? and HSP-90 presented differences between cultures. In conclusion, the results suggest the cultures in a hypoxic condition produce a high density and yeast cells smaller. Beside the high density would not necessary related with a high production of recombinant proteins in modified-genetically P. pastoris.

  9. Hydrodynamic and Ecological Assessment of Nearshore Restoration: A Modeling Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Along the Pacific Northwest coast, much of the estuarine habitat has been diked over the last century for agricultural land use, residential and commercial development, and transportation corridors. As a result, many of the ecological processes and functions have been disrupted. To protect coastal habitats that are vital to aquatic species, many restoration projects are currently underway to restore the estuarine and coastal ecosystems through dike breaches, setbacks, and removals. Information on physical processes and hydrodynamic conditions are critical for the assessment of the success of restoration actions. Restoration of a 160- acre property at the mouth of the Stillaguamish River in Puget Sound has been proposed. The goal is to restore native tidal habitats and estuary-scale ecological processes by removing the dike. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was developed for the Stillaguamish River estuary to simulate estuarine processes. The model was calibrated to observed tide, current, and salinity data for existing conditions and applied to simulate the hydrodynamic responses to two restoration alternatives. Responses were evaluated at the scale of the restoration footprint. Model data was combined with biophysical data to predict habitat responses at the site. Results showed that the proposed dike removal would result in desired tidal flushing and conditions that would support four habitat types on the restoration footprint. At the estuary scale, restoration would substantially increase the proportion of area flushed with freshwater (< 5 ppt) at flood tide. Potential implications of predicted changes in salinity and flow dynamics are discussed relative to the distribution of tidal marsh habitat.

  10. Soil radioactivity distribution studies for the Nevada Applied Ecology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the inception of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group in 1970, personnel from the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) have contributed to the determination and evaluation of radionuclide inventory and distribution in soils at selected study sites at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) complex and surrounding areas. A brief historical survey of those activities is presented. During the period March 1977 to March 1978, LASL participated in workshops and information meetings, in preparation of nuclear site study protocols for estimation of inventory and distribution of various radionuclides, in evaluation of instrumental data that was collected in order to aid in defining specific nuclear site studies, and in referee activities for analysis of samples for radionuclide content. In that same period, several data sets were evaluated and are presented in this report. They include data relative to the vertical movement of plutonium and americium in desert soil profiles, and data relative to distribution of various isotopes of uranium in the blow-sand mounds at two study sites, one located on NTS and the other at the Tonopah Test Range. A series of recommendations for further studies are made relative to the redistribution of radionuclides in the desert environment of NTS

  11. A cultural study in the poetics of ecological consciousness: prolegomena to the poetry of John Burnside

    OpenAIRE

    Bristow, Tom

    2008-01-01

    This thesis -- originally entitled “Reckoning the Unnamed Fabric”, both a cultural study of the poetics of ecological consciousness and the ecology of poetic consciousness -- investigates the post-Romantic legacy informing John Burnside’s (b. 1955) poetry from The hoop (1988) to The Light Trap (2002) as a case study. The thesis argues that a developing aesthetic form and movement in subject derive from Burnside’s increasing involvement with ecological thought and practice. This move to the ...

  12. Ecological study of dietary and smoking links to lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, W. B.

    2000-01-01

    The ecological approach is used to investigate dietary and smoking links to lymphoma. International mortality rate data for 1986 and 1994 by gender and age group are compared with national dietary supply values of various food components for up to 10 years prior to the mortality data as well as per capita cigarette consumption rates 5 and 15 years earlier. The non-fat portion of milk, 3-9 years prior to the 1986 mortality data and 4 years prior to the 1994 data, was found to have the highest association with lymphoma, with r as high as 0.89. The results imply that 70 percent of lymphoma mortality may be related to this dietary component. Cigarette smoking in 1980 was found to have a weaker association with 1994 lymphoma mortality rates, being most important for younger men and statistically insignificant for younger women. The non-fat milk result is consistent with both case-control studies and a Norwegian prospective study, and with the often-observed finding that abnormal calcium metabolism, hypercalciuria, and dysregulated calcitriol production are common in normocalcemic patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). It is hypothesized that excess dietary calcium from milk is a significant risk factor for lymphoma.

  13. Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) conceptual design option study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Melvin; Olson, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Results are given of a study to explore options for the development of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for a future Space Station. In addition, study results will benefit the design of other facilities such as the Life Sciences Research Facility, a ground-based CELSS demonstrator, and will be useful in planning longer range missions such as a lunar base or manned Mars mission. The objectives were to develop weight and cost estimates for one CELSS module selected from a set of preliminary plant growth unit (PGU) design options. Eleven Space Station CELSS module conceptual PGU designs were reviewed, components and subsystems identified and a sensitivity analysis performed. Areas where insufficient data is available were identified and divided into the categories of biological research, engineering research, and technology development. Topics which receive significant attention are lighting systems for the PGU, the use of automation within the CELSS system, and electric power requirements. Other areas examined include plant harvesting and processing, crop mix analysis, air circulation and atmosphere contaminant flow subsystems, thermal control considerations, utility routing including accessibility and maintenance, and nutrient subsystem design.

  14. Distance makes the difference in thermography for ecological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, E; Dangles, O; Pincebourde, S

    2016-02-01

    Surface temperature drives many ecological processes and infrared thermography is widely used by ecologists to measure the thermal heterogeneity of different species' habitats. However, the potential bias in temperature readings caused by distance between the surface to be measured and the camera is still poorly acknowledged. We examined the effect of distance from 0.3 to 80m on a variety of thermal metrics (mean temperature, standard deviation, patch richness and aggregation) under various weather conditions and for different structural complexity of the studied surface types (various surfaces with vegetation). We found that distance is a key modifier of the temperature measured by a thermal infrared camera. A non-linear relationship between distance and mean temperature, standard deviation and patch richness led to a rapid under-estimation of the thermal metrics within the first 20m and then only a slight decrease between 20 and 80m from the object. Solar radiation also enhanced the bias with increasing distance. Therefore, surface temperatures were under-estimated as distance increased and thermal mosaics were homogenized at long distances with a much stronger bias in the warmer than the colder parts of the distributions. The under-estimation of thermal metrics due to distance was explained by atmospheric composition and the pixel size effect. The structural complexity of the surface had little effect on the surface temperature bias. Finally, we provide general guidelines for ecologists to minimize inaccuracies caused by distance from the studied surface in thermography. PMID:26857971

  15. An Ecological Flood Control System in Phoenix Island of Huzhou, China: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuowen Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional flood control systems always have a conflict with natural ones, i.e., rivers in cities are usually straight and smooth, whereas natural ones are according to ecological mechanisms. Social and economic developments in the modern world require a new system combining ecological needs and traditional flood control system. Ecological flood control systems were put forward and defined as flood control systems with full consideration of ecological demands for sustainable development. In such systems, four aspects are promoted: connectivity of water system, landscapes of river and lakes, mobility of water bodies, and safety of flood control. In Phoenix Island, Huzhou, needs for ecological flood controls were analyzed from the four aspects above. The Water system layout was adjusted with the water surface ratio, which is the ratio of water surface area (including rivers, lakes, and other water bodies to the total drainage area, and connectivity as controlling indicators. The designed water levels provided references for landscape plant selection. Mobility of the adjusted water system was analyzed, including flow direction and residence time. On the bases mentioned above, ecological flood control projects were planned with comprehensive consideration of the ecological requirements. The case study indicates that ecological needs can be integrated with flood control to develop ecological flood control systems that do not only prevent floods but also retain the ecological functions of water bodies.

  16. Identifying Ecological Red Lines: A Case Study of the Coast in Liaoning Province

    OpenAIRE

    Chuansheng Wang; Guiyan Sun; Lijuan Dang

    2015-01-01

    The global decline in estuarine and coastal ecosystems is affecting critical ecosystem services. The spatial agglomeration of population, industries and resources has led to the emergence of regionally-specific ecological problems. Therefore, identifying “ecological red lines”, based on specific natural and environmental features, could help to differentiate the economic development and ecological protection directions or potentials of different regions in future. The aim of this case study i...

  17. An ecological study on suicide and homicide in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hideki Bando

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate correlations between suicide, homicide and socio-demographic variables by an ecological study. Mortality and socio-demographic data were collected from official records of the Ministry of Health and IBGE (2010, aggregated by state (27. The data were analyzed using correlation techniques, factor analysis, principal component analysis with a varimax rotation and multiple linear regression. Suicide age-adjusted rates for the total population, men and women were 5.0, 8.0, and 2.2 per 100,000 inhabitants respectively. The suicide rates ranged from 2.7 in Pará to 9.1 in Rio Grande do Sul. Homicide for the total population, men and women were 27.2, 50.8, and 4.5 per 100,000, respectively. The homicide rates ranged from 13.0 in Santa Catarina to 68.9 in Alagoas. Suicide and homicide were negatively associated, the significance persisted among men. Unemployment was negatively correlated with suicide and positively with homicide. Different socio-demographic variables were found to correlate with suicide and homicide in the regressions. Suicide showed a pattern suggesting that, in Brazil, it is related to high socioeconomic status. Homicide seemed to follow the pattern found in other countries, associated with lower social and economic status.

  18. Temporal and spatial melanoma trends in Austria: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2014-01-01

    Annual solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is mostly determined by latitude and altitude. Over the last decades, increasing UVR ground levels have been observed. Exposure to UVR is associated with a life-time risk to develop melanoma, a malign skin cancer. Thus, we hypothesized that melanoma incidence in Austria is associated with altitude of place of living and time of diagnosis. We investigated this hypothesis in an ecological study by district and year for Austrian melanoma incidence (1990-2010) and mortality (1970-2011) data. As expected, incidence rates increased with altitude (about 2% per 10 m) and year (about 2%). Additionally, melanoma incidence rates were about 50% higher in urban than in rural districts. In contrast, mortality rates decreased with altitude (for males: 0.4% per 10 m, for women: 0.7% per 10 m, respectively). The observed discrepancy between incidence and mortality data could partly be explained by melanoma diagnosis at earlier tumor stage in districts with higher altitude. Possible reasons for this finding include higher awareness of patients, better diagnostic performance of medical professionals working at higher altitudes, or slower tumor growth due to protective effects of sun light-associated vitamin D synthesis. PMID:24398911

  19. Temporal and Spatial Melanoma Trends in Austria: An Ecological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Haluza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Annual solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR is mostly determined by latitude and altitude. Over the last decades, increasing UVR ground levels have been observed. Exposure to UVR is associated with a life-time risk to develop melanoma, a malign skin cancer. Thus, we hypothesized that melanoma incidence in Austria is associated with altitude of place of living and time of diagnosis. We investigated this hypothesis in an ecological study by district and year for Austrian melanoma incidence (1990–2010 and mortality (1970–2011 data. As expected, incidence rates increased with altitude (about 2% per 10 m and year (about 2%. Additionally, melanoma incidence rates were about 50% higher in urban than in rural districts. In contrast, mortality rates decreased with altitude (for males: 0.4% per 10 m, for women: 0.7% per 10 m, respectively. The observed discrepancy between incidence and mortality data could partly be explained by melanoma diagnosis at earlier tumor stage in districts with higher altitude. Possible reasons for this finding include higher awareness of patients, better diagnostic performance of medical professionals working at higher altitudes, or slower tumor growth due to protective effects of sun light-associated vitamin D synthesis.

  20. Diary of a Dabbler: Ecological Influences on an EFL Teacher's Efforts to Study Japanese Informally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanave, Christine Pearson

    2012-01-01

    In this diary study, the author draws from journals written over the course of 8 years working as an English instructor at a Japanese university, with the aim of documenting the influences on her desire to invest effort in the self-study of Japanese (what she refers to as the "ecology of effort"). An ecological perspective reveals the…

  1. Backyard Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elser, Monica; Musheno, Birgit; Saltz, Charlene

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Ecology Explorers, the community education component of Arizona State University's Central Arizona Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research project, which offers teacher internship programs that link university researchers, K-12 teachers, and students in studying urban ecology. Explains that student neighborhoods are dynamic ecosystems

  2. Regulation of the heat stress response in Arabidopsis by MPK6-targeted phosphorylation of the heat stress factor HsfA2

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Evrard; Mukesh Kumar,; David Lecourieux; Jessica Lucks; Pascal von Koskull-Döring; Heribert Hirt

    2013-01-01

    So far little is known on the functional role of phosphorylation in the heat stress response of plants. Here we present evidence that heat stress activates the Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK6. In vitro and in vivo evidence is provided that MPK6 specifically targets the major heat stress transcription factor HsfA2. Activation of MPK6 results in complex formation with HsfA2. MPK6 phosphorylates HsfA2 on T249 and changes its intracellular localisation. Protein kinase and phosph...

  3. Antagonistic interaction of HIV-1 Vpr with Hsf-mediated cellular heat shock response and Hsp16 in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taricani Lorena

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression of the HIV-1 vpr gene in human and fission yeast cells displays multiple highly conserved activities, which include induction of cell cycle G2 arrest and cell death. We have previously characterized a yeast heat shock protein 16 (Hsp16 that suppresses the Vpr activities when it is overproduced in fission yeast. Similar suppressive effects were observed when the fission yeast hsp16 gene was overexpressed in human cells or in the context of viral infection. In this study, we further characterized molecular actions underlying the suppressive effect of Hsp16 on the Vpr activities. Results We show that the suppressive effect of Hsp16 on Vpr-dependent viral replication in proliferating T-lymphocytes is mediated through its C-terminal end. In addition, we show that Hsp16 inhibits viral infection in macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistically, Hsp16 suppresses Vpr activities in a way that resembles the cellular heat shock response. In particular, Hsp16 activation is mediated by a heat shock factor (Hsf-dependent mechanism. Interestingly, vpr gene expression elicits a moderate increase of endogenous Hsp16 but prevents its elevation when cells are grown under heat shock conditions that normally stimulate Hsp16 production. Similar responsive to Vpr elevation of Hsp and counteraction of this elevation by Vpr were also observed in our parallel mammalian studies. Since Hsf-mediated elevation of small Hsps occurs in all eukaryotes, this finding suggests that the anti-Vpr activity of Hsps is a conserved feature of these proteins. Conclusion These data suggest that fission yeast could be used as a model to further delineate the potential dynamic and antagonistic interactions between HIV-1 Vpr and cellular heat shock responses involving Hsps.

  4. Supercharged Snails for Stream Ecology & Water-Quality Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Arthur J.; Ryon, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Gill-breathing freshwater snails (Family "Pleuroceridae") are ecologically important, abundant in many streams in the United States, and easy to collect and maintain under classroom conditions. These snails can be used in classroom tests to demonstrate effects of pollutants on aquatic organisms. In more advanced classes, students can cage the

  5. Site-Specific ecological risk assessment. Case-study 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, John

    “Development of a decision support system for sustainable management of contaminated land by linking bioavailability, ecological risk and ground water pollution of organic pollutants”or in short “LIBERATION”. The presentation includes examples on how to scale and integrate the results from various scientific...

  6. Method for Studying a Human Ecology: An Adaptation of the Grounded Theory Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaslin, Mark L.; Scott, Karen Wilson

    Constructivist grounded theory is focused on discovery through understanding data in a human ecology. The procedures outlined in this paper are designed to guide the beginning theorist through the process of creating a theory grounded in data that is a product of the human ecology under study. These new procedures extend grounded theory, providing…

  7. Study on remote sensing method for drawing up and utilizing ecological and natural map II; concentrated on drawing up a plant ecological classification map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seong Woo; Chung, Hwui Chul [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    Following with the flows of the environmental conservation, Korea has revised the law of natural environmental conservation. In this law, it has suggested to draw up an ecological nature figure for efficient preservation and utilization of a country. To draw up an ecological nature figure, it requires several evaluating factors. Among them, a plant ecological classification is a very important evaluating factor since it can evaluate a habitation area of natural organisms. This study investigated a drawing up method of plant ecological classification using satellite image data. However the limit of satellite image data and the quality of required plant ecological classification are not quite matched but if the satellite image data and the infrared color aerial photograph are mixed, it can be expected to have an excellent quality of plant ecological classification. 85 refs., 86 figs., 45 tabs.

  8. Radio-labelling techniques in ecological studies. Possible misinterpretation of data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are presented showing that in ecological studies using radio-labelling, the amount of label applied relative to the level in the study environment, can have significant effects on the validity of the results. (author)

  9. Ecological Studies On The Bottom Fauna Of Lake Manala, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Magdy T. Khalil

    1990-01-01

    An ecological survey has been conducted for the benthic Community in Lake Manzala during May and June, 1985. The diversity and distribution of organisms are largely determined by salinity. Mean abundance of benthic fauna ranged from 1494 to 2820 organisms/m2 for sampling transects. Pisidium and Melanoides mollusca dominate the low salinity southern regions, while Cerastoctenna, Abra and Alvania species dominate the saline sectors. Two other species of considerable importance in the lake ...

  10. Ecological and phytochemical studies on the "miswak", salvadora persica l.

    OpenAIRE

    Ma'ayergi, H. A. [??? ?????????

    1984-01-01

    The "Miswak", which is produced from the stolons and branches of Salvadora persica is used as a substitute for ordinary tooth brushes. The use of "Miswak" has been recommended by Islam. It is endowed by several characteristics supporting its use. In view of such facts, the ecology, geographical distribution and the chemical constituents of the plant have been investigated. It has been found that "Miswak" contains mucilage (2.2%) and sterols QS-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol and cholest...

  11. Ecological Niche Transferability Using Invasive Species as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fernndez, Miguel; Hamilton, Healy

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution modeling is widely applied to predict invasive species distributions and species range shifts under climate change. Accurate predictions depend upon meeting the assumption that ecological niches are conserved, i.e., spatially or temporally transferable. Here we present a multi-taxon comparative analysis of niche conservatism using biological invasion events well documented in natural history museum collections. Our goal is to assess spatial transferability of the climatic...

  12. Studies on marine oil spills and their ecological damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Hong; Yin, Yanjie

    2009-09-01

    The sources of marine oil spills are mainly from accidents of marine oil tankers or freighters, marine oil-drilling platforms, marine oil pipelines, marine oilfields, terrestrial pollution, oil-bearing atmosphere, and offshore oil production equipment. It is concluded upon analysis that there are two main reasons for marine oil spills: (I) The motive for huge economic benefits of oil industry owners and oil shipping agents far surpasses their sense of ecological risks. (II) Marine ecological safety has not become the main concern of national security. Oil spills are disasters because humans spare no efforts to get economic benefits from oil. The present paper draws another conclusion that marine ecological damage caused by oil spills can be roughly divided into two categories: damage to marine resource value (direct value) and damage to marine ecosystem service value (indirect value). Marine oil spills cause damage to marine biological, fishery, seawater, tourism and mineral resources to various extents, which contributes to the lower quality and value of marine resources.

  13. Ecological niche transferability using invasive species as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernndez, Miguel; Hamilton, Healy

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution modeling is widely applied to predict invasive species distributions and species range shifts under climate change. Accurate predictions depend upon meeting the assumption that ecological niches are conserved, i.e., spatially or temporally transferable. Here we present a multi-taxon comparative analysis of niche conservatism using biological invasion events well documented in natural history museum collections. Our goal is to assess spatial transferability of the climatic niche of a range of noxious terrestrial invasive species using two complementary approaches. First we compare species' native versus invasive ranges in environmental space using two distinct methods, Principal Components Analysis and Mahalanobis distance. Second we compare species' native versus invaded ranges in geographic space as estimated using the species distribution modeling technique Maxent and the comparative index Hellinger's I. We find that species exhibit a range of responses, from almost complete transferability, in which the invaded niches completely overlap with the native niches, to a complete dissociation between native and invaded ranges. Intermediate responses included expansion of dimension attributable to either temperature or precipitation derived variables, as well as niche expansion in multiple dimensions. We conclude that the ecological niche in the native range is generally a poor predictor of invaded range and, by analogy, the ecological niche may be a poor predictor of range shifts under climate change. We suggest that assessing dimensions of niche transferability prior to standard species distribution modeling may improve the understanding of species' dynamics in the invaded range. PMID:25785858

  14. Assessing Conifer Ray Parenchyma for Ecological Studies: Pitfalls and Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arx, Georg; Arzac, Alberto; Olano, Jos M; Fonti, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Ray parenchyma is an essential tissue for tree functioning and survival. This living tissue plays a major role for storage and transport of water, nutrients, and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), thus regulating xylem hydraulics and growth. However, despite the importance of rays for tree carbon and water relations, methodological challenges hamper knowledge about ray intra- and inter-tree variability and its ecological meaning. In this study we provide a methodological toolbox for soundly quantifying spatial and temporal variability of different ray features. Anatomical ray features were surveyed in different cutting planes (cross-sectional, tangential, and radial) using quantitative image analysis on stem-wood micro-sections sampled from 41 mature Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris). The percentage of ray surface (PERPAR), a proxy for ray volume, was compared among cutting planes and between early- and latewood to assess measurement-induced variability. Different tangential ray metrics were correlated to assess their similarities. The accuracy of cross-sectional and tangential measurements for PERPAR estimates as a function of number of samples and the measured wood surface was assessed using bootstrapping statistical technique. Tangential sections offered the best 3D insight of ray integration into the xylem and provided the most accurate estimates of PERPAR, with 10 samples of 4 mm(2) showing an estimate within 6.0% of the true mean PERPAR (relative 95% confidence interval, CI95), and 20 samples of 4 mm(2) showing a CI95 of 4.3%. Cross-sections were most efficient for establishment of time series, and facilitated comparisons with other widely used xylem anatomical features. Earlywood had significantly lower PERPAR (5.77 vs. 6.18%) and marginally fewer initiating rays than latewood. In comparison to tangential sections, PERPAR was systematically overestimated (6.50 vs. 4.92%) and required approximately twice the sample area for similar accuracy. Radial cuttings provided the least accurate PERPAR estimates. This evaluation of ray parenchyma in conifers and the presented guidelines regarding data accuracy as a function of measured wood surface and number of samples represent an important methodological reference for ray quantification, which will ultimately improve the understanding of the fundamental role of ray parenchyma tissue for the performance and survival of trees growing in stressed environments. PMID:26635842

  15. Computational Ecology: an emerging ecological science

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Computational ecology is an emerging science to integrate and synthesize computation intensive areas in ecology. It was clearly defined and described in an earlier study. Aims and scope of computational ecology are further refined in present discussion.

  16. Three tomato genes code for heat stress transcription factors with a region of remarkable homology to the DNA-binding domain of the yeast HSF.

    OpenAIRE

    Scharf, K.D.; Rose, S.; Zott, W; Schöffl, F; Nover, L; Schöff, F

    1990-01-01

    Heat stress (hs) treatment of cell cultures of Lycopersicon peruvianum (Lp, tomato) results in activation of preformed transcription factor(s) (HSF) binding to the heat stress consensus element (HSE). Using appropriate synthetic HSE oligonucleotides, three types of clones with potential HSE binding domains were isolated from a tomato lambda gt11 expression library by DNA-ligand screening. One of the potential HSF genes is constitutively expressed, the other two are hs-induced. Sequence compar...

  17. The Effect of Inappropriate Calibration: Three Case Studies in Molecular Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Simon Y.W.; Saarma, Urmas; Barnett, Ross; Haile, James; Shapiro, Beth

    2008-01-01

    Time-scales estimated from sequence data play an important role in molecular ecology. They can be used to draw correlations between evolutionary and palaeoclimatic events, to measure the tempo of speciation, and to study the demographic history of an endangered species. In all of these studies, it is paramount to have accurate estimates of time-scales and substitution rates. Molecular ecological studies typically focus on intraspecific data that have evolved on genealogical scales, but often ...

  18. Ecological responses to contamination: a meta-analysis of experimental marine studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Allyson L; Keough, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Identifying general response patterns to contamination in the environment is critical for reliable assessments of ecosystem health. However, it is not often clear if there are biases in the information used to understand general effects of contamination. To investigate this we conducted a review of 314 studies that experimentally manipulated contaminants and measured the effects on marine invertebrate taxa. The majority of studies investigated the effects of metals (54%) on individual taxa (mainly bivalves, amphipods, copepods). Ecologically relevant responses to contamination were measured in only 22% of the studies. A meta-analysis using studies that measured ecological responses to copper illustrated a general negative effect of copper and highlighted the bias towards field or laboratory experiments that measure community or individual-level responses. There is a need for diversification of studies that investigate the ecological effects of contamination as an important advancement in ecotoxicology and ecological research and environmentally relevant risk assessments. PMID:25247875

  19. Direct power control of shunt active filter using high selectivity filter (HSF) under distorted or unbalanced conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mesbahi, Nadhir; Ouari, Ahmed; Abdeslam, Djaffar Ould; Djamah, Tounsia; Omeiri, Amar

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a new configuration of direct power control (DPC) based on high selec-tivity filters (HSF) to achieve near-sinusoidal source current waveforms under different source voltageconditions. The proposed method uses the high selectivity filters instead of the classical extraction filters(low pass filters). The basic idea of the proposed DPC is to choose the best inverter voltage vector in orderto minimize instantaneous active and reactive power errors using two hy...

  20. Induction of Heat Shock Proteins by Hyperthermia and Noise Overstimulation in Hsf1−/− Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Tzy-Wen; Fairfield, Damon A.; Fullarton, Lynne; Dolan, David F; Altschuler, Richard A; Kohrman, David C.; Lomax, Margaret I.

    2011-01-01

    Diverse cellular and environmental stresses can activate the heat shock response, an evolutionarily conserved mechanism to protect proteins from denaturation. Stressors activate heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1), which binds to heat shock elements in the genes for heat shock proteins, leading to rapid induction of these important molecular chaperones. Both heat and noise stress are known to activate the heat shock response in the cochlea and protect it from subsequent noise trauma. How...

  1. STABLE ISOTOPES IN ECOLOGICAL STUDIES: NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN MIXING MODELS (URUGUAY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotopes are increasingly being used as tracers in ecological studies. One application uses isotopic ratios to quantify the proportional contributions of multiple sources to a mixture. Examples include pollution sources for air or water bodies, food sources for animals, ...

  2. STABLE ISOTOPES IN ECOLOGICAL STUDIES: NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN MIXING MODELS (BRAZIL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotopes are increasingly being used as tracers in ecological studies. One application uses isotopic ratios to quantify the proportional contributions of multiple sources to a mixture. Examples include pollution sources for air or water bodies, food sources for animals, ...

  3. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D.E.; Pechmann, J.H.K.; Knox, J.N.; Estes, R.A.; McGregor, J.H.; Bailey, K. (ed.)

    1988-12-01

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory has completed 10 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site. This progress report examines water quality studies on streams peripheral to the DWPF construction site and examines the effectiveness of refuge ponds'' in ameliorating the effects of construction on local amphibians. Individual papers on these topics are indexed separately. 93 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs. (MHB)

  4. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory has completed 10 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site. This progress report examines water quality studies on streams peripheral to the DWPF construction site and examines the effectiveness of ''refuge ponds'' in ameliorating the effects of construction on local amphibians. Individual papers on these topics are indexed separately. 93 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs

  5. Applications of C and N stable isotopes to ecological and environmental studies in seagrass ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Lepoint, Gilles; Dauby, Patrick; Gobert, Sylvie

    2004-01-01

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen are increasingly used in marine ecosystems, for ecological and environmental studies. Here, we examine some applications of stable isotopes as ecological integrators or tracers in seagrass ecosystem studies. We focus on both the use of natural isotope abundance as food web integrators or environmental tracers and on the use of stable isotopes as experimental tools. As ecosystem integrators, stable isotopes have helped to elucidate the general structure o...

  6. Ecology of Urban Bees: A Review of Current Knowledge and Directions for Future Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon W. Frankie; Jennifer L. Hernandez; Robbin W. Thorp

    2009-01-01

    Urban bee ecology is an emerging field that holds promise for advancing knowledge of bee community dynamics and promoting bee conservation. Published studies of bee communities in urban and suburban habitats are fewer than those documenting bees in agricultural and wildland settings. As land lost to urbanization is predicted to increase in coming years the necessity of studying urban bee populations is growing. We reviewed 59 publications on urban bee ecology with the following goals, to asse...

  7. Wetlands in the ecological risk assessment process: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saban, L.B. [Roy F. Weston, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In the past few years, the ecological risk assessment (ERA) process as outlined in the EPA document Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment has been successfully used to assess risk to birds, mammals, aquatic organisms, plants, and to a limited extent, reptiles and amphibians, but has only recently been applied to wetlands. Due to the unique role that wetlands play in the environment as sources and sinks for nutrients, sediment retention, high productivity, habitat transition zones, aquifer recharge, high diversity and richness of biota, and aesthetic value, it is important to consider the entire wetland system in the ERA process. Because nearly sixty percent of Superfund sites are located in or near wetlands, a comprehensive approach is proposed to evaluate potential risks to flora and fauna in these wetland environments. Using the delineation and functional assessment techniques developed by wetland scientists, an estuarine wetland in western Washington was evaluated within the scope of ERA`S. The ERA was applied to the wetland using functional assessments as an integral part of the problem formulation phase of the risk assessment process. Applying the ERA process to wetlands enhances the functional assessment process and helps to define critical elements to evaluate within wetland systems. The results of this risk assessment help to define patches within a landscape that are potentially at risk and how to prioritize remedial actions.

  8. The Effects of Materialism and Consumer Ethics on Ecological Behavior: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Bakırtaş

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available World populations have increased day by day. Thus, production volume of companies have increased depend on increasing population. Besides, fashion and/or technologyinfluence consumer’s goods or services purchasing decision. Consequently, the type and the number of product produced have increased and natural resources both more are being used and depleted. At this point has come to the fore the consumer’s environmental concern and ecological behavior and has gained importance. Studies about environmentalconcern in marketing began depending on living of some problems in the early 1970s. Environmental concern concept assesses in terms of both individual concern and socialconcern. Individual concern states to abuse of the environment of individual consumers while social concern states perceived need for social, political, and legal changes to protect the environment. There is a positive relationship between environmental concern and ecological behavior. This study was examined the relationship between materialism,consumer ethics, environmental concern and ecological consumer behavior. This study was carried out between dates of September and November 2013. To test thehypotheses of the study, regression analysis has been used. Results show that consumer ethics has positive impact on both environmental concern and ecological behaviour ofconsumer. Besides, materialism has negative impact on ecological behaviour.Keywords: Environmental concern, consumer ethics, materialism, ecological behavior.

  9. Assessing Landscape Ecological Risk in a Mining City: A Case Study in Liaoyuan City, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Peng; Minli Zong; Yi'na Hu; Yanxu Liu; Jiansheng Wu

    2015-01-01

    Landscape ecological risk assessment can effectively identify key elements for landscape sustainability, which directly improves human wellbeing. However, previous research has tended to apply risk probability, measured by overlaying landscape metrics to evaluate risk, generally lacking a quantitative assessment of loss and uncertainty of risk. This study, taking Liaoyuan City as a case area, explores landscape ecological risk assessment associated with mining cities, based on probability of ...

  10. Affect Regulation and Purging: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study in Purging Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that affect may play an important role in the propensity to purge among women with Purging Disorder (PD). However, prior work has been constrained to cross-sectional or laboratory designs which impact temporal interpretations and ecological validity. This study examined the role of negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) in triggering and maintaining purging in PD using ecological momentary assessment. Women with PD (N=24) made multiple daily ratings of affect and beha...

  11. Methods of studying the functional ecology of protein and organ dynamics in birds

    OpenAIRE

    Piersma, Theunis; Klaassen, Marcel; Adams, N.J.; Slotow, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    Birds are capable of adaptive responses to ecological challenges involving changes in body composition, including both body stores and functional tissues. These physiological adjustments may affect aspects of the birds’ ecology, such as choice of diet and microhabitat or susceptibility to aerial predators. Carcass analysis provides accurate data on body composition; however, ethical considerations apart, this method neither enables studies of temporal changes within individuals nor allows com...

  12. Toward a Network Perspective of the Study of Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R. J. McAllister

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Formal models used to study the resilience of social-ecological systems have not explicitly included important structural characteristics of this type of system. In this paper, we propose a network perspective for social-ecological systems that enables us to better focus on the structure of interactions between identifiable components of the system. This network perspective might be useful for developing formal models and comparing case studies of social-ecological systems. Based on an analysis of the case studies in this special issue, we identify three types of social-ecological networks: (1 ecosystems that are connected by people through flows of information or materials, (2 ecosystem networks that are disconnected and fragmented by the actions of people, and (3 artificial ecological networks created by people, such as irrigation systems. Each of these three archytypal social-ecological networks faces different problems that influence its resilience as it responds to the addition or removal of connections that affect its coordination or the diffusion of system attributes such as information or disease.

  13. Study on the Capability Construction of Wetland Community Ecological Tourism Participation– The Case of Luoshijiang Wetland in Dali

    OpenAIRE

    Mingqiang Lu; Ning Wang

    2015-01-01

    Wetland ecological tourism is a sustainable traveling form. Community participation is an important part of the development of wetland ecological tourism, while high-quality ecological tourism participation requires certain quality and professional skills among wetland farmers. The study chooses Luoshijiang Wetland Community as the example and elaborates on the contents of wetland community’s ability of ecological tourism, periodical arrangements, organization and implementation and so on bas...

  14. David and Goliath: comparative use of facilitation and competition studies in the plant ecology literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Lortie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Competition and facilitation are extensively studied in plant ecology and are central to ecological theory. However, these processes do not occur in isolation from each other and should be studied concurrently and synthetically. Here, we compare the relative citation success of studies that focus on either side of the same interaction coin in terms of number of publications and citations per publication in six of the following major themes in plant ecology: biogeography, populations, communities, ecosystems, evolution and conservation. There were eight times more publications on plant competition than on facilitation but this is not surprising given its long history of comprehensive and relatively exclusive study in plant ecology. Although studies of facilitation comprised a smaller body of literature, the mean citation rate for each publication was equivalent to that of competition studies. Thus, facilitation studies are being used as much as competition. These patterns of use by the ecological community clearly indicate that both aspects of plant interactions address broad themes and that studies on plant interactions should now strive to either test both simultaneously or at the very minimum include interpretations and relevant literature from both sets of ideas. Importantly, these broad trends illustrate the old axiom that quality and not quantity of studies may be a consideration in the success of a sub-discipline.

  15. A novel HSF4 gene mutation (p.R405X causing autosomal recessive congenital cataracts in a large consanguineous family from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheema Abdul

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary cataracts are most frequently inherited as autosomal dominant traits, but can also be inherited in an autosomal recessive or X-linked fashion. To date, 12 loci for autosomal recessive cataracts have been mapped including a locus on chromosome 16q22 containing the disease-causing gene HSF4 (Genbank accession number NM_001040667. Here, we describe a family from Pakistan with the first nonsense mutation in HSF4 thus expanding the mutational spectrum of this heat shock transcription factor gene. Methods A large consanguineous Pakistani family with autosomal recessive cataracts was collected from Quetta. Genetic linkage analysis was performed for the common known autosomal recessive cataracts loci and linkage to a locus containing HSF4 (OMIM 602438 was found. All exons and adjacent splice sites of the heat shock transcription factor 4 gene (HSF4 were sequenced. A mutation-specific restriction enzyme digest (HphI was performed for all family members and unrelated controls. Results The disease phenotype perfectly co-segregated with markers flanking the known cataract gene HSF4, whereas other autosomal recessive loci were excluded. A maximum two-point LOD score with a Zmax = 5.6 at θ = 0 was obtained for D16S421. Direct sequencing of HSF4 revealed the nucleotide exchange c.1213C > T in this family predicting an arginine to stop codon exchange (p.R405X. Conclusion We identified the first nonsense mutation (p.R405X in exon 11 of HSF4 in a large consanguineous Pakistani family with autosomal recessive cataract.

  16. The ecology of early farming: A Mogollon case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Steve

    The Mimbres region of southwest New Mexico is ideal for investigating the coevolutionary relationships among human impact, ecosystem processes, and settlement stability during the development of sedentism and agriculture. A resilience framework guides interpretations of nuanced relations among land use strategies and impacts through an examination of ecosystem processes around Mimbres pithouse sites. Analytical methods include multitemporal analysis of satellite imagery to measure vegetation response to precipitation variability and GIS-based spatial analyses to examine differences in ecosystem response for prehistoric sites and adjacent unoccupied locations in similar ecological settings. Palynological and architectural analyses provide independent means of assessing prehistoric impact and settlement choices (respectively). To evaluate the relative contribution of prehistoric selection and impact on occupation length, models are developed for "choice"---ecosystem characteristics that attracted initial settlement, and "impact"---modification to ecosystems resulting from prehistoric land use. Choices reflecting productivity maximization find support; prehistoric impact played a smaller role. Pollen data suggest even small prehistoric occupations shifted plant communities towards r-strategist taxa, but impacts were not long-lived, and legacy effects of Mimbres land use on modern ecosystem processes may be minor. Some Mimbres settlements had large, long occupations (villages), but most settlements were small and only briefly occupied (farmsteads). Greater architectural investment in early houses at villages than at farmsteads suggests occupation length was planned during initial construction. Satellite data indicate locations for each type of settlement were selected based on the way vegetation responds to precipitation variability. Farmsteads were constructed where pluvial effects last longer, but the effects of drought are more severe. Shorter use of these settlements does not reflect failed agricultural strategies or deleterious impacts. In contrast, villages were built where drought effects are less severe, but pluvial benefits more brief, reflecting risk-minimizing strategies. Mimbres settlement strategies were partly based on sophisticated ecological knowledge. Sustainable occupation at a regional scale, reflected in the continued use of the landscape, was derived from local decisions about the kinds of settlements to construct in specific places. Their settlement system reflects strategies of land use targeted to specific types of ecosystems and climate regimes.

  17. Ecological risk assessment guidance for preparation of remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentecost, E.D.; Vinikour, W.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial assessment investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfired Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), an RI/FS work plan win have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping the process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites. An overview analysis of early ecological risk assessment methods (i.e., in the 1980s) at Superfund sites was conducted by the EPA (1989a). That review provided a perspective of attention given to ecological issues in some of the first RI/FS studies. By itself, that reference is of somewhat limited value; it does, however, establish a basis for comparison of past practices in ecological risk with current, more refined methods.

  18. Ecological risk assessment guidance for preparation of remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial assessment investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfired Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), an RI/FS work plan win have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping the process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites. An overview analysis of early ecological risk assessment methods (i.e., in the 1980s) at Superfund sites was conducted by the EPA (1989a). That review provided a perspective of attention given to ecological issues in some of the first RI/FS studies. By itself, that reference is of somewhat limited value; it does, however, establish a basis for comparison of past practices in ecological risk with current, more refined methods

  19. Ecological risk caused by land use change in the coastal zone: a case study in the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China's coastal zone plays an important role in ecological services production and social-economic development; however, extensive and intensive land resource utilization and land use change have lead to high ecological risk in this area during last decade. Regional ecological risk assessment can provide fundamental knowledge and scientific basis for better understanding of the relationship between regional landscape ecosystem and human activities or climate changes, facilitating the optimization strategy of land use structure and improving the ecological risk prevention capability. In this paper, the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone is selected as the study site, which is undergoing a new round of coastal zone exploitation and has endured substantial land use change in the past decade. Land use maps of 2000, 2005 and 2010 were generated based on Landsat images by visual interpretation method, and the ecological risk index was then calculated. The index was 0.3314, 0.3461 and 0.3176 in 2000, 2005 and 2010 respectively, which showed a positive transition of regional ecological risk in 2005

  20. Ecological study of the effects of nuclear power plants on benthic macroplant microcosms in subtropical and tropical estuaries. Annual progress report, 1974--1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: the dynamic ecology of Thalassia and studies of the Thalassia community; basic ecology of Thalassia growth and reproduction; red macroalgal ecology; green macroalgal ecology; transplantation of Thalassia; succession in a previously damaged Thalassia community at Turkey Point; and thermal ecology of the Thalassia community of Card Sound and Turkey Point. (U.S.)

  1. LANDSCAPE ECOLOGICAL METHOD TO STUDY AGRICULTURAL VEGETATION: SOME EXAMPLES FROM THE PO VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. GIGLIO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation is the most important landscape component, as regards to its ability to catch solar energy and to transform it, but also to shape the landscape, to structure the space, to create the fit environment for different animal species, to contribute to the maintenance of a correct metastability level for the landscape, etc. It is a biological system which acts under the constraints of the principles of the System Theory and owns the same properties of any other living system: so, it is a complex adaptive, hierarchical, dynamic, dissipative, self-organizing, self-transcendent, autocatalytic, self-maintaining system and follows the non-equilibrium thermodynamic. Its ecological state can be investigated through the comparison between “gathered data” (pathology and “normal data” (physiology for analogous types of vegetation. The Biological Integrated School of Landscape Ecology provides an integrated methodology to define ecological threshold limits of the different Agricultural Landscape types and applies to agricultural vegetation the specific part of the new methodology already tested to studying forests (the Landscape Biological Survey of Vegetation. Ecological quality, better and worst parameters, biological territorial capacity of vegetated corridors, agricultural field, poplar groves, orchards and woody remnant patches are investigated. Some examples from diverse agricultural landscapes of the Po Valley will be discussed. KEY WORDS: agricultural landscape, vegetation, landscape ecology, landscape health, Biological Integrated Landscape Ecology, Landscape Biological Survey of vegetation.

  2. Ecological studies on the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) on the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigel, R.A.; Brandt, L.A.; Knight, J.L.; Novak, S.S.

    1986-06-01

    The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is the largest vertebrate of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), reaching a maximum length of 3.7 meters (12 feet) and weighing up to 175 kg (385 pounds). Currently, populations in coastal South Carolina are considered Threatened, whereas populations in inland areas (such as the SRP) are still Endangered. Because of their legal status and economic and ecological importance, it is important to determine the environmental impacts of SRP operations on the local alligator population. The major objectives under the Endangered Species Program of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) were as follows: (1) document and compare the present status and distribution of alligators on the SRP to previous surveys, in order to determine long-term changes in population abundance; (2) establish baseline population and ecological parameters of the Steel Creek population so that the ecological effects of L-Reactor operations can be determined, and (3) conduct ecological research on the immediate impacts of thermal effluents on American alligators. Gladden et al., (1985) summarized data on previous population surveys, temporal changes in the Par Pond population, preliminary results of the Steel Creek surveys and Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) research on the effects of thermal effluents. This report summarizes the current status of the SRP population, presents data on the abundance, movement patterns and activity cycles of the Steel Creek population, and presents additional data on the effect of cooling water releases on alligator ecology and behavior.

  3. Ecological optimization and performance study of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of finite time thermodynamics is used to determine the ecological function of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat engine cycles. The ecological function is defined as the power output minus power loss (irreversibility), which is the ambient temperature times, the entropy generation rate. The ecological function is maximized with respect to cycle temperature ratio and the expressions for the corresponding power output and thermal efficiency are derived at the optimal operating conditions. The effect of different operating parameters, the effectiveness on the hot, cold and the regenerative side heat exchangers, the cycle temperature ratio, heat capacitance ratio and the internal irreversibility parameter on the maximum ecological function are studied. It is found that the effect of regenerator effectiveness is more than the hot and cold side heat exchangers and the effect of the effectiveness on cold side heat exchanger is more than the effectiveness on the hot side heat exchanger on the maximum ecological function. It is also found that the effect of internal irreversibility parameter is more than the other parameters not only on the maximum ecological function but also on the corresponding power output and the thermal efficiency

  4. Assessment of the U.S. outer continental shelf environmental studies program. 2. Ecology. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1986, the Minerals Management Service (MMS) requested that the National Research Council (NRC) evaluate the adequacy and applicability of studies conducted in the Environmental Studies Program (ESP), review the general state of knowledge in the appropriate disciplines, and recommend future studies. Under the auspices of the NRC Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, the Committee to Review the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program was formed to conduct the assignment. Three panels-dealing with ecology, physical oceanography, and socioeconomics--were established to review specific aspects of the assessment. The Ecology Panel investigated the main questions of ecological relevance to OCS oil and gas activities and ecological aspects of the ESP. The panel was divided into three working groups: on marine birds, mammals, turtles, and endangered species; on benthic processes; and on fisheries and ecosystems. The panel conducted workshops on each of those topics, focused on the progress of the ESP in assessing the environmental impacts of OCS oil and gas activities, evaluated shortcomings of the ESP, and identified future information needs. The report, the second in a series, presents the findings and recommendations of the Ecology Panel

  5. Why does not ecological wine sell in the restaurants? : A case study on Chilean ecological wine on the Swedish market

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Katja

    2011-01-01

    The last five years has seen a large increase in the sales of ecological wines in the Swedish retail stores. This trend has not yet reached the restaurants, where the consumers do not choose an ecological alternative in the same amount as in the stores. The Chilean ecological wines were 2010, in top five bestsellers among the organic wines. With their good quality and low price they should be able to reach a larger market share in the restaurants as well. The purpose of this paper is to exami...

  6. Ecology of Urban Bees: A Review of Current Knowledge and Directions for Future Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon W. Frankie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban bee ecology is an emerging field that holds promise for advancing knowledge of bee community dynamics and promoting bee conservation. Published studies of bee communities in urban and suburban habitats are fewer than those documenting bees in agricultural and wildland settings. As land lost to urbanization is predicted to increase in coming years the necessity of studying urban bee populations is growing. We reviewed 59 publications on urban bee ecology with the following goals, to assess current knowledge, to highlight areas in need of further research, and to suggest applications of study findings to bee conservation. Identified trends in urban areas included the following, negative correlation between bee species richness and urban development, increase in abundance of cavity-nesters in urban habitats, and scarcity of floral specialists. Future directions for studying urban bee ecology include incorporation of landscape-scale assessments, conducting manipulative experiments and actively designing urban bee habitats.

  7. Future ecological studies of Brazilian headwater streams under global-changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Callisto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper results from discussions triggered during the "Stream Ecology Symposium" that took place at the XIII Congress of the Brazilian Society of Limnology in September of 2011 in Natal, Brazil. Based on our experiences, we have raised several questions regarding ecological studies of headwater streams facing threats under global-changes and proposed numerous subjects to be addressed in future studies in Brazil. These studies deal with the necessity of knowing species biology and the elaboration of models to assess changes (which implies the availability of time-series or large-scale data sets; the ecology of riparian zones and the interchange of materials and energy across the land-water boundaries; forest conversions and standardized sampling strategies and data treatment to assess global change.

  8. Ecological forecasting under climatic data uncertainty: a case study in phenological modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forecasting ecological responses to climate change represents a challenge to the ecological community because models are often site-specific and climate data are lacking at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. We use a case study approach to demonstrate uncertainties in ecological predictions related to the driving climatic input data. We use observational records, derived observational datasets (e.g. interpolated observations from local weather stations and gridded data products) and output from general circulation models (GCM) in conjunction with site based phenology models to estimate the first flowering date (FFD) for three woody flowering species. Using derived observations over the modern time period, we find that cold biases and temperature trends lead to biased FFD simulations for all three species. Observational datasets resolved at the daily time step result in better FFD predictions compared to simulations using monthly resolution. Simulations using output from an ensemble of GCM and regional climate models over modern and future time periods have large intra-ensemble spreads and tend to underestimate observed FFD trends for the modern period. These results indicate that certain forcing datasets may be missing key features needed to generate accurate hindcasts at the local scale (e.g. trends, temporal resolution), and that standard modeling techniques (e.g. downscaling, ensemble mean, etc) may not necessarily improve the prediction of the ecological response. Studies attempting to simulate local ecological processes under modern and future climate forcing therefore need to quantify and propagate the climate data uncertainties in their simulations.

  9. Ecological optimization and parametric study of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This communication presents the ecological optimization and parametric study of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat pump cycles, in which the external irreversibility is due to finite temperature difference between working fluid and external reservoirs while the internal irreversibilities are due to regenerative heat loss and other entropy generations within the cycle. The ecological function is defined as the heating load minus the irreversibility (power loss) which is ambient temperature times the entropy generation. The ecological function is optimized with respect to working fluid temperatures, and the expressions for various parameters at the optimal operating condition are obtained. The effects of different operating parameters on the performance of these cycles have been studied. It is found that the effect of internal irreversibility parameter is more pronounced than the other parameters on the performance of these cycles. (author)

  10. Studying stress responses in the post-genomic era: its ecological and evolutionary role

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jesper G Sørensen; Volker Loeschcke

    2007-04-01

    Most investigations on the effects of and responses to stress exposures have been performed on a limited number of model organisms in the laboratory. Here much progress has been made in terms of identifying and describing beneficial and detrimental effects of stress, responses to stress and the mechanisms behind stress tolerance. However, to gain further understanding of which genes are involved in stress resistance and how the responses are regulated from an ecological and evolutionary perspective there is a need to combine studies on multiple levels of biological organization from DNA to phenotypes. Furthermore, we emphasize the importance of studying ecologically relevant traits and natural or semi-natural conditions to verify whether the results obtained are representative of the ecological and evolutionary processes in the field. Here, we will review what we currently know about thermal adaptation and the role of different stress responses to thermal challenges in insects, particularly Drosophila. Furthermore, we address some key questions that require future attention.

  11. Ecological studies of small vertebrates in Pu-contaminated study areas of NTS and TTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological studies of vertebrates in plutonium-contaminated areas of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were initiated in March 1972, and have continued to date. In September 1973, standard census methods were also employed to derive a qualitative and quantitative inventory of vertebrate biota of four Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) study areas of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). A checklist of vertebrates of NAEG study areas of NTS and TTR is presented. Data are presented on vertebrate composition, relative abundance, and seasonal status in the study areas. Concentrations of 239Pu and 241Am were determined in pelt or skin, GI tract, and carcass of 13 lizards and 16 mammals resident on Clean Slate 2, TTR, and Area 11, NTS. A total of 71 animals were collected for radioanalysis. However, the data were not available at the time this report was written. Pu tissue burdens were highest in lizards from Area 11 GZ. Maximum values obtained in nCi/g ash were 30.9, 42.2, and 0.43 for the pelt, GI tract, and carcass, respectively. Maximum 239Pu values in tissues of small rodents from Area 11 (not from GZ) were 11.4, 6.49, and 0.20 nCi/g ash for pelt, GI tract, and carcass, respectively. Pu/Am ratios were relatively consistent in tissue samples of lizards and small mammals from Area 11 (approximately 6:1, Pu/Am). Pu/Am ratios were not consistent in vertebrates of Clean Slate 2, TTR, and appeared to be lower in carcass (28:1, Pu/Am in mammals) than GI tract (9:1, Pu/Am in mammals). Although this trend was more conspicuous in mammals, it was also evident in reptiles. (auth)

  12. Air pollution and case fatality of SARS in the People's Republic of China: an ecologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shun-Zhang

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS has claimed 349 lives with 5,327 probable cases reported in mainland China since November 2002. SARS case fatality has varied across geographical areas, which might be partially explained by air pollution level. Methods Publicly accessible data on SARS morbidity and mortality were utilized in the data analysis. Air pollution was evaluated by air pollution index (API derived from the concentrations of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and ground-level ozone. Ecologic analysis was conducted to explore the association and correlation between air pollution and SARS case fatality via model fitting. Partially ecologic studies were performed to assess the effects of long-term and short-term exposures on the risk of dying from SARS. Results Ecologic analysis conducted among 5 regions with 100 or more SARS cases showed that case fatality rate increased with the increment of API (case fatality = - 0.063 + 0.001 * API. Partially ecologic study based on short-term exposure demonstrated that SARS patients from regions with moderate APIs had an 84% increased risk of dying from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs (RR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.41–2.40. Similarly, SARS patients from regions with high APIs were twice as likely to die from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs. (RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.31–3.65. Partially ecologic analysis based on long-term exposure to ambient air pollution showed the similar association. Conclusion Our studies demonstrated a positive association between air pollution and SARS case fatality in Chinese population by utilizing publicly accessible data on SARS statistics and air pollution indices. Although ecologic fallacy and uncontrolled confounding effect might have biased the results, the possibility of a detrimental effect of air pollution on the prognosis of SARS patients deserves further investigation.

  13. ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF RESTORATED TRADITIONAL SETTLEMENTS: A CASE STUDY IN KALEİÇİ (ANTALYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer MUTLU DANACI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical fabrics of the cities reflect the cultural backgrounds of the societies. For centuries in historical urban settlements formed via experiences the most appropriate structure type to the climatic conditions and the region, has been produced. With the industrial revolution, to be able to have more comfortable places in the settlement, fossil fuel based energy consumption began to be generally preferred. As a result, the ecological balance in the nature has begun to deteriorate in an irrevocable way. To find a solution for the situation, in ecological architecture and planning issues various ecological structure criteria is defined. Accordingly, buildings appropriate to the local and climatic characteristics are meant to be constructed besides the use of renewable energy sources and minimizing energy consumption. When historical city fabrics are analyzed in the ecological context, one can observe that these include sustainable structure characteristics. In order for the buildings to be renewed and restored in accordance with their original structures, great care should be given in terms of financial resource, manpower, material and control.Antalya Kaleiçi which was chosen as the working area was analyzed in terms of settlement structure, building form and structure cover, place organization, material choice, renewable, clean energy usage and water saving and usage and it was determined to have ecological, sustainable settlement characteristics. Traditional architecture samples which have been built by the people after trial and error for centuries and with the solutions appropriate to the climatic and environmental conditions are highly appropriate to the ecological design criteria as structures and settlements peculiar to the district. However the mistakes in the restoration of the buildings used for touristic aims after 1970s, adding of new necessary functions to the buildings, not taking care of the original structure and materials show that historical urban fabric of the city is faced with the danger of losing its ecological feature.In this study, Antalya-Kaleiçi historical urban settlement which was built in the context of the ecological design criteria and which has conventional houses that achieved to reach our day has been discussed. When houses with historical fabric which are experiencing a function shift to ensure sustainability in today's conditions are analyzed in terms of ecological design criteria, we will mention the sustainability of the criteria obtained in terms of availability and the problems faced with the restoration.

  14. Incorporating ecological risk assessment into remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), and RI/FS work plan will have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites.

  15. Incorporating ecological risk assessment into remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), and RI/FS work plan will have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites

  16. Ecological shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Meadows study (Limits to Growth) has made the environmental problem popular, but it has reduced the ecological problem to one of population and raw materials, leaving the conditions of social organisation and developmental policy out of consideration. This means that in spite of the repeated moral appeals, developing countries are left to their natural fate while fear and resignation are spread in the industrial nations. The present study tries to contradict this trend in consideration of interdependences in ecological development. (orig.)

  17. Ecological studies in the NRDA process: Some guidelines for what is necessary and what is not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological resources are usually the primary focus of a natural resource damage assessment (NRDA). The NRDA should emphasize ecological studies on resources that sustained substantial injuries resulting in significant reduction of services and loss of use, and thus in substantial damages. Further, assessment costs should be ''reasonable.'' Congress, in passing the laws providing for NRDAs, did not intend that every conceivable injury to every biological resource be documented; this is economically and scientifically unreasonable. Congress did however intend that the NRDA process should be objective, based on sound science, and focused on restoration of the injured resources and services. Appropriate ecological studies should focus on the dominant sensitive habitats, major recreational species, threatened, endangered and otherwise ''sensitive'' species, and ecologically ''key'' species. However, many NRDAs have been and are being conducted in an adversarial atmosphere where the threat of litigation, not cooperation, prevails. This results in additional studies of insignificant, extremely speculative, and/or highly improbable injuries that objective, experienced ecologists would agree will not have ecological significance and should not result in damages. These studies waste time and money for all parties involved. They erode the credibility of the scientists involved as well as the credibility of the whole NRDA process. Examples of both necessary and unnecessary studies will be drawn from several oil spills including Exxon Valdez, Exxon Bayway Pipeline Leak, and Shell Martinez Manufacturing complex

  18. Immune microbiological studies during medical and ecological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials testifying to the necessity and prospects of immunological studies by monitoring the health state of the population residing in radiationally and chemically residing in radiationally and chemically contaminated regions are presented. The above studies make it possible to evaluate the immune state of individual persons as well as of the population at large. It is advisable to use not only immunological but also microbiological methods, which make it possible to specify the state of general nonspecific antiinfection resistivity. 33 refs

  19. Road ecology and Neotropical amphibians: contributions for future studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Eveline Ribeiro D'Anunciação

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many species of amphibians have suffered serious population declines. Several factors contribute separately or jointly to these declines. However, the reduction of an available habitat due to human expansion is still the main cause, and roads are a major mean for this expansion. Both the construction phase and the subsequent use of roads have negative consequences for amphibians. We reviewed the literature on the subject within the Neotropical context. To this end, the paper begins with a summary of recent reviews and proceeds through an analysis of sampling methods used in roadkill studies, mitigation measures and the Neotropical scenario and concludes with several suggestions to guide future studies. More attention will be given to roadkills, which is one of the primary impacts on wildlife that is caused by roads. Even in the Neotropical zone most studies are foot-based, the richness and abundance of amphibians affected are higher in regions outside the Neotropics. One possible explanation is that in the other regions, the proportion of studies exclusively on amphibians is bigger. Regarding mitigation measures, most studies only indicates what should be used, but do not implement or evaluate their effectiveness.

  20. Research Plan for Study of Biological and Ecological Effects of the Solar Power Satellite Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, B. D.

    1978-01-01

    A programmatic research plan for a three year study is presented to generate knowledge on effects of the continuous wave 2.45 GHz microwave power transmission that the Solar Power Satellite might have on biological and ecological elements, within and around the rectenna receiving site.

  1. Undertaking an Ecological Approach to Advance Game-Based Learning: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mamta; Foster, Aroutis

    2014-01-01

    Systematic incorporation of digital games in schools is largely unexplored. This case study explored the ecological conditions necessary for implementing a game-based learning course by examining the interaction between three domains (the innovator, the innovation, and the context). From January-April 2012, one in-service teacher learned and

  2. STABLE ISOTOPES IN ECOLOGICAL STUDIES: EXPANDING THE SCOPE OF MIXING MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotopes are increasingly being used as tracers in ecological studies. One common application uses isotopic ratios to quantify the proportional contributions of multiple sources to a mixture. Examples include pollution sources for air or water bodies, food sources for an...

  3. Ecological bases for the forestry of the natural forest, Case study of the Catival (Prioretum copaiferae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first development is presented for Colombia of the ecological bases for the forestry by means of the case study of the Catival consortium (prioretum copaiferae); recapturing the results of the investigations carried out for more of 16 years for the National Corporation of Investigation and Forestall Development-CONIF and the company Pizano adding the achievements of other investigations

  4. Ignorance of Hedonic Adaptation to Hemodialysis: A Study Using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, Jason; Loewenstein, George; Baron, Jonathan; Jepson, Christopher; Fagerlin, Angela; Ubel, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    Healthy people generally underestimate the self-reported well-being of people with disabilities and serious illnesses. The cause of this discrepancy is in dispute, and the present study provides evidence for 2 causes. First, healthy people fail to anticipate hedonic adaptation to poor health. Using an ecological momentary assessment measure of…

  5. Daily Emotional Dynamics in Depressed Youth: A Cell Phone Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Jennifer S.; Forbes, Erika E.; Whalen, Diana J.; Jakubcak, Jennifer L.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Ryan, Neal D.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    This study used a new cell phone ecological momentary assessment approach to investigate daily emotional dynamics in 47 youths with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 32 no-psychopathology controls (CON) (ages 7-17 years). Information about emotional experience in the natural environment was obtained using answer-only cell phones, while MDD…

  6. Revitalizing Traditional Ecological Knowledge: A Study in an Alpine Rural Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Elena; Geneletti, Davide; Ciolli, Marco

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to contribute to the debate on the value and the role of ecological knowledge in modern conservation strategies, with reference to the results of a case study conducted in the community of Montagne, located within a World Heritage site in the Italian Alps. This community is a paradigmatic example of the multiple transformations experienced by cultural landscapes in Alpine areas under the influence of global change. This study seeks to understand whether ecological knowledge is still in place in the community, and what the relationship is between the knowledge transmission and land use and social changes that have occurred in recent decades. To that end, the community is described by identifying the key variables (social, institutional, and ecological) that have historically shaped the landscape and the future priorities of the residents. Forest expansion, the most significant change in land use in the last 60 years, is analyzed using aerial photos; changes in biodiversity-related knowledge in the community are quantified by analyzing the inter-generational differences in plant species recognition. Results are discussed in the context of the current situation of the Montagne community, and the recommendation is made that policies and actions to promote traditional ecological knowledge protection or recovery in Europe be viewed as an important part of the recovery of community sovereignty and vitality. Lastly, concrete actions that can be implemented in our case study are proposed.

  7. Daily Emotional Dynamics in Depressed Youth: A Cell Phone Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Jennifer S.; Forbes, Erika E.; Whalen, Diana J.; Jakubcak, Jennifer L.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Ryan, Neal D.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    This study used a new cell phone ecological momentary assessment approach to investigate daily emotional dynamics in 47 youths with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 32 no-psychopathology controls (CON) (ages 7-17 years). Information about emotional experience in the natural environment was obtained using answer-only cell phones, while MDD

  8. New methodology for studying the structural ecology of occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Irene; Grønkjær, Lene; Nyvad, Bente

    Microbiological studies of occlusal dental biofilms have hitherto been hampered by inaccessibility to the sampling site and demolition of the original biofilm architecture. The aim of the present study was to explore the spatial distribution of bacterial taxa in vivo at various stages of occusal...... caries, applying a new methodology involving preparation of embedded hard dental tissue slices for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal microscopy. 11 extracted teeth were included in the study and classified according to their occlusal caries status (active/inactive/sound; cavitated....../non-cavitated). The teeth were fixed (paraformaldehyde 3 %), embedded (Technovit 8100), sectioned and decalcified (EDTA 17%, pH 7.0) before FISH was performed using oligonucleotide probes for the most abundant species/genera associated with occlusal caries including Streptococcus and Actinomyces. The findings were...

  9. Ecological studies on the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) on the Savannah River Plant. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigel, R.A.; Brandt, L.A.; Knight, J.L.; Novak, S.S.

    1986-06-01

    The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is the largest vertebrate of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), reaching a maximum length of 3.7 meters (12 feet) and weighing up to 175 kg (385 pounds). Currently, populations in coastal South Carolina are considered Threatened, whereas populations in inland areas (such as the SRP) are still Endangered. Because of their legal status and economic and ecological importance, it is important to determine the environmental impacts of SRP operations on the local alligator population. The major objectives under the Endangered Species Program of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) were as follows: (1) document and compare the present status and distribution of alligators on the SRP to previous surveys, in order to determine long-term changes in population abundance; (2) establish baseline population and ecological parameters of the Steel Creek population so that the ecological effects of L-Reactor operations can be determined, and (3) conduct ecological research on the immediate impacts of thermal effluents on American alligators. Gladden et al., (1985) summarized data on previous population surveys, temporal changes in the Par Pond population, preliminary results of the Steel Creek surveys and Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) research on the effects of thermal effluents. This report summarizes the current status of the SRP population, presents data on the abundance, movement patterns and activity cycles of the Steel Creek population, and presents additional data on the effect of cooling water releases on alligator ecology and behavior.

  10. An Experimental Ecological Study of a Garden Compost Heap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curds, Tracy

    1985-01-01

    A quantitative study of the fauna of a garden compost heap shows it to be similar to that of organisms found in soil and leaf litter. Materials, methods, and results are discussed and extensive tables of fauna lists, wet/dry masses, and statistical analyses are presented. (Author/DH)

  11. Study of Chemical and Radioactive/Ecological Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical and radioecological standartization of rivers and natural waters of several regions of Georgia (Aspindza, Akhaltsikhe, Adygheni) have been studied. It was shown that the composition of nitrates, radionuclides and heavy metals in the rivers and natural waters is within the norm. This can be explained by the fact that in the waters of Georgia the processes of self-cleaning proceed very actively. (author)

  12. Ecological study of some parasitic helminths of aquatic organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Geets, A.; P. Van Damme; Hamerlynck, O.

    2004-01-01

    Except for Monogenea, most other helminth parasites (Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda and Acanthocephala) of aquatic organisms have a rather complex life cycle, which includes one or more intermediate hosts. Studies have been carried out on the elucidation of helminth life cycles and on parasite-host relationships. Knowledge of the feeding behaviour of the host is a very useful starting-point for elucidation of the life cycles of its' parasites. Asymphylodora demeli, a trematode of two sympatric go...

  13. Ecological study on littoral and infralittoral isopods from Ubatuba, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Setubal Pires

    1981-01-01

    The isopod species of rocky shores and shallow infralittoral zone from Enseada do Flamengo, Ubatuba, were studied. The sampling was done during Autumn (1965) and during Autumn and Springtime (1975) at six stations classified according to wave exposure. The intensity of the waves and the type of substratum showed to be important factors influencing distribution, abundance and diversity of the fauna. The highest density of isopods occurred in Dictyota ciliolata. A relation between species diver...

  14. Project CHOICE: #100. A Career Unit for Grades 3 and 4. Ecology Workers. (Agriculture and Ecological Studies Occupations Career Cluster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    This teaching unit, Ecology Workers, is one in a series of career guides developed by Project CHOICE (Children Have Options in Career Education) to provide the classroom teacher with a source of career-related activities linking third and fourth grade elementary classroom experiences with the world of work. Part of the Agriculture and Ecological…

  15. Ecological study of peat landforms in Canada and Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Paul H.

    1989-01-01

    Over 20 percent of the land surface of Canada and Alaska is covered by peatlands, which may be defined as any waterlogged ecosystem with a minimum thickness of 20 cm of organic matter in the soil. Past investigations have demonstrated the value of aerial photographs in identifying the major vegetation types and analyzing the biotic and hydrogeologic processes that control the development of these peatlands. In the present study, LANDSAT TM imagery was used in conjunction with field studies to determine the utility of this satellite sensor for detecting these important processes. Although the vegetation landforms within these major peat basins are visible on aerial photographs, LANDSAT TM imagery provides essential new evidence for their analysis. Spectral data from the LANDSAT TM system provides: (1) synoptic views of the patterns across large portions of these peat basins, indicating important physiographic controls on peatland development, (2) more sensitive detection of the major vegetation types, allowing rapid quantitative estimates to be made of their distribution and aerial extent, (3) discrimination of bog areas with potentially rapid or slow rates of peat accumulation, (4) identification of discharge zones for groundwater, which apparently represents the most important source of alkalinity in these peat basins, and (5) detection of flow patterns in water tracks that appear nearly uniform on standard aerial photographs.

  16. Simulation of Regionally Ecological Land Based on a Cellular Automation Model: A Case Study of Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiubin Li; Chih-Chun Kung; Yanting Zhang; Hualin Xie

    2012-01-01

    Ecological land is like the liver of a city and is very useful to public health. Ecological land change is a spatially dynamic non-linear process under the interaction between natural and anthropogenic factors at different scales. In this study, by setting up natural development scenario, object orientation scenario and ecosystem priority scenario, a Cellular Automation (CA) model has been established to simulate the evolution pattern of ecological land in Beijing in the year 2020. Under th...

  17. Studying the Complex Communities of Ants and Their Symbionts Using Ecological Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivens, Aniek B F; von Beeren, Christoph; Blüthgen, Nico; Kronauer, Daniel J C

    2016-03-11

    Ant colonies provide well-protected and resource-rich environments for a plethora of symbionts. Historically, most studies of ants and their symbionts have had a narrow taxonomic scope, often focusing on a single ant or symbiont species. Here we discuss the prospects of studying these assemblies in a community ecology context using the framework of ecological network analysis. We introduce three basic network metrics that we consider particularly relevant for improving our knowledge of ant-symbiont communities: interaction specificity, network modularity, and phylogenetic signal. We then discuss army ant symbionts as examples of large and primarily parasitic communities, and symbiotic sternorrhynchans as examples of generally smaller and primarily mutualistic communities in the context of these network analyses. We argue that this approach will provide new and complementary insights into the evolutionary and ecological dynamics between ants and their many associates, and will facilitate comparisons across different ant-symbiont assemblages as well as across different types of ecological networks. PMID:26982442

  18. The genus Crataegus L.: an ecological and molecular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MirAli, N; Al-Odat, M; Haider, N; Nabulsi, I

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the indentification of the species and genotypes of the genus Crataegus in Syria and determination of the genetic relationships among them based on the analysis of genomic and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) using ISSRs and CAPS techniques. Morphological characterization carried out on 49 Crataegus samples collected from different geographical regions of Syria revealed four Crataegus species: C. monogyna, C. sinaica, C. aronia and C. azarolus. In the dendrogram constructed for those samples based on ISSRs (20 primers), all samples that belong to C. monogyna were clustered in one cluster. Samples of the other three species were overlaped in another cluster. Two samples of these were the most distant from all other samples in the dendrogram and were suggested to represent hybrid species or subspecies. When CAPS technique was applied on four Crataegus samples that represent the four suggested species using 22 cpDNA regions and 90 endonucleases, no polymorphism was detected neither in amplification products sizes nor in restriction profiles. The inability of detection of variation in cpDNA among species suggested can be attributed to the low level of evolution of the cpDNA in the genus, and to the possibility that some of these species are either subspecies or hybrids since the cpDNA is inherited through one parent only. PMID:21443158

  19. Social determinants of tuberculosis in Europe: a prospective ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploubidis, George B; Palmer, Melissa J; Blackmore, Charlotte; Lim, Tek-Ang; Manissero, Davide; Sandgren, Andreas; Semenza, Jan C

    2012-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is considered to be a disease of poverty, since its incidence is exacerbated by socioeconomic factors, inconsistent or partial treatment practices, and immigration from endemic countries. A prospective country level study, using a comprehensive dataset of TB incidence and prevalence taken from countries within the World Health Organization (WHO) European region, was conducted. We employed quintile regression to investigate the prospective association between baseline (measured in 2000) and a nation's wealth, level of egalitarianism, migration rate, health-related lifestyle and social capital with TB incidence and prevalence over a 10-yr period (2000-2009). We found that ∼50% of TB variation is accounted for by a nation's wealth and level of egalitarianism. We observed a negative prospective association between logged gross domestic product and TB rates, and a positive prospective association between income inequality and TB. National income levels per capita and income inequality are important predictors for TB incidence and prevalence in the WHO European region. They account for 50% of country-level variation, indicating the importance of a combined absolute and relative socioeconomic disadvantage in the development of TB. These findings also provide a tool for forecasting potential fluctuations in the level of TB epidemics in the WHO European region, with respect to socioeconomic changes. PMID:22267772

  20. Ecological studies in the middle reach of Chesapeake Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passage of estuarine water and phytoplankton through the cooling system of the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plant in the summer months of 1977-1981 resulted in frequent reductions of phytoplankton densities particularly during periods when flagellated taxa dominated total cell numbers. Entrainment-induced reductions in chlorophyll were observed on only four occasions, however. Phytoplankton productivity as oxygen evolution or 14C-uptake was even more susceptible to the effects of passing through the cooling system. Inhibition of productivitiy was observed during periods dominated by flagellated cells and generally occurred with ambient water temperature ? 250C. Results from track autoradiography employed in 1981 indicated that carbon fixation in the commonly observed flagellate Cryptomonas acuta was significantly depressed during July, August and September. In contrast, the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum and the diatoms Cyclotella caspia and Thalassionema nitzschioides were not affected by entrainment. Although entrainment affects Cryptomonas and flagellate-dominated assemblages in the summer there are no detectable effects of power plant operations on cell densities or productivity in flagellate-dominated waters in the vicinity of the power plant. Transitory exposure of estuarine zooplankton to the elevated temperatures of CCNPP entrainment and discharge plumes was generally non-lethal. In the species selected for study the survival rate after entrainment was 65 to 100%. The effects of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen levels upon entrained organisms were also analyzed. (orig.)

  1. Compliance to a Cell Phone-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment Study: The Effect of Time and Personality Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courvoisier, Delphine S.; Eid, Michael; Lischetzke, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a method that is now widely used to study behavior and mood in the settings in which they naturally occur. It maximizes ecological validity and avoids the limitations of retrospective self-reports. Compliance patterns across time have not been studied. Consistent compliance patterns could lead to data not…

  2. The legacy of biosphere 2 for the study of biospherics and closed ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. P.; Nelson, M.; Alling, A.

    The unprecedented challenges of creating Biosphere 2, the world's first laboratory for biospherics, the study of global ecology and long-term closed ecological system dynamics, led to breakthrough developments in many fields, and a deeper understanding of the opportunities and difficulties of material closure. This paper will review accomplishments and challenges, citing some of the key research findings and publications that have resulted from the experiments in Biosphere 2. Engineering accomplishments included development of a technique for variable volume to deal with pressure differences between the facility and outside environment, developing methods of atmospheric leak detection and sealing, while achieving new standards of closure, with an annual atmospheric leakrate of less than 10%, or less than 300 ppm per day. This degree of closure permitted detailed tracking of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and trice gases such as nitrous oxide and ethylene over the seasonal variability of two years. Full closure also necessitated developing new approaches and technologies for complete air, water, and wastewater recycle and reuse within the facility. The development of a soil-based highly productive agricultural system was a first in closed ecological systems, and much was learned about managing a wide variety of crops using non-chemical means of pest and disease control. Closed ecological systems have different temporal biogeochemical cycling and ranges of atmospheric components because of their smaller reservoirs of air, water and soil, and higher concentration of biomass, and Biosphere 2 provided detailed examination and modeling of these accelerated cycles over a period of closure which measured in years. Medical research inside Biosphere 2 included the effects on humans of lowered oxygen: the discovery that human productivity can be maintained with good health with lowered atmospheric oxygen levels could lead to major economies on the design of space stations and planetary/lunar settlements. The improved health resulting from the calorie-restricted but nutrient dense Biosphere 2 diet was the first such scientifically controlled experiment with humans. The success of Biosphere 2 in creating a diversity of terrestrial and marine environments, from rainforest to coral reef, allowed detailed studies with comprehensive measurements such that the dynamics of these complex biomic systems are now better understood. The coral reef ecosystem, the largest artificial reef ever built, catalyzed methods of study now being applied to planetary coral reef systems. Restoration ecology advanced through the creation and study of the dynamics of adaptation and self-organization of the biomes in Biosphere 2. The international interest that Biosphere 2 generated has given new impetus to the public recognition of the sciences of biospheres (biospherics), biomes and closed ecological life systems. The facility, although no longer a materially-closed ecological system, is being used as an educational facility by Columbia University as an introduction to the study of the biosphere and complex system ecology and for carbon dioxide impacts utilizing the complex ecosystems created in Biosphere '.The many lessons learned from Biosphere 2 are being used by its key team of creators in their design and operation of a laboratory-sized closed ecological system, the Laboratory Biosphere, in operation as of March 2002, and for the design of a Mars on Earth ™ prototype life support system for manned missions to Mars and Mars surface habitats. Biosphere 2 is an important foundation for future advances in biospherics and closed ecological system research.

  3. Ecological study on littoral and infralittoral isopods from Ubatuba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Setubal Pires

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available The isopod species of rocky shores and shallow infralittoral zone from Enseada do Flamengo, Ubatuba, were studied. The sampling was done during Autumn (1965 and during Autumn and Springtime (1975 at six stations classified according to wave exposure. The intensity of the waves and the type of substratum showed to be important factors influencing distribution, abundance and diversity of the fauna. The highest density of isopods occurred in Dictyota ciliolata. A relation between species diversity and the degree of wave action was disclosed. Species diversity rised from exposed to moderately exposed sites and decreased with the increase in shelter.No presente trabalho, foram estudados os padrões de distribuição vertical e horizontal da fauna de Isopoda de costões rochosos, bem como sua abundância relativa nos vários substratos investigados, visando ao conhecimento de alguns aspectos de sua ecologia. As coletas foram realizadas nas zonas litoral e infralitoral da Enseada do Flamengo, Ubatuba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. As estações de coleta variaram quanto ao grau de exposição às ondas e profundidade. As amostras do litoral foram coletadas em abril e setembro de 1975 e janeiro de 1976, enquanto que as do infralitoral referem-se a abril e maio de 1965. Verificou-se que a exposição às ondas é um fator muito importante na distribuição das espécies, havendo animais que só foram encontrados nas condições ecológicas oferecidas por locais expostos e semi-expostos, e outros que só o foram em locais abrigados. Entretanto, existem espécies que ocorreram nas três situações, sendo geralmente mais abundantes em uma delas em particular. O tipo de substrato mostrou ser outro fator que exerce grande influência na distribuição das espécies. Substratos diferentes, coletados em um mesmo local e submetidos às mesmas condições ambientais, apresentaram variação na composição e abundância relativa da fauna de Isopoda. Esta variação é dependente da estrutura do substrato, da proteção e da quantidade de nichos que ele oferece às espécies. A maior densidade de isópodes foi obtida em Dictyota ciliolata, na franja do infralitoral. Foi encontrada uma relação entre diversidade de espécies e grau de exposição às ondas. A diversidade de espécies aumenta dos lugares expostos para os semi-expostos e decresce muito destes para os abrigados. O presente estudo revelou, também, a existência de uma variação estacional na abundância relativa e na diversidade das espécies, sendo ambas mais elevadas em setembro.

  4. Studying the complexity of change: toward an analytical framework for understanding deliberate social-ecological transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele-Lee Moore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Faced with numerous seemingly intractable social and environmental challenges, many scholars and practitioners are increasingly interested in understanding how to actively engage and transform the existing systems holding such problems in place. Although a variety of analytical models have emerged in recent years, most emphasize either the social or ecological elements of such transformations rather than their coupled nature. To address this, first we have presented a definition of the core elements of a social-ecological system (SES that could potentially be altered in a transformation. Second, we drew on insights about transformation from three branches of literature focused on radical change, i.e., social movements, socio-technical transitions, and social innovation, and gave consideration to the similarities and differences with the current studies by resilience scholars. Drawing on these findings, we have proposed a framework that outlines the process and phases of transformative change in an SES. Future research will be able to utilize the framework as a tool for analyzing the alteration of social-ecological feedbacks, identifying critical barriers and leverage points and assessing the outcome of social-ecological transformations.

  5. Ecological Divergence, Adaptive Diversification, and the Evolution of Social Signaling Traits: An Empirical Study in Arid Australian Lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Danielle L; Melville, Jane; Joseph, Leo; Keogh, J Scott

    2015-12-01

    Species diversification often results from divergent evolution of ecological or social signaling traits. Theoretically, a combination of the two may promote speciation, however, empirical examples studying how social signal and ecological divergence might be involved in diversification are rare in general and typically do not consider range overlap as a contributing factor. We show that ecologically distinct lineages within the Australian sand dragon species complex (including Ctenophorus maculatus, Ctenophorus fordi, and Ctenophorus femoralis) have diversified recently, diverging in ecologically relevant and social signaling phenotypic traits as arid habitats expanded and differentiated. Diversification has resulted in repeated and independent invasion of distinct habitat types, driving convergent evolution of similar phenotypes. Our results suggest that parapatry facilitates diversification in visual signals through reinforcement as a hybridization-avoidance mechanism. We show that particularly striking variation in visual social signaling traits is better explained by the extent of lineage parapatry relative to ecological or phylogenetic divergence, suggesting that these traits reinforce divergence among lineages initiated by ecologically adaptive evolution. This study provides a rare empirical example of a repeated, intricate relationship between ecological and social signal evolution during diversification driven by ecological divergence and the evolution of new habitats, thereby supporting emergent theories regarding the importance of both ecological and social trait evolution throughout speciation. PMID:26655991

  6. The contribution of phylogenetics to the study of ruminant evolutionary ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Cantalapiedra, Juan L.; Alcalde Rincón, Gema María; Hernández Fernández, M.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of published evolutionary trees and phylogenetic methods has changed the way we tackle the study of evolution. In this sense, ruminants have become one paradigmatic object of study due to their ecological variety and well-known evolutionary history. The last decades of ruminant research have benefited from diverse phylogenetic approaches, offering new perspectives on classic ideas and, sometimes, allowing to test previously untestable hypotheses. As a resu...

  7. Heterozygote Advantage Probably Maintains Rhesus Factor Blood Group Polymorphism: Ecological Regression Study

    OpenAIRE

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Rhesus factor polymorphism has been an evolutionary enigma since its discovery in 1939. Carriers of the rarer allele should be eliminated by selection against Rhesus positive children born to Rhesus negative mothers. Here I used an ecologic regression study to test the hypothesis that Rhesus factor polymorphism is stabilized by heterozygote advantage. The study was performed in 65 countries for which the frequencies of RhD phenotypes and specific disease burden data were available. I performe...

  8. Associations between Green Space and Health in English Cities: An Ecological, Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bixby, Honor; Hodgson, Susan; Fortunato, Léa; Hansell, Anna; Fecht, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Green space has been identified as a modifiable feature of the urban environment and associations with physiological and psychological health have been reported at the local level. This study aims to assess whether these associations between health and green space are transferable to a larger scale, with English cities as the unit of analysis. We used an ecological, cross-sectional study design. We classified satellite-based land cover data to quantify green space coverage for the 50 largest ...

  9. Theories of practice - new inspiration for ecological economic studies on consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2009-01-01

    approach has emerged in sociological consumption studies, as part of a general wave of renewed interest in practice theory emanating from a desire to move beyond such dominant dualisms as the structure-actor opposition in sociology. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the practice theory approach in......The dynamics behind ever-increasing consumption have long been a core issue of ecological economics. Studies on this topic have traditionally drawn not only on insights from economics, but also from such disciplines as sociology, anthropology and psychology. In recent years, a practice theory...... relation to studies of everyday life, domestic practices and consumption, and to argue that this approach can be fruitful for ecological economics and other fields interested in the environmental aspects of consumption. The paper emphasizes the immense challenge involved in promoting sustainable...

  10. Assessing ecological land use and water demand of river systems: a case study in Luanhe River, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, D. H.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Qin, T. L.

    2012-08-01

    Economic and social development has greatly increased ecological water demand and modified land use of river systems worldwide, causing overall degradation of many of these systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks for regionalization on the eco-environmental function of river systems are formulated and applied to the Luanhe River system. Based on its eco-environmental functions, this river can be regionalized into four types of first-class functional areas: ecological preservation areas, habitat restoration areas, ecological buffer areas and development and utilization areas. Considering the overall eco-environmental functions, we assessed the ecological land use of the Luanhe River system. The total area of basic ecological land use is 876.98 km2; the restrictive ecological land use is 1745.52 km2; ecological land use of the river system returned from farmland is 284.25 km2; and that returned from construction land is 17.35 km2. The average minimum ecological flow of mainstreams in upper and middle reaches of the Luanhe River is 4.896 m3 s-1 based on the habitat method. And the recommended minimum and suitable annual ecological water demand of channels in the lower reaches are 391 million m3 and 819.5 million m3, respectively. The evaporation and seepage consumption and vegetation consumption in riparian zones of the Luanhe River system are approximately 132.6 million m3 and 145.3 million m3 per year, respectively. Our results suggest that is crucial to regulate the instream ecological water use of the Luanhe River's mainstream starting from the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system. We recommend accelerating ecological land-use planning and strengthening the regulation of ecological water use on this river system focusing on important lower reaches under the condition of competitive water demand.

  11. Role of green structure and ecological services: a case study of bahawalpur city, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cities can make broader contribution to achieve the goals of sustainable development as they are considered major consumers of resources and ecological services. Ecological services provide a range of benefits at local, regional and global levels. Terrestrial ecosystem has different components in urban environment that provides ecological services to its inhabitants. Cities not only benefit from the internal urban ecosystem but also depend upon other ecosystems beyond the city limit. Green structure is an important component in terms of making city more sustainable and habitable. Green structure in urban environment means green infrastructure that is planned and supports sustainable that is planned and supports sustainable urban development. From planning perspective, spatial structure of green space provides a basis for sustainable urban development. In sustainable perspective, green structure more than the sum of green spaces. It is considered as spatial network of open spaces, public and private gardens and parks, sports fields, allotment gardens, woodlands and recreational grounds. Therefore, it is considered as a significant part of built-up environment and major source of ecological services. To structure urban areas of sustainable development, it is necessary to develop a proportion between grey and green cities. Keeping in view, research has been conducted to investigate spatial network of green structure in planned areas of Bahawalpur City of Pakistan. This study analyzes the ecological services generated from the investigated green structures, and helped develop an approach of inter-relation between green environment and urban society. Moreover, strategies for better land-use planning in green and sustainable perspective have been proposed. (author)

  12. Effects of ionizing radiations on reticulated polymers associated to nuclear wastes. The HSF-SIMS technique contribution; Effets des radiations ionisantes sur les polymeres reticules associes aux dechets nucleaires. Apport de la technique HSF-SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debre, O. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire

    1997-06-30

    Among the materials used for confinement of nuclear wastes of low and medium level activity the epoxyde resins are known as matrices which preserve well their properties in an ionizing environment. This work is dedicated to the investigation of the modifications occurring in molecular structure of these materials as well as of the ion exchange resins they incorporate, irradiated in different conditions. The first part deals with the analysis of a commercial reticulated epoxyde resin submitted to a 2 MGy integral dose gamma irradiation under two different dose rate (51 and 900 Gy/h), and under two different environments (air and water). The results obtained with the techniques providing structure information (time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HSF-SIMS) and FT-IR spectrometry) confirm those obtained by techniques sensible to macroscopic properties of material (DMA, DSC), taking into account that no noticeable irradiation effect can be made evident inside the material. On the other hand, an irradiation carried out in air results in a superficial oxidation, due probably to the action of the air radiolysis products. The preliminary results of an ion irradiation followed by an in-situ HSF-SIMS analysis pointed out to a basic difference between the energy amount transferred by gamma photons and fast ions; the last ones being able to induce scissions of the nearby liaisons in the material. The second part of this work is concerned with the ion exchange resins of the type PS-DVB saturated in water and non-active ions, simulating real wastes, irradiated in the same conditions as the epoxyde resins. In contrast to the results on the last one, it appears that the irradiation of these materials results primarily in scissions of the functional groups on which the ions are attached. In addition to this finding it appears that the role of water as carrying outward the attached ions appears to be fundamental 175 refs.

  13. Site study plan for ecology, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ecology Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of studies which include surveys for endangered, threatened, and candidate species; vegetation characterization, including mapping and cover typing, plant succession, wetlands description, and preexisting stresses; and wildlife community characterization, including availability and quality of habitats and descriptions of mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, and invertebrate populations. The plan for each study describes the need for the study, study design, data management and use, schedule and personnel requirements, and quality assurance. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document (SRP-RD). 83 refs., 3 tabs

  14. Spatial variation in lake benthic macroinvertebrate ecological assessment: a synthesis of European case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandin, Leif Leonard; Solimini, Angelo G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes eight case studies that were analysed as part of the research theme ``lake benthic macroinvertebrates'' forming part of the EU-funded WISER project ``Water bodies in Europe: Integrative Systems to assess Ecological status and Recovery''. The relationships between lake benthic...... macroinvertebrate community composition and natural and human induced environmental variables (eutrophication, catchment land-use, and hydromorphological pressures) were studied. This was done in different lake habitats (the profundal, sublittoral, and littoral) in five regions of Europe (Alpine, Northern, Central...... Baltic, Atlantic, and Mediterranean). The goal of the papers was to assess the main environmental factors and how they affected benthic macroinvertebrate variation at different ecological scales and thus better our basic understanding of how changes in these environmental variables can be tracked using...

  15. Managers' summary - ecological studies of the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range, 1992-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, F.J.; Schoenecker, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    Ecological Studies of the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range, 1992-1997 provides a synthesis of key findings of landscape-scale, interdisciplinary studies of the effects of wild horses and native ungulates on a rugged, mountain ecosystem. This is perhaps the most comprehensive study of a wild horse herd conducted. This was a complex study and one involving a truly interagency approach. Six agencies either provided input to research priority setting, funding, or both. The agencies included the Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, U.S. Geological Survey, Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Wyoming Game and Fish Department, and U.S. Forest Service. The major research direction and effort came from the U.S. Geological Survey and Natural Resources Ecology Lab, Colorado State University with Montana State University and the University of Kentucky also participating. Ungulate monitoring was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Bureau of Land Management, Billings Field Office and the Montana Fish and Wildlife Parks, with funding by Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area. Many other individuals and groups were involved and deserve credit. The report printing was made possible with funds from the Bureau of Land Management, Wild Horse and Burro Program, Washington Office. This report was prepared by the Information Management Project, Midcontinent Ecological Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey.

  16. Study of Evaluation Characterisitics of Ecological Infrastructure and Countermeasure in Pivot Cities of Three Gorges Reservoir Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological infrastructure is involved with ecological security and health of cities.At present there are so many studies about it. However, quantitative study is muchindetermination and imperfection. In this paper in order to ravel out this problem, the evaluation indexes system are established on the basis of air system, greenbelt system and water system from the conception and connotation of ecological infrastructure. They do not only consult inside and outside of Chinese ecological cities and garden cities but also consult with internal and international related index standard. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and the method of comprehensive index evaluation are applied to establish the evaluation model. Then it studies the quality and evolvement characteristics of ecolocal infrastructure in the case of main town of Chongqing, Yichang, Fulin, Wanzhou——the four pivot cities of Three Gorges Reservoir Region from 2002 to 2005. Finally, the paper draws a conclusion by qulitative and quantitative analysis showing that the quality of ecological infrastructure of four cities is in rise. At present, the quality of ecological infrastructure of Yichang and Fulin remains with better grade; Wanzhou and the main town of Chongqin belongs to common grade. The integrated quality conditins of ecological infrstructure of these four cities follow the sequence (from high to low : Yichang> Fulin> Wanzhou> main town of Chongqing. The quality of ecological infrastructure of four cities is known through evaluation analysis, which has provided a scientific basis for the cities Three Gorges Reseveoir Region in programming.

  17. Migration intensity has no effect on peak HIV prevalence: An ecological study

    OpenAIRE

    Kenyon, Chris; Colebunders, Robert; Voeten, Hélène; LURIE, Mark N.

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Correctly identifying the determinants of generalized HIV epidemics is crucial to bringing down ongoing high HIV incidence in these countries. High rates of migration are believed to be an important determinant of HIV prevalence. This study has two aims. Firstly, it evaluates the ecological association between levels of internal and international migration and national peak HIV prevalence using thirteen variables from a variety of sources to capture various aspects of ...

  18. Migration intensity has no effect on peak HIV prevalence: an ecological study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Correctly identifying the determinants of generalized HIV epidemics is crucial to bringing down ongoing high HIV incidence in these countries. High rates of migration are believed to be an important determinant of HIV prevalence. This study has two aims. Firstly, it evaluates the ecological association between levels of internal and international migration and national peak HIV prevalence using thirteen variables from a variety of sources to capture various aspects of internal and ...

  19. Inferential consequences of modeling rather than measuring snow accumulation in studies of animal ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Faul C.; Klaver, Robert W.; Brennan, Angela; Creel, Scott; Beckmann, Jon P.; Higgs, Megan D.; Scurlock, Brandon M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. It is increasingly common for studies of animal ecology to use model-based predictions of environmental variables as explanatory or predictor variables, even though model prediction uncertainty is typically unknown. To demonstrate the potential for misleading inferences when model predictions with error are used in place of direct measurements, we compared snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow depth as predicted by the Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS) to field measurements of SWE and snow depth. We examined locations on elk (Cervus canadensis) winter ranges in western Wyoming, because modeled data such as SNODAS output are often used for inferences on elk ecology. Overall, SNODAS predictions tended to overestimate field measurements, prediction uncertainty was high, and the difference between SNODAS predictions and field measurements was greater in snow shadows for both snow variables compared to non-snow shadow areas. We used a simple simulation of snow effects on the probability of an elk being killed by a predator to show that, if SNODAS prediction uncertainty was ignored, we might have mistakenly concluded that SWE was not an important factor in where elk were killed in predatory attacks during the winter. In this simulation, we were interested in the effects of snow at finer scales (2) than the resolution of SNODAS. If bias were to decrease when SNODAS predictions are averaged over coarser scales, SNODAS would be applicable to population-level ecology studies. In our study, however, averaging predictions over moderate to broad spatial scales (92200 km2) did not reduce the differences between SNODAS predictions and field measurements. This study highlights the need to carefully evaluate two issues when using model output as an explanatory variable in subsequent analysis: (1) the models resolution relative to the scale of the ecological question of interest and (2) the implications of prediction uncertainty on inferences when using model predictions as explanatory or predictor variables.

  20. Ecological assessment of Mediterranean reservoirs: Alqueva reservoir as a case study (Alentejo, Southern Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Manuela; Novais, Maria Helena; Nunes, Susana; Rosado, Joana; Penha, Alexandra; Zavattieri, Amely; Potes, Miguel; Salgado, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Ecological assessment of Mediterranean reservoirs: Alqueva reservoir as a case study (Alentejo, Southern Portugal) Manuela Morais, Maria Helena Novais, Susana Nunes, Joana Rosado, Alexandra Penha, Amely Zavattieri, Miguel Potes & Rui Salgado Abstract The Mediterranean region, with almost 7% of the world population, has less than 3% of the world freshwater resources, and these are irregularly distributed, 72% in the northern countries (Spain; France; Monaco, Italy, Greece, Malta, Slov...

  1. The Effects of Materialism and Consumer Ethics on Ecological Behavior: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hülya Bakırtaş; G Canberk Buluşa; İbrahim Bakırtaş

    2014-01-01

    World populations have increased day by day. Thus, production volume of companies have increased depend on increasing population. Besides, fashion and/or technologyinfluence consumer’s goods or services purchasing decision. Consequently, the type and the number of product produced have increased and natural resources both more are being used and depleted. At this point has come to the fore the consumer’s environmental concern and ecological behavior and has gained importance. Studies about en...

  2. Mesocosm soil ecological risk assessment tool for GMO 2nd tier studies

    OpenAIRE

    D'Annibale, Alessandra; Maraldo, Kristine; Larsen, Thomas; Strandberg, Beate; Cortet, Jérôme; Vincze, Éva; Audisio, Paolo Aldo; Krogh, Paul Henning

    2011-01-01

    Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) of GMO is basically identical to ERA of chemical substances, when it comes to assessing specific effects of the GMO plant material on the soil ecosystem. The tiered approach always includes the option of studying more complex but still realistic ecosystem level effects in 2nd tier caged experimental systems, cf. the new GMO ERA guidance: EFSA Journal 2010; 8(11):1879. We propose to perform a trophic structure analysis, TSA, and include the trophic structure as...

  3. Conservation and restoration of raised bogs : geological, hydrological and ecological studies

    OpenAIRE

    Schouten, M.G.C.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on detailed studies in Raheenmoor Bog and Clara Bog, both in County Offaly, that were performed between 1989 and 2001. Containing a wealth of information on the two sites, including regional geology, regional hydrology, bog hydrology, and vegetation ecology, with much attention to hydrochemistry, this book includes an extra chapter on `soaks', areas of mesotrophic or minerotrophic vegetation, occurring on otherwise ombrotrophic bog, which are usually associated with internal drainage ...

  4. An exploration of the socio-ecological antecedents of youth resilience : a visual study / Elaine Snyman

    OpenAIRE

    Snyman, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and understand the social-ecological resources which encouraged resilient Basotho youth in the rural areas of the Thabo Mofutsanyana district of the Free State province towards positive adjustment in the face of poverty and underdevelopment. Positive adjustment, or resilience, is the focus of the International Community-University Research Alliance (ICURA) and International Development Research Centre (IDRC) funded project, called Pathways to Resilien...

  5. Studies on the sandfly fauna of Samuel Ecological Station, Porto Velho Municipality, Rondnia State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo C. R. de Azevedo; Srgio L. Bessa Luz; Maurcio L Vilela; Rangel, Elizabeth F.

    1993-01-01

    In a study of sandfly species in the Samuel Ecological Station, in Porto Velho, Rondnia State, the following species were identified: Lutzomyia brasiliensis, L. evangelistai, L. gomezi, L. anduzei, L. flaviscutellata, L. richardwardi, L. shawi, L. umbratilis, L. yuilli yuilli, L. dendrophyla, L. puctigeniculata, L. shannoni, L. amazonensis, L. ayrozai, L. carrerai carrerai, L. claustrei, L. davisi and L. lainsoni. L. richardwardi, L. umbratilis and L. c. carrerai were the predominant species...

  6. Tuberculosis Incidence Correlates with Sunshine: An Ecological 28-Year Time Series Study

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Gavin C. K. W.; Hawthorne, Gemma; Alice M. Turner; Kunst, Heinke; Dedicoat, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background Birmingham is the largest UK city after London, and central Birmingham has an annual tuberculosis incidence of 80 per 100,000. We examined seasonality and sunlight as drivers of tuberculosis incidence. Hours of sunshine are seasonal, sunshine exposure is necessary for the production of vitamin D by the body and vitamin D plays a role in the host response to tuberculosis. Methods We performed an ecological study that examined tuberculosis incidence in Birmingham from Dec 1981 to Nov...

  7. Ecological studies on the freshwater fishes of the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tropical climate of the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory has a distinctive Wet-Dry cycle resulting in seasonal flows in the creeks and rivers of its catchments. The present study, begun during August 1978, aimed at developing an ecological monitoring system that would detect changes in freshwater fish communities brought about by recent uranium mining and processing in the lowlands of the region

  8. Comparative morphological, anatomical, ecological and chemical studies on endemic Satureja parnassica subsp. sipylea from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Satil, F.; G. TMEN; Akelik, A.; Baser, K.H.C.

    2002-01-01

    Satureja. parnassica Heldr.et Sart. subsp. sipylea P.H. Davis is a subspecies endemic to Turkey. The anatomical, morphological, ecological and chemical features of S. parnassica subsp. sipylea have been investigated. Plant samples were collected from different regions in Turkey. The morphological features of various organs of the plant such as leaf and flower are described in detail. In anatomical studies, transverse sections of the plant stem and leaf have been examined and supported by i...

  9. Diabetes mortality and environmental heavy metals in North Carolina counties: An ecological study

    OpenAIRE

    Spangler, John G.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Arsenic, beryllium, cadmium and nickel have been associated with the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in populations exposed to these elements. However, diabetes mortality has not been evaluated. This ecological study correlated airborne concentrations of these metals with diabetes mortality in North Carolina counties. Methods: County level data were extracted from the 2000 US Census, the 1999 US Environmental Protection Agency National Air Toxins Assessment, and 2001-2005 diabet...

  10. Identifying Distinct Quitting Trajectories after an Unassisted Smoking Cessation Attempt: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Monica S.; Znoj, Hansjörg; Brodbeck, Jeannette

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed at identifying distinct quitting trajectories over 29 days after an unassisted smoking ces- sation attempt by ecological momentary assessment (EMA). In order to validate these trajectories we tested if they predict smoking frequency up to six months later. Methods: EMA via mobile phones was used to collect real time data on smoking (yes/no) after an unassisted quit attempt over 29 days. Smoking frequency one, three and six months after the quit attempt was assesse...

  11. Daily Emotional Dynamics in Depressed Youth: A Cell-Phone Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Jennifer S; Erika E. Forbes; Whalen, Diana J.; Jakubcak, Jennifer L.; Thompson, Wesley K.; RYAN, NEAL D.; Axelson, David A; Birmaher, Boris; DAHL, RONALD E.

    2010-01-01

    This study utilized a new cellular phone ecological momentary assessment approach to investigate daily emotional dynamics in 47 youth with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 32 no psychopathology controls (CON), ages 7 17. Information about emotional experience in the natural environment was obtained using answer-only cellular phones while MDD youth received an 8 week course of cognitive behavioral therapy and/or psychopharmacological treatment. Compared to CON youth, MDD youth reported mo...

  12. Field studies to determine the ecological effects of cleanup methods on oiled shorelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study identifies research needed to assess the ecological effects and efficiency of various spill cleanup methods for oiled salt marshes. This is part of a larger program with the goal of developing ecologically based cleanup methods for a variety of shoreline habitats using controlled shoreline oiling plus various cleanup methods, preceded and followed by ecological monitoring. The information provided by these experiments will strengthen the scientific base available to support decision makers during spills and provide a sound approach to spill response planners. The first phase of the program has involved the design of a proposed experiment and selection of a site. A literature review has been completed as well as an evaluation of state and federal permitting procedures for experimental shoreline oiling. Development of the field study, which has yet to be implemented, included the following components: Identified a Spartina marsh as the priority habitat for the first phase of the program; Selected a proposed experimental site in Louisiana; Proposed the treatment methods to be evaluated, such as flushing and vegetation cropping. Previous controlled oil spill experiments have provided valuable data on the effects and efficiency of different cleanup techniques in a variety of habitats. More can be learned by such experimental oilings, where pre-spill data, dosage, and pre- and post-spill monitoring are controlled, than it is possible to learn from studying spills of opportunity

  13. Ecological stability of landscape - ecological infrastructure - ecological management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Field Workshop 'Ecological Stability of Landscape - Ecological Infrastructure - Ecological Management' was held within a State Environmental Programme financed by the Federal Committee for the Environment. The objectives of the workshop were to present Czech and Slovak approaches to the ecological stability of the landscape by means of examples of some case studies in the field, and to exchange ideas, theoretical knowledge and practical experience on implementing the concept of ecological infrastructure in landscape management. Out of 19 papers contained in the proceedings, 3 items were inputted to the INIS system. (Z.S.)

  14. Effects of ionizing radiations on reticulated polymers associated to nuclear wastes. The HSF-SIMS technique contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the materials used for confinement of nuclear wastes of low and medium level activity the epoxyde resins are known as matrices which preserve well their properties in an ionizing environment. This work is dedicated to the investigation of the modifications occurring in molecular structure of these materials as well as of the ion exchange resins they incorporate, irradiated in different conditions. The first part deals with the analysis of a commercial reticulated epoxyde resin submitted to a 2 MGy integral dose gamma irradiation under two different dose rate (51 and 900 Gy/h), and under two different environments (air and water). The results obtained with the techniques providing structure information (time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HSF-SIMS) and FT-IR spectrometry) confirm those obtained by techniques sensible to macroscopic properties of material (DMA, DSC), taking into account that no noticeable irradiation effect can be made evident inside the material. On the other hand, an irradiation carried out in air results in a superficial oxidation, due probably to the action of the air radiolysis products. The preliminary results of an ion irradiation followed by an in-situ HSF-SIMS analysis pointed out to a basic difference between the energy amount transferred by gamma photons and fast ions; the last ones being able to induce scissions of the nearby liaisons in the material. The second part of this work is concerned with the ion exchange resins of the type PS-DVB saturated in water and non-active ions, simulating real wastes, irradiated in the same conditions as the epoxyde resins. In contrast to the results on the last one, it appears that the irradiation of these materials results primarily in scissions of the functional groups on which the ions are attached. In addition to this finding it appears that the role of water as carrying outward the attached ions appears to be fundamental

  15. An ecological study of Bithynia snails, the first intermediate host of Opisthorchis viverrini in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Chen; Ho, Richard Cheng Yong; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Namsanor, Jutamas; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

    2015-01-01

    Infection with the food-borne trematodiasis, liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, is a major public health concern in Southeast Asia. While epidemiology and parasitic incidence in humans are well studied, ecological information on the O. viverrini intermediate hosts remains limited. This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the distribution and abundance of the first intermediate host, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos snails. Water quality and snails were sampled in 31 sites in Muang District, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand from June 2012 to January 2013 to characterize the B.s. goniomphalos snail habitats. Species relative abundance and Shannon's diversity and evenness indices were employed to describe snail compositions and diversities across different habitat types. Statistical analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which the water quality variables and species interactions account for the relative abundance of B.s. goniomphalos snails. The results showed that the freshwater habitats of ponds, streams and rice paddies possessed significantly different abiotic water qualities, with water temperature and pH showing distinct statistical differences (PFilopaludina martensi martensi snails (r=-0.46, P<0.05), underscoring the possible influence of species interaction on B.s. goniomphalos snail population. Field work observations revealed that rice planting seasons and irrigation could regulate snail population dynamics at rice paddy habitats. This study provides new ecological insights into the factors affecting Bithynia snail distribution and abundance. It bridges the knowledge gap in O. viverrini disease ecology and highlights the potential effect of anthropogenic irrigation practices on B.s. goniomphalos snail ecology. PMID:24561073

  16. A Study of Optimizing Spatial Structure for Urban Under Ecological Approach:A Case of Jiulongpo District in Chongqing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIN Jie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Along with the highly speedy urbanization and the industrialization in china, the disordered land utilization has led to land overuse and ecological destruction. However, the city planning and ecosystem proect planning have grown according to rules oneself. the contradictionbetween economic growth and ecological protection is more evident than ever before. The ecological feasible space for urban development was established based on GIS methodology, combining an ecological function regionalization approach and a economic development feasibility analysis technique. Accordingly, urban spatial structure could be divided into four types, consisting of forbidden construction zone, restricted construction zone, preferential construction zone and primary construction zone. The integrated method for a case study on Jiulongpo district, Chongqing showed that the areas of these four categories of Jiulongpo accounted of 15.54%,24.14%,12.95%and 47.37% respectively. Demonstrational analysis shows that the essence of urban planning founding on ecological priority benefits to natural reconstruction and reservation; the spatial layout based on the ecology analysis safeuards the healthily and sustainable development of city ecosystem.The methodology was valuable for reducing ecological risks and environmental impacts of urban master plan, and thus was relevant for promoting the national campaign of strategic environmental assessment. The study was guide to city planning and ecological protection planning.

  17. Mesocosm soil ecological risk assessment tool for GMO 2nd tier studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Annibale, Alessandra; Maraldo, Kristine; Larsen, Thomas; Strandberg, Beate; Cortet, Jérôme; Vincze, Éva; Audisio, Paolo Aldo; Krogh, Paul Henning

    Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) of GMO is basically identical to ERA of chemical substances, when it comes to assessing specific effects of the GMO plant material on the soil ecosystem. The tiered approach always includes the option of studying more complex but still realistic ecosystem level...... effects in 2nd tier caged experimental systems, cf. the new GMO ERA guidance: EFSA Journal 2010; 8(11):1879. We propose to perform a trophic structure analysis, TSA, and include the trophic structure as an ecological endpoint to gain more direct insight into the change in interactions between species, i.......e. the food-web structure, instead of relying only on the indirect evidence from population abundances. The approach was applied for effect assessment in the agro-ecosystem where we combined factors of elevated CO2, viz. global climate change, and GMO plant effects. A multi-species (Collembola, Acari and...

  18. Using Remote Sensing Techniques For Monitoring Ecological Changes In Lakes: Case Study Of Lake Naivasha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BenjaminGhansaha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to use remote sensing in studying lake ecology lies in the capability of satellite sensors to measure the spectral reflectance of constituents in water bodies. This reflectance can be used to determine the concentration of the constituents of the water column through mathematical relationships. This work identified a simple linear equation for estimating suspended matter in Lake Naivasha with reflectance in Landsat7 ETM+ image. A R = 0.94, n = 6 for suspended matter was obtained. Archive of Landsat imagery was used to produce maps of suspended matter concentrations in the lake. The suspended matter concentrations at five different locations in the lake over 30 years period were then estimated. It was therefore concluded that the ecological changes Lake Naivasha is experiencing is the result of the high water abstraction and the effect of climate change.

  19. Thermal ecology of montane Atelopus (Anura: Bufonidae): A study of intrageneric diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda Solano, Luis Alberto; Navas, Carlos A; Carvajalino-Fernández, Juan Manuel; Amézquita, Adolfo

    2016-05-01

    Harlequin frogs (Bufonidae: Atelopus) are among the most threatened frog genus in the world and reach very high elevations in the tropical Andes and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM). Learning about their thermal ecology is essential to infer sensitivity to environmental changes, particularly climate warming. We report on the activity temperature and thermoregulatory behavior of three high-elevation species of harlequin frogs, Atelopus nahumae, Atelopus laetissimus and Atelopus carrikeri. The first two mentioned live in streams in Andean rain forests, whereas A. carrikeri inhabits paramo streams in the SNSM. We studied the thermal ecology of these species in tree localities differing in altitude, and focused on activity body, operative, substrate and air temperature. A main trend was lower body temperature as elevation increased, so that differences among species were largely explained by differences in substrate temperature. However, this temperature variation was much lower in forest species than paramo species. The Atelopus species included in this work proved to be thermoconformers, a trend that not extended to all congenerics at high elevation. This diversity in thermal ecology poses important questions when discussing the impact of climate warming for high-elevation harlequin frogs. For example, forest species show narrow thermal ranges and, if highly specialized, may be more susceptible to temperature change. Paramo species such as A. carrikeri, in contrast, may be more resilient to temperature change. PMID:27157338

  20. Bridging the theoretical divide in Holocene landscape studies: social and ecological approaches to ancient Oaxacan landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Arthur A.; Goman, Michelle

    2012-11-01

    In this article we discuss two theoretical approaches to landscape studies in archaeology: the ecological and social/symbolic. We suggest that an integrated approach can provide a more effective means through which archaeologists and earth scientists can model the complex interplay between people and the environment. Our perspective views peoples' engagements with the landscape as simultaneously ecological and social, material and symbolic. To illustrate this synthetic approach we discuss our research from the highland and lowland regions of the Mexican state of Oaxaca using archaeological, ethnographic, ethnohistorical, paleoecological, and geomorphological data. In highland Oaxaca we examine the ways in which political and religious principles were embedded in the landscape as well as the social, symbolic, and material dimensions of anthropogenic landscape change during the Formative period. For the coastal lowlands, we discuss the social and ecological implications of the transition to sedentism and the effects of anthropogenic landscape change during the Formative period. We also examine the interplay between politics and land use during the Classic and Postclassic periods.

  1. HSF1 and NF-κB p65 participate in the process of exercise preconditioning attenuating pressure overload-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy, often accompanied by hypertension, aortic stenosis and valvular defects, is typically associated with myocyte remodeling and cardiac dysfunction. Exercise preconditioning (EP) has been proven to enhance the tolerance of the myocardium to cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the effects of EP in pathological cardiac hypertrophy are rarely reported. 10-wk-old male Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 80) were randomly divided into four groups: sham, TAC, EP + sham and EP + TAC. Two EP groups were subjected to 4 weeks of treadmill training, and the EP + TAC and TAC groups were followed by TAC operations. The sham and EP + sham groups underwent the same operation without aortic constriction. Eight weeks after the surgery, we evaluated the effects of EP by echocardiography, morphology, and histology and observed the expressions of the associated proteins. Compared with the respective control groups, hypertrophy-related indicators were significantly increased in the TAC and EP + TAC groups (p < 0.05). However, between the TAC and EP + TAC groups, all of these changes were effectively inhibited by EP treatment (p < 0.05). Furthermore, EP treatment upregulated the expression of HSF1 and HSP70, increased the HSF1 levels in the nuclear fraction, inhibited the expression of the NF-κB p65 subunit, decreased the NF-κB p65 subunit levels in the nuclear fraction, and reduced the IL2 levels in the myocardia of rats. EP could effectively reduce the cardiac hypertrophic responses induced by TAC and may play a protective role by upregulating the expressions of HSF1 and HSP70, activating HSF1 and then inhibiting the expression of NF-κB p65 and nuclear translocation. - Highlights: • EP could effectively reduce the cardiac hypertrophic responses induced by TAC. • EP may play a protective role by upregulating the expressions of HSF1 and HSP70 and then activating HSF1. • EP may play a protective role by inhibiting the expression of NF-κB p65 and nuclear translocation

  2. HSF1 and NF-κB p65 participate in the process of exercise preconditioning attenuating pressure overload-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tongyi [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, No. 401 Hospital of PLA, Qingdao (China); Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Ben [Centre of Cardiovascular Surgery, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Region, Guangzhou (China); Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Yang, Fan; Cai, Chengliang; Wang, Guokun [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Han, Qingqi, E-mail: handoctor@gmail.com [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Zou, Liangjian, E-mail: zouliangjiansh@gmail.com [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-05-08

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy, often accompanied by hypertension, aortic stenosis and valvular defects, is typically associated with myocyte remodeling and cardiac dysfunction. Exercise preconditioning (EP) has been proven to enhance the tolerance of the myocardium to cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the effects of EP in pathological cardiac hypertrophy are rarely reported. 10-wk-old male Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 80) were randomly divided into four groups: sham, TAC, EP + sham and EP + TAC. Two EP groups were subjected to 4 weeks of treadmill training, and the EP + TAC and TAC groups were followed by TAC operations. The sham and EP + sham groups underwent the same operation without aortic constriction. Eight weeks after the surgery, we evaluated the effects of EP by echocardiography, morphology, and histology and observed the expressions of the associated proteins. Compared with the respective control groups, hypertrophy-related indicators were significantly increased in the TAC and EP + TAC groups (p < 0.05). However, between the TAC and EP + TAC groups, all of these changes were effectively inhibited by EP treatment (p < 0.05). Furthermore, EP treatment upregulated the expression of HSF1 and HSP70, increased the HSF1 levels in the nuclear fraction, inhibited the expression of the NF-κB p65 subunit, decreased the NF-κB p65 subunit levels in the nuclear fraction, and reduced the IL2 levels in the myocardia of rats. EP could effectively reduce the cardiac hypertrophic responses induced by TAC and may play a protective role by upregulating the expressions of HSF1 and HSP70, activating HSF1 and then inhibiting the expression of NF-κB p65 and nuclear translocation. - Highlights: • EP could effectively reduce the cardiac hypertrophic responses induced by TAC. • EP may play a protective role by upregulating the expressions of HSF1 and HSP70 and then activating HSF1. • EP may play a protective role by inhibiting the expression of NF-κB p65 and nuclear translocation.

  3. Association Between Air Temperature and Cancer Death Rates in Florida: An Ecological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, John

    2015-01-01

    Proponents of global warming predict adverse events due to a slight warming of the planet in the last 100 years. This ecological study tests one of the possible arguments that might support the global warming theory that it may increase cancer death rates. Thus, average daily air temperature is compared to cancer death rates at the county level in a U.S. state, while controlling for variables of smoking, race, and land elevation. The study revealed that lower cancer death rates were associa...

  4. Historical ecology provides new insights for ecosystem management: Eastern Baltic cod case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Ojaveer, Henn; Eero, Margit

    2011-01-01

    A recent historical marine ecological case study (cod in the eastern Baltic Sea) is used to show how long-term data and knowledge of fluctuations can contribute to revisions of fishery management policy. The case study first developed new longer analytical time series of spawner biomass and...... recruitment back to the 1920s, which extended knowledge of population dynamics into a time period when ecosystem state was characterized by temporally varying combinations of exploitation, climate-hydrographic conditions, marine mammal predation and eutrophication. Recovery of spatially resolved historical...

  5. Environmental Air Pollution and Acute Cerebrovascular Complications: An Ecologic Study in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Nabavi, Seyed Massood; Jafari, Batoul; Jalali, Mozhgan Sadat; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Ashrafi, Khosro; Salahesh, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Background: In this study, we aimed to assess the association between air pollution and cerebrovascular complications in Tehran, one of the most air-polluted cities in the world, among different subgroups of patients with stroke in 2004. Methods: In this ecologic study, we calculated the daily average levels of different air pollutants including CO, NOX, SO2, O3, and PM10 and also humidity and temperature on the day of stroke and 48 hours prior to stroke in 1 491 patients admitted with the di...

  6. Trajectories of legitimate peripheral participation: Ethnographic case studies of learning ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Gervase Michael Reynolds

    1999-09-01

    Current reform documents in education call for elementary and high school students to engage in "authentic" scientific practices. In the past several years a number of authors have suggested that science education research and curriculum development could benefit from insights gained by research in the social studies of science that documents and theorizes science as it is actually done. Yet, although practices of laboratory science are well understood and provide a foundation from which educational practices could be drawn, little is known about the practices of the science disciplines which deal with field research and how people are enculturated into those practices. This dissertation is constituted by a series of research papers on different (although inter-related) topics, in which I examine the enculturation into the practices of field ecology and the world-view that is associated with that enculturation. To better understand the practices of field ecology and how they develop, I conducted several projects: (i) a video ethnography of a second-year university ecology class and observations on research experiences undergraduates experience; (ii) ethnographic research with ecologists conducting field research; (iii) observations of graduate student and professional ecologists as they participated in conferences, engaged in interaction in their laboratory and social settings, and presented/discussed their findings in various settings; (iv) interviews with graduate student and professional ecologists discussing their field research experiences; (v) videotaped interviews with practicing researchers and under/graduate science and non-science students as they interpreted various ecology-related inscriptions; (vi) an analysis of the inscriptions and textual information present in the various texts (textbooks and journals) used to teach students about ecology; and, (vii) observations of elementary school students engaged in practices congruent with those of field ecologists. Collectively, these studies suggest that the way in which undergraduate students are taught about disciplines such as ecology which involve field research---generally lectures and structured laboratory research investigations---does not well prepare them to enact the practices common to research in the discipline such as designing and conducting research projects, summarizing and interpreting data in graphs, and making scientific knowledge claims. In addition, the formal texts (textbooks, lectures, and journal articles) used to enculturate students into disciplinary concerns and practices develop in students a reductionist, anthropocentric view of nature as opposed to the holisitic view which ecology ostensibly represents. Story-telling within the community was revealed as an important mechanism by which field research methods, almost unmentioned in the formal texts of the discipline, are learned and the community of ecologists established and maintained. These findings have implications for how we prepare student teachers to teach science, for merely encouraging them to take undergraduate science courses will develop attitudes about nature and approaches to teaching which are perhaps undesirable. On the basis of the study reported, I conclude that both teacher education and science curricula would be best served by engaging participants (either student teachers or public school students) in long-term research projects whose conclusions they can present and defend to peers and instructors in their education program. This would need to be coupled with a critically reflective component which encouraged these participants to examine the assumptions and implicit judgements made in the conduct of their work. By engaging in such a process students will learn about scientific practices and concepts as well as about the socially-mediated nature of scientific communities and knowledge.

  7. Immunology in wild nonmodel rodents: an ecological context for studies of health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J A

    2015-05-01

    Transcriptomic methods are set to revolutionize the study of the immune system in naturally occurring nonmodel organisms. With this in mind, the present article focuses on ways in which the use of 'nonmodel' rodents (not the familiar laboratory species) can advance studies into the classical, but ever relevant, epidemiologic triad of immune defence, infectious disease and environment. For example, naturally occurring rodents are an interesting system in which to study the environmental stimuli that drive the development and homeostasis of the immune system and, by extension, to identify where these stimuli are altered in anthropogenic environments leading to the formation of immunopathological phenotypes. Measurement of immune expression may help define individual heterogeneity in infectious disease susceptibility and transmission and facilitate our understanding of infection dynamics and risk in the natural environment; furthermore, it may provide a means of surveillance that can filter individuals carrying previously unknown acute infections of potential ecological or zoonotic importance. Finally, the study of immunology in wild animals may reveal interactions within the immune system and between immunity and other organismal traits that are not observable under restricted laboratory conditions. Potentiating much of this is the possibility of combining gene expression profiles with analytical tools derived from ecology and systems biology to reverse engineer interaction networks between immune responses, other organismal traits and the environment (including symbiont exposures), revealing regulatory architecture. Such holistic studies promise to link ecology, epidemiology and immunology in natural systems in a unified approach that can illuminate important problems relevant to human health and animal welfare and production. PMID:25689683

  8. Progress Report: Integrated Ecological Studies at Lisbon Bottom Unit, Big Muddy Fish and Wildlife Refuge, Fiscal Year 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has been carrying out integrated ecological studies at the Lisbon Bottom Unit of the Big Muddy Fish and Wildlife Refuge since 1996. This...

  9. AFSC/NMML: Bowhead Whale Feeding Ecology Study (BOWFEST): Aerial Survey in Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, 2007-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Bowhead Whale Feeding Ecology Study (BOWFEST) was initiated in May 2007 through an Interagency Agreement between the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM)...

  10. Insights into population ecology from long-term studies of red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martnez-Padilla, Jesus; Redpath, Steve M; Zeineddine, Mohammed; Mougeot, Franois

    2014-01-01

    Long-term studies have been the backbone of population ecology. The red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus is one species that has contributed widely to this field since the 1950s. This paper reviews the trajectory and profound impact that these studies have had. Red grouse research has combined long-term studies of marked individuals with demographic studies over wide geographical areas and replicated individual- and population-level manipulations. A main focus has been on understanding the causes of population cycles in red grouse, and in particular the relative importance of intrinsic (behaviour) and extrinsic (climate, food limitation and parasite) mechanisms. Separate studies conducted in different regions initially proposed either the nematode parasite Trichostrongylus tenuis or changes in male aggressiveness in autumn as drivers of population cycles. More recent experiments suggest that parasites are not a necessary cause for cycles and have highlighted that behavioural and parasite-mediated mechanisms are interrelated. Long-term experiments show that parasites and aggressiveness interact. Two outstanding questions remain to be tested experimentally. First, what intrinsic mechanism causes temporal variation in patterns of male aggressiveness? The current favoured mechanism is related to patterns of kin structuring although there are alternative hypotheses. Second, how do the dual, interacting mechanisms, affect population dynamics? Red grouse studies have had an important impact on the field of population ecology, in particular through highlighting: (1) the impact of parasites on populations; (2) the role of intrinsic mechanisms in cyclic dynamics and (3) the need to consider multiple, interacting mechanisms. PMID:23800249

  11. Possibilities of the Integration of the Method of the Ecologically Oriented Independent Scientific Research in the Study Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizans, Jurijs; Vanags, Janis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse possibilities of the integration of the method of the ecologically oriented independent scientific research in the study process. In order to achieve the set aim, the following scientific research methods were used: analysis of the conceptual guidelines for the development of environmentally oriented entrepreneurship, interpretation of the experts' evaluation of the ecologically oriented management, analysis of the results of the students' ecologically oriented independent scientific research, as well as monographic and logically constructive methods. The results of the study give an opportunity to make conclusions and to develop conceptual recommendations on how to introduce future economics and business professionals with the theoretical and practical aspects of ecologically oriented management during the study process.

  12. A Study on Community Participation Mode into Luoshijiang Wetland Ecological Tourism in Dali

    OpenAIRE

    Mingqiang Lu; Ning Wang

    2015-01-01

    Community participation is of great importance to the development of wetland ecological tourism. It is also a significant indicator that evaluates the sound development of ecological tourism. The research conducts an investigation into and analysis on the community participation into Luoshijiang wetland ecological tourism, based on which the paper provides the community participation mode into Luoshijiang wetland ecological tourism as well as the specific guarantee system. The research is of ...

  13. An Ecological Flood Control System in Phoenix Island of Huzhou, China: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuowen Wang; Jun Liu; Cheng Gao

    2013-01-01

    Traditional flood control systems always have a conflict with natural ones, i.e., rivers in cities are usually straight and smooth, whereas natural ones are according to ecological mechanisms. Social and economic developments in the modern world require a new system combining ecological needs and traditional flood control system. Ecological flood control systems were put forward and defined as flood control systems with full consideration of ecological demands for sustainable development. In ...

  14. Ecological agriculture in South-India : an agro-economic comparison and study of transition

    OpenAIRE

    Jager, A; Van der Werf, E.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes two research programmes carried out on ecological agriculture in South-India. Experiences of twelve farmers in transition towards ecological agriculture are described and analysed. The comparative performance of seven farmer pairs, consisting of one ecological and one conventional reference farm, is analysed in relation to agronomic and economic performance

  15. STUDIES CONCERNING THE ECOLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF SOIL IN ORDER TO ENSURE A SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIANA RADULESCU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aim to determine the effectiveness of the proposed ecological reconstruction method by using the perennial grasses (e.g. Festuca rubra, Poa Pratensis, Lolium perenne, and Medicago sativa and dolomite (DEL-CA-MAG as a soil amendment for a degraded soil (i.e. Valea Voievozilor area, Dambovita County, Romania, in order to improvements the quality indicators of analyzed soil. The physicochemical indicators of soil (e.g. pH, conductivity, salinity, TDS, redox potential, turbidity, humidity, carbonate, nitrate and nitrite concentration were determined.

  16. Ecological studies of bison in the Greater Yellowstone Area: Development and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogan, Peter J.; Mack, John A.; Brewster, Wayne G.; Olexa, Edward M.; Clark, Wendy E.

    2001-01-01

    Bison (Bison bison) of the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) are perhaps best known to the scientific community from the classic study of Meagher (1973) that reviewed their ecological status and management from the time of establishment of Yellowstone National Park in 1872 through the last National Park Service (NPS) removals of bison within the park in 1966. Since cessation of herd reductions in the park, bison numbers within Yellowstone increased (Dobson and Meagher 1996), as did range use (Meagher 1989b), including increased frequency and magnitude of movements beyond the park boundaries in winter (Meagher 1989a; Pac and Frey 1991; Cheville et al. 1998).

  17. Simulation of Regionally Ecological Land Based on a Cellular Automation Model: A Case Study of Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiubin Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ecological land is like the “liver” of a city and is very useful to public health. Ecological land change is a spatially dynamic non-linear process under the interaction between natural and anthropogenic factors at different scales. In this study, by setting up natural development scenario, object orientation scenario and ecosystem priority scenario, a Cellular Automation (CA model has been established to simulate the evolution pattern of ecological land in Beijing in the year 2020. Under the natural development scenario, most of ecological land will be replaced by construction land and crop land. But under the scenarios of object orientation and ecosystem priority, the ecological land area will increase, especially under the scenario of ecosystem priority. When considering the factors such as total area of ecological land, loss of key ecological land and spatial patterns of land use, the scenarios from priority to inferiority are ecosystem priority, object orientation and natural development, so future land management policies in Beijing should be focused on conversion of cropland to forest, wetland protection and prohibition of exploitation of natural protection zones, water source areas and forest parks to maintain the safety of the regional ecosystem.

  18. Administrative Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of

  19. Administrative Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  20. . Ecological conceptual models: a framework and case study on ecosystem management for South Florida sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, J.H.; Harwell, M.A.; Cropper, W., Jr.; Harwell, C. C.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Davis, S.; Ogden, J.C.; Lirman, D.

    2001-01-01

    The Everglades and South Florida ecosystems are the focus of national and international attention because of their current degraded and threatened state. Ecological risk assessment, sustainability and ecosystem and adaptive management principles and processes are being used nationally as a decision and policy framework for a variety of types of ecological assessments. The intent of this study is to demonstrate the application of these paradigms and principles at a regional scale. The effects-directed assessment approach used in this study consists of a retrospective, eco-epidemiological phase to determine the causes for the current conditions and a prospective predictive risk-based assessment using scenario analysis to evaluate future options. Embedded in these assessment phases is a process that begins with the identification of goals and societal preferences which are used to develop an integrated suite of risk-based and policy relevant conceptual models. Conceptual models are used to illustrate the linkages among management (societal) actions, environmental stressors, and societal/ecological effects, and provide the basis for developing and testing causal hypotheses. These models, developed for a variety of landscape units and their drivers, stressors, and endpoints, are used to formulate hypotheses to explain the current conditions. They are also used as the basis for structuring management scenarios and analyses to project the temporal and spatial magnitude of risk reduction and system recovery. Within the context of recovery, the conceptual models are used in the initial development of performance criteria for those stressors that are determined to be most important in shaping the landscape, and to guide the use of numerical models used to develop quantitative performance criteria in the scenario analysis. The results will be discussed within an ecosystem and adaptive management framework that provides the foundation for decision making.

  1. Ecological impact assessment in data-poor systems: a case study on metapopulation persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Rampal S; Vos, Claire C; Jansen, Michiel J W

    2003-12-01

    Legislation on the protection of biodiversity (e.g., European Union Habitat and Bird Directives) increasingly requires ecological impact assessment of human activities. However, knowledge and understanding of relevant ecological processes and species responses to different types of impact are often incomplete. In this paper we demonstrate with a case study how impact assessment can be carried out for situations where data are scarce but some expert knowledge is available. The case study involves two amphibian species, the great crested newt (Triturus cristatus) and the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) in the nature reserve the Meinweg in the Netherlands, for which plans are being developed to reopen an old railway track called the Iron Rhine. We assess the effects of this railway track and its proposed alternatives (scenarios) on the metapopulation extinction time and the occupancy times of the patches for both species using a discrete-time stochastic metapopulation model. We quantify the model parameters using expert knowledge and extrapolated data. Because of our uncertainty about these parameter values, we perform a Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis. This yields an estimate of the probability distribution of the model predictions and insight into the contribution of each distinguished source of uncertainty to this probability distribution. We show that with a simple metapopulation model and an extensive uncertainty analysis it is possible to detect the least harmful scenario. The ranking of the different scenarios is consistent. Thus, uncertainty analysis can enhance the role of ecological impact assessment in decision making by making explicit to what extent incomplete knowledge affects predictions. PMID:15160900

  2. Good Ecological Status : Advancing the Ecology of Law

    OpenAIRE

    Josefsson, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    For a meaningful discussion of the effectiveness of ecological objectives and ecological quality standards, their terms and purposes must be examined and clarified. This study explores the terms and content of ecological quality objectives and ecological quality standards, based on the Water Framework Directive’s legal conceptualization of ‘ecological status’. This exploration is accomplished by analysing and describing the Water Framework Directive’s ‘ecological status’ aspect from a legal-e...

  3. An Ecological View of Internet Health Information Seeking Behavior Predictors: Findings from the CHAIN Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Joshua K; Aidala, Angela A; West, Josh H

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to further elucidate proximal and distal demographic and social predictors of Internet Health Information Seeking Behavior (IHISB) among a cohort of HIV+ individuals through an ecological framework. Methods: The Community Health Advisory & Information Network (CHAIN) project is an ongoing prospective study of a representative sample of persons living with HIV/AIDS in New York City and the Tri-County region. The study sample was drawn from a two-stage randomized technique with the clients of 43 medical and social service organizations with 693 HIV+ participants. Bivariate correlations were computed between IHISB and independent demographic variables in ecological blocks. Multivariate hierarchical logistic regression was used to test association between blocks of variables and IHISB. Results: Among the surveyed respondents (n=645) 50.3% indicated that they used the Internet. Being above the poverty line, having less than a high school education, and having fewer neighbors were statistically significant predictors of IHISB related to HIV. Conclusions: The benefits of accessing the Internet may influence health behavior and may be considered a target for interventions that aim to increase access to health related information online. Coupled with increased access, is the need for increased patient education interventions, and creative managed care approaches to ensure that information gleaned from online sources is interpretable and accurate in order to benefit the lives of those living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:24222812

  4. Ecological Factors and Adolescent Marijuana Use: Results of a Prospective Study in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Delva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Despite the growing evidence that ecological factors contribute to substance use, the relationship of ecological factors and illicit drugs such as marijuana use is not well understood, particularly among adolescents in Latin America. Guided by social disorganization and social stress theories, we prospectively examined the association of disaggregated neighborhood characteristics with marijuana use among adolescents in Santiago, Chile, and tested if these relationships varied by sex. Methods: Data for this study are from 725 community-dwelling adolescents participating in the Santiago Longitudinal Study, a study of substance using behaviors among urban adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Adolescents completed a two-hour interviewer administered questionnaire with questions about drug use and factors related to drug using behaviors. Results: As the neighborhood levels of drug availability at baseline increased, but not crime or noxious environment, adolescents had higher odds of occasions of marijuana use at follow up, approximately 2 years later (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.16–1.66, even after controlling for the study’s covariates. No interactions by sex were significant. Discussion: The findings suggest that “poverty”, “crime”, and “drug problems” may not be synonyms and thus can be understood discretely. As Latin American countries re-examine their drug policies, especially those concerning decriminalizing marijuana use, the findings suggest that attempts to reduce adolescent marijuana use in disadvantaged neighborhoods may do best if efforts are concentrated on specific features of the “substance abuse environment”.

  5. Study on the Development of Outdoor Recreation Product Considering the Ecology Aspect in Wana Wisata Curug Cilember (WWCC), Kabupaten Bogor)

    OpenAIRE

    Qurie Purnamasari; Andry Indrawan; E.K.S Harini Muntasib

    2012-01-01

    Recreation development is usually oriented toward on the mass tourism to maximise a number of tourists and rarely put the environmental aspect into consideration.  This created an effect on the sustainability of ecology.  This study’s emphasis is on figuring out an alternative of outdoor recreation product which based on the ecology aspect to support the development of outdoor recreation in the Wana Wisata Curug Cilember (WWCC). This study put the characteristic of tourist and local people i...

  6. The role of social and ecological processes in structuring animal populations: a case study from automated tracking of wild birds

    OpenAIRE

    Farine, Damien R.; Firth, Josh A.; Aplin, Lucy M.; Crates, Ross A.; Culina, Antica; Garroway, Colin J.; Hinde, Camilla A; Kidd, Lindall R.; Milligan, Nicole D.; Psorakis, Ioannis; Radersma, Reinder; Verhelst, Brecht; Voelkl, Bernhard; Sheldon, Ben C.

    2015-01-01

    Both social and ecological factors influence population process and structure, with resultant consequences for phenotypic selection on individuals. Understanding the scale and relative contribution of these two factors is thus a central aim in evolutionary ecology. In this study, we develop a framework using null models to identify the social and spatial patterns that contribute to phenotypic structure in a wild population of songbirds. We used automated technologies to track 1053 individuals...

  7. Modeling direct and indirect climate change impacts on ecological networks : a case study on breeding habitat of Dutch meadow birds

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dijk, Jerry; Van Der Vliet, Roland E.; De Jong, Harm; Zeylmans Van Emmichoven, Maarten J.; Van Hardeveld, Henk A.; Dekker, Stefan C.; Martin J. Wassen

    2015-01-01

    Context: Climate change can directly affect habitats within ecological networks, but may also have indirect effects on network quality by inducing land use change. The relative impact of indirect effects of climate change on the quality of ecological networks currently remains largely unknown. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the relative impact of direct and indirect effects of climate change on a network of breeding habitat of four meadow bird species (Black-tailed g...

  8. Implementing fire history and fire ecology in fire risk assessment: the study case of Canton Ticino (southern Switzerland)

    OpenAIRE

    Conedera, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The understanding of the ecological role of wildfires and the knowledge of its past natural and cultural dynamics in different ecosystems have been recognize as a prerequisite for a sustainable land and ecosystem management. The main objective of this work is to propose a methodological approach for implementing the knowledge derived from studies of fire history, fire ecology, and fire suppression strategies in fire risk analyses in a low-to medium fire-prone region such as the Canton Ticino.

  9. Ecological relevance of biomarkers in monitoring studies of macro-invertebrates and fish in Mediterranean rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Nicole; Porte, Cinta; Fernandes, Denise; Barata, Carlos; Padrs, Francesc; Carrassn, Maite; Monroy, Mario; Cano-Rocabayera, Oriol; de Sostoa, Adolfo; Pia, Benjamn; Maceda-Veiga, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean rivers are probably one of the most singular and endangered ecosystems worldwide due to the presence of many endemic species and a long history of anthropogenic impacts. Besides a conservation value per se, biodiversity is related to the services that ecosystems provide to society and the ability of these to cope with stressors, including climate change. Using macro-invertebrates and fish as sentinel organisms, this overview presents a synthesis of the state of the art in the application of biomarkers (stress and enzymatic responses, endocrine disruptors, trophic tracers, energy and bile metabolites, genotoxic indicators, histopathological and behavioural alterations, and genetic and cutting edge omic markers) to determine the causes and effects of anthropogenic stressors on the biodiversity of European Mediterranean rivers. We also discuss how a careful selection of sentinel species according to their ecological traits and the food-web structure of Mediterranean rivers could increase the ecological relevance of biomarker responses. Further, we provide suggestions to better harmonise ecological realism with experimental design in biomarker studies, including statistical analyses, which may also deliver a more comprehensible message to managers and policy makers. By keeping on the safe side the health status of populations of multiple-species in a community, we advocate to increase the resilience of fluvial ecosystems to face present and forecasted stressors. In conclusion, this review provides evidence that multi-biomarker approaches detect early signs of impairment in populations, and supports their incorporation in the standardised procedures of the Water Frame Work Directive to better appraise the status of European water bodies. PMID:26148426

  10. Ecological and Social Evaluation of Coastal Tourism Destination Development: A Case Study of Balekambang, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchman Hakim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is an important sector in developing countries to support economic growth, and coastal areas are famous destinations in tourism. The plan and design for Balekambang coastal area as a tourism destination in East Java, Indonesia has been formulated and published. However, it seems lack ecological and social perspectives. This study examines coral reefs structure as one of the ecological parameter and tourist perspectives as social parameter for destination development evaluation. Twenty belt-transects were established along Balekambang coastline, and then divided into three sections, the east, the centre and the west sections. Every belt-transect was 200m in length and consists of 15 plots 1 x 2m. The tourist perspectives to Balekambang were determined using questionnaire among 234 respondents. Based on the Morisita similarity index, the coral reef of east section consists of 2 zones, the centre consists of 5 zones and west section consists of 4 zones. The Shannon diversity index (H’ among zones at every location was ranged. The diversity index of the east section ranged from 2.07 to 2.72, the central section ranged from 1.32 to 4.20, and the west section ranged from 3.13 to 4.20. Zones that were close to the coastline had lowest diversity indices than zones that located far from the coastline. Mostly, tourists stated that Balekambang was interesting, but the object of tourism should be added. Respondent knew there were forest surrounding Balekambang, and it has the possibility to develop as tourism destination. These findings argue that the forest conversion to cottage area that planned by the local government in the west section should be reviewed. It seems forest in the west section should be developed as a forest park to meet tourist needs and redistribute tourist concentration in the coastline. Keywords: Ecological and social evaluation, coastal, tourism, sustainable development, East Java.

  11. Introduction to Ecological Landscaping: A Holistic Description and Framework to Guide the Study and Management of Urban Landscape Parcels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parwinder Grewal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Urbanized ecosystems and urban human populations are expanding around the world causing many negative environmental effects. A challenge for achieving sustainable urban social-ecological systems is understanding how urbanized landscapes can be designed and managed to minimize negative outcomes. To this end, an interdisciplinary Ecological Landscaping conference was organized to examine the interacting sociocultural and ecological causes and consequences of landscaping practices and products. This special issue of Cities and the Environment contains a diverse set of articles arising from that conference. In this introductory paper, we describe the meaning of ecological landscaping and a new conceptual framework that helps organize the topic’s complex issues. The essence of ecological landscaping is a holistic systems-thinking perspective for understanding the interrelationships among physical-ecological and sociocultural variables that give rise to the patterns and processes of biodiversity, abiotic conditions, and ecosystem processes within and among individually-managed urban landscape parcels. This perspective suggests that 1 variables not considered part of traditional landscaping and 2 the effects of landscaping within an individual parcel on variables outside of it must both be considered when making design and management decisions about a parcel. To illustrate how these points help create a more holistic, ecological approach to landscaping, a traditional ecosystem model is used to create a framework for discussing how sociocultural and physical-ecological inputs to a landscape parcel affect its characteristics and outputs. As exemplified by papers in this issue, an integrated sociocultural-ecological approach to the study of urban landscaping practices and products is needed to 1 understand why and how humans design and mange urban landscape parcels, 2 describe how the combined characteristics and outputs of many parcels give rise to the emergent ecosystem properties of urbanized areas, and 3 develop effective educational programs that catalyze adoption of sustainable landscaping choices and practices. The paper concludes with a discussion of challenges for the future of ecological landscaping research and practice, and a list of preliminary guidelines for ecological landscaping. We hope that this special issue will increase understanding, visibility, and research about the value of an ecological approach to urban landscaping.

  12. Assessing ecological land use and water demand of river systems: a case study in Luanhe River, North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Yan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic and social development has greatly increased ecological water demand and modified land use of river systems worldwide, causing overall degradation of many of these systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks for regionalization on the eco-environmental function of river systems are formulated and applied to the Luanhe River system. Based on its eco-environmental functions, this river can be regionalized into four types of first-class functional areas: ecological preservation areas, habitat restoration areas, ecological buffer areas and development and utilization areas. Considering the overall eco-environmental functions, we assessed the ecological land use of the Luanhe River system. The total area of basic ecological land use is 876.98 km2; the restrictive ecological land use is 1745.52 km2; ecological land use of the river system returned from farmland is 284.25 km2; and that returned from construction land is 17.35 km2. The average minimum ecological flow of mainstreams in upper and middle reaches of the Luanhe River is 4.896 m3 s?1 based on the habitat method. And the recommended minimum and suitable annual ecological water demand of channels in the lower reaches are 391 million m3 and 819.5 million m3, respectively. The evaporation and seepage consumption and vegetation consumption in riparian zones of the Luanhe River system are approximately 132.6 million m3 and 145.3 million m3 per year, respectively. Our results suggest that is crucial to regulate the instream ecological water use of the Luanhe River's mainstream starting from the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system. We recommend accelerating ecological land-use planning and strengthening the regulation of ecological water use on this river system focusing on important lower reaches under the condition of competitive water demand.

  13. How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATEMEH BAZDID VAHDATI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bazdid Vahdati F, Saeidi Mehrvarz Sh, Naqinezhad A, Gholizadeh H. 2014. How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran. Biodiversitas 15: 29-36. Species diversity is one of the most important indices for evaluating the stability and productivity of forest ecosystems. The aim of this research was to recognize ecological species groups and to determine the relationship between environmental variables and the distribution of ecological species groups. For this purpose, 25 400-m2 relevés were sampled using the Braun-Blanquet method. Vegetation was classified using modified Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN and resulted in three ecological species groups. Different species diversity indices were applied to quantify diversity of these species groups. ANOVA and Duncan’s tests indicated that all species and environmental variables except altitude changed significantly across the species groups. The results also showed that the group located in the northern aspect and on low slopes had the highest diversity indices compared with groups located in dry aspects and on high slopes. In reality, abundant precipitation (northern aspect ( and soil enrichment (low slopes are principal factors that provide suitable conditions for plant growth and species diversity. Thus, the study of diversity changes in ecological species groups can result in an ecologically precise perspective for managing forest ecosystems.

  14. How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATEMEH BAZDID VAHDATI¹,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran. Biodiversitas 15: 31-38. Species diversity is one of the most important indices for evaluating the stability and productivity of forest ecosystems. The aim of this research was to recognize ecological species groups and to determine the relationship between environmental variables and the distribution of ecological species groups. For this purpose, 25 400-m2 relevés were sampled using the Braun-Blanquet method. Vegetation was classified using modified Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN and resulted in three ecological species groups. Different species diversity indices were applied to quantify diversity of these species groups. ANOVA and Duncan’s tests indicated that all species and environmental variables except altitude changed significantly across the species groups. The results also showed that the group located in the northern aspect and on low slopes had the highest diversity indices compared with groups located in dry aspects and on high slopes. In reality, abundant precipitation (northern aspect ( and soil enrichment (low slopes are principal factors that provide suitable conditions for plant growth and species diversity. Thus, the study of diversity changes in ecological species groups can result in an ecologically precise perspective for managing forest ecosystems.

  15. Importance of thermal ecological studies in environment management around nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In thermal power plants, only about 30% of the heat energy generated is converted to electricity. Remaining heat is released to the environment either to atmosphere or to the nearest water body. During the operation of plants, it is essential to ensure that the release of heated effluent does not lead to any harmful consequences to eco system. Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) has stipulated stringent regulation with respect to temperature of the heated effluent that can be released to the environment. All power plants under DAE are strictly following this stipulation. As a pro-active step, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) carried out a comprehensive environmental impact assessment studies at Kalpakkam (coastal) site and at Kaiga (inland) site. The studies at Kalpakkam were coordinated by Water and Steam Chemistry Laboratory, Kalpakkam and the studies at Kaiga site was coordinated by Environmental Survey Laboratory, Kaiga. In addition to temperature mapping at the mixing zone, a detailed analysis of influence of heated effluent on water quality, primary productivity, benthic eco system, bio geochemical cycle, fish composition and diversity were carried out by different specialist groups under a coordinated BRNS project. The comprehensive thermal ecological studies clearly indicated that release of heated effluents does not lead to any significant impact on the overall ecosystem of the respective water body at Kalpakkam and Kaiga sites. Data generated in these studies are very useful in the designing suitable out fall system so that ecology of the aquatic body is not disturbed. This paper presents the highlights of the importance of such studies and salient features of the studies. (author)

  16. Species delimitation in fungal endophyte diversity studies and its implications in ecological and biogeographic inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazis, Romina; Rehner, Stephen; Chaverri, Priscila

    2011-07-01

    The estimation of species diversity in fungal endophyte communities is based either on species counts or on the assignment of operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Consequently, the application of different species recognition criteria affects not only diversity estimates but also the ecological hypotheses that arise from those observations. The main objective of the study was to examine how the choice and number of genetic markers and species delimitation criteria influence biodiversity estimates. Here, we compare approaches to defining species boundaries in three dominant species complexes of tropical endophytes, specially Colletotrichum gloeosporioides agg., Pestalotiopsis microspora agg. and Trichoderma harzianum agg., from two Amazonian trees: Hevea brasiliensis and H. guianensis. Molecular tools were used to describe and compare the diversity of the different assemblages. Multilocus phylogenetic analyses [gpd, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and tef1] and modern techniques for phylogenetic species delimitation were overlaid with ecological data to recognize putative species or OTUs. The results demonstrate that ITS alone generally underestimates the number of species predicted by other nuclear loci. These results question the use of ITS and arbitrary divergence thresholds for species delimitation. PMID:21557783

  17. Incorporating methane into ecological footprint analysis. A case study of Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) accounting is important to global ecological footprint analysis. However methane (CH4), with a global warming potential (GWP) 25 times that of CO2, should not be neglected as an environmental indicator for informed environmental management. While this is a significant component, the CH4 associated with imported embodied energy should also be included in national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories. This study proposes an initial method for incorporating methane into ecological footprint analyses and hopes to inform future debate on its inclusion. In order to account for differences in methane intensities from exporting countries, methane intensities for OECD countries were calculated using emission and energy consumption estimates taken directly from National Inventory Reports (NIR), published in conjunction with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). For other countries the methane intensities were estimated using energy balances published by the International Energy Association (IEA) and IPCC default emission factors. In order to estimate embodied organic methane, material imports and exports were translated into units (such as live animals) capable of conversion into methane emissions. A significant increase in Ireland's footprint results from the inclusion of the GWP of methane is included within the footprint calculation. (author)

  18. The (limited) political influence of ecological economics. A case study on Dutch environmental policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the ecological economics (EE) discourse attempts to influence environmental policy, empirical studies have concluded that its success in this endeavour has been limited thus far. In the Netherlands, however, two EE-related policy concepts, Environmental Utilisation Space and Ecological Footprint, were strongly present in environmental policy during certain periods in time, but subsequently disappeared from the environmental agenda. The central question of this article is how these ups and downs of the EE concepts can be understood: which factors determine their rise on and fall from the policy agenda over time? To answer this question, this article offers a conceptual model informed by the approaches in political science on framing, agenda-setting and knowledge utilisation. We conclude that the interplay of concept-specific characteristics, the formation of coalitions around the concept and contextual variables explain the rise and fall of the aforementioned concepts. A match between the dominant policy frame and the core elements of the concept provides the opportunity for the two concepts to be pushed on the agenda. We observe the alternation of 'constraining' frames, which allows for EE concepts to survive, and 'reconciling' frames, which block agenda entrance for EE concepts. Furthermore, the alternation of these frames seems to correlate with economic and public environmental attention cycles in the Netherlands. (author)

  19. Gambling, games of skill and human ecology: a pilot study by a multidimensional analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Luca; Giuliani, Alessandro; Gizzi, Alessio; Tartaglia, Francesco; Tambone, Vittoradolfo

    2015-01-01

    The present pilot study aims at analyzing the human activity of playing in the light of an indicator of human ecology (HE). We highlighted the four essential anthropological dimensions (FEAD), starting from the analysis of questionnaires administered to actual gamers. The coherence between theoretical construct and observational data is a remarkable proof-of-concept of the possibility of establishing an experimentally motivated link between a philosophical construct (coming from Huizinga's Homo ludens definition) and actual gamers' motivation pattern. The starting hypothesis is that the activity of playing becomes ecological (and thus not harmful) when it achieves the harmony between the FEAD, thus realizing HE; conversely, it becomes at risk of creating some form of addiction, when destroying FEAD balance. We analyzed the data by means of variable clustering (oblique principal components) so to experimentally verify the existence of the hypothesized dimensions. The subsequent projection of statistical units (gamers) on the orthogonal space spanned by principal components allowed us to generate a meaningful, albeit preliminary, clusterization of gamer profiles. PMID:26783225

  20. Ecological Study on Vegetation of Abu Tartur Plateau, the New Valley, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Abu Ziada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the ecology of the vegetation inhabiting Abu Tartur plateau, a part of the rainless region extending between Kharga and Dakhla oases in Western desert of Egypt including recognition of the plant communities. There were six community types dominated by: Astragalus vogelii, Bassia muricata, Morettia philaeana, Alhagi graecorum, Farsetia aegyptia and Schouwia purpurea. For each community the vegetation analysis and habitat conditions are given. A total 56 plant species belonging to 23 families were identified from the six communities. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae were the predominant families. The majority of the species were of Irano-Turanian (24%, Saharo-Sidian (19% and Saharo-Arabian (17% distribution. Therophytes and chamaephytes had the highest contribution to the life forms spectra. Soil moisture is the main environmental factor governing the pattern of plant growth. It is affected by depth of underground water, depth of surface deposits and soil texture. These findings may lead to a better understanding of the vegetation of the different habitats found in Abu Tartur area which was not described before in other ecological work.

  1. Gambling, games of skill and human ecology: a pilot study by a multidimensional analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Valera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present pilot study aims at analyzing the human activity of playing in the light of an indicator of human ecology (HE. We highlighted the four essential anthropological dimensions (FEAD, starting from the analysis of questionnaires administered to actual gamers. The coherence between theoretical construct and observational data is a remarkable proof-of-concept of the possibility of establishing an experimentally motivated link between a philosophical construct (coming from Huizinga's Homo ludens definition and actual gamers' motivation pattern. The starting hypothesis is that the activity of playing becomes ecological (and thus not harmful when it achieves the harmony between the FEAD, thus realizing HE; conversely, it becomes at risk of creating some form of addiction, when destroying FEAD balance. We analyzed the data by means of variable clustering (oblique principal components so to experimentally verify the existence of the hypothesized dimensions. The subsequent projection of statistical units (gamers on the orthogonal space spanned by principal components allowed us to generate a meaningful, albeit preliminary, clusterization of gamer profiles.

  2. Terrestrial ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main effort of the Terrestrial Ecology Division has been redirected to a comprehensive study of the Espiritu Santo Drainage Basin located in northeastern Puerto Rico. The general objective are to provide baseline ecological data for future environmental assessment studies at the local and regional levels, and to provide through an ecosystem approach data for the development of management alternatives for the wise utilization of energy, water, and land resources. The interrelationships among climate, vegetation, soils, and man, and their combined influence upon the hydrologic cycle will be described and evaluated. Environmental management involves planning and decision making, and both require an adequate data base. At present, little is known about the interworkings of a complete, integrated system such as a drainage basin. A literature survey of the main research areas confirmed that, although many individual ecologically oriented studies have been carried out in a tropical environment, few if any provide the data base required for environmental management. In view of rapidly changing socio-economic conditions and natural resources limitations, management urgently requires data from these systems: physical (climatological), biological, and cultural. This integrated drainage basin study has been designed to provide such data. The scope of this program covers the hydrologic cycle as it is affected by the interactions of the physical, biological, and cultural systems

  3. Giving Back: Collaborations with Others in Ecological Studies on the Nevada National Security Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott A. Wade (NFO); Kathryn S. Knapp (NFO); Cathy A. Wills (NSTec)

    2013-02-24

    Formerly named the Nevada Test Site, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) was the historical site for nuclear weapons testing from the 1950s to the early 1990s. The site was renamed in 2010 to reflect the diversity of nuclear, energy, and homeland security activities now conducted at the site. Biological and ecological programs and research have been conducted on the site for decades to address the impacts of radiation and to take advantage of the relatively undisturbed and isolated lands for gathering basic information on the occurrence and distribution of native plants and animals. Currently, the Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) oversees the radiological biota monitoring and ecological compliance programs on the NNSS. The top priority of these programs are compliance with federal and state regulations. They focus on performing radiological dose assessments for the public who reside near the NNSS and for populations of plants and animals on the NNSS and in protecting important species and habitat from direct impacts of mission activities. The NNSS serves as an invaluable outdoor laboratory. The geographic and ecological diversity of the site offers researchers many opportunities to study human influences on ecosystems. NNSA/NSO has pursued collaborations with outside agencies and organizations to be able to conduct programs and studies that enhance radiological biota monitoring and ecosystem preservation when budgets are restrictive, as well as to provide valuable scientific information to the human health and natural resource communities at large. NNSA/NSO is using one current collaborative study to better assess the potential dose to the off-site public from the ingestion of game animals, the most realistic pathway for off-site public exposure at this time from radionuclide contamination on the NNSS. A second collaborative study is furthering desert tortoise conservation measures onsite. It is the goal of NNSA/NSO to continue to develop such collaborations in the sharing of resources, such as personnel, equipment, expertise, and NNSS land access, with outside entities to meet mutually beneficial goals cost effectively.

  4. Giving Back: Collaborations with Others in Ecological Studies on the Nevada National Security Site - 13058

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formerly named the Nevada Test Site, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) was the historical site for nuclear weapons testing from the 1950's to the early 1990's. The site was renamed in 2010 to reflect the diversity of nuclear, energy, and homeland security activities now conducted at the site. Biological and ecological programs and research have been conducted on the site for decades to address the impacts of radiation and to take advantage of the relatively undisturbed and isolated lands for gathering basic information on the occurrence and distribution of native plants and animals. Currently, the Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) oversees the radiological biota monitoring and ecological compliance programs on the NNSS. The top priority of these programs are compliance with federal and state regulations. They focus on performing radiological dose assessments for the public who reside near the NNSS and for populations of plants and animals on the NNSS and in protecting important species and habitat from direct impacts of mission activities. The NNSS serves as an invaluable outdoor laboratory. The geographic and ecological diversity of the site offers researchers many opportunities to study human influences on ecosystems. NNSA/NSO has pursued collaborations with outside agencies and organizations to be able to conduct programs and studies that enhance radiological biota monitoring and ecosystem preservation when budgets are restrictive, as well as to provide valuable scientific information to the human health and natural resource communities at large. NNSA/NSO is using one current collaborative study to better assess the potential dose to the off-site public from the ingestion of game animals, the most realistic pathway for off-site public exposure at this time from radionuclide contamination on the NNSS. A second collaborative study is furthering desert tortoise conservation measures onsite. It is the goal of NNSA/NSO to continue to develop such collaborations in the sharing of resources, such as personnel, equipment, expertise, and NNSS land access, with outside entities to meet mutually beneficial goals cost effectively. (authors)

  5. Biodiversity and productivity of Rana Patap Sagar lake a thermo-ecological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana Pratap Sagar (RPS) in Rajasthan, is a man made fresh water reservoir and is balancing between Gandhi Sagar on upstream and Jawahar sagar on its down stream. On its eastern bank there exists Rawatbhata Site, comprising of multi -nuclear facilities. There are four PHWR units of Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) which are in operations, two are under construction and another two are under advanced stage of planning. In addition to nuclear power plants the Site also houses a Heavy Water Plant and other allied facilities such as cobalt facility and waste management facilities. RAPS draws water from RPS lake through a 300 m long conduit pipe located at lake bottom about 20 m below the surface. Duly treated low level radioactive liquid effluents from RAPS facilities are injected to the warmed condenser outlet and then allowed to discharge to RPS in a controlled manner. The warm water is likely to remain at the surface and get mixed with lake water and cooled due to dilutions, evaporation from lake surface and wind currents. The heat release to the RPS lake through condenser outlet may effect the microbiological and water quality parameters, planktonic biodiversity, fish productivity etc. and thus it is imperative to conduct the thermal ecological study to assess the extent of maturation of the water body to identify its present trophic status in terms of eutrophication. This presentation gives the details of thermal ecological studies carried out at Rana Pratap Sagar lake during 2002-2004 under DAE-BRNS project.. The study includes monitoring of several water quality parameters, biological and bacterial parameters and data on thermal stratification in respect of RPS reservoir. The data so obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. The probabilistic and possibilistic approaches have been applied to evaluate ecological risk. The study reveals that there is no adverse effect on RPS water quality owing to receive the warmed effluents from RAPS. Furthermore, it shows that RPS water is nearly homogeneous and shows weak thermocline and chemocline patterns. Based on monitoring data, the reservoir can be assigned mild eutrophic status. (author)

  6. Studies on Feeding Ecology of Sailfin Molly (Poecilia latipinna Dwelling in Wadi Haneefah Stream, Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hmoud Fares Alkahem

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding ecology of sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna, an introduced fish species, was studied. Food items recovered from the stomach of fishes exclusively indicated that it is a herbivorous fish. And according to data obtained there is not much difference in the type of food consumed by the fishes of different size groups. Frequency of occurrence of different food items in the diet of fishes of various sizes was high. The value of vacuity index also showed variation throughout the study period. The diet overlap index was high which shows the sharing of food items among the fishes of different size groups. The diet breadth index also showed variations among the fishes of various sizes and in different seasons.

  7. Long-term ecological research in the Czech Republic - case study with a 3-year project

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínková, E.; Straškrábová, Viera

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2001), s. 50-56. ISSN 1335-342X. [Long-Term Ecological Research Current State and Perspectives in the Central and Eastern Europe ILTER Regional Workshop /3./. Nitra, 23.05.2000-25.05.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/98/0727 Keywords : long-term ecological research * acidification * eutrophication Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.192, year: 2001

  8. Humanity, Forest Ecology, and the Future in a British Columbia Valley:A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan Martineau

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important and challenging issues facing humanity in the 21st century is the increasingly complex human-ecology interface. This article suggests the potential that integral mediation and integral ecology hold in addressing this interface. It distinguishes two categories of ecological challenges, removed and local tangible ones, and indicates that they require adapting methodologies to address them. Using a local tangible challenge—a 35-year old conflict over land use issues in ...

  9. ECOLOGICAL EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIELA GYONGY MIHUT

    2011-01-01

    While in most emerging and developing countries, the population has a lower ecological footprint in the developed countries have a larger footprint.There is also an alarming contrast between a person perception of her liability for damages to its environment and its actual size. These misconceptions may have their source in the absence of awareness of risks from climate change, culture or religion.The purpose of this study is to analyze the situation at the international and Romanian level an...

  10. A novel method for identifying settings for well-motivated ecologic studies of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Andreas; Kowall, Bernd; Rusner, Carsten; Trabert, Britton; Bray, Freddie; Schüz, Joachim; McGlynn, Katherine A; Kuss, Oliver

    2016-04-15

    A low within-country variability and a large between-country variability in cancer incidence may indicate that ecologic factors are involved in the etiology of the disease. The aim of this study is to explore the within- and between-country variability of cancer incidence to motivate high-quality ecologic studies. We extracted age-standardized incidence rate estimates (world standard population) from 135 regions for the ten most frequent invasive cancers in Europe for non-Hispanic white populations from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Volume X. We fitted weighted multilevel Poisson regression models with random country effects for each cancer and sex. We estimated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). A high ICC indicates a low within- and a high between-country variability of rates. The two cancer sites with the highest ICC among men were prostate cancer (0.96, 95% CI: 0.92-0.99) and skin melanoma (0.78, 0.64-0.93). Among women, high ICCs were observed for lung cancer (0.84, 0.73-0.95) and breast cancer (0.80, 0.69-0.91). The two most prominent sex differences for ICC occurred for cancers of the head and neck (men: 0.70, 0.55-0.85, women: 0.19, 0.08-0.30) and breast cancer (men: 0.04, 0.01-0.07, women: 0.80, 0.69-0.91). ICCs were relatively low for pancreatic cancer (men: 0.23, 0.10-0.35; women: 0.13, 0.04-0.21) and leukemia (men: 0.12, 0.04-0.21; women: 0.08, 0.02-0.14). For cancers with high ICC for which systematic factors of the health care system, screening and diagnostic activities are not plausible explanations for between-country variations in incidence, cross-country sex-specific ecologic studies may be especially promising. PMID:26595447

  11. Extraction of high-quality host DNA from feces and regurgitated seeds: a useful tool for vertebrate ecological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA MARRERO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA extraction methods for genotyping non-invasive samples have led to great advances in molecular research for ecological studies, and have been particularly useful for analyzing threatened species. However, scarce amounts of fragmented DNA and the presence of Taq polymerase inhibitors in non-invasive samples are potential problems for subsequent PCR amplifications. In this study we describe a novel technique for extracting DNA from alimentary tract cells found on external surfaces of feces and regurgitated seeds. The presence of contaminants and inhibitors is minimized and samples are preserved intact for use in other ecological research (e.g. trophic studies. The amplification efficiency and purity of the extracted DNA from feces were significantly higher than in commonly used extraction procedures. Moreover, DNA of two bird species was identified from seeds expelled by regurgitation. Therefore, this method may be suitable for future ecological studies of birds, and other vertebrate groups.

  12. Studying the evolutionary ecology of cognition in the wild: a review of practical and conceptual challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand-Ferron, Julie; Cole, Ella F; Quinn, John L

    2016-05-01

    Cognition is defined as the processes by which animals collect, retain and use information from their environment to guide their behaviour. Thus cognition is essential in a wide range of behaviours, including foraging, avoiding predators and mating. Despite this pivotal role, the evolutionary processes shaping variation in cognitive performance among individuals in wild populations remain very poorly understood. Selection experiments in captivity suggest that cognitive traits can have substantial heritability and can undergo rapid evolution. However only a handful of studies have attempted to explore how cognition influences life-history variation and fitness in the wild, and direct evidence for the action of natural or sexual selection on cognition is still lacking, reasons for which are diverse. Here we review the current literature with a view to: (i) highlighting the key practical and conceptual challenges faced by the field; (ii) describing how to define and measure cognitive traits in natural populations, and suggesting which species, populations and cognitive traits might be examined to greatest effect; emphasis is placed on selecting traits that are linked to functional behaviour; (iii) discussing how to deal with confounding factors such as personality and motivation in field as well as captive studies; (iv) describing how to measure and interpret relationships between cognitive performance, functional behaviour and fitness, offering some suggestions as to when and what kind of selection might be predicted; and (v) showing how an evolutionary ecological framework, more generally, along with innovative technologies has the potential to revolutionise the study of cognition in the wild. We conclude that the evolutionary ecology of cognition in wild populations is a rapidly expanding interdisciplinary field providing many opportunities for advancing the understanding of how cognitive abilities have evolved. PMID:25631282

  13. Radio-ecological studies on the river Lippe (1982-1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1982 and 1983 the Laboratory for Radio-ecology of water bodies of the Federal Institute for Fishery performed radio-ecological studies on the river Lippe, on the Datteln-Hamm-Canal and on one section of the Rhine near the city of Wesel in order to enable expert examination of the population's exposure to radiation originating from effluents of the planned Hamm Nuclear Power Plant (HNP). The present-day distribution of artificial and natural radionuclides in water, fish, seston, sediment and in drill cores from the Lippe and the pastures lying within the flood area was examined using radio-chemical methods and the nuclear-radiation measurement technique. The contents of the stable elements of antimony, nickel, cobalt, zinc, manganese, iron, silver and phosphorus in water and fish were determined to obtain some suggestions concerning the behaviour of radionuclides which are expected in the waste water of the HNP but which cannot be found in the environment at present. Concerning uptake and incorporation of radioactive nuclides in the bodies of fish from the Lippe and the Rhine section studied, mean concentration factors could be calculated from the measured values for the state of equilibrium. One single-time emission with the cooling water of the Westfalen nuclear power plant was examined using the inactive tracer of Dysprosium in order to study the behaviour of the emission cloud when running off with the river water. With this examination, complete cross-mixing at 800 m downstream from the cooling-water re-entry building was found at a Lippe downstream flow rate of 22 cbm/s which corresponds to its annual mean. The down-stream flow graph could be described by a dispersion graph showing a marked trailing effect. The cloud-fail values which were higher compared with those of the graph, could possibly be explained by recirculation obtaining with cooling water influx. (orig.)

  14. Environmental mercury release, special education rates, and autism disorder: an ecological study of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Raymond F; Blanchard, Steven; Stein, Zachary; Mandell, David; Miller, Claudia

    2006-06-01

    The association between environmentally released mercury, special education and autism rates in Texas was investigated using data from the Texas Education Department and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. A Poisson regression analysis adjusted for school district population size, economic and demographic factors was used. There was a significant increase in the rates of special education students and autism rates associated with increases in environmentally released mercury. On average, for each 1,000 lb of environmentally released mercury, there was a 43% increase in the rate of special education services and a 61% increase in the rate of autism. The association between environmentally released mercury and special education rates were fully mediated by increased autism rates. This ecological study suggests the need for further research regarding the association between environmentally released mercury and developmental disorders such as autism. These results have implications for policy planning and cost analysis. PMID:16338635

  15. Radio-ecological studies on the air-soil-vine-wine food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report summarizes the results of the first three years (1983-85) of the radio-ecological studies on wine which were performed on eight sites from major German wine-growing regions involving red and white wine varieties typical of their region. The radionuclides of tritium, carbon 14, strontium 90, cesium 137, radium 226 and sodium 40 were examined for their contents and presence in the food chain of air-soil-vine-wine in order to determine the pollution situation in grapes and wine and to gain information on their behaviour in the food chain. A number of soil parameters important for nutrient uptake were determined to describe the site. (orig./MG)

  16. Ecological consequences of biological invasions: three invertebrate case studies in the north-eastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotta, Jonne; Kotta, Ilmar; Simm, Mart; Lankov, Ain; Lauringson, Velda; Pllume, Arno; Ojaveer, Henn

    2006-05-01

    Population dynamics and ecological impacts of the cirriped Balanus improvisus, the polychaete Marenzelleria neglecta and the cladoceran Cercopagis pengoi were investigated in the north-eastern Baltic Sea. After an increase during the first decade of invasion, the density of M. neglecta and C. pengoi declined afterwards. The studied abiotic environmental variables did not explain the interannual variability in the seasonal cycles of M. neglecta and C. pengoi indicating that the species are at their initial phase of invasion. The population dynamics of B. improvisus was best described by water temperature. B. improvisus promoted the growth of the green alga Enteromorpha intestinalis. M. neglecta enhanced the content of sediment chlorophyll a and reduced growth and survival of the polychaete Hediste diversicolor and growth of the amphipod Monoporeia affinis. Concurrent with the invasion of C. pengoi the abundance of small-sized cladocerans declined, especially above the thermocline. C. pengoi had become an important food for nine-spined stickleback, bleak, herring and smelt.

  17. Occurrence of severe dengue in Rio de Janeiro: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa Gibson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the incidence of severe dengue during the 2008 epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and socioeconomic indicators, as well as indicators of health service availability and previous circulation of the dengue virus serotype-3 (DENV-3. Methods In this ecological study, the units of analysis were the districts of Rio de Janeiro. The data were incorporated into generalized linear models, and the incidence of severe dengue in each district was the outcome variable. Results The districts with more cases of dengue fever in the 2001 epidemic and a higher percentage of residents who declared their skin color or race as black had higher incidence rates of severe dengue in the 2008 epidemic [incidence rate ratio (IRR= 1.21; 95% confidence interval (95%CI= 1.05-1.40 and IRR= 1.34; 95%CI= 1.16-1.54, respectively]. In contrast, the districts with Family Health Strategy (FHS clinics were more likely to have lower incidence rates of severe dengue in the 2008 epidemic (IRR= 0.81; 95%CI= 0.70-0.93. Conclusions At the ecological level, our findings suggest the persistence of health inequalities in this region of Brazil that are possibly due to greater social vulnerability among the self-declared black population. Additionally, the protective effect of FHS clinics may be due to the ease of access to other levels of care in the health system or to a reduced vulnerability to dengue transmission that is afforded by local practices to promote health.

  18. Occurrence of severe dengue in Rio de Janeiro: an ecological study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gerusa, Gibson; Reinaldo, Souza-Santos; Alexandre San, Pedro; Nildimar Alves, Honrio; Marilia, S Carvalho.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the incidence of severe dengue during the 2008 epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and socioeconomic indicators, as well as indicators of health [...] service availability and previous circulation of the dengue virus serotype-3 (DENV-3). Methods In this ecological study, the units of analysis were the districts of Rio de Janeiro. The data were incorporated into generalized linear models, and the incidence of severe dengue in each district was the outcome variable. Results The districts with more cases of dengue fever in the 2001 epidemic and a higher percentage of residents who declared their skin color or race as black had higher incidence rates of severe dengue in the 2008 epidemic [incidence rate ratio (IRR)= 1.21; 95% confidence interval (95%CI)= 1.05-1.40 and IRR= 1.34; 95%CI= 1.16-1.54, respectively]. In contrast, the districts with Family Health Strategy (FHS) clinics were more likely to have lower incidence rates of severe dengue in the 2008 epidemic (IRR= 0.81; 95%CI= 0.70-0.93). Conclusions At the ecological level, our findings suggest the persistence of health inequalities in this region of Brazil that are possibly due to greater social vulnerability among the self-declared black population. Additionally, the protective effect of FHS clinics may be due to the ease of access to other levels of care in the health system or to a reduced vulnerability to dengue transmission that is afforded by local practices to promote health.

  19. Data Explorations in Ecology: Salt Pollution as a Case Study for Teaching Data Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Cornelia; Berkowitz, Alan R.; Alvarado, Angelita

    2012-01-01

    Does working with first- and second-hand ecological data improve students' knowledge of ecological ideas, motivation and engagement in science, data exploration, and citizenship skills (students' ability to make informed decisions)? We have been exploring this question with high school science teachers in New York State for the past year using a

  20. Using large-scale climate indices in climate change ecology studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Mads Cedergreen; Post, Eric

    Ecological responses, El Niño 3.4, Long-term climate variability, North Atlantic Oscillation, North Pacific Oscillation, Teleconnection patterns......Ecological responses, El Niño 3.4, Long-term climate variability, North Atlantic Oscillation, North Pacific Oscillation, Teleconnection patterns...

  1. A Case Study: Using Authentic Scientific Data for Teaching and Learning of Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyner, Yael

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a culminating assignment for students enrolled in a human ecology course in a Masters in Science Education program. The goal of this assignment was for students to use published scientific data to link daily life, human impact, and sustainability to ecological function. This activity required students to consider the…

  2. Study on the Industrial Ecological Compensation in Inter-basin Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Yachen Liu

    2010-01-01

    Aiming at the inter-basin pollution of water sources, the meaning, the content, and the system of the industrial ecological compensation are proposed in this article and the corresponding inter-basin industrial ecological compensation institution is suggested to be established.

  3. Study on the Industrial Ecological Compensation in Inter-basin Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yachen Liu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the inter-basin pollution of water sources, the meaning, the content, and the system of the industrial ecological compensation are proposed in this article and the corresponding inter-basin industrial ecological compensation institution is suggested to be established.

  4. Writing to Learn Ecology: A Study of Three Populations of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgopal, Meena M.; Wallace, Alison M.; Dahlberg, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Being an ecologically literate citizen involves making decisions that are based on ecological knowledge and accepting responsibility for personal actions. Using writing-to-learn activities in college science courses, we asked students to consider personal dilemmas that they or others might have in response to how human choices can impact coastal

  5. Data Explorations in Ecology: Salt Pollution as a Case Study for Teaching Data Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Cornelia; Berkowitz, Alan R.; Alvarado, Angelita

    2012-01-01

    Does working with first- and second-hand ecological data improve students' knowledge of ecological ideas, motivation and engagement in science, data exploration, and citizenship skills (students' ability to make informed decisions)? We have been exploring this question with high school science teachers in New York State for the past year using a…

  6. Integrating a DNA barcoding project with an ecological survey: a case study on temperate intertidal polychaete communities in Qingdao, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Zhinan; Chen, Haiyan; Sun, Renhua; Wang, Hui; Guo, Lei; Pan, Haijian

    2010-07-01

    In this study, we integrated a DNA barcoding project with an ecological survey on intertidal polychaete communities and investigated the utility of CO1 gene sequence as a DNA barcode for the classification of the intertidal polychaetes. Using 16S rDNA as a complementary marker and combining morphological and ecological characterization, some of dominant and common polychaete species from Chinese coasts were assessed for their taxonomic status. We obtained 22 haplotype gene sequences of 13 taxa, including 10 CO1 sequences and 12 16S rDNA sequences. Based on intra- and inter-specific distances, we built phylogenetic trees using the neighbor-joining method. Our study suggested that the mitochondrial CO1 gene was a valid DNA barcoding marker for species identification in polychaetes, but other genes, such as 16S rDNA, could be used as a complementary genetic marker. For more accurate species identification and effective testing of species hypothesis, DNA barcoding should be incorporated with morphological, ecological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic information. The application of DNA barcoding and molecular identification in the ecological survey on the intertidal polychaete communities demonstrated the feasibility of integrating DNA taxonomy and ecology.

  7. Ecological Sanitation in Urban China : A case study of the Dongsheng project on applying ecological sanitation in multi-storey buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Shi Wen

    2011-01-01

    From the analysis of the Dongsheng project which applied ecological sanitation in multi-storey buildings in China, we found that technical deficiencies, managerial problems and incorrect usage of the urine-diverting toilets resulted in the poor performance of the Dongsheng ecological sanitation system. Lack of standards or guidelines, and lack of policies or regulations are significant challenges in implementing the ecological sanitation system. Residents in the Dongsheng eco-town have positi...

  8. Morphological, hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological changes and challenges in river restoration - the Thur River case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, M.; Luster, J.; Linde, N.; Perona, P.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Barry, D. A.; Hollender, J.; Cirpka, O. A.; Schneider, P.; Vogt, T.; Radny, D.; Durisch-Kaiser, E.

    2014-06-01

    River restoration can enhance river dynamics, environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity, but the underlying processes governing the dynamic changes need to be understood to ensure that restoration projects meet their goals, and adverse effects are prevented. In particular, we need to comprehend how hydromorphological variability quantitatively relates to ecosystem functioning and services, biodiversity as well as ground- and surface water quality in restored river corridors. This involves (i) physical processes and structural properties, determining erosion and sedimentation, as well as solute and heat transport behavior in surface water and within the subsurface; (ii) biogeochemical processes and characteristics, including the turnover of nutrients and natural water constituents; and (iii) ecological processes and indicators related to biodiversity and ecological functioning. All these aspects are interlinked, requiring an interdisciplinary investigation approach. Here, we present an overview of the recently completed RECORD (REstored CORridor Dynamics) project in which we combined physical, chemical, and biological observations with modeling at a restored river corridor of the perialpine Thur River in Switzerland. Our results show that river restoration, beyond inducing morphologic changes that reshape the river bed and banks, triggered complex spatial patterns of bank infiltration, and affected habitat type, biotic communities and biogeochemical processes. We adopted an interdisciplinary approach of monitoring the continuing changes due to restoration measures to address the following questions: How stable is the morphological variability established by restoration? Does morphological variability guarantee an improvement in biodiversity? How does morphological variability affect biogeochemical transformations in the river corridor? What are some potential adverse effects of river restoration? How is river restoration influenced by catchment-scale hydraulics and which feedbacks exist on the large scale? Beyond summarizing the major results of individual studies within the project, we show that these overarching questions could only be addressed in an interdisciplinary framework.

  9. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechmann, J.H.K.; Scott, D.E.; McGregor, J.H.; Estes, R.A.; Chazal, A.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was built on the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the mid-1980's. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 12 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Research conducted by the SREL has focused primarily on four questions related to these wetlands: (1) Prior to construction, what fauna and flora were present at the DWPF site and at similar, yet undisturbed, alternative sites (2) By comparing the Carolina bay at the DWPF site (Sun Bay) with an undisturbed control Carolina bay (Rainbow Bay), what effect is construction having on the organisms that inhabited the DWPF site (3) By comparing control streams with streams on the periphery of the DWPF site, what effect is construction having on the peripheral streams (4) How effective have efforts been to lessen the impacts of construction, both with respect to erosion control measures and the construction of refuge ponds'' as alternative breeding sites for amphibians that formerly bred at Sun Bay Through the long-term census-taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has begun to evaluate the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. Similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive Orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10CFR1022).

  10. Ecological Study, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. in Golestan province (Deraznoo Mountain, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazandarani Masoumeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Many of Ziziphora species have been used in traditional medicine in North of Iran. This work was determined on ecological requirements, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. from Bovanloo region, Iran. Materials and Methods: Aerial parts of plant in blooming were collected from Deraznoo mountain (2500 m in August 2013, ecological and traditional data were recorded. The aqueous and methanol extracts were isolated by maceration, antioxidant capacity were measured by total antioxidant capacity (TAC, reducing power (RP and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH in comparison with butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT and butylated hydroxyanisole BHA antioxidant standard and then their antibacterial activity were studied in vitro against 9 gram positive and negative bacteria by using well method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assay. Results: Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. (Z. clinopodioides Lam often grows in sunny environment in Deraznoo mountain (2500 m, with annual rainfall of 334 mm and annual temperature of 10.3°C in temperate cold climate and sandy loam soil with Ec = 0.6 and pH = 6.9. It has been used by the rural people as an antispasm, anti-inflammatory, antifungal , anti-infective, sedative and expectorant agent to treat cold, flu, diarrhea, gasterointestinal disorder and stomach ache. The ethanol extract of plant had high antioxidant activity with IC50 values (32.5 ± 0.4 μg/ml especially in DPPH assay and exhibited good antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with IZ (28.1 ± 0.5, 24.8 ± 0.1, 19.4 ± 1.1 and 14.8 ± 1 mm, respectively with high MIC value of 14.5 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The methanol extract of Z. clinopodioides Lam. have suitable antibacterial and antioxidant activity which can be used as natural anti-infective agent to treat many infectious diseases.

  11. Study on O2-supplying characteristics of Azolla in Controlled Ecological Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Deng, Sufang; Yang, Youquang; Huang, Yibing; Liu, Zhongzhu

    Azolla has high growth and propagation rate, strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability and rich nutrient value. It is able to be used as salad-type vegetable, and can also be cultured on wet bed in multi-layer condition. Hence, it possesses a potential functioning as providing O2, fresh vegetable and absorbing CO2 for Controlled Ecological Life Support System in space. In this study, we try to make clear the O2-providing characteristics of Azolla in controlled close chamber under manned condition in order to lay a foundation for Azolla as a biological component in the next ground simulated experiment and space application. A closed test cham-ber of Controlled Ecological Life Support System and Azolla wet-culturing devices were built to measure the changes of atmospheric O2-CO2 concentration inside chamber under "Azolla-fish -men" coexisting condition. The results showed that, the amount of O2 consumption is 80.49 83.07 ml/h per kilogram fish, the amount of CO2 emissions is 70.49 73.56 ml/(kg h); O2 consumption of trial volunteers is 19.71 L/h, the volume of respiration release CO2 18.90 L/h .Artificial light intensity of Azolla wet culture under 70009000 Lx, people respiration and Azolla photosynthesis complemented each other, the atmospheric O2-CO2 concentration inside chamber maintained equilibration. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations in close chamber have obvious effects on enhancing Azolla net photosynthesis efficiency. This shows that Azolla has strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability, which equilibrates the O2-CO2 concentration inside chamber in favor of human survival, and then verifies the prospect of Azolla in space application.

  12. Emotional Reactivity and Regulation in Anxious and Nonanxious Youth: A Cell-Phone Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Patricia Z.; Forbes, Erika E.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Ryan, Neal D.; Siegle, Greg J.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Silk, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reviews have highlighted anxious youths' affective disturbances, specifically, elevated negative emotions and reliance on ineffective emotion regulation strategies. However, no study has examined anxious youth's emotional reactivity and regulation in real-world contexts. Methods: This study utilized an ecological momentary assessment

  13. Conceptualizing and Estimating Process Speed in Studies Employing Ecological Momentary Assessment Designs: A Multilevel Variance Decomposition Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyko, Mariya P.; Ram, Nilam

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have been making use of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and other study designs that sample feelings and behaviors in real time and in naturalistic settings to study temporal dynamics and contextual factors of a wide variety of psychological, physiological, and behavioral processes. As EMA designs become more widespread,

  14. Conceptualizing and Estimating Process Speed in Studies Employing Ecological Momentary Assessment Designs: A Multilevel Variance Decomposition Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyko, Mariya P.; Ram, Nilam

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have been making use of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and other study designs that sample feelings and behaviors in real time and in naturalistic settings to study temporal dynamics and contextual factors of a wide variety of psychological, physiological, and behavioral processes. As EMA designs become more widespread,…

  15. Emotional Reactivity and Regulation in Anxious and Nonanxious Youth: A Cell-Phone Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Patricia Z.; Forbes, Erika E.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Ryan, Neal D.; Siegle, Greg J.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Silk, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reviews have highlighted anxious youths' affective disturbances, specifically, elevated negative emotions and reliance on ineffective emotion regulation strategies. However, no study has examined anxious youth's emotional reactivity and regulation in real-world contexts. Methods: This study utilized an ecological momentary assessment…

  16. Attitudes, Opinions and Behavior of Managers on Application of Ecological Marketing in their Business - Testing Hypotheses - Case Study:Brasov County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funaru, M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of a quantitative research which studies the attitudes, opinions and behavior of managers of companies in Brasov on application of ecological marketing in their business. The research method used is a sample survey based. Research objectives are considering to determine the extent to which managers know and apply ecological marketing, reasons for which the ecological marketing application is a long-term strategy, views on the opportunity to apply ecological marketing etc. Conclusions drawn from testing of hypotheses of research show that, generally, managers of local firms consider ecological marketing as a long-term strategy of the company. The percentage of managers that applied ecological marketing in companies does not exceed 60%. A relatively small percentage of respondents believes that the application of ecological marketing within firms is a necessity, a social responsibility that can bring long-term benefits to companies.

  17. Ecological validity and infant research: An example from an experimental study on object individuation with familiar objects in 8-month-old infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, Peter

    applying the concept of ecological validity. It is argued, that the negative results obtained may at least in part be explained by incorporating the concept of ecological validity into the analysis, and hence that the concept of ecological validity can indeed be a usefull analytical tool when discussing......  The concept of ecological validity is central when considering an ecological approach to experimental research. However, the concept of ecological validity seem to occur rather seldom in discussion sections in journal articles on experimental infant reseach. In this conference presentation I...... shall attempt to apply an analysis based on the concept of ecological validity on a specific experimental study within the field of infant cognition. I will attempt to show that such an analysis can be worthwhile.The presentation falls in three sections. The first section is a presentation of the...

  18. The Relationship between the Learning Ecology System and Students’ Engagement: A Case Study in Selangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amla Mohd Salleh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available School engagement is a relatively new concept in education. However, studies have demonstrated that the concept is useful in predicting students’ academic achievement. The present study was conducted to examine Malaysian students’ school engagement status and to understand the factors that influenced their engagement. The survey method was used to collect data with a questionnaire measuring the level of students’ engagement in three psychological domains (cognitive, affective, and behavior. The influential factors were measured by learning about the ecological factors affecting the students’ academic engagement, including their teachers’ teaching practice and the support they received from teachers, peers, and parents. A total of 311 (male and female participants between the ages of 12 -16 years from form one, form two, form three, and form four in a school in Selangor were selected using a random sampling procedure. Data was analyzed using descriptive and correlational analyses. The results showed that male and female students exhibit significantly different levels of engagement. Female students have a higher level of engagement than males. Teachers’ teaching practices and the support students received from peers, parents, and teachers were positively correlated with students’ engagement level. Although the results of the study support the findings of previous studies, further studies are suggested to verify the present findings. Implications for schools and parenting practices are also discussed.

  19. A Two-Year Ecological Study of Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a Brazilian Urban Slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panti-May, Jesús A; Carvalho-Pereira, Ticiana S A; Serrano, Soledad; Pedra, Gabriel G; Taylor, Josh; Pertile, Arsinoê C; Minter, Amanda; Airam, Vladimir; Carvalho, Mayara; Júnior, Nivison N; Rodrigues, Gorete; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Childs, James E; Begon, Mike; Costa, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The Norway or brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is among the most ubiquitous of rodents. However, the lack of studies describing Norway rat populations from tropical areas have limited our understanding regarding their demography and seasonal dynamics. In this study, we describe seasonal pattern in the abundance, reproductive parameters, and morphometrics of Norway rat populations in Salvador, Brazil. Rodents were trapped over four seasonal trapping periods (2013-2014) from three valleys. A total of 802 Norway rats were trapped over the course of the study over 7653 trap-nights. Norway rat abundance was high, but there was no significant differences between seasons. The reproductive parameters (e.g. frequency of pregnant and lactating females) did not show statistical differences between seasons. Female rats collected in the rainy season were heavier and older than females from the dry season. Salvador rats had a high incidence of pregnancy and birth rate (estimated birth rate of 79 young per year) compared to previous studies. The information generated is critical for the understanding of the ecology of Norway rat, the main reservoir of Leptospira in Salvador. However, future studies examining the effect of rodent control programs aimed at reducing populations, and determining rates of recovery, will further clarify our understanding of population dynamics. PMID:27015422

  20. An ecological study of cancer incidence in Port Hope, Ontario from 1992 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Moir, Deborah; Lane, Rachel; Thompson, Patsy

    2013-03-01

    A plant processing radium and uranium ores has been operating in the town of Port Hope since 1932. Given the nuclear industry located in the community and ongoing public health concerns, cancer incidence rates in Port Hope were studied for a recent 16 year period (1992-2007) for continued periodic cancer incidence surveillance of the community. The cancer incidence in the local community for all cancers combined was similar to the Ontario population, health regions with similar socio-economic characteristics in Ontario and in Canada, and the Canadian population. No statistically significant differences in childhood cancer, leukaemia or other radiosensitive cancer incidence were observed, with the exception of statistically significant elevated lung cancer incidence among women. However, the statistical significance was reduced or disappeared when the comparison was made to populations with similar socio-economic characteristics. These findings are consistent with previous ecological, case-control and cohort studies conducted in Port Hope, environmental assessments, and epidemiological studies conducted elsewhere on populations living around similar facilities or exposed to similar environmental contaminants. Although the current study covered an extended period of time, the power to detect risk at the sub-regional level of analysis was limited since the Port Hope population is small (16,500). The study nevertheless indicated that large differences in cancer incidence are not occurring in Port Hope compared to other similar communities and the general population. PMID:23324463

  1. Ecological baseline studies in Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons County of Los Alamos, New Mexico. A two-year study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxx, T.S. [comp.

    1995-11-01

    During the summers of 1993 and 1994, the Biological Resource Evaluations Team (BRET) of the Environmental Protection Group (ESH-8) conducted baseline studies within two canyon systems, Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons. Biological data was collected within each canyon to provide background and baseline information for Ecological Risk models. Baseline studies included establishment of permanent vegetation plots within each canyon along the elevational gradient. Then, in association with the various vegetation types, surveys were conducted for ground dwelling insects, birds, and small mammals. The stream channels associated with the permanent vegetation plots were characterized and aquatic macroinvertebrates collected within the stream monthly throughout a six-month period. The Geographic Position System (GPS) in combination with ARC INFO was used to map the study areas. Considerable data was collected during these surveys and are summarized in individual chapters.

  2. Bladder cancer mortality and private well use in New England: An ecological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, J.D.; Baris, D.; Cantor, K.P.; Colt, J.; Robinson, G.R., Jr.; Lubin, J.H.; Karagas, M.; Hoover, R.N.; Fraumeni, J.F., Jr.; Silverman, D.T.

    2006-01-01

    Study objective: To investigate the possible relation between bladder cancer mortality among white men and women and private water use in New England, USA, where rates have been persistently raised and use of private water supplies (wells) common. Design: Ecological study relating age adjusted cancer mortality rates for white men and women during 1985-1999 and proportion of persons using private water supplies in 1970. After regressing mortality rates on population density, Pearson correlation coefficients were computed between residual rates and the proportion of the population using private water supplies, using the state economic area as the unit of calculation. Calculations were conducted within each of 10 US regions. Setting: The 504 state economic areas of the contiguous United States. Participants: Mortality analysis of 11 cancer sites, with the focus on bladder cancer. Main results: After adjusting for the effect of population density, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between residual bladder cancer mortality rates and private water supply use among both men and women in New England (men, r=0.42; women, r=0.48) and New York/New Jersey (men, r=0.49; women, r=0.62). Conclusions: Use of well water from private sources, or a close correlate, may be an explanatory variable for the excess bladder cancer mortality in New England. Analytical studies are underway to clarify the relation between suspected water contaminants, particularly arsenic, and raised bladder cancer rates in northern New England.

  3. Opportunities for industrial ecological parks in Canada: Case study, Sarnia-Lambton industrial complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venta, G. J. [Venta, Glaser and Associates, Oakville, ON (Canada); Nisbet, M. [Jan Consultants (Canada)

    1997-03-01

    Industrial ecology, based on recycling of wastes and emissions, is a concept which is gaining popularity as a sustainable development strategy. District energy, along with cogeneration and energy-from-waste, are important aspects of the eco-industrial park concept. Similarly, many companies could cooperate in reducing waste management costs by reassessing industrial processes to recycle many liquid and solid waste streams. These are the concepts that form the basis of this Environment Canada study to assess the potential for the Sarnia-Lambton industrial complex. This work then is designed to document successful cases, examples of potential synergies in a mature industrialized region. The study was also expected to identify key factors for success, as well as economic, regulatory and institutional barriers to the establishment of new eco-industrial networks. Results of seven major studies done in the Sarnia-Lambton region indicate that many air and waste management issues can be dealt with using pollution prevention and recycling strategies. Requirements for success were identified as awareness of environmental issues, visible economic incentives, the need for project champions, and community acceptance. Technology was not considered to be an impediment. Unfortunately the same is not true of institutional and regulatory barriers as these are frequently believed to be detrimental to successful eco-industrial networks. The absence of community acceptance in some instances also proved to be a strong disincentive to proceed with eco-industrial network projects. 22 refs., figs.

  4. Ecological Studies on Al-Khadoud Spring, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Al-Kahtani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Al-Khadoud spring is one of the most important water resources in Al-Hassa Governorate, Saudi Arabia. However, much of its biotic information is still unknown. This study presented preliminary ecological information of this aquatic body. Regarding to macrophytes, a total of eight species were observed along the study sites. These species include two submerged aquatic plants (Potamogeton pectinatus L. and Ceratophyllum demersum L.. The common distributed species are Phragmites australis (Cav. Trimex Steud and Cyperus rotundus (L.. On the other hand, a total of 20 algal genera were recorded with 7 genera of Chlorophyceae, 8 of Bacillariophyceae, 4 of Cyanophyceae and one of Euglenophyceae. The common phytoplankton occurred in all three investigated sites were Chlorella vulgaris, Mougeotia sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Actinastrum sp. Regarding to the biotic fauna, different forms of unicellular zooplankton such as Paramecium and Amoeba were recorded. Invertebrates such as freshwater insects and some freshwater snails were documented in the study sites including Melanodies tuberculata, Melanopsis praemorsa and Lymnaea auricularia. As regard to vertebrates, one species of fish, Aphanius dispar, dominate the spring basin and its extended channels.

  5. Baseline aquatic ecology: a case study of Dahanu thermal power station in west coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseline ecological studies of three creeks surrounded to a 500 MW coal based thermal power station that has been installed at Dahanu in west coast of India have been studied. Water samples were collected in summer, post-monsoon and winter seasons from surface, middle and bottom of the water columns at left and right banks and centre of the creeks, during high tide and low tide, and also during day and night for characterization of physico-chemical (temperature, transparency, pH, salinity, dissolved solids, suspended solids, alkalinity, nutrients etc. including heavy metals), microbiological and biological (phytoplankton, primary productivity, zooplankton, meiobenthos and nekton, viz. macrobenthos, fish, prawn, molluscs etc.) parameters. Studies revealed that abiotic features of the creeks were comparable to other similar type of ecosystems in India. Besides detritus, the ecosystem comprised of five trophic levels, viz. producer and consumers 1 through 4. While computing biomass of each trophic level, semialternating pattern of pyramids were obtained. Meiobenthos, comprising of 25 parent of the total biomass of fauna, had a significant role in the ecosystem. Index of biotic integrity, incorporating 25 attributes, was employed to evaluate the impact of predicted rise (2.3 degC) of ambient water temperature on creek biota. Evaluation revealed a marginal positive impact of the project on the ecosystem. (author)

  6. Ecological studies on the freshwater fishes of the Alligator Rivers region, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tropical climate of the Alligator Rivers Region (ARR) has a distinctive wet-dry cycle , resulting in seasonal flows in the creeks and rivers of its catchments. The present study, begun in August 1978, was aimed at developing an ecological monitoring system that would detect any changes to the freshwater fish communities brought about by recent uranium mining and processing in the lowlands of the ARR. The focus of the synecological studies, was a description of spatial and temporal patterns in the community structure of the fish fauna. Interpretation of these patterns was made possible by the collection of detailed environmental data from the study sites. It was found that of the ARR seasonal changes in environmental conditions were so marked that they often obscured the effects of environmental gradients along a watercourse and differing environmental conditions characteristics of different types of waterbody. Hence it may not be entirely satisfactory to define environmental zones in these catchments based on overall environmental conditions through the whole seasonal cycle, because changes in any one such zone between seasons result in very marked changes in the fish communities of habitats in that zone. 34 refs., 22 tabs., 45 figs., 3 maps

  7. ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF CYANOBACTERIA IN SEWAGE POND OF H.E.C INDUSTRIAL AREA, RANCHI INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecological study of the sewage stabilization pond of HEC area, Hatia, Ranchi has been taken for the first time in this area. Studies were conducted to determine the occurrence and abundance of cyanobacteria in relation to physico-chemical characteristics of sewage pond. It assumes significance of algae mostly cyanobacteria can be used as bioindicators of water pollution in different water habitat of the area. Increased eutrophication from domestic effluent, sewage promotes the development of algal bloom. This study indicates the maximum occurrence and abundance of Microcystis, Oscillatoria, and phormidium spp. in all sites of the sewage pond. The physico-chemical analysis shows maximum nitrogen up to 35.4 mg l-1, 4.8 mg l-1 phosphate, 147.131 mg l-1 chloride and alkaline nature of water throughout the year favour the growth of cyanophycean members and promote algal bloom formation of Microcystis aeruginosa, O.princeps and O.tenuis in this pond.

  8. Associations between the macroeconomic indicators and suicide rates in India: Two ecological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anto P Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: While western studies have focused on the importance of psychiatric illnesses in the complex pathways leading to suicides, several Indian studies have highlighted the important contributions by economic, social, and cultural factors. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that annual national suicide rates and suicide rates of the different states in India were associated with macroeconomic indices. Materials and Methods: Data from the National crime records bureau, Ministry of finance, labour bureau, Government of India, population commission, and planning commission official portals, World Bank and the United Nations were accessed. We assessed the correlations of annual national and state-wise suicide rates with macroeconomic, health, and other indices using ecological study design for India, and for its different states and union territories. Results: We documented statistically significant associations between the suicide rates and per capita gross domestic product, consumer price index, foreign exchange, trade balance, total health expenditure as well as literacy rates. Conclusions: As recent economic growth in India is associated with increasing suicide rates, macroeconomic policies emphasizing equitable distribution of resources may help curtailing the population suicide rates in India.

  9. Defining and measuring ecological specialization

    OpenAIRE

    Devictor, Vincent; Clavel, Joanne; Julliard, Romain; LAVERGNE, Sébastien; Mouillot, David; Thuiller, Wilfried; Venail, Patrick; Villéger, Sébastien; Mouquet, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    1.  Ecological specialization is one of the main concepts in ecology and conservation. However, this concept has become highly context-dependent and is now obscured by the great variability of existing definitions and methods used to characterize ecological specialization. 2.  In this study, we clarify this concept by reviewing the strengths and limitations of different approaches commonly used to define and measure ecological specialization. We first show that ecological specialization can e...

  10. Ecotoxicogenomics to Support Ecological Risk Assessment: A Case Study with Bisphenol A in Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicogenomic approaches are being increasingly applied in the field of ecotoxicology. Given the growing availability of ecotoxicogenomic data, the Agency and the broader scientific community are actively engaged in considering how best to use those data to support ecological ris...

  11. Terrestrial Ecology Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, James W., Ed.; Hall, James A., Ed.

    This collection of study units focuses on the study of the ecology of land habitats. Considered are such topics as map reading, field techniques, forest ecosystem, birds, insects, small mammals, soils, plant ecology, preparation of terrariums, air pollution, photography, and essentials of an environmental studies program. Each unit contains

  12. Robert Park and Ernest Burgess, Urban Ecology Studies, 1925. CSISS Classics

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Nina

    2002-01-01

    In the 1920s, Park and Burgess developed a distinctive program of urban research at the University of Chicago. In  projects focused on Chicago, they elaborated a theory of urban ecology that drew parallels with processes found in natural ecosystems, leading ultimately to  the division of the urban space into distinctive ecological niches or "natural areas" in which people shared similar social characteristics.

  13. Effects Of Urban Parks On Urban Ecology: A Case Study On The City Of Eskisehir

    OpenAIRE

    TUNA, Aysun

    2015-01-01

    Fast population increase, dense housing and defective urban planning, which are the main environmental problems, cause destruction of urban ecologic balance. Urban open green area systems have substantial functions such as balancing defective relationship between humans and nature and improvement of urban living conditions. Parks are components of open green area system having vital contributions for the habitability of cities, protection of ecological environment, urban aesthetics, education...

  14. Studying Consumers’ Ecological Consciousness – A Comparative Analysis of Romania, Malaysia and Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Jamilah Ahmad; Imran Ali; Georgiana Florentina Grigore; Alin Stancu

    2012-01-01

    In the context of an increasing discourse on sustainability and environmental protection, the research on ecological consumer behavior becomes a necessity for companies. The extension in number of multinational companies determines an adaptation of their policies from one country to another. Based on a comparative approach of consumers in Romania, Malaysia and Pakistan, this paper analysis the dimensions of ecological consciousness, and highlights similarities and differences between the coun...

  15. Theory of ecological resilience and their application to soil fauna studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sterzyńska, M.; Nicia, P.; Pižl, Václav; Starý, Josef; Tajovský, Karel

    České Budějovice : Institute of Soil Biology, BC ASCR, 2013. s. 54. ISBN 978-80-86525-23-5. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /12./. 08.04.2013-11.04.2013, České Budějovice] Grant ostatní: National Science Center(PL) 1562/B/p01/2011/40 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ecological resilience * soil fauna Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  16. Mapping green infrastructure based on ecosystem services and ecological networks. A Pan-European case study

    OpenAIRE

    LIQUETE GARCIA MARIA DEL CAMINO; KLEESCHULTE Stefan; DIGE Gorm; MAES JOACHIM; Grizzetti, Bruna; Olah, Branislav; ZULIAN GRAZIA

    2014-01-01

    Identifying, promoting and preserving a strategically planned green infrastructure (GI) network can provide ecological, economic and social benefits. It has also become a priority for the planning and decision-making process in sectors such as conservation, (land) resource efficiency, agriculture, forestry or urban development. In this paper we propose a methodology that can be used to identify and map GI elements at landscape level based on the notions of ecological connectivity, multi-fu...

  17. The Ecological Footprint as an Educational Tool for Sustainability: A Case Study Analysis in an Israeli Public High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Dan; Vigoda-Gadot, Eran; Haim, Abraham; Kissinger, Meidad

    2012-01-01

    Education is widely acknowledged to be a means for advancing environmental sustainability. Many schools have recently introduced the idea of sustainability into their educational agenda and curriculum. This study uses an innovative method of communicating the principle of sustainability, the "Ecological Footprint" Analysis, which illustrates the

  18. The Association between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement in Texas State House Legislative Districts: An Ecologic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janak, Jud C.; Gabriel, Kelley P.; Oluyomi, Abiodun O.; Perz, Adriana; Kohl, Harold W.; Kelder, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The association of physical fitness with cognitive function in children and adolescents is unclear. The purpose of this ecological study was to describe the association between academic achievement, body mass index (BMI), and cardiovascular fitness (CVF) in a large sample of elementary, middle, and high school students in Texas.

  19. Switching on and Switching off in Mathematics: An Ecological Study of Future Intent and Disengagement among Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Anderson, Judy; Bobis, Janette; Way, Jennifer; Vellar, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Prompted by international concerns about school and postschool participation in mathematics, the authors of the present study sought to investigate factors predicting "switching on" and "switching off" in mathematics, operationalized through measures of future intent and disengagement, respectively. They drew from Bronfenbrenner's ecological model

  20. The Effect of Recycling Education on High School Students' Conceptual Understanding about Ecology: A Study on Matter Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugulu, Ilker; Yorek, Nurettin; Baslar, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze and determine whether a developed recycling education program would lead to a positive change in the conceptual understanding of ecological concepts associated with matter cycles by high school students. The research was conducted on 68 high school 10th grade students (47 female and 21 male students). The

  1. Revisiting the Affect Regulation Model of Binge Eating: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2011-01-01

    The affect regulation model of binge eating, which posits that patients binge eat to reduce negative affect (NA), has received support from cross-sectional and laboratory-based studies. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves momentary ratings and repeated assessments over time and is ideally suited to identify temporal antecedents and

  2. Factors associated with inter-municipality differences in dental caries experience among Danish adolescents. An ecological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Christiansen, M E C; Qvist, V; Ismail, A

    2009-01-01

    Ekstrand KR, Christiansen MEC, Qvist V, Ismail A. Factors associated with inter-municipality differences in dental caries experience among Danish adolescents. An ecological study. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2009; 00: 000-000. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/SAbstract - Background: Caries on...

  3. QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN FOR 1991 PILOT STUDY OF ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this quality assurance plan is to detail the methods and procedures to be used in the pilot study of the ecological condition in municipal wastewater constructed wetland treatment systems. t includes specific procedures for assuring that data are of known, high qua...

  4. The Ecological Footprint as an Educational Tool for Sustainability: A Case Study Analysis in an Israeli Public High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Dan; Vigoda-Gadot, Eran; Haim, Abraham; Kissinger, Meidad

    2012-01-01

    Education is widely acknowledged to be a means for advancing environmental sustainability. Many schools have recently introduced the idea of sustainability into their educational agenda and curriculum. This study uses an innovative method of communicating the principle of sustainability, the "Ecological Footprint" Analysis, which illustrates the…

  5. A Case Study of Blended Teaching and Learning in a New Zealand Secondary School, Using an Ecological Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaka, Pinelopi

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a case study that investigated how blended teaching and learning was implemented in a New Zealand secondary school. An ecological perspective was taken to clarify the complexity of blended teaching and learning implementation by researching the roles of students, teachers, school leaders and other educational…

  6. Using Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory to Understand Community Partnerships: A Historical Case Study of One Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Although the value of school-community partnerships is unquestioned, the reasons for success and failure are not sufficiently understood. This mixed-methods case study examines 60 years of partnering at one urban high school, using Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory to better understand the effect on student development as measured by…

  7. Studying Behavioral Ecology on High School & College Campuses: A Practical Guide to Measuring Foraging Behavior Using Urban Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Mohammad A. Abu; Emerson, Sara E.; Brown, Joel S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a practical field exercise for ecology and animal behavior classes that can be carried out on campus, using urban wildlife. Students document an animal's feeding behavior to study its interactions with the surrounding environment. In this approach, an animal's feeding behavior is quantified at experimental food patches placed within its

  8. Revisiting the Affect Regulation Model of Binge Eating: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2011-01-01

    The affect regulation model of binge eating, which posits that patients binge eat to reduce negative affect (NA), has received support from cross-sectional and laboratory-based studies. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves momentary ratings and repeated assessments over time and is ideally suited to identify temporal antecedents and…

  9. Studying Behavioral Ecology on High School & College Campuses: A Practical Guide to Measuring Foraging Behavior Using Urban Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Mohammad A. Abu; Emerson, Sara E.; Brown, Joel S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a practical field exercise for ecology and animal behavior classes that can be carried out on campus, using urban wildlife. Students document an animal's feeding behavior to study its interactions with the surrounding environment. In this approach, an animal's feeding behavior is quantified at experimental food patches placed within its…

  10. "Where would you like to work and why?” Legal ecology enterprise models for comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Tackney, Charles T.

    2008-01-01

    This Working Paper for the Department of Intercultural Communications and Management (IKL) of Copenhagen Business School is being filed to record a path that combines educational concerns related to the European Undergraduate – Research Oriented Participatory Educational model of Copenhagen Business School with comparative industrial relations research stream concerned with labor law and contemporary enterprise ecology studies of employee participation in management prerogative.

  11. The artificial catchment `Chicken Creek' (`Huehnerwasser') as a new research tool for hydrological and ecological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwin, W.; Schaaf, W.; Hüttl, R. F.

    2009-04-01

    The most important framework of many ecological studies are watersheds as landscape units for water and element budgets. However, internal structures of natural catchments are often not well known due to natural heterogeneity and difficult boundary conditions. Important information has to be extrapolated from point measurements or indirect exploration methods. In contrast, artificial watersheds have the advantage of better defined boundaries and internal structures. Both local boundary conditions, e.g. the accordance of the surface and the groundwater catchment or hydrologic parameters like drainage patterns, discharge points and stratification can be designed and precisely documented during site construction. A recently launched German-Swiss Collaborative Research Centre is investigating the 'Chicken Creek' watershed which can be seen as one of the largest artificially created catchments for scientific purposes worldwide. The main hypothesis of the Collaborative Research Centre is that initial structures define and shape the development of an ecosystem as well as its later stages. Against this background the artificial catchment was designed to offer manifold opportunities for hydrological oriented as well as ecological studies of an initial ecosystem. As internal structures are well known and the surface and subsurface boundaries are well defined compared to natural catchments the site offers high potentials for improving hydrological and ecological models. The catchment ‘Chicken Creek' in Lusatia (Germany; 150 km SE from Berlin) has an area of 6 ha. It was constructed as a 2-4 m layer of post-glacial sandy to loamy sediments overlying a 1-2 m layer of Tertiary clay that forms a shallow pan and seals the whole catchment at the base. No further measures of restoration like planting, amelioration or fertilization were carried out to allow natural succession and undisturbed development. At the bottom of the catchment a small lake with a diameter of 70 m and a maximum depth of 3 m was established. The site was fenced in completely to avoid disturbances and vandalism particularly by human visitors but also by abundant game animals in the area. The construction operations were completed in September 2005 which can be defined as the ‘point zero' of the ongoing development of the site. A comprehensive monitoring programme has been started immediately after completion to investigate the development and differentiation of structures during the intial phase of ecosystem genesis. All spatial information on structures and processes will be brought together in the central integrating structure and process model that has to be developed within the project. This model will be the most important tool to differentiate and to elucidate different development phases. The objective of this structure and process model is the visualization of temporal and spatial dynamics and the interpretation of structure-process-interactions.

  12. Chemical mixtures and environmental effects: a pilot study to assess ecological exposure and effects in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Bradley, Paul M.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Mills, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and management of the risks of exposure to complex chemical mixtures in streams are priorities for human and environmental health organizations around the world. The current lack of information on the composition and variability of environmental mixtures and a limited understanding of their combined effects are fundamental obstacles to timely identification and prevention of adverse human and ecological effects of exposure. This report describes the design of a field-based study of the composition and biological activity of chemical mixtures in U.S. stream waters affected by a wide range of human activities and contaminant sources. The study is a collaborative effort by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Scientists sampled 38 streams spanning 24 States and Puerto Rico. Thirty-four of the sites were located in watersheds impacted by multiple contaminant sources, including industrial and municipal wastewater discharges, crop and animal agricultural runoff, urban runoff, and other point and nonpoint contaminant sources. The remaining four sites were minimally development reference watersheds. All samples underwent comprehensive chemical and biological characterization, including sensitive and specific direct analysis for over 700 dissolved organic and inorganic chemicals and field parameters, identification of unknown contaminants (environmental diagnostics), and a variety of bioassays to evaluate biological activity and toxicity.

  13. Studies of the ecology of insects sterilized artificially (gamma radiation), 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental results of artificially sterilized insects studied with gamma rays from 1968 to 1977 are reviewed and summarized from a statistical and population ecological point of view. The discussion is based on experimental results of callosobruchus chinensis, spodoptera litura and dacus dorsalis. A model of population fluctuations was constructed theoretically by experimental results concerning the effect of insecticides, heats or gamma rays upon oviposition, sex ratio and survival rate during growing period of insects. The theoretical population fluctuation brought about by insecticides or heats became wide, the population density was high and remarkable peak appeared frequently in succeeding generations. On the other hand, that induced by gamma rays was narrow and the population density maintained a low level during several generations. Such a theoretical fluctuation was demonstrated by experiments dealt with the experimental population of callosobruchus chinensis. Sexual competitiveness between sterilized males and normal ones in the mixed population was discussed theoretically. The relationship between log (S/N) and hatchability of egg laid ought to show a straight line. The difference between the theoretical log (S/N)-hatchability regression equation and the experimental one was examined. Growth of population containing some sterile males was studied by means of theoretical calculation of population numbers from generation to generation. The rate of increase of the strilized populations was found to be remarkably smaller than that of normal ones. (Iwakiri, K.)

  14. Heterozygote Advantage Probably Maintains Rhesus Factor Blood Group Polymorphism: Ecological Regression Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Rhesus factor polymorphism has been an evolutionary enigma since its discovery in 1939. Carriers of the rarer allele should be eliminated by selection against Rhesus positive children born to Rhesus negative mothers. Here I used an ecologic regression study to test the hypothesis that Rhesus factor polymorphism is stabilized by heterozygote advantage. The study was performed in 65 countries for which the frequencies of RhD phenotypes and specific disease burden data were available. I performed multiple multivariate covariance analysis with five potential confounding variables: GDP, latitude (distance from the equator), humidity, medical care expenditure per capita and frequencies of smokers. The results showed that the burden associated with many diseases correlated with the frequencies of particular Rhesus genotypes in a country and that the direction of the relation was nearly always the opposite for the frequency of Rhesus negative homozygotes and that of Rhesus positive heterozygotes. On the population level, a Rhesus-negativity-associated burden could be compensated for by the heterozygote advantage, but for Rhesus negative subjects this burden represents a serious problem. PMID:26811928

  15. Heterozygote Advantage Probably Maintains Rhesus Factor Blood Group Polymorphism: Ecological Regression Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Rhesus factor polymorphism has been an evolutionary enigma since its discovery in 1939. Carriers of the rarer allele should be eliminated by selection against Rhesus positive children born to Rhesus negative mothers. Here I used an ecologic regression study to test the hypothesis that Rhesus factor polymorphism is stabilized by heterozygote advantage. The study was performed in 65 countries for which the frequencies of RhD phenotypes and specific disease burden data were available. I performed multiple multivariate covariance analysis with five potential confounding variables: GDP, latitude (distance from the equator), humidity, medical care expenditure per capita and frequencies of smokers. The results showed that the burden associated with many diseases correlated with the frequencies of particular Rhesus genotypes in a country and that the direction of the relation was nearly always the opposite for the frequency of Rhesus negative homozygotes and that of Rhesus positive heterozygotes. On the population level, a Rhesus-negativity-associated burden could be compensated for by the heterozygote advantage, but for Rhesus negative subjects this burden represents a serious problem. PMID:26811928

  16. A Clinical Case Study of the use of Ecological Momentary Assessment in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ClareSamanthaRees

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of obsessions and compulsions is a crucial step in treatment planning for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD. In this pilot study, we sought to determine if the use of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA could provide additional symptom information beyond that captured during standard assessment of OCD. We studied three adults diagnosed with OCD and compared the number and types of obsessions and compulsions captured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS compared to EMA. Following completion of the Y-BOCS interview, participants then recorded their OCD symptoms into a digital voice recorder across a twelve-hour period in reply to randomly sent mobile phone SMS prompts. The EMA approach yielded a lower number of symptoms of obsessions and compulsions than the Y-BOCS but produced additional types of obsessions and compulsions not identified by the Y-BOCS. We conclude that the EMA-OCD procedure may represent a worthy addition to the suite of assessment tools used when working with clients who have OCD. Further research with larger samples is required to strengthen this conclusion.

  17. Medico-ecological study and health impact assessment of hydro-electric projects in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this studies were to determine i) if there was any potential health risks in terms of spread of vector-borne and other communicable diseases resulting from the changes in the environment due to creation of large bodies of water as consequence of the construction of dams, ii) diseases of public health importance in populations affected by such projects. Nine pre-impoundment studies had been carried out and potential impact of the change in environment on discases and health of the affected populations in each areas was evaluated. Risk of infections to the dam construction workers also assessed. Recommendations on mitigation measures were made for each situation so that adequate provisions could be made to improve the health conditions of these populations especially those who would be resettled as a result of impoundment . Prevention and control measures on transmission of infection, including vector control were proposed. The potential medico-ecological hazards encountered by immigrants and visitors to the area on completion of the hydro project were also envisaged

  18. Applying ecological criteria to marine reserve design: A case study from the California Channel Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airame, S.; Dugan, J.E.; Lafferty, K.D.; Leslie, H.; McArdle, D.A.; Warner, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Using ecological criteria as a theoretical framework, we describe the steps involved in designing a network of marine reserves for conservation and fisheries management. Although we describe the case study of the Channel Islands, the approach to marine reserve design may be effective in other regions where traditional management alone does not sustain marine resources. A group of agencies, organizations, and individuals established clear goals for marine reserves in the Channel Islands, including conservation of ecosystem biodiversity, sustainable fisheries, economic viability, natural and cultural heritage, and education. Given the constraints of risk management, experimental design, monitoring, and enforcement, scientists recommended at least one, but no more than four, reserves in each biogeographic region. In general, the percentage of an area to be included in a reserve network depends on the goals. In the Channel Islands, after consideration of both conservation goals and the risk from human threats and natural catastrophes, scientists recommended reserving an area of 30-50% of all representative habitats in each biogeographic region. For most species of concern, except pinnipeds and seabirds, information about distributions, dispersal, and population growth was limited. As an alternative to species distribution information, suitable habitats for species of concern were used to locate potential reserve sites. We used a simulated annealing algorithm to identify potential reserve network scenarios that would represent all habitats within the smallest area possible. The analysis produced an array of potential reserve network scenarios that all met the established goals.

  19. Ecological study of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in soil: growth ability, conidia production and molecular detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richini-Pereira Virgínia

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ecology is not completely understood, although several pieces of evidence point to the soil as its most probable habitat. The present study aimed to investigate the fungal growth, conidia production and molecular pathogen detection in different soil conditions. Methods Soils samples of clayey, sandy and medium textures were collected from ground surface and the interior of armadillo burrows in a hyperendemic area of Paracoccidioidomycosis. P. brasiliensis was inoculated in soil with controlled humidity and in culture medium containing soil extracts. The molecular detection was carried out by Nested PCR, using panfungal and species specific primers from the ITS-5.8S rDNA region. Results The soil texture does not affect fungus development and the growth is more abundant on/in soil saturated with water. Some soil samples inhibited the development of P. brasiliensis, especially those that contain high values of Exchangeable Aluminum (H+Al in their composition. Some isolates produced a large number of conidia, mainly in soil-extract agar medium. The molecular detection was positive only in samples collected from armadillo burrows, both in sandy and clayey soil. Conclusion P. brasiliensis may grow and produce the infectious conidia in sandy and clayey soil, containing high water content, mainly in wild animal burrows, but without high values of H+Al.

  20. Non invasive methods for genetic analysis applied to ecological and behavioral studies in Latino-America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana González

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Documenting the presence and abundance of the neotropical mammals is the first step for understanding their population ecology, behavior and genetic dynamics in designing conservation plans. The combination of field research with molecular genetics techniques are new tools that provide valuable biological information avoiding the disturbance in the ecosystems, trying to minimize the human impact in the process to gather biological information. The objective of this paper is to review the available non invasive sampling techniques that have been used in Neotropical mammal studies to apply to determine the presence and abundance, population structure, sex ratio, taxonomic diagnostic using mitochondrial markers, and assessing genetic variability using nuclear markers. There are a wide range of non invasive sampling techniques used to determine the species identification that inhabit an area such as searching for tracks, feces, and carcasses. Other useful equipment is the camera traps that can generate an image bank that can be valuable to assess species presence and abundance by morphology. With recent advances in molecular biology, it is now possible to use the trace amounts of DNA in feces and amplify it to analyze the species diversity in an area, and the genetic variability at intraspecific level. This is particularly helpful in cases of sympatric and cryptic species in which morphology failed to diagnose the taxonomic status of several species of brocket deer of the genus Mazama.

  1. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 2 study of the radio-ecological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data compiled and processed within the framework of the French-German Initiative represent the so far most comprehensive collection of electronic data that has ever been put together on the topic of the 'Study of the radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'.The R.E.D.A.C. database system provides a powerful tool for the reconstruction of the dispersion of radionuclides through ecosystems and food chains and for the interpretation and prediction of their long-term behaviour. This allows the development of effective countermeasures to minimise risks to human health and improve the overall environmental situation. R.E.D.A.C. can also be used for the development and verification of realistic radioecology models. As the data were acquired under realistic conditions, the results can be used directly for model calculations in emergencies. This allows concrete planning, e. g. in connection with the securing of waste, its disposal, and the ecological restoration of waste disposal sites. The data also allow a reconstruction of the radioecological situation in the past, an analysis of the current situation, and predictions of future developments of the accident consequences on a large as well as on a small scale. (N.C.)

  2. Air Manganese Levels and Chronic Liver Disease Mortality in North Carolina Counties: An Ecological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Spangler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Manganese is an essential trace element which is toxic in high doses. Over the past several decades, manganese has replaced lead as the anti-knock agent in gasoline, raising concern about air and road-side contamination with this element. In addition, manganese is absorbed by the liver, making specific populations (e.g., pregnant women, infants and children, and patients with liver disease susceptible to its toxic effects. Using data from the US Census Bureau, the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics, and the US Environmental Protection Agency, this ecological study evaluated chronic liver disease mortality rates in North Carolina’s 100 counties. It correlated these rates with county-level demographics as well as on-road and non-road air borne manganese concentrations. Median income by county was inversely associated with chronic liver disease mortality, while the logarithmically transformed airborne concentrations of on-road manganese were positively correlated with county-level chronic liver disease mortality. Because environmental manganese near roads is likely to increase over time, these pilot findings potentially have regulatory implications and argue for further research.

  3. Ecological study of pine forest clearings along the French Atlantic sand dunes: Perspectives of restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemauviel, Servane; Roze, Franoise

    2000-05-01

    The 18th century afforestation campaign carried out in western France to fix sand dunes has left only a small surface of non-forested dunes. As dune plantations have only a small conservation value, it would be of great interest to restore grey dunes. But, for the moment, there is no proof that pine felling would lead to grey dunes. So, a study has been carried out on pine forest clearings along the French Atlantic shoreline. Floral and ecological data were carried out and analysed with two statistical tools, CA (canonical analysis) and CCA (canonical correspondence analysis). The clearings appear very different from one bank of the Gironde river to the other. South of the river, the clearing vegetation develops on acid soils and possess some thermophilous species. North of the river, the clearings are composed mostly of species growing best on calcareous soils. Apart from geographical variations, clearings showed two patterns of response: development of closed thickets and tall heathlands; or an open vegetation similar to growing heathlands and grasslands. The cover, the height, the floral richness per strata as well as pedological characteristics are the parameters which explain the best floristic composition of pine clearings. The vigour of pine forests and the degree of exposure to coastal influences determine whether close or open vegetation develops. Where there is an open vegetation, restoration of grey dunes may be possible. In the other case, alternative solutions, such as the restoration of dune woodlands or dune heath, may provide best conservation values.

  4. THE PROBLEM OF STUDYING NEOLOGISMS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE ECOLOGY OF LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamne Nikolay Leonidovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article raises the issues of neology and ecolinguistics. The authors specify the criteria of ecolinguistic approach to studying neologisms based on ecolinguistic monitoring which helps to elicit factors that influence the formation of new words, spheres in which they function in language as well as to define the type of new words and number of loanwords among them. The data under analysis is compiled by about 3 000 new words that appeared in English and Dutch in the last three decades. The authors elicit the main changes in the ecology of the Dutch language on different levels in the stated time frame together with the factors that motivate the formation of neologisms. Among extralinguistic factors the authors list such determinants as the emergence of new realia; scientific and technical advancement; globalization and development of the Internet. To intralinguistic factors the following are referred: linguistic economy; expressiveness of linguistic means; systematization of the vocabulary; unification of linguistic signs; conversion and the shift in stylistic usage of the words can also generate neologisms. Future development of the ecolinguistic approach in neology will help to track the evolution of modern national language and preserve its ecolinguistic balance. The research results can be used in language education, lexicographic practice or state language policy.

  5. [Behavior ecological study on copulation and oviposition of Apis cerana cerana Fab].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Linsheng; Meng, Xiangjin; Wu, Chengwu

    2003-11-01

    The behavior ecology of copulation and oviposition of Apis cerana cerana Fab. was studied. The results showed that temperature influence on the cell-covered time of Apis cerana cerana queen and drone induced the remarkable difference in their newborn weight and mature time (P drone fly frequency for discerning cell was 1.23-1.31 and 1.08-1.13, and duration was 0.12-0.13 h and 0.16-0.20 h. Their copulation fly frequency was 1.10-1.12 and 1.10-1.05, and duration was 0.22-0.23 h and 0.18-0.23 h. The most suitable temperature for copulation was 20-28 degrees C. The number of semen in side--oviduct of the queen in each copulation fly was 3.37 x 10(6)-4.15 x 10(6), and in natural copulation, semen number in spermathecal sac was 3.55 x 10(6)-3.62 x 10(6). There was a direct relationship between queen newborn weight and ovulation number. The annual effect of climate and flower fertility on the queen's ovulation number was obvious. PMID:14997654

  6. Utilizing Underwater Three-Dimensional Modeling to Enhance Ecological and Biological Studies of Coral Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J. H. R.; Delparte, D.; Gates, R. D.; Takabayashi, M.

    2015-04-01

    The structural complexity of coral reefs profoundly affects the biodiversity, productivity, and overall functionality of reef ecosystems. Conventional survey techniques utilize 2-dimensional metrics that are inadequate for accurately capturing and quantifying the intricate structural complexity of scleractinian corals. A 3-dimensional (3D) approach improves the capacity to accurately measure architectural complexity, topography, rugosity, volume, and other structural characteristics that play a significant role in habitat facilitation and ecosystem processes. This study utilized Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry techniques to create 3D mesh models for several Hawaiian corals that represent distinct morphological phenotypes. The orthophotos and digital elevation models generated from the SfM process were imported into geospatial analysis software in order to quantify several metrics pertaining to 3D complexity that are known to affect ecosystem biodiversity and productivity. The 3D structural properties of the reconstructed coral colonies were statistically analyzed to determine if the each species represents a unique morpho-functional group. The SfM reconstruction techniques described in this paper can be utilized for an array of research purposes to improve our understanding of how changes in coral composition affect habitat structure and ecological processes in coral reef ecosystems.

  7. Spatial modeling using mixed models: an ecologic study of visceral leishmaniasis in Teresina, Piau State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werneck Guilherme L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Most ecologic studies use geographical areas as units of observation. Because data from areas close to one another tend to be more alike than those from distant areas, estimation of effect size and confidence intervals should consider spatial autocorrelation of measurements. In this report we demonstrate a method for modeling spatial autocorrelation within a mixed model framework, using data on environmental and socioeconomic determinants of the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in the city of Teresina, Piau, Brazil. A model with a spherical covariance structure indicated significant spatial autocorrelation in the data and yielded a better fit than one assuming independent observations. While both models showed a positive association between VL incidence and residence in a favela (slum or in areas with green vegetation, values for the fixed effects and standard errors differed substantially between the models. Exploration of the data's spatial correlation structure through the semivariogram should precede the use of these models. Our findings support the hypothesis of spatial dependence of VL rates and indicate that it might be useful to model spatial correlation in order to obtain more accurate point and standard error estimates.

  8. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 2 study of the radio-ecological consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    The data compiled and processed within the framework of the French-German Initiative represent the so far most comprehensive collection of electronic data that has ever been put together on the topic of the 'Study of the radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'.The R.E.D.A.C. database system provides a powerful tool for the reconstruction of the dispersion of radionuclides through ecosystems and food chains and for the interpretation and prediction of their long-term behaviour. This allows the development of effective countermeasures to minimise risks to human health and improve the overall environmental situation. R.E.D.A.C. can also be used for the development and verification of realistic radioecology models. As the data were acquired under realistic conditions, the results can be used directly for model calculations in emergencies. This allows concrete planning, e. g. in connection with the securing of waste, its disposal, and the ecological restoration of waste disposal sites. The data also allow a reconstruction of the radioecological situation in the past, an analysis of the current situation, and predictions of future developments of the accident consequences on a large as well as on a small scale. (N.C.)

  9. Diet and mortality from common cancers in Brazil: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sichieri Rosely

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective ecological evaluation of mortality from common malignancies with dietary risk factors and alcohol consumption was carried out among 10 state capitals of Brazil. Regression analysis was used to examine the association of dietary intake with mortality rates of the most common cancers among adults age 30 years and older. Age-adjusted cancer mortality rates varied 2.4 to 3.3 fold across the state capitals. A positive relationship was observed between energy intake and colon, lung, and esophageal cancer (p<=0.02 for each. Colon cancer mortality was positively associated with consumption of total fat, eggs, alcohol, mate tea, cereals, and vegetables (p<=0.01. Lung cancer was positively associated with mate and cereal intake (p<0.05. Stomach cancer was associated with consumption of eggs (p=0.04; and negatively associated with consumption of high fiber foods, fruits, and vitamin A and C (p<=0.05. Esophageal cancer was positively associated with fat intake, mate and cereals (p<=0.05 and negatively associated with vitamin A (p=0.02; prostate cancer was negatively associated with vitamin C (p=0.007. Breast cancer was not associated with any of the factors studied. The marked variation in cancer mortality rates in Brazil may be partially related to the high variation in dietary components or other diet associated factors.

  10. Diet and mortality from common cancers in Brazil: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosely Sichieri

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available A prospective ecological evaluation of mortality from common malignancies with dietary risk factors and alcohol consumption was carried out among 10 state capitals of Brazil. Regression analysis was used to examine the association of dietary intake with mortality rates of the most common cancers among adults age 30 years and older. Age-adjusted cancer mortality rates varied 2.4 to 3.3 fold across the state capitals. A positive relationship was observed between energy intake and colon, lung, and esophageal cancer (p<=0.02 for each. Colon cancer mortality was positively associated with consumption of total fat, eggs, alcohol, mate tea, cereals, and vegetables (p<=0.01. Lung cancer was positively associated with mate and cereal intake (p<0.05. Stomach cancer was associated with consumption of eggs (p=0.04; and negatively associated with consumption of high fiber foods, fruits, and vitamin A and C (p<=0.05. Esophageal cancer was positively associated with fat intake, mate and cereals (p<=0.05 and negatively associated with vitamin A (p=0.02; prostate cancer was negatively associated with vitamin C (p=0.007. Breast cancer was not associated with any of the factors studied. The marked variation in cancer mortality rates in Brazil may be partially related to the high variation in dietary components or other diet associated factors.

  11. Morphologically Cryptic Amphipod Species Are "Ecological Clones" at Regional but Not at Local Scale: A Case Study of Four Niphargus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fier, iga; Altermatt, Florian; Zakek, Valerija; Knapi?, Tea; Fier, Cene

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that morphologically cryptic species may be ecologically more different than would be predicted from their morphological similarity and phylogenetic relatedness. However, in biodiversity research it often remains unclear whether cryptic species should be treated as ecologically equivalent, or whether detected differences have ecological significance. In this study, we assessed the ecological equivalence of four morphologically cryptic species of the amphipod genus Niphargus. All species live in a small, isolated area on the Istrian Peninsula in the NW Balkans. The distributional ranges of the species are partially overlapping and all species are living in springs. We reconstructed their ecological niches using morphological traits related to feeding, bioclimatic niche envelope and species' preference for epi-hypogean habitats. The ecological meaning of differences in niches was evaluated using distributional data and co-occurrence frequencies. We show that the species comprise two pairs of sister species. All species differ from each other and the degree of differentiation is not related to phylogenetic relatedness. Moreover, low co-occurrence frequencies in sympatric zones imply present or past interspecific competition. This pattern suggests that species are not differentiated enough to reduce interspecific competition, nor ecologically equivalent to co-exist via neutral dynamics. We tentatively conclude that the question of ecological equivalence relates to the scale of the study: at a fine scale, species' differences may influence dynamics in a local community, whereas at the regional level these species likely play roughly similar ecological roles. PMID:26226375

  12. Use of Isotopes for Investigating the Behaviour and Ecology of Insect Pests in Some Recent Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations into the ecology, behaviour, dispersal and longevity of insects have always provided challenges to the entomologist. The use of isotopes is an effective tool and the following is a report on some interesting problems solved by their application. Anopheles stephensi is the main vector o f malaria in southern Iran. On P32-labelled mosquitoes, the dispersal, behaviour, digestion of blood meal, maturation of ovaries and length of gonotrophic cycles were successfully worked out. It was found that in about 80% of the cases the mosquito needed two blood meals for the completion of the first cycle. The first cycle itself was completed in 4-5 d depending upon the temperature. Labelled mosquitoes which had emerged overnight were released in an isolated village. The ratio of active mosquitoes to total catch was worked out every day and thus, on the assumption that the natural population remained constant, the mortality rate, which was found to be exponential for the first six days, was worked out. The mating behaviour of the female was also studied by using normal females which had mated once with P32-labelled males. It was found that the female mates more than once and that after mating with an active male, the spermathead became active. Counts of up to twice the background (12 counts/min) were obtained by using males giving about 15 000 counts/min. Studies of the injection of saliva in glucose solution during feeding were also made on P32-labelled mosquitoes. Eurygaster integriceps is a serious pest of wheat in Iran, Pakistan and the Middle East. Using P32 activated wheat plants, the feeding behaviour of the first-instar nymph was investigated. Other foods, radioactively labelled, were also studied and it was found that feeding was essential for the first moult, even if the food consisted of water absorbed in a filter paper. (author)

  13. Ecological studies of small mammals in a nuclear site on Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological studies of small vertebrates in nuclear event sites in NTS began in spring 1977 with the establishment of a permanent live-trapping grid in Little Feller II. These study areas are located in Area 18, a relatively homogeneous area vegetatively and topographically. Most of the flora and fauna are typical of the Great Basin desert found in southern Nevada. Dominant vegetation includes Artemesia spp. and to a lesser extent Atriplex. Salsola is an abundant weed in areas that have been mechanically disturbed such as the vicinity of GZ. A 400-station live-trapping grid was established in Little Feller II, April 1977. Sixteen lines of live traps (25 traps per line, each trap 50 feet apart) comprise the 8.4 hectare grid encompassing GZ. Nine trapping periods have been completed to date totaling over 10,000 trap nights. Over 400 small vertebrates have been marked for permanent identification in the grid. Over 60 known residents (animals marked 3 months previously and recaptured in the same vicinity) have been collected and prepared for shipping; however, radioanalytical results were not available to include in this report. Both census and field note observations were used to develop an inventory of the vertebrates found in the study areas. Sufficient data have been generated from Little Feller II to estimate density of rodents. These data and comparative data from Area 5 (Mohave Desert), Area 11 (Transition), and Area 13 (Great Basin) are presented. It was readily apparent that rodents in general were more numerous in Little Feller II. In addition, Dipodomys ordii, a Great Basin species, was an important new addition to the rodent fauna

  14. [Demography and human ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazareth, J M

    1993-01-01

    At the end of the 19th century the German biologist Ernest Haekel was the first scientist to use the term ecology, which was defined as the study of relationships of organisms or groups of organisms with the environment and indicated the interdependence of the living world, including plants, animals, and humans. This concept also indicates a continuous process of adaptation of organisms to their external environment. The basic concepts of scientific ecology, which developed at the end of the 19th century, can be attributed to Darwin: the relationships between living beings and the notion of the process of adaptation to their environment. The term human ecology appeared in the early 1920s. Human ecology embodies fundamental ideas: biotype, habitat, community, biocenosis, ecosystem, biomass, interchange and equilibrium, and circulation of energy. The accumulated knowledge about human ecology is broken down using the criteria of topography (ecology of humid forests, deserts, lakes, etc.); followed by the appearance of species; and the variants of classical division: auto ecology (influence of external factors on living beings) and sinecology (the study of groups of associated organisms, i.e., natural, animal, and vegetation communities). The species are considered on the basis of equality or sinecology (all of them have the same interests), while in human ecology a species is determined by its relation to a reference group--autoecology or anthropocentric ecology. In 1911, J. Thompson bridged the gap between biological knowledge and social sciences; in 1921, H. Barrows identified human ecology as a component of geography; in 1925, L. Bernard presented the classification of ecosystems; and in 1936, Ezra Park published his work, Human Ecology, followed in 1945 by the emergence of the Chicago school. Demography and human ecology are intimately connected because population is the result of natural and migratory movements, therefore the two sciences require a methodology that integrates the dynamics of biocultural interactions. PMID:12179860

  15. Ecology, ethics, and professional environmental practice: The Yucca Mountain, Nevada, project as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to develop a geologic repository for disposing of high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this commentary, the ecology program for the DOE's Yucca Mountain Project is discussed from the perspective of state-of-the-art ecosystem analysis, environmental ethics, and standards of professional practice. Specifically at issue is the need by the Yucca Mountain ecology program to adopt an ecosystem approach that encompasses the current strategy based on population biology and community ecology alone. The premise here is that an ecosystem approach is essential for assessing the long-term potential environmental impacts at Yucca Mountain in light of the thermal effects expected to be associated with heat from radioactive decay

  16. Sudbury soils study : human health and ecological risk assessment : a case study in science, process and perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation discussed the public relations and public opinion strategies used as part of a soils study conducted to assess the risk of mining activities in the Sudbury region to human health and the environment. The human health risk assessment (HHRA) study was conducted and administered by a multi-stakeholder technical committee attended by the public. The study was comprised of extensive soil collection and analysis; a review of historical soils data; and extensive human health and ecological risk assessments. Extensive sampling was also conducted on air, dust, and locally-produced foods. A public advisory committee was formed to disseminate scientific information to the community. Scientific data obtained in the study were reviewed by experts in various fields. Results of the study were also peer-reviewed by an independent expert review panel comprised of leading specialists in human health, toxicology, speciation, and risk assessment. The study showed that the identified risks were over-estimated in the interest of protecting human health. It was concluded that the HHRA's findings were generally accepted by the public. tabs., figs

  17. Studies on Biology and Ecology of the Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diamondback moths, Plutella xylostella L. were reared with cabbage leaves under field condition at Khao Khor Highland Agricultural Research Station (16-47 degree celsius, 22-96% R.H.). The average duration of the egg, larval (1st and 2nd instar, 3rd instar and 4th instar), pupal and male and female adult stages were 3.21± 0.30, 5.57 ± 0.60, 3.16 ± 1.07, 3.43+0.97, 3.88 ± 1.59, 17.72 ± 2.74 and 16.16 ± 3.93 days respectively. Female laid eggs at 1 day old and the highest number of eggs were counted in the 2nd day of the oviposition period. The number of eggs laid per female averaged 109+77.60 eggs, ranging from 17 to 248 eggs. The life cycle from egg to adult stage was 13-31 days. The population parameters were the cohort generation time (Tc)=23.45 days, the net reproductive rate (Ro)=25 and the finite rate of increase (λ)=1.15 time per day respectively. Studies on reproductive system of this insect showed that the developed testes were found in the 4th instar larva while developed ovaries were found after emergence. Male mated many times (average 3.33 times) while almost female mated only once (92%). The ecological life table of this insect was studied in the cabbage field at the Khao Khor Highland Agricultural Research Station. The eggs hatch was 55.89% and the highest mortality occurred in the 1st and 2nd instar larval period (64.37%). The disease and parasites caused the high mortality in the 4th larval and pupal period (49.64 and 46.38%)

  18. Periodical Ecological Study of Deliya Lake of Visnagar. At. Visnagar. Ta.Visnagar, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.V.JOSHI , DR. R.S.PATEL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Visnagar city is located in north Gujarat (72 30 n and 73 30 n 23 0 e and 23 35 e. Visnagar taluka is popularly known as ‘Shikshan Nagari’ and also known as Copper city. The climate of visnagar is tropical arid to marginal semi-arid. It is strongly periodic and seasonal. There are many fresh water bodies are situated at and arou Deliya lake is natural fresh water body having 19 hector area & circular in shape. It is located between latitude230 41’ 60’’N longitude720 32’ 60’’ E. it is oldest lake of visnagar. It is also known as hanuman temple talav. Constructed before 10’th century.nd Visnagar taluka. The present study deals with the physico-chemical status of deliya lake. This water bodies has dense growth of algae and planktons in its. Physico-chemical status of lakes belongs to Visnagar Taluka were studied in year 2011. The physico- chemical parameters show pH, Dissolve Oxygen, totol dissolved Solid, E.C., Chloride, Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Calcium, Calcium Hardness, Magnesium, Magnesium Hardness, Fluoride, Nitrate, COD, BOD, etc and water is essential for living organisms especially like flora and fauna observed through various field trips. Showing abundance of analytic species and spirulina species with many other members of chlorophyceae. Euglenophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and cyanophyceae, microbiological analysis shows positive results for E.Coli, Vibro sp. and many other pathogenic. An isolated area of the lake is totally infested with eicchornia Spe. The migratory and local bird like plegadis falcinellus, Ardea parpurea, Egretta intermediate. Ardeola grayli, Dendrocygna, jaranica (and many more have been observed. If the sewage and other waste are diverted to some appropriate area other than the lake water quality and ecology of the pond can be restored and will be used in drinking and agriculture by the people.

  19. Study of technical and financial pre-feasibility to produce a natural shampoo and ecological

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of technical and financial pre-feasibility was described for producing natural shampoo, ecological and to determine attributes desired by people in that shampoo. A survey was performed to study which characteristics have improved the hair condition; and from the results a model was developed with which is backing the formulation of the shampoo. The proposed shampoo has had as functionality provide hair shine, moisturize, reconstruct, provide protection and has reduced the static (is anti-frizz) because has used biodegradable and friendly raw materials to the environment. The color is light green and its aroma-herbal will have a white container with green lid and will be marketed in 500mL presentation. The production process is done in six steps: reception, storage and dosing of raw materials, preparation of the surfactant and liquid phase of shampoo (addition of active natural preservatives, dyes and fragrances), preparation of the stabilizing phase, mixed, pH regulation and quality control, packaging and storage. A semi-continuous production system was suggested to be more economical, flexible and easy to sterilize. The equipments used in the process are: a stirred tank of 205L, a stirred tank of 500L and a Semiautomatic packaging each built in stainless steel with sanitary finish by the company TECNOFAR. The tanks were designed in compliance with the typical dimensions of these teams and were sized in order to supply the first 5 years of production. A publicity campaign and marketing is recommended to fulfill sales target and execute the project of a plant to produce shampoo and natural cosmetics

  20. Radio-ecological study of the Lodeve mining complex (France) 1981-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radio-ecological study of the Lodeve mining complex (mine + uranium process plant) was carried out between 1981 and 1985. Four aquatic compartments -water, sediments, vegetals, fish- were studied in eight stations selected on the basis of the existence of two liquid wastes. The measurements essentially concerned radium 226 and uranium 238 but also lead 210 (1985), thorium 232, potassium 40 and cesium 137. Spectrometry γ Ge-Li, emanometry and fluorimetry were used. Only a small brook -Rivernoux- an affluent of the Lergue river, shows radium and uranium activity levels higher than those measured upstream of the site; and this for the four compartments. In water, radium is associated with the solved cationic fraction (66%) and with materials in suspension (21%), whereas uranium is essentially associated with the solved anionic fraction (84%); the radium migration potentialities are therefore lesser than that of uranium. Radium distribution in fish is as follows: flesh (5 to 15%), skeleton (12%), viscera (30%) and skin + fins (30%). Radium concentration (or exchange) factors are always higher than those corresponding to uranium. In general, they are more important in non-influenced zones than in influenced zones (Rivernoux); this implies that radium and uranium evacuated by the mining complex are, at least partly, in non bio-available forms. For water/fish exchange a concentration factor of 100 will be considered for radium. On the basis of this value a weekly consumption of 200 g of fried gudgeon gives an annual committed dose equivalent corresponding to 0.86% of the dose authorized for the public (5.10-3 Sv.an-1)

  1. ECOLOGICAL AND ENZYMATHICAL STUDY UPON SOIL RESOURCES FROM FOREST ECOSYSTEMS IN MIDDLE PRUT RIVER COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geanina Bireescu

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Rezultatele experimentale prezentate n lucrarea de fa?? fac parte dintr-un studiu ecologic multidisciplinar desf??urat n cadrul Programului Na?ional de Cercetare BIOSTAR n ecosisteme forestiere naturale ?i antropizate din Lunca Prutului (Prisecani Ia?i. Diagnoza ecologic? a solului eviden?iaz? un poten?ial trofic ridicat care nu-i utilizat la optim n sezonul estival foarte secetos. Studiul poten?ialului enzimatic ne prezint? valori mijlocii, ceva mai ridicate n p?duri naturale.

  2. Costa Rican coffee and bananas : A social-ecological study of management practices and their effects on the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sanderson Bellamy, Angelina

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates the variability in management practices on coffee and banana farms in an attempt to identify practices that reduce the environmental impact of export crop production. Different banana production systems are studied to determine their level of environmental impact. Insect sampling and bird surveys are used to assess the level of ecological quality on banana farms and their surrounding environments. The first two studies are based on interview methods and focus more on ...

  3. Actual directions in study of ecological consequences of a highly toxic 1,1-dimethylhydrazine-based rocket fuel spills

    OpenAIRE

    Bulat Kenessov; Svetlana Batyrbekova

    2012-01-01

    The paper represents a review of the actual directions in study of ecological consequences of highly toxic 1,1-dimethylhydrazine-based rocket fuel spills. Recent results on study of processes of transformation of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, identification of its main metabolites and development of analytical methods for their determination are generalized. Modern analytical methods of determination of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine and its transformation products in environmental samples are characterized....

  4. An ecological systems approach to examining risk factors for early childhood overweight: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, S. S.; Cole, T.J.; Law, C.; Millennium Cohort Study Child Hlth

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To use an ecological systems approach to examine individual-, family-, community- and area-level risk factors for overweight (including obesity) in 3-year-old children. Methods: A prospective nationally representative cohort study conducted in England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland. Participants included 13 188 singleton children aged 3 years in the Millennium Cohort Study, born between 2000 and 2002, who had complete height/weight data. The main outcome measure was childhood o...

  5. Middle and High School Students Exposure to Alcohol- and Smoking-Related Media: A Pilot Study Using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Scharf, Deborah M.; Martino, Steven C.; Setodji, Claude M; Staplefoote, B. Lynette; Shadel, William G.

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to assess the feasibility of using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to measure adolescents exposure to alcohol and smoking-related media. A sample of 20 middle and high school students completed a two-week EMA protocol in which they monitored exposures to alcohol and smoking-related media. Results showed that adolescents were highly compliant with the study protocol. A total of 255 exposures to alcohol (67%) and smoking (33%) were captured, representing an a...

  6. "Don't get sick at sea": An Ecological Study of the Fishermen of Pulau Tuba, Langkawi, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Morten Mack

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Berger, Morten M. (2015). "Don't get sick at sea": An Ecological Study of the Fishermen of Pulau Tuba, Langkawi, Malaysia. Master's thesis in Social Anthropology. Department of Anthropology, University of Oslo. This study is a project based on a fieldwork of 6-months duration at the island of Pulau Tuba in the Langkawi archipelago outside the north-western coast of Malaysia. I've been using anthropological research methods like participant observation and informal interviews for data...

  7. Women and environment. A socio-ecological study for women on the reformation of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study addresses the following issues: contributions to improve our environment; the impact of pollutants on our health; the pollution of food and water; water quality regulations. Protection of the environment is defined as the sum total of measures that safeguard woman's natural environment and maintain a biological equilibrium. The efficiency of technological solutions to protect the environment is strictly limited by ecological factors. The goal of environmental protection is to ensure the survival of womankind. Just like plants and animals, the human race is part of an ecosystem. Once this system is destroyed, there is nothing technical measures of environmental protection can do to reverse the process. Life on earth depends on the equilibrium between the oxygen produced by chlorophyllous plants and the oxygen consumed by human beings, animals and technological processes. My interviews with young women and children show that women could contribute very much to the melioration of the environment. The majority of women is trying to switch to non-chemically engineered products, which improves the quality of our water. Biological gardening is preferred by a small minority of women only, but many women take the separation of waste very seriously. However, individual actions can do little to solve the problem of pollution caused by road and air traffic. Life in the fast lane condemns us to the use of cars and airplanes. In the foreseeable future, this means more rather than less pollution. With genetic engineering developing at a breathtaking rate, it seems impossible to avoid a large-scale modification of our food and agricultural produce. So far, many Austrian women fail to appreciate the trend towards genetic manipulation. Neither on the farm nor in the food products themselves is it possible to distinguish genetically engineered innovations. However, behind the consumer's back, this revolution of the food industry is pushed through at an ever greater speed. Because a majority of the population rejects such foodstuffs outright. Nevertheless, genetically engineered food products have already found their way into Austrian groceries stores, and this development is set to gather pace in years to come. This study gives priority to the question whether women can improve the environment. As I have mentioned before, women can indeed contribute to an improvement of the environment. However, only big ecological organizations can return nature to its pristine state, but any such efforts are currently foiled by the greed for profit of large corporations. As a conclusion of this study, it is fair to say that women can contribute to the reformation of the environment, for instance by reducing the toxic discharge into rivers and lakes, by separating waste and promoting recycled products, and by relying on biological products to promote a healthier lifestyle. The substitution of fossil fuels with electric power or natural gas for heating purposes clearly improves the quality of the air in one's own private environment. Green belts in residential areas and plants in the house are sources of oxygen that protect the respiratory system against damaging environmental influences. The survey also showed that women do not know enough about a healthy lifestyle, but they are eager to learn more about this issue. Several statements revealed interesting experiences. If women are increasingly interested in a healthy environment and turn to biologically farmed natural products, the soil will be able to regenerate, and this would clearly benefit the environment. (author)

  8. Indoor radon exposure and lung cancer: a review of ecological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ji Young; Lee, Jung-Dong; Joo, So Won; Kang, Dae Ryong

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has high mortality and incidence rates. The leading causes of lung cancer are smoking and radon exposure. Indeed, the World Health Organization (WHO) has categorized radon as a carcinogenic substance causing lung cancer. Radon is a natural, radioactive substance; it is an inert gas that mainly exists in soil or rock. The gas decays into radioactive particles called radon progeny that can enter the human body through breathing. Upon entering the body, these radioactive elements release α-rays that affect lung tissue, causing lung cancer upon long-term exposure thereto. Epidemiological studies first outlined a high correlation between the incidence rate of lung cancer and exposure to radon progeny among miners in Europe. Thereafter, data and research on radon exposure and lung cancer incidence in homes have continued to accumulate. Many international studies have reported increases in the risk ratio of lung cancer when indoor radon concentrations inside the home are high. Although research into indoor radon concentrations and lung cancer incidence is actively conducted throughout North America and Europe, similar research is lacking in Korea. Recently, however, studies have begun to accumulate and report important data on indoor radon concentrations across the nation. In this study, we aimed to review domestic and foreign research into indoor radon concentrations and to outline correlations between indoor radon concentrations in homes and lung cancer incidence, as reported in ecological studies thereof. Herein, we noted large differences in radon concentrations between and within individual countries. For Korea, we observed tremendous differences in indoor radon concentrations according to region and year of study, even within the same region. In correlation analysis, lung cancer incidence was not found to be higher in areas with high indoor radon concentrations in Korea. Through our review, we identified a need to implement a greater variety of statistical analyses in research on indoor radon concentrations and lung cancer incidence. Also, we suggest that cohort research or patient-control group research into radon exposure and lung cancer incidence that considers smoking and other factors is warranted. PMID:27019716

  9. Interference in the tundra predator guild studied using local ecological knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrich, Dorothee; Strømeng, Marita A; Killengreen, Siw T

    2016-04-01

    The decline or recolonization of apex predators such as wolves and lynx, often driven by management decisions, and the expansion of smaller generalist predators such as red foxes, can have important ecosystem impacts. The mesopredator release hypothesis proposes that apex predators control medium-sized predator populations through competition and/or intraguild predation. The decline of apex predators thus leads to an increase in mesopredators, possibly with a negative impact on prey populations. Information about the abundance of mammalian tundra predators, wolf (Canis lupus), wolverine (Gulo gulo), lynx (Lynx lynx), red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) was collected from local active outdoors people during semi-structured interviews in 14 low arctic or sub-arctic settlements in western Eurasia. The perceived abundance of red fox decreased with higher wolf abundance and in more arctic areas, but the negative effect of wolves decreased in more arctic and therefore less productive ecosystems. The perceived abundance of arctic fox increased towards the arctic and in areas with colder winters. Although there was a negative correlation between the two fox species, red fox was not included in the model for perceived arctic fox abundance, which received most support. Our results support the mesopredator release hypothesis regarding the expansion of red foxes in subarctic areas and indicate that top-down control by apex predators is weaker in less productive and more arctic ecosystems. We showed that local ecological knowledge is a valuable source of information about large-scale processes, which are difficult to study through direct biological investigations. PMID:26686344

  10. Collective trauma in northern Sri Lanka: a qualitative psychosocial-ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somasundaram Daya

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex situations that follow war and natural disasters have a psychosocial impact on not only the individual but also on the family, community and society. Just as the mental health effects on the individual psyche can result in non pathological distress as well as a variety of psychiatric disorders; massive and widespread trauma and loss can impact on family and social processes causing changes at the family, community and societal levels. Method This qualitative, ecological study is a naturalistic, psychosocial ethnography in Northern Sri Lanka, while actively involved in psychosocial and community mental health programmes among the Tamil community. Participatory observation, key informant interviews and focus group discussion with community level relief and rehabilitation workers and government and non-governmental officials were used to gather data. The effects on the community of the chronic, man-made disaster, war, in Northern Sri Lanka were compared with the contexts found before the war and after the tsunami. Results Fundamental changes in the functioning of the family and the community were observed. While the changes after the tsunami were not so prominent, the chronic war situation caused more fundamental social transformations. At the family level, the dynamics of single parent families, lack of trust among members, and changes in significant relationships, and child rearing practices were seen. Communities tended to be more dependent, passive, silent, without leadership, mistrustful, and suspicious. Additional adverse effects included the breakdown in traditional structures, institutions and familiar ways of life, and deterioration in social norms and ethics. A variety of community level interventions were tried. Conclusion Exposure to conflict, war and disaster situations impact on fundamental family and community dynamics resulting in changes at a collective level. Relief, rehabilitation and development programmes to be effective will need to address the problem of collective trauma, particularly using integrated multi-level approaches.

  11. Factors associated with maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: an ecological study

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    Hernández Valentín

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal health is one of the major worldwide health challenges. Currently, the unacceptably high levels of maternal mortality are a common subject in global health and development discussions. Although some countries have made remarkable progress, half of the maternal deaths in the world still take place in Sub-Saharan Africa where little or no progress has been made. There is no single simple, straightforward intervention that will significantly decrease maternal mortality alone; however, there is a consensus on the importance of a strong health system, skilled delivery attendants, and women's rights for maternal health. Our objective was to describe and determine different factors associated with the maternal mortality ratio in Sub-Saharan countries. Methods An ecological multi-group study compared variables between many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa using data collected between 1997 and 2006. The dependent variable was the maternal mortality ratio, and Health care system-related, educational and economic indicators were the independent variables. Information sources included the WHO, World Bank, UNICEF and UNDP. Results Maternal mortality ratio values in Sub-Saharan Africa were demonstrated to be high and vary enormously among countries. A relationship between the maternal mortality ratio and some educational, sanitary and economic factors was observed. There was an inverse and significant correlation of the maternal mortality ratio with prenatal care coverage, births assisted by skilled health personnel, access to an improved water source, adult literacy rate, primary female enrolment rate, education index, the Gross National Income per capita and the per-capita government expenditure on health. Conclusions Education and an effective and efficient health system, especially during pregnancy and delivery, are strongly related to maternal death. Also, macro-economic factors are related and could be influencing the others.

  12. Ecological Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Martnez Alier, Joan

    1994-01-01

    Ecological economics is a recently developed field, which sees the economy as a subsystem of a larger finite global ecosystem. Ecological economists question the sustainability of the economy because of its environmental impacts and its material and energy requirements, and also because of the growth of population. Attempts at assigning money values to environmental services and losses, and attempts at correcting macroeconomic accounting, are part of ecological economics, but its main thrust ...

  13. Urban Environmental Education: Leveraging Technology and Ecology to Engage Students in Studying the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael; Vaughn, Meredith Houle; Strauss, Eric; Cotter, Lindsey

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the outcomes of the first year of an intensive, urban ecology focused, summer program for urban high school youth. Students in our program conduct scientific investigations of their urban ecosystems while exploring potential career options in science and technology fields. In conducting their investigations, the students…

  14. Using the Urban Environment to Engage Youths in Urban Ecology Field Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael; Lord, Charles; Strauss, Eric; Rosca, Camelia; Langford, Heather; Chavez, Dawn; Deni, Leah

    2006-01-01

    Recent science education reform proponents explicitly put forward the idea that all students, regardless of culture, gender, race, or socioeconomic status, are capable of understanding and doing science. To address this need, the authors have developed and implemented a field-based urban ecology science program to engage traditionally…

  15. Ecological Momentary Assessment: A Research Method for Studying the Daily Lives of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Russell L.; Weiss, Howard M.; Templin, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce ecological momentary assessment (EMA) as an effective approach for capturing teachers' emotional states and behaviours over time. Although the implementation of EMA has a rich and successful history among social science researchers in general, traditional retrospective, self-report methods for collecting…

  16. Ecological engineering to control bioclogging: an original field study coupling infiltration and biological measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gette-bouvarot, Morgane; Mermillod-Blondin, Florian; Lassabatere, Laurent; Lemoine, Damien; Delolme, Cécile; Volatier, Laurence

    2014-05-01

    Infiltration systems are increasingly used in urban areas for several purposes such as flood prevention and groundwater recharge. However, their functioning is often impacted by clogging that leads to decreases in hydraulic and water treatment performances. These systems are commonly built with sand as infiltration medium, a media subject to rapid clogging by the combined and overlapping processes of pore occlusion by fine particles and biofilm development. In a previous study, we pointed out that the phototrophic component of biofilms developed at the surface layer of infiltration systems (algae, cyanobacteria) could reduce by up to 60-fold the saturated hydraulic conductivity. Consequently, it appears crucial to control biofilm growth to maintain porous infiltration media performances. The present study aimed to test the influence of biotic (addition of animals or macrophytes) and abiotic (light reduction) treatments on biofilm development and associated hydraulic properties in an infiltration device dedicated to aquifer recharge with river water in Lyon Area (France). Twenty-five benthic enclosures were used to test 5 "treatments" on non-manipulated surface layer under field conditions. Three biotic treatments consisted in the introduction of: (i) an invertebrate acting as algae grazer (Viviparus viviparus), (ii) an invertebrate that digs galleries in sediments (Tubifex tubifex), and (iii) a macrophyte that could inhibit benthic biofilm by allelopathic activity (Vallisneria spiralis L). The fourth treatment was designed to simulate shading. The last "treatment" was a control which monitored the evolution of the system during the experiment without manipulation (addition of macro-organisms or shading). Each treatment was replicated five times. The experiment was conducted for 6 weeks, and sampling of the surface layer (0-1 cm) was carried out in each enclosure at the beginning (t0) and the end (tf). We coupled biological characterizations (organic matter, algal biomass, bacterial abundances, microbial enzymatic activities, EPS composition, and photosynthetic efficiency) with in situ hydraulic conductivity measurements (falling head method, five measures per enclosure at t0 and tf). Our results showed that some treatments could regulate benthic biofilm growth and improve infiltration rate. For instance, V. viviparus treatment resulted in a decrease in chlorophyll-a, EPS sugar and protein contents and an associated increase of infiltration rate, while it decreased in the control treatment. These results are very promising for the future development of ecological engineering solutions to prevent biological clogging in systems dedicated to infiltration. To our knowledge, this study is the first to highlight such potential role of macro-organisms under field conditions.

  17. Usage of virtual research laboratory "Climate" prototype for Northern Eurasia climatic and ecological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, Evgeny; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander; Shulgina, Tamara

    2015-04-01

    Reported are some results of Northern Eurasia regional climatic and ecological monitoring and modeling obtained using recently developed prototype of thematic virtual research laboratory (VRL) Climate (http://climate.scert.ru/). The prototype integrates distributed thematic data storage, processing and analysis systems and set of models of complex climatic and environmental processes run on supercomputers. Its specific tools are aimed at high resolution rendering on-going climatic processes occurring in Northern Eurasia and reliable and found prognoses of their dynamics for selected sets of future mankind activity scenario. Currently VRL integrates on the base of geoportal the WRF and «Planet Simulator» models, basic reanalysis, meteorological stations data and support profound statistical analysis of storage and modeled on demand data. In particular, one can run the integrated models, preprocess modeling results data, using dedicated modules for numerical processing perform analysys and visualize obtained results. The prototype can provide specialists involved into multidisciplinary research projects with reliable and practical instruments for integrated research of climate and ecosystems changes on global and regional scales. With its help even a user without programming skills would be able to process and visualize multidimensional observational and model data through unified web-interface using a web-browser. Location, frequency and magnitude of observed in Siberia extremes has been studied using recently added prototype functionality allowing detailed statistical analysis studies of regional climatic extremes. Firstly it was shown that ECMWF ERA Interim Reanalysis data are closest to near surface temperature time series measured at regional meteorological stations. Statistical analysis of ERA Interim daily temperature time series (1979-2012) indicates the asymmetric changes in distribution tails of such extreme indices as warm/cold days/nights. Namely, the warming during winter cold nights is stronger than during warm nights, especially over the north of Siberia. Increases in minimum temperatures are more significant than in maximum temperatures. Warming determined at the high latitudes of the region is achieved mostly due to winter temperature changes. South area of Siberia has slightly cooling during winter and summer. In course of calculations carrying out the prototype automatically generates the archive of calculated fields of extreme temperatures anomalies ready for subsequent multidisciplinary studies of regional climate change impacts. The fields with detailed high spatial and temporal resolution climatic information also can be used by regional decision-makers for adaptation and mitigation measures elaboration. This work is partially supported by the basic research project VIII.80.2.1, and RFBR grants 13-05-12034 and 14-05-00502.

  18. An ecological study of food desert prevalence and 4th grade academic achievement in New York State school districts

    OpenAIRE

    Seth E. Frndak

    2014-01-01

    Background This ecological study examines the relationship between food desert prevalence and academic achievement at the school district level. Design and methods Sample included 232 suburban and urban school districts in New York State. Multiple open-source databases were merged to obtain: 4th grade science, English and math scores, school district demographic composition (NYS Report Card), regional socioeconomic indicators (American Community Survey), school district quality (US Common Cor...

  19. STUDY CONCERNING FOREST ECOLOGIC RECONSTRUCTIUON ON DEGRADED LAND IN RANGE OCOLUL SILVIC “VALEA CIBINULUI”, SALISTE, ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    BLAJ Robert

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the stationary conditions, determine solutions to improve degraded land, assessing the cost of ecological restoration work needed in the area of improving degraded lands at Rapa - Copăcel, estimated benefits of the project and its viability. Objectives of the paper: need to introduce in the circuit of productive forest lands within the improvement of the area "La Rapa - Copăcel" danger zone where activation of the phenomena of degradation (erosion , landslides ) predominate...

  20. A Study on Ecology and Biology of Microtus guentheriDanford and Alston, 1880 (Mammalia: Rodentia) in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÇOLAK, Ercüment; Mustafa SÖZEN; YİĞİT, Nuri

    1998-01-01

    In this study, ecology and biology of Microtus guentheriwere investigated based on both field and laboratory observations along with its effects on agricultural crops. It was determined that this vole has a shallow burrow with numerous entrances and does not store food in its burrow. In captivity, M. guentherigave litters from September to June and a female produced 42 pups, being seven litters during a reproduction season. The duration of pregnancy varied 20 to 21 days. The average litter...

  1. The quantitative study of marked individuals in ecology, evolution and conservation biology: a foreword to the EURING 2003 Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Senar, J C; Dhondt, A.A.; Conroy, M. J.

    2004-01-01

    Few fields in modern ecology have developed as fast as the analysis of marked individuals in the study of wild animal populations (Seber & Schwarz, 2002). This is the topic of EURING Conferences, which from 1986 have been the premier forum for advances in capture-recapture methodology. In this sense, EURING Conferences still maintain the flavour that originally inspired scientific meetings: to disseminate the very last findings, ideas and results on the field. Traditionally, EURING Conference...

  2. Developing an Internet- and Mobile-Based System to Measure Cigarette Use Among Pacific Islanders: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pike, James Russell; Xie, Bin; Tan, Nasya; Sabado-Liwag, Melanie Dee; Orne, Annette; Toilolo, Tupou; Cen, Steven; May, Vanessa; Lee, Cevadne; Pang, Victor Kaiwi; Rainer, Michelle A; Vaivao, Dorothy Etimani S; Lepule, Jonathan Tana; Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Palmer, Paula Healani

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent prevalence data indicates that Pacific Islanders living in the United States have disproportionately high smoking rates when compared to the general populace. However, little is known about the factors contributing to tobacco use in this at-risk population. Moreover, few studies have attempted to determine these factors utilizing technology-based assessment techniques. Objective The objective was to develop a customized Internet-based Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) sy...

  3. Field studies of harp seal (Phoca Groenlandica) distribution and feeding ecology in the Barents Sea in september 1990

    OpenAIRE

    Nilssen, Kjell Tormod; Haug, Tore; Potelov, Vladimir

    1991-01-01

    The harp seal Phoca groenlandica is the most abundant seal species in the Barents Sea, and it may be a significant predator on other marine resources in this area. In order to evaluate the ecological role of harp seals, field studies, including both analysis of harp seal stomach contents and concurrent estimates of prey abundance, were carried out in the Barents Sea during August/September 1990. It appeared that, at this time of the year, the harp seals were confined to t...

  4. Ecological-Genetic Studies and Conservation of Endemic Quercus sideroxyla (Trel.) in Central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Alfonso-Corrado; Ricardo Clark-Tapia; Alejandro Monsalvo-Reyes; Carlos Rosas-Osorio; Gabriel González-Adame; Francisco Naranjo-Luna; Crystian-Sadiel Venegas-Barrera; Jorge E. Campos

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the distribution, ecology and genetic diversity of Quercus sideroxyla Humb. Bonpl, with an emphasis on its conservation on the Natural Protected Area of Sierra Fría in North Central Mexico. Twenty-nine locations were selected, and in each location, one plot of 1500 m2 was established. At every location, we obtained an abundance of Q. sideroxyla and a basal area for each individual tree, including geographical and climatological data. We used the O...

  5. Health consequences of Chernobyl disaster in Europe in general and in Norway in particular. Literature review and ecological study.

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorov, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Health costs of Chernobyl disaster are still not clear.Main goal of this paper therefore is to investigate health consequences of Chernobyl disaster in Europe (outside the former Soviet Union) as a whole and in Norway in particular as one of the second high contaminated areas after those in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. To do that literature review and ecological study with the Incidence rate ratios analysis are conducted. As a result hypothesis about increased...

  6. Pregnancy outcomes and outdoor air pollution: an ecological study in districts of the Czech Republic 1986-8

    OpenAIRE

    BOBAK, M.; Leon, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Outdoor air pollution has consistently been shown to predict mortality. The finding that this association is stronger in infants than in children or adults raises the question whether air pollution could also be related to pregnancy outcomes--such as birthweight and stillbirth. The association between outdoor air pollution and stillbirths and low birthweight in the Czech Republic, where air pollution was high, was examined. METHODS: An ecological study was conducted, with ro...

  7. Exploring the relationship between cyberbullying and unnatural child death: an ecological study of twenty-four European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, King-wa; Chan, Chung-Hong; Ip, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background Internet risk has been recognized as a child safety problem, but evidence is insufficient to conclude that a child's online risk exposure can lead to physical harm. This study aims to explore the ecological relationship between Internet risk exposure and unnatural child death. Methods Multiple secondary data sources were used: online exposure to content about self-harm, cyberbullying, and Internet addiction data (EU Kids Online survey, 2010); and mortality data (European Det...

  8. SOIL BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term "Soil Biology", the study of organism groups living in soil, (plants, lichens, algae, moss, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, and arthropods), predates "Soil Ecology", the study of interactions between soil organisms as mediated by the soil physical environment. oil ...

  9. The ecology of the planktonic diatom Cyclotella and its implications for global environmental change studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saros, J E; Anderson, N J

    2015-05-01

    The fossil record of diatoms in lake sediments can be used to assess the effects of climate variability on lake ecosystems if ecological relationships between diatom community structure and environmental parameters are well understood. Cyclotella sensu lato taxa are a key group of diatoms that are frequently dominant members of phytoplankton communities in low- to moderate-productivity lakes. Their relative abundances have fluctuated significantly in palaeolimnological records spanning over a century in arctic, alpine, boreal and temperate lakes. This suggests that these species are sensitive to environmental change and may serve as early indicators of ecosystem effects of global change. Yet patterns of change in Cyclotella species are not synchronous or unidirectional across, or even within, regions, raising the question of how to interpret these widespread changes in diatom community structure. We suggest that the path forward in resolving seemingly disparate records is to identify clearly the autecology of Cyclotella species, notably the role of nutrients, dissolved organic carbon and light, coupled with better consideration of both the mechanisms controlling lake thermal stratification processes and the resulting effects of changing lake thermal regimes on light and nutrients. Here we begin by reviewing the literature on the resource requirements of common Cyclotella taxa, illustrating that many studies reveal the importance of light, nitrogen, phosphorus, and interactions among these resources in controlling relative abundances. We then discuss how these resource requirements can be linked to shifts in limnological processes driven by environmental change, including climate-driven change in lakewater temperature, thermal stratification and nutrient loading, as well as acidification-driven shifts in nutrients and water clarity. We examine three case studies, each involving two lakes from the same region that have disparate trends in the relative abundances of the same species, and illustrate how the mechanisms by which these species abundances are changing can be deciphered. Ultimately, changes in resource availability and water clarity are key factors leading to shifts in Cyclotella abundances. Tighter integration of the autecology of this important group of diatoms with environmental change and subsequent alterations in limnological processes will improve interpretations of palaeolimnological records, and clarify the drivers of seemingly disparate patterns in fossil records showing widespread and rapid changes across the northern hemisphere. PMID:24917134

  10. Concern about passive smoking and tobacco control policies in European countries: An ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemsen Marc C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the magnitude of the global tobacco epidemic, the World Health Organisation developed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC, an international legally binding treaty to control tobacco use. Adoption and implementation of specific tobacco control measures within FCTC is an outcome of a political process, where social norms and public opinion play important roles. The objective of our study was to examine how a countrys level of tobacco control is associated with smoking prevalence, two markers of denormalisation of smoking (social disapproval of smoking and concern about passive smoking, and societal support for tobacco control. Methods An ecological study was conducted, using data from two sources. The first source was the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS from 2011, which quantifies the implementation of tobacco control policies in European Union (EU countries. Data on smoking prevalence, societal disapproval of smoking, concern about passive smoking, and societal support for policy measures were taken from the Eurobarometer survey of 2009. Data from Eurobarometer surveys were aggregated to country level. Data from the 27 European Union member states were used. Results Smoking prevalence rates in 2009 were negatively associated with a countrys TCS 2011 score, although not statistically significant (r = ?.25; p = .21. Experience of societal disapproval was positively associated with higher TCS scores, though not significantly (r = .14; p = .48. The same was true for societal support for tobacco control (r = .27; p = .18. The TCS score in 2011 was significantly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .42; p =.03. Support for tobacco control measures was also strongly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .52, p = .006. Conclusions Smokers in countries with a higher TCS score were more concerned about whether their smoke harms others. Further, support for tobacco control measures is higher in countries that have more of these concerned smokers. Concerns about passive smoking seem central in the implementation of tobacco control measures, stressing the importance of continuing to educate the public about the harm from passive smoking.

  11. Ecological engineering. Bridging between ecology and civil engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Bohemen, H. (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    On the potential role of ecological technology as a bridge towards a sustainable development of infrastructure. The book reviews the input of (landscape) ecology to solve environmental problems due to human activity. Theories about ecological engineering as well as case studies show the magnificent opportunities to integrate human activities in the biosphere.

  12. Age adjustment in ecological studies: using a study on arsenic ingestion and bladder cancer as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo How-Ran

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its limitations, ecological study design is widely applied in epidemiology. In most cases, adjustment for age is necessary, but different methods may lead to different conclusions. To compare three methods of age adjustment, a study on the associations between arsenic in drinking water and incidence of bladder cancer in 243 townships in Taiwan was used as an example. Methods A total of 3068 cases of bladder cancer, including 2276 men and 792 women, were identified during a ten-year study period in the study townships. Three methods were applied to analyze the same data set on the ten-year study period. The first (Direct Method applied direct standardization to obtain standardized incidence rate and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis. The second (Indirect Method applied indirect standardization to obtain standardized incidence ratio and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis instead. The third (Variable Method used proportions of residents in different age groups as a part of the independent variables in the multiple regression models. Results All three methods showed a statistically significant positive association between arsenic exposure above 0.64 mg/L and incidence of bladder cancer in men and women, but different results were observed for the other exposure categories. In addition, the risk estimates obtained by different methods for the same exposure category were all different. Conclusions Using an empirical example, the current study confirmed the argument made by other researchers previously that whereas the three different methods of age adjustment may lead to different conclusions, only the third approach can obtain unbiased estimates of the risks. The third method can also generate estimates of the risk associated with each age group, but the other two are unable to evaluate the effects of age directly.

  13. Combined assessment and regulation on ecological land use and water demand of the river system: a case study in Luanhe River, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, D. H.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Qin, T. L.

    2011-10-01

    With economic and social development, ecological water and land use of the river system were seriously misappropriated, which resulted in overall degradation of the river systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks of regionalisation on the eco-environmental function of the river systems were preliminarily formulated. According to the river eco-environmental functions, Luanhe River was regionalised into four types of first-class functional areas, i.e., ecological preservation areas, habitat restoration areas, ecological buffer areas and development and utilisation areas. Combined with the main functions of all functional areas, ecological land use of the river system in Luanhe River was assessed and planned. The total area of basic ecological land use was 876.98 km2; that of restrictive ecological land use was 1745.52 km2; that of ecological land use of the river system returned from farmland was 284.25 km2; and that returned from construction land was 17.35 km2. Combined with prototype observation experiments, the average minimum ecological flow of mainstreams in upper and middle reaches of the Luanhe River was 4.896 m3 s-1 with the habitat method. The evaporation and seepage consumption of the river system in Luanhe River and vegetation consumption in riparian zones were about 133 million m3 and 145 million m3 per year, respectively. Downwards from the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system, the mainstream of the Luanhe River was the crucial reach for regulation on instream ecological water use. It was required to speed up ecological land use planning of the river system and strengthen the regulation of ecological water use in important lower reaches of the Luanhe River under the condition of competitive water demand.

  14. The use of echosounders for long-term studies of the overwintering ecology of sprat (Sprattus sprattus)

    KAUST Repository

    Solberg, Ingrid

    2013-06-01

    Upward-facing echosounders, were used to study the overwintering ecology of sprat during four winters in a Norwegian fjord. The echosounders provided continuous data at a temporal resolution of seconds and enabled studies of individual swimming behavior of sprat in addition to population behavior. The long-term coverage of several winters enabled us to study how the sprat responded to different environmental conditions, like ice-free waters versus ice covered waters and hypoxic conditions versus well-oxygenated waters. The studies unveiled that the overwintering strategies of the sprat are flexible, varying in accordance with environmental conditions. © 2013 IEEE.

  15. An ecological study of the KSC Turning Basin and adjacent waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, T. A.; Lasater, J. A.; Clark, K. B.; Kalajian, E. H.

    1974-01-01

    The conditions existing in the waters and bottoms of the Turning Basin, the borrow pit near Pad 39A, and the Barge Canal connecting them were investigated to determine the ecological significance of the chemical, biological, and microbiological parameters. The water quality, biological, microbiological findings are discussed. It is recommended that future dredging activities be limited in depth, and that fill materials should not be removed down to the clay strata.

  16. Handling "immunocompetence" in ecological studies: do we operate with confused terms?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinkler, Michal; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 6 (2011), s. 490-493. ISSN 0908-8857 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0640; GA ČR GA206/08/1281; GA ČR GAP505/10/1871; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : evolutionary ecology * Passer domesticus * immune responses Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.280, year: 2011

  17. The Evolutionary Ecology of Cooperation & Conflict: A case study of Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Silva

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of large-scale cooperation in humans presents one of the most crucial evolutionary puzzles yet to be solved. Two theoretical frameworks - inclusive fitness and cultural group selection – have been proposed to explain this evolutionary dilemma. Inclusive fitness theory expects individuals to behave according to an individual fitness maximising strategy, which varies with individual and ecological parameters. Cultural group selection proposes that inter-group competition permits t...

  18. Sampling design in large-scale vegetation studies: Do not sacrifice ecological thinking to statistical purism!

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roleček, J.; Chytrý, M.; Hájek, Michal; Lvončík, S.; Tichý, L.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 42, - (2007), s. 199-208. ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6163303; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0020 Grant ostatní: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB601630504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Ecological methodology * Large-scale vegetation patterns * Macroecology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.133, year: 2007

  19. The BAARA (Biological AutomAted RAdiotracking) System: A New Approach in Ecological Field Studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řeřucha, Šimon; Bartonička, T.; Jedlička, Petr; Čížek, Martin; Hlouša, Ondřej; Lučan, R.; Horáček, I.

    -, FEB 25 (2015), e0116785:1-19. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0054; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA AV ČR IAA601110905 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : radiotracking * behavior Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  20. Stomach cancer incidence in Brazil: an ecologic study with selected risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Koifman; Rosalina Jorge Koifman

    1997-01-01

    Contrary to many industrialized countries in which a sharp decline in stomach cancer incidence has been observed, Brazil still shows intermediate to high incidence rates. An ecologic analysis was performed to explore variables possibly associated with the development of stomach cancer. Cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and factor analysis were carried out with population data, including the following: stomach cancer incidence rates in the early 1990s obtained from population-bas...

  1. Xylitol and its effect on oral ecology : clinical studies in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Lif Holgerson, Pernilla

    2007-01-01

    Xylitol, classified as a natural sugar substitute, has for about 35 years been known as an agent that may act against caries. The mechanism of action; how it inhibits mutans streptococci (MS) and the clinical dose-response relationship are not however fully investigated. The general aim of the investigations was to evaluate the effect of xylitol on oral ecology in children and adolescents. A series of experimental and controlled clinical trials were performed in which samples of saliva and pl...

  2. Subantarctic forest ecology : case study of a conifer-broadleaved stand in Patagonia, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Dezzotti, A.

    2000-01-01

    In the temperate rainforests of southern South America, the tree genus Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae) is the dominant in extension and abundance on zonal soils at different latitudes and altitudes, as well as on intrazonal (e.g., wetlands) and azonal soils (e.g., morrenic and fluvioglacial deposits). Although concern on the global role of this biome is currently important, the existing level of ecological knowledge on its functioning is still inadequate to design a sound management to maintain or...

  3. Study on the Development of Outdoor Recreation Product Considering the Ecology Aspect in Wana Wisata Curug Cilember (WWCC, Kabupaten Bogor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurie Purnamasari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Recreation development is usually oriented toward on the mass tourism to maximise a number of tourists and rarely put the environmental aspect into consideration.  This created an effect on the sustainability of ecology.  This study’s emphasis is on figuring out an alternative of outdoor recreation product which based on the ecology aspect to support the development of outdoor recreation in the Wana Wisata Curug Cilember (WWCC. This study put the characteristic of tourist and local people into consideration which are describe the product of ecology recreation in order to achieve an ideal product that has not been reached previously and still need more serious effort.  Analysis descriptive with qualitative and quantitative approach is used in this study.  SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats and descriptive statistic are considered for alternative outdoor recreation product while the AHP (Analysis Hierarchy Process has been  used to achieve a priority product for implementation.  The findings suggested a diversification strategy or S-T (Strengths – Threats was chosen to develop the products of recreation in WWCC.  The priority of these products based on the AHP value are as follows: a Water falls (0.2700, b Natural scenery (0.1623, c Camping (0.1405, d Hiking (0.1073, e Theraphy of water fall energy (0.0885,  f Plants viewing (0.0665, g Wildlife viewing (0.0525 and h Outbound (0.0380.   Key words: Outdoor recreation product, ecology, WWCC, Bogor Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  4. Linking Ecological and Perceptual Assessments for Environmental Management: a Coral Reef Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Dinsdale

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrating information from a range of community members in environmental management provides a more complete assessment of the problem and a diversification of management options, but is difficult to achieve. To investigate the relationship between different environmental interpretations, I compared three distinct measures of anchor damage on coral reefs: ecological measures, perceptual meanings, and subjective health judgments. The ecological measures identified an increase in the number of overturned corals and a reduction in coral cover, the perceptual meanings identified a loss of visual quality, and the health judgments identified a reduction in the health of the coral reef sites associated with high levels of anchoring. Combining the perceptual meanings and health judgments identified that the judgment of environmental health was a key feature that both scientific and lay participants used to describe the environment. Some participants in the survey were familiar with the coral reef environment, and others were not. However, they provided consistent judgment of a healthy coral reef, suggesting that these judgments were not linked to present-day experiences. By combining subjective judgments and ecological measures, the point at which the environment is deemed to lose visual quality was identified; for these coral reefs, if the level of damage rose above 10.3% and the cover of branching corals dropped below 17.1%, the reefs were described as unhealthy. Therefore, by combining the information, a management agency can involve the community in identifying when remedial action is required or when management policies are effectively maintaining a healthy ecosystem.

  5. An ecological study of stillbirths in Mexico from 2000 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illescas-Zárate, Daniel; Chico-Barba, Gabriela; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine trends in the rate of stillbirths at or after 21 weeks’ gestation in Mexico from 2000 to 2013, identify factors associated with stillbirths and estimate subnational variability in stillbirth rates and the proportion of deaths occurring intrapartum. Methods This population-based, ecological study involved data from a national database on 263 475 stillbirths in 29 Mexican states and maternal sociodemographic factors. Subnational variability in the stillbirth rate in 2012 was investigated and stillbirths in 2013 were categorized as intrapartum or antepartum according to the fetus’ skin condition. Findings The national stillbirth rate declined from 9.2 to 7.2 per 1000 births between 2000 and 2013 (i.e. −1.9% per year). The prevalence of stillbirths varied 3.9-fold between states. Stillbirths were associated, in particular, with: residence in Mexico City (odds ratio, OR: 1.71; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.68–1.73) or central Mexico (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.34–1.38); maternal education of 9 years or less (OR:1.10; 95% CI: 1.08–1.11) or 10 to 12 years (OR: 1.16; 95% CI: 1.14–1.18); mothers younger than 15 years (OR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.55–1.72) or older than 34 years (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.66–1.70); and male fetal sex (OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.19–1.21). Overall, 51% (7348/14 344) of fetal deaths occurred intrapartum. Conclusion In Mexico, the total stillbirth rate declined between 2000 and 2013, however geographical variations were observed. Stillbirths were associated with sociodemographic factors. The proportion of intrapartum stillbirths was relatively high, suggesting that health system performance could be improved, especially at places of delivery. PMID:27147762

  6. A Study on remote sensing method for drawing up and utilizing ecological and natural map - concentrated on drawing up of Land Cover Classification Map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Sung Woo; Chung, Sung Moon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The drawing up of ecological and natural map, which is highly efficient using remote exploration method, was promoted in this study. As the first step of drawing up of ecological and natural map, this study is working on the drawing up of Land Cover using as a base map. Through the detailed and sufficient consideration on GAP analysis of USA, CORINE project of EU, and examples in Korea, it studied and proposed the Land Cover Classification system and method suitable for Korea. It will be helpful to draw up ecological and natural map by providing two strategies and principles for land cover classification. 26 refs., 33 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Exploring the Mechanisms of Ecological Land Change Based on the Spatial Autoregressive Model: A Case Study of the Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Xie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecological land is one of the key resources and conditions for the survival of humans because it can provide ecosystem services and is particularly important to public health and safety. It is extremely valuable for effective ecological management to explore the evolution mechanisms of ecological land. Based on spatial statistical analyses, we explored the spatial disparities and primary potential drivers of ecological land change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone of China. The results demonstrated that the global Moran’s I value is 0.1646 during the 1990 to 2005 time period and indicated significant positive spatial correlation (p < 0.05. The results also imply that the clustering trend of ecological land changes weakened in the study area. Some potential driving forces were identified by applying the spatial autoregressive model in this study. The results demonstrated that the higher economic development level and industrialization rate were the main drivers for the faster change of ecological land in the study area. This study also tested the superiority of the spatial autoregressive model to study the mechanisms of ecological land change by comparing it with the traditional linear regressive model.

  8. Ecological Multilayer Networks: A New Frontier for Network Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Pilosof, Shai; Kfi, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Networks provide a powerful approach to address myriad phenomena across ecology. Ecological systems are inherently 'multilayered'. For instance, species interact with one another in different ways and those interactions vary spatiotemporally. However, ecological networks are typically studied as ordinary (i.e., monolayer) networks. 'Multilayer networks' are currently at the forefront of network science, but ecological multilayer network studies have been sporadic and have not taken advantage of rapidly developing theory. Here we present the latest concepts and tools of multilayer network theory and discuss their application to ecology. This novel framework for the study of ecological multilayer networks encourages ecologists to move beyond monolayer network studies and facilitates ways for doing so. It thereby paves the way for novel, exciting research directions in network ecology.

  9. Environmental exposure to mineral fibers in New Caledonia: an ecological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, F.; Ambrosi, J.

    2013-05-01

    Inhalation of asbestos and other fibrous minerals causes lung cancer and other malignancies, specifically malignant mesothelioma (MM). MM is an aggressive pleural tumor that presents with a median latency period of 30-40 years from initial fiber exposure. Due to occupational exposure, MM incidence is 4-8 times higher in men as compared to women. In New Caledonia (NC), very high incidences of MM and lung cancer were observed in both men and women, suggesting an environmental origin of exposure. Although nickel mining and the traditional use of tremolite-containing whitewash were suspected causes of MM, numerous MM cases have been observed in areas lacking these risk factors. We carried out an ecological study of MM incidence in NC and identified a study area that included those counties having the highest MM incidences as well as counties lacking MM. We conducted epidemiological and environmental investigations for each of the 100 tribes living within this area. Residential history was assessed for each MM case, and samples of each quarry, road, and whitewash were analyzed to determine the nature of any mineral fibers. We analyzed the environmental determinants of MM, including geology, mineralogy, plant cover, land shape and human activities as well as use of whitewash, by using two univariate and multivariate statistical methods: 1) a logistic regression to compare tribes with and without MM cases and calculate the odds ratios, (OR) 2) the Poisson regression to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRR) for each factor. While most MM cases among Caucasians were observed in men with a mean age of 72, indicating occupational exposure, Melanesians exhibited elevated MM incidence in both men and women at a mean age of 60. A sex ratio close to 1 compounded with the relatively young ages of MM cases confirmed environmental causation within the Melanesian population. We found one significant and two secondary spatial clusters of MM in tribal areas. No temporal cluster was observed. We identified several natural sources of mineral fibers in the study area, including clay-like white soils containing tremolite-actinolite, fibrous antigorite deposits, and veins of chrysotile in peridotite massifs, in addition to multiple serpentinite quarries predominantly containing antigorite. Statistical analyses revealed that the use of serpentinite to pave roads was the greatest risk factor for MM (OR=495.0, 95%CI:46.2-4679.7; multivariate IRR=13.0, 95%CI:10.2-16.6). Other MM risk factors in order of importance were the presence of antigorite, proximity to serpentinite quarries, proximity to peridotite massifs, and presence of chrysotile. Dense vegetation and land slope were protective factors. Whitewash use was not related to MM incidence. Many natural fibrous minerals are not commercially used as asbestos and are therefore not regulated. However, our study demonstrated that non-regulated antigorite fibers are related to cancer, and that soils containing these minerals pose an environmental risk to the population when the fibers are released into the air by weathering or by human activities. Regulation of additional fibrous minerals is therefore suggested.

  10. Future ecological studies of Brazilian headwater streams under global-changes Estudos ecolgicos futuros em riachos de cabeceira na perspectiva de mudanas globais

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Callisto; Adriano Sanches Melo; Darcilio Fernandes Baptista; Jos Francisco Gonalves Junior; Manuel Augusto Simes Graa; Fernanda Gaudio Augusto

    2012-01-01

    This paper results from discussions triggered during the "Stream Ecology Symposium" that took place at the XIII Congress of the Brazilian Society of Limnology in September of 2011 in Natal, Brazil. Based on our experiences, we have raised several questions regarding ecological studies of headwater streams facing threats under global-changes and proposed numerous subjects to be addressed in future studies in Brazil. These studies deal with the necessity of knowing species biology and the elabo...

  11. Terrestrial animal ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Animal Ecology project is an integral part of the terrestrial ecology program. For convenience, it is reported separately because of the specialized nature of its techniques. It includes studies to characterize faunal populations taxonomically and ecologically and to estimate density and biomass of important mammal, bird, herpetofauna, and invertebrate populations. Extensive studies of small mammal populations conducted in past years are being summarized for open literature publication. Methodology and techniques developed in the animal ecology program are expected to be vital to studies to be initiated under a newly funded 189 entitled Radioecology of Waste Management Zones. These kinds of supportive studies will be needed to determine dietary habits of important animals inhabiting waste management zones, construction of realistic food chain models, and estimating radioactivity doses to biota

  12. Green Turtle Trophic Ecology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently conducting a study of green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) trophic ecology in the eastern Pacific. Tissue samples and stable carbon and stable...

  13. Activation of a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) breadboard facility - Wheat growth studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, William M.

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) will include subsystems for biomass production, food processing, and waste management in space. This paper discusses the CELSS Breadboard program, which is a research project for integration and evaluation of concepts and techniques of the CELSS facility, with special attention given to the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). The design of the BPC and of its subsystems for nutrient delivery, atmospheric control, and computer control are discussed together with the subsystem control and monitoring parameter requirements. Results from preliminary wheat-growth tests in the BPC are included.

  14. Water quality assessment of aquatic ecosystems using ecological criteria – case study in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Damyanova, Sonya; Ivanova, Iliana; Ignatova, Nadka

    2014-01-01

    Four aquatic ecosystems (two rivers and two dams) situated in the western part of Bulgaria were investigated over a three years’ period. The River Egulya and Petrohan dam are situated in mountainous regions at about 1000 m altitude, and are not influenced by any anthropogenic sources. Petrohan dam is a site for long-term ecosystem research as a part of Bulgarian long-term ecological research network. The other two systems belong to populated industrial areas. The River Martinovska flows throu...

  15. Summarizing history of the Nevada Applied Ecology Groups' environmental studies of transuranics and other radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents historical summaries of the research programs at the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG). NAEG was formed in 1970 as an outgrowth of the formation of the Office of Effects Evaluation and an anticipation by NV management of what was to become the National Environmental Policy Act. The objectives of the NAEG programs were: (1) delineate locations of contamination; (2) determine concentrations in ecosystem components; (3) quantify rates of movement among ecosystem components; and (4) evaluate potential dose from plutonium and other radionuclides

  16. Bowhead Whale Feeding Ecology Study (BOWFEST): Aerial Survey in Chukchi and Beaufort Seas conducted from 2007-08-23 to 2011-09-16 (NCEI Accession 0131425)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce The Bowhead Whale Feeding Ecology Study (BOWFEST) was initiated in May 2007 through an Interagency Agreement between the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM)...

  17. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  18. The ecological economics: An ecological economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological Economics arise as a scientific discipline aimed to integrate concepts of economics, ecology, thermodynamics, ethic and other natural and social sciences in order to incorporate a biophysical and integrated perspective of the inter dependences between economies and environment, from a plural conception and a methodology beyond disciplines. Ecological Economics studies the black box of economic processes usually excluded of the traditional economics: thermodynamics and ecology. Although it is relatively a new field of study, it has been strengthening its theoretical framework with scientific basis and analytic principles that lead to its identification as a new discipline that show a whole new paradigm. The scope of this article is to show the conceptual and methodological bases, the main founders, approaches and central debates of this new discipline. This brief introduction is a preamble to the papers of the meeting Ecological Economics: a perspective for Colombia included in this number, that took place on September 22 - 27 of 2007, at the National University of Colombia at Bogota. During tree days national and international experts, professors, researchers, workers of environmental sector and people interested on environmental issues joined together to know the conceptual and methodological achievements reached of this discipline; as well as to analyse and evaluate the environmental problems of the country, from the systemic, interdisciplinary and general perspective that it promotes

  19. Development of a zoning-based environmental-ecological coupled model for lakes: a case study of Baiyangdian Lake in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y. W.; Xu, M. J.; Xu, F.; Wu, S. R.; Yin, X. A.

    2014-06-01

    Environmental/ecological models are widely used for lake management as they provide a means to understand physical, chemical, and biological processes in highly complex ecosystems. Most research has focused on the development of environmental (water quality) and ecological models, separately. Limited studies were developed to couple the two models, and in these limited coupled models, a lake was regarded as a whole for analysis (i.e. considering the lake to be one well-mixed box), which is appropriate for small-scale lakes but is not sufficient to capture spatial variations within middle-scale or large-scale lakes. In response to this problem, this paper seeks to establish a zoning-based environmental-ecological coupled model for a lake. Hierarchical cluster analysis was adopted to determine the number of zones in a given lake based on hydrological, water quality, and ecological data analysis. The MIKE 21 model was used to construct 2-D hydrodynamics and water quality simulations. STELLA software was used to create a lake ecological model that can simulate the spatial variations of ecological condition based on flow field distribution results generated by MIKE 21. Baiyangdian Lake, the largest freshwater lake in northern China, was adopted as the study case. The results showed that the new model is promising for predicting spatial variations of ecological conditions in response to changes in lake water quantity and quality, and could be useful for lake management.

  20. Emergy measures of carrying capacity and sustainability of a target region for an ecological restoration programme: a case study in Loess Hilly Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Xiaohu; Liu, Guobin

    2012-07-15

    Evaluating the sustainability of a target region for an ecological restoration programme is challenging because it involves different aspects of human society and environment as well as multiple disciplines. Carrying capacity provides a useful measure of the sustainability of a given region where an ecological restoration programme is implemented. In this article, the Yangou catchment, a geomorphic unit, was used as a case study in the Loess Hilly Region of China, where emergy synthesis was used to measure the environmental resources base. The specific standard of living in terms of emergy was employed to calculate carrying capacity over the period 1998-2005 and to assess the sustainability of the Yangou catchment where an ecological restoration programme was carried out. The results of the evaluation indicated that after implementing the ecological restoration programme, there was some improvement in the environmental aspects of the Yangou catchment during the study period, suggesting that the ecological restoration programme alleviated ecological degradation. However, several emergy-based indices and the support areas also illustrated that the ecological restoration programme was not successful enough in terms of preservation and utilisation of environmental resources to enhance sustainability. This indicates that further actions are necessary on conserving environmental resources, improving the emergy input structure for agricultural production and in lifestyle changes for the local people in living in the Yangou catchment. PMID:22425879

  1. Microarrays in ecological research: A case study of a cDNA microarray for plant-herbivore interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gase Klaus

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technology allows researchers to simultaneously monitor changes in the expression ratios (ERs of hundreds of genes and has thereby revolutionized most of biology. Although this technique has the potential of elucidating early stages in an organism's phenotypic response to complex ecological interactions, to date, it has not been fully incorporated into ecological research. This is partially due to a lack of simple procedures of handling and analyzing the expression ratio (ER data produced from microarrays. Results We describe an analysis of the sources of variation in ERs from 73 hybridized cDNA microarrays, each with 234 herbivory-elicited genes from the model ecological expression system, Nicotiana attenuata, using procedures that are commonly used in ecologic research. Each gene is represented by two independently labeled PCR products and each product was arrayed in quadruplicate. We present a robust method of normalizing and analyzing ERs based on arbitrary thresholds and statistical criteria, and characterize a "norm of reaction" of ERs for 6 genes (4 of known function, 2 of unknown with different ERs as determined across all analyzed arrays to provide a biologically-informed alternative to the use of arbitrary expression ratios in determining significance of expression. These gene-specific ERs and their variance (gene CV were used to calculate array-based variances (array CV, which, in turn, were used to study the effects of array age, probe cDNA quantity and quality, and quality of spotted PCR products as estimates of technical variation. Cluster analysis and a Principal Component Analysis (PCA were used to reveal associations among the transcriptional "imprints" of arrays hybridized with cDNA probes derived from mRNA from N. attenuata plants variously elicited and attacked by different herbivore species and from three congeners: N. quadrivalis, N. longiflora and N. clevelandii. Additionally, the PCA revealed the contribution of individual gene ERs to the associations among arrays. Conclusions While the costs of 'boutique' array fabrication are rapidly declining, familiar methods for the analysis of the data they create are still missing. The case history illustrated here demonstrates the ease with which this powerful technology can be adapted to ecological research.

  2. Development of virtual research environment for regional climatic and ecological studies and continuous education support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, Evgeny; Lykosov, Vasily; Krupchatnikov, Vladimir; Bogomolov, Vasily; Gordova, Yulia; Martynova, Yulia; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander; Shulgina, Tamara

    2014-05-01

    Volumes of environmental data archives are growing immensely due to recent models, high performance computers and sensors development. It makes impossible their comprehensive analysis in conventional manner on workplace using in house computing facilities, data storage and processing software at hands. One of possible answers to this challenge is creation of virtual research environment (VRE), which should provide a researcher with an integrated access to huge data resources, tools and services across disciplines and user communities and enable researchers to process structured and qualitative data in virtual workspaces. VRE should integrate data, network and computing resources providing interdisciplinary climatic research community with opportunity to get profound understanding of ongoing and possible future climatic changes and their consequences. Presented are first steps and plans for development of VRE prototype element aimed at regional climatic and ecological monitoring and modeling as well as at continuous education and training support. Recently developed experimental software and hardware platform aimed at integrated analysis of heterogeneous georeferenced data "Climate" (http://climate.scert.ru/, Gordov et al., 2013; Shulgina et al., 2013; Okladnikov et al., 2013) is used as a VRE element prototype and approach test bench. VRE under development will integrate on the base of geoportal distributed thematic data storage, processing and analysis systems and set of models of complex climatic and environmental processes run on supercomputers. VRE specific tools are aimed at high resolution rendering on-going climatic processes occurring in Northern Eurasia and reliable and found prognoses of their dynamics for selected sets of future mankind activity scenaria. Currently the VRE element is accessible via developed geoportal at the same link (http://climate.scert.ru/) and integrates the WRF and Planet Simulator models, basic reanalysis and instrumental measurements data and support profound statistical analysis of storaged and modeled on demand data. In particular, one can run the integrated models, preprocess modeling results data, using dedicated modules for numerical processing perform analysys and visualize obtained results. New functionality recently has been added to the statistical analysis tools set aimed at detailed studies of climatic extremes occurring in Northern Asia. The VRE element is also supporting thematic educational courses for students and post-graduate students of the Tomsk State University. In particular, it allow students to perform on-line thematic laboratory work cycles on the basics of analysis of current and potential future regional climate change using Siberia territory as an example (Gordova et al, 2013). We plan to expand the integrated models set and add comprehensive surface and Arctic Ocean description. Developed VRE element "Climate" provides specialists involved into multidisciplinary research projects with reliable and practical instruments for integrated research of climate and ecosystems changes on global and regional scales. With its help even a user without programming skills can process and visualize multidimensional observational and model data through unified web-interface using a common graphical web-browser. This work is partially supported by SB RAS project VIII.80.2.1, RFBR grant 13-05-12034, grant 14-05-00502, and integrated project SB RAS 131. References 1. Gordov E.P., Lykosov V.N., Krupchatnikov V.N., Okladnikov I.G., Titov A.G., Shulgina T.M. Computationaland information technologies for monitoring and modeling of climate changes and their consequences. Novosibirsk: Nauka, Siberian branch, 2013. - 195 p. (in Russian) 2. T.M. Shulgina, E.P. Gordov, I.G. Okladnikov, A.G., Titov, E.Yu. Genina, N.P. Gorbatenko, I.V. Kuzhevskaya,A.S. Akhmetshina. Software complex for a regional climate change analysis. // Vestnik NGU. Series: Information technologies. 2013. Vol. 11. Issue 1. P. 124-131. (in Russian) 3. I.G. Okladnikov, A.G. Titov, T.M. Shulgina,

  3. Complex adaptive systems ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2003-01-01

    In the following, I will analyze two articles called Complex Adaptive Systems EcologyI & II (Molin & Molin, 1997 & 2000). The CASE-articles are some of the more quirkyarticles that have come out of the Molecular Microbial Ecology Group - a groupwhere I am currently making observational studies....... They are the result of acooperation between Søren Molin, professor in the group, and his brother, JanMolin, professor at Department of Organization and Industrial Sociology atCopenhagen Business School. The cooperation arises from the recognition that bothmicrobial ecology and sociology...

  4. Study on ecological awareness and performance of nursing personnel in dialysis units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Zyga

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: When designing new hospital construction or refurbishment can be adopted green practices both in design and in construction and operation. Objective: To explore the ecological awareness and behavior of nursing staff in a dialysis unit. Methods: This survey involved 90 Registered Nurses and Nurses’ aides of General Hospitals in the Capital (Athens and in province of Greece (Region of Peloponnese. These individuals were given an overall anonymous self-completed questionnaire. Results: The most important finding is that 70.8% considered as mandatory an organized effort to protect the environment in their workplace. Nurses think that greater environmental awareness is obtained 37.1% by using guidelines, 23.6% with relative stimulation, and 20.2% with educational lectures, 10.1% using poster and 6.7% in view educational videos. Finally, the correlations of ecological awareness with demographic characteristics of the sample revealed that older nursing staff with more years of working experience knows about environmental management (p-value=0.012. At the same time, gender (p-value=0,030 and educational level of the nursing staff plays an important role in the knowledge of it (p-value=0,044. Conclusions: To control costs and environmental pollution guidelines for saving energy and water and the use of environmentally friendly materials should be implemented. Thus, hospitals can become more competitive by reducing the amount of natural resources used.  Normal 0 false false false EL X-NONE X-NONE

  5. Assessment of ecological studies examining the risk of thyroid cancer in children through radiation exposure following the nuclear power plant disaster in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological studies can be divided into studies with an individual database (cohort studies, case control studies) and studies with aggregate data (ecological studies). The former have the advantage that they can make use of methods based on risk models and examine dose-effect curves with due consideration to potential confounders, but the drawback of being expensive. Studies based on aggregate data can take account of large case numbers at comparatively low cost. However, ecological studies are also associated with serious methodological problems, especially when the goal is to find causal links (''ecological bias''). Thus it is well known that variations in a confounding factor (such as smoking in a study on lung cancer through radon) can invalidate the results of studies based on aggregate data. On the other hand, the only studies to have produced quantitative results on the risk of acquiring thyroid cancer through 131I exposure during childhood in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl disaster happen to be based on aggregate data. The purpose of the present paper is to examine problems associated with ecological studies which have already been in the focus of many studies of epidemiological methodology in terms of whether they are relevant to studies investigating connections between thyroid cancer and 131I exposure. It also presents the results of several simulation studies which examine the degree of distortion associated with ecological analyses

  6. A Study of Optimizing Spatial Structure for Urban Under Ecological Approach:A Case of Jiulongpo District in Chongqing

    OpenAIRE

    Min, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Along with the highly speedy urbanization and the industrialization in china, the disordered land utilization has led to land overuse and ecological destruction. However, the city planning and ecosystem proect planning have grown according to rules oneself. the contradictionbetween economic growth and ecological protection is more evident than ever before. The ecological feasible space for urban development was established based on GIS methodology, combining an ecological function regionaliza...

  7. Evolutionary and ecological genomics of developmental plasticity: novel approaches and first insights from the study of horned beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczek, Armin P; Kijimoto, Teiya; Snell-Rood, Emilie; Rocha, Guilherme; Pespeni, Melissa; Kafadar, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity pervades organismal development and physiology where it facilitates an enormous range of adaptive responses to novel or stressful environments. Plasticity also impacts evolutionary processes, reducing the probability of population extinction in the face of environmental changes and sometimes increasing speciation rates in developmentally plastic lineages. Despite the adaptive significance of plasticity, organisms are not infinitely plastic; rather they are constrained in the kinds and ranges of environmental changes to which their body parts, organs, and tissues can respond. Understanding the nature, costs, and limits of developmental plasticity requires insight into (i) the developmental-genetic and genomic mechanisms underlying plastic responses as well as (ii) their interplay with ecological and social conditions. In this chapter we review and summarize recent progress in the development of horned beetles as a study system with which to explore the interactions between changing ecological conditions and plastic, genome-wide responses in gene expression and developmental function. In particular, we focus on plastic responses to nutritional variation, which in horned beetles differ widely as a function of body region, sex, and species. We begin by introducing the study system and summarize the developmental-genetic and genomic tool set currently available for horned beetles. We then present recently developed statistical approaches that can be used to guide the design of multi-factorial genome-wide transcriptional comparisons when circumstances prohibit a fully balanced design. We present an example of such an approach in the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus and end by highlighting the growing opportunities for future ecological-genomic studies in horned beetles. PMID:24277298

  8. A Multicountry Ecological Study of Cancer Incidence Rates in 2008 with Respect to Various Risk-Modifying Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Grant

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Observational and ecological studies are generally used to determine the presence of effect of cancer risk-modifying factors. Researchers generally agree that environmental factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, poor diet, lack of physical activity, and low serum 25-hdyroxyvitamin D levels are important cancer risk factors. This ecological study used age-adjusted incidence rates for 21 cancers for 157 countries (87 with high-quality data in 2008 with respect to dietary supply and other factors, including per capita gross domestic product, life expectancy, lung cancer incidence rate (an index for smoking, and latitude (an index for solar ultraviolet-B doses. The factors found to correlate strongly with multiple types of cancer were lung cancer (direct correlation with 12 types of cancer, energy derived from animal products (direct correlation with 12 types of cancer, inverse with two, latitude (direct correlation with six types, inverse correlation with three, and per capita gross national product (five types. Life expectancy and sweeteners directly correlated with three cancers, animal fat with two, and alcohol with one. Consumption of animal products correlated with cancer incidence with a lag time of 15–25 years. Types of cancer which correlated strongly with animal product consumption, tended to correlate weakly with latitude; this occurred for 11 cancers for the entire set of countries. Regression results were somewhat different for the 87 high-quality country data set and the 157-country set. Single-country ecological studies have inversely correlated nearly all of these cancers with solar ultraviolet-B doses. These results can provide guidance for prevention of cancer.

  9. Ecological effects on streams from forest fertilization; literature review and conceptual framework for future study in the western Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.W.

    2002-01-01

    Fertilization of forests with urea-nitrogen has been studied numerous times for its effects on water quality. Stream nitrogen concentrations following fertilization are typically elevated during winter, including peaks in the tens-of-thousands of parts per billion range, with summer concentrations often returning to background or near-background levels. Despite these increases, water-quality criteria for nitrogen have rarely been exceeded. However, such criteria are targeted at fish toxicity or human health and are not relevant to concentrations that could cause ecological disturbances.

  10. Economic-Ecological Values of Non-Tidal Swamp Ecosystem: Case Study in Tapin District, Kalimantan, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdani Hamdani; Imam Hanafi; Anwar Fitrianto; Lutfhi Fatah Arsyad; Budi Setiawan

    2013-01-01

    This article would like to describe the economic and ecological benefits, as well as analyzing the total economic value of non-tidal swamps. Non-tidal swamps in the District Tapin are interested to be studied because of the use of non-tidal swamp in this area for people, especially ethnic Banjar since over a hundred years ago. But since 2011 the South Kalimantan local government has set a palm oil plantation development plans (Elaeis guineensis) on the area. Assessment has been conducted with...

  11. Ecological studies on the diversity of terrestrial poisonous snakes "Proteroglyphous” of Jazan region Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Reptilia: Ophidia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa F. Masood

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out in Jazan region. The region of Jazan in being in the South-Western part of Saudi Arabia between longitudes 420 and 43.80 and latitudes 5, 16o and 17o, and is bounded on the south and east of the Republic of Yemen, Asir area in the north and the Red Sea in the west. The results showed that there are four families of poisonous snakes "Proteroglyphous" living in Jazan region. They are: Family Atractaspididae, Elapidae, Viperidae and Hydrophiidae . This work aimed to unveil ecological problems and throw light on diversity of poisonous snakes in Jazan region and the danger of these species to human life. Despite the fact that these snakes may be harmful to human life in some cases, it may also be useful to him in many aspects of life. Since there are no enough studies on the animal species in the region, this study came to identify the diversity of this animal group. There is no doubt that the study of these species and identifying them will provide some solutions that could make this group as an endless source of biodiversity and at the same time, this study provides information on the feasibility of protection of this species in this region. Discussion of ecological and geographical affinities of this taxa and taxonomic keys of different types in order to facilitate the process of identification will be provided

  12. Predicting performance for ecological restoration: A case study using Spartina altemiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, S.E.; Grace, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    The success of population-based ecological restoration relies on the growth and reproductive performance of selected donor materials, whether consisting of whole plants or seed. Accurately predicting performance requires an understanding of a variety of underlying processes, particularly gene flow and selection, which can be measured, at least in part, using surrogates such as neutral marker genetic distances and simple latitudinal effects. Here we apply a structural equation modeling approach to understanding and predicting performance in a widespread salt marsh grass, Spartina alterniflora, commonly used for ecological restoration throughout its native range in North America. We collected source materials from throughout this range, consisting of eight clones each from 23 populations, for transplantation to a common garden site in coastal Louisiana and monitored their performance. We modeled performance as a latent process described by multiple indicator variables (e.g., clone diameter, stem number) and estimated direct and indirect influences of geographic and genetic distances on performance. Genetic distances were determined by comparison of neutral molecular markers with those from a local population at the common garden site. Geographic distance metrics included dispersal distance (the minimum distance over water between donor and experimental sites) and latitude. Model results indicate direct effects of genetic distance and latitude on performance variation among the donor sites. Standardized effect strengths indicate that performance was roughly twice as sensitive to variation in genetic distance as to latitudinal variation. Dispersal distance had an indirect influence on performance through effects on genetic distance, indicating a typical pattern of genetic isolation by distance. Latitude also had an indirect effect on genetic distance through its linear relationship with dispersal distance. Three performance indicators had significant loadings on performance alone (mean clone diameter, mean number of stems, mean number of inflorescences), while the performance indicators mean stem height and mean stem width were also influenced by latitude. We suggest that dispersal distance and latitude should provide an adequate means of predicting performance in future S. alterniflora restorations and propose a maximum sampling distance of 300 km (holding latitude constant) to avoid the sampling of inappropriate ecotypes. ?? 2010 by the Ecological Society of America.

  13. Linking of Primary Care Records to Census Data to Study the Association between Socioeconomic Status and Cancer Incidence in Southern Europe: A Nation-Wide Ecological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Gil, Maria; Elorza, Josep-Maria; Banque, Marta; Comas-Cufí, Marc; Blanch, Jordi; Ramos, Rafel; Méndez-Boo, Leonardo; Hermosilla, Eduardo; Bolibar, Bonaventura; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background Area-based measures of economic deprivation are seldom applied to large medical records databases to establish population-scale associations between deprivation and disease. Objective To study the association between deprivation and incidence of common cancer types in a Southern European region. Methods Retrospective ecological study using the SIDIAP (Information System for the Development of Research in Primary Care) database of longitudinal electronic medical records for a repres...

  14. The sea urchin, a versatile model for eco-toxicity studies and ecological experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Privitera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinoderm early developmental stages represent a good tool for toxicity testing in different fields, ranging from environment to food contamination, and in full respect of the 3Rs objectives (Reduction, Refinement, Replacement of animal experiments, that will lead to the reduction of vertebrate use for toxicity testing. Further, sea urchins are key species in a wide range of marine habitats, as they are able to structure algal community. Experiments and observations aiming at the  characterization of anthropogenic or climate changes effects on their settlement, population structure, feeding behaviour and reproductive condition, may be useful to describe future scenarios regarding the whole marine community. The present paper represents a short review of the possible applications of eco-toxicity bioassays using Paracentrotus lividus gametes and embryos. Further, examples of ecological researches, involving sea urchins, aiming at the definition of future scenarios will be preserved.

  15. Lake Restoration in Terms of Ecological Resilience: a Numerical Study of Biomanipulations under Bistable Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiminori Itoh

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An abstract version of the comprehensive aquatic simulation model (CASM is found to exhibit bistability under intermediate loading of nutrient input, supporting the alternative-stable-states theory and field observations for shallow lakes. Our simulations of biomanipulations under the bistable conditions reveal that a reduction in the abundance of zooplanktivorous fish cannot switch the system from a turbid to a clear state. Rather, a direct reduction of phytoplankton and detritus was found to be most effective to make this switch in the present model. These results imply that multiple manipulations may be effective for practical restorations of lakes. We discuss the present results of biomanipulations in terms of ecological resilience in multivariable systems or natural systems.

  16. Control principles of confounders in ecological comparative studies: standardization and regressive modelss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varaksin Anatoly

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The methods of the analysis of research data including the concomitant variables (confounders associated with both the response and the current factor are considered. There are two usual ways to take into account such variables: the first, at the stage of planning the experiment and the second, in analyzing the received data. Despite the equal effectiveness of these approaches, there exists strong reason to restrict the usage of regression method to accounting for confounders by ANCOVA. Authors consider the standardization by stratification as a reliable method to account for the effect of confounding factors as opposed to the widely-implemented application of logistic regression and the covariance analysis. The program for the automation of standardization procedure is proposed, it is available at the site of the Institute of Industrial Ecology.

  17. Integrating Water, Actors, and Structure to Study Socio-Hydro-Ecological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. L.; Armstrong, A.; Baker, M. A.; Bedingfield, S.; Betts, D.; Buahin, C. A.; Buchert, M.; Crowl, T.; Dupont, R.; Endter-Wada, J.; Flint, C.; Grant, J.; Hinners, S.; Horns, D.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Jackson-Smith, D.; Jones, A. S.; Licon, C.; Null, S. E.; Odame, A.; Pataki, D. E.; Rosenberg, D. E.; Runburg, M.; Stoker, P.; Strong, C.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization, climate uncertainty, and ecosystem change represent major challenges for managing water resources. Water systems and the forces acting upon them are complex, and there is a need to understand and generically represent the most important system components and linkages. We developed a framework to facilitate understanding of water systems including potential vulnerabilities and opportunities for sustainability. Our goal was to produce an interdisciplinary framework for water resources research to address water issues across scales (e.g., city to region) and domains (e.g., water supply and quality, urban and transitioning landscapes). An interdisciplinary project (iUTAH - innovative Urban Transitions and Aridregion Hydro-sustainability) with a large (N=~100), diverse team having expertise spanning the hydrologic, biological, ecological, engineering, social, planning, and policy sciences motivated the development of this framework. The framework was developed through review of the literature, meetings with individual researchers, and workshops with participants. The Structure-Water-Actor Framework (SWAF) includes three main components: water (quality and quantity), structure (natural, built, and social), and actors (individual and organizational). Key linkages include: 1) ecological and hydrological processes, 2) ecosystem and geomorphic change, 3) planning, design, and policy, 4) perceptions, information, and experience, 5) resource access, and 6) operational water use and management. Our expansive view of structure includes natural, built, and social components, allowing us to examine a broad set of tools and levers for water managers and decision-makers to affect system sustainability and understand system outcomes. We validate the SWAF and illustrate its flexibility to generate insights for three research and management problems: green stormwater infrastructure in an arid environment, regional water supply and demand, and urban river restoration. These applications show that the framework can help identify key components and linkages across diverse water systems.

  18. Occurrence and removal of antibiotics in ecological and conventional wastewater treatment processes: A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huiyu; Yuan, Xiangjuan; Wang, Weidong; Qiang, Zhimin

    2016-08-01

    The occurrence and removal of 19 antibiotics (including four macrolides, eight sulfonamides, three fluoroquinolones, three tetracyclines, and trimethoprim) were investigated in two ecological (constructed wetland (CW) and stabilization pond (SP)) and two conventional wastewater treatment processes (activated sludge (AS) and micro-power biofilm (MP)) in a county of eastern China. All target antibiotics were detected in the influent and effluent samples with detection frequencies of >90%. Clarithromycin, ofloxacin, roxithromycin and erythromycin-H2O were the dominant antibiotics with maximum concentrations reaching up to 6524, 5411, 964 and 957 ng/L, respectively; while the concentrations of tiamulin, sulfamerazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethazine, sulfamethizole and sulfisoxazole were below 10 ng/L. Although the mean effluent concentrations of target antibiotics were obviously lower than the influent ones (except ciprofloxacin), their removals were usually incomplete. Principal component analysis showed that the AS and CW outperformed the MP and SP processes and the AS performed better than the CW process in terms of antibiotics removal. Both the AS and CW processes exhibited higher removal efficiencies in summer than in winter, indicating biological degradation could play an important role in antibiotics removal. Because of the incomplete removal, the total concentration of detected antibiotics increased in the mixing and downstream sections of a local river receiving the effluent from a typical wastewater treatment facility practicing AS process. Nowadays, ecological wastewater treatment processes are being rapidly planned and constructed in rural areas of China; however, the discharge of residual antibiotics to the aquatic environment may highlight a necessity for optimizing or upgrading their design and operation. PMID:27127893

  19. Research of land reclamation and ecological restoration in the resource-exhausting city : a case study of Huaibei in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eco-city construction is a strong tool which could move a city from traditional industrial civilization to ecological civilization. The city of Huaibet, located in China, has 50 years of coal mining history, and has been listed as a national resource-exhausting city. The city's sustainable development and ecological restoration is encountering extreme challenges. This study used time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in order to study the situation of evolution and distribution of subsidence in the area in Huaibet. The purpose of the study was to provide strategic recommendations to assist Huaibei city transform from a resource-exhausting city to an eco-city. Specifically, the paper discussed the direction of eco-reconstruction in Huaibei such as rural eco-agriculture; wetland park or suburban park; and mine park. It also presented a time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in Huaibet including the subsidence status of the main city of Huaibet and intensive use of land evaluation and land use measures of the main city of Huaibei. Land reclamation and eco-reconstruction of Huaibet was also examined in the paper. It was concluded that based on land use of all aspects of the evaluation area and city's development plan, an integrated tourism with full use of subsidence land could be developed. 10 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  20. A socio-ecological perspective of access to and acceptability of HIV/AIDS treatment and care services: a qualitative case study research

    OpenAIRE

    Yakob, Bereket; Ncama, Busisiwe Purity

    2016-01-01

    Background Access to healthcare is an essential element of health development and a fundamental human right. While access to and acceptability of healthcare are complex concepts that interact with different socio-ecological factors (individual, community, institutional and policy), it is not known how these factors affect HIV care. This study investigated the impact of socio-ecological factors on access to and acceptability of HIV/AIDS treatment and care services (HATCS) in Wolaita Zone of Et...

  1. Linking concepts in the ecology and evolution of invasive plants: network analysis shows what has been most studied and identifies knowledge gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Brown,Cynthia S.; Tepolt, Carolyn K; Tsutsui, Neil D.; Vanparys, Valérie; Atkinson, Sheryl; Mahy, Grégory; Monty, Arnaud

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, a growing number of studies have addressed connections between ecological and evolutionary concepts in biologic invasions. These connections may be crucial for understanding the processes underlying invaders’ success. However, the extent to which scientists have worked on the integration of the ecology and evolution of invasive plants is poorly documented, as few attempts have been made to evaluate these efforts in invasion biology research. Such analysis can facilitate rec...

  2. Convergence of ecological footprint and emergy analysis as a sustainability indicator of countries: Peru as case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siche, Raúl; Pereira, Lucas; Agostinho, Feni; Ortega, Enrique

    2010-10-01

    In the last decade, two scientific tools have been extensively used worldwide to measure the human impact on nature: ecological footprint (EF) and emergy analysis (EA). Papers trying to combine the strong points of EF and EA, and obtain more accurate results have appeared in scientific literature, in which Zhao's et al. (2005) [61] approach is an important one. Unfortunately, some weak points of the original methods still remain on the new approaches proposed. The aim of this present work is to discuss some weak points found in Zhao's approach, trying to overcome them through a new approach called emergetic ecological footprint (EEF). The main difference between Zhao's approach and EEF is that the last one accounted for the internal storage of capital natural in the biocapacity calculation. Besides that, soil loss and water for human consume were considered as additional categories in the footprint calculation. After discussing it through comparisons with other approaches, EEF was used to assess Peru as a case study, resulting in a biocapacity of 51.76 gha capita-1 and a footprint of 12.23 gha capita-1, with 2004 data; that resulted in an ecological surplus of 39.53 gha capita-1. The load capacity factor obtained was 4.23, meaning that Peru can support a population 4.23 times bigger considering the life style of 2004. The main limitations of the EEF are: (i) it is impossible to make comparisons between the biocapacity and footprint for each category; (ii) a need for a handbook with emergy intensity factors with good quality. On the other hand, the main positive points are: (i) its easiness of application in global and national scales; (ii) its final indicators account for all the previous energy (or emergy) used to make something; (iii) internal natural capital storage was accounted for in the biocapacity calculation, which can be a valid step towards the evaluation and assess of services provided by nature.

  3. Information Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes a pedagogical didactical paradigm for teaching student-designers how to deal with context issues. Form/context-relationships are conceptualized as information ecologies and described as behavioral settings using a key concept developed by social psychologist R.A. Baker in the...... 1960ties, and chosen here because it integrates cultural and psychological trajectories in a theory of living settings. The pedagogical-didactical paradigm comprises three distinct information ecologies, named after their intended outcome: the problem-setting, the exploration-setting, and the fit......-setting. It is specified how context issues can be treated within each of these information ecologies. The paper concludes by discussing the outcome of applying this paradigm with respect to the student-designers’ competence as reflective practitioners....

  4. Urban Sound Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Within recent years, there has been a renewed focus on sound in urban environments. From sound installations in public space to sound festivals in alternative settings, we find a common interest in sound art relating to the urban environment. Artworks or interventions presented in such contexts...... share the characteristics of site specificity. However, this article will consider the artwork in a broader context by re-examining how sound installations relate to the urban environment. For that purpose, this article brings together ecology terms from acoustic ecology of the sound theories of the...... 1970s while developing them into recent definitions of ecology in urban studies. Finally, we unfold our framing of urban sound ecologies with three case analyses: a sound intervention in Berlin, a symphony for wind instruments in Copenhagen and a video walk in a former railway station in Kassel. The...

  5. Wet Grasslands as a Green Infrastructure for Ecological Sustainability: Wader Conservation in Southern Sweden as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Manton

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosphere Reserves aim at being role models for biodiversity conservation. This study focuses on the unsuccessful conservation of waders (Charadrii on wet grasslands in the Kristianstad Vattenrike Biosphere Reserve (KVBR in southern Sweden. Predation on nests and young has been proposed as one reason contributing to the decline of waders. We explored this hypothesis by comparing two landscapes, one with declining (KVBR and one with stable (Östergötland wader populations on managed wet grasslands in southern Sweden. Specifically, we tested three predictions linked to predation on wader nests and young, namely that (1 the relative abundance of avian predators and waders; (2 the avian predator abundance; and (3 the predation rate on artificial wader nests, should all be higher in declining versus stable populations. All predictions were clearly supported. Nevertheless, predation may not be the ultimate factor causing wader population declines. We discuss the cumulative effects of landscape change linked to increased food resources for predators, reduced wet grassland patch size and quality. Holistic analyses of multiple wet grassland landscapes as social-ecological systems as case studies, including processes such as predation and other factors affecting waders, is a promising avenue towards collaborative learning for wet grasslands as a functional green infrastructure. However, if governance and management approaches can be improved is questionable without considerable investment in both ecological and social systems.

  6. Investigations in to Ecological Consequences and Threats from Ethnoecological and Ethnobotanical Practices Across Karakorum Mountain Ranges: A Case Study Berberis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika Khan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphologically inaccessible mighty mountain ranges of Karakoram, Hindukush, Himalaya and Pamir have been mother sanctuaries for several ecologically attuned civilizations. Modern changes underway across ethnoecological and ethnobotanical settings among these mountain traditional communities have drastically depreciated folk wisdom and ecological equilibrium. Ethno-climatic agencies have threatened several species and Berberis pseudumbellata subsp. gilgitica has become critically endangered. Present study was an attempt to discover ethnobotanical insights and exploration of threatening factors affecting Berberis species. Survey (n=373 revealed that communities use Berberis meeting various purposes including medicinal (92.2%; SE0.057; 0.409 MT/annum-a, firewood (19.3%; SE37.375; 6.589 MT/a, commercial (2.41%; SE1.692; 0.048 MT/a, cultural (2.41%, fodder (16.08%; SE11.474; 8.724 MT/a, fencing (19.03%; SE6.895; 3.352 MT/a and grazing (100%; SE1.035. Data was analyzed using Pearson correlational coefficient, student t-test and descriptive statistical tools. Study exhibits highly significant relationship (p< 0.000 among different age groups, ethnomedicinal uses and conservation status of Berberis.

  7. Political ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.)

  8. Nest box design for the study of diurnal raptors and owls is still an overlooked point in ecological, evolutionary and conservation studies: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Lambrechts, Marcel M.; Wiebe, K.L.; Sunde, P.; Solonen, T.; Sergio, Fabrizio; Roulin, A.; Møller, A.P.; López, Bernat C; Fargallo, Juan A.; Exo, K.M.; Dell'Omo, G; Costantini, D.; Charter, M.; Butler, M.W.; Bortolotti, Gary R.

    2012-01-01

    The use of artificial nest boxes has led to significant progress in bird conservation and in our understanding of the functional and evolutionary ecology of free-ranging birds that exploit cavities for roosting and reproduction. Nest boxes and their improved accessibility have made it easier to perform comparative and experimental field investigations. However, concerns about the generality and applicability of scientific studies involving birds breeding in nest boxes have been raised because...

  9. Three-Gorges-Dam: Studying the ecological impacts in a highly dynamic ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, T.; Behrens, T.; Kaufmann, H.; King, L.; Rohn, J.; Schönbrodt, S.; Subklew, G.; Xiang, W.

    2009-04-01

    The impoundment of the Yangtze River in 2003 by the Three-Gorges-Dam (TGD) evokes ecological impacts alongside the Yangtze and its major tributaries that appear to be unforesseable in their dimension and dynamic. The scheduled water level elevation to 176 m in 2009 and the seasonal water level fluctuations at the TGD for the purpose of hydro power generation and flood control will still foster the typical aftermaths such as slope instability, mass movements, soil erosion, the expansion of infrastructure and land reclamation for subsistence agriculture and cash crops distant to the inundated area. Together, geoscientists from China and Germany try to develop an integrated risk assessment system for landslides, soil erosion, diffuse sediment and matter fluxes into the reservoir and land-use vulnerability. Since April 2008 the research activities take place within the Sino-German YANGTZE project funded by the German BMBF and initiated by the German Research Centre Juelich. The project proceeds in close collaboration with the Ministry of Land and Resources of the People's Republic of China (MRL). In four subprojects located at the universities of Erlangen, Giessen, Potsdam and Tuebingen main focus lies on the analysis and assessment of the mechanisms and trigger of landslides, the mechanisms of soil erosion for different landscape morphologies and soil associations and the multi-temporal land-use classification and land-use dynamic on the meso-scale. The research area is the highly dynamic and mountainous Xiangxi catchment (3.100 km²) close to the TGD. Using multi-level approaches by means of GIS, field investigations and remote sensing the Yangtze project aims to assess the spatial and temporal varying risk potential of soil erosion and the landslide susceptibility and risk for the infrastructure, people and agriculture. Finally, high-resolution risk potential maps will serve as a base for decision making. In close collaboration with our Chinese partner projects (China University of Geosciences, Wuhan; Institute of Soil Sciences, CAS, Nanjing; Aero Geophysical Survey and Remote Sensing for Land and Resources, Beijing) we seek to enhance our understanding of the ecological consequences of large dam projects.

  10. A case study comparing static and spatially explicit ecological exposure analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, B K

    2001-12-01

    Exposure to chemical contaminants must be estimated when performing ecological risk assessments. A previous article proposed a habitat area and quality conditioned population exposure estimator, E[HQ]P, and described an individual-based, random walk, Monte Carlo model (SE3M) to facilitate calculation of E[HQ]P. In this article, E[HQ]P was compared with exposure estimates from a baseline risk assessment that evaluated mink and great blue heron exposure to fluoride at a federal Superfund site. Calculation of E[HQ]P took into consideration a receptor's forage area, movement behavior, population size, and the areal extent and quality of suitable habitat. The baseline assessment used four methods that did (total and unit Tier 2) and did not (total and unit Tier 1) consider habitat area or quality; where "total" included all exposure units on site and "unit" only a given exposure unit. Total Tier 1 estimates were consistently higher than E[HQ]P (e.g., 169.1 mg/kg x d versus 21.6 mg/kg x d). Risk managers using total Tier 1 results for decision making would be unlikely to underestimate exposure; however, implementability of correspondingly lower remedial objectives could be challenging. Unit Tier 1 estimates were higher (e.g., 96.5 mg/kg x d versus 61.6 mg/kg x d) or lower (e.g., 3.5 mg/kg x d versus 51.1 mg/kg x d) than E[HQ]P depending on variations in landscape features. Total Tier 2 and E[HQ]P estimates were similar (e.g., 20.7 mg/kg x d versus 21.6 mg/kg x d) when an ecologically questionable average exposure was assumed. Unit Tier 2 estimates were consistently well below E[HQ]P (e.g., 17.8 mg/kg x d versus 61.6 mg/kg x d) when an average exposure was not assumed. Risk managers using unit Tier 1 or 2 results could be basing their decisions on potentially large underestimates of exposure. By forgoing average exposure assumptions, and explicitly addressing landscape heterogeneity, SE3M appears capable of yielding exposure estimates that are not as potentially misleading to risk managers as those produced with traditional averaging methods. PMID:11824676

  11. [Assessment and early warning of land ecological security in rapidly urbanizing coastal area: A case study of Caofeidian new district, Hebei, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Chen, Ying; Wang, Shu-tao; Men, Ming-xin; Xu, Hao

    2015-08-01

    Assessment and early warning of land ecological security (LES) in rapidly urbanizing coastal area is an important issue to ensure sustainable land use and effective maintenance of land ecological security. In this study, an index system for the land ecological security of Caofeidian new district was established based on the Pressure-State-Response (P-S-R) model. Initial assessment units of 1 km x 1 km created with the remote sensing data and GIS methods were spatially interpolated to a fine pixel size of 30 m x 30 m, which were combined with the early warning method (using classification tree method) to evaluate the land ecological security of Caofeidian in 2005 and 2013. The early warning level was classed into four categories: security with degradation potential, sub-security with slow degradation, sub-security with rapid degradation, and insecurity. Result indicated that, from 2005 to 2013, the average LES of Caofeidian dropped from 0.55 to 0.52, indicating a degradation of land ecological security from medium security level to medium-low security level. The areas at the levels of insecurity with rapid degradation were mainly located in the rapid urbanization areas, illustrating that rapid expansion of urban construction land was the key factor to the deterioration of the regional land ecological security. Industrial District, Shilihai town and Nanpu saltern, in which the lands at the levels of insecurity and sub-security with rapid degradation or slow degradation accounted for 58.3%, 98.9% and 81.2% of their respective districts, were at the stage of high early warning. Thus, land ecological security regulation for these districts should be strengthened in near future. The study could provide a reference for land use planning and ecological protection of Caofeidian new district. PMID:26685609

  12. Actual directions in study of ecological consequences of a highly toxic 1,1-dimethylhydrazine-based rocket fuel spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulat Kenessov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents a review of the actual directions in study of ecological consequences of highly toxic 1,1-dimethylhydrazine-based rocket fuel spills. Recent results on study of processes of transformation of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, identification of its main metabolites and development of analytical methods for their determination are generalized. Modern analytical methods of determination of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine and its transformation products in environmental samples are characterized. It is shown that in recent years, through the use of most modern methods of physical chemical analysis and sample preparation, works in this direction made significant progress and contributed to the development of studies in adjacent areas. A character of distribution of transformation products in soils of fall places of first stages of rocket-carriers is described and the available methods for their remediation are characterized.

  13. Ecological Studies in the Coastal Waters of Kalpakkam, Southeast Coast of India, in the Vicinity of a Nuclear Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological monitoring of the coastal waters at Kalpakkam, which presently harbour various nuclear facilities, has been in progress for the last four years to create a benchmark dataset on water quality, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fisheries, sedentary organisms and molluscan species diversity. Results indicated a significant impact of monsoonal rain and backwaters on the coastal water quality. About 325 phytoplankton, 140 zooplankton, 350 fish, 130 molluscs and 100 species of sedentary organisms have been catalogued. Two fish species, which are native to Indonesia, were recorded for the first time in Indian coastal water. The study indicated that the coastal water is rich in biodiversity. Similarly, results of studies on costal sediment characteristics indicated the influence of monsoonal rain and backwater discharge. Overall, the study indicated little impact of nuclear activity on coastal water biodiversity and water quality. (author)

  14. ANALYSIS OF WASTE WATER FROM ECOLOGICAL CAR WASH A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIANA RADULESCU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Wastewaters resulted from different stages of washing process from ecological car wash were investigated for its physicochemical parameters and several heavy metals contents. For this purpose 75 samples were collected and analyzed by conductometric, potentiometric techniques and by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry during of November 2010. The results showed that the amount of zinc, copper, cadmium and lead elements in wastewater samples were higher than the Maximum Admitted Level (MAL values for investigated heavy metals, according to the Order 161/2006, after washing different cars in one week (from Monday to Friday at 14,00. The increase of Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn concentrations is visible (average weekly collections and these were higher especially on rainy days when cars came with a load more visible than in the days with good weather. In according with the Order 161/2006, regarding pH tolerance limit, the mean pH values for all collected samples were between 6.00 and 9.00. The temperature ranged between 14.10 - 17.10C with an average value of 14.911.61C. The highest values for conductivity, turbidity and TDS was found for samples Sp2, Sp5, Sp8, Sp11 and Sp14, before entrance in the first separator.

  15. The evolutionary ecology of host-specificity: experimental studies with Strongyloides ratti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmill, A W; Viney, M E; Read, A F

    2000-04-01

    Factors constraining the evolution of host-specificity were investigated using a gastrointestinal parasitic nematode, Strongyloides ratti. S. ratti is a natural parasite of rats which can also reproduce, with decreased success, in laboratory mice. Observed host-specificity arose from lower establishment, reduced per capita fecundity and more rapid expulsion of parasites from mice relative to rats. Variation in the efficacy of thymus-dependent immunity between host species (rats and mice) was insufficient to explain the majority of the observed differences in parasite establishment and reproductive success. The role of natural selection in determining host-specificity was addressed using experimental selection followed by reciprocal fitness assays in both host species. Experimental selection failed to modify the host-specificity of S. ratti to any measurable degree, suggesting either a lack of genetic variation for this trait or the involvement of as yet unidentified factors underlying the differences in S. ratti fitness in rats and mice respectively. These results are discussed in relation to competing theoretical models of ecological specialization, host immunology and previous attempts to experimentally alter the host-specificity of parasitic nematodes. PMID:10811285

  16. Ecological study for refrigerator use, salt, vegetable, and fruit intakes, and gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Shin, Aesun; Park, Sue K; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Ma, Seung Hyun; Lee, Eun-Ha; Gwack, Jin; Jung, En-Joo; Cho, Lisa Y; Yang, Jae Jeong; Yoo, Keun-Young

    2011-11-01

    We used an ecological approach to determine the correlation between vegetable, fruit and salt intakes, refrigerator use, and gastric cancer mortality in Korean population. Information on fruit and vegetable intakes per capita from the National Health and Nutrition Survey, death certificate data from the National Statistical office, refrigerator per household data from Korean Statistical Information Service, and salt/sodium intake data from a cross-sectional survey were utilized. Correlation coefficients were calculated between vegetable and fruit intakes, refrigerator per household, and gastric cancer mortality and between salt and sodium intakes, and gastric cancer mortality and incidence in the four areas. With 5, 10, and 15 years lag time, refrigerator usage and fruit intake were negatively associated with gastric cancer mortality (p < 0.01), but vegetable intake was not associated with gastric cancer mortality. When estimates of salt/sodium intake evaluated by 24-h urine collection in four areas of Korea were compared to the gastric cancer mortality and incidence in these regions, positive correlation was shown between salt/sodium intake, and gastric cancer incidence and mortality. Negative associations between refrigerator use, fruit intake, and gastric cancer mortality and positive associations between salt/sodium intake and gastric cancer mortality and incidence were suggested. PMID:21805052

  17. The cultural and ecological impacts of aboriginal tourism: a case study on Taiwan's Tao tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tzu-Ming; Lu, Dau-Jye

    2014-01-01

    We show that tourism activities severely impact the ecology of Orchid Island, its natural resources, and the culture of the Tao tribe. For example, highway widening, in response to the increased traffic volumes caused by tourism, required many Pandanus trees to be cut and removed, which has placed the coconut crabs in danger of extinction. To promote eco-tourism, observation trips to observe Elegant Scops owls and Birdwing butterflies have taken place, which has affected the breeding of these two protected species. The Elegant Scops owls- and Birdwing butterflies-related tourism activities also break the "evil spirits" taboo of the Tao people and have caused the disappearance of the specifications for using traditional natural resources, causing natural ecosystems to face the threat of excessive use. In addition to promoting and advocating aboriginal tourism of the Tao people on Orchid Island, the Taiwanese government should help the Tao people to develop a management model that combines traditional regulations and tourism activities. PMID:25089246

  18. Ecological Catastrophes and Disturbance Relicts: A Case Study from Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, J.

    2014-12-01

    Caves are often considered buffered environments in terms of their ability to sustain near constant microclimatic conditions. However, environments within cave entrances are expected to respond most quickly to changing surface conditions. We cataloged a relict assemblage of at least 10 endemic arthropods likely restricted to caves and occurring primarily within cave entranceways. Of these animals, eight were considered new undescribed species. These endemic arthropods have persisted in Rapa Nui (Easter Island) caves despite a catastrophic ecological shift induced by island-wide deforestation, fire intolerance, and drought, as well as intensive livestock grazing and surface ecosystems dominated by invasive species. We consider these animals to be "disturbance relicts" - species whose distributions are now limited to areas that experienced minimal human disturbance historically. Today, these species represent one-third of the Rapa Nui's known endemic arthropods. Given the island's severely depauperate native fauna, these arthropods should be considered among the highest priority targets for biological conservation. In other regions globally, epigean examples of imperiled disturbance relicts persisting within narrow distributional ranges have been documented. As human activity intensifies, and habitat loss and fragmentation continues worldwide, additional disturbance relicts will be identified. We expect extinction debts, global climate change and interactions with invasive species will challenge the persistence of both hypogean and epigean disturbance relict species.

  19. Landscape and soil regionalization in southern Brazilian Amazon and contiguous areas: methodology and relevance for ecological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Volkoff

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils of a large tropical area with differentiated landscapes cannot be treated uniformly for ecological applications. We intend to develop a framework based on physiography that can be used in regional applications. The study region occupies more than 1.1 million km and is located at the junction of the savanna region of Central Brazil and the Amazon forest. It includes a portion of the high sedimentary Central Brazil plateau and large areas of mostly peneplained crystalline shield on the border of the wide inner-Amazon low sedimentary plain. A first broad subdivision was made into landscape regions followed by a more detailed subdivision into soil regions. Mapping information was extracted from soil survey maps at scales of 1:250000-1:500000. Soil units were integrated within a homogenized legend using a set of selected attributes such as taxonomic term, the texture of the B horizon and the associated vegetation. For each region, a detailed inventory of the soil units with their area distribution was elaborated. Ten landscape regions and twenty-four soil regions were recognized and delineated. Soil cover of a region is normally characterized by a cluster composed of many soil units. Soil diversity is comparable in the landscape and the soil regions. Composition of the soil cover is quantitatively expressed in terms of area extension of the soil units. Such geographic divisions characterized by grouping soil units and their spatial estimates must be used for regional ecological applications.

  20. Ontogenetic diet shifts and their incidence on ecological processes: a case study using two morphologically similar stoneflies (Plecoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crghino, Rgis

    2006-07-01

    Most ecological studies consider conspecific individuals as ecologically equivalent, assuming that inter-instar variation is weak and has a limited influence on functional processes. To test this assumption, we investigated the life history and trophic basis of production in two predatory stoneflies, Perlodes microcephalus and Isoperla acicularis, in a mountain stream. The variety of prey types increased with predator size. However, larvae started their development with a strictly phytophagous diet (3 months), then ingested both vegetal material and animal prey (2-3 months). Finally, larvae were strictly carnivorous when head width reached 1.1 mm. Young (herbivorous) I. acicularis larvae occurred from June to August. Young P. microcephalus larvae hatched in October, and were herbivorous until December, when I. acicularis larvae were omnivorous. Competition for animal prey was likely to occur in the spring, but P. microcephalus grew faster and emerged earlier. The cohort productions were mostly based on carnivory (78.7-90.7%), because most production occurred in later instars. Ontogenetic diet shifts could play a role in the structuring of species assemblages by adjusting species' requirements to the temporal dynamics of environmental conditions, including food availability and biotic interactions. However, their incidence on global processes is quantitatively limited, large individuals having the greatest impacts on the way energy flows.

  1. The role of social and ecological processes in structuring animal populations: a case study from automated tracking of wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farine, Damien R; Firth, Josh A; Aplin, Lucy M; Crates, Ross A; Culina, Antica; Garroway, Colin J; Hinde, Camilla A; Kidd, Lindall R; Milligan, Nicole D; Psorakis, Ioannis; Radersma, Reinder; Verhelst, Brecht; Voelkl, Bernhard; Sheldon, Ben C

    2015-04-01

    Both social and ecological factors influence population process and structure, with resultant consequences for phenotypic selection on individuals. Understanding the scale and relative contribution of these two factors is thus a central aim in evolutionary ecology. In this study, we develop a framework using null models to identify the social and spatial patterns that contribute to phenotypic structure in a wild population of songbirds. We used automated technologies to track 1053 individuals that formed 73 737 groups from which we inferred a social network. Our framework identified that both social and spatial drivers contributed to assortment in the network. In particular, groups had a more even sex ratio than expected and exhibited a consistent age structure that suggested local association preferences, such as preferential attachment or avoidance. By contrast, recent immigrants were spatially partitioned from locally born individuals, suggesting differential dispersal strategies by phenotype. Our results highlight how different scales of social decision-making, ranging from post-natal dispersal settlement to fission-fusion dynamics, can interact to drive phenotypic structure in animal populations. PMID:26064644

  2. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    Construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS) began during FY-1984. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 15 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Through the long-term census taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has been evaluating the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10 CFR 1022).

  3. Ecological concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains three critical contributions on the application of modern technology from the ethical point of view. The peaceful use of nuclear power is rejected as a technical error, which is overwhelming humanity. Ethical bases of a preventive technological policy and ecological aims are developed for the 21st century, in economy, technology, politics, and consciousness. (HSCH)

  4. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...

  5. [System construction of early warning for ecological security at cultural and natural heritage mixed sites and its application: a case study of Wuyishan Scenery District].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Wei-Bin; He, Dong-Jin; Qin, De-Hua; Ji, Zhi-Rong; Wu, Li-Yun; Yu, Jian-An; Chen, Bing-Rong; Tan, Yong

    2014-05-01

    This paper proposed a new concept of ecological security for protection by a comprehensive analysis of the contents and standards of world heritage sites. A frame concept model named "Pressure-State-Control" for early warning of ecological security at world heritage mixed sites was constructed and evaluation indicators of this frame were also selected. Wuyishan Scenery District was chosen for a case study, which has been severely disturbed by natural and artificial factors. Based on the frame model of "Pressure-State-Control" and by employing extension analysis, the matter-element model was established to assess the ecological security status of this cultural and natural world heritage mixed site. The results showed that the accuracy of ecological security early warning reached 84%. Early warning rank was I level (no alert status) in 1997 and 2009, but that in 2009 had a higher possibility to convert into II level. Likewise, the early-warning indices of sensitive ranks were different between 1997 and 2009. Population density, population growth rate, area index for tea garden, cultivated land owned per capita, level of drought, and investment for ecological and environmental construction were the main limiting factors to hinder the development of ecological security from 2009 to future. In general, the status of Wuyishan Scenery District ecological security was relatively good and considered as no alert level, while risk conditions also existed in terms of a few early-warning indicators. We still need to pay more attention to serious alert indicators and adopt effective prevention and control measures to maintain a good ecological security status of this heritage site. PMID:25129949

  6. Causes of visual impairment and blindness in children in three ecological regions of Nepal: Nepal Pediatric Ocular Diseases Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhikari S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Srijana Adhikari,1 Mohan K Shrestha,1 Kamala Adhikari,2 Nhukesh Maharjan,1 Ujjowala D Shrestha1 1Pediatric Ophthalmology unit, Tilganaga Institute of Ophthalmology, Gaushala, Kathmandu, Nepal; 2Private consultant, Kathmandu, Nepal Purpose: To study the causes of blindness and visual impairment in children in three ecologically diverse regions of Nepal.Materials and methods: This is a baseline survey report of a 3-year longitudinal population-based study. One district each from the three ecological regions Terai, Hills, and Mountains was selected for the study. Village Development Committees from each district were selected by random sampling. Three community health workers were given training on vision screening and identification of abnormal ocular conditions in children. Health workers who examined children and collected data using pretested questionnaire performed house-to-house surveys. Children with abnormal vision or ocular conditions were referred to and examined by pediatric ophthalmologists.Results: A total of 10,950 children aged 010 years, 5,403 from Terai, 3,204 from Hills, and 2,343 from Mountains, were enrolled in the study. Of them, 681 (6.2% were nonresponders. The ratio of boys to girls was 1.03:1. Prevalence of blindness was 0.068% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02%0.12% and visual impairment was 0.097% (95% CI 0.04%0.15%. Blindness was relatively more prevalent in Terai region (0.08%, 95% CI 0.02%0.13%. The most common cause of blindness was amblyopia (42.9% followed by congenital cataract. Corneal opacity (39% was the most common cause of unilateral blindness.Conclusion: More than two-thirds of the causes that lead to blindness and visual impairment were potentially preventable. Further, nutritional and genetic studies are needed to determine the factors associated with ocular morbidity and blindness in these regions. Keywords: vision screening, ocular morbidity, childhood, Nepal, pediatric

  7. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Keelah E. G.; Sng, Oliver; NEUBERG, STEVEN L.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological features shape people’s goals, strategies, and behaviors. Our research suggests that social perceivers possess a lay understanding of ecology’s influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Moreover, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, Americans’ stereotypes about racial groups may actually reflect their stereotypes about these groups’ presumed home ecologies. In a series of studies, we demonstrate that (i) individuals possess ecology-dri...

  8. Introduction to Ecological Landscaping: A Holistic Description and Framework to Guide the Study and Management of Urban Landscape Parcels

    OpenAIRE

    Parwinder Grewal; Loren B. Byrne

    2008-01-01

    Urbanized ecosystems and urban human populations are expanding around the world causing many negative environmental effects. A challenge for achieving sustainable urban social-ecological systems is understanding how urbanized landscapes can be designed and managed to minimize negative outcomes. To this end, an interdisciplinary Ecological Landscaping conference was organized to examine the interacting sociocultural and ecological causes and consequences of landscaping practices and products. ...

  9. iSAW: Integrating Structure, Actors, and Water to study socio-hydro-ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Rebecca L.; Armstrong, Andrea; Baker, Michelle A.; Bedingfield, Sean; Betts, David; Buahin, Caleb; Buchert, Martin; Crowl, Todd; Dupont, R. Ryan; Ehleringer, James R.; Endter-Wada, Joanna; Flint, Courtney; Grant, Jacqualine; Hinners, Sarah; Horsburgh, Jeffery S.; Jackson-Smith, Douglas; Jones, Amber S.; Licon, Carlos; Null, Sarah E.; Odame, Augustina; Pataki, Diane E.; Rosenberg, David; Runburg, Madlyn; Stoker, Philip; Strong, Courtenay

    2015-03-01

    Urbanization, climate, and ecosystem change represent major challenges for managing water resources. Although water systems are complex, a need exists for a generalized representation of these systems to identify important components and linkages to guide scientific inquiry and aid water management. We developed an integrated Structure-Actor-Water framework (iSAW) to facilitate the understanding of and transitions to sustainable water systems. Our goal was to produce an interdisciplinary framework for water resources research that could address management challenges across scales (e.g., plot to region) and domains (e.g., water supply and quality, transitioning, and urban landscapes). The framework was designed to be generalizable across all human-environment systems, yet with sufficient detail and flexibility to be customized to specific cases. iSAW includes three major components: structure (natural, built, and social), actors (individual and organizational), and water (quality and quantity). Key linkages among these components include: (1) ecological/hydrologic processes, (2) ecosystem/geomorphic feedbacks, (3) planning, design, and policy, (4) perceptions, information, and experience, (5) resource access and risk, and (6) operational water use and management. We illustrate the flexibility and utility of the iSAW framework by applying it to two research and management problems: understanding urban water supply and demand in a changing climate and expanding use of green storm water infrastructure in a semi-arid environment. The applications demonstrate that a generalized conceptual model can identify important components and linkages in complex and diverse water systems and facilitate communication about those systems among researchers from diverse disciplines.

  10. Children's traditional ecological knowledge of wild food resources: a case study in a rural village in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price Lisa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consuming wild foods is part of the food ways of people in many societies, including farming populations throughout the world. Knowledge of non-domesticated food resources is part of traditional and tacit ecological knowledge, and is largely transmitted through socialization within cultural and household contexts. The context of this study, a small village in Northeast Thailand, is one where the community has experienced changes due to the migration of the parental generation, with the children being left behind in the village to be raised by their grandparents. A case study approach was used in order to gain holistic in-depth insight into children's traditional ecological knowledge as well as patterns of how children acquire their knowledge regarding wild food resources. Techniques used during field data collection are free-listing conducted with 30 village children and the use of a sub-sample of children for more in-depth research. For the sub-sample part of the study, wild food items consisted of a selection of 20 wild food species consisting of 10 species of plants and 10 species of animals. Semi-structured interviews with photo identification, informal interviews and participatory observation were utilized, and both theoretical and practical knowledge scored. The sub-sample covers eight households with boys and girls aged between 10–12 years old from both migrant families and non-migrant families. The knowledge of children was compared and the transmission process was observed. The result of our study shows that there is no observable difference among children who are being raised by grandparents and those being raised by their parents, as there are different channels of knowledge transmission to be taken into consideration, particularly grandparents and peers. The basic ability (knowledge for naming wild food species remains among village children. However, the practical in-depth knowledge, especially about wild food plants, shows some potential eroding.

  11. Social-Ecological Guilds: Putting People into Marine Historical Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Crowder, Larry B.; Lisa M CAMPBELL; Janna M. Shackeroff

    2011-01-01

    Marine historical ecology provides historic insights into past ocean ecosystems that are crucial to effectively confronting the declining health and resilience in marine ecosystems. A more 'peopled' approach to marine historical ecology is necessary, given the heightened emphasis on human dimensions in marine management. This study examined the historical ecology of Hawaiian coral reef ecosystems through oral histories of diverse ocean experts, representing six traditional, local, a...

  12. The novel combination of dual mTOR inhibitor AZD2014 and pan-PIM inhibitor AZD1208 inhibits growth in acute myeloid leukemia via HSF pathway suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Masako; Benito, Juliana; Yamamoto, Shinichi; Kaur, Surinder; Arslan, Dirim; Ramirez, Santiago; Jacamo, Rodrigo; Platanias, Leonidas; Matsushita, Hiromichi; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Kazuno, Saiko; Kojima, Kensuke; Tabe, Yoko; Konopleva, Marina

    2015-11-10

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is a critical pathway in the biology of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Proviral integration site for moloney murine leukemia virus (PIM) serine/threonine kinase signaling takes part in various pathways exerting tumorigenic properties. We hypothesized that the combination of a PIM kinase inhibitor with an mTOR inhibitor might have complementary growth-inhibitory effects against AML. The simultaneous inhibition of the PIM kinase by pan-PIM inhibitor AZD1208 and of mTOR by selective mTORC1/2 dual inhibitor AZD2014 exerted anticancer properties in AML cell lines and in cells derived from primary AML samples with or without supportive stromal cell co-culture, leading to suppressed proliferation and increased apoptosis. The combination of AZD1208 and AZD2014 rapidly activated AMPKα, a negative regulator of translation machinery through mTORC1/2 signaling in AML cells; profoundly inhibited AKT and 4EBP1 activation; and suppressed polysome formation. Inhibition of both mTOR and PIM counteracted induction of heat-shock family proteins, uncovering the master negative regulation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), the dominant transcription factor controlling cellular stress responses. The novel combination of the dual mTOR inhibitor and pan-PIM inhibitor synergistically inhibited AML growth by effectively reducing protein synthesis through heat shock factor pathway suppression. PMID:26473447

  13. Genomics and marine microbial ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    [EN] Genomics has brought about a revolution in all fields of biology. Before the development of microbial ecology in the 1970s, microbes were not even considered in marine ecological studies. Today we know that half of the total primary production of the planet must be credited to microorganisms. This and other discoveries have changed dramatically the perspective and the focus of marine microbial ecology. The application of genomics-based approaches has provided new challenges and has allow...

  14. Ecological performance and possible origin of a ubiquitous but under-studied gastropod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Mad S.; Wernberg, Thomas; Tuya, Fernando; Silliman, Brian R.

    2010-05-01

    Invasions by non-indigenous species (NIS) have been suggested to alter local, regional and global biota on unprecedented scales. To manage NIS, it is pivotal to identify whether a species is introduced or native, but even today the geographical origin of thousands of species worldwide remain uncertain. Most of these 'cryptogenic species' are inconspicuous and rare, but in a few instances, they can also be abundant and conspicuous species, with large impacts on community structure. The identification of cryptogenic species, and summarizing information on their most likely origin, is an important task in invasion biology, and can highlight the need for research and management. Here, we document that the gastropod Batillaria australis in the Swan River estuary (Perth, Western Australia) is a conspicuous species of uncertain origin. A literature review combined with new survey data revealed that all evidence point to a recent human-mediated transfer; for example, it is absent from the fossil record, was first collected in 1954, has a low parasite diversity, has increased its population size dramatically in recent times, is separated by >3000 km from conspecifics, has no long-distance dispersal mechanisms, and existing ocean currents run against a natural range extension. Surprisingly, despite political and scientific focus on NIS hardly any ecological data have been published on this species from Western Australia. We show that B. australis is highly abundant in both seagrass beds (424 29 ind m -2) and on unvegetated sand flats (92 22 ind m -2) being orders of magnitudes more abundant than any native gastropod in the Swan River. Experiments showed that high resistance to predation and environmental stress potentially explains its success. From our survey data, we calculated that >3.6 billion invasive snails today occupy the Swan River. This large snail populations support other organisms; for example, almost 1 billion macroalgae are found attached to living B. australis and >100 million hermit crabs occupy its empty shells. Given Battilaria's high abundance, wide distribution, large size, persistent shells that support other organisms and bioturbating behavior, it seems inescapable that this potential invader has impacted the ecosystem functioning of the Swan River. We argue that the search for abundant species of uncertain origin should continue, and that these species generally should be treated with the same interest as high status invaders to mitigate impacts in already invaded systems and to avoid secondary spread into neighboring ecosystems.

  15. Radioisotopes in Studies on the Ecology of Tick Vectors of Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of mass rearing of radioisotope-tagged immature ticks by collecting the progeny of engorged females of three species inoculated with carbon-14 glucose or glycine prior to oviposition. The incorporation of radiochemicals internally into ticks reduces the chance of loss of the radioactive label when moulting occurs, or under natural conditions. Most treated ticks laid eggs. The amount of radioactivity in the progeny could be controlled by controlling the size of the dose administered to the parent ticks. However, differences in radioactivity in the progeny of treated ticks in relation to the day of oviposition were noted. This activity declined progressively through the ninth day. Differences were also noted in relation to the radiochemical used. Most of the carbon-14 glycine (79.0%]o) received by the engorged females remained in the parents, whereas most of the carbon-14 glucose (77.5 %) received was transferred to the progeny. Hatching of eggs labelled by this method was less than in untreated oviposits. Radiosensitivity in the eggs was also noted and was related to the size of the dose administered to the parent tick. No hatching occurred when the average radioactivity of the labelled eggs exceeded 637 counts/min per egg over background. Nevertheless, many highly radioactive eggs hatched, and larvae with counts as high as 510 counts/min per larva over background were observed. The biological characteristics of the tagged larvae were apparently unaffected by incorporation of radiochemicals into these individuals. The proportion of marked larvae which attached to hosts was similar to the proportion of unmarked larvae which attached. The duration of survival of fasting, radioisotope-tagged larvae, under laboratory conditions, was similar to the period of survival of nonradioactive larvae. No apparent loss in radioactivity in fasting larvae held for up to 70 days under laboratory conditions was detected. This demonstration of the feasibility of mass rearing and long-term survival of radioisotope-tagged immature ticks suggests that it is now possible to apply this radioecological technique to obtain important new knowledge, on the ecology of tick vectors of disease. (author)

  16. Ecological macroeconomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    of the economy could go hand in hand with increased employment. These ideas were not reflected much in actual policies, and – despite some green elements – the subsequent economic upturn was driven first of all by consumption, and in several affluent countries, fueled by credit expansion. The current...... contributed to discussions on how to reconcile environmental and social concerns. Based on this broad variety of pieces in a jigsaw puzzle, a new ecological macroeconomics is emerging, but the contours are still vague. This chapter seeks to outline some of this topography and to add a few pieces of its own by...... highlighting the need to shift resources from consumption to investment and describing the role of consumer-citizens in such a change. The chapter starts by identifying the problems and challenges for an ecological macroeconomics. The next section outlines some of the shortcomings of traditional macroeconomics...

  17. Water balance: case study of a constructed wetland as part of the bio-ecological drainage system (BIOECODS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Khairul Rahmah; Zakaria, Nor Azazi; Abdullah, Rozi; Ramli, Rosmaliza

    2010-01-01

    The Bio-ecological Drainage System, or BIOECODS, is an urban drainage system located at the Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia. It consists of a constructed wetland as a part of the urban drainage system to carry storm water in a closed system. In this closed system, the constructed wetland was designed particularly for further treatment of storm water. For the purpose of studying the water balance of the constructed wetland, data collection was carried out for two years (2007 and 2009). The results show that the constructed wetland has a consistent volume of water storage compared to the outflow for both years with correlation coefficients (R(2)) of 0.99 in 2007 and 0.86 in 2009. PMID:20962410

  18. Effects of economic crises on population health outcomes in Latin America, 19812010: an ecological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Callum; Gilbert, Barnabas James; Zeltner, Thomas; Watkins, Johnathan; Atun, Rifat; Maruthappu, Mahiben

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The relative health effects of changes in unemployment, inflation and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita on population health have not been assessed. We aimed to determine the effect of changes in these economic measures on mortality metrics across Latin America. Design Ecological study. Setting Latin America (21 countries), 19812010. Outcome measures Uses multivariate regression analysis to assess the effects of changes in unemployment, inflation and GDP per capita on 5 mortality indicators across 21 countries in Latin America, 19812010. Country-specific differences in healthcare infrastructure, population structure and population size were controlled for. Results Between 1981 and 2010, a 1% rise in unemployment was associated with statistically significant deteriorations (peconomics, policymakers should prioritise amelioration of unemployment if population health outcomes are to be optimised. PMID:26739715

  19. Industrial ecology.

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, C K

    1992-01-01

    Industrial ecology addresses issues that will impact future production, use, and disposal technologies; proper use of the concept should reduce significantly the resources devoted to potential remediation in the future. This cradle-to-reincarnation production philosophy includes industrial processes that are environmentally sound and products that are environmentally safe during use and economically recyclable after use without adverse impact on the environment or on the net cost to society. ...

  20. Applications of in situ optical measurements in ecological and biogeochemical studies - a framework for a user-driven national network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, B. A.; Pellerin, B. A.; Downing, B. D.; Saraceno, J.; Aiken, G.; Stumpner, P.

    2010-12-01

    A critical challenge for understanding the dynamics between water quality, and ecological processes is obtaining data at time scales in which changes occur. Traditional, discrete sampling, approaches for data collection are often limited by analytical and field costs, site access, and logistical challenges, for long-term sampling at a large number of sites. The timescales of change, however, are often minutes, hours, or years. In situ optical (absorbance and fluorescence) instruments offer opportunities to help overcome these difficulties by directly or indirectly measuring constituents of interest. In situ optical instrumentation have been in use in oceanographic studies for well over 50 years, and as advances in the science, engineering and technology of these sensors have improved, optical sensors have become more commercially viable and available for research. We present several examples that highlight applications of in situ optical measurements for understanding dynamics in stream, river, and estuary systems. Examples illustrate the utility of in situ optical sensors for studies over short-duration events of days to weeks (diurnal cycles, tidal cycles, storm events and snowmelt periods) as well as longer-term continuous monitoring for months to years. We also highlight applied in situ optical measurements as proxies for constituents that are difficult and expensive to measure at high spatiotemporal resolution, for example, dissolved organic carbon, dissolved organic nitrogen, mercury and methylmercury, trihalomethane precursors, harmful algal blooms, and others. We propose that relatively simple absorbance and fluorescence measurements made in situ could be incorporated into short and long-term ecological research and monitoring programs, resulting in advanced understanding of sources that contribute to water quality improvements or degradation, contaminant and carbon cycling, and the occurrence and persistence of harmful algal blooms. Linking these efforts through common calibration and validation techniques, as well as hosted data sharing and online user forums - as has been proposed by CUAHSI and USGS - will permit more rapid advances in applications of in situ optical sensors as well as in our understanding of aquatic processes.

  1. Art, Ecology and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witzke, Anne Sophie

    2013-01-01

    The discourse of ecology and sustainability has gained critical traction in recent years. But how are these concepts framed within the space, language and idea of the exhibition? This panel discussion, moderated by Steven Lam and conducted by email in July 2012, sought to unpack the claims and...... limits of the ecological, looking specifically at various international case studies, within the practice of curatorial and exhibition studies. The discussion begins with a reflection on ‘DON'T/PANIC’ in Durban and ‘Rethink – Contemporary Art and Climate Change’ in Copenhagen, exhibitions that were...

  2. Missing ecology: integrating ecological perspectives with the social-ecological system framework

    OpenAIRE

    Graham Epstein; Jessica M. Vogt; Sarah K Mincey; Michael Cox; Burney Fischer

    2013-01-01

    The social-ecological systems framework was designed to provide a common research tool for interdisciplinary investigations of social-ecological systems. However, its origin in institutional studies of the commons belies its interdisciplinary ambitions and highlights its relatively limited attention to ecology and natural scientific knowledge. This paper considers the biophysical components of the framework and its epistemological foundations as it relates to the incorporation of knowledge fr...

  3. Coevolutionary ecological economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallis, Giorgos [ICREA Researcher, ICTA, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, ETSE, QC/3095, 08193 Bellatera, Barcelona (Spain); Norgaard, Richard B. [Energy and Resources Group, University of California at Berkeley, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA, 94720-3050 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    This paper maps a coevolutionary research agenda for ecological economics. At an epistemological level coevolution offers a powerful logic for transcending environmental and social determinisms and developing a cross-disciplinary approach in the study of socio-ecological systems. We identify four consistent stories emerging out of coevolutionary studies in ecological economics, concerning: environmental degradation and development failure in peripheral regions; the lock-in of unsustainable production-consumption patterns; the vicious cycle between human efforts to control undesirable micro-organisms and the evolution of these organisms; and the adaptive advantages of other-regarding, cooperative behaviors and institutions. We identify challenges in the conceptualization of coevolutionary relationships in relation to: the interaction between different hierarchical levels of evolution; the role of space and social power; uneven rates of change and crises. We conclude with the political implications of a coevolutionary perspective based on the premises of pragmatism. (author)

  4. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Keelah E G; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L

    2016-01-12

    Why do race stereotypes take the forms they do? Life history theory posits that features of the ecology shape individuals' behavior. Harsh and unpredictable ("desperate") ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable ("hopeful") ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. We suggest that individuals possess a lay understanding of ecology's influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Importantly, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, we propose that Americans' stereotypes about racial groups actually reflect stereotypes about these groups' presumed home ecologies. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. Studies 2-4 rule out alternative explanations for those findings. Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person's race (but not ecology), individuals' inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals' inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. However, when provided with information about both the race and ecology of others, individuals' inferences reflect the targets' ecology rather than their race: black and white targets from desperate ecologies are stereotyped as equally fast life history strategists, whereas black and white targets from hopeful ecologies are stereotyped as equally slow life history strategists. These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one's ecology influences behavior. PMID:26712013

  5. Ecology in Urban Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Letitia K.; Ryan, Michael

    In this course guide to the teaching of urban ecology, six learning activities on the following topics are outlined: (1) city location and growth; (2) an in-depth study of New Orleans; (3) city shape and structure; (4) size and spacing of cities; (5) cities with special functions; (6) local community study. Educational objectives for each activity…

  6. The ecological future of cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Mark J; MacGregor-Fors, Ian

    2016-05-20

    The discipline of urban ecology arose in the 1990s, primarily motivated by a widespread interest in documenting the distribution and abundance of animals and plants in cities. Today, urban ecologists have greatly expanded their scope of study to include ecological and socioeconomic processes, urban management, planning, and design, with the goal of addressing issues of sustainability, environmental quality, and human well-being within cities and towns. As the global pace of urbanization continues to intensify, urban ecology provides the ecological and social data, as well as the principles, concepts and tools, to create livable cities. PMID:27199416

  7. Ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was built on the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the mid-1980's. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 14 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Research conducted by the SREL has focused primarily on four questions related to these wetlands: (1) Prior to construction, what fauna and flora were present at the DWPF site and at similar, yet undisturbed, alternative sites? (2) By comparing the Carolina bay at the DWPF site (Sun Bay) with an undisturbed control Carolina bay (Rainbow Bay), what effect is construction having on the organisms that inhabited the DWPF site? (3) By comparing control streams with streams on the periphery of the DWPF site, what effect is construction having on the peripheral streams? (4) How effective have efforts been to lessen the impacts of construction, both with respect to erosion control measures and the construction of ''refuge ponds'' as alternative breeding sites for amphibians that formerly bred at Sun Bay? Through the long-term census-taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has begun to evaluate the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. Similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive Orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10 CFR 1022)

  8. Estimates of meteorological variability in association with dengue cases in a coastal city in northern Vietnam: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Thanh Xuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue fever (DF is a vector-borne disease that is sensitive to weather and climate variability. To date, however, this relationship in coastal northern Vietnam has not been well documented. Objectives: This paper aims to examine the associations between meteorological variables and dengue incidence in Haiphong, Vietnam, over the period 2008–2012. Methods: Monthly data on dengue incidence from all commune health stations and hospitals of Haiphong (with a total population of ~1.8 million were obtained in accordance with the WHO's recommendations over a 5-year period (2008–2012. Temperature, rainfall, and humidity were recorded as monthly averages by local meteorological stations. The association between ecologic weather variables and dengue cases was assessed using a Poisson regression model. The estimation of regression parameters was based on the method of maximum likelihood using the R program package. Results: From 2008 through 2012, 507 cases of dengue were reported. The risk of dengue was increased by sevenfold during the September–December period compared with other months over the period 2008–2012. DF cases in Haiphong were correlated with rainfall and humidity. In the multivariable Poisson regression model, an increased risk of dengue was independently associated with months with a higher amount of rainfall (RR=1.06; 95% CI 1.00–1.13 per 50 mm increase and higher humidity (RR=1.05; 95% CI 1.02–1.08 per 1% increase. Conclusion: These data suggest that rainfall and relative humidity could be used as ecological indicators of dengue risk in Haiphong. Intensified surveillance and disease control during periods with high rainfall and humidity are recommended. This study may provide baseline information for identifying potential long-term effects and adaptation needs of global climate change on dengue in the coming decades.

  9. The power of genetic monitoring for studying demography, ecology and genetics of a reintroduced brown bear population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Barba, M; Waits, L P; Garton, E O; Genovesi, P; Randi, E; Mustoni, A; Groff, C

    2010-09-01

    Genetic monitoring has rarely been used for wildlife translocations despite the potential benefits this approach offers, compared to traditional field-based methods. We applied genetic monitoring to the reintroduced brown bear population in northern Italy. From 2002 to 2008, 2781 hair and faecal samples collected noninvasively plus 12 samples obtained from captured or dead bears were used to follow the demographic and geographical expansion and changes in genetic composition. Individual genotypes were used to reconstruct the wild pedigree and revealed that the population increased rapidly, from nine founders to >27 individuals in 2008 (lambda=1.17-1.19). Spatial mapping of bear samples indicated that most bears were distributed in the region surrounding the translocation site; however, individual bears were found up to 163 km away. Genetic diversity in the population was high, with expected heterozygosity of 0.74-0.79 and allelic richness of 4.55-5.41. However, multi-year genetic monitoring data showed that mortality rates were elevated, immigration did not occur, one dominant male sired all cubs born from 2002 to 2005, genetic diversity declined, relatedness increased, inbreeding occurred, and the effective population size was extremely small (Ne=3.03, ecological method). The comprehensive information collected through genetic monitoring is critical for implementing future conservation plans for the brown bear population in the Italian Alps. This study provides a model for other reintroduction programmes by demonstrating how genetic monitoring can be implemented to uncover aspects of the demography, ecology and genetics of small and reintroduced populations that will advance our understanding of the processes influencing their viability, evolution, and successful restoration. PMID:20735733

  10. Conducting ecologically valid prevention research: recruiting and retaining a "whole village" in multimethod, multiagent studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldi, D M; Chamberlain, P; Fetrow, R A; Wilson, J E

    1997-08-01

    Many prevention studies are now designed with complementary interventions in different settings. Evaluations of these interventions require assessing the child's behavior in each of these settings. Conducting these studies, therefore, may involve recruiting school districts, principals, classroom teachers, peers, parents, siblings, and in later years, employers and intimate partners. These participants may be considered natural raters or satellite subjects, depending on their degree of involvement. Issues of recruitment and retention thus are magnified in multimethod, multiagent studies. To illustrate these issues, findings are presented for three studies conducted with risk populations in the past decade at the Oregon Social Learning Center: a passive longitudinal study, a selected prevention study, and an indicated prevention study. Findings indicate that achieving high recruitment and retention rates for at-risk and high-risk subjects in multisetting studies is possible, and that a developmental approach should be taken to recruiting risk populations. PMID:9338955

  11. Urban sound ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Krogh Groth

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Within recent years, there has been a renewed focus on sound in urban environments. From sound installations in public space to sound festivals in alternative settings, we find a common interest in sound art relating to the urban environment. Artworks or interventions presented in such contexts share the characteristics of site specificity. However, this article will consider the artwork in a broader context by re-examining how sound installations relate to the urban environment. For that purpose, this article brings together ecology terms from acoustic ecology of the sound theories of the 1970s while developing them into recent definitions of ecology in urban studies. Finally, we unfold our framing of urban sound ecologies with three case analyses: a sound intervention in Berlin, a symphony for wind instruments in Copenhagen and a video walk in a former railway station in Kassel. The article concludes that the ways in which recent sound installations work with urban ecologies vary. While two of the examples blend into the urban environment, the other transfers the concert format and its mode of listening to urban space. Last, and in accordance with recent soundscape research, we point to how artists working with new information and media technologies create inventive ways of inserting sound and image into urban environments.

  12. Editorial: Pedagogical Media Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee M. Meister

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available From educational gaming through portable e-readers to cell phones, media are interpenetrating educational spaces and activities. Accordingly, understanding media in environmental or ecological terms has become increasingly important for education internationally. In North America, for example, the centenary of McLuhan’s birth has focused attention on approaches to media – whether oral, textual, electronic or digital– as a kind of environment in which education takes place. In parts of Europe, the so-called mediatic turn – following on the linguistic and iconic turns – has similarly emphasized the role of media as a condition for the possibility of educational activities and programs. With a few exceptions1 the papers in this special issue were first presented at the conference «Educational Media Ecologies: International Perspectives» which took place at the University of Paderborn, Germany, on March 27–28, 2012.2 The event was an interdisciplinary and transatlantic endeavor to bring together a wide range of perspectives on various issues relevant to educational media ecologies,3 and on related debates on mediation, medialization, mediatization, and mediality.4 The purpose of this volume, like the conference, is to foster and deepen international dialogue in the area of educational media. Areas of research and scholarship relevant to this dialogue include educational media, media literacy, educational philosophy, and media and cultural studies. The contributions, described below, put conceptual issues as well as social practices and applications at the center of the debate. Klaus Rummler opens the issue by clarifying the concept of ecology itself. Referencing a range of work over the past 50 years, Rummler describes how ecological models have been cast in sociological, semiotic, cultural, mediatic and other terms, and he explains the implications of these various perspectives for the study of educational contexts. Rummler also briefly introduces the reader to the triangular model used by Bachmair, Pachler and Cook in this issue (and in other publications to analyse the socio-cultural and cognitive possibilities opened up by various mobile media. Sandra Aßmann and Bardo Herzig discuss three theoretical approaches – a network perspective, systems theory and semiotics – in order to conceptualize and analyze learning with media in a range of formal and informal settings. They use the example of «friending» someone via Facebook, a context in which the formal and informal often intersect in unexpected ways. In this way, Aßmann and Herzig demonstrate the manifest complexities of communication analysis and pragmatics in these relatively new networked, mediated contexts. Judith Seipold provides an extensive overview of the burgeoning literature on the use and potential of mobile technologies in learning and educational ecologies. The research perspectives or frameworks covered by Seipold include critical, ethical, resource-centered, learning process-centered as well as ecological frames of reference. In her coverage of the last of these, not only does Seipold help to reframe the theme of this special issue as a whole, she also provides an excellent segue to the ecologically oriented analysis of «mobile learning» that follows. Ben Bachmair and Norbert Pachler’s contribution, «A Cultural Ecological Frame for Mobility and Learning», reflects the work of the London Mobile Learning Group, examining mobile resources and affordances from the ecological perspectives of Gibson, Postman and the seminal German media-pedagogue, Dieter Baacke. Using the structuration theory of Anthony Giddens, Bachmair, Norbert and Cook elaborate the aforementioned triangular model for understanding both the agency and the cultural and structural constraints offered by mobile technologies. In «Building as Interface: Sustainable Educational Ecologies», Suzanne de Castell, Milena Droumeva and Jen Jenson connect learning and media ecologies with the material, global and ecological challenges that have become a par

  13. The Development of Talent in Young Adults with Williams Syndrome: An Exploratory Study of Ecological Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Harry

    2004-01-01

    This mixed methods study employed comparative, case-study methodology to explore influences affecting the development of musical interests and achievements in eight female and eight male young adults with Williams Syndrome. Components of the "Schoolwide Enrichment Model"; (Renzulli & Reis, 1997b) were used to guide the study. Caregivers completed…

  14. Industrial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, C K

    1992-02-01

    Industrial ecology addresses issues that will impact future production, use, and disposal technologies; proper use of the concept should reduce significantly the resources devoted to potential remediation in the future. This cradle-to-reincarnation production philosophy includes industrial processes that are environmentally sound and products that are environmentally safe during use and economically recyclable after use without adverse impact on the environment or on the net cost to society. This will require an industry-university-government round table to set the strategy and agenda for progress. PMID:11607254

  15. Reassembling ecologies

    OpenAIRE

    Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan; Tryggestad, Kjell

    2011-01-01

    In its general form, stakeholder theory posits an extension of the ecology. It claims that there are other stakes and interests than those posited by shareholder value theory (Freeman et al. 2004; Jensen and Sandström 2011), and some stakeholder theory proponents argue that the natural environment is also to be considered as a stakeholder (Driscoll and Starik 2004; Norton 2007). It is a positive claim – there are more stakes and interests – and a moral one – we should look towards more intere...

  16. Ecological impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative problems in accomplishing ecological impact assessment with particular reference to defining population effects are discussed with some comments on the two approaches most commonly used, e.g., the experimental and simulation models. Some alternatives are suggested because both methods will probably fail to detect real population effects mostly due to poor understanding of ecosystems or because of the limitations inherent in field census methods. Most judgments of ecological impact are not quantitatively defensible but are qualitative, subjective, or political in nature. An examination of aggregates of data from various nuclear power plant sites may be one way to obtain enough replication to judge ecological impact. Thus, currently available data from such studies as well as appropriate demographic, vegetation, census, and bibliographic material could offer an interesting challenge to computer professionals if such an undertaking were contemplated. Present research programs at PNL and computer involvement are described. Future possibilities and directions are discussed. (U.S.)

  17. Application of the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean to Phytoplankton Ecology Studies in Monterey Bay, CA, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a demonstrator for technologies for the next generation of ocean color sensors, the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO provides enhanced spatial and spectral resolution that is required to understand optically complex aquatic environments. In this study we apply HICO, along with satellite remote sensing and in situ observations, to studies of phytoplankton ecology in a dynamic coastal upwelling environment—Monterey Bay, CA, USA. From a spring 2011 study, we examine HICO-detected spatial patterns in phytoplankton optical properties along an environmental gradient defined by upwelling flow patterns and along a temporal gradient of upwelling intensification. From a fall 2011 study, we use HICO’s enhanced spatial and spectral resolution to distinguish a small-scale “red tide” bloom, and we examine bloom expansion and its supporting processes using other remote sensing and in situ data. From a spectacular HICO image of the Monterey Bay region acquired during fall of 2012, we present a suite of algorithm results for characterization of phytoplankton, and we examine the strengths, limitations, and distinctions of each algorithm in the context of the enhanced spatial and spectral resolution.

  18. Immediate effects of plain packaging health warnings on quitting intention and potential mediators: Results from two ecological momentary assessment studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Natalie; Eid, Michael; Schüz, Benjamin; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the immediate, everyday impact of health warnings on cigarette packages on potential smoking cessation mediators and to test for differences in immediate reactions to branded and plain tobacco packaging during the transition phase when plain packs where first introduced in Australia. Two Ecological Momentary Assessment studies tested whether smokers report higher risk appraisals, self-efficacy, and quitting intentions immediately after seeing a warning compared to random times of the day (Study 1), and whether smoking from plain packs results in higher quitting intention, risk appraisal, and self-efficacy than smoking from branded packs (Study 2). There was no immediate increase in self-efficacy, risk appraisal, or intention after encountering health warnings, and no differences in cognitions when using plain compared with branded packs. Moreover, cognitions were not different when warnings were encountered in proximity to smoking compared to nonsmoking events. However, self-efficacy and risk appraisal were significantly associated with quitting intention. Current health warnings do not seem to have an immediate impact on important predictors of quitting intention and might benefit from including messages that place a stronger focus on increasing smokers' confidence that they can quit. Replication of the results with larger sample and cluster sizes is warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26999353

  19. Vegetation Dynamics Depending on Ecological Particularities of Bozanta Mare (Maramures County-Romania Tailing Pound. Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Marian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study follows an ecological demarch of reintegration in the scenary through revegetation of an anthropic ground, consisting in a waste pond formed from the flotation activity of non-ferrous ores. Problem statement: To support the formation of a compact vegetal layer, having an anti-errosion and a restoration role, a preliminary study was required regarding the spontaneous settlement of different vegetal species. We have followed the specific floristic composition and the biodiversity on the waste pond, the manner of association of plant species, and the possible interractions with other species from the biocenosis (microorganisms and fungi. We have also studied the pace at which vegetal species settle, as well as the reciprocal influence, from the point of view of vegetation, with the neighbouring area, since the desideratum is the settlement of a vegetation similar to the natural one. Approach: The aim of the research is to draw a list of the vegetal taxa installed on the pond, as well as to detect some succession stages or some possible vegetal associations. We have established the share of different species in the vegetal layer on the waste pond through an analysis of the ecological preferences, of the geographical origin of plant species, of the cariological and bioform profile. All this was done to compare the possible vegetal associations which settle on such anthropic grounds with the neighbouring vegetation. The approach used was the classical one in fitosociology, recommended by the Central European Fitosociological School adapted to the pedo-climatic conditions in Romania. Results: Over 50 species of plants and fungi spontaniously settled have been listed, and we have followed their association as well as their distribution, compared to the microclimatical conditions of the waste pond. In this way,we have distinguished species with a large potential of revegetating highly polluted with heavy metals waste ponds and sites. Conclusions/Recommendations: Starting from this study, we may establish a formula of sustaining the vegetation and using the interractions among species in order to stimulate the settlement of a dense vegetation which might ensure anti-errosion protection and landscape integration.

  20. Development of a concept for a long-term ecological monitoring system on the river Rhine. Phase 1: bibliographic study. Annex 2. Summary of results and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliographic study describes the ecological changes to which the ecosystem Rhine river/floodplain has been exposed from its historical state, free of anthropogenic impacts, to its present state, marked by strong anthropogenic impacts. By classifying these changes it is possible to define reference states of the river which should become the basis for the restoration of certain conditions of the ecosystem river/floodplain and to discuss related targets and actions. A comparison of historical and present states of the ecosystem allows proposals to be derived for measuring parameters for a future ecological monitoring programme for the river Rhine. Finally, gaps in knowledge are revealed, which at present hinder the ecological monitoring of the river, its shores and floodplains. Annex II is a summary of major findings and conclusions, which are discussed in the context of objectives and actions of the Rhine restoration programme. (orig.)

  1. Compositional Data Analysis (CoDA) as a tool to study the (paleo)ecology of coccolithophores from coastal-neritic settings off central Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Catarina; Cacho, Mrio; Pawlowsky-Glahn, Vera; Oliveira, Anabela; Rodrigues, Aurora

    2015-04-01

    Whereas using the species percentages is the standard analytical procedure used to infer species ecological preferences, independently of taphonomical effects, the closure problem associated with closed number systems and subsequent inconsistency of determining percentages may lead to spurious correlations, biased statistical analysis and misleading interpretations. To avoid these problems, we applied Compositional Data Analysis (CoDA) to investigate the (paleo)ecological preferences and spatial distribution of coccolith assemblages preserved in seafloor sediments, using as a case-study the central Portuguese submarine canyons and adjacent shelf-slope areas. Results from using the isometric log-ratio (ilr) approach from CoDA are compared with results from using classical analytical methods, and further discussed. While providing scale invariance and subcompositional coherence, CoDA is revealed to be a consistent statistical tool to infer the (paleo)ecological preferences of coccolithophores, corroborating earlier work based on from percentage determinations. Results of this study clearly confirmed the coastal-neritic distribution of coccoliths from Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Helicosphaera carteri and Coronosphaera mediterranea, whereas coccoliths from Calcidiscus leptoporus, Umbilicosphaera sibogae, Umbellosphaera irregularis and Rhabdosphaera spp. more typically occur offshore. Differences between canyons and adjacent shelf and slope areas were also confirmed, namely the (a) greater importance of the coastal-neritic assemblage possibly resulting from local and persistent nutrient pumping in these areas, and (b) stronger mixing of coccoliths from coastal and oceanic species in upper canyon reaches, resulting from the focused coastward advection of more oceanic water masses along their axes. Unlike the results from both ilr-coordinates and the percentage approaches, both coccolith concentrations and fluxes showed that spatial trends in which the species ecological inter-relationships appear to be masked by taphonomical phenomena, especially towards the coast and in the canyons, suggesting the two latter approaches are not suitable to perform (paleo)ecological inferences in more dynamic coastal-neritic settings. Our study suggests that the (paleo)ecological signal preserved in the studied sediment samples is persistent enough to be revealed by both CoDA and percentages. Yet, given that CoDA provides the only statistical solution to coherently draw (paleo)ecological interpretations from compositional data, our recommendation is that CoDA should always be used to test and validate any ecological signals obtained from percentage distributions.

  2. Studies of obtaining and stability in aqueous medium of new complex compounds of Ti(IV) and Zr(IV) used in ecological leather tanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crudu, Marian; Sibiescu, Doina; Rosca, Ioan; Sutiman, Daniel; Vizitiu, Mihaela

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the study of obtaining new coordination compounds of Ti(IV) and Zr(IV) using as ligand: D,L-β-iso-butyric acid, is presented. Also, the stability of these compounds in aqueous medium is studied. The studies of obtaining and of stability of the new compounds were accomplished in aqueous solutions using methods characteristic for coordination compounds: conductance and pH measurements. The combination ratios and the stability were determined with methods characteristic for studies in solutions. From experimental data resulted that the combination ratio of central metallic atoms with the ligand derived from D,L-β-iso-butyric acid was 1:2. From experimental data resulted that in strong acid and strong basic mediums, the coordination compounds could not be obtained. The optimal stability of the studied compounds is limited between 3-6, pH - values. This fact is in accordance with the conditions of using these compounds in ecological leather tanning. Of great importance is that these compounds were used with very good results in tanning processes of different types of leather. This fact evidenced that the ecological alternative of tanning is better than non-ecological tanning using chrome compounds. The importance of this paper consists in obtaining new coordination compounds that can be used in ecological leather tanning.

  3. Potential Effects of Climate Change on Ecological Interaction Outcomes Between Two Disease-Vector Mosquitoes: A Mesocosm Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonel, B F; Koroiva, R; Hamada, N; Ferreira-Keppler, R L; Roque, F O

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to experimentally assess the effects of different climate change scenarios on the outcomes of interactions between Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae. The experimental design maintained a constant density of specimens while the proportion of the species in different experimental climate change scenarios varied. Our results indicate that survival of the two species was not affected, but larval development and pupation times decreased under elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration and high air temperature. In climate change scenarios with both species together, the survival of Ae. aegypti increased and its larval development time decreased with increasing density of Cx. quinquefasciatus. This may be attributed to the effects of intraspecific competition being more significant than interspecific competition in Ae. aegypti. Our study also reveals that climatic changes may affect the patterns of interactions between Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti. Alterations in climatic conditions changed the response of context-dependent competition, indicating the importance of studies on how ecological interactions will be affected by projected future climatic change. PMID:26336208

  4. Physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake and the built environment: ecological and epidemiological studies among youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida

    in the neighborhood, and could manifest itself in poor health behaviors. This concept is first studied at the neighborhood level, by examining the socioeconomic patterning of food and exercise resources. Next, at the individual level, I examine the combined effects of socioeconomic status and the...... with a validated and cross-referenced objected database built for these studies and contained location information about supermarkets, fast food outlets, and various exercise-supportive resources (public open space, sports facilities, street connectivity, and total length of cycling and walking paths....... Outcome measures for these studies were also defined as the number of supermarkets and fast food outlets in each neighborhood (Paper I) and high exposure (top 25%) to resources supportive of physical activity. Study findings are expressed as either relative risk (RR) or odds ratios (OR), with 95...

  5. Summaries of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioecology and Ecology Program's waste management related studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research summaries briefly describe studies concerning the activities of small mammals on and in waste disposal sites, revegetation of waste disposal sites, and contamination of wildlife by radionuclides and the spread of radionuclides by wildlife

  6. Landscape ecological, phytosociological and geobotanical study of eumediterranean in west of Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazal, Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    The Eu-Mediterranean vegetation in Syria is widespread over a large geographical area, occupying an altitudinal zone mainly from 300 to 900 m asl., but can be also found outside this range. The study area is located to the west of the longitude 37 E, where this vegetation dominates. A complete field surveying of the landscape for all regions in the study area was carried out. The environmental variables of the landscape (climate, soil, geology, land use, flora and vegetation) were ana...

  7. Perceptions of work environment priorities : Are there any differences by company size? — An ecological study

    OpenAIRE

    Nordlöf, Hasse; Wijk, Katarina; Westergren, Karl-Erik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Earlier studies suggest that the quality of handling occupational health and safety (OHS) activities differs between companies of different sizes. Company size is a proxy variable for other variables affecting OHS performance. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate if there is an association between company size and perceptions of work environment prioritizations. METHODS: Data from 106 small- and medium-sized Swedish manufacturing companies was collected. One m...

  8. Air pollution and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in South Korea: an ecological correlation study

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Seung Seok; Kim, Sunhee; Choi, Yunhee; Kim, Suhnggwon; Kim, Yon Su

    2013-01-01

    Background The effects of air pollution on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, and the resulting impacts on public health, have been widely studied. However, little is known about the effect of air pollution on the occurrence of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), a rodent-borne infectious disease. In this study, we evaluated the correlation between air pollution and HFRS incidence from 2001 to 2010, and estimated the significance of the correlation under the effect of clima...

  9. Inequalities in public water supply fluoridation in Brazil: An ecological study

    OpenAIRE

    Moysés Simone T; Olandoski Marcia; da Silva Wander J; Gabardo Marilisa CL; Moysés Samuel J

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The literature is scarce on the social and geographic inequalities in the access to and implementation of the fluoridation of public water supplies. This study adds knowledge to the Brazilian experience of the chronic privation of water and wastewater policies, access to potable water and fluoridation in the country. Thus, the aim of this study was to verify possible inequalities in the population's access to fluoridated drinking water in 246 Brazilian municipalities. Meth...

  10. Associations Between the Macroeconomic Indicators and Suicide Rates in India: Two Ecological Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar, Anto P.; P. SENTHILKUMAR; Gayathri, K.; G Shyamsundar; Jacob, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: While western studies have focused on the importance of psychiatric illnesses in the complex pathways leading to suicides, several Indian studies have highlighted the important contributions by economic, social, and cultural factors. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that annual national suicide rates and suicide rates of the different states in India were associated with macroeconomic indices. Materials and Methods: Data from the National crime records bureau, Ministry of finance, ...

  11. Ecological subsidies: a conceptual framework for integrating ecosystem and exposure studies in linked aquatic-terrestrial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecology and ecotoxicology share common goals - tracing and quantifying material flux in the environment. Bridging these disciplines is challenging because their practitioners have slightly different methods, terminologies and objectives. For example, ecologists strive to identify...

  12. Ecological Monitoring at Long-Term Study Sites in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Initial Projects in 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We established two longterm ecological monitoring sites in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in 1996 and three more will be established between 1997 and 1999. The...

  13. Ecological risk assessment of hydropower dam construction based on ecological network analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, S.; Fath, B.D.; B. Chen

    2010-01-01

    Dam construction is regarded as one of the major factors contributing to significant modifications of the river ecosystems, and the ecological risk (ER) assessment of dam construction has received growing attention in recent years. In the present study, we explored the potential ecological risk caused by dam project based on the general principles of the ecological risk assessment. Ecological network analysis was proposed as the usable analytic method for the implement of ecological risk asse...

  14. Lunar base Controlled Ecological Life Support System (LCELSS): Preliminary conceptual design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a conceptual design for a self-sufficient LCELSS. The mission need is for a CELSS with a capacity to supply the life support needs for a nominal crew of 30, and a capability for accommodating a range of crew sizes from 4 to 100 people. The work performed in this study was nominally divided into two parts. In the first part, relevant literature was assembled and reviewed. This review identified LCELSS performance requirements and the constraints and advantages confronting the design. It also collected information on the environment of the lunar surface and identified candidate technologies for the life support subsystems and the systems with which the LCELSS interfaced. Information on the operation and performance of these technologies was collected, along with concepts of how they might be incorporated into the LCELSS conceptual design. The data collected on these technologies was stored for incorporation into the study database. Also during part one, the study database structure was formulated and implemented, and an overall systems engineering methodology was developed for carrying out the study.

  15. An Ecological Study of Community-Level Correlates of Suicide Mortality Rates in the Flemish Region of Belgium, 1996-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooghe, Marc; Vanhoutte, Bram

    2011-01-01

    An ecological study of age-standardized suicide rates in Belgian communities (1996-2005) was conducted using spatial regression techniques. Community characteristics were significantly related to suicide rates. There was mixed support for the social integration perspective: single person households were associated with higher suicide rates, while

  16. The Role of Empowerment in Youth Development: A Study of Sociopolitical Control as Mediator of Ecological Systems' Influence on Developmental Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christens, Brian D.; Peterson, N. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Empowerment has become an influential concept and theoretical framework for social policy and practice. Still, relatively little is known about the roles that empowerment plays in the ecology of human development, particularly among young people. This article reports results of a study of psychological empowerment among young people, using data

  17. Learning about Environmental Issues in Engineering Programmes: A Case Study of First-Year Civil Engineering Students' Contextualisation of an Ecology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    Describes how first-year civil engineering students interpreted the content and structure of an ecology course. Students' learning processes were analysed from an intentional perspective, i.e. a perspective that takes into account the students' educational aims and conceptions of the study situation. Interviews were carried out with six civil…

  18. Ecological thresholds as a basis for defining management triggers for National Park Service vital signs: case studies for dryland ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Matthew A.; Miller, Mark E.; Belote, R. Travis; Garman, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Threshold concepts are used in research and management of ecological systems to describe and interpret abrupt and persistent reorganization of ecosystem properties (Walker and Meyers, 2004; Groffman and others, 2006). Abrupt change, referred to as a threshold crossing, and the progression of reorganization can be triggered by one or more interactive disturbances such as land-use activities and climatic events (Paine and others, 1998). Threshold crossings occur when feedback mechanisms that typically absorb forces of change are replaced with those that promote development of alternative equilibria or states (Suding and others, 2004; Walker and Meyers, 2004; Briske and others, 2008). The alternative states that emerge from a threshold crossing vary and often exhibit reduced ecological integrity and value in terms of management goals relative to the original or reference system. Alternative stable states with some limited residual properties of the original system may develop along the progression after a crossing; an eventual outcome may be the complete loss of pre-threshold properties of the original ecosystem. Reverting to the more desirable reference state through ecological restoration becomes increasingly difficult and expensive along the progression gradient and may eventually become impossible. Ecological threshold concepts have been applied as a heuristic framework and to aid in the management of rangelands (Bestelmeyer, 2006; Briske and others, 2006, 2008), aquatic (Scheffer and others, 1993; Rapport and Whitford 1999), riparian (Stringham and others, 2001; Scott and others, 2005), and forested ecosystems (Allen and others, 2002; Digiovinazzo and others, 2010). These concepts are also topical in ecological restoration (Hobbs and Norton 1996; Whisenant 1999; Suding and others, 2004; King and Hobbs, 2006) and ecosystem sustainability (Herrick, 2000; Chapin and others, 1996; Davenport and others, 1998). Achieving conservation management goals requires the protection of resources within the range of desired conditions (Cook and others, 2010). The goal of conservation management for natural resources in the U.S. National Park System is to maintain native species and habitat unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations. Achieving this goal requires, in part, early detection of system change and timely implementation of remediation. The recent National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring program (NPS I&M) was established to provide early warning of declining ecosystem conditions relative to a desired native or reference system (Fancy and others, 2009). To be an effective tool for resource protection, monitoring must be designed to alert managers of impending thresholds so that preventive actions can be taken. This requires an understanding of the ecosystem attributes and processes associated with threshold-type behavior; how these attributes and processes become degraded; and how risks of degradation vary among ecosystems and in relation to environmental factors such as soil properties, climatic conditions, and exposure to stressors. In general, the utility of the threshold concept for long-term monitoring depends on the ability of scientists and managers to detect, predict, and prevent the occurrence of threshold crossings associated with persistent, undesirable shifts among ecosystem states (Briske and others, 2006). Because of the scientific challenges associated with understanding these factors, the application of threshold concepts to monitoring designs has been very limited to date (Groffman and others, 2006). As a case in point, the monitoring efforts across the 32 NPS I&M networks were largely designed with the knowledge that they would not be used to their full potential until the development of a systematic method for understanding threshold dynamics and methods for estimating key attributes of threshold crossings. This report describes and demonstrates a generalized approach that we implemented to formalize understanding and estimating of threshold dynamics for terrestrial dryland ecosystems in national parks of the Colorado Plateau. We provide a structured approach to identify and describe degradation processes associated with threshold behavior and to estimate indicator levels that characterize the point at which a threshold crossing has occurred or is imminent (tipping points) or points where investigative or preventive management action should be triggered (assessment points). We illustrate this method for several case studies in national parks included in the Northern and Southern Colorado Plateau NPS I&M networks, where historical livestock grazing, climatic change, and invasive species are key agents of change. The approaches developed in these case studies are intended to enhance the design, effectiveness, and management-relevance of monitoring efforts in support of conservation management in dryland systems. They specifically enhance National Park Service (NPS) capacity for protecting park resources on the Colorado Plateau but have applicability to monitoring and conservation management of dryland ecosystems worldwide.

  19. A study of marine zoo-benthos of OM attouyour (systematic, ecology and radioactivity)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study introduces a survey of marine zoo-Benthos found in the littoral zone of Om Attouyour. Measuring natural and artificial radioactivity. Likewise, artificial radionuclides levels and Hg, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu concentrations were low or within the range measured for similar samples in other coasts of the Mediterranean. (author)

  20. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Insect ecology studies and insect pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reviews the activities of the Pest Control Research Group in Indonesia. Pests under study are the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), the rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis), the sugar cane borer (Chilo auricilius), bean flies (Agromyza spp.), tobacco insects (Heliothis armigera and Spodoptera litura) and cotton insects, especially the pink bollworm