WorldWideScience
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Lessons from the use of genetically modified Drosophila melanogaster in ecological studies: Hsf mutant lines show highly trait-specific performance in field and laboratory thermal assays  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

1.  Laboratory studies on genetically modified strains may reveal important information on mechanisms involved in coping with thermal stress. However, to address the evolutionary significance of specific genes or physiological mechanisms, ecologically relevant field tests should also be performed. 2.  We have tested the importance of inducible heat shock proteins (Hsps) under different thermal conditions using two heat shock factor (Hsf) mutant lines (either able (Hsf+) or unable (Hsf0) to mount a heat stress response) and an outbred laboratory adapted wild-type line of Drosophila melanogaster under both laboratory and field conditions.3.  In the field, there was a tendency towards better performance of Hsf+ flies relative to Hsf0 flies, but as compared with wild-type the performance of both mutant lines was very low.4.  In the laboratory tests, Hsf+ flies had higher heat knock-down resistance relative to Hsf0 flies but in other assays on heat, cold and desiccation resistance there was either no difference between the two mutant lines or the Hsf0 line had higher performance. Also, the superiority of the wild-type flies under field conditions was trait specific.5.  The results emphasize that the ecological relevance of specific molecular mechanisms should be tested under a range of conditions both in the laboratory and in the field. Genetically modified lines cannot be assumed to represent the performance of natural populations, especially for field and/or ecologically relevant studies.6.  As evident in this study, ideal controls and adequate replication of genetically modified strains can be difficult to obtain. Thus, caution is needed when interpreting results comparing the performance of genetically modified lines with that of control lines

SØrensen, Jesper Givskov; Loeschcke, Volker

2009-01-01

2

Hsf4 counteracts Hsf1 transcription activities and increases lens epithelial cell survival in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interplay between Hsf4 and Hsf1 plays an important role in the regulation of lens homeostasis. However, the mechanism of the intermolecular association involved is still unclear. In this paper, we find that reconstitution of Hsf4b into Hsf4(-/-) lens epithelial (mLEC/Hsf4(-/-)) cells can simultaneously downregulate Hsp70 expression and upregulate the expression of small heat shock proteins Hsp25 and ?B-crystallin at both RNA and protein levels. ChIP assay results indicate Hsf4b, which binds to the promoters of Hsp90?, Hsp70.3, Hsp25 and ?B-crystallin but not Hsp70.1, can inhibit Hsf1 binding to Hsp70.3 promoter and the heat shock mediated Hsp70 promoter activity by reducing Hsf1 protein expression. Hsf4b N-terminal hydrophobic region can interact with Hsf1 N-terminal hydrophobic region. Their interaction impairs Hsf1's intramolecular interaction between the N- and C-terminal hydrophobic regions, leading to Hsf1's cytosolic retention and protein degradation. Both lysosome inhibitors (chloroquine, pepstatin A plus E64d) and proteasome inhibitor MG132 can inhibit Hsf4-mediated Hsf1 protein degradation, but MG132 can induce Hsf1 activation as well. Upregulation of Hsf4b can significantly inhibit cisplatin and staurosporine induced lens epithelial cell apoptosis through direct upregulation of Hsp25 and ?B-crystallin expression. Taken together, our results imply that upregulation of Hsf4b modulates the expression pattern of heat shock proteins in lens tissue by either directly binding to their promoters or promoting Hsf1 protein degradation. Moreover, upregulation of Hsf4b protects lens cell survival by upregulating anti-apoptotic pathways. These studies reveal a novel regulatory mechanism between Hsf1 and Hsf4b in modulating lens epithelial cell homeostasis. PMID:25601714

Cui, Xiukun; Xie, Pan Pan; Jia, Pan Pan; Lou, Qiang; Dun, Guoqing; Li, Shulian; Liu, Guangchao; Zhang, Jun; Dong, Zheng; Ma, Yuanfang; Hu, Yanzhong

2015-03-01

3

Crosstalk between HSF1 and HSF2 during the heat shock response in mouse testes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat Shock Factor 1 (HSF1) is the primary transcription factor responsible for the response to cellular stress, while HSF2 becomes activated during development and differentiation, including spermatogenesis. Although both factors are indispensable for proper spermatogenesis, activation of HSF1 by heat shock initiates apoptosis of spermatogenic cells leading to infertility of males. To characterize mechanisms assisting such heat induced apoptosis we studied how HSF1 and HSF2 cooperate during the heat shock response. For this purpose we used chromatin immunoprecipitation and the proximity ligation approaches. We looked for co-occupation of binding sites by HSF1 and HSF2 in untreated (32°C) or heat shocked (at 38°C or 43°C) spermatocytes, which are cells the most sensitive to hyperthermia. At the physiological temperature or after mild hyperthermia at 38°C, the sharing of binding sites for both HSFs was observed mainly in promoters of Hsp genes and other stress-related genes. Strong hyperthermia at 43°C resulted in an increased binding of HSF1 and releasing of HSF2, hence co-occupation of promoter regions was not detected any more. The close proximity of HSF1 and HSF2 (and/or existence of HSF1/HSF2 complexes) was frequent at the physiological temperature. Temperature elevation resulted in a decreased number of such complexes and they were barely detected after strong hyperthermia at 43°C. We have concluded that at the physiological temperature HSF1 and HSF2 cooperate in spermatogenic cells. However, temperature elevation causes remodeling of chromatin binding and interactions between HSFs are disrupted. This potentially affects the regulation of stress response and contributes to the heat sensitivity of these cells. PMID:25450459

Korfanty, Joanna; Stokowy, Tomasz; Widlak, Piotr; Gogler-Piglowska, Agnieszka; Handschuh, Luiza; Podkowi?ski, Jan; Vydra, Natalia; Naumowicz, Anna; Toma-Jonik, Agnieszka; Widlak, Wieslawa

2014-12-01

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HSF1 overexpression enhances oncolytic effect of replicative adenovirus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background E1B55kD deleted oncolytic adenovirus was designed to achieve cancer-specific cytotoxicity, but showed limitations in clinical study. To find a method to increase its efficacy, we investigated the correlation between oncolytic effect of such oncolytic adenovirus Adel55 and intracellular heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1 activity. Methods In the present study, human breast cancer cell line Bcap37 was stably transfected with constitutively active HSF1 (cHSF1 or HSF1 specific siRNA (HSF1i to establish increased or decreased HSF1 expression levels. Cytotoxicity of Adel55 was analyzed in these cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, Adel55 incorporated with cHSF1 (Adel55-cHSF1 was used to treat various tumor xenografts. Results Adel55 could achieve more efficient oncolysis in cHSF1 transfected Bcap37 cells, both in vitro and in vivo. However, inhibition of HSF1 expression by HSF1i could rescue Bcap37 cell line from oncolysis by Adel55. A time course study of viral replication established a correlation between higher replication of Adel55 and cytolysis or tumor growth inhibition. Then, we constructed Adel55-cHSF1 for tumor gene therapy and demonstrated that it is more potent than Adel55 itself in oncolysis and replication in both Bcap37 and SW620 xenografts. Conclusions cHSF1 enhances the Adel55 cell-killing potential through increasing the viral replication and is a potential therapeutic implication to augment the potential of E1B55kD deleted oncolytic adenovirus by increasing its burst.

Deng Youwen

2010-05-01

5

Function of Hsf1 in SV40 T?antigen?transformed HEK293T cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), a main regulator of the heat shock response in eukaryotes, increases cell survival in numerous pathophysiological conditions. The aim of the present study was to o bserve the function of defective HSF1 expression in HEK293T cells. shRNA of human HSF1 was constructed into the retroviral vector pLTHR generating pLTHR?shRNA?HSF1. The shRNA was transiently transfected into HEK293T cells to silence the expression of the HSF1 gene. Cell colony formation, MTT and cell cycle assays were used to analyze the SV40 T?antigen (Ag)?transformed cell proliferation rate. Immunoblotting was used to study the protein expression of HSF1, SV40 T?Ag, p53, p21, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), Hsp70 and Hsp25. The results revealed that a deficiency in HSF1 expression inhibited cellular growth. Defective HSF1 upregulated the protein expression of p53, retinoblastoma protein (Rb) and SV40 T?Ag, and reduced the association between SV40 T?Ag and p53/Rb, which resulted in growth inhibition of SV40 T?Ag?transformed cells. In conclusion, HSF1 is involved in the regulation of SV40 T?Ag?induced cell growth and modulates the expression of p53 and Rb proteins. PMID:25310819

Jiang, Qiying; Zhang, Zhi; Hu, Yanzhong; Ma, Yuanfang

2014-12-01

6

Zebrafish HSF4: a novel protein that shares features of both HSF1 and HSF4 of mammals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat-shock proteins (hsps) have important roles in the development of the eye lens. We previously demonstrated that knockdown of hsp70 gene expression using morpholino antisense technology resulted in an altered lens phenotype in zebrafish embryos. A less severe phenotype was seen with knockdown of heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1), suggesting that, while it likely plays a role in hsp70 regulation during lens formation, other regulatory factors are also involved. Heat-shock factor 4 plays an important role in mammalian lens development, and an expressed sequence tag encoding zebrafish HSF4 has been identified. The deduced amino acid sequence shares structural similarities with mammalian HSF4 including the lack of an HR-C domain. However, the HR-C domain is absent due to a severe C-terminal truncation within zebrafish HSF4 (zHSF4) relative to the mammalian protein. Surprisingly, the amino acid composition of the zHSF4 DNA binding domain shares a greater degree of identity with HSF1 proteins than it does with mammalian HSF4 proteins. Consistent with this, the binding affinity of in vitro synthesized zHSF4 for discontinuous heat-shock response element sequences is more limited, similar to what has been previously observed for HSF1 proteins. Hsf4 mRNA is expressed in zebrafish adult eye tissue but is only observed in developing embryonic tissue at 60 h post-fertilization or later. This, together with the lack of an observable phenotype following morpholino-based antisense knockdown of hsf4, suggests that zHSF4 is unlikely to play a role in regulating early embryonic lens development. PMID:22528049

Swan, Cynthia L; Evans, Tyler G; Sylvain, Nicole; Krone, Patrick H

2012-09-01

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HSF1 overexpression enhances oncolytic effect of replicative adenovirus  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background E1B55kD deleted oncolytic adenovirus was designed to achieve cancer-specific cytotoxicity, but showed limitations in clinical study. To find a method to increase its efficacy, we investigated the correlation between oncolytic effect of such oncolytic adenovirus Adel55 and intracellular heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) activity. Methods In the present study, human breast cancer cell line Bcap37 was stably transfected with constitutivel...

Deng Youwen; Fan Rong; Dai Zhehao; Wang Cheng; Lv Guohua; Lu Guangxiu

2010-01-01

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Ectopic Overexpression of SlHsfA3, a Heat Stress Transcription Factor from Tomato, Confers Increased Thermotolerance and Salt Hypersensitivity in Germination in Transgenic Arabidopsis  

OpenAIRE

Plant heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) are the critical components involved in mediating responses to various environmental stressors. However, the detailed roles of many plant Hsfs are far from fully understood. In this study, an Hsf (SlHsfA3) was isolated from the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, Sl) and functionally characterized at the genetic and developmental levels. The nucleus-localized SlHsfA3 was basally and ubiquitously expressed in different plant organs. The expre...

Li, Zhenjun; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Aoxue; Xu, Xiangyang; Li, Jingfu

2013-01-01

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Activation of the heat shock transcription factor Hsf1 is essential for the full virulence of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolutionarily conserved heat shock transcription factor Hsf1 plays a central role in thermal adaptation in the major fungal pathogen of humans, Candida albicans. Hsf1 becomes hyperphosphorylated in response to heat shock and activates the transcription of genes with heat shock elements (HSEs) in their promoters, these genes contributing to thermal adaptation. However, the relevance of Hsf1 activation to C. albicans virulence is not clear as this pathogen is thought to be obligately associated with warm blooded animals, and this issue has not been tested because HSF1 is essential for viability in C. albicans. In this study, we demonstrate that the HSE regulon is active in C. albicans cells infecting the kidney. We also show the CE2 region of Hsf1 is required for activation and that the phosphorylation of specific residues in this domain contributes to Hsf1 activation. C. albicans HSF1 mutants that lack this CE2 region are viable. However, they are unable to activate HSE-containing genes in response to heat shock, and they are thermosensitive. Using this HSF1 CE2 deletion mutant we demonstrate that Hsf1 activation, and hence thermal adaptation, contributes significantly to the virulence of C. albicans. PMID:20817114

Nicholls, Susan; MacCallum, Donna M; Kaffarnik, Florian A R; Selway, Laura; Peck, Scott C; Brown, Alistair J P

2011-03-01

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Ectopic overexpression of SlHsfA3, a heat stress transcription factor from tomato, confers increased thermotolerance and salt hypersensitivity in germination in transgenic Arabidopsis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) are the critical components involved in mediating responses to various environmental stressors. However, the detailed roles of many plant Hsfs are far from fully understood. In this study, an Hsf (SlHsfA3) was isolated from the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, Sl) and functionally characterized at the genetic and developmental levels. The nucleus-localized SlHsfA3 was basally and ubiquitously expressed in different plant organs. The expression of SlHsfA3 was induced dramatically by heat stress, moderately by high salinity, and slightly by drought, but was not induced by abscisic acid (ABA). The ectopic overexpression of SlHsfA3 conferred increased thermotolerance and late flowering phenotype to transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Moreover, SlHsfA3 played a negative role in controlling seed germination under salt stress. RNA-sequencing data demonstrated that a number of heat shock proteins (Hsps) and stress-associated genes were induced in Arabidopsis plants overexpressing SlHsfA3. A gel shift experiment and transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves demonstrated that SlHsfA3 directly activates the expression of SlHsp26.1-P and SlHsp21.5-ER. Taken together, our results suggest that SlHsfA3 behaves as a typical Hsf to contribute to plant thermotolerance. The late flowering and seed germination phenotypes and the RNA-seq data derived from SlHsfA3 overexpression lines lend more credence to the hypothesis that plant Hsfs participate in diverse physiological and biochemical processes related to adverse conditions. PMID:23349984

Li, Zhenjun; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Aoxue; Xu, Xiangyang; Li, Jingfu

2013-01-01

11

A Simulated Stream Ecology Study.  

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Describes a simulated field experience to study stream ecology in the classroom. Secondary students determine the composition of the stream community, describe the distribution of the benthic invertebrates, and design a food web. (Author/MA)

Zampella, Robert A.

1979-01-01

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HSF1 transcriptional activity mediates alcohol induction of Vamp2 expression and GABA release  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many central synapses are highly sensitive to alcohol, and it is now accepted that short-term alterations in synaptic function may lead to longer term changes in circuit function. The regulation of postsynaptic receptors by alcohol has been well studied, but the mechanisms underlying the effects of alcohol on the presynaptic terminal are relatively unexplored. To identify a pathway by which alcohol regulates neurotransmitter release, we recently investigated the mechanism by which ethanol induces the Vamp2 gene, but not Vamp1, in mouse primary cortical cultures. These two genes encode isoforms of synaptobrevin, a vesicular soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE protein required for synaptic vesicle fusion. We found that alcohol activates the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1 to induce Vamp2 gene expression, while Vamp1 mRNA levels remain unaffected. As the Vamp2 gene encodes a SNARE protein, we then investigated whether ethanol exposure and HSF1 transcriptional activity alter neurotransmitter release using electrophysiology. We found that alcohol increased the frequency of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA-mediated miniature IPSCs via HSF1, but had no effect on mEPSCs. Overall, these data indicate that alcohol induces HSF1 transcriptional activity to trigger a specific coordinated adaptation in GABAergic presynaptic terminals. This mechanism could explain some of the changes in synaptic function that occur soon after alcohol exposure, and may underlie some of the more enduring effects of chronic alcohol intake on local circuit function.

FlorenceP.Varodayan

2013-12-01

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HSF-1-mediated cytoskeletal integrity determines thermotolerance and life span.  

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The conserved heat shock transcription factor-1 (HSF-1) is essential to cellular stress resistance and life-span determination. The canonical function of HSF-1 is to regulate a network of genes encoding molecular chaperones that protect proteins from damage caused by extrinsic environmental stress or intrinsic age-related deterioration. In Caenorhabditis elegans, we engineered a modified HSF-1 strain that increased stress resistance and longevity without enhanced chaperone induction. This health assurance acted through the regulation of the calcium-binding protein PAT-10. Loss of pat-10 caused a collapse of the actin cytoskeleton, stress resistance, and life span. Furthermore, overexpression of pat-10 increased actin filament stability, thermotolerance, and longevity, indicating that in addition to chaperone regulation, HSF-1 has a prominent role in cytoskeletal integrity, ensuring cellular function during stress and aging. PMID:25324391

Baird, Nathan A; Douglas, Peter M; Simic, Milos S; Grant, Ana R; Moresco, James J; Wolff, Suzanne C; Yates, John R; Manning, Gerard; Dillin, Andrew

2014-10-17

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Targeting HSF1 sensitizes cancer cells to HSP90 inhibition.  

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The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) facilitates the appropriate folding of various oncogenic proteins and is necessary for the survival of some cancer cells. HSP90 is therefore an attractive drug target, but the efficacy of HSP90 inhibitor may be limited by HSP90 inhibition induced feedback mechanisms. Through pooled RNA interference screens, we identified that heat shock factor 1(HSF1) is a sensitizer of HSP90 inhibitor. A striking combinational effect was observed when HSF1 knockdown plus with HSP90 inhibitors treatment in various cancer cell lines and tumor mouse models. Interestingly, HSF1 is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patient samples and HCC is sensitive to combinational treatment, indicating a potential indication for the combinational treatment. To understand the mechanism of the combinational effect, we identified that a HSF1-target gene DEDD2 is involved in attenuating the effect of HSP90 inhibitors. Thus, the transcriptional activities of HSF1 induced by HSP90 inhibitors provide a feedback mechanism of limiting the HSP90 inhibitor's activity, and targeting HSF1 may provide a new avenue to enhance HSP90 inhibitors activity in human cancers. PMID:23615731

Chen, Yaoyu; Chen, Jinyun; Loo, Alice; Jaeger, Savina; Bagdasarian, Linda; Yu, Jianjun; Chung, Franklin; Korn, Joshua; Ruddy, David; Guo, Ribo; McLaughlin, Margaret E; Feng, Fei; Zhu, Ping; Stegmeier, Frank; Pagliarini, Raymond; Porter, Dale; Zhou, Wenlai

2013-06-01

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Haemophilus influenzae surface fibril (Hsf) is a unique twisted hairpin-like trimeric autotransporter.  

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The Haemophilus surface fibril (Hsf) is an extraordinary large (2413 amino acids) trimeric autotransporter, present in all encapsulated Haemophilus influenzae. It contributes to virulence by directly functioning as an adhesin. Furthermore, Hsf recruits the host factor vitronectin thereby inhibiting the host innate immune response resulting in enhanced survival in serum. Here we observed by electron microscopy that Hsf appears as an 100nm long fibril at the bacterial surface albeit the length is approximately 200nm according to a bioinformatics based model. To unveil this discrepancy, we denaturated Hsf at the surface of Hib by using guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl). Partial denaturation induced in the presence of GuHCl unfolded the Hsf molecules, and resulted in an increased length of fibres in comparison to the native trimeric form. Importantly, our findings were also verified by E. coli expressing Hsf at its surface. In addition, a set of Hsf-specific peptide antibodies also indicated that the N-terminal of Hsf is located near the C-terminal at the base of the fibril. Taken together, our results demonstrated that Hsf is not a straight molecule but is folded and doubled over. This is the first report that provides the unique structural features of the trimeric autotransporter Hsf. PMID:25465160

Singh, Birendra; Jubair, Tamim Al; Mörgelin, Matthias; Sundin, Anders; Linse, Sara; Nilsson, Ulf J; Riesbeck, Kristian

2015-01-01

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Heat shock factors HsfB1 and HsfB2b are involved in the regulation of Pdf1.2 expression and pathogen resistance in Arabidopsis.  

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In order to assess the functional roles of heat stress-induced class B-heat shock factors in Arabidopsis, we investigated T-DNA knockout mutants of AtHsfB1 and AtHsfB2b. Micorarray analysis of double knockout hsfB1/hsfB2b plants revealed as strong an up-regulation of the basal mRNA-levels of the defensin genes Pdf1.2a/b in mutant plants. The Pdf expression was further enhanced by jasmonic acid treatment or infection with the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. The single mutant hsfB2b and the double mutant hsfB1/B2b were significantly improved in disease resistance after A. brassicicola infection. There was no indication for a direct interaction of Hsf with the promoter of Pdf1.2, which is devoid of perfect HSE consensus Hsf-binding sequences. However, changes in the formation of late HsfA2-dependent HSE binding were detected in hsfB1/B2b plants. This suggests that HsfB1/B2b may interact with class A-Hsf in regulating the shut-off of the heat shock response. The identification of Pdf genes as targets of Hsf-dependent negative regulation is the first evidence for an interconnection of Hsf in the regulation of biotic and abiotic responses. PMID:19529832

Kumar, Mukesh; Busch, Wolfgang; Birke, Hannah; Kemmerling, Birgit; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Schöffl, Friedrich

2009-01-01

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Chromatin Landscape Dictates HSF Binding to Target DNA Elements  

OpenAIRE

Sequence-specific transcription factors (TFs) are critical for specifying patterns and levels of gene expression, but target DNA elements are not sufficient to specify TF binding in vivo. In eukaryotes, the binding of a TF is in competition with a constellation of other proteins, including histones, which package DNA into nucleosomes. We used the ChIP-seq assay to examine the genome-wide distribution of Drosophila Heat Shock Factor (HSF), a TF whose binding activity is mediated by heat shock-...

Guertin, Michael J.; Lis, John T.

2010-01-01

18

RPA assists HSF1 access to nucleosomal DNA by recruiting histone chaperone FACT.  

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Transcription factor access to regulatory elements is prevented by the nucleosome. Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a winged helix transcription factor that plays roles in control and stressed conditions by gaining access to target elements, but mechanisms of HSF1 access are not well known in mammalian cells. Here, we show the physical interaction between the wing motif of human HSF1 and replication protein A (RPA), which is involved in DNA metabolism. Depletion of RPA1 abolishes HSF1 access to the promoter of HSP70 in unstressed condition and delays its rapid activation in response to heat shock. The HSF1-RPA complex leads to preloading of RNA polymerase II and opens the chromatin structure by recruiting a histone chaperone, FACT. Furthermore, this interaction is required for melanoma cell proliferation. These results provide a mechanism of constitutive HSF1 access to nucleosomal DNA, which is important for both basal and inducible gene expression. PMID:22940245

Fujimoto, Mitsuaki; Takaki, Eiichi; Takii, Ryosuke; Tan, Ke; Prakasam, Ramachandran; Hayashida, Naoki; Iemura, Shun-ichiro; Natsume, Tohru; Nakai, Akira

2012-10-26

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A novel mouse HSF3 has the potential to activate nonclassical heat-shock genes during heat shock.  

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The heat-shock response is characterized by the expression of a set of classical heat-shock genes, and is regulated by heat-shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) in mammals. However, comprehensive analyses of gene expression have revealed very large numbers of inducible genes in cells exposed to heat shock. It is believed that HSF1 is required for the heat-inducible expression of these genes although HSF2 and HSF4 modulate some of the gene expression. Here, we identified a novel mouse HSF3 (mHSF3) translocated into the nucleus during heat shock. However, mHSF3 did not activate classical heat-shock genes such as Hsp70. Remarkably, overexpression of mHSF3 restored the expression of nonclassical heat-shock genes such as PDZK3 and PROM2 in HSF1-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Although down-regulation of mHSF3 expression had no effect on gene expression or cell survival in wild-type MEF cells, it abolished the moderate expression of PDZK3 mRNA and reduced cell survival in HSF1-null MEF cells during heat shock. We propose that mHSF3 represents a unique HSF that has the potential to activate only nonclassical heat-shock genes to protect cells from detrimental stresses. PMID:19864465

Fujimoto, Mitsuaki; Hayashida, Naoki; Katoh, Takuma; Oshima, Kouji; Shinkawa, Toyohide; Prakasam, Ramachandran; Tan, Ke; Inouye, Sachiye; Takii, Ryosuke; Nakai, Akira

2010-01-01

20

MARKING INSECTS FOR STUDYING ECOLOGY AND ETHOLOGY  

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Different kinds of markers can be used for studying insect ecology and behavior, and each have special strengths, weaknesses, and applications. Various kinds of markers are described, including visual tags (e.g., paint, wires, dyes, pollen, and spores), rubidium, radiotracers, rare earth elements, ...

21

A Novel Mouse HSF3 Has the Potential to Activate Nonclassical Heat-Shock Genes during Heat Shock  

OpenAIRE

HSF1 is a master regulator of the heat-shock response in mammalian cells, whereas in avian cells, HSF3, which was considered as an avian-specific factor, is required for the expression of classical heat-shock genes. Here, the authors identify mouse HSF3, and demonstrate that it has the potential to activate only nonclassical heat-shock genes.

Fujimoto, Mitsuaki; Hayashida, Naoki; Katoh, Takuma; Oshima, Kouji; Shinkawa, Toyohide; Prakasam, Ramachandran; Tan, Ke; Inouye, Sachiye; Takii, Ryosuke; Nakai, Akira

2010-01-01

22

Ecological Studies on Salix Distribution in Egypt  

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Full Text Available The present research studied the ecological factors affecting Salix distribution in Egypt. Two species of Salix were recorded, S. tetrasperma (only male and S. mucronata (both sexes. They were recorded at River Nile canal system and in the Eastern Oasis. Female S. mucronata was recorded in the all studied habitats, where the male of same species was recorded only in Fayoum Region. Salix tetrasperma neither recorded in Upper Egypt nor Eastern Oasis. Elevation from water surface, soil texture, soil salinity and temperature were the most effective factors affecting the distribution of Salix sp.

Emad A. Al Sherif

2009-01-01

23

Study on the Ecological Assessment of Landscape in a City  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this paper is study that the ecological environmental quality in suburban area is better than that in urban area in this study through the ecological assessment of the Landscape of a city. Among the districts of the suburban area, the A District is the best in its ecological environmental quality, while the B District is the worst. Finally, some major problems concerning the landscape of the city and solutions to them were proposed.

Sun Ying; Gao Guang-Lin

2014-01-01

24

Study on the Ecological Assessment of Landscape in a City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is study that the ecological environmental quality in suburban area is better than that in urban area in this study through the ecological assessment of the Landscape of a city. Among the districts of the suburban area, the A District is the best in its ecological environmental quality, while the B District is the worst. Finally, some major problems concerning the landscape of the city and solutions to them were proposed.

Sun Ying

2014-10-01

25

Membrane fluidity and temperature sensing are coupled via circuitry comprised of Ole1, Rsp5, and Hsf1 in Candida albicans.  

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Temperature is a ubiquitous environmental variable which can profoundly influence the physiology of living cells as it changes over time and space. When yeast cells are exposed to a sublethal heat shock, normal metabolic functions become repressed and the heat shock transcription factor Hsf1 is activated, inducing heat shock proteins (HSPs). Candida albicans, the most prevalent human fungal pathogen, is an opportunistic pathogen that has evolved as a relatively harmless commensal of healthy individuals. Even though C. albicans occupies thermally buffered niches, it has retained the classic heat shock response, activating Hsf1 during slow thermal transitions such as the increases in temperature suffered by febrile patients. However, the mechanism of temperature sensing in fungal pathogens remains enigmatic. A few studies with Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggest that thermal stress is transduced into a cellular signal at the level of the membrane. In this study, we manipulated the fluidity of C. albicans membrane to dissect mechanisms of temperature sensing. We determined that in response to elevated temperature, levels of OLE1, encoding a fatty acid desaturase, decrease. Subsequently, loss of OLE1 triggers expression of FAS2, encoding a fatty acid synthase. Furthermore, depletion of OLE1 prevents full activation of Hsf1, thereby reducing HSP expression in response to heat shock. This reduction in Hsf1 activation is attributable to the E3 ubiquitin ligase Rsp5, which regulates OLE1 expression. To our knowledge, this is the first study to define a molecular link between fatty acid synthesis and the heat shock response in the fungal kingdom. PMID:24951438

Leach, Michelle D; Cowen, Leah E

2014-08-01

26

Overexpression of AtHsfB4 induces specific effects on root development of Arabidopsis.  

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The functions of plant class B-heat shock factors (Hsfs) are not well understood. Hsfs belonging to this group differ from class A-Hsfs in structural features of the oligomerization domain and by the absence of a typical AHA motif for transcriptional activation. AtHsfB4 is expressed in different parts of the plants with highest levels in root tissue. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing (OE) HsfB4 by CaMV-35S-promoter showed massively enhanced levels of Hsf mRNAs. The root surface of OE-plants was rough and cells became detached. Crossings with cell type specific root marker lines and confocal laser scanning microscopy provided clear evidence for a duplication of cells in the ground tissue and ectopic layers of lateral root cap (LRC) cells in HsfB4-OE plants. A duplication of endodermis cells occurs already during embryonic development, while the ectopic LRC cells are only detected during postembryonic growth. The mutant phenotypes of Hsf-OE plants are without precedence and indicate that class B-Hsfs may play an important role in root development. PMID:22677791

Begum, Tahmina; Reuter, Rolf; Schöffl, Friedrich

2013-01-01

27

HDAC6-ubiquitin interaction controls the duration of HSF1 activation after heat shock.  

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After heat shock, HSF1 controls a major cellular transcriptional response involving the activation of early (HSP70) and late (HSP25) heat shock gene expression. Here we show that a full response to heat shock (activation of both HSP70 and HSP25) depends on the duration of HSF1 activation, which is itself controlled by HDAC6, a unique deacetylase known to bind monoubiquitin and polyubiquitin with high affinity. On the basis of a comparative analysis of the heat shock response in cells knocked out for HDAC6 or expressing HDAC6 mutants, we show that HDAC6 binding to ubiquitinated proteins controls the duration of HSF1 activation after heat shock. In cells expressing HDAC6 mutated in the ubiquitin-binding domain, the AAA ATPase factor p97/VCP mediates rapid inactivation of HSF1, precluding late activation of the HSP25 gene. In these cells, knockdown of p97/VCP rescues HSF1 from this rapid inactivation and restores HSP25 expression. We present here a new regulatory circuit that adjusts the duration of the heat shock response to the extent of protein ubiquitination after heat shock. PMID:25298398

Pernet, Lydia; Faure, Virginie; Gilquin, Benoit; Dufour-Guérin, Solenne; Khochbin, Saadi; Vourc'h, Claire

2014-12-15

28

Hsf1 Is Required for the Nuclear Translocation of p53 Tumor Suppressor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although the p53 tumor suppressor is most frequently inactivated by genetic mutations, exclusion from the nucleus is also seen in human tumors. We have begun to examine p53 nuclear importation by isolating a series of mutant cells in which the temperature-sensitive murine p53Val135 mutant is sequestered in the cytoplasm. We previously showed that that three of them (ALTR12, ALTR19, and ALTR25 constituted a single complementation group. Here, we found that ALTR12 cells are more sensitive to heat stress than either ALTR19 or ALTR25 and that there was a complete lack of induction of Hsp70 in response to heat shock. Western blot analysis showed no expression of the Hsf1 transcription factor, and neither heat shock nor azetidine could induce p53 nuclear localization in ALTR12 cells but did in parental A1–5 cells. Suppression of Hsf1 in A1–5 cells with quercetin or an Hsf1 siRNA reduced p53 nuclear importation and inhibited p53-mediated activation of a p21 reporter. Most convincingly, p53 nuclear importation could be restored in ALTR12 cells by introducing an exogenous Hsf1 gene. Collectively, our result suggests that Hsf1 is required for p53 nuclear importation and activation and implies that heat shock factors play a role in the regulation of p53.

Qiang Li

2008-10-01

29

Suppression of the HSF1-mediated proteotoxic stress response by the metabolic stress sensor AMPK.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous extrinsic and intrinsic insults trigger the HSF1-mediated proteotoxic stress response (PSR), an ancient transcriptional program that is essential to proteostasis and survival under such conditions. In contrast to its well-recognized mobilization by proteotoxic stress, little is known about how this powerful adaptive mechanism reacts to other stresses. Surprisingly, we discovered that metabolic stress suppresses the PSR. This suppression is largely mediated through the central metabolic sensor AMPK, which physically interacts with and phosphorylates HSF1 at Ser121. Through AMPK activation, metabolic stress represses HSF1, rendering cells vulnerable to proteotoxic stress. Conversely, proteotoxic stress inactivates AMPK and thereby interferes with the metabolic stress response. Importantly, metformin, a metabolic stressor and popular anti-diabetic drug, inactivates HSF1 and provokes proteotoxic stress within tumor cells, thereby impeding tumor growth. Thus, these findings uncover a novel interplay between the metabolic stress sensor AMPK and the proteotoxic stress sensor HSF1 that profoundly impacts stress resistance, proteostasis, and malignant growth. PMID:25425574

Dai, Siyuan; Tang, Zijian; Cao, Junyue; Zhou, Wei; Li, Huawen; Sampson, Stephen; Dai, Chengkai

2015-02-01

30

40 CFR 159.165 - Toxicological and ecological studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

...CFR 156.62. (b) Ecological studies. The results of a study of the toxicity of a pesticide to terrestrial or aquatic wildlife or plants if, relative to all previously submitted studies, they show an adverse effect...

2010-07-01

31

A Direct Regulatory Interaction between Chaperonin TRiC and Stress-Responsive Transcription Factor HSF1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1 is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that protects cells from protein-misfolding-induced stress and apoptosis. The mechanisms by which cytosolic protein misfolding leads to HSF1 activation have not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that HSF1 is directly regulated by TRiC/CCT, a central ATP-dependent chaperonin complex that folds cytosolic proteins. A small-molecule activator of HSF1, HSF1A, protects cells from stress-induced apoptosis, binds TRiC subunits in vivo and in vitro, and inhibits TRiC activity without perturbation of ATP hydrolysis. Genetic inactivation or depletion of the TRiC complex results in human HSF1 activation, and HSF1A inhibits the direct interaction between purified TRiC and HSF1 in vitro. These results demonstrate a direct regulatory interaction between the cytosolic chaperone machine and a critical transcription factor that protects cells from proteotoxicity, providing a mechanistic basis for signaling perturbations in protein folding to a stress-protective transcription factor.

Daniel W. Neef

2014-11-01

32

In the complex family of heat stress transcription factors, HsfA1 has a unique role as master regulator of thermotolerance in tomato  

OpenAIRE

We generated transgenic tomato plants with altered expression of heat stress transcription factor HsfA1. Plants with 10-fold overexpression of HsfA1 (OE plants) were characterized by a single HsfA1 transgene cassette, whereas plants harboring a tandem inverted repeat of the cassette showed cosuppression (CS plants) by posttranscriptional silencing of the HsfA1 gene connected with formation of small interfering RNAs. Under normal growth conditions, major developmental parameters were similar f...

Mishra, Shravan Kumar; Tripp, Joanna; Winkelhaus, Sybille; Tschiersch, Bettina; Theres, Klaus; Nover, Lutz; Scharf, Klaus-dieter

2002-01-01

33

HsfA1d, a protein identified via FOX hunting using Thellungiella salsuginea cDNAs improves heat tolerance by regulating heat-stress-responsive gene expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thellungiella salsuginea (formerly T. halophila), a species closely related to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), is tolerant not only to high salt levels, but also to chilling, freezing, and ozone. Here, we report that T. salsuginea also shows greater heat tolerance than Arabidopsis. We identified T. salsuginea HsfA1d (TsHsfA1d) as a gene that can confer marked heat tolerance on Arabidopsis. TsHsfA1d was identified via Full-length cDNA Over-eXpressing gene (FOX) hunting from among a collection of heat-stress-related T. salsuginea cDNAs. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TsHsfA1d showed constitutive up-regulation of many genes in the Arabidopsis AtHsfA1 regulon under normal growth temperature. In Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts, TsHsfA1d was localized in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. TsHsfA1d also interacted with AtHSP90, which negatively regulates AtHsfA1s by forming HsfA1-HSP90 complexes in the cytoplasm. It is likely that the partial nuclear localization of TsHsfA1d induced the expression of the AtHsfA1d regulon in the transgenic plants at normal temperature. We also discovered that transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtHsfA1d were more heat-tolerant than wild-type plants and up-regulated the expression of the HsfA1d regulon, as was observed in TsHsfA1d-overexpressing plants. We propose that the products of both TsHsfA1d and AtHsfA1d function as positive regulators of Arabidopsis heat-stress response and would be useful for the improvement of heat-stress tolerance in other plants. PMID:23393165

Higashi, Yukari; Ohama, Naohiko; Ishikawa, Tomoko; Katori, Taku; Shimura, Ayaka; Kusakabe, Kazuya; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Ishida, Junko; Tanaka, Maho; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Sakata, Yoichi; Hayashi, Takahisa; Taji, Teruaki

2013-03-01

34

Ecology Sports Studies Carried Out in School Sports  

Science.gov (United States)

In the 1970 s, people began to care for the environment and concern about the ecology thinking in sports, to study the modern sports facing the ecology problems, to explore "people, sports, environment" the harmonious development of the way. In the paper from the actual conditions of the school briefly discuss the advantages of carrying out 3.3 no complete teaching schemas and the main difficulties it faces, and then propose appropriate measures to provide a theoretical basis for the ecology sports better carried out in school sports.

Shuyu, Xia

35

SPERM MOTILITY IN HSF1 KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER HEAT SHOCK IS ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILITY DEFICITS  

Science.gov (United States)

SPERM MOTILITY IN HSF1 KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER HEAT SHOCK IS ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILITY DEFICITS. L.F. Strader*, S.D. Perreault, J.C. Luft*, and D.J. Dix*. US EPA/ORD, Reproductive Toxicology Div., Research Triangle Park, NC Heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect cells from environm...

36

HsfB2b-mediated repression of PRR7 directs abiotic stress responses of the circadian clock.  

Science.gov (United States)

The circadian clock perceives environmental signals to reset to local time, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here we present data revealing that a member of the heat shock factor (Hsf) family is involved in the input pathway to the plant circadian clock. Using the yeast one-hybrid approach, we isolated several Hsfs, including Heat Shock Factor B2b (HsfB2b), a transcriptional repressor that binds the promoter of Pseudo Response Regulator 7 (PRR7) at a conserved binding site. The constitutive expression of HsfB2b leads to severely reduced levels of the PRR7 transcript and late flowering and elongated hypocotyls. HsfB2b function is important during heat and salt stress because HsfB2b overexpression sustains circadian rhythms, and the hsfB2b mutant has a short circadian period under these conditions. HsfB2b is also involved in the regulation of hypocotyl growth under warm, short days. Our findings highlight the role of the circadian clock as an integrator of ambient abiotic stress signals important for the growth and fitness of plants. PMID:25352668

Kolmos, Elsebeth; Chow, Brenda Y; Pruneda-Paz, Jose L; Kay, Steve A

2014-11-11

37

Study of tourist motivation to Guangzhou urban ecological parks  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the push - pull theory, this article show the empirical studies of tourists' travel motivation to Guangzhou Ecological Park. We identified four push factors and three pull factors which are of the potential features of travel motivation, and on this basis, using analysis of variance to further test the significant differences of push and pull factors in the demographic characteristics of different groups. The conclusion has a certain reference value to the Ecological Park in Guangzhou to attract tourists.

Li, Min; Wang, Fengtang

2012-01-01

38

Study on the Construction of the Internet Ecological Concept  

OpenAIRE

With the quickly development of Information Technology, the Internet has produced unprecedented influences to the human society, and the new existence space and environment for human being have been formed. Aiming at the serious social problems existing in the development of the Internet, “the Internet ecological crisis”, this article utilizes the theories such as ecology, environment management and harmonious society to primarily study the new approach to lead the healthy development of ...

Yongqing Bai

2009-01-01

39

Ecological Biology (Program Description)  

Science.gov (United States)

... in the following areas. Ecology: Supports studies of community ecology and population interactions ... 7) co-evolution, and (8) chemical ecology. Ecology particularly encourages studies that reveal ...

40

A Study on College English Ecological Teaching Strategies in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to create ecological college English teaching strategies in non-English speaking countries in view of the increasing importance and popularity of English. The study shows most college students hope they are able to learn English well and they will be very happy if college English teachers can adopt some efficient and suitable teaching strategies. In this paper, the author puts forward college English teaching is a kind of micro-ecosystem in the light of ecology which has got such ecological characteristics as adaptability, openness and sustainability. In order to create suitable ecological college English teaching environments, the college English teaching are supposed to insist on 5C principles, that is, cooperation, competition, consideration, creativeness and continuity which are on the basis of such ecological principles as “Symbiotic Effect”, “Niche”, “Laws Limiting Factor”, “Law of Tolerance”, “the Most Appropriate Principle”, “Flowerpots Effect”. The efficiency and practicality of college English teaching in non-English speaking countries are able to be obtained by using ecological college English teaching strategies discussed in the paper.

Junhong Tang

2013-08-01

41

An inhibitory effect of the sequence-conserved upstream open-reading frame on the translation of the main open-reading frame of HsfB1 transcripts in Arabidopsis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants have as many as 20 heat shock factors (Hsfs) grouped into three classes, A, B and C, based on sequence similarity and modular structures. Through screening for cell death-inducing factor(s) in Nicotiana benthamiana, we identified Arabidopsis HsfB2b and thus subjected all other members of Arabidopsis Hsf class B (HsfB1, HsfB2a, HsfB2b, HsfB3 and HsfB4) to the same cell death assay. When expressed in N.?benthamiana leaves, only HsfB1 and HsfB2b elicited mild cell death. Simultaneously we found that HsfB1 has a post-transcriptional control mechanism, in which a sequence-conserved upstream open-reading frame (sc-uORF) is involved. The known repressor function of the respective HsfBs was confirmed and the difference in cell death-inducing activity of HsfBs was explained by the fact that HsfB1 and HsfB2b are transcriptional repressors but the others are not. Indeed, the cell death symptom by HsfB1 and HsfB2b required not only their repression activity but also their nuclear localization activity. HsfB1 expression was drastically and transiently induced by heat shock (HS) and the intactness of sc-uORF was required for its HS response. Based on the results, the physiological significance of cell death-inducing activity of HsfB1 and HsfB2b and the sc-uORF in the HsfB1 transcript during HS response is discussed. PMID:22571635

Zhu, Xujun; Thalor, Sunil Kumar; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Berberich, Thomas; Kusano, Tomonobu

2012-11-01

42

Chemical ecology: studies from East Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), in Nairobi, provides a laboratory at which a multinational group of scientists pursues interdisciplinary research. In collaboration with their colleagues in biology, ICIPE chemists have characterized the sex pheromones of the tick which serves as a vector of East Coast fever and have identified a termite queen-cell-building pheromone. The structure of many anthropod defensive chemicals have been determined; most interesting of these are the trinervitenes, structurally novel diterpenoids from nasute termites. Several highly active insect antifeedants were discovered using a simple bioassay to screen selected East African plants. These antifeedants may provide leads for the development of new insect-control techniques. PMID:17745589

Meinwald, J; Prestwich, G D; Nakanishi, K; Kubo, I

1978-03-17

43

A Novel Integrated Ecological Model for the study of Sustainability  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, there has been a growing interest among various sections of the society in the study of sustainability. Recently, a generalized mathematical model depicting a combined economic-ecological-social system has been proposed to help in the formal study of sustainabili...

44

Bis is Induced by Oxidative Stress via Activation of HSF1.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bis protein is known to be involved in a variety of cellular processes including apoptosis, migration, autophagy as well as protein quality control. Bis expression is induced in response to a number of types of stress, such as heat shock or a proteasome inhibitor via the activation of heat shock factor (HSF)1. We report herein that Bis expression is increased at the transcriptional level in HK-2 kidney tubular cells and A172 glioma cells by exposure to oxidative stress such as H2O2 treatment and oxygen-glucose deprivation, respectively. The pretreatment of HK-2 cells with N-acetyl cysteine, suppressed Bis induction. Furthermore, HSF1 silencing attenuated Bis expression that was induced by H2O2, accompaniedby increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Using a series of deletion constructs of the bis gene promoter, two putative heat shock elements located in the proximal region of the bis gene promoter were found to be essential for the constitutive expression is as well as the inducible expression of Bis. Taken together, our results indicate that oxidative stress induces Bis expression at the transcriptional levels via activation of HSF1, which might confer an expansion of antioxidant capacity against pro-oxidant milieu. However, the possible role of the other cis-element in the induction of Bis remains to be determined. PMID:25352760

Yoo, Hyung Jae; Im, Chang-Nim; Youn, Dong-Ye; Yun, Hye Hyeon; Lee, Jeong-Hwa

2014-10-01

45

HSF1-mediated BAG3 Expression Attenuates Apoptosis in 4-Hydroxynonenal-treated Colon Cancer Cells via Stabilization of Anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 Proteins*S?  

OpenAIRE

4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE) is a pro-apoptotic electrophile generated during the spontaneous decomposition of oxidized lipids. We have previously shown that HNE activates the transcription factor, heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), and promotes cytoprotective heat shock gene expression and that silencing HSF1 sensitizes the colon cancer cell line RKO to HNE-induced apoptosis. Here we report a reduction in the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-XL, Mcl-1, and Bcl-2 in HSF1-silenced RKO ce...

Jacobs, Aaron T.; Marnett, Lawrence J.

2009-01-01

46

Study on Evaluation of Rural Ecological Environment and Its Influencing Factors in Sichuan Province  

OpenAIRE

Rural ecological environment is the basic on human survival, analyze its structure and function is the key to crack the problem of agro-ecological environment. This paper studied the evaluation of rural ecological environment and its influencing factors. The results showed that: the rural ecological environment showed declining trend, the value of its input-output efficiency was low and its regional differences was significant; the quality of economic development affected the rural ecologi...

Yingcong Zhang

2012-01-01

47

HSF1-mediated oxidative stress response to menadione in Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377Y3 by using proteomic approach  

OpenAIRE

The hat shock transcription factor HSF1 inthe yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulates a wide range of genes and functions in diverse cellular reactions. To investigate the physiological response of HSF1 inthe presence of menadione (MD) in S. cerevisiae KNU 5377Y3, wild-type (k3wt) and isogenic hsf1 mutant (k3h1) cells were introduced. HSF1 was induced when k3wt cells were exposed to the superoxide-generating agent MD and k3h1 cells were hype...

Il-Sup Kim; Hyun Kim; Young-Saeng Kim; Ingnyol Jin; Ho-Sung Yoon

2013-01-01

48

The Urban Ecology Institute's field studies program: utilizing urban areas for experiential learning and ecological research  

Science.gov (United States)

The Urban Ecology Institute (UEI) promotes the stewardship of healthy urban ecosystems by improving science and civic education for middle and high school youth and by working with urban communities to protect and transform natural resources. Established in 1999, UEI's field studies program engages over 1000 youth in the greater Boston area. A substantial component of this program involves water quality monitoring. We have recently adapted protocols from published leaf breakdown studies for incorporation into the UEI water quality curriculum. A 2004 pilot study of these leaf breakdown activities, conducted at four sites, compared rates of red maple breakdown to those of Norway maple, a potentially invasive urban street tree. Preliminary data from this successful pilot study suggest that leaf litter inputs from the two different tree species have varying effects on stream ecosystem function. We present this study as an example of how urban areas can be utilized for both ecological research and inclusive experiential learning through which science and mathematic knowledge can be effectively communicated.

Starry, O.

2005-05-01

49

Landscape ecological risk assessment study in arid land  

Science.gov (United States)

The ecosystem risk assessment is an essential decision making system for predicting the reconstruction and recovery of a damaged ecosystem after intensive mankind activities. The sustainability of environment and resources of the lake ecosystem in arid districts have been paid close attention to by international communities as well as numerous experts and scholars. The ecological risk assessment offered a scientific foundation for making the decision and execution of ecological risk management. Bosten Lake, the largest inland freshwater lake in China, is the main water source of the industrial and agricultural production as well as the local residence in Yanqi basin, Kuara city and Yuri County in the southern Xinjiang. Bosten Lake also provides a direct water source for emergency transportation in the Lower Reaches of Tarim River. However, with the intensive utilizations of water and soil resources, the environmental condition in the Bosten Lake has become more and more serious. In this study, the theory and method of landscape ecological risk assessment has been practiced using 3S technologies combined with the frontier theory of landscape ecology. Defining the mainly risk resource including flood, drought, water pollution and rich nutrition of water has been evaluated based on the ecosystem risk assessment system. The main process includes five stages: regional natural resources analysis, risk receptor selection, risk sources evaluation, exposure and hazard analysis, and integrated risk assessment. Based on the risk assessment results, the environmental risk management countermeasure has been determined.

Gong, Lu; Amut, Aniwaer; Shi, Qingdong; Wang, Gary Z.

2007-09-01

50

Terrestrial ecology. Comprehensive study of the grassland biome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Terrestrial ecology and grassland biome studies are designed to characterize the biota of the Hanford Reservation, elucidate seasonal dynamics of plant productivity, decomposition and mineral behavior patterns of important plant communities, and, to study the response of these communities to important natural environmental stresses, such as weather, wildfire and man-induced alterations of communities (influenced by grazing cattle and severe mechanical disturbance of the soil, such as affected by plowing or burial of waste materials or construction activities). A detailed account of the important findings of a 5-yr study is currently being prepared by the terrestrial ecology section staff for publication as a contribution to the International Biological Program Grassland Biome project

51

HSF1-mediated oxidative stress response to menadione in Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377Y3 by using proteomic approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hat shock transcription factor HSF1 inthe yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulates a wide range of genes and functions in diverse cellular reactions. To investigate the physiological response of HSF1 inthe presence of menadione (MD in S. cerevisiae KNU 5377Y3, wild-type (k3wt and isogenic hsf1 mutant (k3h1 cells were introduced. HSF1 was induced when k3wt cells were exposed to the superoxide-generating agent MD and k3h1 cells were hypersensitive to MD. Under MD stress, k3h1 cells down-regulated the expression of metabolic enzymes (Hxk, Fba1, Pgk1, Eno2, and Adh1, antioxidant enzymes (Trx2 and porin, and molecular chaperones and their cofactors (Hsp104, Ssb1, Hsp60, Hsp42, Hsp26, Hsp12, Cpr1, and Sti1. In addition, k3h1 cells increased cellular hydroperoxide levels and protein carbonylation under MD stress as compared to k3wt cells. However, there was a moderate difference in the wild-type (b3wt and mutant (b3h1 cells derived from S. cerevisiae S288Cunder the same conditions. Thus, these results show that HSF1 is an important component of the stress response system, acting as an activator of cell rescue genes in S. cerevisiae KNU5377Y3, and its expression protects the cells from MD-induced oxidative damage by maintaining redox homeostasis and proteostasis in the presence of MD.

Il-Sup Kim

2013-01-01

52

Radiological Review Studies On Ismailia Canal Ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work is a brief review of pr-studies carried out on Ismailia Canal, Egypt, water ecosystem. Ismailia Canal water body is a bicarbonate stream with slight seasonal variations in its water chemical constituents. The canal water pH in all the stream locations are below 8.3 with low suspended matter(SM) content (22-33 mg.l-1). The mineralogical analysis of the canal bottom sediments consist mainly of quartz, smectite and kaolinite minerals. The ?- spectroscopic identification showed traces of naturally occurring radio nuclides (238U, 232Th and 40K). The average activity level of the dry samples ranged from 12 to 89 Bq.Kg-1 for the detected natural radio nuclides. Some parameters affected the sorption behaviour of radio nuclides on suspended matters and bottom sediments; such as solution pH, SM concentration, sediment grain size, carrier concentration and competing ions were studied. The reaction rates were investigated for each radionuclide studied. The distribution of the studied radio nuclides, between the liquid phase and the sediments phase was investigated, for both flowing and static systems. For both flowing and non-flowing (static), the depth penetration of the studied radio nuclides within the bottom sediment layers were found to vary from one radionuclide to the other. The total capacities of bottom sediments and the suspended matter were found to be low. As Ismailia Canal is an important source of water for public domestic uses, irrigation animals and the aquatic species; these situations have led to state that it is not recommended to release any liquid radioactive wastes to this canal. Furthermore, periodical radiometric analysis for the canal water and its components should be carried out.

53

Ecological and pollution studies of the British crayfish  

OpenAIRE

The ecology of Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet) from Markfield Quarry and the River Leen was described. Studies included: 1. Biology. (i) Timing of life cycle events. They related to ambient conditions, especially temperature. (ii) Fecundity. Individual fecundity increased with female size. Population fecundity related to population density. (iii) Local distribution. This related to hide availability. Gross water quality affected the distribution of the river crayfish. 2...

Mees, Christopher Charles

1983-01-01

54

Ecological study of algal flora of Neelum river Azad Kashmir  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

First time ecological study of Algal Flora of Neelum River Azad Kashmir was carried out during January 1998 to July 1998. A total of 78 species belonging to 48 genera of 4 Algal groups. Cyanophyceae (16 species 20.5 % belonging to 11 genera), Choloronophycease (23 species 29.5 % belonging to 18 genera), Bacillariophyceae (37 species 47 % belonging to 17 genera), Xanthophyceae (2 species 3 % belonging to 2 genera) and 39 physico - chemical parameters were recorded. (author)

55

Evolutionary and ecological approaches to the study of personality  

OpenAIRE

This introduction to the themed issue on Evolutionary and ecological approaches to the study of personality provides an overview of conceptual, theoretical and methodological progress in research on animal personalities over the last decade, and places the contributions to this volume in context. The issue has three main goals. First, we aimed to bring together theoreticians to contribute to the development of models providing adaptive explanations for animal personality that could guide empi...

Re?ale, Denis; Dingemanse, Niels J.; Kazem, Anahita J. N.; Wright, Jonathan

2010-01-01

56

Remote Sensing and Wetland Ecology: a South African Case Study  

OpenAIRE

Remote sensing offers a cost efficient means for identifying and monitoring wetlands over a large area and at different moments in time. In this study, we aim at providing ecologically relevant information on characteristics of temporary and permanent isolated open water wetlands, obtained by standard techniques and relatively cheap imagery. The number, surface area, nearest distance, and dynamics of isolated temporary and permanent wetlands were determined for the Western Cape, South Africa....

Luc Brendonck; Abraham Thomas; Okke Batelaan; Hans Lievens; Miya, Mtemi H.; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; Roeck, Els R.

2008-01-01

57

An ecological study on childhood autism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background and methods Idiopathic autism, suspected to be caused by exposure of genetically susceptible individuals to unknown environmental triggers, has increased dramatically in the past 25 years. The objectives of our study were to determine, using a linear regression model, whether the county prevalence of autism in the Pacific Northwest of the United States was associated with the source of drinking water for that county and whether this relationship was dependent on the level of environmental pollutants and meteorological factors in the county. Results We found the previously reported relationship between precipitation and autism in a county was dependent on the amount of drinking water derived from surface sources in the county. We also found a positive association between the EPA’s risk of neurological disease and autism, but this relationship was only present in warm areas. Conclusions Our study provides evidence for the hypothesis that environmental factors are associated with autism and that meteorological factors play a role in this relationship.

St-Hilaire Sophie

2012-10-01

58

Ecological investigations: vegetation studies, preliminary findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the vegetation studies conducted on the research site is to produce a descriptive data base that can be applied to determinations of carrying capacity of the site and surrounding area. Additional information obtained about parameters that influence vegetation growth and maintenance of soil nutrients, and moisture and temperature regimes help define dynamic relationships that must be understood to effect successful revegetation and habitat rehabilitation. The descriptive vegetation baseline also provides a point of departure for design of future monitoring programs, and predictive models and strategies to be used in dealing with impact mitigation; in turn, monitoring programs and predictive modeling form the bases for making distinctions between natural trends and man-induced perturbations.

Olgeirson, E.R.; Martin, R.B.

1978-09-01

59

Remote Sensing and Wetland Ecology: a South African Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Remote sensing offers a cost efficient means for identifying and monitoring wetlands over a large area and at different moments in time. In this study, we aim at providing ecologically relevant information on characteristics of temporary and permanent isolated open water wetlands, obtained by standard techniques and relatively cheap imagery. The number, surface area, nearest distance, and dynamics of isolated temporary and permanent wetlands were determined for the Western Cape, South Africa. Open water bodies (wetlands were mapped from seven Landsat images (acquired during 1987 – 2002 using supervised maximum likelihood classification. The number of wetlands fluctuated over time. Most wetlands were detected in the winter of 2000 and 2002, probably related to road constructions. Imagery acquired in summer contained fewer wetlands than in winter. Most wetlands identified from Landsat images were smaller than one hectare. The average distance to the nearest wetland was larger in summer. In comparison to temporary wetlands, fewer, but larger permanent wetlands were detected. In addition, classification of non-vegetated wetlands on an Envisat ASAR radar image (acquired in June 2005 was evaluated. The number of detected small wetlands was lower for radar imagery than optical imagery (acquired in June 2002, probably because of deterioration of the spatial information content due the extensive pre-processing requirements of the radar image. Both optical and radar classifications allow to assess wetland characteristics that potentially influence plant and animal metacommunity structure. Envisat imagery, however, was less suitable than Landsat imagery for the extraction of detailed ecological information, as only large wetlands can be detected. This study has indicated that ecologically relevant data can be generated for the larger wetlands through relatively cheap imagery and standard techniques, despite the relatively low resolution of Landsat and Envisat imagery. For the characterisation of very small wetlands, high spatial resolution optical or radar images are needed. This study exemplifies the benefits of integrating remote sensing and ecology and hence stimulates interdisciplinary research of isolated wetlands.

Luc Brendonck

2008-05-01

60

Remote Sensing and Wetland Ecology: a South African Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Remote sensing offers a cost efficient means for identifying and monitoring wetlands over a large area and at different moments in time. In this study, we aim at providing ecologically relevant information on characteristics of temporary and permanent isolated open water wetlands, obtained by standard techniques and relatively cheap imagery. The number, surface area, nearest distance, and dynamics of isolated temporary and permanent wetlands were determined for the Western Cape, South Africa. Open water bodies (wetlands) were mapped from seven Landsat images (acquired during 1987 – 2002) using supervised maximum likelihood classification. The number of wetlands fluctuated over time. Most wetlands were detected in the winter of 2000 and 2002, probably related to road constructions. Imagery acquired in summer contained fewer wetlands than in winter. Most wetlands identified from Landsat images were smaller than one hectare. The average distance to the nearest wetland was larger in summer. In comparison to temporary wetlands, fewer, but larger permanent wetlands were detected. In addition, classification of non-vegetated wetlands on an Envisat ASAR radar image (acquired in June 2005) was evaluated. The number of detected small wetlands was lower for radar imagery than optical imagery (acquired in June 2002), probably because of deterioration of the spatial information content due the extensive pre-processing requirements of the radar image. Both optical and radar classifications allow to assess wetland characteristics that potentially influence plant and animal metacommunity structure. Envisat imagery, however, was less suitable than Landsat imagery for the extraction of detailed ecological information, as only large wetlands can be detected. This study has indicated that ecologically relevant data can be generated for the larger wetlands through relatively cheap imagery and standard techniques, despite the relatively low resolution of Landsat and Envisat imagery. For the characterisation of very small wetlands, high spatial resolution optical or radar images are needed. This study exemplifies the benefits of integrating remote sensing and ecology and hence stimulates interdisciplinary research of isolated wetlands.

De Roeck, Els R.; Verhoest, Niko E.C.; Miya, Mtemi H.; Lievens, Hans; Batelaan, Okke; Thomas, Abraham; Brendonck, Luc

2008-01-01

61

HSF-1, HIF-1and HSP90 expression on recombinant Pichia pastoris under fed-batch fermentation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Pichia pastoris is a methylotrophic yeast used as an efficient expression system for heterologous protein production as compared to other expression systems. Considering that every cell must respond to environmental changes to survive and differentiate, determination of endogenous protein related to [...] heat stress responses and hypoxia, it would necessary to establish the temperature and methanol concentration conditions for optimal growth. The aim of this study is characterize the culture conditions through the putative biomarkers in different conditions of temperature and methanol concentration. Three yeast cultures were performed: 3X = 3% methanol -10 °C, 4X = 3% methanol -30 °C, and 5X = 1% methanol -10 °C. The expression level of HIF-1?, HSF-1, HSP-70 and HSP-90 biomarkers were measured by Western blot and in situ detection was performed by immunocytochemistry. The western blot results of HIF-1? and HSP-90 did not indicate statistically significant in the culture conditions studied. Respect to biomarkers location, HIF-1? and HSP-90 presented differences between cultures. In conclusion, the results suggest the cultures in a hypoxic condition produce a high density and yeast cells smaller. Beside the high density would not necessary related with a high production of recombinant proteins in modified-genetically P. pastoris.

Andrea B., Zepeda; Carolina A., Figueroa; Dulcineia S.P., Abdalla; Andrea Q., Maranhão; Patricio H., Ulloa; Adalberto, Pessoa Jr.; Jorge G., Farías.

2014-06-01

62

Evaluation of evapotranspiration in small on-site HSF constructed wetlands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experimental results on evapotranspiration (ET), relevant to small on-site facilities are presented, derived from one-year controlled experiments in five pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow (HSF) constructed wetlands (CW) used as lysimeters. The CW units operated in Northern Greece. They were rectangular tanks made of steel, with dimensions 3m long, 0.75m wide and 1m deep. Three different porous media were used, i.e., medium gravel, fine gravel and cobbles. Two plants were used, namely common reed (R, Phragmites australis) and cattails (C, Typha latifolia). One unit was unplanted. ET was estimated based on the water budget method. Conclusions were drawn on its relation to season and vegetation density. Furthermore, Pearson correlation coefficient analysis identified the main factors affecting wetland plant ET. Seven well-known ET empirical methods were applied to estimate ET using the measured meteorological and wetland data. ET estimated by the empirical methods were multiplied with appropriate correction coefficients to match measured ET, providing this way appropriate plant coefficient (K(c)) values, and equations for predicting HSF CW evapotranspiration. The suitability of these methods for the particular constructed wetland type is discussed through comparison with the measured data. The Blaney-Criddle method was found as best. Furthermore, stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was used with the measured ET and meteorological data to produce simple empirical equations to predict ET rates according to meteorological factors, plant and substrate material. PMID:22416871

Papaevangelou, Vassiliki A; Gikas, Georgios D; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

2012-01-01

63

[Progress on industrial ecological studies of dry-cleaning process].  

Science.gov (United States)

The safety assurance of dry cleaning solvent and rational residue criteria of volatile hazardous organic compounds in clothes are vital to clean production and green service in dry cleaning industry. Therefore, the environmental behavior of the enterprises should be regulated and assurance to the human health and the environment through the combination of environmental technologies and economic instruments. Progress on industrial ecological studies of dry-cleaning process was reviewed and the protective strategies and approaches of environmental safety technologies to the sustainable development of dry cleaning were put forward in this paper. PMID:14650201

Zheng, Li; Chen, Jun

2003-09-01

64

Cultural Studies and Media Ecology: Meyrowitz's Medium Theory and Carey's Cultural Studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines work of two communication and media studies scholars, Joshua Meyrowitz and James Carey. Suggests their studies represent media ecology with analyses of the dynamic interaction between communication, consciousness, and culture. Highlights how their work embodies a North American cultural studies approach to media studies (moving away from…

Flayhan, Donna P.

2001-01-01

65

Antagonistic interaction of HIV-1 Vpr with Hsf-mediated cellular heat shock response and Hsp16 in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression of the HIV-1 vpr gene in human and fission yeast cells displays multiple highly conserved activities, which include induction of cell cycle G2 arrest and cell death. We have previously characterized a yeast heat shock protein 16 (Hsp16 that suppresses the Vpr activities when it is overproduced in fission yeast. Similar suppressive effects were observed when the fission yeast hsp16 gene was overexpressed in human cells or in the context of viral infection. In this study, we further characterized molecular actions underlying the suppressive effect of Hsp16 on the Vpr activities. Results We show that the suppressive effect of Hsp16 on Vpr-dependent viral replication in proliferating T-lymphocytes is mediated through its C-terminal end. In addition, we show that Hsp16 inhibits viral infection in macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistically, Hsp16 suppresses Vpr activities in a way that resembles the cellular heat shock response. In particular, Hsp16 activation is mediated by a heat shock factor (Hsf-dependent mechanism. Interestingly, vpr gene expression elicits a moderate increase of endogenous Hsp16 but prevents its elevation when cells are grown under heat shock conditions that normally stimulate Hsp16 production. Similar responsive to Vpr elevation of Hsp and counteraction of this elevation by Vpr were also observed in our parallel mammalian studies. Since Hsf-mediated elevation of small Hsps occurs in all eukaryotes, this finding suggests that the anti-Vpr activity of Hsps is a conserved feature of these proteins. Conclusion These data suggest that fission yeast could be used as a model to further delineate the potential dynamic and antagonistic interactions between HIV-1 Vpr and cellular heat shock responses involving Hsps.

Taricani Lorena

2007-03-01

66

Activation of human heat shock genes is accompanied by oligomerization, modification, and rapid translocation of heat shock transcription factor HSF1.  

OpenAIRE

Transcriptional activity of heat shock (hsp) genes is controlled by a heat-activated, group-specific transcription factor(s) recognizing arrays of inverted repeats of the element NGAAN. To date genes for two human factors, HSF1 and HSF2, have been isolated. To define their properties as well as the changes they undergo during heat stress activation, we prepared polyclonal antibodies to these factors. Using these tools, we have shown that human HeLa cells constitutively synthesize HSF1, but we...

Baler, R.; Dahl, G.; Voellmy, R.

1993-01-01

67

Toward a Network Perspective of the Study of Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems  

OpenAIRE

Formal models used to study the resilience of social-ecological systems have not explicitly included important structural characteristics of this type of system. In this paper, we propose a network perspective for social-ecological systems that enables us to better focus on the structure of interactions between identifiable components of the system. This network perspective might be useful for developing formal models and comparing case studies of social-ecological systems. Based on an analys...

Mcallister, Ryan R. J.; Henrik Ernstson; Thomas Elmqvist; Anderies, John M.; Örjan Bodin; Janssen, Marco A.; Per Olsson; Paul Ryan

2006-01-01

68

New methodology for studying the structural ecology of occlusal caries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Microbiological studies of occlusal dental biofilms have hitherto been hampered by inaccessibility to the sampling site and demolition of the original biofilm architecture. The aim of the present study was to explore the spatial distribution of bacterial taxa in vivo at various stages of occusal caries, applying a new methodology involving preparation of embedded hard dental tissue slices for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal microscopy. 11 extracted teeth were included in the study and classified according to their occlusal caries status (active/inactive/sound; cavitated/non-cavitated). The teeth were fixed (paraformaldehyde 3 %), embedded (Technovit 8100), sectioned and decalcified (EDTA 17%, pH 7.0) before FISH was performed using oligonucleotide probes for the most abundant species/genera associated with occlusal caries including Streptococcus and Actinomyces. The findings were related to histological features of lesion penetration. The sites showed distinct differences in the bacterial composition and fluorescence intensity between different ecological niches in occlusal caries. Biofilm observed along the entrance of fissures showed an inner layer of microorganisms organized in palisades often identified as Actinomyces, covered by a more loosely structured bacterial layer consisting of diverse genera, similar to supra-gingival biofilm. Biofilm within the fissure proper seemed less metabolically active, as judged by the low fluorescence signal intensity and the presence of material of non-bacterial origin resembling developmental protein, calculus and/or dead bacteria. Bacterial invasion with penetration into the dentinal tubules was seen only at advanced stages of the caries process with manifest cavity formation. It is concluded that the new methodology represents a valuable supplement to previous methods for the study of microbial ecology in caries by allowing analysis of the structural composition of the undisturbed biofilm in caries lesions in vivo.

Dige, Irene; GrØnkjær, Lene

69

Ecological tax reform - an optimal solution?. Critical remarks on the DIW study ''Economic effects of an ecological tax reform''  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Through the latest expertise of the German institute for economic research (DIW) regarding an ecological tax reform, the discussion about a tax system considering the shortage of the ressource environment and a deficiency of demand regarding the ressource work is newly provoked. The focus of this article is a critical dealing with the methodical procedure of the German institute for economic reserarch when analyzing the national economic effect of a concretely formulated ecological tax law scenario. When assessing the overall economic consequences of a tax reform, it is recommended to use an analysis instrument, which is farly more consistent compared to the instruments by DIW, and which is more problem adequate through the increased resort to financial knowledge. Based on the obvious weakness of the DIW study, a more extensive comprehension for an ecological tax reform is pleaded for, standing out for an application of taxes based on division of labour and oriented to the objective. (orig./UA)

70

Dog Ecology and Population Studies in Lagos State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dog population dynamics have a major impact upon the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. As such, understanding domestic dog ecology has been recognized as central to the design of effective rabies control programmes. This study was conducted to determine the dog ecology in Lagos State using compound dog count and street dog count in the three senatorial districts (Lagos West, East and Central of Lagos State from February, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 546 questionnaires were distributed for the compound dog count and all were completed and returned. Various aspects of dog ecology were determined, including size, sex, breed of the dog population, management of dogs and rabies awareness among the respondents. Out of the 546 compounds surveyed, 518 (94.87% owned at least one dog. A total of 1,427 dogs were counted from the street counts while a total of 1,447 dogs (2.8 dogs/compound were counted from the compound count. The dogs comprised of 583 males and 864 females, out of which 64.10% are confined. The dog vaccination coverage in the dog population surveyed was 64.10% and administered majorly (91.30% by veterinarians. Security (60% and pets (26% were the major reasons for keeping dogs. Majority (88.80% of the respondents were aware of rabies and its mode of transmission, but still believed in the use of concoctions (40.40%, herbs (19.90% and consumption of the organ of the offending dog (11.50% for the treatment of rabies. The findings of this study showed a male: female ratio of dog to be 1:1.5 and a dog: human ratio of 1:5.6. There was also a responsible dog ownership as majority of the respondents do confine, vaccinate and provide food for their dogs. Vaccination coverage of the total dog population was however below the 70-80% target recommended by the World Health Organization to achieve herd immunity.

Sunday Emmanuel Hambolu

2013-11-01

71

Ecological studies of the Psocids Liposcelis brunnea, L. rufa, L. pearmani, and Lepinotus reticulatus  

OpenAIRE

Psocids (Psocoptera) are an emerging problem in grain storages, grain processing facilities, and product warehouses in the United States and many other countries. Development of effective pest management programs for psocids is dependent on having sound knowledge of their ecology. Given the limited information available on the ecology of psocids, we conducted ecological studies of four psocid species namely, Liposcelis brunnea (Liposcelididae), Liposcelis rufa, Liposcelis pearmani and Lepinot...

Opit, G. P.; Gautam, S. G.; Aminatou B. A.; Throne, J. E.

2010-01-01

72

HER2/ErbB2 activates HSF1 and thereby controls HSP90 clients including MIF in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) in breast cancer strongly correlates with aggressive tumors and poor prognosis. Recently, a positive correlation between HER2 and MIF (macrophage migration inhibitory factor, a tumor-promoting protein and heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) client) protein levels was shown in cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanistic link remained unknown. Here we show that overexpressed HER2 constitutively activates heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1), the master transcriptional regulator of the inducible proteotoxic stress response of heat-shock chaperones, including HSP90, and a crucial factor in initiation and maintenance of the malignant state. Inhibiting HER2 pharmacologically by Lapatinib (a dual HER2/epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor) or CP724.714 (a specific HER2 inhibitor), or by knockdown via siRNA leads to inhibition of phosphoactivated Ser326 HSF1, and subsequently blocks the activity of the HSP90 chaperone machinery in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer lines. Consequently, HSP90 clients, including MIF, AKT, mutant p53 and HSF1 itself, become destabilized, which in turn inhibits tumor proliferation. Mechanistically, HER2 signals via the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT- mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) axis to induce activated pSer326 HSF1. Heat-shock stress experiments confirm this functional link between HER2 and HSF1, as HER2 (and PI3K) inhibition attenuate the HSF1-mediated heat-shock response. Importantly, we confirmed this axis in vivo. In the mouse model of HER2-driven breast cancer, ErbB2 inhibition by Lapatinib strongly suppresses tumor progression, and this is associated with inactivation of the HSF1 pathway. Moreover, ErbB2-overexpressing cancer cells derived from a primary mouse ErbB2 tumor also show HSF1 inactivation and HSP90 client destabilization in response to ErbB2 inhibition. Furthermore, in HER2-positive human breast cancers HER2 levels strongly correlate with pSer326 HSF1 activity. Our results show for the first time that HER2/ErbB2 overexpression controls HSF1 activity, with subsequent stabilization of numerous tumor-promoting HSP90 clients such as MIF, AKT and HSF1 itself, thereby causing a robust promotion in tumor growth in HER2-positive breast cancer. PMID:24384723

Schulz, R; Streller, F; Scheel, A H; Rüschoff, J; Reinert, M-C; Dobbelstein, M; Marchenko, N D; Moll, U M

2014-01-01

73

Hydrodynamic and Ecological Assessment of Nearshore Restoration: A Modeling Study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Along the Pacific Northwest coast, much of the estuarine habitat has been diked over the last century for agricultural land use, residential and commercial development, and transportation corridors. As a result, many of the ecological processes and functions have been disrupted. To protect coastal habitats that are vital to aquatic species, many restoration projects are currently underway to restore the estuarine and coastal ecosystems through dike breaches, setbacks, and removals. Information on physical processes and hydrodynamic conditions are critical for the assessment of the success of restoration actions. Restoration of a 160- acre property at the mouth of the Stillaguamish River in Puget Sound has been proposed. The goal is to restore native tidal habitats and estuary-scale ecological processes by removing the dike. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was developed for the Stillaguamish River estuary to simulate estuarine processes. The model was calibrated to observed tide, current, and salinity data for existing conditions and applied to simulate the hydrodynamic responses to two restoration alternatives. Responses were evaluated at the scale of the restoration footprint. Model data was combined with biophysical data to predict habitat responses at the site. Results showed that the proposed dike removal would result in desired tidal flushing and conditions that would support four habitat types on the restoration footprint. At the estuary sce restoration footprint. At the estuary scale, restoration would substantially increase the proportion of area flushed with freshwater (< 5 ppt) at flood tide. Potential implications of predicted changes in salinity and flow dynamics are discussed relative to the distribution of tidal marsh habitat.

74

Study on Ecological Compensation Policy among the Micro Subjects on Water Energy Resources Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The subjects of ecological compensation involve the nation, society, development enterprises of wa-ter-energy resources, as well as the location of resource itself. This paper systematically studies on how to make “water energy sources market compensation policy”, “the economic compensation policy for relevant interest subjects” and “the ecological compensation policy of basin ecological water.” So, it is necessary to exert the complementary function between market compensation and government compensation by the means of economic compensation and to establish the ecological compensation policy of basin ecological water, which is beneficial to coordinating the stakeholders’ interests of cross-region or inter-basin. And it is important and significant to establish constantly perfected ecological compensation policy among the micro subjects on water energy resources development, so as to coordinate interest relationships among various subjects and finally reach the aim of sustainable use of water energy resources and environmental protection as possible.

Shihua LI

2009-05-01

75

Sudbury soils study : summary of volume 3 : ecological risk assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Sudbury soils study was comprised of 3 volumes: (1) a background, study organization and 2001 soils survey; (2) a human health risk assessment; and (3) an ecological risk assessment (ERA). This document provided details of the ERA, which was conducted to characterize the current and future risks of chemicals of concern (COC) to terrestrial and ecosystem components from Sudbury smelter particulate emissions. The extent to which COC are preventing the recovery of regionally representative terrestrial plant communities was investigated. Risks to terrestrial wildlife populations and endangered species and communities were evaluated. Samples of soil, water, sediment, plants, terrestrial invertebrates, and fish tissue were collected. Data were then analyzed by scientists and independent consultants in order to assess the impacts of arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel and selenium. Results of the study indicated that terrestrial plant communities in the region continue to be impacted by COC in the soil, as well as by soil erosion, low nutrient levels, and a lack of soil organic matter. Direct impacts on wildlife populations were also observed. 5 refs., 7 tabs., 21 figs.

NONE

2009-03-15

76

Genetic and ecological studies of animals in Chernobyl and Fukushima.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in genetic and ecological studies of wild animal populations in Chernobyl and Fukushima have demonstrated significant genetic, physiological, developmental, and fitness effects stemming from exposure to radioactive contaminants. The few genetic studies that have been conducted in Chernobyl generally show elevated rates of genetic damage and mutation rates. All major taxonomic groups investigated (i.e., birds, bees, butterflies, grasshoppers, dragonflies, spiders, mammals) displayed reduced population sizes in highly radioactive parts of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. In Fukushima, population censuses of birds, butterflies, and cicadas suggested that abundances were negatively impacted by exposure to radioactive contaminants, while other groups (e.g., dragonflies, grasshoppers, bees, spiders) showed no significant declines, at least during the first summer following the disaster. Insufficient information exists for groups other than insects and birds to assess effects on life history at this time. The differences observed between Fukushima and Chernobyl may reflect the different times of exposure and the significance of multigenerational mutation accumulation in Chernobyl compared to Fukushima. There was considerable variation among taxa in their apparent sensitivity to radiation and this reflects in part life history, physiology, behavior, and evolutionary history. Interestingly, for birds, population declines in Chernobyl can be predicted by historical mitochondrial DNA base-pair substitution rates that may reflect intrinsic DNA repair ability. PMID:25124815

Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

2014-01-01

77

Method for Studying a Human Ecology: An Adaptation of the Grounded Theory Tradition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Constructivist grounded theory is focused on discovery through understanding data in a human ecology. The procedures outlined in this paper are designed to guide the beginning theorist through the process of creating a theory grounded in data that is a product of the human ecology under study. These new procedures extend grounded theory, providing bridges in moving from study phenomenon to design and from analysis to interpretation. Procedures for analyzing the data must be clearly understood before beginning grounded theory methodology. Strategies must be outlined, approaches to the ecology discussed, and awareness of the ecology attained. Following these procedures can lead to a rewarding qualitative research experience and produce new knowledge for understanding the human ecology.

McCaslin, Mark L.; Scott, Karen Wilson; Carlson, Nancy Margaret

2002-01-01

78

An ecologic study of dietary links to prostate cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: The etiology of prostate cancer has not been fully resolved in the scientific and medical literature, although the non-fat portion of milk and calcium are emerging as leading dietary risk factors, with lycopene (found in tomatoes) and vitamin D apparently being risk reduction factors. METHODS: The ecologic (multi-country statistical) approach is used to study dietary links to prostate cancer. Mortality data from 1986 for various age groups in 41 countries are compared with national consumer macronutrient supply values for 1983 and tomato supply values for 1985. RESULTS: For 28 countries with more than five Kcal/day of tomatoes in the consumer supply, a linear combination of non-fat milk (risk factor) and tomatoes (risk reduction factor) was found to have the highest statistical association with prostate cancer mortality rates for men over the age of 35, with the Pearson regression coefficient (R2) for those aged 65-74 years = 0.67 and p prostate cancer mortality rates (R2 = 0.73, p prostate cancer, likely due to the calcium, and tomatoes to reduce the risk of prostate cancer, most likely due to lycopene.

Grant, W. B.

1999-01-01

79

Temporal and Spatial Melanoma Trends in Austria: An Ecological Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Annual solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR is mostly determined by latitude and altitude. Over the last decades, increasing UVR ground levels have been observed. Exposure to UVR is associated with a life-time risk to develop melanoma, a malign skin cancer. Thus, we hypothesized that melanoma incidence in Austria is associated with altitude of place of living and time of diagnosis. We investigated this hypothesis in an ecological study by district and year for Austrian melanoma incidence (1990–2010 and mortality (1970–2011 data. As expected, incidence rates increased with altitude (about 2% per 10 m and year (about 2%. Additionally, melanoma incidence rates were about 50% higher in urban than in rural districts. In contrast, mortality rates decreased with altitude (for males: 0.4% per 10 m, for women: 0.7% per 10 m, respectively. The observed discrepancy between incidence and mortality data could partly be explained by melanoma diagnosis at earlier tumor stage in districts with higher altitude. Possible reasons for this finding include higher awareness of patients, better diagnostic performance of medical professionals working at higher altitudes, or slower tumor growth due to protective effects of sun light-associated vitamin D synthesis.

Daniela Haluza

2014-01-01

80

Investigating ecological speciation in non-model organisms : a case study on killer whale ecotypes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Studies of ecological speciation tend to focus on a few model biological systems. In contrast, few studies on non-model organisms have been able to infer ecological speciation as the underlying mechanism of evolutionary divergence. Questions: What are the pitfalls in studying ecological speciation in non-model organisms that lead to this bias? What alternative approaches might redress the balance? Organism: Genetically differentiated types of the killer whale (Orcinus orca) exhibiting differences in prey preference, habitat use, morphology, and behaviour. Methods: Review of the literature on killer whale evolutionary ecology in search of any difficulty in demonstrating causal links between variation in phenotype, ecology, and reproductive isolation in this non-model organism. Results: At present, we do not have enough evidence to conclude that adaptive phenotype traits linked to ecological variation underlie reproductive isolation between sympatric killer whale types. Perhaps ecological speciation has occurred, but it is hard to prove. We will probably face this outcome whenever we wish to address non-model organisms – species in which it is not easy to apply experimental approaches and comparative studies among multiple taxon pairs. We need new genomic approaches that identify genes under selection and then link alleles to phenotypic differences and reproductive isolation.

Foote, Andrew David

2012-01-01

81

Ecological responses to contamination: a meta-analysis of experimental marine studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identifying general response patterns to contamination in the environment is critical for reliable assessments of ecosystem health. However, it is not often clear if there are biases in the information used to understand general effects of contamination. To investigate this we conducted a review of 314 studies that experimentally manipulated contaminants and measured the effects on marine invertebrate taxa. The majority of studies investigated the effects of metals (54%) on individual taxa (mainly bivalves, amphipods, copepods). Ecologically relevant responses to contamination were measured in only 22% of the studies. A meta-analysis using studies that measured ecological responses to copper illustrated a general negative effect of copper and highlighted the bias towards field or laboratory experiments that measure community or individual-level responses. There is a need for diversification of studies that investigate the ecological effects of contamination as an important advancement in ecotoxicology and ecological research and environmentally relevant risk assessments. PMID:25247875

O'Brien, Allyson L; Keough, Michael J

2014-12-01

82

Study of Evaluation Characterisitics of Ecological Infrastructure and Countermeasure in Pivot Cities of Three Gorges Reservoir Region  

OpenAIRE

Ecological infrastructure is involved with ecological security and health of cities.At present there are so many studies about it. However, quantitative study is muchindetermination and imperfection. In this paper in order to ravel out this problem, the evaluation indexes system are established on the basis of air system, greenbelt system and water system from the conception and connotation of ecological infrastructure. They do not only consult inside and outside of Chinese ecological cities ...

Peng Li; Su, Wei-ci; Feng, Wei-bo; Qin, Qu

2009-01-01

83

Site-Specific ecological risk assessment. Case-study 2  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The decision supporting and integrating assessment tool, TRIAD, is used site-specific on PAH- and heavy metal contaminated sites in Denmark. The various aspects of the TRIAD approach are used on a set of chemistry-, ecotoxicology- and ecology related data collected among others in the EU project “Development of a decision support system for sustainable management of contaminated land by linking bioavailability, ecological risk and ground water pollution of organic pollutants”or in short “LIBERATION”. The presentation includes examples on how to scale and integrate the results from various scientific disciplines.

Jensen, John

84

Strengthening Industrial Ecology’s Links with Business Studies: Insights and Potential Contributions from the Innovation and Business Models Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The declining availability of natural resources and the environmental impacts of continued extraction of primary resources for production activities have forced greater focus on waste streams and recycling activities. Industrial ecology as a field of practice and theory has been closely related to sustainability issues, yet despite the development of much theory and specific tools and methodologies, the link between natural, industrial and economic systems is not convincing. Not only that, the need for delivering sustainable production and consumption practices is increasing, which is demanding new solutions to existing problems, particularly around the degree of novelty. The interaction of industrial ecology with business studies and industrial investment decision-making remains under-developed, and this is likely impacting on the adoption of more sustainable and resource-efficient practices. As such, this paper uses a constructive approach and explores how two areas of the literature can support the development of the industrial ecology field into strategic business practice: firstly, the innovation literature, particularly the emerging work on open innovation and sustainable innovation as a model to understand radical innovation processes and the creation and maintenance of networked systems of firms; secondly, the closely related area of business model (BM innovation, specifically the emerging typologies of sustainable BMs and how these typologies can be developed and used as a route to positioning recycling activities at the strategic management level of the firm.

Samantha Sharpe

2014-03-01

85

Field Studies Reveal Strong Postmating Isolation between Ecologically Divergent Butterfly Populations  

OpenAIRE

A mismatch between hybrid butterflies and their ecological environment restricts gene flow between populations that feed on different host plants, highlighting the potential importance of a seldom-studied mechanism of reproductive isolation.

Mcbride, Carolyn S.; Singer, Michael C.

2010-01-01

86

STABLE ISOTOPES IN ECOLOGICAL STUDIES: NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN MIXING MODELS (URUGUAY)  

Science.gov (United States)

Stable isotopes are increasingly being used as tracers in ecological studies. One application uses isotopic ratios to quantify the proportional contributions of multiple sources to a mixture. Examples include pollution sources for air or water bodies, food sources for animals, ...

87

Ecological study of the effects of nuclear power plants on benthic macroplant microcosms in subtropical and tropical estuaries. Annual progress report, 1974--1975  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Progress is reported on the following research projects: the dynamic ecology of Thalassia and studies of the Thalassia community; basic ecology of Thalassia growth and reproduction; red macroalgal ecology; green macroalgal ecology; transplantation of Thalassia; succession in a previously damaged Thalassia community at Turkey Point; and thermal ecology of the Thalassia community of Card Sound and Turkey Point. (U.S.)

88

Ecological Validity in Eye-Tracking: An Empirical Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Eye-trackers are becoming increasingly widespread as a tool to investigate second language (L2) acquisition. Unfortunately, clear standards for methodology--including font size, font type, and placement of interest areas--are not yet available. Although many researchers stress the need for ecological validity--that is, the simulation of natural…

Spinner, Patti; Gass, Susan M.; Behney, Jennifer

2013-01-01

89

Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory has completed 10 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site. This progress report examines water quality studies on streams peripheral to the DWPF construction site and examines the effectiveness of refuge ponds'' in ameliorating the effects of construction on local amphibians. Individual papers on these topics are indexed separately. 93 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs. (MHB)

Scott, D.E.; Pechmann, J.H.K.; Knox, J.N.; Estes, R.A.; McGregor, J.H.; Bailey, K. (ed.)

1988-12-01

90

Ecology of Urban Bees: A Review of Current Knowledge and Directions for Future Study  

OpenAIRE

Urban bee ecology is an emerging field that holds promise for advancing knowledge of bee community dynamics and promoting bee conservation. Published studies of bee communities in urban and suburban habitats are fewer than those documenting bees in agricultural and wildland settings. As land lost to urbanization is predicted to increase in coming years the necessity of studying urban bee populations is growing. We reviewed 59 publications on urban bee ecology with the following goals, to asse...

Frankie, Gordon W.; Hernandez, Jennifer L.; Thorp, Robbin W.

2009-01-01

91

Beyond Urban Legends: An Emerging Framework of Urban Ecology, as Illustrated by the Baltimore Ecosystem Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The emerging discipline of urban ecology is shifting focus from ecological processes embedded within cities to integrative studies of large urban areas as biophysical-social complexes. Yet this discipline lacks a theory. Results from the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, part of the Long Term Ecological Research Network, expose new assumptions and test existing assumptions about urban ecosystems. The findings suggest a broader range of structural and functional relationships than is often assumed for urban ecological systems. We address the relationships between social status and awareness of environmental problems, and between race and environmental hazard. We present patterns of species diversity, riparian function, and stream nitrate loading. In addition, we probe the suitability of land-use models, the diversity of soils, and the potential for urban carbon sequestration. Finally, we illustrate lags between social patterns and vegetation, the biogeochemistry of lawns, ecosystem nutrient retention, and social-biophysical feedbacks. These results suggest a framework for a theory of urban ecosystems.

Steward T. A. Pickett (Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies; )

2008-02-01

92

David and Goliath: comparative use of facilitation and competition studies in the plant ecology literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Competition and facilitation are extensively studied in plant ecology and are central to ecological theory. However, these processes do not occur in isolation from each other and should be studied concurrently and synthetically. Here, we compare the relative citation success of studies that focus on either side of the same interaction coin in terms of number of publications and citations per publication in six of the following major themes in plant ecology: biogeography, populations, communities, ecosystems, evolution and conservation. There were eight times more publications on plant competition than on facilitation but this is not surprising given its long history of comprehensive and relatively exclusive study in plant ecology. Although studies of facilitation comprised a smaller body of literature, the mean citation rate for each publication was equivalent to that of competition studies. Thus, facilitation studies are being used as much as competition. These patterns of use by the ecological community clearly indicate that both aspects of plant interactions address broad themes and that studies on plant interactions should now strive to either test both simultaneously or at the very minimum include interpretations and relevant literature from both sets of ideas. Importantly, these broad trends illustrate the old axiom that quality and not quantity of studies may be a consideration in the success of a sub-discipline.

C. J. Lortie

2009-06-01

93

Toward a Network Perspective of the Study of Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Formal models used to study the resilience of social-ecological systems have not explicitly included important structural characteristics of this type of system. In this paper, we propose a network perspective for social-ecological systems that enables us to better focus on the structure of interactions between identifiable components of the system. This network perspective might be useful for developing formal models and comparing case studies of social-ecological systems. Based on an analysis of the case studies in this special issue, we identify three types of social-ecological networks: (1 ecosystems that are connected by people through flows of information or materials, (2 ecosystem networks that are disconnected and fragmented by the actions of people, and (3 artificial ecological networks created by people, such as irrigation systems. Each of these three archytypal social-ecological networks faces different problems that influence its resilience as it responds to the addition or removal of connections that affect its coordination or the diffusion of system attributes such as information or disease.

Ryan R. J. McAllister

2006-06-01

94

Ecological studies of polyploidy in the 100 years following its discovery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyploidy is a mutation with profound phenotypic consequences and thus hypothesized to have transformative effects in plant ecology. This is most often considered in the context of geographical and environmental distributions-as achieved from divergence of physiological and life-history traits-but may also include species interactions and biological invasion. This paper presents a historical overview of hypotheses and empirical data regarding the ecology of polyploids. Early researchers of polyploidy (1910 s-1930 s) were geneticists by training but nonetheless savvy to its phenotypic effects, and speculated on the importance of genome duplication to adaptation and crop improvement. Cytogenetic studies in the 1930 s-1950 s indicated that polyploids are larger (sturdier foliage, thicker stems and taller stature) than diploids while cytogeographic surveys suggested that polyploids and diploids have allopatric or parapatric distributions. Although autopolyploidy was initially regarded as common, influential writings by North American botanists in the 1940 s and 1950 s argued for the principle role of allopolyploidy; according to this view, genome duplication was significant for providing a broader canvas for hybridization rather than for its phenotypic effects per se. The emphasis on allopolyploidy had a chilling effect on nascent ecological work, in part due to taxonomic challenges posed by interspecific hybridization. Nonetheless, biosystematic efforts over the next few decades (1950s-1970s) laid the foundation for ecological research by documenting cytotype distributions and identifying phenotypic correlates of polyploidy. Rigorous investigation of polyploid ecology was achieved in the 1980s and 1990 s by population biologists who leveraged flow cytometry for comparative work in autopolyploid complexes. These efforts revealed multi-faceted ecological and phenotypic differences, some of which may be direct consequences of genome duplication. Several classical hypotheses about the ecology of polyploids remain untested, however, and allopolyploidy--regarded by most botanists as the primary mode of genome duplication--is largely unstudied in an ecological context. PMID:24958925

Ramsey, Justin; Ramsey, Tara S

2014-08-01

95

LANDSCAPE ECOLOGICAL METHOD TO STUDY AGRICULTURAL VEGETATION: SOME EXAMPLES FROM THE PO VALLEY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vegetation is the most important landscape component, as regards to its ability to catch solar energy and to transform it, but also to shape the landscape, to structure the space, to create the fit environment for different animal species, to contribute to the maintenance of a correct metastability level for the landscape, etc. It is a biological system which acts under the constraints of the principles of the System Theory and owns the same properties of any other living system: so, it is a complex adaptive, hierarchical, dynamic, dissipative, self-organizing, self-transcendent, autocatalytic, self-maintaining system and follows the non-equilibrium thermodynamic. Its ecological state can be investigated through the comparison between “gathered data” (pathology and “normal data” (physiology for analogous types of vegetation. The Biological Integrated School of Landscape Ecology provides an integrated methodology to define ecological threshold limits of the different Agricultural Landscape types and applies to agricultural vegetation the specific part of the new methodology already tested to studying forests (the Landscape Biological Survey of Vegetation. Ecological quality, better and worst parameters, biological territorial capacity of vegetated corridors, agricultural field, poplar groves, orchards and woody remnant patches are investigated. Some examples from diverse agricultural landscapes of the Po Valley will be discussed. KEY WORDS: agricultural landscape, vegetation, landscape ecology, landscape health, Biological Integrated Landscape Ecology, Landscape Biological Survey of vegetation.

E. GIGLIO

2006-01-01

96

Ecological optimization and performance study of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat engines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concept of finite time thermodynamics is used to determine the ecological function of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat engine cycles. The ecological function is defined as the power output minus power loss (irreversibility), which is the ambient temperature times, the entropy generation rate. The ecological function is maximized with respect to cycle temperature ratio and the expressions for the corresponding power output and thermal efficiency are derived at the optimal operating conditions. The effect of different operating parameters, the effectiveness on the hot, cold and the regenerative side heat exchangers, the cycle temperature ratio, heat capacitance ratio and the internal irreversibility parameter on the maximum ecological function are studied. It is found that the effect of regenerator effectiveness is more than the hot and cold side heat exchangers and the effect of the effectiveness on cold side heat exchanger is more than the effectiveness on the hot side heat exchanger on the maximum ecological function. It is also found that the effect of internal irreversibility parameter is more than the other parameters not only on the maximum ecological function but also on the corresponding power output and the thermal efficiency

97

Ecological studies on the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) on the Savannah River Plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is the largest vertebrate of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), reaching a maximum length of 3.7 meters (12 feet) and weighing up to 175 kg (385 pounds). Currently, populations in coastal South Carolina are considered Threatened, whereas populations in inland areas (such as the SRP) are still Endangered. Because of their legal status and economic and ecological importance, it is important to determine the environmental impacts of SRP operations on the local alligator population. The major objectives under the Endangered Species Program of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) were as follows: (1) document and compare the present status and distribution of alligators on the SRP to previous surveys, in order to determine long-term changes in population abundance; (2) establish baseline population and ecological parameters of the Steel Creek population so that the ecological effects of L-Reactor operations can be determined, and (3) conduct ecological research on the immediate impacts of thermal effluents on American alligators. Gladden et al., (1985) summarized data on previous population surveys, temporal changes in the Par Pond population, preliminary results of the Steel Creek surveys and Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) research on the effects of thermal effluents. This report summarizes the current status of the SRP population, presents data on the abundance, movement patterns and activity cycles of the Steel Creek population, and presents additional data on the effect of cooling water releases on alligator ecology and behavior.

Seigel, R.A.; Brandt, L.A.; Knight, J.L.; Novak, S.S.

1986-06-01

98

Assessment of the U.S. outer continental shelf environmental studies program. 2. Ecology. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1986, the Minerals Management Service (MMS) requested that the National Research Council (NRC) evaluate the adequacy and applicability of studies conducted in the Environmental Studies Program (ESP), review the general state of knowledge in the appropriate disciplines, and recommend future studies. Under the auspices of the NRC Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, the Committee to Review the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program was formed to conduct the assignment. Three panels-dealing with ecology, physical oceanography, and socioeconomics--were established to review specific aspects of the assessment. The Ecology Panel investigated the main questions of ecological relevance to OCS oil and gas activities and ecological aspects of the ESP. The panel was divided into three working groups: on marine birds, mammals, turtles, and endangered species; on benthic processes; and on fisheries and ecosystems. The panel conducted workshops on each of those topics, focused on the progress of the ESP in assessing the environmental impacts of OCS oil and gas activities, evaluated shortcomings of the ESP, and identified future information needs. The report, the second in a series, presents the findings and recommendations of the Ecology Panel

99

Ecology of Urban Bees: A Review of Current Knowledge and Directions for Future Study  

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Full Text Available Urban bee ecology is an emerging field that holds promise for advancing knowledge of bee community dynamics and promoting bee conservation. Published studies of bee communities in urban and suburban habitats are fewer than those documenting bees in agricultural and wildland settings. As land lost to urbanization is predicted to increase in coming years the necessity of studying urban bee populations is growing. We reviewed 59 publications on urban bee ecology with the following goals, to assess current knowledge, to highlight areas in need of further research, and to suggest applications of study findings to bee conservation. Identified trends in urban areas included the following, negative correlation between bee species richness and urban development, increase in abundance of cavity-nesters in urban habitats, and scarcity of floral specialists. Future directions for studying urban bee ecology include incorporation of landscape-scale assessments, conducting manipulative experiments and actively designing urban bee habitats.

Gordon W. Frankie

2009-01-01

100

Ecological forecasting under climatic data uncertainty: a case study in phenological modeling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forecasting ecological responses to climate change represents a challenge to the ecological community because models are often site-specific and climate data are lacking at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. We use a case study approach to demonstrate uncertainties in ecological predictions related to the driving climatic input data. We use observational records, derived observational datasets (e.g. interpolated observations from local weather stations and gridded data products) and output from general circulation models (GCM) in conjunction with site based phenology models to estimate the first flowering date (FFD) for three woody flowering species. Using derived observations over the modern time period, we find that cold biases and temperature trends lead to biased FFD simulations for all three species. Observational datasets resolved at the daily time step result in better FFD predictions compared to simulations using monthly resolution. Simulations using output from an ensemble of GCM and regional climate models over modern and future time periods have large intra-ensemble spreads and tend to underestimate observed FFD trends for the modern period. These results indicate that certain forcing datasets may be missing key features needed to generate accurate hindcasts at the local scale (e.g. trends, temporal resolution), and that standard modeling techniques (e.g. downscaling, ensemble mean, etc) may not necessarily improve the prediction of the ecologicaly improve the prediction of the ecological response. Studies attempting to simulate local ecological processes under modern and future climate forcing therefore need to quantify and propagate the climate data uncertainties in their simulations.

101

Estimating survival rates in ecological studies with small unbalanced sample sizes: an alternative Bayesian point estimator  

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Full Text Available Increasingly, the survival rates in experimental ecology are presented using odds ratios or log response ratios, but the use of ratio metrics has a problem when all the individuals have either died or survived in only one replicate. In the empirical ecological literature, the problem often has been ignored or circumvented by different, more or less ad hoc approaches. Here, it is argued that the best summary statistic for communicating ecological results of frequency data in studies with small unbalanced samples may be the mean of the posterior distribution of the survival rate. The developed approach may be particularly useful when effect size indexes, such as odds ratios, are needed to compare frequency data between treatments, sites or studies.

Christian Damgaard

2011-12-01

102

Ecological optimization and parametric study of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat pumps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This communication presents the ecological optimization and parametric study of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat pump cycles, in which the external irreversibility is due to finite temperature difference between working fluid and external reservoirs while the internal irreversibilities are due to regenerative heat loss and other entropy generations within the cycle. The ecological function is defined as the heating load minus the irreversibility (power loss) which is ambient temperature times the entropy generation. The ecological function is optimized with respect to working fluid temperatures, and the expressions for various parameters at the optimal operating condition are obtained. The effects of different operating parameters on the performance of these cycles have been studied. It is found that the effect of internal irreversibility parameter is more pronounced than the other parameters on the performance of these cycles. (author)

103

Ecological studies on the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) on the Savannah River Plant. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study: Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is the largest vertebrate of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), reaching a maximum length of 3.7 meters (12 feet) and weighing up to 175 kg (385 pounds). Currently, populations in coastal South Carolina are considered Threatened, whereas populations in inland areas (such as the SRP) are still Endangered. Because of their legal status and economic and ecological importance, it is important to determine the environmental impacts of SRP operations on the local alligator population. The major objectives under the Endangered Species Program of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) were as follows: (1) document and compare the present status and distribution of alligators on the SRP to previous surveys, in order to determine long-term changes in population abundance; (2) establish baseline population and ecological parameters of the Steel Creek population so that the ecological effects of L-Reactor operations can be determined, and (3) conduct ecological research on the immediate impacts of thermal effluents on American alligators. Gladden et al., (1985) summarized data on previous population surveys, temporal changes in the Par Pond population, preliminary results of the Steel Creek surveys and Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) research on the effects of thermal effluents. This report summarizes the current status of the SRP population, presents data on the abundance, movement patterns and activity cycles of the Steel Creek population, and presents additional data on the effect of cooling water releases on alligator ecology and behavior.

Seigel, R.A.; Brandt, L.A.; Knight, J.L.; Novak, S.S.

1986-06-01

104

The systemic amyloid precursor transthyretin (TTR) behaves as a neuronal stress protein regulated by HSF1 in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and APP23 Alzheimer's disease model mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased neuronal synthesis of transthyretin (TTR) may favorably impact on Alzheimer's disease (AD) because TTR has been shown to inhibit A? aggregation and detoxify cell-damaging conformers. The mechanism whereby hippocampal and cortical neurons from AD patients and APP23 AD model mice produce more TTR is unknown. We now show that TTR expression in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, primary hippocampal neurons and the hippocampus of APP23 mice, is significantly enhanced by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays demonstrated occupation of TTR promoter heat shock elements by HSF1 in APP23 hippocampi, primary murine hippocampal neurons, and SH-SY5Y cells, but not in mouse liver, cultured human hepatoma (HepG2) cells, or AC16 cultured human cardiomyocytes. Treating SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells with heat shock or the HSF1 stimulator celastrol increased TTR transcription in parallel with that of HSP40, HSP70, and HSP90. With both treatments, ChIP showed increased occupancy of heat shock elements in the TTR promoter by HSF1. In vivo celastrol increased the HSF1 ChIP signal in hippocampus but not in liver. Transfection of a human HSF1 construct into SH-SY5Y cells increased TTR transcription and protein production, which could be blocked by shHSF1 antisense. The effect is neuron specific. In cultured HepG2 cells, HSF1 was either suppressive or had no effect on TTR expression confirming the differential effects of HSF1 on TTR transcription in different cell types. PMID:24849358

Wang, Xin; Cattaneo, Francesca; Ryno, Lisa; Hulleman, John; Reixach, Natàlia; Buxbaum, Joel N

2014-05-21

105

Case study of ecological risk assessment at an Alaska airport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ecological risk assessment was conducted for 10 sites at a remote location that has unique biological resources. Chemicals of concern included petroleum, metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, and dioxins and furans. Risks to 23 species of mammals and birds were evaluated by using toxicity reference values and a hazard quotient approach analogous to the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) approach for evaluating noncarcinogenic human health effects. Risks to fish and aquatic invertebrates were evaluated using risk-based concentrations for water analogous to the USEPA's water quality criteria. Risks to plants were evaluated using risk-based concentrations for soil. Toxicity reference values and risk-based concentrations were developed by applying uncertainty factors to the highest quality toxicity data available in the literature. Intake rates for wildlife were obtained from the USEPA's wildlife exposure factors handbook, or were estimated using allometric equations. The sizes of wildlife home ranges were compared with the size of each site to determine species- and site-specific exposure frequencies. Indicator chemicals were selected to represent the chemical and toxicological characteristics of petroleum fractions. The species most often at risk were found to be fish and aquatic invertebrates, as well as small-bodied, ground-dwelling or ground-feeding wildlife

106

Air pollution and case fatality of SARS in the People's Republic of China: an ecologic study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS has claimed 349 lives with 5,327 probable cases reported in mainland China since November 2002. SARS case fatality has varied across geographical areas, which might be partially explained by air pollution level. Methods Publicly accessible data on SARS morbidity and mortality were utilized in the data analysis. Air pollution was evaluated by air pollution index (API derived from the concentrations of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and ground-level ozone. Ecologic analysis was conducted to explore the association and correlation between air pollution and SARS case fatality via model fitting. Partially ecologic studies were performed to assess the effects of long-term and short-term exposures on the risk of dying from SARS. Results Ecologic analysis conducted among 5 regions with 100 or more SARS cases showed that case fatality rate increased with the increment of API (case fatality = - 0.063 + 0.001 * API. Partially ecologic study based on short-term exposure demonstrated that SARS patients from regions with moderate APIs had an 84% increased risk of dying from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs (RR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.41–2.40. Similarly, SARS patients from regions with high APIs were twice as likely to die from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs. (RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.31–3.65. Partially ecologic analysis based on long-term exposure to ambient air pollution showed the similar association. Conclusion Our studies demonstrated a positive association between air pollution and SARS case fatality in Chinese population by utilizing publicly accessible data on SARS statistics and air pollution indices. Although ecologic fallacy and uncontrolled confounding effect might have biased the results, the possibility of a detrimental effect of air pollution on the prognosis of SARS patients deserves further investigation.

Yu Shun-Zhang

2003-11-01

107

Assessing Land Ecological Security Based on BP Neural Network: a Case Study of Hangzhou, China  

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Full Text Available Due to the increasing stress on the land ecology, the land eco-security suffers damage. In this paper, the BP neural network and PSR framework were adopted to establish the model for assessment of land eco-security, and an empirical study of assessing land eco-security in Hangzhou was done. The results show that the city center district is at serious land eco-security risk; Xiaoshan district and Yuhang district are at high land eco-security risk; and others counties (cities are at low risk or intermediate risk. In Hangzhou, although some measures are adopted to control the risk of land eco-security, the economic growth still has negative impact on the land ecology. The rapid industrialization and urbanization increase the risk of land eco-security. Therefore the policy constitutors should do something to strengthen the land ecology protection.

Heyuan You

2013-06-01

108

Structure and functioning of food webs using ecological tracers in open marine ecosystems : the bay of Biscay case study  

OpenAIRE

The study of organisms' trophic ecology and those of food webs' structure and functioning are not easy in marine environments, while it is an essential characteristic of ecosystems' organisation. Thus, the use of indirect methods such as " ecological tracers " has dramatically increased recently. These methods consist in measuring (bio)chemical parameters in biological tissues of organisms. Based on the assumption " you are what you eat ", ecological tracers constitute reliable indicators of ...

Chouvelon, Tiphaine

2011-01-01

109

Effects of ionizing radiations on reticulated polymers associated to nuclear wastes. The HSF-SIMS technique contribution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among the materials used for confinement of nuclear wastes of low and medium level activity the epoxyde resins are known as matrices which preserve well their properties in an ionizing environment. This work is dedicated to the investigation of the modifications occurring in molecular structure of these materials as well as of the ion exchange resins they incorporate, irradiated in different conditions. The first part deals with the analysis of a commercial reticulated epoxyde resin submitted to a 2 MGy integral dose gamma irradiation under two different dose rate (51 and 900 Gy/h), and under two different environments (air and water). The results obtained with the techniques providing structure information (time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HSF-SIMS) and FT-IR spectrometry) confirm those obtained by techniques sensible to macroscopic properties of material (DMA, DSC), taking into account that no noticeable irradiation effect can be made evident inside the material. On the other hand, an irradiation carried out in air results in a superficial oxidation, due probably to the action of the air radiolysis products. The preliminary results of an ion irradiation followed by an in-situ HSF-SIMS analysis pointed out to a basic difference between the energy amount transferred by gamma photons and fast ions; the last ones being able to induce scissions of the nearby liaisons in the material. The second part of this work is concerned with the ion exchange resins of the type PS-DVB saturated in water and non-active ions, simulating real wastes, irradiated in the same conditions as the epoxyde resins. In contrast to the results on the last one, it appears that the irradiation of these materials results primarily in scissions of the functional groups on which the ions are attached. In addition to this finding it appears that the role of water as carrying outward the attached ions appears to be fundamental

110

Organisms for Teaching: "Artemia salina": An Easily Cultured Invertebrate Ideally Suited for Ecological Studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper includes a general account of the biology of the brine shrimp, instructions on how the organism may be cultured, the results of some experiments on the ecology and population biology of the species, and some suggestions for further studies. (Author/CW)

Ward-Booth, Kirsty; Reiss, Michael

1988-01-01

111

Formalizing agro-ecological knowledge for future-oriented land use studies.  

OpenAIRE

Keywords : agro-ecological engineering, land use system, modeling, uncertainty, temporal variability, Costa Rica, West Africa.Identification and ex-ante assessment of alternative land use systems is increasingly important to develop systems that are able to fulfill multiple and possibly conflicting needs of mankind.This study contributes to the development of a formalized approach to identify and engineer future-orient...

Hengsdijk, H.

2001-01-01

112

Energize It! An Ecologically Integrated Approach to the Study of the Digestive System and Energy Acquisition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Develops a research-oriented method of studying the digestive system that integrates species' ecology with the form and function of this system. Uses problem-posing, problem-probing, and peer persuasion. Presents information for mammalian systems. (27 references) (MKR)

Derting, Terry L.

1992-01-01

113

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and productivity of schizophrenia trials: an ecological study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The 5000 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's database affords an opportunity to research for variables related to the differences between nations of their output of schizophrenia trials. Methods Ecological study – investigating the relationship between four economic/demographic variables and number of schizophrenia RCTs per country. The variable with closest correlation was used to predict the expected ...

Fenton Mark; El-sayeh Hany; Bartsch Stephanie; Gessler Ursula; Moll Carina; Adams Clive

2003-01-01

114

Emerging synthesis themes from the study of social-ecological systems of a tropical city  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The synthesis of the contributions in this special issue about the tropical city of San Juan has resulted in five themes. First, the city is subject to multiple vulnerabilities, but socioeconomic factors and education level affect the perception of citizens to those vulnerabilities, even in the face of imminent threat. Second, in light of the social-ecological conditions of the city, how its citizens and institutions deal with knowledge to respond to vulnerabilities becomes critical to the adaptive capacity of the city. Third, the relationship between socioeconomic factors and green cover, which in 2002 covered 42% of the city, is not what has been reported for other temperate zone cities. In San Juan, neighborhoods with households of high socioeconomic level were not necessarily associated with greater green cover. However, in adjacent neighborhoods within the densely populated zones of the city, households of high socioeconomic level did preserve green cover better than households in lower socioeconomic-level neighborhoods. Fourth, tropical conditions such as climate may explain some of the unique aspects of the social-ecological system of San Juan. The most obvious is the exuberance of tropical biota in the city that not only forms novel species assemblages but also provides many ecological services, including food production for up to 60% of the members of particular neighborhoods. Ecosystem resilience is particularly high in aquatic and terrestrial ecological systems in San Juan. Fifth, it appears that the emergence of novel systems in the city represent adaptive responses to the social end ecological conditions in the city. We conclude that the study of a tropical city provides contrast to the prevailing literature on temperate and boreal cities and expands the suite of behaviors of urban social-ecological systems, thus advancing the dialogue on the functioning of cities in light of environmental change.

Tischa A. Muñoz-Erickson

2014-09-01

115

Undifferentiated propagation of the human embryonic stem cell lines, H1 and HSF6, on human placenta-derived feeder cells without basic fibroblast growth factor supplementation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order for human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to be cultured on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEFs) feeder cells, continuous basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) supplementation is required. However, the role of bFGF in a culture system using human-derived feeder cells has not been evaluated until now. In this study, we propagated the widely used hESC lines, H1 and HSF6, on human placenta-derived feeder cells (HPCs) without exogenous bFGF supplementation, and were able to propagate hESCs on HPC feeders up to 50 passages. The absence of bFGF in culture media did not interrupt the undifferentiated propagation and the expression of pluripotent stem cell markers ALP, SSEA-4, TRA-60, Oct-4, Nanog, and Rex-1, as well as the formation of embryoid bodies (EBs) and their differentiation potential. In contrast, hESCs cocultured with MEF feeders could not propagate and form EBs without exogenous bFGF supplementation. Expression of bFGF and the activation of the ERK1/2-c-Fos/c-Jun pathway, which is known as the signaling pathway of bFGF, were identifiable not only in hESCs cultured in bFGF-containing media regardless of feeder cell type, but also in hESCs cocultured with HPC feeder cells in media without bFGF. These findings may support the hypothesis that HPC feeder cells enhance endogenous bFGF production and activation of the ERK1/2-c-Fos/c-Jun pathway, which suggests that HPCs have an additional advantage in their hESC propagation compared with MEF. PMID:20201681

Park, Yong; Choi, In Young; Lee, Seung Jin; Lee, Se Ryeon; Sung, Hwa Jung; Kim, Jong Hoon; Yoo, Young Do; Geum, Dong Ho; Kim, Sun Haeng; Kim, Byung Soo

2010-11-01

116

Exploring Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems Through Comparative Studies and Theory Development: Introduction to the Special Issue  

OpenAIRE

This special issue of Ecology and Society on exploring resilience in social-ecological systems draws together insights from comparisons of 15 case studies conducted during two Resilience Alliance workshops in 2003 and 2004. As such, it represents our current understanding of resilience theory and the issues encountered in our attempts to apply it.

Kinzig, Ann P.; Anderies, John M.; Walker, Brian H.; Paul Ryan

2006-01-01

117

Research on the Ecological Conflict between Coastal Wetland and Port Construction—A Case Study of the Meizhou Gulf  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is a study on the management of wetland. The future impact of landscape of coastal wetland with the constant changes of human activities is discussed on the basis of the theory and methodology of landscape ecology. Solutions to the contradictions of ecological protection and port construction are put forward.

Jun Hu

2014-05-01

118

The legacy of biosphere 2 for the study of biospherics and closed ecological systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The unprecedented challenges of creating Biosphere 2, the world's first laboratory for biospherics, the study of global ecology and long-term closed ecological system dynamics, led to breakthrough developments in many fields, and a deeper understanding of the opportunities and difficulties of material closure. This paper will review accomplishments and challenges, citing some of the key research findings and publications that have resulted from the experiments in Biosphere 2. Engineering accomplishments included development of a technique for variable volume to deal with pressure differences between the facility and outside environment, developing methods of atmospheric leak detection and sealing, while achieving new standards of closure, with an annual atmospheric leakrate of less than 10%, or less than 300 ppm per day. This degree of closure permitted detailed tracking of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and trice gases such as nitrous oxide and ethylene over the seasonal variability of two years. Full closure also necessitated developing new approaches and technologies for complete air, water, and wastewater recycle and reuse within the facility. The development of a soil-based highly productive agricultural system was a first in closed ecological systems, and much was learned about managing a wide variety of crops using non-chemical means of pest and disease control. Closed ecological systems have different temporal biogeochemical cycling and ranges of atmospheric components because of their smaller reservoirs of air, water and soil, and higher concentration of biomass, and Biosphere 2 provided detailed examination and modeling of these accelerated cycles over a period of closure which measured in years. Medical research inside Biosphere 2 included the effects on humans of lowered oxygen: the discovery that human productivity can be maintained with good health with lowered atmospheric oxygen levels could lead to major economies on the design of space stations and planetary/lunar settlements. The improved health resulting from the calorie-restricted but nutrient dense Biosphere 2 diet was the first such scientifically controlled experiment with humans. The success of Biosphere 2 in creating a diversity of terrestrial and marine environments, from rainforest to coral reef, allowed detailed studies with comprehensive measurements such that the dynamics of these complex biomic systems are now better understood. The coral reef ecosystem, the largest artificial reef ever built, catalyzed methods of study now being applied to planetary coral reef systems. Restoration ecology advanced through the creation and study of the dynamics of adaptation and self-organization of the biomes in Biosphere 2. The international interest that Biosphere 2 generated has given new impetus to the public recognition of the sciences of biospheres (biospherics), biomes and closed ecological life systems. The facility, although no longer a materially-closed ecological system, is being used as an educational facility by Columbia University as an introduction to the study of the biosphere and complex system ecology and for carbon dioxide impacts utilizing the complex ecosystems created in Biosphere '.The many lessons learned from Biosphere 2 are being used by its key team of creators in their design and operation of a laboratory-sized closed ecological system, the Laboratory Biosphere, in operation as of March 2002, and for the design of a Mars on Earth ™ prototype life support system for manned missions to Mars and Mars surface habitats. Biosphere 2 is an important foundation for future advances in biospherics and closed ecological system research.

Allen, J. P.; Nelson, M.; Alling, A.

119

The legacy of Biosphere 2 for the study of biospherics and closed ecological systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The unprecedented challenges of creating Biosphere 2, the world's first laboratory for biospherics, the study of global ecology and long-term closed ecological system dynamics, led to breakthrough developments in many fields, and a deeper understanding of the opportunities and difficulties of material closure. This paper will review accomplishments and challenges, citing some of the key research findings and publications that have resulted from the experiments in Biosphere 2. Engineering accomplishments included development of a technique for variable volume to deal with pressure differences between the facility and outside environment, developing methods of atmospheric leak detection and sealing, while achieving new standards of closure, with an annual atmospheric leakrate of less than 10%, or less than 300 ppm per day. This degree of closure permitted detailed tracking of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and trace gases such as nitrous oxide and ethylene over the seasonal variability of two years. Full closure also necessitated developing new approaches and technologies for complete air, water, and wastewater recycle and reuse within the facility. The development of a soil-based highly productive agricultural system was a first in closed ecological systems, and much was learned about managing a wide variety of crops using non-chemical means of pest and disease control. Closed ecological systems have different temporal biogeochemical cycling and ranges of atmospheric components because of their smaller reservoirs of air, water and soil, and higher concentration of biomass, and Biosphere 2 provided detailed examination and modeling of these accelerated cycles over a period of closure which measured in years. Medical research inside Biosphere 2 included the effects on humans of lowered oxygen: the discovery that human productivity can be maintained with good health with lowered atmospheric oxygen levels could lead to major economies on the design of space stations and planetary/lunar settlements. The improved health resulting from the calorie-restricted but nutrient dense Biosphere 2 diet was the first such scientifically controlled experiment with humans. The success of Biosphere 2 in creating a diversity of terrestrial and marine environments, from rainforest to coral reef, allowed detailed studies with comprehensive measurements such that the dynamics of these complex biomic systems are now better understood. The coral reef ecosystem, the largest artificial reef ever built, catalyzed methods of study now being applied to planetary coral reef systems. Restoration ecology advanced through the creation and study of the dynamics of adaptation and self-organization of the biomes in Biosphere 2. The international interest that Biosphere 2 generated has given new impetus to the public recognition of the sciences of biospheres (biospherics), biomes and closed ecological life systems. The facility, although no longer a materially-closed ecological system, is being used as an educational facility by Columbia University as an introduction to the study of the biosphere and complex system ecology and for carbon dioxide impacts utilizing the complex ecosystems created in Biosphere '. The many lessons learned from Biosphere 2 are being used by its key team of creators in their design and operation of a laboratory-sized closed ecological system, the Laboratory Biosphere, in operation as of March 2002, and for the design of a Mars on Earth(TM) prototype life support system for manned missions to Mars and Mars surface habitats. Biosphere 2 is an important foundation for future advances in biospherics and closed ecological system research. PMID:14503500

Allen, J P; Nelson, M; Alling, A

2003-01-01

120

Ecological shortage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Meadows study (Limits to Growth) has made the environmental problem popular, but it has reduced the ecological problem to one of population and raw materials, leaving the conditions of social organisation and developmental policy out of consideration. This means that in spite of the repeated moral appeals, developing countries are left to their natural fate while fear and resignation are spread in the industrial nations. The present study tries to contradict this trend in consideration of interdependences in ecological development. (orig.)

121

Applications of C and N stable isotopes to ecological and environmental studies in seagrass ecosystems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen are increasingly used in marine ecosystems, for ecological and environmental studies. Here, we examine some applications of stable isotopes as ecological integrators or tracers in seagrass ecosystem studies. We focus on both the use of natural isotope abundance as food web integrators or environmental tracers and on the use of stable isotopes as experimental tools. As ecosystem integrators, stable isotopes have helped to elucidate the general structure of trophic webs in temperate, Mediterranean and tropical seagrass ecosystems. As environmental tracers, stable isotopes have proven their utility in sewage impact measuring and mapping. However, to make such environmental studies more comprehensible, future works on understanding of basic reasons for variations of N and C stable isotopes in seagrasses should be encouraged. At least, as experimental tracers, stable isotopes allow the study of many aspects of N and C cycles at the scale of a plant or at the scale of the seagrass ecosystem.

Lepoint, Gilles [Centre MARE, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie, Institut de Chimie, B6, Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)]. E-mail: g.lepoint@ulg.ac.be; Dauby, Patrick [Centre MARE, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie, Institut de Chimie, B6, Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, rue Vautier, B1000 Brussels (Belgium); Gobert, Sylvie [Centre MARE, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie, Institut de Chimie, B6, Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

2004-12-01

122

Study of Evaluation Characterisitics of Ecological Infrastructure and Countermeasure in Pivot Cities of Three Gorges Reservoir Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ecological infrastructure is involved with ecological security and health of cities.At present there are so many studies about it. However, quantitative study is muchindetermination and imperfection. In this paper in order to ravel out this problem, the evaluation indexes system are established on the basis of air system, greenbelt system and water system from the conception and connotation of ecological infrastructure. They do not only consult inside and outside of Chinese ecological cities and garden cities but also consult with internal and international related index standard. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and the method of comprehensive index evaluation are applied to establish the evaluation model. Then it studies the quality and evolvement characteristics of ecolocal infrastructure in the case of main town of Chongqing, Yichang, Fulin, Wanzhou——the four pivot cities of Three Gorges Reservoir Region from 2002 to 2005. Finally, the paper draws a conclusion by qulitative and quantitative analysis showing that the quality of ecological infrastructure of four cities is in rise. At present, the quality of ecological infrastructure of Yichang and Fulin remains with better grade; Wanzhou and the main town of Chongqin belongs to common grade. The integrated quality conditins of ecological infrstructure of these four cities follow the sequence (from high to low : Yichang> Fulin> Wanzhou> main town of Chongqing. The quality of ecological infrastructure of four cities is known through evaluation analysis, which has provided a scientific basis for the cities Three Gorges Reseveoir Region in programming.

Peng Li

2009-06-01

123

Studying the complexity of change: toward an analytical framework for understanding deliberate social-ecological transformations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Faced with numerous seemingly intractable social and environmental challenges, many scholars and practitioners are increasingly interested in understanding how to actively engage and transform the existing systems holding such problems in place. Although a variety of analytical models have emerged in recent years, most emphasize either the social or ecological elements of such transformations rather than their coupled nature. To address this, first we have presented a definition of the core elements of a social-ecological system (SES that could potentially be altered in a transformation. Second, we drew on insights about transformation from three branches of literature focused on radical change, i.e., social movements, socio-technical transitions, and social innovation, and gave consideration to the similarities and differences with the current studies by resilience scholars. Drawing on these findings, we have proposed a framework that outlines the process and phases of transformative change in an SES. Future research will be able to utilize the framework as a tool for analyzing the alteration of social-ecological feedbacks, identifying critical barriers and leverage points and assessing the outcome of social-ecological transformations.

Michele-Lee Moore

2014-12-01

124

How many is enough? Determining optimal count totals for ecological and palaeoecological studies of testate amoebae  

OpenAIRE

Testate amoebae are increasingly used in ecological and palaeoecological studies of wetlands. To characterise the amoeba community a certain number of individuals need to be counted under the microscope. To date, most studies have aimed for 150 individuals, but that sample size is not based on adequate evidence. When testate amoeba concentrations are low, it can be difficult or impossible to reach this total. The impacts of lower count totals have never been seriously scrutinised. We investig...

Payne, Richard J.; Mitchell, Edward A. D.

2010-01-01

125

ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF CYANOBACTERIA IN SEWAGE POND OF H.E.C INDUSTRIAL AREA, RANCHI INDIA  

OpenAIRE

The ecological study of the sewage stabilization pond of HEC area, Hatia, Ranchi has been taken for the first time in this area. Studies were conducted to determine the occurrence and abundance of cyanobacteria in relation to physico-chemical characteristics of sewage pond. It assumes significance of algae mostly cyanobacteria can be used as bioindicators of water pollution in different water habitat of the area. Increased eutrophication from domestic effluent, sewage promotes the development...

Amit Kumar; Radha Sahu

2012-01-01

126

On the use of fungicides in ecological seed burial studies  

OpenAIRE

Evidence for effects of saprophytic fungi on buried seed demography is usually obtained from studies involving the simultaneous burial of fungicide-treated seeds and of untreated seeds. However, any potential influence of fungicide treatment on seed dormancy levels is generally ignored in these studies. Also, some studies assume that a combination of several fungicidal compounds provides better protection against a broader range of fungi, ignoring chemical interactions that may potentially oc...

Mitschunas, Nadine; Filser, Juliane; Wagner, Markus

2009-01-01

127

Theories of practice - new inspiration for ecological economic studies on consumption  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The dynamics behind ever-increasing consumption have long been a core issue of ecological economics. Studies on this topic have traditionally drawn not only on insights from economics, but also from such disciplines as sociology, anthropology and psychology. In recent years, a practice theory approach has emerged in sociological consumption studies, as part of a general wave of renewed interest in practice theory emanating from a desire to move beyond such dominant dualisms as the structure-actor opposition in sociology. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the practice theory approach in relation to studies of everyday life, domestic practices and consumption, and to argue that this approach can be fruitful for ecological economics and other fields interested in the environmental aspects of consumption. The paper emphasizes the immense challenge involved in promoting sustainable consumption, and the need for collective efforts supported by research into the co-evolution of domestic practices, systems ofprovision, supply chains and production.

RØpke, Inge

2009-01-01

128

Site study plan for ecology, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary Draft  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ecology Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of studies which include surveys for endangered, threatened, and candidate species; vegetation characterization, including mapping and cover typing, plant succession, wetlands description, and preexisting stresses; and wildlife community characterization, including availability and quality of habitats and descriptions of mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, and invertebrate populations. The plan for each study describes the need for the study, study design, data management and use, schedule and personnel requirements, and quality assurance. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document (SRP-RD). 83 refs., 3 tabs

129

An Improvement in Total RNA Isolation Protocol for Ecologic Studies: Case Study Tobacco Cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many experimental techniques related to molecular biology such as the Northern blot analysis, RNA protection assays, in situ hybridization and RT-PCR need maximum-yielded, highly purified RNA samples. Researchers who study with RNA extraction are well known for being extremely sensitive about their chemical solutions, equipment, glassware and even laboratories. Taking certain precautions, which are given in protocol, is more convenient than obtaining a low 260/280 spectrophotometric ratio or a blank line in RT-PCR gel for ecologic studies. In the improved protocol, which is presented here, each step was tested many times and high-quality total RNA was determined. Using this protocol, 260/280 spectrophotometric ratio was found between 1.88-1.97 and total RNA was found between 174.6-184.3 µg RNA g cell FW-1 in tobacco cells. However, in order to obtain RNA with high purity levels, an additional step may be necessary to eliminate contaminating DNA depending on the sample characteristics.

Senol Boztok

2006-01-01

130

Neurospora crassa heat shock factor 1 Is an Essential Gene; a Second Heat Shock Factor-Like Gene, hsf2, Is Required for Asexual Spore Formation?  

OpenAIRE

Appropriate responses of organisms to heat stress are essential for their survival. In eukaryotes, adaptation to high temperatures is mediated by heat shock transcription factors (HSFs). HSFs regulate the expression of heat shock proteins, which function as molecular chaperones assisting in protein folding and stability. In many model organisms a great deal is known about the products of hsf genes. An important exception is the filamentous fungus and model eukaryote Neurospora crassa. Here we...

Thompson, Seona; Croft, Nirvana J.; Sotiriou, Antonis; Piggins, Hugh D.; Crosthwaite, Susan K.

2008-01-01

131

Women's empowerment and violent death among women and men in Europe : an ecological study.  

OpenAIRE

Background This study examined the association between mortality due to injury and poisoning among men and women in Europe and nine indicators of women's empowerment (i.e. women's challenging of existing power structures that subordinate women). Methods A cross-sectional ecological design was used, with 24 countries from the European Union plus two countries within the European Economic Area and Switzerland. Results Most of the nine indicators of women's empowerment were unre...

Stanistreet, D.; Swami, V.; Pope, D.; Bambra, C.; Scott-samuel, A.

2007-01-01

132

Spatial modeling using mixed models: an ecologic study of visceral leishmaniasis in Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil  

OpenAIRE

Most ecologic studies use geographical areas as units of observation. Because data from areas close to one another tend to be more alike than those from distant areas, estimation of effect size and confidence intervals should consider spatial autocorrelation of measurements. In this report we demonstrate a method for modeling spatial autocorrelation within a mixed model framework, using data on environmental and socioeconomic determinants of the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the...

Werneck Guilherme L.; Maguire James H.

2002-01-01

133

Diabetes mortality and environmental heavy metals in North Carolina counties: An ecological study  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Arsenic, beryllium, cadmium and nickel have been associated with the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in populations exposed to these elements. However, diabetes mortality has not been evaluated. This ecological study correlated airborne concentrations of these metals with diabetes mortality in North Carolina counties. Methods: County level data were extracted from the 2000 US Census, the 1999 US Environmental Protection Agency National Air Toxins Assessment, and 2001-2005 diabet...

Spangler, John G.

2012-01-01

134

The socio-ecological impacts of small dams: A case study of Mushandike Sanctuary, Zimbabwe  

OpenAIRE

Demand and supply of water over space and time is being influenced by changes in land use, population growth, industrial development and construction of dams. In this study, we focus on Mushandike dam located in Mushandike Sanctuary, Zimbabwe, and evaluate the socio-ecological impacts associated with this dam. We gathered data through interviews with local farmers and agricultural extension officers. We also retrieved historical data on rainfall, water levels, fish harvest and irrigated agric...

Gwazani, R.; Gandiwa, E.; Gandiwa, P.; Mhaka, V.; Hungwe, T.; Muza, M.

2012-01-01

135

The integration of GPS, vegetation mapping and GIS in ecological and behavioural studies  

OpenAIRE

Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite navigation receivers are increasingly being used in ecological and behavioural studies to track the movements of animals in relation to the environments in which they live and forage. Concurrent recording of the animal's foraging behaviour (e.g. from jaw movement recording) allows foraging locations to be determined. By combining the animal GPS movement and foraging data with habitat and vegetation maps using a Geographical Information System (GIS) it...

Steven Mark Rutter

2007-01-01

136

Exploring the implications of critical complexity for the study of social-ecological systems.  

OpenAIRE

The complexity of social-ecological systems is well recognized (Berkes et al. 2003, Norberg and Cumming 2008). However, in the study of such systems, it is often the uncertainty that results from nonlinear interactions that forms the focus of discussion. Here, the normative implications of complexity for our knowledge of such systems are emphasised, by drawing largely on the work of Cilliers (1998, 2005a), who introduced the term "critical complexity." This perspective on complexity is distin...

Michelle Audouin; Rika Preiser; Shanna Nienaber; Linda Downsborough; Johann Lanz; Sydney Mavengahama

2013-01-01

137

Eye-Size Variability in Deep-Sea Lanternfishes (Myctophidae): An Ecological and Phylogenetic Study  

OpenAIRE

One of the most common visual adaptations seen in the mesopelagic zone (200–1000 m), where the amount of light diminishes exponentially with depth and where bioluminescent organisms predominate, is the enlargement of the eye and pupil area. However, it remains unclear how eye size is influenced by depth, other environmental conditions and phylogeny. In this study, we determine the factors influencing variability in eye size and assess whether this variability is explained by ecological diff...

Busserolles, Fanny; Fitzpatrick, John L.; Paxton, John R.; Marshall, N. Justin; Collin, Shaun P.

2013-01-01

138

Ecological studies in the middle reach of Chesapeake Bay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Passage of estuarine water and phytoplankton through the cooling system of the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plant in the summer months of 1977-1981 resulted in frequent reductions of phytoplankton densities particularly during periods when flagellated taxa dominated total cell numbers. Entrainment-induced reductions in chlorophyll were observed on only four occasions, however. Phytoplankton productivity as oxygen evolution or 14C-uptake was even more susceptible to the effects of passing through the cooling system. Inhibition of productivitiy was observed during periods dominated by flagellated cells and generally occurred with ambient water temperature ? 250C. Results from track autoradiography employed in 1981 indicated that carbon fixation in the commonly observed flagellate Cryptomonas acuta was significantly depressed during July, August and September. In contrast, the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum and the diatoms Cyclotella caspia and Thalassionema nitzschioides were not affected by entrainment. Although entrainment affects Cryptomonas and flagellate-dominated assemblages in the summer there are no detectable effects of power plant operations on cell densities or productivity in flagellate-dominated waters in the vicinity of the power plant. Transitory exposure of estuarine zooplankton to the elevated temperatures of CCNPP entrainment and discharge plumes was generally non-lethal. In the species selected for study the survival rate es selected for study the survival rate after entrainment was 65 to 100%. The effects of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen levels upon entrained organisms were also analyzed. (orig.)

139

Ecological study of peat landforms in Canada and Alaska  

Science.gov (United States)

Over 20 percent of the land surface of Canada and Alaska is covered by peatlands, which may be defined as any waterlogged ecosystem with a minimum thickness of 20 cm of organic matter in the soil. Past investigations have demonstrated the value of aerial photographs in identifying the major vegetation types and analyzing the biotic and hydrogeologic processes that control the development of these peatlands. In the present study, LANDSAT TM imagery was used in conjunction with field studies to determine the utility of this satellite sensor for detecting these important processes. Although the vegetation landforms within these major peat basins are visible on aerial photographs, LANDSAT TM imagery provides essential new evidence for their analysis. Spectral data from the LANDSAT TM system provides: (1) synoptic views of the patterns across large portions of these peat basins, indicating important physiographic controls on peatland development, (2) more sensitive detection of the major vegetation types, allowing rapid quantitative estimates to be made of their distribution and aerial extent, (3) discrimination of bog areas with potentially rapid or slow rates of peat accumulation, (4) identification of discharge zones for groundwater, which apparently represents the most important source of alkalinity in these peat basins, and (5) detection of flow patterns in water tracks that appear nearly uniform on standard aerial photographs.

Glaser, Paul H.

1989-01-01

140

Ecological stability of landscape - ecological infrastructure - ecological management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Field Workshop 'Ecological Stability of Landscape - Ecological Infrastructure - Ecological Management' was held within a State Environmental Programme financed by the Federal Committee for the Environment. The objectives of the workshop were to present Czech and Slovak approaches to the ecological stability of the landscape by means of examples of some case studies in the field, and to exchange ideas, theoretical knowledge and practical experience on implementing the concept of ecological infrastructure in landscape management. Out of 19 papers contained in the proceedings, 3 items were inputted to the INIS system. (Z.S.)

141

An ecological study of Bithynia snails, the first intermediate host of Opisthorchis viverrini in northeast Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infection with the food-borne trematodiasis, liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, is a major public health concern in Southeast Asia. While epidemiology and parasitic incidence in humans are well studied, ecological information on the O. viverrini intermediate hosts remains limited. This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the distribution and abundance of the first intermediate host, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos snails. Water quality and snails were sampled in 31 sites in Muang District, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand from June 2012 to January 2013 to characterize the B.s. goniomphalos snail habitats. Species relative abundance and Shannon's diversity and evenness indices were employed to describe snail compositions and diversities across different habitat types. Statistical analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which the water quality variables and species interactions account for the relative abundance of B.s. goniomphalos snails. The results showed that the freshwater habitats of ponds, streams and rice paddies possessed significantly different abiotic water qualities, with water temperature and pH showing distinct statistical differences (Pecological insights into the factors affecting Bithynia snail distribution and abundance. It bridges the knowledge gap in O. viverrini disease ecology and highlights the potential effect of anthropogenic irrigation practices on B.s. goniomphalos snail ecology. PMID:24561073

Wang, Yi-Chen; Ho, Richard Cheng Yong; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Namsanor, Jutamas; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

2015-01-01

142

Spatial variation in lake benthic macroinvertebrate ecological assessment: a synthesis of European case studies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper summarizes eight case studies that were analysed as part of the research theme ``lake benthic macroinvertebrates'' forming part of the EU-funded WISER project ``Water bodies in Europe: Integrative Systems to assess Ecological status and Recovery''. The relationships between lake benthic macroinvertebrate community composition and natural and human induced environmental variables (eutrophication, catchment land-use, and hydromorphological pressures) were studied. This was done in different lake habitats (the profundal, sublittoral, and littoral) in five regions of Europe (Alpine, Northern, Central Baltic, Atlantic, and Mediterranean). The goal of the papers was to assess the main environmental factors and how they affected benthic macroinvertebrate variation at different ecological scales and thus better our basic understanding of how changes in these environmental variables can be tracked using local invertebrate assemblages. In this issue we provide a contribution towards the understanding of basic sources of spatial variation of invertebrate assemblages in different European lake habitat types and their relationship with major human pressures. All papers have an obvious applied objective and our aim is to provide useful information for designing monitoring programs and invertebrate based ecological classification tools with the ultimate aim to improve a sound management of European lake ecosystems.

Sandin, Leif Leonard; Solimini, Angelo G.

2012-01-01

143

Ecology of testate amoebae (Protista) in south-central Alaska peatlands: building transfer-function models for palaeoenvironmental studies  

OpenAIRE

Testate amoebae are valuable indicators of peatland hydrology and have been used in many palaeoclimatic studies in peatlands. Because the species' ecological optima may vary around the globe, the development of transfer function models is an essential prerequisite for regional palaeoclimatic studies using testate amoebae. We investigated testate amoebae ecology in nine peatlands covering a 250-km north-south transect in south-central Alaska. Redundancy analysis and Mantel tests were used to e...

Payne, Richard J.; Kishaba, Keiko; Blackford, Jeff J.; Mitchell, Edward A. D.

2006-01-01

144

Ecology of testate amoebae (Protista) in south-central Alaska peatlands: building transfer-function models for palaeoenvironmental studies  

OpenAIRE

Testate amoebae are valuable indicators of peatland hydrology and have been used in many palaeoclimatic studies in peatlands. Because the species' ecological optima may vary around the globe, the development of transfer function models is an essential prerequisite for regional palaeoclimatic studies using testate amoebae. We investigated testate amoebae ecology in nine peatlands covering a 250-km north-south transect in south-central Alaska. Redundancy analysis and Mantel tests were used to e...

Payne, Richard J.; Kishaba, Keiko; Blackford, Jeff J.; Mitchell, Edward A. D.

2010-01-01

145

Can Social Theory Adequately Address Nature-Society Issues? Do political ecology and science studies in Geography incorporate ecological change?  

OpenAIRE

There has been an expansion of interest in nature-society issues within human geography spurred by the rich, sophisticated analyses of environment-development issues within the Third World. This latter work emerged out of the fusion of cultural ecology and the political economy of resource use, but scholars are increasingly turning towards post-structuralism to engage with the complex, mutual constitution of symbolic and material struggles over land and resources. Yet to some e...

Nightingale, Andrea J.

2006-01-01

146

Ancient DNA from marine mammals : studying long-lived species over ecological and evolutionary timescales  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Marine mammals have long generation times and broad, difficult to sample distributions, which makes inferring evolutionary and demographic changes using field studies of extant populations challenging. However, molecular analyses from sub-fossil or historical materials of marine mammals such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an oppor- tunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have focused on detecting changes in genetic diversity following periods of exploitation and environmental change. To date, these studies have shown that even small sample sizes can provide useful information on historical genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also been used in investigations of changes in distribution and range of marine mammal species; we review these studies and discuss the limitations of such ‘presence only’ studies. Combining aDNA data with stable isotopes can provide further insights into changes in ecology and we review past studies and suggest future potential applications. We also discuss studies recon- structing inter- and intra-specific phylogenies from aDNA sequences and discuss how aDNA sequences could be used to estimate mutation rates. Finally, we highlight some of the problems of aDNA studies on marine mammals, such as obtaining sufficient sample sizes and calibrating for the marine reservoir effect when radiocarbon-dating such wide-ranging species.

Foote, Andrew David; Hofreiter, Michael

2012-01-01

147

Possibilities of the Integration of the Method of the Ecologically Oriented Independent Scientific Research in the Study Process  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this paper is to analyse possibilities of the integration of the method of the ecologically oriented independent scientific research in the study process. In order to achieve the set aim, the following scientific research methods were used: analysis of the conceptual guidelines for the development of environmentally oriented entrepreneurship, interpretation of the experts' evaluation of the ecologically oriented management, analysis of the results of the students' ecologically oriented independent scientific research, as well as monographic and logically constructive methods. The results of the study give an opportunity to make conclusions and to develop conceptual recommendations on how to introduce future economics and business professionals with the theoretical and practical aspects of ecologically oriented management during the study process.

Grizans, Jurijs; Vanags, Janis

2010-01-01

148

'Ecological embeddedness' and Its Public Health Implications: Findings From an Exploratory Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Western culture over the last two centuries has become significantly ecologically 'dis-embedded', with nature increasingly reduced to resources for human use. The consequence is global environmental degradation, including accelerating climate change. Much recent research supports associations between nature contact and human health and well-being, and between feelings of nature-connectedness and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours. The oft-cited Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (WHO, Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, 1986) emphasises human-environment inextricability; however public health discourse and response has not fully engaged with this recognition. This qualitative study explored the attitudes, motivations, and experiences-including formative influences-of six individuals whose behaviour was congruent with recognition of human-nature interconnectedness; such individuals may be understood as ecologically embedded. Key aspects of participants' experience, identified through grounded theory thematic analysis, were (i) connecting with nature (especially in childhood); (ii) seeing the threat and taking it personally; (iii) the nature of reality; (iv) dedicated beyond the ego-oriented self; and (v) sustaining the eco-centric self. The findings highlight the necessity for cross-sectoral advocacy at all levels of government policy development focused on recognition of human-environment connectedness, especially bridging health, planning and education policies affecting children. Only thus will both population health and ecological health on which population health depends be possible. PMID:25352183

Lewis, Marina; Townsend, Mardie

2014-10-29

149

Spatial epidemiology and spatial ecology study of worldwide drug-resistant tuberculosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB is a major public health problem caused by various factors. It is essential to systematically investigate the epidemiological and, in particular, the ecological factors of DR-TB for its prevention and control. Studies of the ecological factors can provide information on etiology, and assist in the effective prevention and control of disease. So it is of great significance for public health to explore the ecological factors of DR-TB, which can provide guidance for formulating regional prevention and control strategies. Methods Anti-TB drug resistance data were obtained from the World Health Organization/International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (WHO/UNION Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance, and data on ecological factors were collected to explore the ecological factors for DR-TB. Partial least square path modeling (PLS-PM, in combination with ordinary least squares (OLS regression, as well as geographically weighted regression (GWR, were used to build a global and local spatial regression model between the latent synthetic DR-TB factor ("DR-TB" and latent synthetic risk factors. Results OLS regression and PLS-PM indicated a significant globally linear spatial association between "DR-TB" and its latent synthetic risk factors. However, the GWR model showed marked spatial variability across the study regions. The "TB Epidemic", "Health Service" and "DOTS (directly-observed treatment strategy Effect" factors were all positively related to "DR-TB" in most regions of the world, while "Health Expenditure" and "Temperature" factors were negatively related in most areas of the world, and the "Humidity" factor had a negative influence on "DR-TB" in all regions of the world. Conclusions In summary, the influences of the latent synthetic risk factors on DR-TB presented spatial variability. We should formulate regional DR-TB monitoring planning and prevention and control strategies, based on the spatial characteristics of the latent synthetic risk factors and spatial variability of the local relationship between DR-TB and latent synthetic risk factors.

Yuan Zhongshang

2011-08-01

150

Insights into population ecology from long-term studies of red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-term studies have been the backbone of population ecology. The red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus is one species that has contributed widely to this field since the 1950s. This paper reviews the trajectory and profound impact that these studies have had. Red grouse research has combined long-term studies of marked individuals with demographic studies over wide geographical areas and replicated individual- and population-level manipulations. A main focus has been on understanding the causes of population cycles in red grouse, and in particular the relative importance of intrinsic (behaviour) and extrinsic (climate, food limitation and parasite) mechanisms. Separate studies conducted in different regions initially proposed either the nematode parasite Trichostrongylus tenuis or changes in male aggressiveness in autumn as drivers of population cycles. More recent experiments suggest that parasites are not a necessary cause for cycles and have highlighted that behavioural and parasite-mediated mechanisms are interrelated. Long-term experiments show that parasites and aggressiveness interact. Two outstanding questions remain to be tested experimentally. First, what intrinsic mechanism causes temporal variation in patterns of male aggressiveness? The current favoured mechanism is related to patterns of kin structuring although there are alternative hypotheses. Second, how do the dual, interacting mechanisms, affect population dynamics? Red grouse studies have had an important impact on the field of population ecology, in particular through highlighting: (1) the impact of parasites on populations; (2) the role of intrinsic mechanisms in cyclic dynamics and (3) the need to consider multiple, interacting mechanisms. PMID:23800249

Martínez-Padilla, Jesus; Redpath, Steve M; Zeineddine, Mohammed; Mougeot, François

2014-01-01

151

Implementing fire history and fire ecology in fire risk assessment: the study case of Canton Ticino (southern Switzerland)  

OpenAIRE

The understanding of the ecological role of wildfires and the knowledge of its past natural and cultural dynamics in different ecosystems have been recognize as a prerequisite for a sustainable land and ecosystem management. The main objective of this work is to propose a methodological approach for implementing the knowledge derived from studies of fire history, fire ecology, and fire suppression strategies in fire risk analyses in a low-to medium fire-prone region such as the Canton Ticino.

Conedera, Marco

2009-01-01

152

Ecological networks as a new approach for nature conservation in Turkey: A case study of Izmir Province  

OpenAIRE

This paper aims to identify and evaluate a potential ecological network including core areas and large-scale corridors in the ¿zmir Province and its surrounding areas, Turkey. It is one of the first studies on the connectivity for mammal species and the detection of potential ecological corridors for Turkey. Four wide-ranging species (Hyaena hyaena, Lynx lynx, Caracal caracal, and Felis chaus) have been chosen as target species. Existing Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) and surrounding lands ha...

Hepcan, C. C.; Bouwma, I. M.; Jongman, R. H. G.; Ozkan, M. B.

2009-01-01

153

Assessing ecological land use and water demand of river systems: a case study in Luanhe River, North China  

OpenAIRE

Economic and social development has greatly increased ecological water demand and modified land use of river systems worldwide, causing overall degradation of many of these systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks for regionalization on the eco-environmental function of river systems are formulated and applied to the Luanhe River system. Based on its eco-environmental functions, this river can be regionalized into four types of first-class functional areas: ecological pres...

Yan, D. H.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Qin, T. L.

2012-01-01

154

Fire Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

Forest fires have become a regular summertime occurrence in North America, sparking debate about the proper role of fire on the land. The following websites examine fires and fire ecology in different ecosystems, regions, and time periods. The first site (1), from the USGS-Western Ecological Research Center shares information about fire ecology research in the California shrublands, Sierra Nevada forests, and Mohave and Sonoran deserts. The second site (2) features the Fire Ecology Center at Texas Tech University. The Fire Ecology Center focuses on the role of fire in grassland ecosystems and their website contains information on current research, publications, managing pastures, managing problem plants, and more. The third site (3), from the USGS-Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center contains "an annotated bibliography on fire in North American wetland ecosystems and a subject index of all fire-related literature that has appeared in Wildlife Review." Hosted by Yellowstone National Park, the fourth site (4) addresses wildland fires in Yellowstone. The Park website presents brief sections on Fire Ecology, Fire Monitoring, Prescribed Fire, and Fire Effects -- to name a few. The fifth (5) site, from the Canadian Forest Service, provides information about forest fires in Canada including weekly fire statistics, fire research, daily fire maps, a fire database, and more. Part of a great site on the land use history of the Colorado Plateau from Northern Arizona University, the sixth site (6) offers a brief overview of wildfire history and ecology on the Plateau with links to information about ponderosa pine fire ecology, reintroduction of fire to forest ecosystems, and fire ecology research studies. The seventh site (7), from DiscoverySchool.com, contains a lesson plan on forest fire ecology for grade levels 9-12. The lesson spans two class periods and the site provides objectives, materials needed, discussion questions, academic standards, and more. The final (8) website, from the Why Files, "examines the role of fire in natural systems, and the role of science in understanding wildfires." The eleven-page website follows a kid-friendly narrative format and includes a bibliography and glossary.

155

Assessing ecological land use and water demand of river systems: a case study in Luanhe River, North China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic and social development has greatly increased ecological water demand and modified land use of river systems worldwide, causing overall degradation of many of these systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks for regionalization on the eco-environmental function of river systems are formulated and applied to the Luanhe River system. Based on its eco-environmental functions, this river can be regionalized into four types of first-class functional areas: ecological preservation areas, habitat restoration areas, ecological buffer areas and development and utilization areas. Considering the overall eco-environmental functions, we assessed the ecological land use of the Luanhe River system. The total area of basic ecological land use is 876.98 km2; the restrictive ecological land use is 1745.52 km2; ecological land use of the river system returned from farmland is 284.25 km2; and that returned from construction land is 17.35 km2. The average minimum ecological flow of mainstreams in upper and middle reaches of the Luanhe River is 4.896 m3 s?1 based on the habitat method. And the recommended minimum and suitable annual ecological water demand of channels in the lower reaches are 391 million m3 and 819.5 million m3, respectively. The evaporation and seepage consumption and vegetation consumption in riparian zones of the Luanhe River system are approximately 132.6 million m3 and 145.3 million m3 per year, respectively. Our results suggest that is crucial to regulate the instream ecological water use of the Luanhe River's mainstream starting from the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system. We recommend accelerating ecological land-use planning and strengthening the regulation of ecological water use on this river system focusing on important lower reaches under the condition of competitive water demand.

D. H. Yan

2012-08-01

156

Introduction to Ecological Landscaping: A Holistic Description and Framework to Guide the Study and Management of Urban Landscape Parcels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urbanized ecosystems and urban human populations are expanding around the world causing many negative environmental effects. A challenge for achieving sustainable urban social-ecological systems is understanding how urbanized landscapes can be designed and managed to minimize negative outcomes. To this end, an interdisciplinary Ecological Landscaping conference was organized to examine the interacting sociocultural and ecological causes and consequences of landscaping practices and products. This special issue of Cities and the Environment contains a diverse set of articles arising from that conference. In this introductory paper, we describe the meaning of ecological landscaping and a new conceptual framework that helps organize the topic’s complex issues. The essence of ecological landscaping is a holistic systems-thinking perspective for understanding the interrelationships among physical-ecological and sociocultural variables that give rise to the patterns and processes of biodiversity, abiotic conditions, and ecosystem processes within and among individually-managed urban landscape parcels. This perspective suggests that 1 variables not considered part of traditional landscaping and 2 the effects of landscaping within an individual parcel on variables outside of it must both be considered when making design and management decisions about a parcel. To illustrate how these points help create a more holistic, ecological approach to landscaping, a traditional ecosystem model is used to create a framework for discussing how sociocultural and physical-ecological inputs to a landscape parcel affect its characteristics and outputs. As exemplified by papers in this issue, an integrated sociocultural-ecological approach to the study of urban landscaping practices and products is needed to 1 understand why and how humans design and mange urban landscape parcels, 2 describe how the combined characteristics and outputs of many parcels give rise to the emergent ecosystem properties of urbanized areas, and 3 develop effective educational programs that catalyze adoption of sustainable landscaping choices and practices. The paper concludes with a discussion of challenges for the future of ecological landscaping research and practice, and a list of preliminary guidelines for ecological landscaping. We hope that this special issue will increase understanding, visibility, and research about the value of an ecological approach to urban landscaping.

Parwinder Grewal

2008-01-01

157

Studies on Sustainable Development of Ecological Sports Tourism Resources and Its Industry  

OpenAIRE

Through the analysis of ecological sports tourism resources and its characteristics, we investigated the key ecological sports tourism resources from the angle of regional planning, industrialization programming, design and so on in the present paper and put forward novel countermea...

Pengfei Zhu

2009-01-01

158

STUDIES CONCERNING THE ECOLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF SOIL IN ORDER TO ENSURE A SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study aim to determine the effectiveness of the proposed ecological reconstruction method by using the perennial grasses (e.g. Festuca rubra, Poa Pratensis, Lolium perenne, and Medicago sativa and dolomite (DEL-CA-MAG as a soil amendment for a degraded soil (i.e. Valea Voievozilor area, Dambovita County, Romania, in order to improvements the quality indicators of analyzed soil. The physicochemical indicators of soil (e.g. pH, conductivity, salinity, TDS, redox potential, turbidity, humidity, carbonate, nitrate and nitrite concentration were determined.

CRISTIANA RADULESCU

2013-09-01

159

Ecological studies in the Ratanica catchment (Carpathian foothills, southern Poland) - an overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper includes an overview of ecological studies conducted since 1986 in the Ratanica pine-beech forested catchment located in the polluted, high populated southern part of Poland. General characteristics of the catchment (including soil and vegetation, air pollution, input/output of nutrients and pollutants, element budget data and forest health assessment) are presented. Based on biogeochemical and bioindication results, the Ratanica catchment has been classified as a moderately to heavily deteriorated area. Predictions for this forested catchment for various deposition of anthropogenic pollutants, are also discussed. 22 refs., 1 fig

160

How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran. Biodiversitas 15: 31-38. Species diversity is one of the most important indices for evaluating the stability and productivity of forest ecosystems. The aim of this research was to recognize ecological species groups and to determine the relationship between environmental variables and the distribution of ecological species groups. For this purpose, 25 400-m2 relevés were sampled using the Braun-Blanquet method. Vegetation was classified using modified Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN and resulted in three ecological species groups. Different species diversity indices were applied to quantify diversity of these species groups. ANOVA and Duncan’s tests indicated that all species and environmental variables except altitude changed significantly across the species groups. The results also showed that the group located in the northern aspect and on low slopes had the highest diversity indices compared with groups located in dry aspects and on high slopes. In reality, abundant precipitation (northern aspect ( and soil enrichment (low slopes are principal factors that provide suitable conditions for plant growth and species diversity. Thus, the study of diversity changes in ecological species groups can result in an ecologically precise perspective for managing forest ecosystems.

FATEMEH BAZDID VAHDATI¹,

2014-11-01

161

Wildfire History and Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

Part of a great site on the land use history of the Colorado Plateau from Northern Arizona University, this site offers a brief overview of wildfire history and ecology on the Plateau with links to information about ponderosa pine fire ecology, reintroduction of fire to forest ecosystems, and fire ecology research studies.

162

Detecting the ecological effects of environmental impacts: A case study of kelp forest invertebrates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Detecting the environmental impacts of human activities on natural communities is a central problem in applied ecology. One must separate human perturbations, usually unique events, from considerable natural temporal variability in most populations. These problems can be successfully addressed with the Before-After/Control-Impact (BACI) sampling design, in which Impact and Control sites are sampled contemporaneously and repeatedly in periods Before and After the human perturbation. In this case, the ecological effects of the cooling water discharge from a coastal nuclear power plant in southern California was examined. The results suggest some general lessons applicable in many ecological contexts. In systems where plants and animals are long-lived and recruit sporadically, the rates of change in density are often so low that sampling more than a few times per year will introduce serial correlations in the data. As a result, for studies of few years duration, few samples will be taken. A small sample size means that the tests of the underlying assumptions underlying, e.g., independence and additivity, will have low power. This injects uncertainty into the conclusions. Small sample size also means detecting any but very large effects will be low. In our study, sampling periods of 2-3 yr both Before and After the impact were not long enough to detect a halving or doubling of populations. We concluded that there were significant environmental impacts because: (1) the effect size was generally very large ([approx] -75%); (2) there was a consistent pattern among species; (3) there were two Impact sites, and effects were larger at the site nearest the discharge; (4) the observed effects accorded with physical changes that could be linked with the source of impact; and (5) a number of alternative mechanisms, unrelated to the source of impact, were examined and rejected. 37 figs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

Schroeter, S.C.; Dixon, J.D. (Ecometrics, Carlsbad, CA (United States) Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Kastendiek, J. (James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States) Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Smith, R.O. (Science Explorations, Carlsbad, CA (United States) Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Bence, J.R. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States))

1993-05-01

163

Satellite Ecology (SATECO)-linking ecology, remote sensing and micrometeorology, from plot to regional scale, for the study of ecosystem structure and function.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a growing requirement for ecosystem science to help inform a deeper understanding of the effects of global climate change and land use change on terrestrial ecosystem structure and function, from small area (plot) to landscape, regional and global scales. To meet these requirements, ecologists have investigated plant growth and carbon cycling processes at plot scale, using biometric methods to measure plant carbon accumulation, and gas exchange (chamber) methods to measure soil respiration. Also at the plot scale, micrometeorologists have attempted to measure canopy- or ecosystem-scale CO(2) flux by the eddy covariance technique, which reveals diurnal, seasonal and annual cycles. Mathematical models play an important role in integrating ecological and micrometeorological processes into ecosystem scales, which are further useful in interpreting time-accumulated information derived from biometric methods by comparing with CO(2) flux measurements. For a spatial scaling of such plot-level understanding, remote sensing via satellite is used to measure land use/vegetation type distribution and temporal changes in ecosystem structures such as leaf area index. However, to better utilise such data, there is still a need for investigations that consider the structure and function of ecosystems and their processes, especially in mountainous areas characterized by complex terrain and a mosaic distribution of vegetation. For this purpose, we have established a new interdisciplinary approach named 'Satellite Ecology', which aims to link ecology, remote sensing and micrometeorology to facilitate the study of ecosystem function, at the plot, landscape, and regional scale. PMID:18958540

Muraoka, Hiroyuki; Koizumi, Hiroshi

2009-01-01

164

Cavity types and microclimate: implications for ecological, evolutionary, and conservation studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The abiotic conditions of the immediate environment of organisms are key factors for a better understanding of ecological and evolutionary processes. Yet, information in this regard is biased towards some habitat types, landscapes, and organisms. Here, we present a 2-year comparative study of the microclimatic properties (temperature, relative humidity, and their fluctuation) of three cavity types (nest boxes, cavities in bridges, and burrows in sandy cliffs) in an arid environment. We found marked and consistent months-long differences in microclimate among the three cavity types. Nest boxes were colder than the other cavity types, with temperature oscillations being an order of magnitude higher than in other cavity types. In contrast, microclimate was very stable in burrows and cavities in bridges, the former being generally warmer and drier than the latter. We also discuss the biological implications of microclimatic conditions and its variation in different cavity types by presenting two case studies, namely the temperature-humidity index and water vapor pressure during the hatching period of an endotherm and the chilling period during the diapause of an ectotherm ectoparasite. We stress the need for comparative studies of the same organisms subjected to different microclimates given the important ecological, evolutionary, and conservation implications. PMID:24573376

Amat-Valero, M; Calero-Torralbo, M A; Václav, R; Valera, F

2014-11-01

165

A radiological case study of quantitative, probabilistic ecological risk assessment, using recently developed assessment tools  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case study of tritium release into a marine ecosystem demonstrates the feasibility of combining recent dose-estimation software (radiological impact assessment for coastal aquatic ecosystems, Version 1.15) with dose-response data selected from the FASSET Radiation Effects Database (FRED) to provide a basis for quantitative and probabilistic ecological risk assessment. The ecological risk assessment software, AQUARISK, fits probability distributions to both 'exposure' and 'response' data (matched as either dose or dose-rate) and uses a convolution algorithm to evaluate the overlap between the two distributions. Probabilistic estimates of exposure criteria are derived from the distribution fitted to the selected response data. Using only 'lowest observed effect' and 'highest no effect' dose-rates, a quite low criterion for the protection of 95% of species (15 ?Gy hr-1, with a 95% lower uncertainty limit of 3 ?Gy hr-1) is estimated. This compares with the proposed Canadian criteria for aquatic biota, with the 1/10th safety factor applied (i.e. 5 to 10 ?Gy hr-1). A conservative scenario, assuming constant exposure to undiluted effluent, estimated a very low likelihood of environmental damage in this case study. (author)

166

Extraction of high-quality host DNA from feces and regurgitated seeds: a useful tool for vertebrate ecological studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA extraction methods for genotyping non-invasive samples have led to great advances in molecular research for ecological studies, and have been particularly useful for analyzing threatened species. However, scarce amounts of fragmented DNA and the presence of Taq polymerase inhibitors in non-invasive samples are potential problems for subsequent PCR amplifications. In this study we describe a novel technique for extracting DNA from alimentary tract cells found on external surfaces of feces and regurgitated seeds. The presence of contaminants and inhibitors is minimized and samples are preserved intact for use in other ecological research (e.g. trophic studies). The amplification efficiency and purity of the extracted DNA from feces were significantly higher than in commonly used extraction procedures. Moreover, DNA of two bird species was identified from seeds expelled by regurgitation. Therefore, this method may be suitable for future ecological studies of birds, and other vertebrate groups. PMID:19746259

Marrero, Patricia; Fregel, Rosa; Cabrera, Vicente M; Nogales, Manuel

2009-01-01

167

Extraction of high-quality host DNA from feces and regurgitated seeds: a useful tool for vertebrate ecological studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available DNA extraction methods for genotyping non-invasive samples have led to great advances in molecular research for ecological studies, and have been particularly useful for analyzing threatened species. However, scarce amounts of fragmented DNA and the presence of Taq polymerase inhibitors in non-invasive samples are potential problems for subsequent PCR amplifications. In this study we describe a novel technique for extracting DNA from alimentary tract cells found on external surfaces of feces and regurgitated seeds. The presence of contaminants and inhibitors is minimized and samples are preserved intact for use in other ecological research (e.g. trophic studies. The amplification efficiency and purity of the extracted DNA from feces were significantly higher than in commonly used extraction procedures. Moreover, DNA of two bird species was identified from seeds expelled by regurgitation. Therefore, this method may be suitable for future ecological studies of birds, and other vertebrate groups.

PATRICIA MARRERO

2009-01-01

168

Attitudes, Opinions and Behavior of Managers on Application of Ecological Marketing in their Business - Testing Hypotheses - Case Study:Brasov County  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents results of a quantitative research which studies the attitudes, opinions and behavior of managers of companies in Brasov on application of ecological marketing in their business. The research method used is a sample survey based. Research objectives are considering to determine the extent to which managers know and apply ecological marketing, reasons for which the ecological marketing application is a long-term strategy, views on the opportunity to apply ecological marketing etc. Conclusions drawn from testing of hypotheses of research show that, generally, managers of local firms consider ecological marketing as a long-term strategy of the company. The percentage of managers that applied ecological marketing in companies does not exceed 60%. A relatively small percentage of respondents believes that the application of ecological marketing within firms is a necessity, a social responsibility that can bring long-term benefits to companies.

Funaru, M.

2014-06-01

169

Assessing Ecological Water Quality with Macroinvertebrates and Fish: A Case Study from a Small Mediterranean River  

Science.gov (United States)

Biological elements, such as benthic macroinvertebrates and fish, have been used in assessing the ecological quality of rivers according to the requirements of the Water Framework Directive. However, the concurrent use of multiple organism groups provides a broader perspective for such evaluations, since each biological element may respond differently to certain environmental variables. In the present study, we assessed the ecological quality of a Greek river (RM4 type), during autumn 2003 and spring 2004 at 10 sites, with benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. Hydromorphological and physicochemical parameters, habitat structure, and riparian vegetation were also considered. Pollution sensitive macroinvertebrate taxa were more abundant at headwaters, which had good/excellent water quality according to the Hellenic Evaluation System (HES). The main river reaches possessed moderate water quality, while downstream sites were mainly characterised as having bad or poor water quality, dominated by pollution-tolerant macroinvertebrate taxa. Macroinvertebrates related strongly to local stressors as chemical degradation (ordination analysis CCA) and riparian quality impairment (bivariate analysis) while fish did not. Fish were absent from the severely impacted lower river reaches. Furthermore, external pathological signs were observed in fish caught at certain sites. A combined use of both macroinvertebrates and fish in biomonitoring programs is proposed for providing a safer assessment of local and regional habitat impairment.

Cheimonopoulou, Maria Th.; Bobori, Dimitra C.; Theocharopoulos, Ioannis; Lazaridou, Maria

2011-02-01

170

A case study for evaluating ecological risks at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case study was conducted as a component of the development of guidance for ecological risk assessment at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL is a large facility in southeastern Idaho, encompassing expanses of sagebrush-steppe that harbor numerous wildlife species. Nuclear research and waste disposal activities have resulted in releases of radionuclides at various sites. Due to the size and number of potentially contaminated areas, a cost-effective method was needed to evaluate ecological risks and to identify data needs for remedial investigations. Screening-level assessment approaches were developed to evaluate data collected from previous site investigations. Above-background concentrations of radionuclides and other contaminants in media were compared to risk-based criteria, which were derived from sources such as recent publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). Site-specific risks to plants and wildlife were estimated for contaminants exceeding criteria. Dose rates derived using various estimation methods were compared to reference doses for wildlife obtained from IAEA, NCRP, and other publications

171

Mesocosm soil ecological risk assessment tool for GMO 2nd tier studies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) of GMO is basically identical to ERA of chemical substances, when it comes to assessing specific effects of the GMO plant material on the soil ecosystem. The tiered approach always includes the option of studying more complex but still realistic ecosystem level effects in 2nd tier caged experimental systems, cf. the new GMO ERA guidance: EFSA Journal 2010; 8(11):1879. We propose to perform a trophic structure analysis, TSA, and include the trophic structure as an ecological endpoint to gain more direct insight into the change in interactions between species, i.e. the food-web structure, instead of relying only on the indirect evidence from population abundances. The approach was applied for effect assessment in the agro-ecosystem where we combined factors of elevated CO2, viz. global climate change, and GMO plant effects. A multi-species (Collembola, Acari and Enchytraeidae) mesocosm factorial experiment was set up in a greenhouse at ambient CO2 and 450 ppm CO2 with a GM barley variety and conventional varieties. The GM barley differed concerning the composition of amino acids in the grain (antisense C-hordein line). The fungicide carbendazim acted as a positive control. After 5 and 11 weeks, data on populations, plants and soil organic matter decomposition were evaluated. Natural abundances of stable isotopes, 13C and 15N, of animals, soil, plants and added organic matter (crushed maize leaves) were used to describe the soil food web structure.

D'Annibale, Alessandra; Maraldo, Kristine

172

Species delimitation in fungal endophyte diversity studies and its implications in ecological and biogeographic inferences.  

Science.gov (United States)

The estimation of species diversity in fungal endophyte communities is based either on species counts or on the assignment of operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Consequently, the application of different species recognition criteria affects not only diversity estimates but also the ecological hypotheses that arise from those observations. The main objective of the study was to examine how the choice and number of genetic markers and species delimitation criteria influence biodiversity estimates. Here, we compare approaches to defining species boundaries in three dominant species complexes of tropical endophytes, specially Colletotrichum gloeosporioides agg., Pestalotiopsis microspora agg. and Trichoderma harzianum agg., from two Amazonian trees: Hevea brasiliensis and H. guianensis. Molecular tools were used to describe and compare the diversity of the different assemblages. Multilocus phylogenetic analyses [gpd, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and tef1] and modern techniques for phylogenetic species delimitation were overlaid with ecological data to recognize putative species or OTUs. The results demonstrate that ITS alone generally underestimates the number of species predicted by other nuclear loci. These results question the use of ITS and arbitrary divergence thresholds for species delimitation. PMID:21557783

Gazis, Romina; Rehner, Stephen; Chaverri, Priscila

2011-07-01

173

Incorporating methane into ecological footprint analysis. A case study of Ireland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) accounting is important to global ecological footprint analysis. However methane (CH4), with a global warming potential (GWP) 25 times that of CO2, should not be neglected as an environmental indicator for informed environmental management. While this is a significant component, the CH4 associated with imported embodied energy should also be included in national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories. This study proposes an initial method for incorporating methane into ecological footprint analyses and hopes to inform future debate on its inclusion. In order to account for differences in methane intensities from exporting countries, methane intensities for OECD countries were calculated using emission and energy consumption estimates taken directly from National Inventory Reports (NIR), published in conjunction with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). For other countries the methane intensities were estimated using energy balances published by the International Energy Association (IEA) and IPCC default emission factors. In order to estimate embodied organic methane, material imports and exports were translated into units (such as live animals) capable of conversion into methane emissions. A significant increase in Ireland's footprint results from the inclusion of the GWP of methane is included within the footprint calculation. (author)

174

Exploring the implications of critical complexity for the study of social-ecological systems.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The complexity of social-ecological systems is well recognized (Berkes et al. 2003, Norberg and Cumming 2008. However, in the study of such systems, it is often the uncertainty that results from nonlinear interactions that forms the focus of discussion. Here, the normative implications of complexity for our knowledge of such systems are emphasised, by drawing largely on the work of Cilliers (1998, 2005a, who introduced the term "critical complexity." This perspective on complexity is distinct in bringing the value-based choices that frame our knowledge generation strategies to the fore. It is from this view that we investigate the implications of complexity for social-ecological systems research. Based on these implications, we propose a set of five key questions to guide the incorporation of insights from critical complexity into such research. We end with a brief application of the questions proposed to the National Freshwater Ecosystem Priority Areas (NFEPA project in South Africa, to illustrate their potential use in the context of resource management.

Michelle Audouin

2013-09-01

175

Biodiversity and productivity of Rana Patap Sagar lake a thermo-ecological study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rana Pratap Sagar (RPS) in Rajasthan, is a man made fresh water reservoir and is balancing between Gandhi Sagar on upstream and Jawahar sagar on its down stream. On its eastern bank there exists Rawatbhata Site, comprising of multi -nuclear facilities. There are four PHWR units of Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) which are in operations, two are under construction and another two are under advanced stage of planning. In addition to nuclear power plants the Site also houses a Heavy Water Plant and other allied facilities such as cobalt facility and waste management facilities. RAPS draws water from RPS lake through a 300 m long conduit pipe located at lake bottom about 20 m below the surface. Duly treated low level radioactive liquid effluents from RAPS facilities are injected to the warmed condenser outlet and then allowed to discharge to RPS in a controlled manner. The warm water is likely to remain at the surface and get mixed with lake water and cooled due to dilutions, evaporation from lake surface and wind currents. The heat release to the RPS lake through condenser outlet may effect the microbiological and water quality parameters, planktonic biodiversity, fish productivity etc. and thus it is imperative to conduct the thermal ecological study to assess the extent of maturation of the water body to identify its present trophic status in terms of eutrophication. This presentation gives the details of thermal ecological studies carried out at Rana Pratap Sagaal studies carried out at Rana Pratap Sagar lake during 2002-2004 under DAE-BRNS project.. The study includes monitoring of several water quality parameters, biological and bacterial parameters and data on thermal stratification in respect of RPS reservoir. The data so obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. The probabilistic and possibilistic approaches have been applied to evaluate ecological risk. The study reveals that there is no adverse effect on RPS water quality owing to receive the warmed effluents from RAPS. Furthermore, it shows that RPS water is nearly homogeneous and shows weak thermocline and chemocline patterns. Based on monitoring data, the reservoir can be assigned mild eutrophic status. (author)

176

Ecological Based Planning of Forest Outdoor Recreation Case Study: Traditional Span of Mandj in Lordegan Forests-Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Forest is considered as one of the most important and most attractive recreation resources in nature which is the destination of most of the nature tourists. One of the most important ecologic usages of Zagros forests in west of Iran is outdoor recreation planning. In this study, using local multi criteria evaluation method, emphasizing on ecological criteria and combination of informational layers using Geographic Information System (GIS, forest based recreation planning in two forms of intensive and extensive in traditional span of Mandj in Lordegan city in Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari province is studied and outdoor recreation desirability of areas are determined using weighted method. Also cooling power method of Biker was used for time evaluation of planning. Six (6 criteria including climate, soil, forest structure, water sources, shape of land and landscape, 12 secondary criteria and 36 indices were used in order to evaluate outdoor recreation ecologic ability of region. According to this investigation, 7 forest areas with total area of 6.3 ha are suitable for intensive outdoor recreation and remaining areas of this region (2476 ha could be used for extensive outdoor recreation. Checking ecologic local criteria used in this study showed that water sources as a limiting factor, is a key exclusive factor in evaluating ecologic outdoor recreation power in this region. Also results showed months May, June, October, September, July and August are most suitable based on climate parameters.

Naghmeh Sharifi

2012-07-01

177

Giving Back: Collaborations with Others in Ecological Studies on the Nevada National Security Site - 13058  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Formerly named the Nevada Test Site, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) was the historical site for nuclear weapons testing from the 1950's to the early 1990's. The site was renamed in 2010 to reflect the diversity of nuclear, energy, and homeland security activities now conducted at the site. Biological and ecological programs and research have been conducted on the site for decades to address the impacts of radiation and to take advantage of the relatively undisturbed and isolated lands for gathering basic information on the occurrence and distribution of native plants and animals. Currently, the Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) oversees the radiological biota monitoring and ecological compliance programs on the NNSS. The top priority of these programs are compliance with federal and state regulations. They focus on performing radiological dose assessments for the public who reside near the NNSS and for populations of plants and animals on the NNSS and in protecting important species and habitat from direct impacts of mission activities. The NNSS serves as an invaluable outdoor laboratory. The geographic and ecological diversity of the site offers researchers many opportunities to study human influences on ecosystems. NNSA/NSO has pursued collaborations with outside agencies and organizations to be able to conduct programs and studies that enhance radiological biota monitoring and ecosystem preservation when budgets are restrictive, as well as to provide valuable scientific information to the human health and natural resource communities at large. NNSA/NSO is using one current collaborative study to better assess the potential dose to the off-site public from the ingestion of game animals, the most realistic pathway for off-site public exposure at this time from radionuclide contamination on the NNSS. A second collaborative study is furthering desert tortoise conservation measures onsite. It is the goal of NNSA/NSO to continue to develop such collaborations in the sharing of resources, such as personnel, equipment, expertise, and NNSS land access, with outside entities to meet mutually beneficial goals cost effectively. (authors)

178

Giving Back: Collaborations with Others in Ecological Studies on the Nevada National Security Site - 13058  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Formerly named the Nevada Test Site, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) was the historical site for nuclear weapons testing from the 1950's to the early 1990's. The site was renamed in 2010 to reflect the diversity of nuclear, energy, and homeland security activities now conducted at the site. Biological and ecological programs and research have been conducted on the site for decades to address the impacts of radiation and to take advantage of the relatively undisturbed and isolated lands for gathering basic information on the occurrence and distribution of native plants and animals. Currently, the Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) oversees the radiological biota monitoring and ecological compliance programs on the NNSS. The top priority of these programs are compliance with federal and state regulations. They focus on performing radiological dose assessments for the public who reside near the NNSS and for populations of plants and animals on the NNSS and in protecting important species and habitat from direct impacts of mission activities. The NNSS serves as an invaluable outdoor laboratory. The geographic and ecological diversity of the site offers researchers many opportunities to study human influences on ecosystems. NNSA/NSO has pursued collaborations with outside agencies and organizations to be able to conduct programs and studies that enhance radiological biota monitoring and ecosystem preservation when budgets are restrictive, as well as to provide valuable scientific information to the human health and natural resource communities at large. NNSA/NSO is using one current collaborative study to better assess the potential dose to the off-site public from the ingestion of game animals, the most realistic pathway for off-site public exposure at this time from radionuclide contamination on the NNSS. A second collaborative study is furthering desert tortoise conservation measures onsite. It is the goal of NNSA/NSO to continue to develop such collaborations in the sharing of resources, such as personnel, equipment, expertise, and NNSS land access, with outside entities to meet mutually beneficial goals cost effectively. (authors)

Wade, Scott A.; Knapp, Kathryn S. [U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Agency, Nevada Site Office, P.O. Box 98518, Las Vegas, NV 89193-8518 (United States); Wills, Cathy A. [National Nuclear Security Technologies, LLC, P.O. Box 98521, M/S 260, Las Vegas, NV 89193-8521 (United States)

2013-07-01

179

Progress of soil radionuclide distribution studies for the Nevada Applied Ecology Group: 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two nuclear sites have been under intensive study by the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) during 1980 and 1981, NS201 in area 18 and NS219,221 in area 20. In support of the various studies Los Alamos National Laboratory (Group LS-6) has provided consultation and evaluations relative to radionuclide distributions in soils inundated with radioactive debris from those tests. In addition, a referee effort was also conducted in both analysis of replicate samples and in evaluating various data sets for consistency of results. This report summarizes results of several of the data sets collected to test certain hypotheses relative to radionuclide distributions and factors affecting calculations of hypotheses relative to radionuclide distributions and factors affecting calculations of radionuclide inventories and covers the period February 1980 to May 1981

180

Distribution of Brazilian dermatologists according to geographic location, population and HDI of municipalities: an ecological study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study investigated the geographic distribution of dermatologists in Brazilian municipalities in relation to the population, regions of the country and human development index. We conducted an ecological study based on data from the 2010 census, the 2010 human development index, and the records [...] of the Brazilian Society of Dermatology. 5565 municipalities and 6718 dermatologists were surveyed. Only 504 (9.1%) municipalities had dermatologists, and accounted for 56.2% of the Brazilian population. The smallest population size and lowest HDI rate that best discriminated municipalities that did not have dermatologists were found to be 28,000 and 0.71, respectively. The average population density of dermatologists in cities was 1/23.000 inhabitants, and variations were independently associated with the HDI, the population of the municipalities and the region of the country.

Juliano Vilaverde, Schmitt; Hélio Amante, Miot.

1013-10-01

181

Study on the Shortage and Reconstruction of Chinese Ecological Tax System  

OpenAIRE

Guiding by the view of science-based development, the ecological tax system which also possesses the benefits of encouragement and financing capital should be gradually established, so the material benefits can stimulate and drive that the social pollution costs are translated into production costs and market price, and the policy and law objectives to control ecological pollution and improve ecological quality can be realized. According to the requirements of sustainable development, China p...

Min Niu; Liangliang He; Jie Jiang

2009-01-01

182

The need for an ecological approach within the study and comprehension of cognitive processes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los procesos cognitivos organizan y transforman inferencialmente la información sensorio-perceptiva del medio. La base de dichos procesos es ecológica. Se entiende como ecológica toda relación entre un organismo viviente y su medio para alcanzar los balances entre su medio interno y externo. Esas re [...] laciones permiten explicar las funciones preservadoras de la vida. La representación mental es una función preservadora de la vida. Cada especie desarrolla (como requisito de superviviencia) su propia representación holográfica del medio ambiente, pero esta representación adquiere la máxima complejidad cognitiva en la especie humana. Si un desbalance se perpetúa, lleva a la muerte del organismo y a la extinción de la especie. En esto reside la importancia del enfoque ecológico y la profundización del mismo. La explicación de los procesos cognitivos ha avanzado a través de un esquema ecológico tipo abajo/arriba, bottom-up, más que a través de esquemas formales - proposicionales de tipo teoricista arriba / abajo o top-down. Abstract in english Cognitive processes are information, meaning, structure organization and transformation processes, most of which are inferential. Then, an important question about cognitive processes is: What is their deepest basis? Where, when, how and at what level do they originate? Here, it is proposed that the [...] original and deepest basis of cognitive processes is essentially ecological and sustained on the permanent unity and relationship between the living organism and its environment. We understand as ecological the undecomposable union between a living organism and its environment, as well as every kind of immediate and stepwise relationship between them. The relationships between a living organism and its environment is held everyday and continuously in order to get its life-preserving resources and to adopt their adequate, best or most successful actions and reactions over the environment, as well as to reach its necessary internal and external balances with and within it. In these terms, the elementary perception and categorization are seen as basic cognitive processes originated in that permanent and whole ecological relationship. This way, representation systems and information processes as developed by each species are seen as basic preservation functions (life-preservation functions) in the teleonomic sense given by Pittendrigh (1958) and later used by Lorenz (1986) within his ethological approach. These arguments support the idea that any species, whatever simpler or complex it may be, whenever it is endowed of minimal sensors (elementary sensory perceptive receptors) for light (sight), odor (olfaction), sound (hearing), taste and tactile stimuli, etc., can form and must have a minimal representation of its immediate surroundings; and so that those living organisms can then count on or have at their own's disposal a minimal mental representation of the immediate and customary environment in which they live and survive along all their lifetime. Otherwise these living organisms will soon and easily die, and its species will be exposed to be extinguished soon too. So, all these argumentations are required and provided in order to analyze and explain the origin of cognitive processes within an ecological bottom-up direction. The main approaches adopted to sustain this ecological view originate in Gibson's (1979) studies on direct perception, in Rosch's (1978) approaches to natural and prototypical categorization of concept-formation, and, finally, it is also found in different attempts by Schank and Abelson (1977) and other authors to describe, for example, the formation of semantic primitives, or of schemata and scripts on alternative and ever changing areas of commonplace social experience and representations. One cue is to easily differentiate between the role and definition between defined attributes and characteristic or prototypical attributes when referring to concepts and their s

Alfredo Oscar, López Alonso; Ricardo, Minervino.

2007-12-01

183

Testing low cost OEM CO2 sensors for outdoor ecological studies  

Science.gov (United States)

IR (Infrared) gas sensors are used extensively in CO2 research but price and power requirement often limits low-cost distributed sensing. In the past three years, sensors have been introduced to the industrial market at prices as low as $100 US for air-handling and automotive application. These inexpensive sensors are small in size, and have low power demand making them potentially ideal for low-cost distributed deployments. However, the sensors are only tested and calibrated for indoor use and for industrial standards and may not show their true potential for outdoor ecological studies. This poster summarizes the results of a sensor inter-comparison test, to document functionality, response time, electrical noise, precision, and accuracy, under varying moistures and temperatures broadly representative of a wide range of outdoor settings. The three selected sensors were placed in a closed loop system with a valving system using a LiCor Li-7000 as reference, controlled by a CR1000 datalogger that controlled CO2 and moisture concentrations content within the cell on the basis of LiCor readings. To achieve different temperatures, the tests were repeated at room temperature, inside a freezer (-18°C) and incubator (40°C). The tests involved repeatedly stepping the sensors from 2000 ppm CO2 to 400 ppm CO2 in 200 ppm or 400 ppm increments, at various moisture contents, and under the various temperature regimes. Vaisala 222 and 343 sensors were also part of the test group as comparators, as both are used widely in ecological research. The OEM sensors displayed good linearity, fast response time, and results comparable to Vaisala probes. In most cases the sensors performed beyond our expectations with notably less electrical noise than the Vaisala sensors and excellent power thriftiness. Some sensors showed better response to extreme moisture and temperature conditions. Provided that suitable protective embodiments were built around them, and that they are deployed in an environment suiting their tolerance limits, most of the tested sensors would be suitable as low-cost alternatives to sensors currently being sold for outdoor ecological studies.

Macintyre, C. M.; Risk, D. A.

2011-12-01

184

Radio-ecological studies on the air-soil-vine-wine food chain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report summarizes the results of the first three years (1983-85) of the radio-ecological studies on wine which were performed on eight sites from major German wine-growing regions involving red and white wine varieties typical of their region. The radionuclides of tritium, carbon 14, strontium 90, cesium 137, radium 226 and sodium 40 were examined for their contents and presence in the food chain of air-soil-vine-wine in order to determine the pollution situation in grapes and wine and to gain information on their behaviour in the food chain. A number of soil parameters important for nutrient uptake were determined to describe the site. (orig./MG)

185

Ecological consequences of biological invasions: three invertebrate case studies in the north-eastern Baltic Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

Population dynamics and ecological impacts of the cirriped Balanus improvisus, the polychaete Marenzelleria neglecta and the cladoceran Cercopagis pengoi were investigated in the north-eastern Baltic Sea. After an increase during the first decade of invasion, the density of M. neglecta and C. pengoi declined afterwards. The studied abiotic environmental variables did not explain the interannual variability in the seasonal cycles of M. neglecta and C. pengoi indicating that the species are at their initial phase of invasion. The population dynamics of B. improvisus was best described by water temperature. B. improvisus promoted the growth of the green alga Enteromorpha intestinalis. M. neglecta enhanced the content of sediment chlorophyll a and reduced growth and survival of the polychaete Hediste diversicolor and growth of the amphipod Monoporeia affinis. Concurrent with the invasion of C. pengoi the abundance of small-sized cladocerans declined, especially above the thermocline. C. pengoi had become an important food for nine-spined stickleback, bleak, herring and smelt.

Kotta, Jonne; Kotta, Ilmar; Simm, Mart; Lankov, Ain; Lauringson, Velda; Põllumäe, Arno; Ojaveer, Henn

2006-05-01

186

Integrated ecological risk assessment of pesticides in tropical ecosystems: a case study with carbofuran in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study is to contribute an ecologically relevant assessment of the ecotoxicological effects of pesticide applications in agricultural areas in the tropics, using an integrated approach with information gathered from soil and aquatic compartments. Carbofuran, an insecticide/nematicide used widely on sugarcane crops, was selected as a model substance. To evaluate the toxic effects of pesticide spraying for soil biota, as well as the potential indirect effects on aquatic biota resulting from surface runoff and/or leaching, field and laboratory (using a cost-effective simulator of pesticide applications) trials were performed. Standard ecotoxicological tests were performed with soil (Eisenia andrei, Folsomia candida, and Enchytraeus crypticus) and aquatic (Ceriodaphnia silvestrii) organisms, using serial dilutions of soil, eluate, leachate, and runoff samples. Among soil organisms, sensitivity was found to be E. crypticus soils and the potential risks for aquatic compartments. PMID:22068639

Chelinho, Sónia; Lopes, Isabel; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Domene, Xaxier; Nunes, Maria Edna Tenorio; Espíndola, Evaldo L G; Ribeiro, Rui; Sousa, Jose P

2012-02-01

187

Association between mortality from suicide in England and antidepressant prescribing: an ecological study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Antidepressant prescribing has been increasing in England. Studies in other countries suggest that while this may be associated with reduced suicide rates, it may also be associated with increased fatal poisoning from antidepressant drugs. We therefore conducted an ecological study to assess the association between prescription rates for antidepressants and suicide or fatal antidepressant-related poisoning in England. Methods The Office for National Statistics provided information on the number of suicides, antidepressant-related poisoning deaths and populations for England between 1993 and 2002. The Department of Health supplied data on prescriptions for all antidepressants dispensed in England. Associations between prescriptions and deaths were assessed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results There were 46,747 suicides, 3,987 deaths involving tricyclic antidepressants and 430 involving selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and other antidepressants. Increased antidepressant prescribing was statistically associated with a fall in suicide rates (Spearman's rs = -0.73, p = 0.02 and fatal poisoning involving tricyclic antidepressants (rs = -0.64, p = 0.05. In contrast, increased prescribing of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and other antidepressants was statistically associated with an increase in fatal poisoning involving these drugs (rs = 0.99, p Conclusion Increased prescribing of antidepressants may indicate improved diagnosis and treatment of depression in primary care. Our analysis suggests that this was accompanied by lower suicide rates. A decrease in poisoning deaths involving tricyclic antidepressants may suggest a change in preference for using serotonin reuptake inhibitors and other antidepressant drugs for high-risk patients. This may also partially explain the increase in deaths involving these drugs. Due to the ecological nature of the design, we cannot say conclusively whether reduced suicide rates are a direct consequence of increased antidepressant prescribing rates. To confirm these associations, individual level data on prescribing and suicide is needed.

Majeed Azeem

2004-12-01

188

Occurrence of severe dengue in Rio de Janeiro: an ecological study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the incidence of severe dengue during the 2008 epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and socioeconomic indicators, as well as indicators of health [...] service availability and previous circulation of the dengue virus serotype-3 (DENV-3). Methods In this ecological study, the units of analysis were the districts of Rio de Janeiro. The data were incorporated into generalized linear models, and the incidence of severe dengue in each district was the outcome variable. Results The districts with more cases of dengue fever in the 2001 epidemic and a higher percentage of residents who declared their skin color or race as black had higher incidence rates of severe dengue in the 2008 epidemic [incidence rate ratio (IRR)= 1.21; 95% confidence interval (95%CI)= 1.05-1.40 and IRR= 1.34; 95%CI= 1.16-1.54, respectively]. In contrast, the districts with Family Health Strategy (FHS) clinics were more likely to have lower incidence rates of severe dengue in the 2008 epidemic (IRR= 0.81; 95%CI= 0.70-0.93). Conclusions At the ecological level, our findings suggest the persistence of health inequalities in this region of Brazil that are possibly due to greater social vulnerability among the self-declared black population. Additionally, the protective effect of FHS clinics may be due to the ease of access to other levels of care in the health system or to a reduced vulnerability to dengue transmission that is afforded by local practices to promote health.

Gerusa, Gibson; Reinaldo, Souza-Santos; Alexandre San, Pedro; Nildimar Alves, Honório; Marilia, Sá Carvalho.

2014-12-01

189

A preliminary report on ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) recovered from forensic entomological studies conducted in different ecological habitats in Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reported the ant species that were recovered from monkey carcasses in three different ecological habitats in Malaysia. The study was conducted from 9 May - 10 October 2007, 6 May - 6 August 2008 and 26 May - 14 July 2009 in forested area (Gombak, Selangor), coastal area (Tanjong Sepat, Selangor) and highland area (Bukit Cincin, Pahang), respectively. Monkey carcass was used as a model for human decomposition in this study. A total of 4 replicates were used in each of the study sites. Ants were observed to prey on eggs, larvae, pupae and newly emerged flies. This study found that ant species could be found at all stages of decomposition, indicating that ants were not a significant indicator for faunal succession. However, different species of ants were obtained from monkey carcasses placed in different ecological habitats. Cardiocondyla sp. was only found on carcasses placed in the coastal area; while Pheidole longipes, Hypoponera sp. and Pachycondyla sp. were solely found on carcasses placed in the highland area. On the other hand, Pheidologeton diversus and Paratrechina longicornis were found in several ecological habitats. These data suggests that specific ant species can act as geographic indicators for different ecological habitats in forensic entomology cases in Malaysia. PMID:25134909

Chen, C D; Nazni, W A; Lee, H L; Hashim, R; Abdullah, N A; Ramli, R; Lau, K W; Heo, C C; Goh, T G; Izzul, A A; Sofian-Azirun, M

2014-06-01

190

Integration of field and captive studies for understanding the behavioral ecology of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sp.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Captive and field studies both provide valuable and complementary information that lead to a better understanding of a species' behavioral ecology. Here, we review studies from wild, captive, and semi-free ranging populations of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sp.), in order to (a) provide a more current (1985-2010) review of Saimiri behavioral ecology and (b) illustrate that integrating data collected in a variety of settings is an effective approach to addressing ecological questions in primates. Captive environments, such as zoological facilities and research colonies, can be advantageous to researchers by allowing longitudinal studies of behavior and reproduction, as well as providing opportunities for gathering data on life history, because physiological and life history data are known for individual animals. Studies of field populations can provide contextual information regarding the adaptive nature of behaviors that are studied in captivity. Squirrel monkeys are small, neotropical primates that have extensively been used in captive research. As the last in-depth review of Saimiri biology was published in 1985 [Rosenblum & Coe, The squirrel monkey. New York: Academic Press], we review studies since conducted on Saimiri ecology, life history, social behavior, reproduction, and conservation. Our review indicates that there is much variation in socioecology and life history traits between Saimiri species and, surprisingly, also between populations of the same species studied at different locales. In addition, much is known about squirrel monkey reproductive physiology, basic ecology, and vocal communication, but data are still lacking in the fields of life history and some adaptive components and social behavior. In particular, longitudinal studies in the field would be particularly relevant for a genus with a slow life history such as Saimiri. Finally, few data (captive or wild) are available on S. ustus and S. vanzolinii, though at least one of these species is threatened. PMID:21404315

Zimbler-Delorenzo, Heather S; Stone, Anita I

2011-07-01

191

Ecological baseline studies in Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons County of Los Alamos, New Mexico. A two-year study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the summers of 1993 and 1994, the Biological Resource Evaluations Team (BRET) of the Environmental Protection Group (ESH-8) conducted baseline studies within two canyon systems, Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons. Biological data was collected within each canyon to provide background and baseline information for Ecological Risk models. Baseline studies included establishment of permanent vegetation plots within each canyon along the elevational gradient. Then, in association with the various vegetation types, surveys were conducted for ground dwelling insects, birds, and small mammals. The stream channels associated with the permanent vegetation plots were characterized and aquatic macroinvertebrates collected within the stream monthly throughout a six-month period. The Geographic Position System (GPS) in combination with ARC INFO was used to map the study areas. Considerable data was collected during these surveys and are summarized in individual chapters.

Foxx, T.S. [comp.

1995-11-01

192

Study on the Shortage and Reconstruction of Chinese Ecological Tax System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Guiding by the view of science-based development, the ecological tax system which also possesses the benefits of encouragement and financing capital should be gradually established, so the material benefits can stimulate and drive that the social pollution costs are translated into production costs and market price, and the policy and law objectives to control ecological pollution and improve ecological quality can be realized. According to the requirements of sustainable development, China present tax system should be adjusted, and the relatively perfect ecological tax system should be gradually established. In this article, we put forward main countermeasures including the taxation to ecological pollution tax, the reform to resource tax system, and the adjustments to corresponding articles of other tax types about environmental protection.

Min Niu

2009-02-01

193

Revisiting the Affect Regulation Model of Binge Eating: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Using Ecological Momentary Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

The affect regulation model of binge eating, which posits that patients binge eat to reduce negative affect (NA), has received support from cross-sectional and laboratory-based studies. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves momentary ratings and repeated assessments over time and is ideally suited to identify temporal antecedents and…

Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

2011-01-01

194

The Preparation of Gelatine-Embedded Soil and Litter Sections and Their Application to Some Soil Ecological Studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method is described for preparing large gelatine-embedded soil sections for ecological studies. Sampling methods reduce structural disturbance of the samples to a minimum and include freezing the samples in the field to kill soil invertebrates in their natural microhabitats. Projects are suggested for upper secondary school students. (Author/BB)

Anderson, J. M.

1978-01-01

195

Study on O2-supplying characteristics of Azolla in Controlled Ecological Life Support System  

Science.gov (United States)

Azolla has high growth and propagation rate, strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability and rich nutrient value. It is able to be used as salad-type vegetable, and can also be cultured on wet bed in multi-layer condition. Hence, it possesses a potential functioning as providing O2, fresh vegetable and absorbing CO2 for Controlled Ecological Life Support System in space. In this study, we try to make clear the O2-providing characteristics of Azolla in controlled close chamber under manned condition in order to lay a foundation for Azolla as a biological component in the next ground simulated experiment and space application. A closed test cham-ber of Controlled Ecological Life Support System and Azolla wet-culturing devices were built to measure the changes of atmospheric O2-CO2 concentration inside chamber under "Azolla-fish -men" coexisting condition. The results showed that, the amount of O2 consumption is 80.49 83.07 ml/h per kilogram fish, the amount of CO2 emissions is 70.49 73.56 ml/(kg • h); O2 consumption of trial volunteers is 19.71 L/h, the volume of respiration release CO2 18.90 L/h .Artificial light intensity of Azolla wet culture under 70009000 Lx, people respiration and Azolla photosynthesis complemented each other, the atmospheric O2-CO2 concentration inside chamber maintained equilibration. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations in close chamber have obvious effects on enhancing Azolla net photosynthesis efficiency. This shows that Azolla has strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability, which equilibrates the O2-CO2 concentration inside chamber in favor of human survival, and then verifies the prospect of Azolla in space application.

Chen, Min; Deng, Sufang; Yang, Youquang; Huang, Yibing; Liu, Zhongzhu

196

Morphological, hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological changes and challenges in river restoration - the Thur River case study  

Science.gov (United States)

River restoration can enhance river dynamics, environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity, but the underlying processes governing the dynamic changes need to be understood to ensure that restoration projects meet their goals, and adverse effects are prevented. In particular, we need to comprehend how hydromorphological variability quantitatively relates to ecosystem functioning and services, biodiversity as well as ground- and surface water quality in restored river corridors. This involves (i) physical processes and structural properties, determining erosion and sedimentation, as well as solute and heat transport behavior in surface water and within the subsurface; (ii) biogeochemical processes and characteristics, including the turnover of nutrients and natural water constituents; and (iii) ecological processes and indicators related to biodiversity and ecological functioning. All these aspects are interlinked, requiring an interdisciplinary investigation approach. Here, we present an overview of the recently completed RECORD (REstored CORridor Dynamics) project in which we combined physical, chemical, and biological observations with modeling at a restored river corridor of the perialpine Thur River in Switzerland. Our results show that river restoration, beyond inducing morphologic changes that reshape the river bed and banks, triggered complex spatial patterns of bank infiltration, and affected habitat type, biotic communities and biogeochemical processes. We adopted an interdisciplinary approach of monitoring the continuing changes due to restoration measures to address the following questions: How stable is the morphological variability established by restoration? Does morphological variability guarantee an improvement in biodiversity? How does morphological variability affect biogeochemical transformations in the river corridor? What are some potential adverse effects of river restoration? How is river restoration influenced by catchment-scale hydraulics and which feedbacks exist on the large scale? Beyond summarizing the major results of individual studies within the project, we show that these overarching questions could only be addressed in an interdisciplinary framework.

Schirmer, M.; Luster, J.; Linde, N.; Perona, P.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Barry, D. A.; Hollender, J.; Cirpka, O. A.; Schneider, P.; Vogt, T.; Radny, D.; Durisch-Kaiser, E.

2014-06-01

197

Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was built on the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the mid-1980's. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 12 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Research conducted by the SREL has focused primarily on four questions related to these wetlands: (1) Prior to construction, what fauna and flora were present at the DWPF site and at similar, yet undisturbed, alternative sites (2) By comparing the Carolina bay at the DWPF site (Sun Bay) with an undisturbed control Carolina bay (Rainbow Bay), what effect is construction having on the organisms that inhabited the DWPF site (3) By comparing control streams with streams on the periphery of the DWPF site, what effect is construction having on the peripheral streams (4) How effective have efforts been to lessen the impacts of construction, both with respect to erosion control measures and the construction of refuge ponds'' as alternative breeding sites for amphibians that formerly bred at Sun Bay Through the long-term census-taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has begun to evaluate the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. Similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive Orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10CFR1022).

Pechmann, J.H.K.; Scott, D.E.; McGregor, J.H.; Estes, R.A.; Chazal, A.C.

1993-02-01

198

The Relationship between the Learning Ecology System and Students’ Engagement: A Case Study in Selangor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available School engagement is a relatively new concept in education. However, studies have demonstrated that the concept is useful in predicting students’ academic achievement. The present study was conducted to examine Malaysian students’ school engagement status and to understand the factors that influenced their engagement. The survey method was used to collect data with a questionnaire measuring the level of students’ engagement in three psychological domains (cognitive, affective, and behavior. The influential factors were measured by learning about the ecological factors affecting the students’ academic engagement, including their teachers’ teaching practice and the support they received from teachers, peers, and parents. A total of 311 (male and female participants between the ages of 12 -16 years from form one, form two, form three, and form four in a school in Selangor were selected using a random sampling procedure. Data was analyzed using descriptive and correlational analyses. The results showed that male and female students exhibit significantly different levels of engagement. Female students have a higher level of engagement than males. Teachers’ teaching practices and the support students received from peers, parents, and teachers were positively correlated with students’ engagement level. Although the results of the study support the findings of previous studies, further studies are suggested to verify the present findings. Implications for schools and parenting practices are also discussed.

Amla Mohd Salleh

2013-08-01

199

Unraveling Regulation of the Small Heat Shock Proteins by the Heat Shock Factor HvHsfB2c in Barley: Its Implications in Drought Stress Response and Seed Development  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapid increase in heat shock proteins upon exposure to damaging stresses and during plant development related to desiccation events reveal their dual importance in plant development and stress tolerance. Genome-wide sequence survey identified 20 non-redundant small heat shock proteins (sHsp) and 22 heat shock factor (Hsf) genes in barley. While all three major classes (A, B, C) of Hsfs are localized in nucleus, the 20 sHsp gene family members are localized in different cell organelles like cytoplasm, mitochondria, plastid and peroxisomes. Hsf and sHsp members are differentially regulated during drought and at different seed developmental stages suggesting the importance of chaperone role under drought as well as seed development. In silico cis-regulatory motif analysis of Hsf promoters showed an enrichment with abscisic acid responsive cis-elements (ABRE), implying regulatory role of ABA in mediating transcriptional response of HvsHsf genes. Gene regulatory network analysis identified HvHsfB2c as potential central regulator of the seed-specific expression of several HvsHsps including 17.5CI sHsp. These results indicate that HvHsfB2c is co-expressed in the central hub of small Hsps and therefore it may be regulating the expression of several HvsHsp subclasses HvHsp16.88-CI, HvHsp17.5-CI and HvHsp17.7-CI. The in vivo relevance of binding specificity of HvHsfB2C transcription factor to HSE-element present in the promoter of HvSHP17.5-CI under heat stress exposure is confirmed by gel shift and LUC-reporter assays. Further, we isolated 477 bp cDNA from barley encoding a 17.5 sHsp polypeptide, which was predominantly upregulated under drought stress treatments and also preferentially expressed in developing seeds. Recombinant HvsHsp17.5-CI protein was expressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity, which displayed in vitro chaperone activity. The predicted structural model of HvsHsp-17.5-CI protein suggests that the ?-crystallin domain is evolutionarily highly conserved. PMID:24594978

Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Kavi Kishor, Polavarapu B.; Seiler, Christiane; Kuhlmann, Markus; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Lee, Justin; Reddy, Malireddy K.; Sreenivasulu, Nese

2014-01-01

200

Unraveling regulation of the small heat shock proteins by the heat shock factor HvHsfB2c in barley: its implications in drought stress response and seed development.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapid increase in heat shock proteins upon exposure to damaging stresses and during plant development related to desiccation events reveal their dual importance in plant development and stress tolerance. Genome-wide sequence survey identified 20 non-redundant small heat shock proteins (sHsp) and 22 heat shock factor (Hsf) genes in barley. While all three major classes (A, B, C) of Hsfs are localized in nucleus, the 20 sHsp gene family members are localized in different cell organelles like cytoplasm, mitochondria, plastid and peroxisomes. Hsf and sHsp members are differentially regulated during drought and at different seed developmental stages suggesting the importance of chaperone role under drought as well as seed development. In silico cis-regulatory motif analysis of Hsf promoters showed an enrichment with abscisic acid responsive cis-elements (ABRE), implying regulatory role of ABA in mediating transcriptional response of HvsHsf genes. Gene regulatory network analysis identified HvHsfB2c as potential central regulator of the seed-specific expression of several HvsHsps including 17.5CI sHsp. These results indicate that HvHsfB2c is co-expressed in the central hub of small Hsps and therefore it may be regulating the expression of several HvsHsp subclasses HvHsp16.88-CI, HvHsp17.5-CI and HvHsp17.7-CI. The in vivo relevance of binding specificity of HvHsfB2C transcription factor to HSE-element present in the promoter of HvSHP17.5-CI under heat stress exposure is confirmed by gel shift and LUC-reporter assays. Further, we isolated 477 bp cDNA from barley encoding a 17.5 sHsp polypeptide, which was predominantly upregulated under drought stress treatments and also preferentially expressed in developing seeds. Recombinant HvsHsp17.5-CI protein was expressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity, which displayed in vitro chaperone activity. The predicted structural model of HvsHsp-17.5-CI protein suggests that the ?-crystallin domain is evolutionarily highly conserved. PMID:24594978

Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Kavi Kishor, Polavarapu B; Seiler, Christiane; Kuhlmann, Markus; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Lee, Justin; Reddy, Malireddy K; Sreenivasulu, Nese

2014-01-01

201

Application of the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean to Phytoplankton Ecology Studies in Monterey Bay, CA, USA  

OpenAIRE

As a demonstrator for technologies for the next generation of ocean color sensors, the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) provides enhanced spatial and spectral resolution that is required to understand optically complex aquatic environments. In this study we apply HICO, along with satellite remote sensing and in situ observations, to studies of phytoplankton ecology in a dynamic coastal upwelling environment—Monterey Bay, CA, USA. From a spring 2011 study, we examine HICO-de...

Ryan, John P.; Davis, Curtiss O.; Tufillaro, Nicholas B.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Bo-Cai Gao

2014-01-01

202

Ecological study on mangrove forest in East Coast of North Sumatra  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ecological studies on mangrove forest in East Coast of North Sumatra have been carried out with field work in transect method and laboratory analyses. This study would be covered on floristic composition, abrasion, green belt, soil properties, and water quality of mangroves. Land system map and landsat TM imagery (year 1996 coverage as main material in this study were used and overlay to determine training area. Based on vegetation inventory found that 20 mangrove species and by vegetation analyses, we known that Avicennia marina was as dominant tree species of seedling and sapling stage. Tree stage was not found in the area, yet. Environment properties of the mangrove area were suitable for mangrove growth and rehabilitation with the exception of pyrite content in the mangrove soil. Average of mangrove green belt was 25 m with range from 10 to 80 m in KJP (Kajapah land system and 30 m with range 10 to 50 m in PTG (Putting land system. Abrasion rate in the area was very high, i.e. 6 m per year in KJP land system, and 10 m per year in PTG land system.

ONRIZAL

2008-01-01

203

Bladder cancer mortality and private well use in New England: An ecological study  

Science.gov (United States)

Study objective: To investigate the possible relation between bladder cancer mortality among white men and women and private water use in New England, USA, where rates have been persistently raised and use of private water supplies (wells) common. Design: Ecological study relating age adjusted cancer mortality rates for white men and women during 1985-1999 and proportion of persons using private water supplies in 1970. After regressing mortality rates on population density, Pearson correlation coefficients were computed between residual rates and the proportion of the population using private water supplies, using the state economic area as the unit of calculation. Calculations were conducted within each of 10 US regions. Setting: The 504 state economic areas of the contiguous United States. Participants: Mortality analysis of 11 cancer sites, with the focus on bladder cancer. Main results: After adjusting for the effect of population density, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between residual bladder cancer mortality rates and private water supply use among both men and women in New England (men, r=0.42; women, r=0.48) and New York/New Jersey (men, r=0.49; women, r=0.62). Conclusions: Use of well water from private sources, or a close correlate, may be an explanatory variable for the excess bladder cancer mortality in New England. Analytical studies are underway to clarify the relation between suspected water contaminants, particularly arsenic, and raised bladder cancer rates in northern New England.

Ayotte, J.D.; Baris, D.; Cantor, K.P.; Colt, J.; Robinson, G.R., Jr.; Lubin, J.H.; Karagas, M.; Hoover, R.N.; Fraumeni, J.F., Jr.; Silverman, D.T.

2006-01-01

204

Ecological Studies on Al-Khadoud Spring, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Al-Khadoud spring is one of the most important water resources in Al-Hassa Governorate, Saudi Arabia. However, much of its biotic information is still unknown. This study presented preliminary ecological information of this aquatic body. Regarding to macrophytes, a total of eight species were observed along the study sites. These species include two submerged aquatic plants (Potamogeton pectinatus L. and Ceratophyllum demersum L.. The common distributed species are Phragmites australis (Cav. Trimex Steud and Cyperus rotundus (L.. On the other hand, a total of 20 algal genera were recorded with 7 genera of Chlorophyceae, 8 of Bacillariophyceae, 4 of Cyanophyceae and one of Euglenophyceae. The common phytoplankton occurred in all three investigated sites were Chlorella vulgaris, Mougeotia sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Actinastrum sp. Regarding to the biotic fauna, different forms of unicellular zooplankton such as Paramecium and Amoeba were recorded. Invertebrates such as freshwater insects and some freshwater snails were documented in the study sites including Melanodies tuberculata, Melanopsis praemorsa and Lymnaea auricularia. As regard to vertebrates, one species of fish, Aphanius dispar, dominate the spring basin and its extended channels.

Mohammed A. Al-Kahtani

2007-01-01

205

ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF CYANOBACTERIA IN SEWAGE POND OF H.E.C INDUSTRIAL AREA, RANCHI INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ecological study of the sewage stabilization pond of HEC area, Hatia, Ranchi has been taken for the first time in this area. Studies were conducted to determine the occurrence and abundance of cyanobacteria in relation to physico-chemical characteristics of sewage pond. It assumes significance of algae mostly cyanobacteria can be used as bioindicators of water pollution in different water habitat of the area. Increased eutrophication from domestic effluent, sewage promotes the development of algal bloom. This study indicates the maximum occurrence and abundance of Microcystis, Oscillatoria, and phormidium spp. in all sites of the sewage pond. The physico-chemical analysis shows maximum nitrogen up to 35.4 mg l-1, 4.8 mg l-1 phosphate, 147.131 mg l-1 chloride and alkaline nature of water throughout the year favour the growth of cyanophycean members and promote algal bloom formation of Microcystis aeruginosa, O.princeps and O.tenuis in this pond.

Amit Kumar

2012-01-01

206

Baseline aquatic ecology: a case study of Dahanu thermal power station in west coast of India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Baseline ecological studies of three creeks surrounded to a 500 MW coal based thermal power station that has been installed at Dahanu in west coast of India have been studied. Water samples were collected in summer, post-monsoon and winter seasons from surface, middle and bottom of the water columns at left and right banks and centre of the creeks, during high tide and low tide, and also during day and night for characterization of physico-chemical (temperature, transparency, pH, salinity, dissolved solids, suspended solids, alkalinity, nutrients etc. including heavy metals), microbiological and biological (phytoplankton, primary productivity, zooplankton, meiobenthos and nekton, viz. macrobenthos, fish, prawn, molluscs etc.) parameters. Studies revealed that abiotic features of the creeks were comparable to other similar type of ecosystems in India. Besides detritus, the ecosystem comprised of five trophic levels, viz. producer and consumers 1 through 4. While computing biomass of each trophic level, semialternating pattern of pyramids were obtained. Meiobenthos, comprising of 25 parent of the total biomass of fauna, had a significant role in the ecosystem. Index of biotic integrity, incorporating 25 attributes, was employed to evaluate the impact of predicted rise (2.3 degC) of ambient water temperature on creek biota. Evaluation revealed a marginal positive impact of the project on the ecosystem. (author)

207

Ecological studies on Al-Khadoud Spring, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Al-Khadoud spring is one of the most important water resources in Al-Hassa Governorate, Saudi Arabia. However, much of its biotic information is still unknown. This study presented preliminary ecological information of this aquatic body. Regarding to macrophytes, a total of eight species were observed along the study sites. These species include two submerged aquatic plants (Potamogeton pectinatus L. and Ceratophyllum demersum L.). The common distributed species are Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trimex Steud and Cyperus rotundus (L.). On the other hand, a total of 20 algal genera were recorded with 7 genera of Chlorophyceae, 8 of Bacillariophyceae, 4 of Cyanophyceae and one of Euglenophyceae. The common phytoplankton occurred in all three investigated sites were Chlorella vulgaris, Mougeotia sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Actinastrum sp. Regarding to the biotic fauna, different forms of unicellular zooplankton such as Paramecium and Amoeba were recorded. Invertebrates such as freshwater insects and some freshwater snails were documented in the study sites including Melanodies tuberculata, Melanopsis praemorsa and Lymnaea auricularia. As regard to vertebrates, one species of fish, Aphanius dispar, dominate the spring basin and its extended channels. PMID:19090280

Al-Kahtani, Mohammed A; Youssef, Ashraf M; Fathi, Adel A

2007-11-15

208

A GIS APPLICATION AND RESOURCE TOOL FOR USE ON STUDIES OF THE LAKE TEXOMA ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigations are underway at Lake Texoma to develop tools and information needed to evaluate the transport and attenuation of contaminants and stressors in a lake ecosystem, and link them to observable ecological effects. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), ...

209

Ecotoxicogenomics to Support Ecological Risk Assessment: A Case Study with Bisphenol A in Fish  

Science.gov (United States)

Toxicogenomic approaches are being increasingly applied in the field of ecotoxicology. Given the growing availability of ecotoxicogenomic data, the Agency and the broader scientific community are actively engaged in considering how best to use those data to support ecological ris...

210

A Clinical Case Study of the use of Ecological Momentary Assessment in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Accurate assessment of obsessions and compulsions is a crucial step in treatment planning for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD. In this pilot study, we sought to determine if the use of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA could provide additional symptom information beyond that captured during standard assessment of OCD. We studied three adults diagnosed with OCD and compared the number and types of obsessions and compulsions captured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS compared to EMA. Following completion of the Y-BOCS interview, participants then recorded their OCD symptoms into a digital voice recorder across a twelve-hour period in reply to randomly sent mobile phone SMS prompts. The EMA approach yielded a lower number of symptoms of obsessions and compulsions than the Y-BOCS but produced additional types of obsessions and compulsions not identified by the Y-BOCS. We conclude that the EMA-OCD procedure may represent a worthy addition to the suite of assessment tools used when working with clients who have OCD. Further research with larger samples is required to strengthen this conclusion.

ClareSamanthaRees

2014-04-01

211

Medico-ecological study and health impact assessment of hydro-electric projects in Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of this studies were to determine i) if there was any potential health risks in terms of spread of vector-borne and other communicable diseases resulting from the changes in the environment due to creation of large bodies of water as consequence of the construction of dams, ii) diseases of public health importance in populations affected by such projects. Nine pre-impoundment studies had been carried out and potential impact of the change in environment on discases and health of the affected populations in each areas was evaluated. Risk of infections to the dam construction workers also assessed. Recommendations on mitigation measures were made for each situation so that adequate provisions could be made to improve the health conditions of these populations especially those who would be resettled as a result of impoundment . Prevention and control measures on transmission of infection, including vector control were proposed. The potential medico-ecological hazards encountered by immigrants and visitors to the area on completion of the hydro project were also envisaged

212

Ecological study of gastric cancer in Brazil: Geographic and time trend analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

AIM: To investigate the geographic distributions and time trends of gastric cancer (GC) incidence and mortality in Brazil. METHODS: An ecological study of the DATASUS registry was conducted by identifying hospitalizations for GC between January 2005 and December 2010. The data included information on the gender, age, and town of residence at the time of hospital admission and death. RESULTS: The GC rates, adjusted according to available hospital beds, decreased from 13.8 per 100000 in 2005 to 12.7 per 100000 in 2010. The GC rates decreased more among the younger age groups, in which the male-to-female difference also decreased in comparison to the older age groups. Although the lethality rates tended to increase with age, young patients were proportionally more affected. The spatial GC distribution showed that the rates were higher in the south and southeast. However, while the rates decreased in the central-west and south, they increased in the northern regions. A geographic analysis showed higher rates of GC in more urbanized areas, with a coast-to-inland gradient. Geographically, GC lethality overlapped greatly with the hospital admission rates. CONCLUSION: The results of this study support the hypothesis of a critical role for environmental factors in GC pathogenesis. The declining rates in young patients, particularly males, suggest a relatively recent decrease in the exposure to risk factors associated with GC. The spatial distribution of GC indicates an ongoing dynamic change within the Brazilian environment. PMID:24803816

Amorim, César Augusto; Moreira, Jéssica Pronestino; Rial, Luisa; Carneiro, Antonio José; Fogaça, Homero Soares; Elia, Celeste; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; de Souza, Heitor Siffert Pereira

2014-01-01

213

Can Local Ecological Knowledge Contribute to Wildlife Management? Case Studies of Migratory Birds  

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Full Text Available Sound management of wildlife species, particularly those that are harvested, requires extensive information on their natural history and demography. For many global wildlife populations, however, insufficient scientific information exists, and alternative data sources may need to be considered in management decisions. In some circumstances, local ecological knowledge (LEK can serve as a useful, complementary data source, and may be particularly valuable when managing wildlife populations that occur in remote locations inhabited by indigenous peoples. Although several published papers discuss the general benefits of LEK, few attempt to examine the reliability of information generated through this approach. We review four case studies of marine birds in which we gathered LEK for each species and then compared this information to empirical data derived from independent scientific studies of the same populations. We then discuss how we attempted to integrate LEK into our own conservation and management efforts of these bird species with variable success. Although LEK proved to be a useful source of information for three of four species, we conclude that management decisions based primarily on LEK, in the absence of scientific scrutiny, should be treated with caution.

Mark Mallory

2005-06-01

214

The benefit of sustainable industrial cooperation. Study on the economical and ecological benefits of industrial cooperatives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From scientific literature and policy memoranda it appears that sustainable industrial cooperatives result into economical and ecological benefits. However, little empirical data on practical results is available. Therefore, recently, an analysis has been carried out determining the benefit of industrial cooperation. The economical and ecological offer businesses a cost-effective option to reduce the environmental burden. Still, real implementation of such cooperatives is only realized yet by forerunners in the field of environmental management

215

Model development in freshwater ecology with a case study using evolutionary computation  

OpenAIRE

Ecological modeling faces some unique problems in dealing with complex environment-organism relationships,making it one of the toughest domains that might be encountered by a modeler. Newer technologies and ecosystemmodeling paradigms have recently been proposed, all as part of a broader effort to reduce the uncertainty in modelsarising from qualitative and quantitative imperfections in the ecological data. In this paper, evolutionary computationmodeling approaches are introduced and proposed...

Dong-Kyun Kim; Kwang-Seuk Jeong; Robert Ian (Bob) McKay; Tae-Soo Chon; Hyun-Woo Kim; Gea-Jae Joo*

2010-01-01

216

Two approaches using traits to assess ecological resilience: A case study on earthworm communities  

OpenAIRE

The relation between biological diversity and ecosystem functioning is a central theme in ecology. Ecological traits of species are often regarded as a link between structure and function, and trait distributions in a community may change in response to environmental stressors. Likewise, resilience in a community may be derived from the diversity in traits and trait values relevant to a particular stressor. We combine two approaches to test this: a novel trait frequency analysis and a multiva...

Lange, H. J.; Kramer, K.; Faber, J. H.

2013-01-01

217

Island Ecology in Bermuda.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports on an island ecology course offered by Eastern Connecticut State College providing opportunities for students to study the ecology and natural history of organisms found in a variety of subtropical habitats in Bermuda. Explains student selection criteria, trip preparation, evaluation criteria, daily programs, and habitats studied on the…

Wulff, Barry L.; And Others

1981-01-01

218

Revisiting the Affect Regulation Model of Binge Eating: A Meta-Analysis of Studies using Ecological Momentary Assessment  

OpenAIRE

The affect regulation model of binge eating, which posits that patients binge eat to reduce negative affect (NA), has received support from cross-sectional and laboratory-based studies. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves momentary ratings and repeated assessments over time and is ideally suited to identify temporal antecedents and consequences of binge eating. This meta-analytic review includes EMA studies of affect and binge eating. Electronic database and manual searches produce...

Haedt-matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

2011-01-01

219

A preliminary study on some ecological aspects of the fruit piercing moths in Songkhla Province of Southern Thailand  

OpenAIRE

A preliminary study on some ecological aspects of fruit piercing moths (FPM) in Songkhla provinceof southern Thailand was conducted from December 2003 to November 2004. The objectives of this study were to determine species diversity, the seasonal abundance of the major moth species occurring in longkong (Aglaia dookkoo Griff.), citrus (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and pomelo (C. maxima Merr.) as well as to assess yield losses due to these insects in citrus cropping systems. Twenty-four species ...

Ratchanee Nilla-or5; Surakrai Permkam3; Bruce Barrett; Aran Ngampongsai; Niramon Suthapradit4

2005-01-01

220

Extraction of high-quality host DNA from feces and regurgitated seeds: a useful tool for vertebrate ecological studies  

OpenAIRE

DNA extraction methods for genotyping non-invasive samples have led to great advances in molecular research for ecological studies, and have been particularly useful for analyzing threatened species. However, scarce amounts of fragmented DNA and the presence of Taq polymerase inhibitors in non-invasive samples are potential problems for subsequent PCR amplifications. In this study we describe a novel technique for extracting DNA from alimentary tract cells found on external surfaces of feces ...

PATRICIA MARRERO; ROSA FREGEL; Cabrera, Vicente M.; MANUEL NOGALES

2009-01-01

221

Sudbury soils study : human health and ecological risk assessment : a case study in science, process and perception  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation discussed the public relations and public opinion strategies used as part of a soils study conducted to assess the risk of mining activities in the Sudbury region to human health and the environment. The human health risk assessment (HHRA) study was conducted and administered by a multi-stakeholder technical committee attended by the public. The study was comprised of extensive soil collection and analysis; a review of historical soils data; and extensive human health and ecological risk assessments. Extensive sampling was also conducted on air, dust, and locally-produced foods. A public advisory committee was formed to disseminate scientific information to the community. Scientific data obtained in the study were reviewed by experts in various fields. Results of the study were also peer-reviewed by an independent expert review panel comprised of leading specialists in human health, toxicology, speciation, and risk assessment. The study showed that the identified risks were over-estimated in the interest of protecting human health. It was concluded that the HHRA's findings were generally accepted by the public. tabs., figs

222

Assessment of ecological studies examining the risk of thyroid cancer in children through radiation exposure following the nuclear power plant disaster in Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiological studies can be divided into studies with an individual database (cohort studies, case control studies) and studies with aggregate data (ecological studies). The former have the advantage that they can make use of methods based on risk models and examine dose-effect curves with due consideration to potential confounders, but the drawback of being expensive. Studies based on aggregate data can take account of large case numbers at comparatively low cost. However, ecological studies are also associated with serious methodological problems, especially when the goal is to find causal links (''ecological bias''). Thus it is well known that variations in a confounding factor (such as smoking in a study on lung cancer through radon) can invalidate the results of studies based on aggregate data. On the other hand, the only studies to have produced quantitative results on the risk of acquiring thyroid cancer through 131I exposure during childhood in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl disaster happen to be based on aggregate data. The purpose of the present paper is to examine problems associated with ecological studies which have already been in the focus of many studies of epidemiological methodology in terms of whether they are relevant to studies investigating connections between thyroid cancer and 131I exposure. It also presents the results of several simulation studies which examine the degree of distortion associated with ecological of distortion associated with ecological analyses

223

The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 2 study of the radio-ecological consequences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The data compiled and processed within the framework of the French-German Initiative represent the so far most comprehensive collection of electronic data that has ever been put together on the topic of the 'Study of the radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'.The R.E.D.A.C. database system provides a powerful tool for the reconstruction of the dispersion of radionuclides through ecosystems and food chains and for the interpretation and prediction of their long-term behaviour. This allows the development of effective countermeasures to minimise risks to human health and improve the overall environmental situation. R.E.D.A.C. can also be used for the development and verification of realistic radioecology models. As the data were acquired under realistic conditions, the results can be used directly for model calculations in emergencies. This allows concrete planning, e. g. in connection with the securing of waste, its disposal, and the ecological restoration of waste disposal sites. The data also allow a reconstruction of the radioecological situation in the past, an analysis of the current situation, and predictions of future developments of the accident consequences on a large as well as on a small scale. (N.C.)

NONE

2006-03-15

224

The role of homoploid hybridization in evolution: a century of studies synthesizing genetics and ecology.  

Science.gov (United States)

While homoploid hybridization was viewed as maladaptive by zoologists, the possibility that it might play a creative role in evolution was explored and debated by botanists during the evolutionary synthesis. Owing to his synthetic work on the ecological and genetic factors influencing the occurrence and effects of hybridization, G. Ledyard Stebbins' contributions to this debate were particularly influential. We revisit Stebbins' views on the frequency of hybridization, the evolution of hybrid sterility, and the evolutionary importance of transgressive segregation, introgression, and homoploid hybrid speciation in the context of contemporary evidence. Floristic surveys indicate that ?10% of plant species hybridize, suggesting that natural hybridization is not as ubiquitous as Stebbins argued. There is stronger support for his contention that chromosomal sterility is of greater importance in plants than in animals and that selection drives the evolution of hybrid sterility. Stebbins' assertions concerning the frequent occurrence of transgressive segregation and introgressive hybridization have been confirmed by contemporary work, but few studies directly link these phenomena to adaptive evolution or speciation. Stebbins proposed a mechanism by which chromosomal rearrangements partially isolate hybrid lineages and parental species, which spurred the development of the recombinational model of homoploid speciation. While this model has been confirmed empirically, the establishment of reproductively independent hybrid lineages is typically associated with the development of both intrinsic and extrinsic reproductive barriers. We conclude by reflecting on outcomes of hybridization not considered by Stebbins and on possible future research that may extend our understanding of the evolutionary role of hybridization beyond Stebbins' legacy. PMID:25156978

Yakimowski, Sarah B; Rieseberg, Loren H

2014-08-01

225

Diet and mortality from common cancers in Brazil: an ecological study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A prospective ecological evaluation of mortality from common malignancies with dietary risk factors and alcohol consumption was carried out among 10 state capitals of Brazil. Regression analysis was used to examine the association of dietary intake with mortality rates of the most common cancers among adults age 30 years and older. Age-adjusted cancer mortality rates varied 2.4 to 3.3 fold across the state capitals. A positive relationship was observed between energy intake and colon, lung, and esophageal cancer (p<=0.02 for each. Colon cancer mortality was positively associated with consumption of total fat, eggs, alcohol, mate tea, cereals, and vegetables (p<=0.01. Lung cancer was positively associated with mate and cereal intake (p<0.05. Stomach cancer was associated with consumption of eggs (p=0.04; and negatively associated with consumption of high fiber foods, fruits, and vitamin A and C (p<=0.05. Esophageal cancer was positively associated with fat intake, mate and cereals (p<=0.05 and negatively associated with vitamin A (p=0.02; prostate cancer was negatively associated with vitamin C (p=0.007. Breast cancer was not associated with any of the factors studied. The marked variation in cancer mortality rates in Brazil may be partially related to the high variation in dietary components or other diet associated factors.

Sichieri Rosely

1996-01-01

226

Ecological study of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in soil: growth ability, conidia production and molecular detection  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ecology is not completely understood, although several pieces of evidence point to the soil as its most probable habitat. The present study aimed to investigate the fungal growth, conidia production and molecular pathogen detection in different soil conditions. Methods Soils samples of clayey, sandy and medium textures were collected from ground surface and the interior of armadillo burrows in a hyperendemic area of Paracoccidioidomycosis. P. brasiliensis was inoculated in soil with controlled humidity and in culture medium containing soil extracts. The molecular detection was carried out by Nested PCR, using panfungal and species specific primers from the ITS-5.8S rDNA region. Results The soil texture does not affect fungus development and the growth is more abundant on/in soil saturated with water. Some soil samples inhibited the development of P. brasiliensis, especially those that contain high values of Exchangeable Aluminum (H+Al in their composition. Some isolates produced a large number of conidia, mainly in soil-extract agar medium. The molecular detection was positive only in samples collected from armadillo burrows, both in sandy and clayey soil. Conclusion P. brasiliensis may grow and produce the infectious conidia in sandy and clayey soil, containing high water content, mainly in wild animal burrows, but without high values of H+Al.

Richini-Pereira Virgínia

2007-10-01

227

FOREST FIRES AROUND UNITS OF CONSERVATION – A CASE STUDY IN ÁGUAS EMENDADAS ECOLOGICAL STATION, DISTRITO FEDERAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze aspects of fire use on urban areas around Águas Emendadas Ecological Station (ESECAE, in Distrito Federal, and to evaluate the foremost fire occurrences, equipment availability and tools for combatants and beyond decreasing forest fire incidences. The local population in town region around it (considering three kilometers as ray from the station, fire crew members units of conservation and the garrison body of firemen were interviewed in a representative form. Results had shown that most inclined areas to forest fire occurrence (33.4% highways edges and secondary roads had their localization related to urban environment, in which 34% of residents used fire as land cleanness. Machines availability, tools and equipment for execution of the activities on prevention and combat exist; however, there is not any equipment for individual protection for all fire crew members. As a solution, educative campaigns to emphasize the negative consequences of using fire (as a tool land and also to alert people for the risks caused by it should be done.

Eugênio P. Costa

2009-09-01

228

A general hypothesis-testing framework for stable isotope ratios in ecological studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose a framework for hypothesis-testing of stable isotope ratios in ecological studies. Statistical procedures are based on analysis of nested linear models and a residual permutation procedure (RPP) that is employed to evaluate probabilities associated with test statistics. We used simulated examples and a real data set to illustrate the utility and generality of the method. First, we developed a test for differences in centroid location and dispersion of delta13C and delta15N values within and among groups of isotopic data. Second, we evaluated magnitude and direction of change in centroid position (termed "path") of a pair of isotopic samples separated in space/time relative to paths of other paired sample sets. Third, we compared attributes of path trajectories (size, direction, and shape) over sample sets containing more than two samples to provide a quantitative description of how patterns of isotopic ratios change in response to spatial and temporal gradients. Examples are limited to the bivariate case (delta13C-delta15N biplots), but the statistical method can readily be applied to univariate and multivariate cases. PMID:20836444

Turner, Thomas F; Collyer, Michael L; Krabbenhoft, Trevor J

2010-08-01

229

The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 2 study of the radio-ecological consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The data compiled and processed within the framework of the French-German Initiative represent the so far most comprehensive collection of electronic data that has ever been put together on the topic of the 'Study of the radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'.The R.E.D.A.C. database system provides a powerful tool for the reconstruction of the dispersion of radionuclides through ecosystems and food chains and for the interpretation and prediction of their long-term behaviour. This allows the development of effective countermeasures to minimise risks to human health and improve the overall environmental situation. R.E.D.A.C. can also be used for the development and verification of realistic radioecology models. As the data were acquired under realistic conditions, the results can be used directly for model calculations in emergencies. This allows concrete planning, e. g. in connection with the securing of waste, its disposal, and the ecological restoration of waste disposal sites. The data also allow a reconstruction of the radioecological situation in the past, an analysis of the current situation, and predictions of future developments of the accident consequences on a large as well as on a small scale. (N.C.)

230

Non invasive methods for genetic analysis applied to ecological and behavioral studies in Latino-America  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Documenting the presence and abundance of the neotropical mammals is the first step for understanding their population ecology, behavior and genetic dynamics in designing conservation plans. The combination of field research with molecular genetics techniques are new tools that provide valuable biol [...] ogical information avoiding the disturbance in the ecosystems, trying to minimize the human impact in the process to gather biological information. The objective of this paper is to review the available non invasive sampling techniques that have been used in Neotropical mammal studies to apply to determine the presence and abundance, population structure, sex ratio, taxonomic diagnostic using mitochondrial markers, and assessing genetic variability using nuclear markers. There are a wide range of non invasive sampling techniques used to determine the species identification that inhabit an area such as searching for tracks, feces, and carcasses. Other useful equipment is the camera traps that can generate an image bank that can be valuable to assess species presence and abundance by morphology. With recent advances in molecular biology, it is now possible to use the trace amounts of DNA in feces and amplify it to analyze the species diversity in an area, and the genetic variability at intraspecific level. This is particularly helpful in cases of sympatric and cryptic species in which morphology failed to diagnose the taxonomic status of several species of brocket deer of the genus Mazama.

Susana, González; José Mauricio Barbanti, Duarte.

2007-07-01

231

Effects of Urbanization Expansion on Landscape Pattern and Region Ecological Risk in Chinese Coastal City: A Case Study of Yantai City  

Science.gov (United States)

Applied with remote sensing, GIS, and mathematical statistics, the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics of urbanization expansion of Yantai city from 1974 to 2009 was studied. Based on landscape pattern metrics and ecological risk index, the landscape ecological risk from the landscape pattern dynamics was evaluated. The results showed that the area of urban land increased by 189.77?km2 with average expansion area of 5.42?km2?y?1 from 1974 to 2009. The urbanization intensity index during 2004–2009 was 3.92 times of that during 1974–1990. The land use types of urban land and farmland changed greatly. The changes of landscape pattern metrics for land use patterns indicated that the intensity of human activities had strengthened gradually in study period. The landscape ecological risk pattern of Yantai city shaped half-round rings along the coastline. The ecological risk index decreased with increase of the distance to the coastline. The ratio of high ecological risk to subhigh ecological risk zones in 2009 was 2.23 times of that in 1990. The significant linear relationship of urbanization intensity index and regional ecological risk indicated that the anthropological economic activities were decisive factors for sustainable development of costal ecological environment. PMID:24983003

Zhou, Di; Shi, Ping; Wu, Xiaoqing; Ma, Jinwei

2014-01-01

232

Combined assessment and regulation on ecological land use and water demand of the river system: a case study in Luanhe River, North China  

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Full Text Available With economic and social development, ecological water and land use of the river system were seriously misappropriated, which resulted in overall degradation of the river systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks of regionalisation on the eco-environmental function of the river systems were preliminarily formulated. According to the river eco-environmental functions, Luanhe River was regionalised into four types of first-class functional areas, i.e., ecological preservation areas, habitat restoration areas, ecological buffer areas and development and utilisation areas. Combined with the main functions of all functional areas, ecological land use of the river system in Luanhe River was assessed and planned. The total area of basic ecological land use was 876.98 km2; that of restrictive ecological land use was 1745.52 km2; that of ecological land use of the river system returned from farmland was 284.25 km2; and that returned from construction land was 17.35 km2. Combined with prototype observation experiments, the average minimum ecological flow of mainstreams in upper and middle reaches of the Luanhe River was 4.896 m3 s?1 with the habitat method. The evaporation and seepage consumption of the river system in Luanhe River and vegetation consumption in riparian zones were about 133 million m3 and 145 million m3 per year, respectively. Downwards from the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system, the mainstream of the Luanhe River was the crucial reach for regulation on instream ecological water use. It was required to speed up ecological land use planning of the river system and strengthen the regulation of ecological water use in important lower reaches of the Luanhe River under the condition of competitive water demand.

D. H. Yan

2011-10-01

233

Respuesta celular de línea de hepatoma humano (HepG2) al estrés hipotérmico con recuperación: Inducción de la expresión de Hsp60, Hsp70, y Hsf1 / Human hepatoma cell line (Hep G2) cellular response to hypothermic stress with recovery: Induction of Hsp70, Hsp60 and Hsf1 expression  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se analizó la respuesta celular de células HepG2 expuestas a hipotermia con posterior recuperación. Los hallazgos ultraestructurales en células sometidas a estrés hipotérmico incluyeron mitocondrias edematizadas, núcleos picnóticos, vacuolas y reorganización nucleolar en forma de ani [...] llo. Tales cambios están relacionados con diferencias significativas en la inducción de la expresión de Hsp60, Hsp70 inducible y Hsf 1 monomérico en todas las muestras tratadas, pero no de Hsc70. La respuesta celular a la hipotermia puede ser relacionada con la inducción sinergística de las Hsp Abstract in english The cell response of human HepG2 cells exposed to hypothermia with rewarming was analyzed. Ultrastructural findings in hypothermic stressed cells showed swollen mitochondria, dispersed chromatin, vacuoles and ring-shape nucleolar reorganization. These changes were coupled with significative differen [...] ces in the induction of Hsp60, inducible Hsp70 and monomeric Hsf1 in all treated samples, but not in Hsc 70 expression. Cellular response to hypothermia could be associated with the synergistic induction of Hsp expression

Alegna, Rada; Elizabeth, Merentes; Marianela, Rodríguez; Guillermo, Anselmi; Mirian, Strauss.

2010-12-01

234

Extraction of high-quality host DNA from feces and regurgitated seeds: a useful tool for vertebrate ecological studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english DNA extraction methods for genotyping non-invasive samples have led to great advances in molecular research for ecological studies, and have been particularly useful for analyzing threatened species. However, scarce amounts of fragmented DNA and the presence of Taq polymerase inhibitors in non-invas [...] ive samples are potential problems for subsequent PCR amplifications. In this study we describe a novel technique for extracting DNA from alimentary tract cells found on external surfaces of feces and regurgitated seeds. The presence of contaminants and inhibitors is minimized and samples are preserved intact for use in other ecological research (e.g. trophic studies). The amplification efficiency and purity of the extracted DNA from feces were significantly higher than in commonly used extraction procedures. Moreover, DNA of two bird species was identified from seeds expelled by regurgitation. Therefore, this method may be suitable for future ecological studies of birds, and other vertebrate groups.

PATRICIA, MARRERO; ROSA, FREGEL; VICENTE M, CABRERA; MANUEL, NOGALES.

235

A Study of the Social Ecological Wisdom in H.W. Longfellow?s Poetry  

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Full Text Available Under eco-criticism springing up as a literary, cultural and social criticism, which aims at exploring the relationships between literature, culture, society and natural environment to find out the ecological wisdom in literary works so as to awaken the ecological consciousness of the contemporaries, the present article mainly focuses on the great American poet and intellectual thinker, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s poems on slavery to explore his social ecological wisdom. By reading Longfellow in the light of such eco-ethical ideas as everyman being equal: anti-slavery and the harmonious development between nature and human society: anti-anthropocentrism, it is not difficult to discover the legacy glittering with social ecological wisdom in Longfellow’s poetry. Such wisdom is highly connected with Longfellow’s “environmental niche”. Nowadays, with the increasing deterioration and decaying of the environment, and the smoldering social discrimination, the social ecological wisdom implied in Longfellow’s poetry is of tremendous significance.

Jingcheng Xu

2012-01-01

236

Evaluation on Security of Planting Ecology: A Case Study of Shapingba District in Chongqing  

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Full Text Available Ecology security is the basis of regional sustainable development. The authors constructed planting eco-security evaluation indicator system, which included resources, environment, social and economic. Based on standardization of method, weighted function method and obstacle degree method, using analytic hierarchy process (AHP, this paper conformed the weighted coefficient comprehensive analyzed planting eco-security degree of Shapingba District in Chongqing. The results are following:1 from 1995 to 2010, the comprehensive index of planting ecology security increased from 0.272 2 to 0.647 7. 2 from 1995 to 2010, the obstacle degree of resources increased from 28.83% to 34.39%, but obstacle degree of environment declined from 46.37% to21.78%, obstacle degree of eco-security declined from 24.80 % to 9.68%. 3 to the ecology security of planting, there are some major limiting factors such as plough per capita, intensity of fertilizer using, intensity of pesticide using, intensity of film using and frequency of acid rain. Thus it can be seen that the security level of planting ecology is ascending year by year in Shapingba District since 1995. The security level of planting ecology will be increased by protecting resources, improving environmental governance and increasing infrastructure investment of agricultural.

BAN Rong-bo

2013-07-01

237

Exploring the relationship between cyberbullying and unnatural child death: an ecological study of twenty-four European countries  

OpenAIRE

Background Internet risk has been recognized as a child safety problem, but evidence is insufficient to conclude that a child's online risk exposure can lead to physical harm. This study aims to explore the ecological relationship between Internet risk exposure and unnatural child death. Methods Multiple secondary data sources were used: online exposure to content about self-harm, cyberbullying, and Internet addiction data (EU Kids Online survey, 2010); and mortality data (European Det...

Fu, Kw; Chan, Ch; Ip, P.

2014-01-01

238

Health consequences of Chernobyl disaster in Europe in general and in Norway in particular. Literature review and ecological study.  

OpenAIRE

Health costs of Chernobyl disaster are still not clear.Main goal of this paper therefore is to investigate health consequences of Chernobyl disaster in Europe (outside the former Soviet Union) as a whole and in Norway in particular as one of the second high contaminated areas after those in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. To do that literature review and ecological study with the Incidence rate ratios analysis are conducted. As a result hypothesis about increased...

Fedorov, Roman

2012-01-01

239

Radio-ecological study of the Lodeve mining complex (France) 1981-1985  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radio-ecological study of the Lodeve mining complex (mine + uranium process plant) was carried out between 1981 and 1985. Four aquatic compartments -water, sediments, vegetals, fish- were studied in eight stations selected on the basis of the existence of two liquid wastes. The measurements essentially concerned radium 226 and uranium 238 but also lead 210 (1985), thorium 232, potassium 40 and cesium 137. Spectrometry ? Ge-Li, emanometry and fluorimetry were used. Only a small brook -Rivernoux- an affluent of the Lergue river, shows radium and uranium activity levels higher than those measured upstream of the site; and this for the four compartments. In water, radium is associated with the solved cationic fraction (66%) and with materials in suspension (21%), whereas uranium is essentially associated with the solved anionic fraction (84%); the radium migration potentialities are therefore lesser than that of uranium. Radium distribution in fish is as follows: flesh (5 to 15%), skeleton (12%), viscera (30%) and skin + fins (30%). Radium concentration (or exchange) factors are always higher than those corresponding to uranium. In general, they are more important in non-influenced zones than in influenced zones (Rivernoux); this implies that radium and uranium evacuated by the mining complex are, at least partly, in non bio-available forms. For water/fish exchange a concentration factor of 100 will be considered for radium. On the basis of this value a weekly consumption of 200 g of fried gudgeon gives an annual committed dose equivalent corresponding to 0.86% of the dose authorized for the public (5.10-3 Sv.an-1)

240

Periodical Ecological Study of Deliya Lake of Visnagar. At. Visnagar. Ta.Visnagar, Gujarat, India  

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Full Text Available Visnagar city is located in north Gujarat (72 30 n and 73 30 n 23 0 e and 23 35 e. Visnagar taluka is popularly known as ‘Shikshan Nagari’ and also known as Copper city. The climate of visnagar is tropical arid to marginal semi-arid. It is strongly periodic and seasonal. There are many fresh water bodies are situated at and arou Deliya lake is natural fresh water body having 19 hector area & circular in shape. It is located between latitude230 41’ 60’’N longitude720 32’ 60’’ E. it is oldest lake of visnagar. It is also known as hanuman temple talav. Constructed before 10’th century.nd Visnagar taluka. The present study deals with the physico-chemical status of deliya lake. This water bodies has dense growth of algae and planktons in its. Physico-chemical status of lakes belongs to Visnagar Taluka were studied in year 2011. The physico- chemical parameters show pH, Dissolve Oxygen, totol dissolved Solid, E.C., Chloride, Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Calcium, Calcium Hardness, Magnesium, Magnesium Hardness, Fluoride, Nitrate, COD, BOD, etc and water is essential for living organisms especially like flora and fauna observed through various field trips. Showing abundance of analytic species and spirulina species with many other members of chlorophyceae. Euglenophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and cyanophyceae, microbiological analysis shows positive results for E.Coli, Vibro sp. and many other pathogenic. An isolated area of the lake is totally infested with eicchornia Spe. The migratory and local bird like plegadis falcinellus, Ardea parpurea, Egretta intermediate. Ardeola grayli, Dendrocygna, jaranica (and many more have been observed. If the sewage and other waste are diverted to some appropriate area other than the lake water quality and ecology of the pond can be restored and will be used in drinking and agriculture by the people.

H.V.JOSHI , DR. R.S.PATEL

2013-05-01

241

Ecology, ethics, and professional environmental practice: The Yucca Mountain, Nevada, project as a case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to develop a geologic repository for disposing of high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this commentary, the ecology program for the DOE's Yucca Mountain Project is discussed from the perspective of state-of-the-art ecosystem analysis, environmental ethics, and standards of professional practice. Specifically at issue is the need by the Yucca Mountain ecology program to adopt an ecosystem approach that encompasses the current strategy based on population biology and community ecology alone. The premise here is that an ecosystem approach is essential for assessing the long-term potential environmental impacts at Yucca Mountain in light of the thermal effects expected to be associated with heat from radioactive decay

242

Women and environment. A socio-ecological study for women on the reformation of the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study addresses the following issues: contributions to improve our environment; the impact of pollutants on our health; the pollution of food and water; water quality regulations. Protection of the environment is defined as the sum total of measures that safeguard woman's natural environment and maintain a biological equilibrium. The efficiency of technological solutions to protect the environment is strictly limited by ecological factors. The goal of environmental protection is to ensure the survival of womankind. Just like plants and animals, the human race is part of an ecosystem. Once this system is destroyed, there is nothing technical measures of environmental protection can do to reverse the process. Life on earth depends on the equilibrium between the oxygen produced by chlorophyllous plants and the oxygen consumed by human beings, animals and technological processes. My interviews with young women and children show that women could contribute very much to the melioration of the environment. The majority of women is trying to switch to non-chemically engineered products, which improves the quality of our water. Biological gardening is preferred by a small minority of women only, but many women take the separation of waste very seriously. However, individual actions can do little to solve the problem of pollution caused by road and air traffic. Life in the fast lane condemns us to the use of cars and airplanes. In the foreseeable future, this means more rathe foreseeable future, this means more rather than less pollution. With genetic engineering developing at a breathtaking rate, it seems impossible to avoid a large-scale modification of our food and agricultural produce. So far, many Austrian women fail to appreciate the trend towards genetic manipulation. Neither on the farm nor in the food products themselves is it possible to distinguish genetically engineered innovations. However, behind the consumer's back, this revolution of the food industry is pushed through at an ever greater speed. Because a majority of the population rejects such foodstuffs outright. Nevertheless, genetically engineered food products have already found their way into Austrian groceries stores, and this development is set to gather pace in years to come. This study gives priority to the question whether women can improve the environment. As I have mentioned before, women can indeed contribute to an improvement of the environment. However, only big ecological organizations can return nature to its pristine state, but any such efforts are currently foiled by the greed for profit of large corporations. As a conclusion of this study, it is fair to say that women can contribute to the reformation of the environment, for instance by reducing the toxic discharge into rivers and lakes, by separating waste and promoting recycled products, and by relying on biological products to promote a healthier lifestyle. The substitution of fossil fuels with electric power or natural gas for heating purposes clearly improves the quality of the air in one's own private environment. Green belts in residential areas and plants in the house are sources of oxygen that protect the respiratory system against damaging environmental influences. The survey also showed that women do not know enough about a healthy lifestyle, but they are eager to learn more about this issue. Several statements revealed interesting experiences. If women are increasingly interested in a healthy environment and turn to biologically farmed natural products, the soil will be able to regenerate, and this would clearly benefit the environment. (author)

243

A Study on the Coupling Rules between Ecological Environment and Urban Competitiveness  

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Full Text Available The relation between city and ecological environment forms in the coupling process of urban systems and environmental factors, in which there is a definite rule. Urban competitiveness embodies the evolvement and development of the city, using the dissipative structure principle and mathematical analysis, this paper probes into the coupling rule between urban competitiveness and ecological environment. It is indicated that the amicability degree of human environmental behavior determines the shape of environmental Kuznets curve, the human amicable behavior and technological progress are significant for coordinating the city development and improving the urban competitiveness.

Tong Yang

2009-02-01

244

Study on the Collaborative Innovation Oriented SDN Enterprise Ecological Collaboration Model  

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Full Text Available By comparing the similarities between SDN (Supply and Demand Network with multifunctional and opening characteristics for enterprise and natural ecosystem, the ecological characteristics of SDN enterprise are summarized in this article. The relationship among biological species groups in the natural ecosystem is used to describe the relationships of SDN enterprise in the collaborative innovation, and the collaborative innovation model among SDN enterprises based on the biology is generalized. In addition, four kinds of collaborative innovation oriented SDN enterprise ecological collaborative models are expounded respectively in detail.

Li Chen

2011-03-01

245

Age adjustment in ecological studies: using a study on arsenic ingestion and bladder cancer as an example  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its limitations, ecological study design is widely applied in epidemiology. In most cases, adjustment for age is necessary, but different methods may lead to different conclusions. To compare three methods of age adjustment, a study on the associations between arsenic in drinking water and incidence of bladder cancer in 243 townships in Taiwan was used as an example. Methods A total of 3068 cases of bladder cancer, including 2276 men and 792 women, were identified during a ten-year study period in the study townships. Three methods were applied to analyze the same data set on the ten-year study period. The first (Direct Method applied direct standardization to obtain standardized incidence rate and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis. The second (Indirect Method applied indirect standardization to obtain standardized incidence ratio and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis instead. The third (Variable Method used proportions of residents in different age groups as a part of the independent variables in the multiple regression models. Results All three methods showed a statistically significant positive association between arsenic exposure above 0.64 mg/L and incidence of bladder cancer in men and women, but different results were observed for the other exposure categories. In addition, the risk estimates obtained by different methods for the same exposure category were all different. Conclusions Using an empirical example, the current study confirmed the argument made by other researchers previously that whereas the three different methods of age adjustment may lead to different conclusions, only the third approach can obtain unbiased estimates of the risks. The third method can also generate estimates of the risk associated with each age group, but the other two are unable to evaluate the effects of age directly.

Guo How-Ran

2011-10-01

246

Urban green and its relation with air pollution: ecological studies in the Metropolitan area of Rome  

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Full Text Available Tropospheric ozone (O3 and Particulate Matter (PM have become a major concern in most European cities. In particular, in Italy the O3 concentrations exceed the limits established for the protection of both human health and vegetation. More integrative studies are revealing that urban trees could concretely help in improving air quality, not only because of their well known aesthetic and recreational benefit, but also for their capability to reduce air temperature and to remove air pollutants. This reduction takes place both directly, by dry deposition to plant surfaces and uptake through stomata, and indirectly, by mitigation of the urban heat island intensity by canopy transpiration and building shading, that lowers the activity of chemical reactions that led to the formation of photochemical pollutants in air. This is of particular importance especially for those cities located in the Mediterranean Basin, whose urban vegetation is often characterized by VOC-emitting species that can contribute significantly to the O3 formation and destruction dynamics. The aim of this paper is to present a short review of ecological research performed on vegetation of the metropolitan area of Rome, at different spatial and temporal scale, in order to evaluate the functional role of urban green to monitor and improve urban air quality. In the frame of the project HEREPLUS (EU FP7, all of this information, opportunely integrated with climatic and pollutant data, will be implemented in a GIS and, by the use of geo-statistical methods, the ameliorating effect of urban vegetation will be quantified and mapped.

Fausto Manes

2008-12-01

247

Collective trauma in northern Sri Lanka: a qualitative psychosocial-ecological study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex situations that follow war and natural disasters have a psychosocial impact on not only the individual but also on the family, community and society. Just as the mental health effects on the individual psyche can result in non pathological distress as well as a variety of psychiatric disorders; massive and widespread trauma and loss can impact on family and social processes causing changes at the family, community and societal levels. Method This qualitative, ecological study is a naturalistic, psychosocial ethnography in Northern Sri Lanka, while actively involved in psychosocial and community mental health programmes among the Tamil community. Participatory observation, key informant interviews and focus group discussion with community level relief and rehabilitation workers and government and non-governmental officials were used to gather data. The effects on the community of the chronic, man-made disaster, war, in Northern Sri Lanka were compared with the contexts found before the war and after the tsunami. Results Fundamental changes in the functioning of the family and the community were observed. While the changes after the tsunami were not so prominent, the chronic war situation caused more fundamental social transformations. At the family level, the dynamics of single parent families, lack of trust among members, and changes in significant relationships, and child rearing practices were seen. Communities tended to be more dependent, passive, silent, without leadership, mistrustful, and suspicious. Additional adverse effects included the breakdown in traditional structures, institutions and familiar ways of life, and deterioration in social norms and ethics. A variety of community level interventions were tried. Conclusion Exposure to conflict, war and disaster situations impact on fundamental family and community dynamics resulting in changes at a collective level. Relief, rehabilitation and development programmes to be effective will need to address the problem of collective trauma, particularly using integrated multi-level approaches.

Somasundaram Daya

2007-10-01

248

Factors associated with maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: an ecological study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal health is one of the major worldwide health challenges. Currently, the unacceptably high levels of maternal mortality are a common subject in global health and development discussions. Although some countries have made remarkable progress, half of the maternal deaths in the world still take place in Sub-Saharan Africa where little or no progress has been made. There is no single simple, straightforward intervention that will significantly decrease maternal mortality alone; however, there is a consensus on the importance of a strong health system, skilled delivery attendants, and women's rights for maternal health. Our objective was to describe and determine different factors associated with the maternal mortality ratio in Sub-Saharan countries. Methods An ecological multi-group study compared variables between many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa using data collected between 1997 and 2006. The dependent variable was the maternal mortality ratio, and Health care system-related, educational and economic indicators were the independent variables. Information sources included the WHO, World Bank, UNICEF and UNDP. Results Maternal mortality ratio values in Sub-Saharan Africa were demonstrated to be high and vary enormously among countries. A relationship between the maternal mortality ratio and some educational, sanitary and economic factors was observed. There was an inverse and significant correlation of the maternal mortality ratio with prenatal care coverage, births assisted by skilled health personnel, access to an improved water source, adult literacy rate, primary female enrolment rate, education index, the Gross National Income per capita and the per-capita government expenditure on health. Conclusions Education and an effective and efficient health system, especially during pregnancy and delivery, are strongly related to maternal death. Also, macro-economic factors are related and could be influencing the others.

Hernández Valentín

2009-12-01

249

An Improvement in Total RNA Isolation Protocol for Ecologic Studies: Case Study Tobacco Cells  

OpenAIRE

Many experimental techniques related to molecular biology such as the Northern blot analysis, RNA protection assays, in situ hybridization and RT-PCR need maximum-yielded, highly purified RNA samples. Researchers who study with RNA extraction are well known for being extremely sensitive about their chemical solutions, equipment, glassware and even laboratories. Taking certain precautions, which are given in protocol, is more convenient than obtaining a low 260/280 spectrophotometric ra...

Senol Boztok; Burcin Cokuysal

2006-01-01

250

Floristical and Ecological Studies on Burned Blackpine (Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb Holmboe Forest Area at Central Anatolia  

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Full Text Available In the burned forest area between 1999-2002 the floristical and ecological studies were conducted. In this period, successional development of the area was observed. After the fire in 1995, new life forms migrated from unburned parts of Sundiken Mountains and occupied the burned area in 7-8 years. There were 133 plant taxa were collected at the first year of the study and during the successional development the number of plant taxa decreased to 75. The secondary succession of the area were determined between 1999-2002. After the fire the dominant plant species of the study area is Cistus laurifolius.

Atila Ocak

2007-01-01

251

Ecological engineering to control bioclogging: an original field study coupling infiltration and biological measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

Infiltration systems are increasingly used in urban areas for several purposes such as flood prevention and groundwater recharge. However, their functioning is often impacted by clogging that leads to decreases in hydraulic and water treatment performances. These systems are commonly built with sand as infiltration medium, a media subject to rapid clogging by the combined and overlapping processes of pore occlusion by fine particles and biofilm development. In a previous study, we pointed out that the phototrophic component of biofilms developed at the surface layer of infiltration systems (algae, cyanobacteria) could reduce by up to 60-fold the saturated hydraulic conductivity. Consequently, it appears crucial to control biofilm growth to maintain porous infiltration media performances. The present study aimed to test the influence of biotic (addition of animals or macrophytes) and abiotic (light reduction) treatments on biofilm development and associated hydraulic properties in an infiltration device dedicated to aquifer recharge with river water in Lyon Area (France). Twenty-five benthic enclosures were used to test 5 "treatments" on non-manipulated surface layer under field conditions. Three biotic treatments consisted in the introduction of: (i) an invertebrate acting as algae grazer (Viviparus viviparus), (ii) an invertebrate that digs galleries in sediments (Tubifex tubifex), and (iii) a macrophyte that could inhibit benthic biofilm by allelopathic activity (Vallisneria spiralis L). The fourth treatment was designed to simulate shading. The last "treatment" was a control which monitored the evolution of the system during the experiment without manipulation (addition of macro-organisms or shading). Each treatment was replicated five times. The experiment was conducted for 6 weeks, and sampling of the surface layer (0-1 cm) was carried out in each enclosure at the beginning (t0) and the end (tf). We coupled biological characterizations (organic matter, algal biomass, bacterial abundances, microbial enzymatic activities, EPS composition, and photosynthetic efficiency) with in situ hydraulic conductivity measurements (falling head method, five measures per enclosure at t0 and tf). Our results showed that some treatments could regulate benthic biofilm growth and improve infiltration rate. For instance, V. viviparus treatment resulted in a decrease in chlorophyll-a, EPS sugar and protein contents and an associated increase of infiltration rate, while it decreased in the control treatment. These results are very promising for the future development of ecological engineering solutions to prevent biological clogging in systems dedicated to infiltration. To our knowledge, this study is the first to highlight such potential role of macro-organisms under field conditions.

Gette-bouvarot, Morgane; Mermillod-Blondin, Florian; Lassabatere, Laurent; Lemoine, Damien; Delolme, Cécile; Volatier, Laurence

2014-05-01

252

The ecology of the planktonic diatom Cyclotella and its implications for global environmental change studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fossil record of diatoms in lake sediments can be used to assess the effects of climate variability on lake ecosystems if ecological relationships between diatom community structure and environmental parameters are well understood. Cyclotella sensu lato taxa are a key group of diatoms that are frequently dominant members of phytoplankton communities in low- to moderate-productivity lakes. Their relative abundances have fluctuated significantly in palaeolimnological records spanning over a century in arctic, alpine, boreal and temperate lakes. This suggests that these species are sensitive to environmental change and may serve as early indicators of ecosystem effects of global change. Yet patterns of change in Cyclotella species are not synchronous or unidirectional across, or even within, regions, raising the question of how to interpret these widespread changes in diatom community structure. We suggest that the path forward in resolving seemingly disparate records is to identify clearly the autecology of Cyclotella species, notably the role of nutrients, dissolved organic carbon and light, coupled with better consideration of both the mechanisms controlling lake thermal stratification processes and the resulting effects of changing lake thermal regimes on light and nutrients. Here we begin by reviewing the literature on the resource requirements of common Cyclotella taxa, illustrating that many studies reveal the importance of light, nitrogen, phosphorus, and interactions among these resources in controlling relative abundances. We then discuss how these resource requirements can be linked to shifts in limnological processes driven by environmental change, including climate-driven change in lakewater temperature, thermal stratification and nutrient loading, as well as acidification-driven shifts in nutrients and water clarity. We examine three case studies, each involving two lakes from the same region that have disparate trends in the relative abundances of the same species, and illustrate how the mechanisms by which these species abundances are changing can be deciphered. Ultimately, changes in resource availability and water clarity are key factors leading to shifts in Cyclotella abundances. Tighter integration of the autecology of this important group of diatoms with environmental change and subsequent alterations in limnological processes will improve interpretations of palaeolimnological records, and clarify the drivers of seemingly disparate patterns in fossil records showing widespread and rapid changes across the northern hemisphere. PMID:24917134

Saros, J E; Anderson, N J

2014-06-11

253

Miscanthus plants used as an alternative biofuel material. The basic studies on ecology and molecular evolution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Miscanthus Anderss, widely distributed in Asia and Pacific Islands, possesses 20 species. Of which 8 species and 1 variety were recorded in Chinese Mainland; 6 species and 1 variety found in Japan; 5 species and 3 varieties distributed in Taiwan; 3 species documented in the Philippines; and rest of species have been recorded in Jawa, eastern Himalaya, and Sikkim. The plant is a C{sub 4} perennial grass with high productivity of biomass. In the 19th and early 20th centuries in Taiwan, Miscanthus was a very important crop used for forage grass, clothing, and shelter, etc. The relatively high germination, and high yield of biomass made the plant available for people of Taiwan including aboriginal. The taxonomic study of Miscanthus plants was much done by several scientists, and its ecological study has been only taken by the present author since 1972. Chou and his associates paid a great attention to elucidate the mechanism of dominance of Miscanthus vegetation and found that allelopathy plays an important role. In addition, the population biology of Miscanthus taxa by using polyacrylamide gel electrophoreses technique to examine the patterns of peroxidase and esterase among populations (over 100) of Miscanthus in Taiwan were conducted. They also elucidated the phylogenetic relationship among species and varieties in Taiwan. Chou and Ueng proposed an evolutionary trend of Miscanthus species, indicating that the Miscanthus sinensis was assumed to be the origin of Miscanthus Anderss, which evolved to M. sinensis var. formosana, and M. sinensis var. flavidus, and M. sinensis var. transmorrisonensis, and Miscanthus floridulus was thought to be an out group of M. sinensis complex. Moreover, molecular phylogeny was attempted to clarify the population heterogeneity of M. sinensis complex, resulting in a substantial information. It would be available for making hybridization between Miscanthus species and its related species, such as Saccharum (sugar cane) spp. which is a high energy resource plant. European scientists already brought Asian Miscanthus species and bred a new hybrid called Miscanthus x giganteus, which is now being used as a biofuel material in Europe and would be widely used in the world in the near future if fundamental questions, such as fiber transformation to alcohol or other breeding techniques, are answered. (author)

Chou, Chang-Hung [Graduate Institute of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, College of Life Sciences, China Medical University, Taichung 404 (China)

2009-08-15

254

Ecological study of the fungal populations of the acidic Tinto River in southwestern Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

The characterization of the microbial ecology of the Tinto River, an extreme habitat with an extremely low pH and a high concentration of heavy metals, revealed an unexpected level of microbial richness. A variety of microbial eukaryotes was isolated, among them several fungal strains that were identified and their physiological characteristics studied. Ninety strains of yeast were isolated from the Tinto River. Fifty-two percent of them were capable of growth in vitro using medium amended with river water. They belong to 6 genera of basidiomycetes (Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus, Tremella, Holtermannia, Leucosporidium, and Mrakia) and 2 of ascomycetes (Candida and Williopsis). In addition, 349 strains of hyphomycetes belonging to 17 genera (most of them ascomycetes) were isolated and studied. Forty-four percent of the isolated filamentous fungi (154 strains) were capable of growing in vitro using medium amended with Tinto River water. Of this percentage, 19% (29 strains) belonged to the genus Penicillium (16 species) and 66% (102 strains) were included in the genera Scytalidium, Bahusakala, Phoma, and Heteroconium or showed dark sterile mycelia, which probably are of dematiaceous hyphomycetes. In addition, we characterized strains of the ascomycete genera Lecythophora and Acremonium and of the zygomycete genus Mortierella, all of them capable of growing in medium amended with river water. Statistical correlation of biological and physicochemical variables suggested a positive relationship between the dematiaceous hyphomycetes and the most extreme physicochemical conditions found in the Tinto River. Principal components analysis confirmed this relationship and also showed that the Acremonium and Lecythophora groups had environmental preferences similar to those of dematiaceous fungi. The spatial positions of the sampling sites were grouped in 2 main clusters: (i) sampling sites in the mine zone in which most of the dematiaceous, Acremonium, and Lecythophora strains were isolated and (ii) sites that were not in the mine zone and sampling station 5 from which were isolated mainly strains of fungi that were not capable of growing in the medium amended with river water and species of the Penicillium genus. PMID:15644909

López-Archilla, A I; González, A E; Terrón, M C; Amils, R

2004-11-01

255

Concern about passive smoking and tobacco control policies in European countries: An ecological study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the magnitude of the global tobacco epidemic, the World Health Organisation developed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC, an international legally binding treaty to control tobacco use. Adoption and implementation of specific tobacco control measures within FCTC is an outcome of a political process, where social norms and public opinion play important roles. The objective of our study was to examine how a country’s level of tobacco control is associated with smoking prevalence, two markers of denormalisation of smoking (social disapproval of smoking and concern about passive smoking, and societal support for tobacco control. Methods An ecological study was conducted, using data from two sources. The first source was the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS from 2011, which quantifies the implementation of tobacco control policies in European Union (EU countries. Data on smoking prevalence, societal disapproval of smoking, concern about passive smoking, and societal support for policy measures were taken from the Eurobarometer survey of 2009. Data from Eurobarometer surveys were aggregated to country level. Data from the 27 European Union member states were used. Results Smoking prevalence rates in 2009 were negatively associated with a country’s TCS 2011 score, although not statistically significant (r = ?.25; p = .21. Experience of societal disapproval was positively associated with higher TCS scores, though not significantly (r = .14; p = .48. The same was true for societal support for tobacco control (r = .27; p = .18. The TCS score in 2011 was significantly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .42; p =.03. Support for tobacco control measures was also strongly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .52, p = .006. Conclusions Smokers in countries with a higher TCS score were more concerned about whether their smoke harms others. Further, support for tobacco control measures is higher in countries that have more of these concerned smokers. Concerns about passive smoking seem central in the implementation of tobacco control measures, stressing the importance of continuing to educate the public about the harm from passive smoking.

Willemsen Marc C

2012-10-01

256

What is dental ecology?  

Science.gov (United States)

Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are not dentally adapted. Interpreting these data was only possible by combining our areas of expertise (dental anatomy [FC] and primate ecology [MS]). By integrating theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of both areas of research, we adopted the term "dental ecology"-defined as the broad study of how teeth respond to the environment. Specifically, we view dental ecology as an interpretive framework using teeth as a vehicle for understanding an organism's ecology, which builds upon earlier work, but creates a new synthesis of anatomy and ecology that is only possible with detailed knowledge of living primates. This framework includes (1) identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, within the context of feeding ecology, behavior, habitat variation, and anthropogenic change, (2) assessing ways in which dental development and biogeochemical signals can reflect habitat, environmental change and/or stress, and (3) how dental microstructure and macro-morphology are adapted to, and reflect feeding ecology. Here we define dental ecology, provide a short summary of the development of this perspective, and place our new work into this context. PMID:22610892

Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L

2012-06-01

257

Model development in freshwater ecology with a case study using evolutionary computation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ecological modeling faces some unique problems in dealing with complex environment-organism relationships,making it one of the toughest domains that might be encountered by a modeler. Newer technologies and ecosystemmodeling paradigms have recently been proposed, all as part of a broader effort to reduce the uncertainty in modelsarising from qualitative and quantitative imperfections in the ecological data. In this paper, evolutionary computationmodeling approaches are introduced and proposed as useful modeling tools for ecosystems. The results of our casestudy support the applicability of an algal predictive model constructed via genetic programming. In conclusion, wepropose that evolutionary computation may constitute a powerful tool for the modeling of highly complex objects, suchas river ecosystems.

Dong-Kyun Kim

2010-12-01

258

The DAE-BRNS initiative on thermal ecological studies relevance and implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Industrial development has its costs and benefits and electric power generation is no exception. The costs include not only the financial burden but also the ecological impact on the environment and the appreciation of such costs is, slowly but surely, increasing globally. In several industrial processes involving generation or consumption of power, naturally occurring water bodies serve as heat sinks. Electric power production can lead to rise in temperatures in two distinct ways, namely (i) a direct heated water discharge, of (ii) indirect global warming through CO2 and other green house gases (GHGs). The dissipation of heat through the plant cooling water systems is the only heated effluents can effect the growth, development and distribution of flora and fauna in the surroundings, and if so to what extent, is an important issue of discussion at this meeting. DAE has taken an initiative to investigate the thermal ecology in the environment around an existing coastal (Kalpakkam) and inland (Kaiga) nuclear power plant

259

STUDY CONCERNING FOREST ECOLOGIC RECONSTRUCTIUON ON DEGRADED LAND IN RANGE OCOLUL SILVIC “VALEA CIBINULUI”, SALISTE, ROMANIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study examines the stationary conditions, determine solutions to improve degraded land, assessing the cost of ecological restoration work needed in the area of improving degraded lands at Rapa - Cop?cel, estimated benefits of the project and its viability. Objectives of the paper: need to introduce in the circuit of productive forest lands within the improvement of the area "La Rapa - Cop?cel" danger zone where activation of the phenomena of degradation (erosion , landslides predominate. Out of 102.33 ha as area for improvement, the effective area of 101.6 ha is forested, representing a difference of 0.73 ha, 1.2 m wide strip that is to be the place for hedges. Viability of the project results from the ratio calculated benefit/cost = 2.3 which justifies the need and opportunity for investment. Opportunity project results in immediate and potential beneficial effects of the a forestation namely stabilization by stopping land erosion and landslides with positive influences on human settlements, infrastructure and communication lines, reducing the intensity of land degradation processes and the gradual improvement their production capacity as the direct effect of forest cultures, the role of forests in improving the main factors of environmental water, air, climate, reducing extreme values of climatic factors (temperature, evapotranspiration, wind speed, humidity and air purification by the ozoning phyithoncide releasing the destructive effect of microbes; regulating rainfall, ensuring constant and permanent water flow, reducing the effects of drought and floods, improving stationary conditions for the maintenance and development of herbaceous vegetation and forest. It specifies the role and sanogene functions of the forest – ambient of the forest, an constructive and necessary factor for the ecosystems and human health, and its other roles: aesthetic role "attribute of all forests" - contemplating a sylvan landscape with positive effects on the psyche (lights, shadows, colors, contrasts, echo, thus improving the appearance of the landscape area surrounding Loamnes; diversifying and increasing social functions, conservation of biodiversity, creating a favorable climate for wildlife, creating database, nectarous economic effects are related to obtaining wood in a wood shortage area.

Robert BLAJ

2014-12-01

260

Diet and mortality from common cancers in Brazil: an ecological study  

OpenAIRE

A prospective ecological evaluation of mortality from common malignancies with dietary risk factors and alcohol consumption was carried out among 10 state capitals of Brazil. Regression analysis was used to examine the association of dietary intake with mortality rates of the most common cancers among adults age 30 years and older. Age-adjusted cancer mortality rates varied 2.4 to 3.3 fold across the state capitals. A positive relationship was observed between energy intake and colon, lung, a...

Sichieri Rosely; Everhart James E.; Mendonça Gulnar A. S.

1996-01-01

261

Ascendency as an ecological indicator: a case study of estuarine pulse eutrophication  

OpenAIRE

Increasingly, management agencies require that the remediation of eutrophic waters be addressed at the level of the whole ecosystem. One whole-system approach to quantify ecosystems is called ecological network analysis. Ascendency theory, the branch of the field that deals with the quantification of whole-system status, specifically addresses the definition of eutrophication. This definition has been applied to data taken over a gradient of eutrophication. Three separate areas were observed:...

Patri?cio, J.; Ulanowicz, R.; Pardal, M. A.; Marques, J. C.

2004-01-01

262

Stomach cancer incidence in Brazil: an ecologic study with selected risk factors  

OpenAIRE

Contrary to many industrialized countries in which a sharp decline in stomach cancer incidence has been observed, Brazil still shows intermediate to high incidence rates. An ecologic analysis was performed to explore variables possibly associated with the development of stomach cancer. Cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and factor analysis were carried out with population data, including the following: stomach cancer incidence rates in the early 1990s obtained from population-bas...

Koifman Sergio; Koifman Rosalina Jorge

1997-01-01

263

Study on the Collaborative Innovation Oriented SDN Enterprise Ecological Collaboration Model  

OpenAIRE

By comparing the similarities between SDN (Supply and Demand Network with multifunctional and opening characteristics for enterprise) and natural ecosystem, the ecological characteristics of SDN enterprise are summarized in this article. The relationship among biological species groups in the natural ecosystem is used to describe the relationships of SDN enterprise in the collaborative innovation, and the collaborative innovation model among SDN enterprises based on the biology is generali...

Li Chen; Fuyuan Xu

2011-01-01

264

Xylitol and its effect on oral ecology : clinical studies in children and adolescents  

OpenAIRE

Xylitol, classified as a natural sugar substitute, has for about 35 years been known as an agent that may act against caries. The mechanism of action; how it inhibits mutans streptococci (MS) and the clinical dose-response relationship are not however fully investigated. The general aim of the investigations was to evaluate the effect of xylitol on oral ecology in children and adolescents. A series of experimental and controlled clinical trials were performed in which samples of saliva and pl...

Lif Holgerson, Pernilla

2007-01-01

265

Subantarctic forest ecology : case study of a conifer-broadleaved stand in Patagonia, Argentina  

OpenAIRE

In the temperate rainforests of southern South America, the tree genus Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae) is the dominant in extension and abundance on zonal soils at different latitudes and altitudes, as well as on intrazonal (e.g., wetlands) and azonal soils (e.g., morrenic and fluvioglacial deposits). Although concern on the global role of this biome is currently important, the existing level of ecological knowledge on its functioning is still inadequate to design a sound management to maintain or...

Dezzotti, A.

2000-01-01

266

Emerging synthesis themes from the study of social-ecological systems of a tropical city  

OpenAIRE

The synthesis of the contributions in this special issue about the tropical city of San Juan has resulted in five themes. First, the city is subject to multiple vulnerabilities, but socioeconomic factors and education level affect the perception of citizens to those vulnerabilities, even in the face of imminent threat. Second, in light of the social-ecological conditions of the city, how its citizens and institutions deal with knowledge to respond to vulnerabilities becomes critical to the ...

Mun?oz-erickson, Tischa A.; Lugo, Ariel E.; Braulio Quintero

2014-01-01

267

A Study on Remote Probing Method for Drawing Ecology/Nature Map and the Application (III) - Drawing the Swamp Classification Map around River  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The map of ecology/nature in the amended Natural Environment Conservation Act is the necessary data, which is drawn through assessing the national land with ecological factors, to execute the Korea's environmental policy. Such important ecology/nature map should be continuously revised and improved the reliability with adding several new factors. In this point of view, this study has the significance in presenting the improvement scheme of ecology/nature map. 'A Study on Remote Probing Method for Drawing Ecology/Nature Map and the Application' that has been performed for 3 years since 1998 has researched the drawing method of subject maps that could be built in a short time - a land-covering classification map, a vegetation classification map, and a swamp classification map around river - and the promoting principles hereafter. This study also presented the possibility and limit of classification by several satellite image data, so it would be a big help to build the subject map in the Government level. The land-covering classification map, a result of the first year, has been already being built by Ministry of Environment as a national project, and the improvement scheme of the vegetation map that was presented as a result of second year has been used in building the basic ecology/nature map. We hope that the results from this study will be applied as basic data to draw an ecology/nature map and contribute to expanding the understanding on the usefulness of the several ecosystem analysis methods with applying an ecology/nature map and a remote probe. 55 refs., 38 figs., 24 tabs.

Jeon, Seong Woo; Cho, Jeong Keon; Jeong, Hwi Chol [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

2000-12-01

268

Development of a zoning-based environmental-ecological-coupled model for lakes: a case study of Baiyangdian Lake in North China  

OpenAIRE

Environmental/ecological models are widely used for lake management as they provide a means to understand physical, chemical and biological processes in highly complex ecosystems. Most research focused on the development of environmental (water quality) and ecological models, separately. Limited studies were developed to couple the two models, and in these limited coupled models a lake was regarded as a whole for analysis (i.e., considering the lake to be one well-mixed box)...

Zhao, Y. W.; Xu, M. J.; Xu, F.; Wu, S. R.; Yin, X. A.

2014-01-01

269

Development of a zoning-based environmental–ecological coupled model for lakes: a case study of Baiyangdian Lake in northern China  

OpenAIRE

Environmental/ecological models are widely used for lake management as they provide a means to understand physical, chemical, and biological processes in highly complex ecosystems. Most research has focused on the development of environmental (water quality) and ecological models, separately. Limited studies were developed to couple the two models, and in these limited coupled models, a lake was regarded as a whole for analysis (i.e. considering the lake to be one well-mixed...

Zhao, Y. W.; Xu, M. J.; Xu, F.; Wu, S. R.; Yin, X. A.

2014-01-01

270

Ecological analyses and case-control studies of gastric cancer and leukaemia in relation to DBCP in drinking water in Fresno County, California.  

OpenAIRE

Through ecological analyses and case-control studies, the possible relation of gastric cancer and leukaemia to dibromochloropropane (DBCP) contamination of drinking water in Fresno County, California, has been examined. The ecological analyses examined the correlation between gastric cancer and leukaemia (including the lymphatic varieties), mortality rates, and DBCP concentrations in drinking water by census tract in Fresno County, 1960-83. No correlation was found between gastric cancer or l...

Wong, O.; Morgan, R. W.; Whorton, M. D.; Gordon, N.; Kheifets, L.

1989-01-01

271

Combined assessment and regulation on ecological land use and water demand of the river system: a case study in Luanhe River, North China  

OpenAIRE

With economic and social development, ecological water and land use of the river system were seriously misappropriated, which resulted in overall degradation of the river systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks of regionalisation on the eco-environmental function of the river systems were preliminarily formulated. According to the river eco-environmental functions, Luanhe River was regionalised into four types of first-class functional areas, i.e., ecological preservation...

Yan, D. H.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Qin, T. L.

2011-01-01

272

Linking Ecological and Perceptual Assessments for Environmental Management: a Coral Reef Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Integrating information from a range of community members in environmental management provides a more complete assessment of the problem and a diversification of management options, but is difficult to achieve. To investigate the relationship between different environmental interpretations, I compared three distinct measures of anchor damage on coral reefs: ecological measures, perceptual meanings, and subjective health judgments. The ecological measures identified an increase in the number of overturned corals and a reduction in coral cover, the perceptual meanings identified a loss of visual quality, and the health judgments identified a reduction in the health of the coral reef sites associated with high levels of anchoring. Combining the perceptual meanings and health judgments identified that the judgment of environmental health was a key feature that both scientific and lay participants used to describe the environment. Some participants in the survey were familiar with the coral reef environment, and others were not. However, they provided consistent judgment of a healthy coral reef, suggesting that these judgments were not linked to present-day experiences. By combining subjective judgments and ecological measures, the point at which the environment is deemed to lose visual quality was identified; for these coral reefs, if the level of damage rose above 10.3% and the cover of branching corals dropped below 17.1%, the reefs were described as unhealthy. Therefore, by combining the information, a management agency can involve the community in identifying when remedial action is required or when management policies are effectively maintaining a healthy ecosystem.

Elizabeth A. Dinsdale

2009-12-01

273

Microarrays in ecological research: A case study of a cDNA microarray for plant-herbivore interactions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technology allows researchers to simultaneously monitor changes in the expression ratios (ERs of hundreds of genes and has thereby revolutionized most of biology. Although this technique has the potential of elucidating early stages in an organism's phenotypic response to complex ecological interactions, to date, it has not been fully incorporated into ecological research. This is partially due to a lack of simple procedures of handling and analyzing the expression ratio (ER data produced from microarrays. Results We describe an analysis of the sources of variation in ERs from 73 hybridized cDNA microarrays, each with 234 herbivory-elicited genes from the model ecological expression system, Nicotiana attenuata, using procedures that are commonly used in ecologic research. Each gene is represented by two independently labeled PCR products and each product was arrayed in quadruplicate. We present a robust method of normalizing and analyzing ERs based on arbitrary thresholds and statistical criteria, and characterize a "norm of reaction" of ERs for 6 genes (4 of known function, 2 of unknown with different ERs as determined across all analyzed arrays to provide a biologically-informed alternative to the use of arbitrary expression ratios in determining significance of expression. These gene-specific ERs and their variance (gene CV were used to calculate array-based variances (array CV, which, in turn, were used to study the effects of array age, probe cDNA quantity and quality, and quality of spotted PCR products as estimates of technical variation. Cluster analysis and a Principal Component Analysis (PCA were used to reveal associations among the transcriptional "imprints" of arrays hybridized with cDNA probes derived from mRNA from N. attenuata plants variously elicited and attacked by different herbivore species and from three congeners: N. quadrivalis, N. longiflora and N. clevelandii. Additionally, the PCA revealed the contribution of individual gene ERs to the associations among arrays. Conclusions While the costs of 'boutique' array fabrication are rapidly declining, familiar methods for the analysis of the data they create are still missing. The case history illustrated here demonstrates the ease with which this powerful technology can be adapted to ecological research.

Gase Klaus

2004-09-01

274

Environmental exposure to mineral fibers in New Caledonia: an ecological study  

Science.gov (United States)

Inhalation of asbestos and other fibrous minerals causes lung cancer and other malignancies, specifically malignant mesothelioma (MM). MM is an aggressive pleural tumor that presents with a median latency period of 30-40 years from initial fiber exposure. Due to occupational exposure, MM incidence is 4-8 times higher in men as compared to women. In New Caledonia (NC), very high incidences of MM and lung cancer were observed in both men and women, suggesting an environmental origin of exposure. Although nickel mining and the traditional use of tremolite-containing whitewash were suspected causes of MM, numerous MM cases have been observed in areas lacking these risk factors. We carried out an ecological study of MM incidence in NC and identified a study area that included those counties having the highest MM incidences as well as counties lacking MM. We conducted epidemiological and environmental investigations for each of the 100 tribes living within this area. Residential history was assessed for each MM case, and samples of each quarry, road, and whitewash were analyzed to determine the nature of any mineral fibers. We analyzed the environmental determinants of MM, including geology, mineralogy, plant cover, land shape and human activities as well as use of whitewash, by using two univariate and multivariate statistical methods: 1) a logistic regression to compare tribes with and without MM cases and calculate the odds ratios, (OR) 2) the Poisson regression to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRR) for each factor. While most MM cases among Caucasians were observed in men with a mean age of 72, indicating occupational exposure, Melanesians exhibited elevated MM incidence in both men and women at a mean age of 60. A sex ratio close to 1 compounded with the relatively young ages of MM cases confirmed environmental causation within the Melanesian population. We found one significant and two secondary spatial clusters of MM in tribal areas. No temporal cluster was observed. We identified several natural sources of mineral fibers in the study area, including clay-like white soils containing tremolite-actinolite, fibrous antigorite deposits, and veins of chrysotile in peridotite massifs, in addition to multiple serpentinite quarries predominantly containing antigorite. Statistical analyses revealed that the use of serpentinite to pave roads was the greatest risk factor for MM (OR=495.0, 95%CI:46.2-4679.7; multivariate IRR=13.0, 95%CI:10.2-16.6). Other MM risk factors in order of importance were the presence of antigorite, proximity to serpentinite quarries, proximity to peridotite massifs, and presence of chrysotile. Dense vegetation and land slope were protective factors. Whitewash use was not related to MM incidence. Many natural fibrous minerals are not commercially used as asbestos and are therefore not regulated. However, our study demonstrated that non-regulated antigorite fibers are related to cancer, and that soils containing these minerals pose an environmental risk to the population when the fibers are released into the air by weathering or by human activities. Regulation of additional fibrous minerals is therefore suggested.

Baumann, F.; Ambrosi, J.

2013-05-01

275

Ecological economics  

OpenAIRE

Ecological economics is a recently developed field, which sees the economy as a subsystem of a larger finite global ecosystem. Ecological economists question the sustainability of the economy because of its environmental impacts and its material and energy requirements, and also because of the growth of population. Attempts at assigning money values to environmental services and losses, and attempts at correcting macroeconomic accounting, are part of ecological economics, but its main thrust ...

Marti?nez Alier, Joan

2001-01-01

276

A multicountry ecological study of cancer incidence rates in 2008 with respect to various risk-modifying factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Observational and ecological studies are generally used to determine the presence of effect of cancer risk-modifying factors. Researchers generally agree that environmental factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, poor diet, lack of physical activity, and low serum 25-hdyroxyvitamin D levels are important cancer risk factors. This ecological study used age-adjusted incidence rates for 21 cancers for 157 countries (87 with high-quality data) in 2008 with respect to dietary supply and other factors, including per capita gross domestic product, life expectancy, lung cancer incidence rate (an index for smoking), and latitude (an index for solar ultraviolet-B doses). The factors found to correlate strongly with multiple types of cancer were lung cancer (direct correlation with 12 types of cancer), energy derived from animal products (direct correlation with 12 types of cancer, inverse with two), latitude (direct correlation with six types, inverse correlation with three), and per capita gross national product (five types). Life expectancy and sweeteners directly correlated with three cancers, animal fat with two, and alcohol with one. Consumption of animal products correlated with cancer incidence with a lag time of 15-25 years. Types of cancer which correlated strongly with animal product consumption, tended to correlate weakly with latitude; this occurred for 11 cancers for the entire set of countries. Regression results were somewhat different for the 87 high-quality country data set and the 157-country set. Single-country ecological studies have inversely correlated nearly all of these cancers with solar ultraviolet-B doses. These results can provide guidance for prevention of cancer. PMID:24379012

Grant, William B

2014-01-01

277

A Multicountry Ecological Study of Cancer Incidence Rates in 2008 with Respect to Various Risk-Modifying Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Observational and ecological studies are generally used to determine the presence of effect of cancer risk-modifying factors. Researchers generally agree that environmental factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, poor diet, lack of physical activity, and low serum 25-hdyroxyvitamin D levels are important cancer risk factors. This ecological study used age-adjusted incidence rates for 21 cancers for 157 countries (87 with high-quality data in 2008 with respect to dietary supply and other factors, including per capita gross domestic product, life expectancy, lung cancer incidence rate (an index for smoking, and latitude (an index for solar ultraviolet-B doses. The factors found to correlate strongly with multiple types of cancer were lung cancer (direct correlation with 12 types of cancer, energy derived from animal products (direct correlation with 12 types of cancer, inverse with two, latitude (direct correlation with six types, inverse correlation with three, and per capita gross national product (five types. Life expectancy and sweeteners directly correlated with three cancers, animal fat with two, and alcohol with one. Consumption of animal products correlated with cancer incidence with a lag time of 15–25 years. Types of cancer which correlated strongly with animal product consumption, tended to correlate weakly with latitude; this occurred for 11 cancers for the entire set of countries. Regression results were somewhat different for the 87 high-quality country data set and the 157-country set. Single-country ecological studies have inversely correlated nearly all of these cancers with solar ultraviolet-B doses. These results can provide guidance for prevention of cancer.

William B. Grant

2013-12-01

278

AN APPROACH TO INTEGRATED ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF RESOURCE CONDITION: THE MID ATLANTIC ESTUARIES AS A CASE STUDY  

Science.gov (United States)

The complex and interconnected nature of ecological systems often makes it difficult to understand and prevent multiresource, multistressor problems. This article describes a process to assess ecological condition at regional scales. The article also describes how the approach wa...

279

Development of 10 microsatellite loci for Yellow-billed Magpies (Pica nuttalli) and corvid ecology and West Nile virus studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

We developed 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci for Yellow-billed Magpies (Pica nuttalli). The primers were tested across a population of 57 Central California Yellow-billed Magpies and displayed an average of 3.9 alleles per locus. Forty-one American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) from California were polymorphic for seven of the loci with an average of 2.9 alleles per locus. One additional microsatellite-containing locus displayed diagnostic allele sizes and may be useful to distinguish between the two species. These corvid specific microsatellites will aid ecological studies of the population-level effects of diseases, such as West Nile virus. PMID:21585754

Ernest, Holly B; Well, Jay A; Kurushima, Jennifer D

2008-01-01

280

Field studies of harp seal (Phoca Groenlandica) distribution and feeding ecology in the Barents Sea in september 1990  

OpenAIRE

The harp seal Phoca groenlandica is the most abundant seal species in the Barents Sea, and it may be a significant predator on other marine resources in this area. In order to evaluate the ecological role of harp seals, field studies, including both analysis of harp seal stomach contents and concurrent estimates of prey abundance, were carried out in the Barents Sea during August/September 1990. It appeared that, at this time of the year, the harp seals were confined to the northmost areas of...

Nilssen, Kjell Tormod; Haug, Tore; Potelov, Vladimir

1991-01-01

281

Cancer risk among residents of Rhineland-Palatinate winegrowing communities: a cancer-registry based ecological study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Aim To investigate the cancer risk among residents of Rhineland-Palatinate winegrowing communities in an ecological study. Methods On the basis of the Rhineland-Palatinate cancer-registry, we calculated age-adjusted incidence rate ratios for communities with a medium area under wine cultivation (>5 to 20 percent and a large area under wine cultivation (>20 percent in comparison with communities with a small area under wine cultivation (>0 to 5 percent. In a side analysis, standardized cancer incidence ratios (SIR were computed separately for winegrowing communities with small, medium and large area under wine cultivation using estimated German incidence rates as reference. Results A statistically significant positive association with the extent of viniculture can be observed for non-melanoma skin cancer in both males and females, and additionally for prostate cancer, bladder cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in males, but not in females. Lung cancer risk is significantly reduced in communities with a large area under cultivation. In the side-analysis, elevated SIR for endocrine-related tumors of the breast, testis, prostate, and endometrium were observed. Conclusion This study points to a potentially increased risk of skin cancer, bladder cancer, and endocrine-mediated tumors in Rhineland-Palatinate winegrowing communities. However, due to the explorative ecologic study design and the problem of multiple testing, these findings are not conclusve for a causal relationship.

König Jochem

2008-06-01

282

Research of land reclamation and ecological restoration in the resource-exhausting city : a case study of Huaibei in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eco-city construction is a strong tool which could move a city from traditional industrial civilization to ecological civilization. The city of Huaibet, located in China, has 50 years of coal mining history, and has been listed as a national resource-exhausting city. The city's sustainable development and ecological restoration is encountering extreme challenges. This study used time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in order to study the situation of evolution and distribution of subsidence in the area in Huaibet. The purpose of the study was to provide strategic recommendations to assist Huaibei city transform from a resource-exhausting city to an eco-city. Specifically, the paper discussed the direction of eco-reconstruction in Huaibei such as rural eco-agriculture; wetland park or suburban park; and mine park. It also presented a time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in Huaibet including the subsidence status of the main city of Huaibet and intensive use of land evaluation and land use measures of the main city of Huaibei. Land reclamation and eco-reconstruction of Huaibet was also examined in the paper. It was concluded that based on land use of all aspects of the evaluation area and city's development plan, an integrated tourism with full use of subsidence land could be developed. 10 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

283

Summarizing history of the Nevada Applied Ecology Groups' environmental studies of transuranics and other radionuclides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents historical summaries of the research programs at the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG). NAEG was formed in 1970 as an outgrowth of the formation of the Office of Effects Evaluation and an anticipation by NV management of what was to become the National Environmental Policy Act. The objectives of the NAEG programs were: (1) delineate locations of contamination; (2) determine concentrations in ecosystem components; (3) quantify rates of movement among ecosystem components; and (4) evaluate potential dose from plutonium and other radionuclides

284

Testing Metabolic Theory of Ecology on the local scale: a preliminary study  

OpenAIRE

Data on the density and the body mass of a single community of soil fauna were collected and metabolic rates were calculated from the literature data to test some predictions of the metabolic theory of ecology on the local scale. Part of the results are in accordance with the theory: power functions were found between the metabolic rate and the body mass, and between the density and the body mass. These two relationships have opposite exponents inducing that total population energy use is ind...

Dany?ow, Alexia; Ulrich, Werner; Ilieva-makulec, Krassimira; Olejniczak, Izabella; Hajdamowicz, Izabela; Stan?ska, Marzena; Uvarov, Alexei

2013-01-01

285

TEMPO: a new ecological module for studying deep-sea community dynamics at hydrothermal vents  

OpenAIRE

The major goal of this project, elaborated in the frame of the STREP Exocet/D European project, was to design a first autonomous long-term imaging module equipped with a deep-sea video camera, adequate lightning and sufficient energy storage while taking advantage of most recent progress in imaging and photonics. The new ecological module TEMPO was tested and deployed during the Momareto cruise held from August 6 to September 6, 2006 on the new French oceanographic vessel Pourquoi pas?, with ...

Sarrazin, Jozee; Blandin, Jerome; Delauney, Laurent; Dentrecolas, Stephane; Dorval, Philippe; Dupont, Jacky; Legrand, Julien; Leroux, D.; Leon, Pierre; Leveque, Jean-jacques; Rodier, Philippe; Vuillemin, Renaud; Sarradin, Pierre-marie

2007-01-01

286

Residential mobility and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: an ecological study.  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted an ecological analysis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia-incidence data from children or=$5000 as potential predictors. Incidence was lower among black boys (rate ratio (RR)=0.5) and black girls (RR=0.4) than among other children of the same sex; no other significant racial differences were detected. Incidence was elevated among males (but not females) residing in counties where >or=50% of the population relocated (RR=1.5) and among females (but not males) residing in counties where risk factors were unexpected. PMID:17533404

Adelman, A S; Groves, F D; O'Rourke, K; Sinha, D; Hulsey, T C; Lawson, A B; Wartenberg, D; Hoel, D G

2007-07-01

287

The ecological economics: An ecological economics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ecological Economics arise as a scientific discipline aimed to integrate concepts of economics, ecology, thermodynamics, ethic and other natural and social sciences in order to incorporate a biophysical and integrated perspective of the inter dependences between economies and environment, from a plural conception and a methodology beyond disciplines. Ecological Economics studies the black box of economic processes usually excluded of the traditional economics: thermodynamics and ecology. Although it is relatively a new field of study, it has been strengthening its theoretical framework with scientific basis and analytic principles that lead to its identification as a new discipline that show a whole new paradigm. The scope of this article is to show the conceptual and methodological bases, the main founders, approaches and central debates of this new discipline. This brief introduction is a preamble to the papers of the meeting Ecological Economics: a perspective for Colombia included in this number, that took place on September 22 - 27 of 2007, at the National University of Colombia at Bogota. During tree days national and international experts, professors, researchers, workers of environmental sector and people interested on environmental issues joined together to know the conceptual and methodological achievements reached of this discipline; as well as to analyse and evaluate the environmental problems of the country, from the systemic, interdisciplinary and generathe systemic, interdisciplinary and general perspective that it promotes

288

[Dynamics of regional ecological frangibility under natural hazard stress: a case study in Qingping Town of Sichuan Province, Southwest China].  

Science.gov (United States)

By using the aerial remote sensing images after May 12, 2008 (the date of catastrophic Wenchuan Earthquake) and the unmanned aircraft vehicle remote sensing images after August 13, 2010 (the date of extraordinary debris flow), and in combining with the land use map (1:10000), topographic map (1:50000), and collected field investigation data of Qingping Town, Mianzhu City of Sichuan Province in 2006, this paper analyzed and evaluated the ecological frangibility of the Town. In the Town, the slightly, lightly, moderately, heavily, and extremely fragile ecological zones after the extraordinary debris flow occupied 1.9%, 7.9%, 18.7%, 23.0%, and 48.5%, respectively, with the area of heavily and extremely fragile ecological zones accounting for 71.5% of the total, being 238.45 km2, i. e., the ecological environment was overall very fragile. Under the impact of the two natural hazards, the ecological frangibility degree of the Town increased obviously. As compared with that before the Earthquake, the area of heavily and extremely fragile ecological zones after the Earthquake increased by 12.4%, and the area of extremely fragile ecological zone was 1.67 times larger. The dynamic evolution of the ecological frangibility of the Town was mainly manifested in the conversion of heavily fragile ecological zone into extremely fragile ecological zone. Complex terrain was the key factor of the ecological frangibility of the Town. PMID:22489499

Liu, Bin-Tao; Tao, He-Ping; Liu, Shao-Quan; Yu, Hui; Kong, Bo

2012-01-01

289

Morphometric study of phylogenetic and ecologic signals in procyonid (mammalia: carnivora) endocasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endocasts provide a proxy for brain morphology but are rarely incorporated in phylogenetic analyses despite the potential for new suites of characters. The phylogeny of Procyonidae, a carnivoran family with relatively limited taxonomic diversity, is not well resolved because morphological and molecular data yield conflicting topologies. The presence of phylogenetic and ecologic signals in the endocasts of procyonids will be determined using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Endocasts of seven ingroup species and four outgroup species were digitally rendered and 21 landmarks were collected from the endocast surface. Two phylogenetic hypotheses of Procyonidae will be examined using methods testing for phylogenetic signal in morphometric data. In analyses of all taxa, there is significant phylogenetic signal in brain shape for both the morphological and molecular topologies. However, the analyses of ingroup taxa recover a significant phylogenetic signal for the morphological topology only. These results indicate support for the molecular outgroup topology, but not the ingroup topology given the brain shape data. Further examination of brain shape using principal components analysis and wireframe comparisons suggests procyonids possess more developed areas of the brain associated with motor control, spatial perception, and balance relative to the basal musteloid condition. Within Procyonidae, similar patterns of variation are present, and may be associated with increased arboreality in certain taxa. Thus, brain shape derived from endocasts may be used to test for phylogenetic signal and preliminary analyses suggest an association with behavior and ecology. PMID:25066912

Ahrens, Heather E

2014-12-01

290

Study on ecological awareness and performance of nursing personnel in dialysis units  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: When designing new hospital construction or refurbishment can be adopted green practices both in design and in construction and operation. Objective: To explore the ecological awareness and behavior of nursing staff in a dialysis unit. Methods: This survey involved 90 Registered Nurses and Nurses’ aides of General Hospitals in the Capital (Athens and in province of Greece (Region of Peloponnese. These individuals were given an overall anonymous self-completed questionnaire. Results: The most important finding is that 70.8% considered as mandatory an organized effort to protect the environment in their workplace. Nurses think that greater environmental awareness is obtained 37.1% by using guidelines, 23.6% with relative stimulation, and 20.2% with educational lectures, 10.1% using poster and 6.7% in view educational videos. Finally, the correlations of ecological awareness with demographic characteristics of the sample revealed that older nursing staff with more years of working experience knows about environmental management (p-value=0.012. At the same time, gender (p-value=0,030 and educational level of the nursing staff plays an important role in the knowledge of it (p-value=0,044. Conclusions: To control costs and environmental pollution guidelines for saving energy and water and the use of environmentally friendly materials should be implemented. Thus, hospitals can become more competitive by reducing the amount of natural resources used.  Normal 0 false false false EL X-NONE X-NONE

Sofia Zyga

2013-03-01

291

Ecological Studies in the Coastal Waters of Kalpakkam, Southeast Coast of India, in the Vicinity of a Nuclear Island  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ecological monitoring of the coastal waters at Kalpakkam, which presently harbour various nuclear facilities, has been in progress for the last four years to create a benchmark dataset on water quality, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fisheries, sedentary organisms and molluscan species diversity. Results indicated a significant impact of monsoonal rain and backwaters on the coastal water quality. About 325 phytoplankton, 140 zooplankton, 350 fish, 130 molluscs and 100 species of sedentary organisms have been catalogued. Two fish species, which are native to Indonesia, were recorded for the first time in Indian coastal water. The study indicated that the coastal water is rich in biodiversity. Similarly, results of studies on costal sediment characteristics indicated the influence of monsoonal rain and backwater discharge. Overall, the study indicated little impact of nuclear activity on coastal water biodiversity and water quality. (author)

292

Actual directions in study of ecological consequences of a highly toxic 1,1-dimethylhydrazine-based rocket fuel spills  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper represents a review of the actual directions in study of ecological consequences of highly toxic 1,1-dimethylhydrazine-based rocket fuel spills. Recent results on study of processes of transformation of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, identification of its main metabolites and development of analytical methods for their determination are generalized. Modern analytical methods of determination of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine and its transformation products in environmental samples are characterized. It is shown that in recent years, through the use of most modern methods of physical chemical analysis and sample preparation, works in this direction made significant progress and contributed to the development of studies in adjacent areas. A character of distribution of transformation products in soils of fall places of first stages of rocket-carriers is described and the available methods for their remediation are characterized.

Bulat Kenessov

2012-05-01

293

Ontogenetic diet shifts and their incidence on ecological processes: a case study using two morphologically similar stoneflies (Plecoptera)  

Science.gov (United States)

Most ecological studies consider conspecific individuals as ecologically equivalent, assuming that inter-instar variation is weak and has a limited influence on functional processes. To test this assumption, we investigated the life history and trophic basis of production in two predatory stoneflies, Perlodes microcephalus and Isoperla acicularis, in a mountain stream. The variety of prey types increased with predator size. However, larvae started their development with a strictly phytophagous diet (3 months), then ingested both vegetal material and animal prey (2-3 months). Finally, larvae were strictly carnivorous when head width reached 1.1 mm. Young (herbivorous) I. acicularis larvae occurred from June to August. Young P. microcephalus larvae hatched in October, and were herbivorous until December, when I. acicularis larvae were omnivorous. Competition for animal prey was likely to occur in the spring, but P. microcephalus grew faster and emerged earlier. The cohort productions were mostly based on carnivory (78.7-90.7%), because most production occurred in later instars. Ontogenetic diet shifts could play a role in the structuring of species assemblages by adjusting species' requirements to the temporal dynamics of environmental conditions, including food availability and biotic interactions. However, their incidence on global processes is quantitatively limited, large individuals having the greatest impacts on the way energy flows.

Céréghino, Régis

2006-07-01

294

Semantic association of ecologically unrelated synchronous audio-visual information in cognitive integration: an event-related potential study.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we aimed to study the semantic association of ecologically unrelated synchronous audio-visual information in cognitive integration. A moving particle, which speed varied, was taken as a visual stimulus, while a simple tone, which frequency varied, was used as an auditory stimulus, both were synchronously presented to subjects in the form of a video. Behavioral results confirmed our hypothesis that the moving particle with varied speed and the simple tone with varied frequency were highly associated. Event-related potential (ERP) results showed that an N400 effect and a late posterior negativity (LPN) were elicited under the Incongruent condition as compared to the Congruent condition. It was further determined that there was semantic association between ecologically unrelated synchronous audio-visual information in cognitive integration. We considered that the N400 effect in our results reflected the process that stimulus-driven activities are bound together through a temporal semantic network (TSN) to form multimodal representations, while the state of this temporal semantic network was determined by both long-term learned association among stimuli and short-term experience of incoming information. The LPN might reflect the process that the human brain searches and retrieves context-specifying information in order to make a judgment, and the context-specifying information might have originated from the long-term learned association stored in the brain. PMID:21722711

Liu, B; Wu, G; Wang, Z; Meng, X; Wang, Q

2011-09-29

295

Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS) began during FY-1984. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 15 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Through the long-term census taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has been evaluating the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10 CFR 1022).

NONE

1994-11-01

296

Ecological risk assessment for small omnivorous mammals exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a case study in northeastern Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

An ecological risk assessment (ERA) was performed using the hazard quotient (HQ) method to evaluate the risks of oral exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for medium sized omnivorous mammals. This is the first in a series of three papers. In Mexico there is little experience in performing this kind of assessment for the terrestrial compartment, in particular for birds and mammals exposed to hydrocarbons. The purpose of this paper is to perform an ERA and to establish if the omnivorous mammalian species living in the area are at risk of adverse effects. The studied site is a land that in past years had been used for the disposition of petroleum tank bottom sludges, and scrap metals. Soil and water samples were collected and analyzed, and we obtained a list of the site's wildlife species as well as samples of the specimens, which were analyzed also. HQs were calculated for the hydrocarbons identified as chemicals of potential ecological concern (COPECs) and the omnivorous mammals of the site were evaluated. Toxicity reference values (TRVs) were taken from the appropriate literature, and the doses of exposure were estimated considering the ingestion of water, soil, and diet. Results indicated that potential risks associated to the oral exposure route were less than benchmarks for effects (in all cases HQfauna. PMID:24463257

Flores-Serrano, Rosa María; Iturbe-Argüelles, Rosario; Pérez-Casimiro, Guillermina; Ramírez-González, Adriana; Flores-Guido, José Salvador; Kantún-Balam, Jesús Martín

2014-04-01

297

Lake Restoration in Terms of Ecological Resilience: a Numerical Study of Biomanipulations under Bistable Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An abstract version of the comprehensive aquatic simulation model (CASM is found to exhibit bistability under intermediate loading of nutrient input, supporting the alternative-stable-states theory and field observations for shallow lakes. Our simulations of biomanipulations under the bistable conditions reveal that a reduction in the abundance of zooplanktivorous fish cannot switch the system from a turbid to a clear state. Rather, a direct reduction of phytoplankton and detritus was found to be most effective to make this switch in the present model. These results imply that multiple manipulations may be effective for practical restorations of lakes. We discuss the present results of biomanipulations in terms of ecological resilience in multivariable systems or natural systems.

Kiminori Itoh

2005-12-01

298

[Experimental study on removal of micro-organic pollutants for special ecosystem using ecological embankments].  

Science.gov (United States)

An experimental model was made on the improvement of sources water quality in the Huangpu River through the construction of a special aquatic ecosystem using ecological embankments. A 6 d retention time (RT) gave the highest removal rate capacity and benefit of micro-organic pollutants. Under these conditions, the removal rates were 70.5% atrazine, 57.7% dimethyl phthalate, 72.4% phthalic acid bis (2-ethylhexyl) ester, 62.4% diethyl phthalate, and 45.1% dibutyl phthalate. The varieties of micro-organic pollutants reduced from 51 to 28. In contrast, in the control pool with hard embankment, the removal rates only reached 40.2% atrazine, 42.9% dimethyl phthalate, 54.8% phthalic acid bis (2-ethylhexyl) ester, 52.0% diethyl phthalate, and 16.2% dibutyl phthalate. Through coordination of all constituent elements of special aquatic ecosystem, significant amounts of micro-organic pollutants were removed. PMID:19968108

Wu, Yi-feng; Lu, Xi-wu

2009-10-15

299

New Frontiers in Nematode Ecology  

OpenAIRE

Future areas of emphasis for research and scholarship in nematode ecology are indicated by pressing agricultural and environmental issues, by new directions in applied nematology, and by current technological advances. Studies in nematode ecology must extend beyond observation, counting, and simple statistical analysis. Experimentation and the testing of hypotheses are needed for understanding the biological mechanisms of ecological systems. Opportunities for fruitful experimentation in nemat...

Ferris, Howard

1993-01-01

300

Phytoplankton Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

This site describes phytoplankton ecology research by marine ecologists at Mote Marine Laboratory (MML), an independent, nonprofit research organization based in Sarasota, Florida. The emphasis of MML's phytoplankton ecology research is the photophysiology of marine algae -- with recent emphasis on the ability to predict and possibly mitigate blooms of the toxic marine dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium breve. The no-frills phytoplankton ecology homepage describes research and offers data (maps, figures, tables) from 1998 and 1999 projects on Red Tide transects, Nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations, and Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (ECOHAB) transect data, among several others. The site also offers general information on Red Tides, Red Tide conditions in Southwest Florida, a chronology of historic Red Tide events, and links to related resources.

301

[Ecologically tolerable levels of abiotic factors. Study of freshwater bodies in Asiatic part of Russia and Uzbekistan].  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecologically tolerable levels (ETL) of environmental factors have been determined for freshwater ecosystems in Asiatic part of Russia and neighboring countries (basins of Ob, Yenisei, Lena, Amur, and Syr-Darya rivers). Inobservance of ecologically tolerable levels degrades ecological status of the ecosystems manifested as deviation from normal saprobic indices of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and periphyton as well as biotic indices of zoobenthos. The basins were compared by the calculated ETL values for over 40 physicochemical indices. The revealed ecologically tolerable levels were compared with the standard maximum tolerable concentrations. PMID:12400386

Maksimov, V N; Abakumov, V A; Bulgakov, N G; Levich, A P; Terekhin, A T

2002-01-01

302

The quantitative study of marked individuals in ecology, evolution and conservation biology: a foreword to the EURING 2003 Conference  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Few fields in modern ecology have developed as fast as the analysis of marked individuals in the study of wild animal populations (Seber & Schwarz, 2002. This is the topic of EURING Conferences, which from 1986 have been the premier forum for advances in capture-recapture methodology. In this sense, EURING Conferences still maintain the flavour that originally inspired scientific meetings: to disseminate the very last findings, ideas and results on the field. Traditionally, EURING Conferences have been published in the form of Proceedings, which because of their relevant content, become a required reading to anyone interested in the capture-recapture methodology. EURING 2003 was held in Radolfzell (Germany, hosted by the Max Planck Research Centre for Ornithology, and the Proceedings appear as a special issue of Animal Biodiversity and Conservation. The full title of the 2003 meeting was “The quantitative study of marked individuals in ecology, evolution and conservation biology”, which stands for one of the main aims of the meeting: to establish the capture-recapture approach as one of the standard methodologies in studies within these fields. One of the shared views is that capture-recapture methodologies have reached a considerable maturity, but the need still exists to spread their use as a “standard” methodology. The nice review paper by Lebreton et al. (1993 in Trends in Ecology and Evolution is still applicable, in that general ecologists and evolutionary biologists still resist their general use. The same applies to conservation biology, where the analysis of marked individuals may also be a key tool in its development. We hope, with the spread of 2003 Proceedings, to help to fill this gap. The Proceedings follow the same general structure as the Conference. We organised the EURING meeting in 10 technical sessions, covering what we considered as fastest growing areas in the field. We appointed for each session, two chairs, which were charged with selecting 4-7 talks on the topic of their session. Each session additionally included a plenary conference intended to summarise or to provide a general but synthetic flavour of the topic. As a novelty in EURING conferences, we asked session chairs to include at least one talk dealing with study species other than birds. This is the result of a heated but fruitful discussion at EURING 2000 in Point Reyes, and fits with the general aim to spread the capture-recapture methodology beyond zoological groups: although EURING as an organization, deals with birds, and conferences have traditionally focused on this group, the capture-recapture approach is becoming a standard way to address biologically relevant questions on populations and individuals (Schwarz, 2002, for any zoological group. This volume, contains several nice examples of taxa other than birds. As far as possible, we selected chairs so that each session was delineated with a good balance between the biological and the statistician emphasis. This balance has in fact characterised EURING conferences, which in addition to the workshop atmosphere always present, has lead to very fruitful exchanges. Session The quantitative study of marked individuals in ecology, evolution and conservation biology: a foreword to the EURING 2003 Conference which in addition to the workshop atmosphere always present, has lead to very fruitful exchanges. Session chairs were also asked to act as editors for the papers within their session. All the papers were hence subjected to peer review, as in any other issue of Animal Biodiversity and Conservation, and presentation of the paper in the Conference did not assure publication in the Proceedings. This has lead to an even higher quality of the papers presented at the Conference. Editors were additionally asked to write a short summary on their session. Given that these summaries also present the views of the Editors on the different topics presented, we have preferred each introduction to appear as a short paper in the front of each one of the sessions, so that i

Senar, J. C.

2004-06-01

303

Three-Gorges-Dam: Studying the ecological impacts in a highly dynamic ecosystem  

Science.gov (United States)

The impoundment of the Yangtze River in 2003 by the Three-Gorges-Dam (TGD) evokes ecological impacts alongside the Yangtze and its major tributaries that appear to be unforesseable in their dimension and dynamic. The scheduled water level elevation to 176 m in 2009 and the seasonal water level fluctuations at the TGD for the purpose of hydro power generation and flood control will still foster the typical aftermaths such as slope instability, mass movements, soil erosion, the expansion of infrastructure and land reclamation for subsistence agriculture and cash crops distant to the inundated area. Together, geoscientists from China and Germany try to develop an integrated risk assessment system for landslides, soil erosion, diffuse sediment and matter fluxes into the reservoir and land-use vulnerability. Since April 2008 the research activities take place within the Sino-German YANGTZE project funded by the German BMBF and initiated by the German Research Centre Juelich. The project proceeds in close collaboration with the Ministry of Land and Resources of the People's Republic of China (MRL). In four subprojects located at the universities of Erlangen, Giessen, Potsdam and Tuebingen main focus lies on the analysis and assessment of the mechanisms and trigger of landslides, the mechanisms of soil erosion for different landscape morphologies and soil associations and the multi-temporal land-use classification and land-use dynamic on the meso-scale. The research area is the highly dynamic and mountainous Xiangxi catchment (3.100 km²) close to the TGD. Using multi-level approaches by means of GIS, field investigations and remote sensing the Yangtze project aims to assess the spatial and temporal varying risk potential of soil erosion and the landslide susceptibility and risk for the infrastructure, people and agriculture. Finally, high-resolution risk potential maps will serve as a base for decision making. In close collaboration with our Chinese partner projects (China University of Geosciences, Wuhan; Institute of Soil Sciences, CAS, Nanjing; Aero Geophysical Survey and Remote Sensing for Land and Resources, Beijing) we seek to enhance our understanding of the ecological consequences of large dam projects.

Scholten, T.; Behrens, T.; Kaufmann, H.; King, L.; Rohn, J.; Schönbrodt, S.; Subklew, G.; Xiang, W.

2009-04-01

304

Unraveling Regulation of the Small Heat Shock Proteins by the Heat Shock Factor HvHsfB2c in Barley: Its Implications in Drought Stress Response and Seed Development  

OpenAIRE

The rapid increase in heat shock proteins upon exposure to damaging stresses and during plant development related to desiccation events reveal their dual importance in plant development and stress tolerance. Genome-wide sequence survey identified 20 non-redundant small heat shock proteins (sHsp) and 22 heat shock factor (Hsf) genes in barley. While all three major classes (A, B, C) of Hsfs are localized in nucleus, the 20 sHsp gene family members are localized in different cell organelles lik...

Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Kavi Kishor, Polavarapu B.; Seiler, Christiane; Kuhlmann, Markus; Eschen-lippold, Lennart; Lee, Justin; Reddy, Malireddy K.; Sreenivasulu, Nese

2014-01-01

305

Founding RGB ecology: The ecology of synthesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is an arising need to interpret an amount of ecological information that is more and more available. It is not only the pursuit of an easy handling of a large amount of data, but above all the quest for a deep and multivariate interpretation of many sources of ecological info. To this aim, I introduce here RGB ecology as a new branch of ecology devoted to the cartographic synthesis of ecological information. RGB ecology has the following properties: (1 it can not be separated from GIS cartography; (2 it can compact ecological information along space and time; (3 it can create a decision space for management decisions; (4 it can go beyond the third dimension by using compressive statistical techniques. RGB ecology can also be an effective flanker of several branches of ecology, such as landscape ecology, conservation ecology, urban ecology, forest ecology and so forth.

Alessandro Ferrarini

2012-06-01

306

Filling gaps in large ecological databases: consequences for the study of global-scale plant functional trait patterns  

Science.gov (United States)

With the advent of remotely sensed data and coordinated efforts to create global databases, the ecological community has progressively become more data-intensive. However, in contrast to other disciplines, statistical ways of handling these large data sets, especially the gaps which are inherent to them, are lacking. Widely used theoretical approaches, for example model averaging based on Akaike's information criterion (AIC), are sensitive to missing values. Yet, the most common way of handling sparse matrices - the deletion of cases with missing data (complete case analysis) - is known to severely reduce statistical power as well as inducing biased parameter estimates. In order to address these issues, we present novel approaches to gap filling in large ecological data sets using matrix factorization techniques. Factorization based matrix completion was developed in a recommender system context and has since been widely used to impute missing data in fields outside the ecological community. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of probabilistic matrix factorization techniques for imputing missing data in ecological matrices using two imputation techniques. Hierarchical Probabilistic Matrix Factorization (HPMF) effectively incorporates hierarchical phylogenetic information (phylogenetic group, family, genus, species and individual plant) into the trait imputation. Advanced Hierarchical Probabilistic Matrix Factorization (aHPMF) on the other hand includes climate and soil information into the matrix factorization by regressing the environmental variables against residuals of the HPMF. One unique opportunity opened up by aHPMF is out-of-sample prediction, where traits can be predicted for specific species at locations different to those sampled in the past. This has potentially far-reaching consequences for the study of global-scale plant functional trait patterns. We test the accuracy and effectiveness of HPMF and aHPMF in filling sparse matrices, using the TRY database of plant functional traits (http://www.try-db.org). TRY is one of the largest global compilations of plant trait databases (750 traits of 1 million plants), encompassing data on morphological, anatomical, biochemical, phenological and physiological features of plants. However, despite of unprecedented coverage, the TRY database is still very sparse, severely limiting joint trait analyses. Plant traits are the key to understanding how plants as primary producers adjust to changes in environmental conditions and in turn influence them. Forming the basis for Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs), plant traits are also fundamental in global change studies for predicting future ecosystem changes. It is thus imperative that missing data is imputed in as accurate and precise a way as possible. In this study, we show the advantages and disadvantages of applying probabilistic matrix factorization techniques in incorporating hierarchical and environmental information for the prediction of missing plant traits as compared to conventional imputation techniques such as the complete case and mean approaches. We will discuss the implications of using gap-filled data for global-scale studies of plant functional trait - environment relationship as opposed to the above-mentioned conventional techniques, using examples of out-of-sample predictions of foliar Nitrogen across several species' ranges and biomes.

Schrodt, Franziska; Shan, Hanhuai; Fazayeli, Farideh; Karpatne, Anuj; Kattge, Jens; Banerjee, Arindam; Reichstein, Markus; Reich, Peter

2013-04-01

307

An ecological interdependence of diet and disease? A study of infection in one tribe consuming two different diets.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nature and incidence of infections were studied in two groups of Turkana living in the same area but eating different diets; one consumed milk only and the other a combination of fish and milk. The only apparent and significant nutritional difference between the two groups was mild iron deficiency in the milk drinkers. Episodes of fever, symptomatic infection with malaria and brucellosis, molluscum contagiosum and common warts, episodes of diarrhea, and serological evidence of infection with Entamoeba histolytica were significantly increased in Turkana eating fish. We suggest that this phenomenon may result from a disruption of a long-standing ecological compromise between the all-milk diet of the Turkana and the pathogenic organisms. PMID:7355850

Murray, M J; Murray, A B; Murray, C J

1980-03-01

308

Studies on Some Hexaploid Wheat Varieties (Triticum aestivum L. under the Agro-ecological Conditions of District Poonch, Azad Kashmir  

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Full Text Available Hexaploid wheat has the largest cultivation area among all other crop plants, due to its adaptability to different agro-climatic zones. To cater for the requirements of varied regional breeding programs a screening trial was conducted, in which six hexaploid wheat genotypes were executed for their adaptability under the agro-ecological environment of district Poonch, Azad Kashmir. Punjab-96, khyber-87 and pirsabak-91 have shown maximum plant height, number of spikelets/plant, spike length and 1000 grains weight. Increase in number of tillers/plant was only reported for variety Punjab-96. In this study only Punjab-96 was recommended for general cultivation in district Poonch, Azad Kashmir.

Muhammad Fareed Khan

2002-01-01

309

Ecological responses of natural and planted forests to thinning in southeastern Korea: a chronosequence study  

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Full Text Available Effects of forest thinning on community level properties have not been understood yet in Korea. We investigated regenerationpatterns and trajectories after a disturbance by applying a chronosequence approach. Light availability, litter andwoody debris cover, and species composition were determined for twenty 50 m line-transect samples representing a disturbanceduration gradient (within 11 years. Environmental factors such as light availability and coverage of woody debrisand litter changed abruptly after thinning and then returned to the pre-disturbance state. Although species richnesswas gained at shrub and ground layer in a limited way in both forests, cover of various functional types revealed diversityin their responses. Notably, Alnus firma stands exhibited a larger increment of cover in woody plants. Ordination analysisrevealed different regeneration trajectories between natural and planted stands. Based on ordination analysis, rehabilitatedstands showed movement to alternative states compared with natural ones, reflecting lower resilience to perturbation(i.e., lower stability. Our results suggest that community resilience to artificial thinning depends on properties ofthe dominant species. But to get more explanatory ecological information, longer-term static observations are required.

Yong-Chan Cho

2011-12-01

310

Arnoldstein project, a study on nuisance ecology. Das immissionsoekologische Projekt Arnoldstein  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present research project tried to fulfill the demand, often raised but rarely met for financial reasons, to investigate complex environmental problems on a multidisciplinary basis. The extensive experimental investigations were implemented in accordance with the concept of this research project on the ecology of nuisances published in 1980. To institute measures at the site of nuisances it was indispensably necessary to know the conditions at the site, the climatic and meteorological as well as the orographical data, the composition of the vegetation and the type and quantity of possible nuisances. This aspect, i.e. the detailed description of the specific situation of the area by measurement of various parameters such as nutritive substances in soils and plants, pollutant concentrations in the air, the soils and the plants, precipitation of solid air-polluting components, yield respectively gain, sociological composition of the plant stocks, wind direction, wind speed, air temperature, air humidity, a.o., is a point of central importance in this project. The evaluation of the measuring data and investigation results provided approaches for aimed measures to reduce the effect of nuisances. In the farming sector the investigations dealt primarily with greenland and corn. As a therapy against damage from nuisances fertilization and soil working measures were undertaken in numerous test plots, depending on the results of the soil analyses done. The 14 individual contributions contain further details.

Halbwachs, G.

1982-01-01

311

A large-scale cross-sectional and longitudinal study into the ecological validity of neuropsychological test measures in neurologically intact people.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is often assumed that neuropsychological measures are ecologically valid in 'normal' people, but this assumption has not yet been thoroughly evaluated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cross-sectional and longitudinal ecological validity of individual neuropsychological test scores and their composites in a large sample of neurologically intact people. Three neuropsychological composite measures were established, i.e. a "Memory Quotient", an "Executive functioning and Speed Quotient", and a "General Cognitive Quotient". The ecological validity of the individual neuropsychological measures and their composites was low to moderate. Multivariate models that included both neuropsychological and non-cognitive variables (i.e. demographic variables, depressive symptoms and anxiety) accounted for 4.6-21.4% of the variance in daily life functioning. The General Cognitive Quotient was the neuropsychological measure that was the most consistently related to daily life functioning. PMID:18930628

Van der Elst, Wim; Van Boxtel, Martin P J; Van Breukelen, Gerard J P; Jolles, Jelle

2008-01-01

312

Analysis of ecological transitions in the Black Sea during the last four decades: A modelling study  

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This work investigates the Black Sea ecosystem and the changes it had undergone in the second half of the 20th century from a fisheries perspective using Ecopath, a widely adopted fisheries model. Different states of the Black Sea ecosystem were modeled using 5 simulation scenarios: Simulation 1, represents the quasi-pristine conditions of the Black Sea ecosystem during early 1960's; Simulation 2, represents the over-enrichment period of the ecosystem during early 1980's before the fisheries collapse and the outburst of alien ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi; Simulation 3, represents the changes in the ecosystem along with the outburst of Mnemiopsis in 1989; Simulation 4, represents the aftermath effects in the components of the Black Sea ecosystem just after the collapse of the fisheries; and Simulation 5, represents the recovery period of the fish stocks in the very beginning of the 1990's. According to the results of the model runs, it was found that the Black Sea ecosystem in its quasi-pristine conditions during early 1960's was top-down controlled. The piscivorous pelagic fish and dolphins exerted predation pressure on small pelagic fish species and suppressed their over-development. Our findings suggest that after the removal of these top predators from the ecosystem due to fishing and whaling, the small pelagic fish species had the opportunity to thrive themselves along with the over-enrichment of the Black Sea and reached high biomass levels in 1980's. Small pelagic fishes prevailed in the Black Sea ecosystem until the highly debated outburst of alien ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. In 1989, the biomass of small pelagic fish species declined drastically and their population did not recover until the very beginning of 1990's due to various ecological and anthropogenic effects put forward by the outcomes of the simulations.

Akoglu, Ekin; Salihoglu, Baris; Oguz, Temel

2010-05-01

313

The Role of Empowerment in Youth Development: A Study of Sociopolitical Control as Mediator of Ecological Systems' Influence on Developmental Outcomes  

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Empowerment has become an influential concept and theoretical framework for social policy and practice. Still, relatively little is known about the roles that empowerment plays in the ecology of human development, particularly among young people. This article reports results of a study of psychological empowerment among young people, using data…

Christens, Brian D.; Peterson, N. Andrew

2012-01-01

314

Learning about Environmental Issues in Engineering Programmes: A Case Study of First-Year Civil Engineering Students' Contextualisation of an Ecology Course  

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Describes how first-year civil engineering students interpreted the content and structure of an ecology course. Students' learning processes were analysed from an intentional perspective, i.e. a perspective that takes into account the students' educational aims and conceptions of the study situation. Interviews were carried out with six civil…

Lundholm, Cecilia

2004-01-01

315

Estimates of meteorological variability in association with dengue cases in a coastal city in northern Vietnam: an ecological study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Dengue fever (DF) is a vector-borne disease that is sensitive to weather and climate variability. To date, however, this relationship in coastal northern Vietnam has not been well documented. Objectives This paper aims to examine the associations between meteorological variables and dengue incidence in Haiphong, Vietnam, over the period 2008–2012. Methods Monthly data on dengue incidence from all commune health stations and hospitals of Haiphong (with a total population of ~1.8 million) were obtained in accordance with the WHO's recommendations over a 5-year period (2008–2012). Temperature, rainfall, and humidity were recorded as monthly averages by local meteorological stations. The association between ecologic weather variables and dengue cases was assessed using a Poisson regression model. The estimation of regression parameters was based on the method of maximum likelihood using the R program package. Results From 2008 through 2012, 507 cases of dengue were reported. The risk of dengue was increased by sevenfold during the September–December period compared with other months over the period 2008–2012. DF cases in Haiphong were correlated with rainfall and humidity. In the multivariable Poisson regression model, an increased risk of dengue was independently associated with months with a higher amount of rainfall (RR=1.06; 95% CI 1.00–1.13 per 50 mm increase) and higher humidity (RR=1.05; 95% CI 1.02–1.08 per 1% increase). Conclusion These data suggest that rainfall and relative humidity could be used as ecological indicators of dengue risk in Haiphong. Intensified surveillance and disease control during periods with high rainfall and humidity are recommended. This study may provide baseline information for identifying potential long-term effects and adaptation needs of global climate change on dengue in the coming decades. PMID:25511884

Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Van Hau, Pham; Thu, Do Thi; Toan, Do Thi Thanh

2014-01-01

316

Landscape and soil regionalization in southern Brazilian Amazon and contiguous areas: methodology and relevance for ecological studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Soils of a large tropical area with differentiated landscapes cannot be treated uniformly for ecological applications. We intend to develop a framework based on physiography that can be used in regional applications. The study region occupies more than 1.1 million km² and is located at the junction [...] of the savanna region of Central Brazil and the Amazon forest. It includes a portion of the high sedimentary Central Brazil plateau and large areas of mostly peneplained crystalline shield on the border of the wide inner-Amazon low sedimentary plain. A first broad subdivision was made into landscape regions followed by a more detailed subdivision into soil regions. Mapping information was extracted from soil survey maps at scales of 1:250000-1:500000. Soil units were integrated within a homogenized legend using a set of selected attributes such as taxonomic term, the texture of the B horizon and the associated vegetation. For each region, a detailed inventory of the soil units with their area distribution was elaborated. Ten landscape regions and twenty-four soil regions were recognized and delineated. Soil cover of a region is normally characterized by a cluster composed of many soil units. Soil diversity is comparable in the landscape and the soil regions. Composition of the soil cover is quantitatively expressed in terms of area extension of the soil units. Such geographic divisions characterized by grouping soil units and their spatial estimates must be used for regional ecological applications.

Boris, Volkoff; Francisco Fujita de Castro, Mello; Stoécio Malta Ferreira, Maia; Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino, Cerri.

2012-06-01

317

Urban ecology in Cape Town: South African comparisons and reflections  

OpenAIRE

Little urban ecological research has been done in South Africa. The papers in the Ecology and Society special feature Urban Ecological and Social-Ecological Research in the City of Cape Town make, therefore, an important contribution to the development of urban ecology locally and globally. Different approaches have been used in the study of urban ecology of different urban areas in South Africa. Cape Town is situated in a biodiversity hotspot and is the only South African city which includes...

Siebert, Stefan J.; Cilliers, Sarel S.

2012-01-01

318

Ecological transition towards a sustainable energy system. Case studies on biogas production and use in Germany and Peru. Study of the European Commission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The energy system - defined as the production, distribution and consumption of energy - plays an important role in sustainability because it is interlinked with economic development, environmental protection and also, in developing countries, with the basic need for a food supply. The energy system has to be studied in relation to the urgent global problems, such as increasing pollution, growing world population, deforestation, exploitation of nonrenewable resources etc. The study, therefore, has the following objectives: - Identification of basic needs by the definition of physical, economic and social indicators for sustainable development. - Definition of the energy system, in terms of processes from energy production to energy use, including actors and networks. -Identification of the main problem areas in industrialized and developing countries relating to the energy system, of necessary improvements and of activities which are essential for the fulfillment of basic needs. - Definition and description of the conventional energy system with its process chains and actors and of an ecological energy system. - Identification of technical and socioeconomic impacts of these systems and their relations to the sustainability indicators. - Analysis of barriers and promotion of measures for the ecological transi tion (actors, R and D, technology transfer, information, motivation, consultation, training, subsidies, and other policy implications). (orig./SR)implications). (orig./SR)

319

Coevolutionary ecological economics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper maps a coevolutionary research agenda for ecological economics. At an epistemological level coevolution offers a powerful logic for transcending environmental and social determinisms and developing a cross-disciplinary approach in the study of socio-ecological systems. We identify four consistent stories emerging out of coevolutionary studies in ecological economics, concerning: environmental degradation and development failure in peripheral regions; the lock-in of unsustainable production-consumption patterns; the vicious cycle between human efforts to control undesirable micro-organisms and the evolution of these organisms; and the adaptive advantages of other-regarding, cooperative behaviors and institutions. We identify challenges in the conceptualization of coevolutionary relationships in relation to: the interaction between different hierarchical levels of evolution; the role of space and social power; uneven rates of change and crises. We conclude with the political implications of a coevolutionary perspective based on the premises of pragmatism. (author)

Kallis, Giorgos [ICREA Researcher, ICTA, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, ETSE, QC/3095, 08193 Bellatera, Barcelona (Spain); Norgaard, Richard B. [Energy and Resources Group, University of California at Berkeley, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA, 94720-3050 (United States)

2010-02-15

320

Application of the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean to Phytoplankton Ecology Studies in Monterey Bay, CA, USA  

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Full Text Available As a demonstrator for technologies for the next generation of ocean color sensors, the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO provides enhanced spatial and spectral resolution that is required to understand optically complex aquatic environments. In this study we apply HICO, along with satellite remote sensing and in situ observations, to studies of phytoplankton ecology in a dynamic coastal upwelling environment—Monterey Bay, CA, USA. From a spring 2011 study, we examine HICO-detected spatial patterns in phytoplankton optical properties along an environmental gradient defined by upwelling flow patterns and along a temporal gradient of upwelling intensification. From a fall 2011 study, we use HICO’s enhanced spatial and spectral resolution to distinguish a small-scale “red tide” bloom, and we examine bloom expansion and its supporting processes using other remote sensing and in situ data. From a spectacular HICO image of the Monterey Bay region acquired during fall of 2012, we present a suite of algorithm results for characterization of phytoplankton, and we examine the strengths, limitations, and distinctions of each algorithm in the context of the enhanced spatial and spectral resolution.

John P. Ryan

2014-01-01

321

Vegetation Dynamics Depending on Ecological Particularities of Bozanta Mare (Maramures County-Romania Tailing Pound. Case Study  

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Full Text Available The present study follows an ecological demarch of reintegration in the scenary through revegetation of an anthropic ground, consisting in a waste pond formed from the flotation activity of non-ferrous ores. Problem statement: To support the formation of a compact vegetal layer, having an anti-errosion and a restoration role, a preliminary study was required regarding the spontaneous settlement of different vegetal species. We have followed the specific floristic composition and the biodiversity on the waste pond, the manner of association of plant species, and the possible interractions with other species from the biocenosis (microorganisms and fungi. We have also studied the pace at which vegetal species settle, as well as the reciprocal influence, from the point of view of vegetation, with the neighbouring area, since the desideratum is the settlement of a vegetation similar to the natural one. Approach: The aim of the research is to draw a list of the vegetal taxa installed on the pond, as well as to detect some succession stages or some possible vegetal associations. We have established the share of different species in the vegetal layer on the waste pond through an analysis of the ecological preferences, of the geographical origin of plant species, of the cariological and bioform profile. All this was done to compare the possible vegetal associations which settle on such anthropic grounds with the neighbouring vegetation. The approach used was the classical one in fitosociology, recommended by the Central European Fitosociological School adapted to the pedo-climatic conditions in Romania. Results: Over 50 species of plants and fungi spontaniously settled have been listed, and we have followed their association as well as their distribution, compared to the microclimatical conditions of the waste pond. In this way,we have distinguished species with a large potential of revegetating highly polluted with heavy metals waste ponds and sites. Conclusions/Recommendations: Starting from this study, we may establish a formula of sustaining the vegetation and using the interractions among species in order to stimulate the settlement of a dense vegetation which might ensure anti-errosion protection and landscape integration.

Monica Marian

2009-01-01

322

Neuron-specific proteotoxicity of mutant ataxin-3 in C. elegans: rescue by the DAF-16 and HSF-1 pathways  

Science.gov (United States)

The risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases increases with age. Although many of the molecular pathways regulating proteotoxic stress and longevity are well characterized, their contribution to disease susceptibility remains unclear. In this study, we describe a new Caenorhabditis elegans model of Machado–Joseph disease pathogenesis. Pan-neuronal expression of mutant ATXN3 leads to a polyQ-length dependent, neuron subtype-specific aggregation and neuronal dysfunction. Analysis of different neurons revealed a pattern of dorsal nerve cord and sensory neuron susceptibility to mutant ataxin-3 that was distinct from the aggregation and toxicity profiles of polyQ-alone proteins. This reveals that the sequences flanking the polyQ-stretch in ATXN3 have a dominant influence on cell-intrinsic neuronal factors that modulate polyQ-mediated pathogenesis. Aging influences the ATXN3 phenotypes which can be suppressed by the downregulation of the insulin/insulin growth factor-1-like signaling pathway and activation of heat shock factor-1. PMID:21546381

Teixeira-Castro, Andreia; Ailion, Michael; Jalles, Ana; Brignull, Heather R.; Vilaça, João L.; Dias, Nuno; Rodrigues, Pedro; Oliveira, João F.; Neves-Carvalho, Andreia; Morimoto, Richard I.; Maciel, Patrícia

2011-01-01

323

The Principle of Ecological Culture Development Continuity  

OpenAIRE

The article deals with continuity principle features in ecological education in order to optimize ecological culture development process. Every man studies throughout life and the society has to provide such opportunity. Continuity principle must become one of the strategic lines of educational policy in order to form integral ecological culture

Kira Stetsyuk

2013-01-01

324

The Principle of Ecological Culture Development Continuity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article deals with continuity principle features in ecological education in order to optimize ecological culture development process. Every man studies throughout life and the society has to provide such opportunity. Continuity principle must become one of the strategic lines of educational policy in order to form integral ecological culture

Kira Stetsyuk

2013-01-01

325

Exploring Collaborative Training with Educational Computer Assisted Simulations in Health Care Education: An Empirical Ecology of Resources Study  

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Full Text Available This study explores collaborative training with educational computer assisted simulations (ECAS in health care education. The use of simulation technology is increasing in health care education (Issenberg et al., 2005; Bradley, 2006, and research is addressing the techniques of its application. Calls have been made for informing the field with existing and future educational research (e.g. Issenberg et al., 2011. This study investigates and examines collaboration as a technique for structuring simulation training. Part of a larger research and development project (H?ll et al., 2011; H?ll & S?derstr?m, 2012, this paper primarily utilizes qualitative observation analysis of dentistry students learning radiology to investigate the challenges that screen-based simulation technology poses for collaborative learning. Grounded in Luckin’s ecology of resources framework (Luckin, 2010 and informed by computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL research, the study identifies some disadvantages of free collaboration that need to be dealt with for collaboration to be a beneficial technique for ECAS in health care education. The discussion focuses on the use of scripts (Weinberger et al., 2009 to filter the interactions between the learner and the more able partner, supporting the collaborative-learning activity and enhancing learning with ECAS in health care education.

Lars O. Hall

2012-10-01

326

Doctoral education in a successful ecological niche : A qualitative exploratory case study of the relationship between the microclimate and doctoral students' learning to become a researcher  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Scholarly communities are dependent on and often measured by their ability to attract and develop doctoral students. Recent literature suggests that most scholarly communities entail ecological niches in which the doctoral students learn the codes and practices of research. In this article, we explore the microclimate in an ecological niche of doctoral education. Based on a theoretical definition of microclimate as the emotional atmosphere that ties group members together and affects their actions, we conducted a case study that aimed to describe the key features of the microclimate in a successful ecological niche of doctoral education, and the ways in which the microclimate support the doctoral students’ learning. The methods we applied in the case study were based on short-term ethnographic fieldwork. The results reveal four key features of the emotional atmosphere in the microclimate: mutual appreciation, balancing seriousness and humor, desire, and ambition. These features constitute the shared emotionality that sets the scene for the microclimate, and affects and guides the doctoral students’ daily practices. Furthermore, the results indicate that the microclimate supports successful doctoral education because it: 1) fleshes out the professional attitude that is necessary for becoming a successful researcher in the department, 2) shapes and adapts the doctoral students’ desires to grasp and identify with the department’s practices, and 3) provides the doctoral students with access to flow zones that drive their education. These results may suggest practical implications for fostering and cultivating successful ecological niches in medical education at doctoral level.

Christensen, Mette Krogh; Lund, Ole

2014-01-01

327

Ecology, Complexity, and Metaphor  

Science.gov (United States)

This peer-reviewed article from Bioscience is about Ecology, Complexity and Metaphor.Complexity has recently risen to prominence in ecology as part of a broader interest that suggests its status is something more than just a scientific theory or property of reality. It may be helpful to consider complexity, and related terms such as "self-organization," as recent metaphors deployed to advance knowledge on fundamental questions in ecology, including the relationship between parts and wholes, and between order and disorder. Though not commonly viewed as such, metaphors are an indispensable component of science, and should not be appraised as true or false, but rather in terms of how they help or hinder knowledge. By understanding metaphor as a necessary ally and not a threat to ecological knowledge, we may enrich our contextual understanding of complexity while continuing to invoke it in useful ways. The special section introduced by this article features essays by two prominent experts in ecology, complexity, and metaphor: science studies scholar Evelyn Fox Keller and theoretical ecologist Simon Levin

JAMES D. PROCTOR and BRENDON M. H. LARSON (; )

2005-12-01

328

PROPOSAL OF A NEW METHOO OF ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF VEGETATION: THE CASE STUDY OF THE VEGETATION OF THE VENICE LAGOON LANDSCAPE ANO OF ITS SALT MARSHES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

In frequent case studies, the heterogeneity of vegetation formation is very high, because of the frequency of both natural and human disturbances. Consequently, the phytosociological approach .and the auto-ecological one are not completely adequate for the evaluation or the ecological state of this vegetation in a landscape.

So, this evaluation needs the integration with a landscape ecological method of vegetation survey through schedules, as indicated by Ingegnoli (2002. Each type of schedule has been designed to check the organisation level and to estimate the metastability of a tessera of a certain type of vegetation, considering both general ecological and landscape ecological characters: (A Landscape e1ement characters (e.g. tessera, corridor, (8 Plant, biomass above ground, (C Ecocoenotope pararneters. (D Relation among the elements and their landscape parameters. There are four evaluation classes, the weights per class depending on an evaluation model designed as shown later on. The principal aim of this research is to design a new schedule, available for the main coenosis of salt marshes vegetation, which allows to complete a preliminary study on the Venice lagoon landscape dynamics, based on its vegetation. The landscape of the Venice lagoon is very complex and articulated, its main vegetation formations are the following: Underwater, Salt marshes. Littoral. Reclamation colonisations, Wet areas. Wooded patches and corridors. Agricultural cultivations, Urban green. The most important typc of vegetation is represented by salt marshes prairies called "barene", especially by Limonietum venetum (Pignani. 1966, This association can be divided into three sub-associations, the first with three facies: but the reality presents a large quantity of tesserae in intermediate or ecotonal states, even mixed with other associations (e,g, Spartinetum maritimae. The design and control of the schedule, the first measure of the community plant biomasses are a part of this study, me results of which will be discussed in this work.

E. GIGLIO

2004-01-01

329

Linking stroke mortality with air pollution, income, and greenness in northwest Florida: an ecological geographical study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Relatively few studies have examined the association between air pollution and stroke mortality. Inconsistent and inclusive results from existing studies on air pollution and stroke justify the need to continue to investigate the linkage between stroke and air pollution. No studies have been done to investigate the association between stroke and greenness. The objective of this study was to examine if there is association of stroke with air pollution, inco...

Ranga, Rao K.; Liebens Johan; Hu Zhiyong

2008-01-01

330

Fostering Ecological Literacy: A Case Study of the Saint John Harbour in Two High School English Language Arts Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrating environmental education into curriculum in a way that tackles the holistic and complicated nature of multi-dimensional issues continues to be a challenge for educators and administrators. There is potential in using ecological literacy to introduce local environmental case studies into English Language Arts high school classrooms. This research examines the experiences of two ELA classrooms in one Saint John, NB, high school with a two-week unit based on stakeholder relationships within the Saint John Harbour. Through presentations by guest speakers and research sourced from local community groups, students learned about the highly complex environmental issues that inform management decisions for the Harbour. Using these materials as background, students participated in a mock stakeholders meeting. Case study methodology was used to explore student learning in both a higher-level and a lower-level grade 10 ELA class. Data for the analysis included: cognitive mapping exercises; oral and written classroom assignments and activities; a videotape of the mock stakeholder meetings; a focus group interview with selected students; and researcher field notes. Data demonstrated significant student learning about environmental issues including increased sophistication in describing links between and among environmental issues affecting the harbour, and much more complex understandings of the positions and roles of the various stakeholder groups. Some important areas of resistance to new learning were also evident. Implications for practice and policy and recommendations for future research are discussed.

Douglas, Velta

331

Rodent sperm analysis in field-based ecological risk assessment: pilot study at Ravenna army ammunition plant, Ravenna, Ohio  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rodent sperm analysis is a visable method for use in field studies of risk at contaminated sites. - Ecological risk assessment (ERA) guidance recommends that field-truthing efforts proceed when modeled hazard quotients (HQs) suggest that toxicological effects are occurring to site receptors. To date, no field methods have been proposed by the regulatory community that can lead to definitive determinations of acceptable or unacceptable risk for birds and mammals, the two terrestrial classes of receptors that are commonly assessed using the HQ method. This paper describes rodent sperm analysis (RSA) as a viable method to be applied in the field at sites with historical contamination. RSA is capable of detecting biological differences that bear on reproduction, a highly regarded toxicological endpoint of concern in USEPA Superfund-type ERAs. The results of RSA's first application at a study site are reported and discussed. The paper also provides the rationale for RSA's efficacy in the context of Superfund and other environmental cleanup programs, where limited time and money are available to determine and evaluate the field condition

332

Simulation and experimental studies of operators' decision styles and crew composition while using an ecological and traditional user interface for the control room of a nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of this research is threefold: (1) use of the Skill-, Rule-, and Knowledge-based levels of cognitive control -- the SRK framework -- to develop an integrated information processing conceptual framework (for integration of workstation, job, and team design); (2) to evaluate the user interface component of this framework -- the Ecological display; and (3) to analyze the effect of operators' individual information processing behavior and decision styles on handling plant disturbances plus their performance on, and preference for, Traditional and Ecological user interfaces. A series of studies were conducted. In Part I, a computer simulation model and a mathematical model were developed. In Part II, an experiment was designed and conducted at the EBR-II plant of the Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho. It is concluded that: the integrated SRK-based information processing model for control room operations is superior to the conventional rule-based model; operators' individual decision styles and the combination of their styles play a significant role in effective handling of nuclear power plant disturbances; use of the Ecological interface results in significantly more accurate event diagnosis and recall of various plant parameters, faster response to plant transients, and higher ratings of subject preference; and operators' decision styles affect on both their performance and preference for the Ecological interfaceal interface

333

Freshwater sediment pesticide biodegradation potential as an ecological indicator of microbial recovery following a decrease in chronic pesticide exposure: A case study with the herbicide diuron  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of freshwater sediment biodegradation potential as an ecological indicator for monitoring microbial recovery following a decrease in chronic pesticide exposure. For this purpose, a four-year case study (2008–2011) was conducted in a small stream (Morcille river) long exposed to high diuron concentrations, increasing from upstream to downstream. Our results show that the ban on diuron in December 2008 resulted in a progressive decrease in its...

Pesce, S.; Margoum, C.; Rouard, N.; Foulquier, A.; Martin Laurent, F.

2013-01-01

334

Respiratory and mental health effects of wildfires: an ecological study in Galician municipalities (north-west Spain  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background During the summer of 2006, a wave of wildfires struck Galicia (north-west Spain, giving rise to a disaster situation in which a great deal of the territory was destroyed. Unlike other occasions, the wildfires in this case also threatened farms, houses and even human lives, with the result that the perception of disaster and helplessness was the most acute experienced in recent years. This study sought to analyse the respiratory and mental health effects of the August-2006 fires, using consumption of anxiolytics-hypnotics and drugs for obstructive airway diseases as indicators. Methods We conducted an analytical, ecological geographical- and temporal-cluster study, using municipality-month as the study unit. The independent variable was exposure to wildfires in August 2006, with municipalities thus being classified into the following three categories: no exposure; medium exposure; and high exposure. Dependent variables were: (1 anxiolytics-hypnotics; and (2 drugs for obstructive airway diseases consumption. These variables were calculated for the two 12-month periods before and after August 2006. Additive models for time series were used for statistical analysis purposes. Results The results revealed a higher consumption of drugs for obstructive airway diseases among pensioners during the months following the wildfires, in municipalities affected versus those unaffected by fire. In terms of consumption of anxiolytics-hypnotics, the results showed a significant increase among men among men overall -pensioners and non-pensioners- in fire-affected municipalities. Conclusions Our study indicates that wildfires have a significant effect on population health. The coherence of these results suggests that drug utilisation research is a useful tool for studying morbidity associated with environmental incidents.

Taracido, Margarita

2011-05-01

335

Missing ecology: integrating ecological perspectives with the social-ecological system framework  

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Full Text Available The social-ecological systems framework was designed to provide a common research tool for interdisciplinary investigations of social-ecological systems. However, its origin in institutional studies of the commons belies its interdisciplinary ambitions and highlights its relatively limited attention to ecology and natural scientific knowledge. This paper considers the biophysical components of the framework and its epistemological foundations as it relates to the incorporation of knowledge from the natural sciences. It finds that the mixture of inductive and deductive reasoning associated with socially-oriented investigations of these systems is lacking on the ecological side, which relies upon induction alone. As a result the paper proposes the addition of a seventh core sub-system to the social-ecological systems framework, ecological rules, which would allow scholars to explicitly incorporate knowledge from the natural sciences for deductive reasoning. The paper shows, through an instructive case study, how the addition of ecological rules can provide a more nuanced description of the factors that contribute to outcomes in social-ecological systems.

Graham Epstein

2013-08-01

336

Historical ecology: past, present and future.  

Science.gov (United States)

The term 'historical ecology' has been used with various meanings since the first half of the 20th century. Studies labelled as historical ecology have been produced in at least four academic disciplines: history, ecology, geography and anthropology. Although all those involved seem to agree that historical ecology concerns the historical interconnectedness of nature and human culture, this field of study has no unified methodology, specialized institutional background and common publication forums. Knowledge of the development of historical ecology is also limited. As a result, the current multitude of definitions of historical ecology is accompanied by divergent opinions as to where the origins of the field are to be sought. In this review, I follow the development of historical ecology from the 18th century to the present. In the first part, I briefly describe some early examples of historical ecological investigations, followed by a description of the various scientific strands in the 20th century that contributed to the formation of historical ecology. In the second part, I discuss the past five decades of historical ecological investigations in more detail, focusing mostly (but not exclusively) on works that their respective authors identified as historical ecology. I also examine the appearance and interconnectedness of the two main trends (ecological and anthropological) in historical ecological research. In the last part, I attempt to outline the future of historical ecology based on common features in existing research. It appears that at present historical ecology is at a crossroads. With rapidly growing interest in historical ecological research, it may move towards institutionalization or remain an umbrella term. PMID:25174685

Szabó, Péter

2014-08-30

337

A cross-sectional ecological study of spatial scale and geographic inequality in access to drinking-water and sanitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

IntroductionMeasuring inequality in access to safe drinking-water and sanitation is proposed as a component of international monitoring following the expiry of the Millennium Development Goals. This study aims to evaluate the utility of census data in measuring geographic inequality in access to drinking-water and sanitation.MethodsSpatially referenced census data were acquired for Colombia, South Africa, Egypt, and Uganda, whilst non-spatially referenced census data were acquired for Kenya. Four variants of the dissimilarity index were used to estimate geographic inequality in access to both services using large and small area units in each country through a cross-sectional, ecological study.ResultsInequality was greatest for piped water in South Africa in 2001 (based on 53 areas (N) with a median population (MP) of 657,015; D¿=¿0.5599) and lowest for access to an improved water source in Uganda in2008 (N¿=¿56; MP¿=¿419,399; D¿=¿0.2801). For sanitation, inequality was greatest for those lacking any facility in Kenya in 2009 (N¿=¿158; MP¿=¿216,992; D¿=¿0.6981), and lowest for access to an improved facility in Uganda in 2002 (N¿=¿56; MP¿=¿341,954; D¿=¿0.3403). Although dissimilarity index values were greater for smaller areal units, when study countries were ranked in terms of inequality, these ranks remained unaffected by the choice of large or small areal units. International comparability was limited due to definitional and temporal differences between censuses.ConclusionsThis five-country study suggests that patterns of inequality for broad regional units do often reflect inequality in service access at a more local scale. This implies household surveys designed to estimate province-level service coverage can provide valuable insights into geographic inequality at lower levels. In comparison with household surveys, censuses facilitate inequality assessment at different spatial scales, but pose challenges in harmonising water and sanitation typologies across countries. PMID:25424327

Yu, Weiyu; Bain, Robert; Mansour, Shawky; Wright, Jim A

2014-11-26

338

Hammarby Sjoestad - an interdisciplinary case study of the integration of photovoltaics in a new ecologically sustainable residential area in Stockholm  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The integration of photovoltaic (PV) systems in apartment buildings in a new residential area, Hammarby Sjoestad in Stockholm, has been studied using an interdisciplinary approach including e.g. interviews with actors and modelling of PV systems in PVSYST. Four of the ten construction companies represented in the area will install PV systems. The yearly electricity production from these systems has been estimated to be 63 MWh or equal to an electricity demand of 38 (out of 2300) households in the area. Interviews reveal that obstacles for the integration of PV in buildings are e.g. perceived expense and a lack of knowledge. The choice of PV technology is based more on economy, aesthetic appearance, and a wish to demonstrate environmental concern, than on optimal system performance. By integrating renewable energy technologies in the buildings, the construction companies will lay a ground for an ecologically sustainable living, but how these opportunities are utilised by future residents, managers, and caretakers of the buildings will be of decisive importance for the final outcome. (author)

Brogren, M. [Uppsala University (Sweden). Dept. of Materials Science; Green, A. [Linkoeping University (Sweden). Dept. of Technology and Social Change

2003-02-01

339

Resource intruders and robustness of social-ecological systems: an irrigation system of Southeast Spain, a case study  

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Full Text Available Globalization increases the vulnerability of traditional social-ecological systems (SES to the incursion of new resource appropriators, i.e. intruders. New external disturbances that increase the physical and socio-political accessibility of SES (e.g. construction of a new road and weak points in institutional SES of valuable common-pool resources are some of the main factors that enhance the encroachment of intruders. The irrigation system of the northwest Murcia Region (Spain is an example used in this article of the changes in the structure and robustness of a traditional SES as a result of intruders. In this case study, farmers have traditionally used water from springs to irrigate their lands but, in recent decades, large agrarian companies have settled in this region, using groundwater to irrigate new lands. This intrusion had caused the levels of this resource to drop sharply. In an attempt to adapt, local communities are intensifying the use of resources and are constructing new physical infrastructures; consequently, new vulnerabilities are emerging. This situation seems to be heading toward the inevitably collapse of this traditional SES. From an institutional viewpoint, some recommendations are offered to enhance the robustness of SES in order to mitigate the consequences of intruders.

Irene Pérez

2011-09-01

340

Baseline studies on the benthic ecology and thermal tolerance of some selected species from Kaiga environs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Baseline studies on distribution and abundance of benthic fauna and aquatic fungi of Kadra reservoir have been studied at nine stations from July 2000. The study revealed that Insecta formed the dominant component of benthos at all the stations, where Chironomus sp. and Chaoborus sp. formed the bulk of biomass. Molluscs were dominant at intake. 18 species of fungi and 20 species of aquatic hypomycetes were observed on woody litter and leaf litter respectively. Surface water temperature ranged from 26 deg to 36.8 degC from intake to discharge point. The sediment is largely muddy at most of the stations. It was rich in organic matter at intake and downstream stations with maximum value of 12.74%. Lethal temperature tolerance studies were performed on juveniles of fresh water shrimps (Macrobranchium sp.) for 96 hours. LT50 MOEL (maximum observed effect level) and NOEL (no observed effect level) for different time intervals have been obtained. (author)

341

The Relationship between the Learning Ecology System and Students’ Engagement: A Case Study in Selangor  

OpenAIRE

School engagement is a relatively new concept in education. However, studies have demonstrated that the concept is useful in predicting students’ academic achievement. The present study was conducted to examine Malaysian students’ school engagement status and to understand the factors that influenced their engagement. The survey method was used to collect data with a questionnaire measuring the level of students’ engagement in three psychological domains (cognitive, affective, and behav...

Amla Mohd. Salleh; Mazdalina Mat Desa; Ramlah Mohd Tuit

2013-01-01

342

Conservation biology of greater horseshoe bats - from field studies to molecolar ecology  

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Full Text Available Greater horseshoe bats have experienced a substantial range contraction in Britain over the past century, and are also endangered in many European countries. Our studies on the conservation biology of greater horseshoe bats have been running since 1987, and have ranged from simple field-based studies on diet, through radio-tracking studies of habitat use, to research on population genetics, paternity and genetic factors affecting survival. Initially, I described the diet of the species and this proved to be a useful predictor of habitat use. Habitat use was studied in detail by radio-tracking 67 bats at three sites, with further small-scale studies to investigate the generality of landscape use patterns. We also studied the development of foraging behaviour in juveniles to determine critical foraging habitats that may promote juvenile survival. In Britain, greater horseshoe bats feed frequently in winter, and the extent of winter activity has been quantified by acoustic surveys and telemetry of hibernating bats. Recent advances in molecular genetics have provided fascinating insights into the conservation biology of threatened populations of this species, for example illustrating genetic effects of population isolation, and how outbreeding influences survival.

Gareth Jones

2003-10-01

343

Educational Perspectives in the Ecological Paradigm--Possibilities and Limitations  

Science.gov (United States)

In principle, education depends upon the understanding of human beings. Ecological studies can give us opportunities to understand humans more clearly (or scientifically). This truth emphasizes the importance of ecological education. In ecology, a human being is a part of nature. This is because all living beings are members of ecological

Lee, Sang-O

2007-01-01

344

Research on Ecological Operation of Three Gorges Cascade Hydropower Stations  

OpenAIRE

This study present the general model on the ecology operation of reservoir containing four steps: Finding the points of ecological protection, confirming the ecological variables, searching the ecological relation, standardizing the variables. The study research the ecological operation of three gorges considering the breeding of the Chinese sturgeon, for which we structure a multi-objective programming model. Last, the method of decision-making about the Pareto-...

Li Wei; Wang Xianjia; Zhang Liubo

2013-01-01

345

Research on Ecological Operation of Three Gorges Cascade Hydropower Stations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study present the general model on the ecology operation of reservoir containing four steps: Finding the points of ecological protection, confirming the ecological variables, searching the ecological relation, standardizing the variables. The study research the ecological operation of three gorges considering the breeding of the Chinese sturgeon, for which we structure a multi-objective programming model. Last, the method of decision-making about the Pareto-solutions to the above model is provided.

Li Wei

2013-01-01

346

Carbon dioxide emissions and change in prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the United States: an ecological study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies suggest that increasing levels of the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO2), may influence weight gain and thus may play a role in rising trends in obesity and diabetes. We conducted an ecological study to examine the associations between CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and changes in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the United States. County-level data on CO2 emissions, prevalence of obesity and diagnosed diabetes, other sociodemographic factors and neighborhood characteristics related to urbanicity, and fine particles (PM2.5) between 2004 and 2008 were obtained from the Vulcan Project, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and American Community Survey. Linear mixed effect modeling of 3019 counties for the associations between average CO2 emissions and changes in diabetes and obesity prevalence between 2004 and 2008 was performed. The average obesity and diabetes prevalence increased between 2004 and 2008 by 3.65% (SD: 1.88%) and 1.65% (SD: 1.70%), respectively. A marginally significant positive association between CO2 emission and changes in obesity prevalence was found with adjustment for sociodemographic factors, indicators of urbanicity and spatial autocorrelation (p-trend=0.06). The association became weaker and nonsignificant with further adjustment for PM2.5 (p-trend=0.17). There was a significant positive association between CO2 emission and changes in diabetes prevalence before controlling for PM2.5 (p-trend=0.05) but the association became null after controlling for PM2.5 (p-trend=0.49), suggesting that PM2.5 is a critical confounder in the association between CO2 emission and changes in diabetes prevalence. This study does not support the hypothesis that CO2 emissions, a leading driver of climate change, may be linked to increasing trends in obesity and diabetes, though there was an indication of possible link between CO2 and obesity. PMID:25108606

Zheutlin, Alexander R; Adar, Sara D; Park, Sung Kyun

2014-12-01

347

Cancer mortality in a Chinese population surrounding a multi-metal sulphide mine in Guangdong province: an ecologic study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Dabaoshan mine in the southeast of Guangdong Province, China, is at high risk of multi-metal pollutant discharge into a local river (Hengshihe and the surrounding area. Following approximately 30 years of exposure to these metals, little is known regarding the subsequent health effects and risks for the local residents. In our present study, we have estimated the relationships between long-term environmental exposure to multiple heavy metals and the risk of cancer mortality in a Chinese population in the vicinity of Dabaoshan. Methods An ecologic study was performed. Between 2000-2007, a total population of 194,131 lived in the nine agricultural villages that surround the Hengshihe area. Heavy metals concentrations were determined in local environmental samples (water and crops and whole blood taken from 1152 local residents of both a high-exposure area (HEA and a low-exposure area (LEA. We calculated the rate ratio and standardized mortality ratios based on age- and gender-specific cancer mortality rates for the different reference populations (based on district, county and province. Simple, multiple linear and ridge regression models were used to evaluate the associations between exposure to multiple heavy metals and cancer mortality in the nine villages, after adjustment for age and sex. Results The geometric mean blood levels of cadmium and lead were measured at 24.10 ?g/L and 38.91 ?g/dL for subjects (n = 563 in the HEA and 1.87 ?g/L and 4.46 ?g/dL for subjects (n = 589 from the LEA, respectively (P Conclusions The findings of this study reveal probable associations between long-term environmental exposure to both cadmium and lead and an increased risk of mortality from all cancer, as well as from stomach, esophageal and lung-cancers.

Yang Yan

2011-05-01

348

Introduction to the ecological studies of corticolous microarthropods subject to atmospheric pollution. I. The corticolous microhabitats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dispersion of microarthropods living in corticolous medium (particularly Oribatid, Collembola, Psocoptera and Spider populations) was studied in reference to epiphytic cover and bark thickness. The fauna was extracted from four epiphytes: Protococcus viridis (an Alga), Parmelia sulcata and Physcia tenella (two foliose Lichens) and Lecanora conizaeoides (a crustose Lichen). The species diversity in the different microhabitats was also estimated. This study points out the heterogeneity of the corticolous medium and constitutes preliminary research of bioindicators of air pollution and of biological indices of pollution.

Andre, H.

1976-01-01

349

A study of marine zoo-benthos of OM attouyour (systematic, ecology and radioactivity)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study introduces a survey of marine zoo-Benthos found in the littoral zone of Om Attouyour. Measuring natural and artificial radioactivity. Likewise, artificial radionuclides levels and Hg, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu concentrations were low or within the range measured for similar samples in other coasts of the Mediterranean. (author)

350

Ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY-1994 and FY-1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory initiated ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF on the SRS in FY-1979. Two areas have been used for biological surveys and long-term monitoring: the DWPF construction site (S-Area and Z-Area), and two control sites (Rainbow Bay and Tinker Creek). The Rainbow Bay study area and S-Area are located within 5 km of each other on the SRS, and both once contained Carolina bays which were very similar ecologically. One goal of the SREL`s faunal studies is to compare the natural variation in amphibian populations at the Rainbow Bay control site to the variation observed at the human-altered site (Sun Bay, formerly on the DWPF construction site). Pre-construction biological surveys included data on vegetation, birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles, fish and several invertebrate groups. No species on the Federal Endangered or Threatened lists were found on either site, but several plants and animals of threatened or special-concern status in South Carolina were present and the gopher frog (Rana areolata) currently is being considered for federal listing. Continuing studies are directed towards assessing construction impacts on the biota and towares modeling the effects of alteration of wetland hydroperiod on the biota. Primary emphasis is being paced on evaluation the effectiveness of mitigation measures undertaken by DOE.

NONE

1995-12-01

351

An Ecological Study on the Introduction of the Banded Sculpin Into a Coal Flyash Impacted Stream  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number of banded sculpins [Cottus carolinae (Gill)] were obtained from a population in a reference stream, marked with subcutaneous acrylic paint injections, and introduced into McCoy Branch, a small second-order stream located on the Oak Ridge Reservation in eastern Tennessee, which was inhabited by only a few banded sculpins prior to the study. McCoy Branch had received deposits of coal ash slurry for a prolonged period, however, there were some indications of recovery in the macroinvertebrate community due to improvements in water quality. Stream habitat characteristics and water chemistry parameters were monitored in McCoy Branch and a reference stream for a three-year period. Feeding patterns and reproductive activities of the banded sculpins were also monitored during the study. Sculpin population parameters including density, condition factor, and young-of-year (YOY) abundance and survival were studied. The results of the study show that the introduced fish have survived and appear to be in good condition. The sculpins have maintained a density of approximately 0.12 fish per square meter of stream, a figure similar to that found in other headwater streams located in the region. Colonization rates and sculpin densities in McCoy Branch were lower than expected, perhaps due to physical habitat degradation and reduced macroinvertebrate abundance. Evidence of sculpin reproduction in McCoy Branch was seen in the presence of gravid female sculpins (1994 and 1995) and YOY fish (1993 through 1995 year classes). This study indicates that McCoy Branch continues to recover from past perturbations to the point where it can now support a viable population of banded sculpins

352

A Comparative Study of Morphology and Ecology of Bufo stomaticus (Lutken, 1864, (Anura: Bufonidae fromDistrictLarkana and Shikarpur, Pakistan  

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Full Text Available In present investigation, characteristics of Morphology and Ecology of Bufo stomaticus (Lutken, 1864, (Anura: Bufonidae populations in two adjacent DistrictsvizLarkana and Shikarpur of Pakistan have been studied comparativelyfrom March to September 2012 to record morphological and ecological difference between them and also to know which districtprovides better environmental conditions to support their survival. Literature related with Taxonomy and water quality helped in determination of present study.Physical appearanceof both populations observed to be significantly different from each other but morphometric was measured to be relatively same. Habitats of B. stomaticus were analyzed by Physico-chemical parameters viz: pH, conductivity, Total dissolved solids, Chloride, Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium andIron. Most of the parameters were analyzed to be significantly differentbut within favorable level except Conductivity in both Districts.

Kalsoom Shaikh

2013-08-01

353

Physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake and the built environment: ecological and epidemiological studies among youth  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Since the 1990’s, there has been increasing scientific interest in investigating place effects on dietary and exercise behaviors. The two overall aims of this dissertation are designed to investigate at an area level and at an individual level, how food and physical activity resources are spatially distributed by socioeconomic indicators, and whether these associations can be observed between aspects of the built environment and: a) fruit and vegetable intake, and b) vigorous physical activity in individuals. Specifically, this involves operationalization of geographical measures of exposure within neighborhood environments, with development and validation of data used to describe characteristics of exercise and dietary resources. The concept of deprivation amplification is also investigated, which suggests that individual or household deprivation is further enhanced or comprised by the lack of resources in the neighborhood, and could manifest itself in poor health behaviors. This concept is first studied at the neighborhood level, by examining the socioeconomic patterning of food and exercise resources. Next, at the individual level, I examine the combined effects of socioeconomic status and the built environment, and report on how these associations affect individual dietary and exercise behavior. Data drawn for the individually-based analyses stem from the Danish contribution to the Health Behavior in School-aged Children Study (HBSC), an international, cross-sectional population-based study investigating the health and health behaviors of 11-to-15-year old school children. Outcome measures for these studies were infrequent less than daily intake of fruit and vegetables (Paper II) and frequent vigorous physical activity of one hour or more per day (Paper IV). The individual dataset was appended with a validated and cross-referenced objected database built for these studies and contained location information about supermarkets, fast food outlets, and various exercise-supportive resources (public open space, sports facilities, street connectivity, and total length of cycling and walking paths). The neighborhood-based analyses uses validated and cross-referenced objective data about food and physical activity resources in each of the 400 neighborhoods in Copenhagen and combines them with area-level socioeconomic and demographic data derived from The National Statistics Bank of Denmark. Outcome measures for these studies were also defined as the number of supermarkets and fast food outlets in each neighborhood (Paper I) and high exposure (top 25%) to resources supportive of physical activity. Study findings are expressed as either relative risk (RR) or odds ratios (OR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI). In general, study findings indicate no clear socioeconomic patterning of food or physical activity resources by examining neighborhood units alone. For example, there was no association between areal income and supermarket exposure in Copenhagen, while low income areas were more likely to be exposed to fewer fast food outlets than high-income neighborhoods (RR = 0.66; CI: 0.46-0.97). Areas with a high proportion of residents lacking a high school diploma had greater exposure to physical activity resources such as, public open space (OR = 1.90; CI: 1.15-3.15), cycling and walking paths (OR = 3.46; CI: 1.86-6.42) and one or more sports facilities (OR = 2.05; CI: 1.36-3.10) than the referent. Areas with high proportions of children were less likely to have exposure to connected streets (OR = 0.51; 0.31-0.83) than areas with low proportions of children. Results from individual-level studies generally show that while socioeconomic status remains an important individual predictor for diet and exercise behavior, the exposure to resources in the neighborhood environment may differentially affect children according to social class background. Children from low social class backgrounds attending schools with low exposure to supermarkets had the greatest odds of infrequent vegetable (OR = 1.50; CI: 1.03-2.20) and fruit (OR = 1.43

Svastisalee, Chalida

2011-01-01

354

Violence as a public health problem: An ecological study of 169 countries?  

OpenAIRE

Individual level risk factors for violence have been widely studied, but little is known about country-level determinants, particularly in low and middle-income countries. We hypothesized that income inequality, through its detrimental effects on social cohesion, would be related to an increase in violence worldwide, and in low and middle-income countries in particular. We examined country-level associations of violence with socio-economic and health-related factors, using crime statistics fr...

Wolf, A.; Gray, R.; Fazel, S.

2014-01-01

355

Ecological study of socio-economic indicators and prevalence of asthma in schoolchildren in urban Brazil  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background There is evidence of higher prevalence of asthma in populations of lower socio-economic status in affluent societies, and the prevalence of asthma is also very high in some Latin American countries, where societies are characterized by a marked inequality in wealth. This study aimed to examine the relationship between estimates of asthma prevalence based on surveys conducted in children in Brazilian cities and health and socioeconomic indicators measured a...

Genser Bernd; Barreto Mauricio; Pujades-Rodriguez Mar; da Cunha Sérgio; Rodrigues Laura C.

2007-01-01

356

Black Truffles of Sweden : Systematics, Population Studies, Ecology and Cultivation of Tuber aestivum syn. T. uncinatum  

OpenAIRE

Tuber aestivum is an ectomycorrhizal ascomycete with underground fruit bodies. It is an economically important species, but has been regarded as endangered in Sweden. My inventory has increased the number of reported localities from 3 to 31. It has long been debated whether T. aestivum and T. uncinatum are conspecific or not, so a clarification would help conservation biology and cultivation. My study included 117 fruit bodies of both taxa from 8 countries. The phylogenetic (ITS) and microsco...

Wede?n, Christina

2004-01-01

357

Socio-economic factors associated with infant mortality in Italy: an ecological study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Introduction One issue that continues to attract the attention of public health researchers is the possible relationship in high-income countries between income, income inequality and infant mortality (IM). The aim of this study was to assess the associations between IM and major socio-economic determinants in Italy. Methods Associations between infant mortality rates in the 20 Italian regions (2006–2008) and the Gini index of income inequality, mean ...

Dallolio Laura; Di Gregori Valentina; Lenzi Jacopo; Franchino Giuseppe; Calugi Simona; Domenighetti Gianfranco; Fantini Maria

2012-01-01

358

Plant species diversity among ecological species groups in the Caspian Sea coastal sand dune; Case study: Guilan Province, North of Iran  

OpenAIRE

Ravanbakhsh M, Amini T, Hosseini SMN. 2015. Plant species diversity among ecological species groups in the Caspian Sea coastal sand dune; Case study: Guilan Province, North of Iran. Biodiversitas 16: 16-21. Biodiversity is often discussed in terms of species diversity is concentrated. Species diversity is one of the important characteristics of biological communities and its as a function of the number and size represent populations of species in a special geographic region.The aim of this st...

MOKARRAM RAVANBAKHSH; TAYYEBEH AMINI; SAYED MOHSEN NASSAJ HOSSEINI

2015-01-01

359

A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE TROFIC ECOLOGY OF Sardinella brasiliensis OFF SOUTHERN BRAZIL ESTUDO PRELIMINAR DA ECOLOGIA TRÓFICA DA Sardinella brasiliensis NA COSTA SUDESTE DO BRASIL  

OpenAIRE

The feeding ecology of the brazilian sardine Sardinella brasiliensis was studied on the Brazilian continental shelf, from 22°S to 29°S. Based on the Index of Relative Importance (IRI) the diet S. brasiliensis was analysed qualitatively and quantitatively in autumn, winter and spring. An indirect volumetric analysis (called individual volume method) was also performed where food items were classified as geometric bodies and mean volumes were calculated for each food item. The length distribu...

Schneider, F.; Schwingel, P. R.

2000-01-01

360

Studies of minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) ecology in the northeast Atlantic:Description of the 1993 scientific catch operations and preliminary results from stomach analyses and resource surveys  

OpenAIRE

Ecological studies of the Northeast Atlantic minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), initiated in 1992, were continued in 1993. The field work was carried out in spring (15 April-15 May), summer (15 June-12 July) and autumn (25 August-20 September) using four chartered small-type whaling vessels which operated in four selected subareas. To ensure random sampling of whales, stringent sampling procedures, where the vessels searched for whales along predetermined transects within each subarea,...

Haug, Tore; Lindstrøm, Ulf; Nilssen, Kjell Tormod; Røttingen, Ingolf

1994-01-01

361

Feasibility and utility of mapping disease risk at the neighbourhood level within a Canadian public health unit: an ecological study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background We conducted spatial analyses to determine the geographic variation of cancer at the neighbourhood level (dissemination areas or DAs within the area of a single Ontario public health unit, Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph, covering a population of 238,326 inhabitants. Cancer incidence data between 1999 and 2003 were obtained from the Ontario Cancer Registry and were geocoded down to the level of DA using the enhanced Postal Code Conversion File. The 2001 Census of Canada provided information on the size and age-sex structure of the population at the DA level, in addition to information about selected census covariates, such as average neighbourhood income. Results Age standardized incidence ratios for cancer and the prevalence of census covariates were calculated for each of 331 dissemination areas in Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph. The standardized incidence ratios (SIR for cancer varied dramatically across the dissemination areas. However, application of the Moran's I statistic, a popular index of spatial autocorrelation, suggested significant spatial patterns for only two cancers, lung and prostate, both in males (p Conclusion This paper demonstrates the feasibility and utility of a systematic approach to identifying neighbourhoods, within the area served by a public health unit, that have significantly higher risks of cancer. This exploratory, ecologic study suggests several hypotheses for these spatial patterns that warrant further investigations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Canadian study published in the peer-reviewed literature estimating the risk of relatively rare public health outcomes at a very small areal level, namely dissemination areas.

Wanigaratne Susitha

2010-05-01

362

Tissue-carbon incorporation rates in lizards: implications for ecological studies using stable isotopes in terrestrial ectotherms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbon stable isotope (delta(13)C) analysis can be used to infer the origin and to estimate the flow of nutrient resources through animals and across ecological compartments. These applications require knowledge of the rates at which carbon is incorporated into animal tissues and diet-to-tissue discrimination factors (Delta(13)C). Studies of carbon dynamics in terrestrial vertebrates to date have focused almost solely on endothermic animals; ectotherms such as reptiles have received little attention. Here we determined carbon incorporation rates and Delta(13)C in tissues of prairie lizards (Sceloporus undulatus consobrinus) and collared lizards (Crotaphytus collaris). The smaller lizard, S. undulatus, had carbon retention times of 25 and 61 d in plasma and red blood cells (RBC), respectively, compared with 44 and 311 d for the larger C. collaris. Liver, muscle, and skin carbon retention times for S. undulatus were 21, 81, and 94 d. Growth contributed 9%-19% of the carbon incorporated into these tissues. This contribution is similar to endotherms measured at comparable developmental stages. Mean Delta(13)C for plasma (-0.2 per thousand +/- 0.4 per thousand Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite Standard) and RBCs (-1.3 per thousand +/- 0.8 per thousand) were similar to values reported for other vertebrates. Carbon incorporation rates for these ectotherms, however, are seven times slower than in similarly sized adult endotherms. Although a limited comparison with data for warm-water fishes suggests comparable incorporation rates between aquatic and terrestrial ectotherms, this study highlights the lack of experimental data for isotope dynamics in ectotherms across a range of temperatures, body sizes, and developmental stages. PMID:20441446

Warne, Robin W; Gilman, Casey A; Wolf, Blair O

2010-01-01

363

Economic grand rounds: Income inequality and depression prevalence across the United States: an ecological study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research has shown a relationship between income inequality and poor health. This column reports findings from a state-level study of the relationship between income inequality and the prevalence of depression. Estimates of depression prevalence by state, obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, were linked with Gini coefficients for U.S. household income, obtained from the Census Bureau. The current prevalence of depression was significantly associated with income inequality--the more unequal, the higher the depression prevalence. The association persisted after adjustment for income per capita, percentage of the population with a college degree, and percentage over age 65 years. PMID:21724781

Messias, Erick; Eaton, William W; Grooms, Amy N

2011-07-01

364

Perspective on eastern migration studies: stopover ecology of migratory landbirds in the Gulf Coast region  

Science.gov (United States)

Millions of Nearctic-Neotropical landbirds move through the coastal habitats of the Gulf of Mexico each spring and autumn as they migrate across and around the Gulf. Migration routes in the Gulf region are not static and they shift year to year and season to season according to prevailing wind patterns. Using data from field and radar studies, we mapped patterns of migration movement and landfall in the Gulf of Mexico region. Map categories include coastal areas where migrant numbers are consistently high, consistently common, sporadically common-abundant, sporadically common, or sparse. Weather surveillance radar data indicates that habitats along the Northwest Gulf Coast are consistently used each year.

Barrow, W.C., Jr.; Johnson Randall, L.A.

2004-01-01

365

Pattern and determinants of hospitalization during heat waves: an ecologic study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies have investigated mortality during a heatwave, while few have quantified heat associated morbidity. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between hospital admissions and intensity, duration and timing of heatwave across the summer months. Methods The study area (Veneto Region, Italy holds 4577408 inhabitants (on January 1st, 2003, and is subdivided in seven provinces with 60 hospitals and about 20000 beds for acute care. Five consecutive heatwaves (three or more consecutive days with Humidex above 40°C occurred during summer 2002 and 2003 in the region. From the regional computerized archive of hospital discharge records, we extracted the daily count of hospital admissions for people aged ?75, from June 1 through August 31 in 2002 and 2003. Among people aged over 74 years, daily hospital admissions for disorders of fluid and electrolyte balance, acute renal failure, and heat stroke (grouped in a single nosologic entity, heat diseases, HD, respiratory diseases (RD, circulatory diseases (CD, and a reference category chosen a priori (fractures of the femur, FF were independently analyzed by Generalized Estimating Equations. Results Heatwave duration, not intensity, increased the risk of hospital admissions for HD and RD by, respectively, 16% (p Conclusion The first four days of an heatwave had only minor effects, thus supporting heat health systems where alerts are based on duration of hot humid days. Although the finding is based on a single late summer heatwave, adaptations to extreme temperature in late summer seem to be unlikely.

Milan Giovanni

2007-08-01

366

A second life for old data: Global patterns in pollution ecology revealed from published observational studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A synthesis of research on the responses of terrestrial biota (1095 effect sizes) to industrial pollution (206 point emission sources) was conducted to reveal regional and global patterns from small-scale observational studies. A meta-analysis, in combination with other statistical methods, showed that the effects of pollution depend on characteristics of the specific polluter (type, amount of emission, duration of impact on biota), the affected organism (trophic group, life history), the level at which the response was measured (organism, population, community), and the environment (biome, climate). In spite of high heterogeneity in responses, we have detected several general patterns. We suggest that the development of evolutionary adaptations to pollution is a common phenomenon and that the harmful effects of pollution on terrestrial ecosystems are likely to increase as the climate warms. We argue that community- and ecosystem-level responses to pollution should be explored directly, rather than deduced from organism-level studies. - Research synthesis demonstrated that the harmful effects of pollution on terrestrial ecosystems are likely to increase as the climate warms.

367

Continued studies of long-term ecological effects of exposure to uranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies of the long-term consequences of exposing terrestrial ecosystems to natural and depleted uranium dispersed during explosives tests at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) and test firing at Eglin Air Force Base (EAFB), Florida, were continued. Soils from EAFB, sampled before and after firing of depleted uranium penetrators against armor plate targets, indicated that the upper (0- to 5-cm-deep) soil usually contained more uranium than lower (5- to 10-cm-deep) soil. However, no significant changes were apparent in samples taken before and after the test firing. E-F explosive testing site at LASL was selected for intensive study of uranium redistribution during its 33-yr use. Highest surface soil (0- to 2.5-cm-deep) uranium concentrations occurred 0 and 10 m from the detonation point and averaged 4500 ppM. Concentrations in surface soil 50 and 200 m from the firing point were usually < 15% of that value. The uranium distribution to 30-cm depths showed significant penetration into the soil. Alluvium collected 250 m from the E-F detonation area in Potrillo Canyon indicated that surface (0- to 2.5-cm-deep) uranium concentrations were about 10% of those at the detonation point, and at 2.8 km they were twice background levels

368

Continued studies of long-term ecological effects of exposure to uranium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Studies of the long-term consequences of exposing terrestrial ecosystems to natural and depleted uranium dispersed during explosives tests at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) and test firing at Eglin Air Force Base (EAFB), Florida, were continued. Soils from EAFB, sampled before and after firing of depleted uranium penetrators against armor plate targets, indicated that the upper (0- to 5-cm-deep) soil usually contained more uranium than lower (5- to 10-cm-deep) soil. However, no significant changes were apparent in samples taken before and after the test firing. E-F explosive testing site at LASL was selected for intensive study of uranium redistribution during its 33-yr use. Highest surface soil (0- to 2.5-cm-deep) uranium concentrations occurred 0 and 10 m from the detonation point and averaged 4500 ppM. Concentrations in surface soil 50 and 200 m from the firing point were usually < 15% of that value. The uranium distribution to 30-cm depths showed significant penetration into the soil. Alluvium collected 250 m from the E-F detonation area in Potrillo Canyon indicated that surface (0- to 2.5-cm-deep) uranium concentrations were about 10% of those at the detonation point, and at 2.8 km they were twice background levels.

Hanson, W.C.; Miera, F.R. Jr.

1977-06-01

369

Hyperspectral clustering and unmixing for studying the ecology of state formation and complex societies  

Science.gov (United States)

This project is an application of hyperspectral classification and unmixing in support of an ongoing archaeological study. The study region is the Oaxaca Valley located in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico on the southern coast. This was the birthplace of the Zapotec civilization which grew into a complex state level society. Hyperion imagery is being collected over a 30,000 km2 area. Classification maps of regions of interest are generated using K-means clustering and a novel algorithm called Gradient Flow. Gradient Flow departs from conventional stochastic or deterministic approaches, using graph theory to cluster spectral data. Spectral unmixing is conducted using the RIT developed algorithm Max-D to automatically find end members. Stepwise unmixing is performed to better model the data using the end members found be Max-D. Data are efficiently shared between imaging scientists and archaeologists using Google Earth to stream images over the internet rather than downloading them. The overall goal of the project is to provide archaeologists with useful information maps without having to interpret the raw data.

Kwong, Justin D.; Messinger, David W.; Middleton, William D.

2009-08-01

370

ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) communications system ecological monitoring program: Slime mold studies  

Science.gov (United States)

It was previously shown that continuous exposure of the slime mold Physarum polycephalum to extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) simulating those generated by the Navy's ELF communication system (then Project Sanguine) could depress the rate of respiration, and lengthen the mitotic cell cycle. In a series of experiments beginning in 1981 and ending in 1987, it was determined that whether exposing Physarum to the field environment around the Wisconsin Transmitting Facility (WTF) could induce an altered physiological state. A laboratory component was also included to help verify methodology and to supplement studies performed at the WTF. Initially, the experimental effort was directed to devising methods to maintain axenic Physarum cultures under ambient environmental conditions. This involved using growth chambers that admit the electric field or current density from the surrounding environment; the cultures were returned to the laboratory for analysis. The successful methods placed the organism on an agar bed inside double containment and introduced the samples to be assayed into shaken liquid culture medium upon arrival at the laboratory. Both WTF-generated electromagnetic fields and background strengths were measured with the help of IITRI at study locations near the antenna, at the west ground of the WTF antenna, as well as at control sites.

Goodman, Eugene; Greenebaum, Ben

1990-01-01

371

Laboratory study on the ecological impact of sophorolipid used for harmful algae elimination  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the role of sophorolipid in inhibiting harmful algae bloom (HAB). Different sophorolipid concentrations were tested on marine microalgae, zooplankton, fish, and bivalve ( Mytilus edulis) in laboratory. The result shows that sophorolipid could inhibit the growth of algal species selectively. Among three algae species selected, Platymonas helgolandica var. tsingtaoensis was promoted with increasing sophorolipid concentration; Isochrysis galbana was inhibited seven days later in sophorolipid concentration below 40 mg/L; and Nitzschia closterium f. minutissima was inhibited obviously in only a high sophorolipid concentration over 20 mg/L. Therefore, sophorolipid in a low concentration at Mytilus edulis decreased to 80%, 40%, and 20% of the control group after being exposed to 20, 50, and 100 mg/L sophorolipid for 24 h. Therefore, the toxicity for mitigation of harmful algae bloom at previously recommended concentration of 5-20 mg/L sophorolipid is low for most tested organisms in this reaserch.

Sun, Xiaoxia; Kim, Eunki; Sun, Song

2010-11-01

372

Ecological studies of neritic phytoplankton of Southern California: seasonal variations, associations, and responses to temperature elevations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first part of this study investigates the seasonal variations and associations of the nearshore phytoplankton communities at Seal Beach, Orange County, California. A total of 90 species was recorded in samples taken weekly from June 1972 to May 1973. On a yearly basis, the two dominant algal groups were diatoms (46 species) and dinoflagellates (36 species), accounting respectively for 64.1 percent and 30.4 percent of the total cell number, and for 20.2 percent and 79.2 percent of the total cell volume. The species diversity index (H') remained relatively stable during the year, showing no distinct seasonal pattern. The major group, composed mainly of dinoflagellates, was correlated with warm water conditions at Seal Beach. At this location, two electric power plants use sea-water for cooling purposes at the rate of six million l/min, which subjects the planktonic organisms entrained in the condenser systems to appreciable temperature increases. This problem is general in southern California, where 14 coastal power plants draw presently no less than 20 billion l/day from the ocean. The large quantities of marine phytoplankton passing through the cooling systems of the two power plants studied were found greatly reduced in numbers (41.7 percent) and in volume (33.7 percent). There was no apparent reduction in phytoplankton stocks when the intake water was cooler than 150C. Species diversity (H') in the effluent was consistently lower than in the influent.s consistently lower than in the influent. Temperature elevations up to 100C increased the gross primary productivity by 37 percent when intake water temperatures were 190C or cooler, and reduced productivity by 22 percent when ambient water temperatures were warmer than 21.50C. Since heating was consistently less damaging when applied to relatively cold water, use by coastal power plants of deep sea-water for cooling is strongly advocated. (U.S.)

373

Ecology of Infectious Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

A joint National Science Foundation (NSF) and National Institutes of Health program, Ecology of Infectious Diseases (EID), allows scientists to study how large-scale environmental events—such as habitat destruction, invasions of non-native species and pollution—alter the risks of emergence of viral, parasitic and bacterial diseases in humans and animals. Specific infectious diseases being studied include hantavirus, Lyme Disease, and Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD).

374

Spatial clusters of suicide in the municipality of São Paulo 1996–2005: an ecological study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In a classical study, Durkheim mapped suicide rates, wealth, and low family density and realized that they clustered in northern France. Assessing others variables, such as religious society, he constructed a framework for the analysis of the suicide, which still allows international comparisons using the same basic methodology. The present study aims to identify possible significantly clusters of suicide in the city of São Paulo, and then, verify their statistical associations with socio-economic and cultural characteristics. Methods A spatial scan statistical test was performed to analyze the geographical pattern of suicide deaths of residents in the city of São Paulo by Administrative District, from 1996 to 2005. Relative risks and high and/or low clusters were calculated accounting for gender and age as co-variates, were analyzed using spatial scan statistics to identify geographical patterns. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations with socioeconomic variables, considering, the spatial cluster of high suicide rates as the response variable. Drawing from Durkheim’s original work, current World Health Organization (WHO reports and recent reviews, the following independent variables were considered: marital status, income, education, religion, and migration. Results The mean suicide rate was 4.1/100,000 inhabitant-years. Against this baseline, two clusters were identified: the first, of increased risk (RR?=?1.66, comprising 18 districts in the central region; the second, of decreased risk (RR?=?0.78, including 14 districts in the southern region. The downtown area toward the southwestern region of the city displayed the highest risk for suicide, and though the overall risk may be considered low, the rate climbs up to an intermediate level in this region. One logistic regression analysis contrasted the risk cluster (18 districts against the other remaining 78 districts, testing the effects of socioeconomic-cultural variables. The following categories of proportion of persons within the clusters were identified as risk factors: singles (OR?=?2.36, migrants (OR?=?1.50, Catholics (OR?=?1.37 and higher income (OR?=?1.06. In a second logistic model, likewise conceived, the following categories of proportion of persons were identified as protective factors: married (OR?=?0.49 and Evangelical (OR?=?0.60. Conclusions This risk/ protection profile is in accordance with the interpretation that, as a social phenomenon, suicide is related to social isolation. Thus, the classical framework put forward by Durkheim seems to still hold, even though its categorical expression requires re-interpretation.

Bando Daniel H

2012-08-01

375

Ecological Studies of the River Padma at Mawa Ghat, Munshiganj I. Physico-chemical Properties  

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Full Text Available Some selected physico-chemical properties were measured in three stations at Mawa Ghat, Munshiganj, of Padma river between February and December, 2002. The pH of the water was slightly acidic to alkaline (6.2 to 7.5. Conductivity ranged from 106.0-209.0 ?S cm-1. The values of chloride, alkalinity, free CO2 were 65.0-85.6, 57.7-110.0 and 2.3-13.4 mg L-1, respectively. The values of dissolved oxygen were 5.1 to 10.3 mg L-1. BOD5 ranged from 3.4 to 7.2 mg L-1. Total hardness were 2.9 to 6.5 mg L-1 and the values were 2.3-4.2 mg L-1 in case of permanent hardness. Total solids were 175.5-472.1 mg L-1 and 35.5-179.9 mg L-1 dissolved solids were recorded. River water did not show any significant pollution during the present study. Free CO2 showed negative correlations with all other parameters. The relation was highly significance (p=0.01 in case of conductivity and total hardness. The other parameters showed positive correlation among themselves.

Ashfaque Ahmed

2004-01-01

376

Ecological studies of Gracilaria asiatica and Gracilaria lemaneiformis in Zhanshan Bay, Qingdao  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural populations of G. asiatica Zhang & Xia and G. lemaneiformis (Bory) Weber van Bosse were studied during 1984 and 1986 in Zhanshan Bay, Qingdao (36°4'N, 120° 21'E). Rapid growth (length, weight) of these plants occurred between mid-May and late June (water temperatures, 15-20°C). The major epiphyte of G. asiatica was Enteromorpha linza, while Punctaria latifolia was the major epiphyte of G. lemaneiformis. Epiphytism declined throughout early summer, and epiphytes were rare after mid-July (1984); they did not reappear in late summer, although macrophyte growth declined abruptly after early July. Populations of G. asiatica varied during late spring-early summer between adjacent sandy and rocky portions of the intertidal zone; plants at the sandy site were larger and epiphyte-free. Amphipod densities were low on both species of Gracilaria, but the most abundant species were Ampithoe lacertosa, Caprella equilibra, C. krøyeri, C. scauraand Pontogeneia rostrata. Additional information on general community structure is provided for the G. asiatica zone.

Brawley, Susan H.; Xiugeng, Fei

1988-03-01

377

Ecological Study of Two Aphid Vectors of the Sugar-Beet Virus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dispersal of Myzus persicae Sulz and Aphis fabae Scop, labelled with 32P was studied from 1963 to 1965 in sugar-beet plots. The aphids were reared on beets infected with a virus causing severe yellowing and sprinkled with a solution containing 1 mCi of sodium orthophosphate (32P). Aphids which remained for 24 hours on these plants were significantly labelled, as were also their first-generation descendants. The activity of the insects was recorded by a gas-flow detector with a low background. The radioactive beets infected with the virus and laden with aphids were placed in the centre of the plots. After successively increasing dispersal times, the largest possible number of aphids was captured in each test, either manually or in traps. The co-ordinates and the precise identification of each labelled aphid were entered on charts, some of which are discussed by the authors. The experiments demonstrated the mobility of the aplerae, which were found at average distances of 6.5 and 7 metres for Myzus persicae and Aphis fabae, respectively. However, some apterae of both species were found at distances of over 15 metres after the same period. The role of the winged species as virus carries over short distances should not be underestimated. The active character of both apterae and winged species is emphasized. (author)

378

Trophic ecology of mullets during their spring migration in a European saltmarsh: A stable isotope study  

Science.gov (United States)

Mullet populations are abundant in littoral waters throughout the world and play a significant role in organic matter fluxes. Mullets are opportunistic feeders: adults have frequently been shown to feed on primary producers (e.g. fresh or detrital plant material, microphytobenthos) but they may also feed on meiofauna. The population structure and stomach contents of mullets that colonize saltmarsh creeks in Aiguillon Bay (French Atlantic coast) were studied to determine if they use saltmarshes as a feeding ground in spring. Stable isotope analyses were carried out on mullets sampled to assess their diet during their spring migration. The mullet population was primarily composed of young-of-the-year (G0), 1 year-old (G1) of both Liza ramada and Liza aurata species and 3 year-old or older (G3+) L. ramada individuals. G0 and G3+ population densities increased during the spring period: catch per unit effort (CPUE) increased from 0.22 to 1.49 ind min -1 for the G0 age group; but stomach content analyses revealed that only G1 and G3+ feed in the saltmarsh. Isotopic signatures of G1 (spring: ? 13C: -14.8‰, ? 15N: 14.1‰) and G3+ mullets (spring: ? 13C: -16.9‰, ? 15N: 13.8‰) indicate that mullet growth is supported largely by primary consumers, such as benthic meiofauna or small macrofauna. Mullets are thus positioned at a much higher trophic level than true primary consumers.

Lebreton, Benoit; Richard, Pierre; Parlier, Emmanuel P.; Guillou, Gaël; Blanchard, Gérard F.

2011-03-01

379

Inference for ecological dynamical systems: a case study of two endemic diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method is used to infer parameters for an open stochastic epidemiological modEL: the Markovian susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model, which is suitable for modeling and simulating recurrent epidemics. This allows exploring two major problems of inference appearing in many mechanistic population models. First, trajectories of these processes are often only partly observed. For example, during an epidemic the transmission process is only partly observable: one cannot record infection times. Therefore, one only records cases (infections) as the observations. As a result some means of imputing or reconstructing individuals in the susceptible cases class must be accomplished. Second, the official reporting of observations (cases in epidemiology) is typically done not as they are actually recorded but at some temporal interval over which they have been aggregated. To address these issues, this paper investigates the following problems. Parameter inference for a perfectly sampled open Markovian SIR is first considered. Next inference for an imperfectly observed sample path of the system is studied. Although this second problem has been solved for the case of closed epidemics, it has proven quite difficult for the case of open recurrent epidemics. Lastly, application of the statistical theory is made to measles and pertussis epidemic time series data from 60 UK cities. PMID:22536295

Vasco, Daniel A

2012-01-01

380

Impacts of inorganic fluorides on terrestrial ecosystems: An ecological risk assessment case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1994, the national environmental assessment under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act concluded that concentrations of inorganic fluorides near industrial sources in Canada may cause long-term adverse effects in sensitive terrestrial plant and wildlife species. This case study examines the accumulation of inorganic fluorides in vegetation and subsequent effects on a sensitive herbivore species, the white tail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on Cornwall Island, Ontario, near an aluminum smelting facility, Using environmental concentration data for air, water and food (vegetation), a Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the probability that multimedia exposure of inorganic fluorides exceeded known effects thresholds of skeletal and dental fluorosis in deer, and in turn quantify the magnitude of that risk. With daily intakes ranging from 2--324 {micro}g/deer/day, it was estimated that exposure to fluorides exceeds the daily intake threshold for fluorosis (55 {micro}g/deer/day) in 12% of the deer population. Seasonal differences in exposure and subsequent risk were noted. These results are also supported by additional field data on domestic cattle from the Cornwall Island area where effects (e.g., excessive teeth wear, delayed eruption of permanent teeth, osteosclerosis, osteonecrosis) have been reported and linked to high levels of fluorides in air, water, and forage. It is estimated that at least 10% of the deer from the Cornwall Island area may be subject to debilitating skeletal and dental fluorosis as a result of fluoride emissions from the adjacent aluminum smelter.

Kent, R.A.; Schneider, U.A.; Pawlisz, A.V. [Environment Canada, Hull, Quebec (Canada). Evaluation and Interpretation Branch

1995-12-31

381

Violence as a public health problem: an ecological study of 169 countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Individual level risk factors for violence have been widely studied, but little is known about country-level determinants, particularly in low and middle-income countries. We hypothesized that income inequality, through its detrimental effects on social cohesion, would be related to an increase in violence worldwide, and in low and middle-income countries in particular. We examined country-level associations of violence with socio-economic and health-related factors, using crime statistics from the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, and indicators from the Human Development Report published by the United Nations Development Programme. Using regression models, we measured relationships between country-level factors (age, education, measures of income, health expenditure, and alcohol consumption) and four violent outcomes (including measures of violence-related mortality and morbidity) in up to 169 countries. We stratified our analyses comparing high with low and middle-income countries, and analysed longitudinal data on homicide and income inequality in high-income countries. In low and middle-income countries, income inequality was related to homicide, robbery, and self-reported assault (all p's public policy interventions reducing alcohol consumption may contribute to reducing violence rates. Our main finding was that income inequality was related to violence in low and middle-income countries. Public health should advocate for global action to moderate income inequality to reduce the global health burden of violence. PMID:24581081

Wolf, Achim; Gray, Ron; Fazel, Seena

2014-03-01

382

Reference information for realizing ecological restoration of river: A case study in the Bongseonsa stream  

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Full Text Available In Korea, where the plain land is greatly deficient as a mountainous nation, most of riparian zones were transformed into agricultural fields and urban areas. Excessive use of the land, which is close to river, makes the rivers enduring severe pollution stresses. Disappearance of riparian buffer, which plays a function of filter in the riverside, appears as a main factor aggravating water pollution of rivers. In this respect, it is imperative to restore the lost riparian vegetation. This study found out restoration models of riparian vegetation from the Bongseonsa stream, which has remnant riparian vegetation patches as a conservation reserve. Feasible reference information applicable for restoration of riparian vegetation was shown in the species level in the order of herb, shrub, and tree and sub-tree zones as far away from the waterway. Those information could contribute to restoring integrate and healthy rivers and streams beyond simple landscaping differently from the other restoration projects when they will be applied to the restoration project to be carried out in the future. In addition, the spatial range of river and stream, background that riparian zone disappeared in Korea, and application plan of the obtained reference information were discussed.

Chang-Seok Lee

2013-12-01

383

Socio-economic factors associated with infant mortality in Italy: an ecological study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction One issue that continues to attract the attention of public health researchers is the possible relationship in high-income countries between income, income inequality and infant mortality (IM. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between IM and major socio-economic determinants in Italy. Methods Associations between infant mortality rates in the 20 Italian regions (2006–2008 and the Gini index of income inequality, mean household income, percentage of women with at least 8 years of education, and percentage of unemployed aged 15–64 years were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients. Univariate linear regression and multiple stepwise linear regression analyses were performed to determine the magnitude and direction of the effect of the four socio-economic variables on IM. Results The Gini index and the total unemployment rate showed a positive strong correlation with IM (r?=?0.70; p?b?=?0.15, p? Conclusions In Italy, a high-income country where health care is universally available, variations in IM were strongly associated with relative and absolute income and unemployment rate. These results suggest that in Italy IM is not only related to income distribution, as demonstrated for other developed countries, but also to economic factors such as absolute income and unemployment. In order to reduce IM and the existing inequalities, the challenge for Italian decision makers is to promote economic growth and enhance employment levels.

Dallolio Laura

2012-08-01

384

Ecological baseline study of the Yakima Firing Center proposed land acquisition: A status report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides baseline environmental information for the property identified for possible expansion of the Yakima Firing Center. Results from this work provide general descriptions of the animals and major plant communities present. A vegetation map derived from a combination of on-site surveillance and remotely sensed imagery is provided as part of this report. Twenty-seven wildlife species of special interest (protected, sensitive, furbearer, game animal, etc.), and waterfowl, were observed on the proposed expansion area. Bird censuses revealed 13 raptorial species (including four of special interest: bald eagle, golden eagle, osprey, and prairie falcon); five upland game bird species (sage grouse, California quail, chukar, gray partridge, and ring-necked pheasant); common loons (a species proposed for state listing as threatened); and five other species of special interest (sage thrasher, loggerhead shrike, mourning dove, sage sparrow, and long-billed curlew). Estimates of waterfowl abundance are included for the Priest Rapids Pool of the Columbia River. Six small mammal species were captured during this study; one, the sagebrush vole, is a species of special interest. Two large animal species, mule deer and elk, were noted on the site. Five species of furbearing animals were observed (coyote, beaver, raccoon, mink, and striped skunk). Four species of reptiles and one amphibian were noted. Fisheries surveys were conducted to document the presence of gamefish, and sensitive-classified fish and aquatic invertebrates. Rainbow trout were the only fish collected within the boundaries of the proposed northern expansion area. 22 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

Rogers, L.E.; Beedlow, P.A.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Dauble, D.D.; Fitzner, R.E.

1989-01-01

385

Ecological validity and infant research: An example from an experimental study on object individuation with familiar objects in 8-month-old infants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  The concept of ecological validity is central when considering an ecological approach to experimental research. However, the concept of ecological validity seem to occur rather seldom in discussion sections in journal articles on experimental infant reseach. In this conference presentation I shall attempt to apply an analysis based on the concept of ecological validity on a specific experimental study within the field of infant cognition. I will attempt to show that such an analysis can be worthwhile.The presentation falls in three sections. The first section is a presentation of the concept of ecological validity. The second section reports an original empirical study investigating whether familiar objects make a difference when 8-month-old infants attempt to individuate objects. Object individuation refers to the ability to decide the number of distinct objects present in a given scenario. It has become almost a convention to use novel objects when investigating infants' understanding of the physical world. Such a strategy is easely legitimized on methodological grounds. However, the exclusive use of novel objects prevent us from exploring the possibility that familiar objects might make a difference when infants reason about the physical world. For example, it might be argued that infants would probably pay more attention to ‘disappearing' familiar objects compared to novel ones. Using the so-called "violation-of-expectation" method, the study employed a design that recently (Krøjgaard, 2003) has been used to replicate the results obtained in a seminal study by Xu and Carey (1996) with 10-month-old infants. On alternating trials infants are presented with ‘expected' test events (in which the number of objects present behind an occluder corresponds to the preceeding introduction) and ‘unexpected' test events (in which the number of objects present behind the occluder violates the available information regarding the number of objects present during the introduction). Two groups of 8-month-old infants were tested with a toy teddy bear as target object. For the infants in the first group the teddy bear was novel, whereas for the infants in the second group the teddy bear was familiar (each infant in the second group had received an exemplar of the teddy bear three months prior to the test). Based on rationale that infants, all things equal, would look longer at the unexpected test compared to the expected test events, the looking times obtained in the test events were averaged and compared. The results revealed that infants from both groups failed to individuate the objects. Thus, being familiar to the objects that (apparently) disappeared in the ‘unexpected' test events had no effect on the infants' ability to individuate objects in the present design.In the third and final section the results obtained in the experiment are discussed, not only in relation to the existing litterature within the field of research of object individuation, but also by specificly applying the concept of ecological validity. It is argued, that the negative results obtained may at least in part be explained by incorporating the concept of ecological validity into the analysis, and hence that the concept of ecological validity can indeed be a usefull analytical tool when discussing experimental infant research.

KrØjgaard, Peter

386

An ecological study of regional variation in work injuries among young workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The investigation of geographic variation in occupational injuries has received little attention. Young workers 15 to 24 years are of particular concern because they consistently show elevated occupational injury rates compared to older workers. The present study sought to: (a to describe the geographic variation of work injuries; (b to determine whether geographic variation remained after controlling for relevant demographic and job characteristics; (c to identify the region-level factors that correlate with the geographic variation. Methods Using workers compensation claims and census data, we estimated claim rates per 100 full-time equivalents for 15 to 24 year olds in 46 regions in Ontario. A total of 21 region-level indicators were derived primarily from Census and Labour Force Survey data to reflect social and material deprivation of the region as well as demographic and employment characteristics of youth living in those areas. Results Descriptive findings showed substantial geographic variation in young worker injury rates, even after controlling for several job and demographic variables. Region-level characteristics such as greater residential stability were associated with low work injury rates. Also, regions with the lowest claim rates tended to have proportionally fewer cuts and burns than high-claim-rate regions. Conclusion The finding of substantial geographic variation in youth claim rates even after controlling for demographic and job factors can aid in targeting prevention resource. The association between region-level indicators such as residential stability and youth work injury suggests that work injury prevention strategies can be integrated with other local economic development measures. The findings partially support the notion that work safety measures may be unevenly distributed with respect to regional socio-economic factors.

Smith Peter

2007-05-01

387

Variation in general practice prostate-specific antigen testing and prostate cancer outcomes : An ecological study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Brugen af prostata-specifikt antigen (PSA) er mangedoblet i dansk almen praksis siden introduktionen i 1990’erne. Dansk Urologisk Selskab anbefaler brug af testen ved relevante symptomer og arvelig disposition, men ikke til screening. Alligevel varierer brugen af PSA-tests i almen praksis. Dette registerstudie undersøger variationen i brugen af PSA-tests blandt praktiserende læger i Region Midtjylland i perioden 2004-2009. Studiet ser også nærmere på, hvilke konsekvenser variationen har for mændene i de forskellige praksispopulationer. Almen praksis blev inddelt i fire grupper efter deres brug af PSA-tests. Den mest testende fjerdedel af praksis brugte teksten 3,6 gange oftere end den mindst testende praksisgruppe. I den mest testende gruppe fik 76 % flere personer en biopsi af prostata og 37 % flere mænd blev diagnosticeret med prostatacancer sammenlignet med den mindst testende gruppe. Risikoen for at blive diagnosticeret med lokal prostatacancer var 61 % højere i den mest testende gruppe sammenlignet med den mindst testende gruppe. Risikoen for at finde regional sygdom eller fjern¬meta¬staser var dog den samme i de fire grupper. Risikoen for at få fjernet hele blærehalskirtlen (prostatektomi) var 2,25 gange større i den mest testende gruppe sammenlignet med den mindst testende gruppe. Dødeligheden (mortaliteten) – både den over¬ordnede og den prostata-specifikke – var den samme i alle fire grupper. Resultaterne indikerer, at der er forskellig klinisk praksis for brugen af PSA-tests, og at forskellene har betydning for praksispopulationerne. Biopsi fra prostata og prostatektomi er begge procedurer, som giver stor risiko for bivirkninger, men dette studie kan ikke påvise, at intensiv PSA-testning giver en reduceret dødelighed.

Hjertholm, Peter; Fenger-GrØn, Morten

2014-01-01

388

Marcação individual de triatomíneos para estudos comportamentais e ecologicos / Individual marking of tiratominea for behavioral and ecological studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Idealizou-se uma técnica de marcação de insetos adultos, visando principalmente à identificação individual de triatomineos, que consiste na elaboração de códigos correspondentes a números, através de cinco cores basicas (vermelho, branco, azul, verde e amarelo) representadas por pintas coloridas fei [...] tas com tinta esmalte e depositadas do pronoto ao escutelo do inseto manualmente, com um fino pincel de seda. As pintas não devem se estender às asas sobrepostas, porque estas mudam constantemente de posição, encobrindo assim a marcação. A tinta é indelével e, por não apresentar toxicidade, não afeta a longevidade e o comportamento dos insetos. A técnica pode ser utilizada tanto para insetos no laboratório quanto no campo principalmente em trabalhos relacionados à Ecologia e ao Comportamento. Abstract in english A technique for marking adult insects was worked out, aiming at the individual identification of triatomine bugs. It consists on the development of codes corresponding to numbers (units, tens and hundreds) by means of five basic colours (red, white, blue, green and yellow), represented by colored sp [...] ots hand-made with enamel paint from the pronotum to the scutellum of the insect, with a fine silk paint-brush. The spots should not reach the overlapped wings, for these often change position, therefore covering the marks. Being the paint indelible and nontoxic, the life-span and the behaviour of the bugs is not affected. The technique may be applied to insects in the laboratory as well as in the field, specially in studies related to Ecology and Behaviour.

José Roberto, Mac Cord; Pedro, Jurberg; Marli Maria, Lima.

1983-12-01

389

Ecological study of revegetated coal mine spoil of an Indian dry tropical ecosystem along an age gradient.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mineral nitrogen (MN), belowground (root) biomass (BGB), soil nitrogen (N) mineralization (NM), microbial biomass N (MBN) and mine dump stability of a revegetated mine spoil were studied after 2, 6, 10 and 12 years of re-vegetation on coal mine spoil site. MN in revegetated mine spoil ranged from 7.4 to 11.6 kg ha(-1), NM from 38.4 to 252 kg ha(-1) year(-1), MBN from 86 to 426 kg ha(-1), and BGB from 380 to 3,750 kg ha(-1). Mining caused decline of physico-chemical characteristics of soil like MN by 46 %, N-mineralization by 92 %, MBN values by 91 %, respectively compared to forest ecosystems and reduction of total plant biomass (above ground and below ground). Revegetation of mine spoil caused increase in MN values by 12, 36 and 76 %, BGB values by 380, 1770 and 3750 times, NM values by 0.6, 3.58 and 9.5 times and MBN values by 0.43, 2.77, and 6.07 times in 2, 6 and 12 years, respectively. BGB was highly correlated with MN and MBN. Clay content was positively correlated to MN, NM, and the age of revegetation (P < 0.01). Numerical modelling indicated that revegetation increased the dump slope stability with a factor of safety from 1.2 to 1.4, 1.7, 1.9 and 2.1 after 2, 6, 10 and 12 years, respectively. Thus, long-term revegetation was found to enhance the dump stability and the soil fertility status in mine spoil, where plant biomass and microbial biomass provide major contributions in ecological redevelopment of the mine spoil. PMID:22864538

Singh, R S; Tripathi, N; Chaulya, S K

2012-11-01

390

Canine visceral leishmaniasis in an urban setting of Southeastern Brazil: an ecological study involving spatial analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

BackgroundThe physical characteristics of the environment influence the composition, distribution and behavior of the vectors and mammalian hosts involved in the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), thereby affecting the epidemiology of the disease. In Brazil, urbanization of human VL is a recent phenomenon and represents an issue of particular concern to local health authorities. The present study aimed to establish the degree of spatial dependency between canine and human VL in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to identify priority risk areas in which stricter control measures should be implemented.MethodsThe selected canine population comprised 3,652 dogs distributed within 11 strata and 1,247 urban blocks. Serum samples were collected between March 2013 and February 2014. Serodiagnosis of dogs was performed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the indirect fluorescent-antibody test. The blocks sampled for canine VL and the addresses of the 16 confirmed cases of human VL notified in Divinópolis during the period 2007¿2013 were georeferenced. Spatial analysis of the data was performed using Kernel density estimation, Ripley¿s bivariate K-function and directional distribution methods.ResultsThe overall prevalence of seropositive animals was 4.63% (range 3.95 - 5.31) (n =169) and varied in different strata between 0.9 (range 0.0 - 1.91) and 8.73% (range 5.65 - 11.81). A positive spatial dependency was detected between human and canine VL in which the occurrence of human cases of the disease tended to concentrate in locations that were close to areas with a higher incidence of canine VL. The priority risk area could be clearly distinguished from Kernel density estimation and standard deviational ellipse plots in which the human VL ellipse was totally enclosed within the canine VL ellipse.ConclusionsThe results presented herein will enable the Municipal Health Office of Divinópolis to devise a more effective management plan for human VL in which specific strategies would be applied to areas presenting different levels of risk. This spatial evaluation of leishmaniasis model could be applied in other urban areas of Brazil. PMID:25326767

Teixeira-Neto, Rafael; da Silva, Eduardo; Nascimento, Renata; Belo, Vinícius; de Oliveira, Cláudia; Pinheiro, Letícia; Gontijo, Célia

2014-10-20

391

Implicit and Explicit Drug-Related Cognitions during Detoxification Treatment Are Associated with Drug Relapse: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Relapse is a major problem in drug addiction treatment. Both drug craving and drug-related cognitions (e.g., attentional bias and implicit attitudes to drugs) may contribute to relapse. Using ecological momentary assessments, we examined whether craving and cognitions assessed during drug detoxification treatment were associated with…

Marhe, Reshmi; Waters, Andrew J.; van de Wetering, Ben J. M.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.

2013-01-01

392

Applications of contaminant fate and bioaccumulation models in assessing ecological risks of chemicals: A case study for gasoline hydrocarbons  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mass balance models of chemical fate and transport can be applied in ecological risk assessments for quantitative estimation of concentrations in air, water, soil and sediment. These concentrations can, in turn, be used to estimate organism exposures and ultimately internal tissue concentrations that can be compared to mode-of-action-based critical body residues that correspond to toxic effects. From this comparison, risks to the exposed organism can be evaluated. To illustrate the practical utility of fate models in ecological risk assessments of commercial products, the EQC model and a simple screening level biouptake model including three organisms, (a bird, a mammal and a fish) is applied to gasoline. In this analysis, gasoline is divided into 24 components or ''blocks'' with similar environmental fate properties that are assumed to elicit ecotoxicity via a narcotic mode of action. Results demonstrate that differences in chemical properties and mode of entry into the environment lead to profound differences in the efficiency of transport from emission to target biota. We discuss the implications of these results and insights gained into the regional fate and ecological risks associated with gasoline. This approach is particularly suitable for assessing mixtures of components that have similar modes of action. We conclude that the model-based methodologies presented are widely applicable for screening level ecological risk assessments that support effective chemicals management.

MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Foster, Karen L.; Maddalena, Randy L.; Parkerton, Thomas F.; Mackay, Don

2004-02-01

393

Case Study: Calculating the Ecological Footprint of the 2004 Australian Association for Environmental Education (AAEE) Biennial Conference  

Science.gov (United States)

Event tourism is accompanied by social, economic and environmental benefits and costs. The assessment of this form of tourism has however largely focused on the social and economic perspectives, while environmental assessments have been bound to a destination-based approach. The application of the Ecological Footprint methodology allows for these…

Rickard, Andrew

2006-01-01

394

Improved probability of detection of ecological "surprises".  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological "surprises" are defined as unexpected findings about the natural environment. They are critically important in ecology because they are catalysts for questioning and reformulating views of the natural world, help shape assessments of the veracity of a priori predictions about ecological trends and phenomena, and underpin questioning of effectiveness of resource management. Despite the importance of ecological surprises, major gaps in understanding remain about how studies might be done differently or done better to improve the ability to identify them. We outline the kinds of ecological surprises that have arisen from long-term research programs that we lead in markedly different ecosystems around the world. Based on these case studies, we identify important lessons to guide both existing studies and new investigations to detect ecological surprises more readily, better anticipate unusual ecological phenomena, and take proactive steps to plan for and alleviate "undesirable" ecological surprises. Some of these lessons include: (i) maintain existing, and instigate new, long-term studies; (ii) conduct a range of kinds of parallel and concurrent research in a given target area; (iii) better use past literature and conceptual models of the target ecosystem in posing good questions and developing hypotheses and alternative hypotheses; and (iv) increase the capacity for ecological research to take advantage of opportunities arising from major natural disturbances. We argue that the increased anticipatory capability resulting from these lessons is critical given that ecological surprises may become more prevalent because of climate change and multiple and interacting environmental stressors. PMID:21098660

Lindenmayer, D B; Likens, G E; Krebs, C J; Hobbs, R J

2010-12-21

395

Molecular ecological network analyses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the interaction among different species within a community and their responses to environmental changes is a central goal in ecology. However, defining the network structure in a microbial community is very challenging due to their extremely high diversity and as-yet uncultivated status. Although recent advance of metagenomic technologies, such as high throughout sequencing and functional gene arrays, provide revolutionary tools for analyzing microbial community structure, it is still difficult to examine network interactions in a microbial community based on high-throughput metagenomics data. Results Here, we describe a novel mathematical and bioinformatics framework to construct ecological association networks named molecular ecological networks (MENs through Random Matrix Theory (RMT-based methods. Compared to other network construction methods, this approach is remarkable in that the network is automatically defined and robust to noise, thus providing excellent solutions to several common issues associated with high-throughput metagenomics data. We applied it to determine the network structure of microbial communities subjected to long-term experimental warming based on pyrosequencing data of 16?S rRNA genes. We showed that the constructed MENs under both warming and unwarming conditions exhibited topological features of scale free, small world and modularity, which were consistent with previously described molecular ecological networks. Eigengene analysis indicated that the eigengenes represented the module profiles relatively well. In consistency with many other studies, several major environmental traits including temperature and soil pH were found to be important in determining network interactions in the microbial communities examined. To facilitate its application by the scientific community, all these methods and statistical tools have been integrated into a comprehensive Molecular Ecological Network Analysis Pipeline (MENAP, which is open-accessible now (http://ieg2.ou.edu/MENA. Conclusions The RMT-based molecular ecological network analysis provides powerful tools to elucidate network interactions in microbial communities and their responses to environmental changes, which are fundamentally important for research in microbial ecology and environmental microbiology.

Deng Ye

2012-05-01

396

Ecological insertion in community: a methodological proposal for studying families under risk situation / Inserção ecológica na comunidade: uma proposta metodológica para o estudo de famílias em situação de risco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe a methodology for research with families in natural environment: Ecological Insertion. This methodology is based on Ecological Systems Theory, that proposes that development must be studied through a scientific model that involves interaction among four nucleus: process, person, context and time, denominated bioecological model. For this theory, the bioecological model become an appropriate theoretical-methodologial approach for research on development-in-context. This paper describes an operacionalization of this model in a qualitative research about resilience and vulnerability in families under risk situation. The ecological insertion involved the study accompaniment of three poor families who live in a violent community and included observations, informal chats and interviews. The operacionalization of the bioecological model in this research promoted the accomplishment of a study with ecological validity, apart from allowing to include various levels of analysis.

Alessandra Marques Cecconello

2003-01-01

397

Scaling in territorial ecological networks  

OpenAIRE

Territorial ecological networks are coherent assemblages of areas representing natural and semi-natural landscape elements that need to be conserved, managed or, where appropriate, enriched or restored in order to ensure the favourable conservation status of ecosystems, habitats, species and landscapes of regional importance across their traditional range (Bennett, 1998). In this study we demonstrate the hierarchical character of territorial ecological networks, recognize common elements and ...

Mander, U?; Ku?lvik, M.; Jongman, R. H. G.

2003-01-01

398

Ecological momentary assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessment in clinical psychology typically relies on global retrospective self-reports collected at research or clinic visits, which are limited by recall bias and are not well suited to address how behavior changes over time and across contexts. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves repeated sampling of subjects' current behaviors and experiences in real time, in subjects' natural environments. EMA aims to minimize recall bias, maximize ecological validity, and allow study of microprocesses that influence behavior in real-world contexts. EMA studies assess particular events in subjects' lives or assess subjects at periodic intervals, often by random time sampling, using technologies ranging from written diaries and telephones to electronic diaries and physiological sensors. We discuss the rationale for EMA, EMA designs, methodological and practical issues, and comparisons of EMA and recall data. EMA holds unique promise to advance the science and practice of clinical psychology by shedding light on the dynamics of behavior in real-world settings. PMID:18509902

Shiffman, Saul; Stone, Arthur A; Hufford, Michael R

2008-01-01