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1

HSF1 in Translation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The master regulator of the classical cytoprotective "heat shock" response, heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), is increasingly implicated in cancer pathogenesis, but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. A recent study connects increased protein translation to activation of HSF1 in malignant cells and demonstrates the therapeutic benefit of targeting this link.

de Billy E; Clarke PA; Workman P

2013-08-01

2

Expression of Hsf1, Hsf2, and Phlda1 in cells undergoing cryptorchid-induced apoptosis in rat testes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Surgery-induced cryptorchidism, in which the testes are prevented from descending into the scrotal sac, results in testicular germ cell death, and it is commonly used as an experimental tool in the study of spermatogenesis. However, the molecular events underlying the activation of germ cell death remain poorly understood. In the present study, we investigate selective cell loss from cryptorchid rat testis by using DNA flow cytometry and by determining protein and mRNA expression of Hsf1, Hsf2, and Phlda1. The hypo-haploid cell fraction is significantly decreased as early as 3 days after surgical induction of cryptorchidism (from 42.01?±?5.74% to 15.98?±?3.88%), followed by a significant decrease in the haploid cell fraction at Day 7. At the latter time point, an apoptotic peak of spermatocytes appears in DNA histograms just before the tetraploid peak; the percentage of aneuploid cells between diploid and tetraploid rises as high as 14.05?±?2.98% of the total cells in 7-day cryptorchid testis, suggesting that a large number of spermatocytes are undergoing apoptosis. The expression of Phlda1 mRNA is significantly elevated 3 days after induction of cryptorchidism. After 7 days of cryptorchidism, Hsf1 and Phlda1 are strongly expressed in the nucleus and cytoplasm, respectively, of primary spermatocytes. Numerous apoptotic spermatocytes are also observed at this time point. These results suggest that the Hsf1/Phlda1 pathway plays an important role in the apoptosis of primary spermatocytes in cryptorchid testis. We present evidence suggesting that Hsf2 is also involved in germ cell removal in cryptorchid testis.

Liu F; Xu ZL; Qian XJ; Qiu WY; Huang H

2011-04-01

3

A high resolution energy-selected kinetic energy release study of the process SF6+h??SF5++F+e-: Heat of formation of SF5+  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Using the newly constructed photoelectron-photoion coincidence apparatus associated with the chemical dynamics beamline at the advanced light source, we have performed a high resolution energy-selected kinetic energy release measurement for the dissociative photoionization process SF6+h??SF5++F+e-. After taking into account the center-of-mass kinetic energy release, the thermochemical threshold for this process is determined to be 14.11±0.08 eV. This value yields 18.5±1.9 and -202.9±2.2 kcal/mol for the heats of formation at 0 K for SF5+ and SF5, respectively. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

1997-01-01

4

Enhanced antitumoral efficacy and immune response following conditionally replicative adenovirus containing constitutive HSF1 delivery to rodent tumors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Oncolytic adenoviruses are promising as anticancer agents but have limited clinical responses. Our previous study showed that heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) overexpression could increase the anti-tumor efficacy of E1B55kD deleted oncolytic adenovirus through increasing the viral burst. Due to the important roles of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in eliciting innate and adaptive immunity, we reasoned that besides increasing the viral burst, HSF1 may also play a role in increasing tumor specific immune response. Methods In the present study, intra-dermal murine models of melanoma (B16) and colorectal carcinoma (CT26) were treated with E1B55kD deleted oncolytic adenovirus Adel55 or Adel55 incorporated with cHSF1, HSF1i, HSP70, or HSP90 by intra-tumoral injection. Tumors were surgically excised 72?h post injection and animals were analyzed for tumor resistance and survival rate. Results Approximately 95% of animals in the Adel55-cHSF1 treated group showed sustained resistance upon re-challenge with autologous tumor cells, but not in PBS, Adel55, or Adel55-HSF1i treated groups. Only 50–65% animals in the Adel55-HSP70 and Adel55-HSP90 treated group showed tumor resistance. Tumor resistance was associated with development of tumor type specific cellular immune responses. Adel55-cHSF1 treatment also showed higher efficacy in diminishing progression of the secondary tumor focus than Adel55-HSP70 or Adel55-HSP90 treatment. Conclusions Besides by increasing its burst in tumor cells, cHSF1 could also augment the potential of E1B55kD deleted oncolytic adenovirus by increasing the tumor-specific immune response, which is beneficial to prevent tumor recurrence. cHSF1 is a better gene for neoadjuvant immunotherapy than other heat shock protein genes.

Fan Rong; Wang Cheng; Wang Yang; Ren Ping; Gan Pingping; Ji Hui; Xia Zian; Hu Suiyu; Zeng Qiongyao; Huang Wei; Jiang Yebin; Huang Xi

2012-01-01

5

Mechanical stretch changes coronary artery fibroblasts function by upregulating HSF1 protein expression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study is designed to investigate effect of mechanical stretch on the function of fibroblast cells. Human coronary artery fibroblasts were cultured. They were divided into two groups: stretch group (stretch for 24h) and no-stretch group (did not stretch). ELISA analysis was used for detection of collagen secretion. CCK-8 method was used for detection of cells proliferation. RT-PCR method was used for detection of MMP, TIMP, IL-6, alpha-SMA, HSF1 and HSP70 mRNA expression. Western-blotting method was used for detection of HSF1 protein expression. Results showed that cells proliferation in stretch group was stronger than that in no-stretch group. Hydroxyproline secretion in stretch group was more than that in no-stretch group. MMP-9/TIMP, alpha-SMA, IL-6, HSF1 and HSP70 in stretch group was higher than those in no-stretch group. Western-blotting analysis showed that HSF1 protein expression was upregulated in stretch group. It can be concluded that mechanical stretch changed human coronary artery fibroblasts cells proliferation, collagen formation, the secretion of inflammatory factor possibly by upregulating HSF1 protein expression.

Li J; Zhang Y; Cui L; Wang J; Pang X; Lai Y; Yao Y; Liu X; Li Y

2013-08-01

6

Mechanical stretch changes coronary artery fibroblasts function by upregulating HSF1 protein expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study is designed to investigate effect of mechanical stretch on the function of fibroblast cells. Human coronary artery fibroblasts were cultured. They were divided into two groups: stretch group (stretch for 24h) and no-stretch group (did not stretch). ELISA analysis was used for detection of collagen secretion. CCK-8 method was used for detection of cells proliferation. RT-PCR method was used for detection of MMP, TIMP, IL-6, alpha-SMA, HSF1 and HSP70 mRNA expression. Western-blotting method was used for detection of HSF1 protein expression. Results showed that cells proliferation in stretch group was stronger than that in no-stretch group. Hydroxyproline secretion in stretch group was more than that in no-stretch group. MMP-9/TIMP, alpha-SMA, IL-6, HSF1 and HSP70 in stretch group was higher than those in no-stretch group. Western-blotting analysis showed that HSF1 protein expression was upregulated in stretch group. It can be concluded that mechanical stretch changed human coronary artery fibroblasts cells proliferation, collagen formation, the secretion of inflammatory factor possibly by upregulating HSF1 protein expression. PMID:23541557

Li, Jiming; Zhang, Yibo; Cui, Li; Wang, Jie; Pang, Xiufeng; Lai, Yan; Yao, Yian; Liu, Xuebo; Li, Ying

2013-03-26

7

Regulation of the heat stress response in Arabidopsis by MPK6-targeted phosphorylation of the heat stress factor HsfA2.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

So far little is known on the functional role of phosphorylation in the heat stress response of plants. Here we present evidence that heat stress activates the Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK6. In vitro and in vivo evidence is provided that MPK6 specifically targets the major heat stress transcription factor HsfA2. Activation of MPK6 results in complex formation with HsfA2. MPK6 phosphorylates HsfA2 on T249 and changes its intracellular localisation. Protein kinase and phosphatase inhibitor studies indicate that HsfA2 protein stability is regulated in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, but this mechanism is independent of MPK6. Overall, our data show that heat stress-induced targeting of HsfA2 by MPK6 participates in the complex regulatory mechanism how plants respond to heat stress.

Evrard A; Kumar M; Lecourieux D; Lucks J; von Koskull-Döring P; Hirt H

2013-01-01

8

Cell-type-dependent access of HSF1 and HSF4 to ?B-crystallin promoter during heat shock.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Epithelial cells and fibroblasts both express heat shock transcription factors, HSF1 and HSF4, yet they respond to heat shock differentially. For example, while HSP70 is induced in both cell types, the small heat shock protein, ?B-crystallin gene (CRYAB) that contains a canonical heat shock promoter, is only induced in fibroblasts. A canonical heat shock promoter contains three or more inverted repeats of the pentanucleotide 5'-nGAAn-3' that make the heat shock element. It is known that, in vitro, promoter architecture (the order and spacing of these repeats) impacts the interaction of various heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) with the heat shock promoter, but in vivo relevance of these binding preferences so far as the expression is concerned is poorly understood. In this report, we first establish cell-type-dependent differential expression of CRYAB in four established cell lines and then working with adult human retinal pigment epithelial cells and NIH3T3 fibroblasts and employing chromatin immunoprecipitation, attempt to relate expression to promoter occupancy by HSF1 and HSF4. We show that HSF4 occupies only CRYAB and not HSP70 promoter in epithelial cells, while HSF1 occupies only HSP70 promoter in both cell types, and cryab promoter, only in heat shocked fibroblasts; HSF4, on the other hand, is never seen on these two promoters in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. This comparative analysis with CRYAB and HSP70 demonstrates that differential heat shock response is controlled by cell-type-dependent access of HSFs (HSF1 and HSF4) to specific promoters, independent of the promoter architecture.

Jing Z; Gangalum RK; Lee JZ; Mock D; Bhat SP

2013-05-01

9

Targeting HSF1 sensitizes cancer cells to HSP90 inhibition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) facilitates the appropriate folding of various oncogenic proteins and is necessary for the survival of some cancer cells. HSP90 is therefore an attractive drug target, but the efficacy of HSP90 inhibitor may be limited by HSP90 inhibition induced feedback mechanisms. Through pooled RNA interference screens, we identified that heat shock factor 1(HSF1) is a sensitizer of HSP90 inhibitor. A striking combinational effect was observed when HSF1 knockdown plus with HSP90 inhibitors treatment in various cancer cell lines and tumor mouse models. Interestingly, HSF1 is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patient samples and HCC is sensitive to combinational treatment, indicating a potential indication for the combinational treatment. To understand the mechanism of the combinational effect, we identified that a HSF1-target gene DEDD2 is involved in attenuating the effect of HSP90 inhibitors. Thus, the transcriptional activities of HSF1 induced by HSP90 inhibitors provide a feedback mechanism of limiting the HSP90 inhibitor's activity, and targeting HSF1 may provide a new avenue to enhance HSP90 inhibitors activity in human cancers.

Chen Y; Chen J; Loo A; Jaeger S; Bagdasarian L; Yu J; Chung F; Korn J; Ruddy D; Guo R; McLaughlin ME; Feng F; Zhu P; Stegmeier F; Pagliarini R; Porter D; Zhou W

2013-06-01

10

Over-expression of OsHsfA7 enhanced salt and drought tolerance in transgenic rice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Heat shock proteins play an important role in plant stress tolerance and are mainly regulated by heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs). In this study, we generated transgenic rice over-expressing OsHsfA7 and carried out morphological observation and stress tolerance assays. Transgenic plants exhibited less, shorter lateral roots and root hair. Under salt treatment, over-expressing OsHsfA7 rice showed alleviative appearance of damage symptoms and higher survival rate, leaf electrical conductivity and malondialdehyde content of transgenic plants were lower than those of wild type plants. Meanwhile, transgenic rice seedlings restored normal growth but wild type plants could not be rescued after drought and re-watering treatment. These findings indicate that over-expression of OsHsfA7 gene can increase tolerance to salt and drought stresses in rice seedlings.

Liu AL; Zou J; Liu CF; Zhou XY; Zhang XW; Luo GY; Chen XB

2013-01-01

11

Over-expression of OsHsfA7 enhanced salt and drought tolerance in transgenic rice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Heat shock proteins play an important role in plant stresstolerance and are mainly regulated by heat shock transcriptionfactors (Hsfs). In this study, we generated transgenic riceover-expressing OsHsfA7 and carried out morphologicalobservation and stress tolerance assays. Transgenic plantsexhibited less, shorter lateral roots and root hair. Under salttreatment, over-expressing OsHsfA7 rice showed alleviativeappearance of damage symptoms and higher survival rate, leafelectrical conductivity and malondialdehyde content of transgenicplants were lower than those of wild type plants. Meanwhile,transgenic rice seedlings restored normal growth but wild typeplants could not be rescued after drought and re-wateringtreatment. These findings indicate that over-expression ofOsHsfA7 gene can increase tolerance to salt and drought stressesin rice seedlings. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(1): 31-36

Ai-Ling Liu; Jie Zou; Cui-Fang Liu; Xiao-Yun Zhou; Xian-Wen Zhang; Guang-Yu Luo; Xin-Bo Chen

2013-01-01

12

Delivery of HSF1(+) protein using HIV-1 TAT protein transduction domain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

HSF1 is the major transcription factor of HSPs (heat shock proteins) in response to various stresses. Wild type HSF1 (heat shock transcriptional factor 1) is normally inactive, while a constitutively active form of HSF1 (HSF1(+)) can activate downstream HSP expression in the absence of stresses. Here we generated the eukaryotic vectors that expresses HSF1(+) fusion proteins, and found that HSF1(+)-TAT fusion protein was expressed and activated HSP expression. TAT, as a trans-acting factor of HIV-1, has been demonstrated to deliver functional cargo protein into living cells. HSF1(+)-TAT fusion protein was expressed in E. coli, purified, incubated with A549 cells for 8 h, Western blot analysis and luciferase reporter assay showed that HSF1(+) fusion protein was delivered into A549 cells successfully, and the accumulation of HSF1(+)-TAT fusion protein in A549 cells up-regulated HSP70 expression.

Hou Y; Zou J

2009-11-01

13

Delivery of HSF1(+) protein using HIV-1 TAT protein transduction domain.  

Science.gov (United States)

HSF1 is the major transcription factor of HSPs (heat shock proteins) in response to various stresses. Wild type HSF1 (heat shock transcriptional factor 1) is normally inactive, while a constitutively active form of HSF1 (HSF1(+)) can activate downstream HSP expression in the absence of stresses. Here we generated the eukaryotic vectors that expresses HSF1(+) fusion proteins, and found that HSF1(+)-TAT fusion protein was expressed and activated HSP expression. TAT, as a trans-acting factor of HIV-1, has been demonstrated to deliver functional cargo protein into living cells. HSF1(+)-TAT fusion protein was expressed in E. coli, purified, incubated with A549 cells for 8 h, Western blot analysis and luciferase reporter assay showed that HSF1(+) fusion protein was delivered into A549 cells successfully, and the accumulation of HSF1(+)-TAT fusion protein in A549 cells up-regulated HSP70 expression. PMID:19190998

Hou, Yonghui; Zou, Jiangying

2009-02-04

14

Four opportunities for studies of ecological succession.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lessons learned from the study of ecological succession have much to offer contemporary environmental problem solving but these lessons are being underutilized. As anthropogenic disturbances increase, succession is more relevant than ever. In this review, we suggest that succession is particularly suitable to address concerns about biodiversity loss, climate change, invasive species, and ecological restoration. By incorporating modern experimental techniques and linking results across environmental gradients with meta-analyses, studies of succession can substantially improve our understanding of other ecological phenomena. Succession can help predict changes in biodiversity and ecosystem services impacted by invasive species and climate change and guide manipulative responses to these disruptions by informing restoration efforts. Succession is still a critical, integrative concept that is central to ecology.

Prach K; Walker LR

2011-03-01

15

Ecological Studies on Amapari Virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

(1) Amapari virus has been isolated from only two of the many species of rodents and other vertebrates studied at Serra do Navio, Amapa, Brazil. These are Oryzomys capito goeldii and Neacomys guianae. The isolation rate for each species over 4 years was c...

F. P. Pinheiro J. P. Woodall

1969-01-01

16

Ecological Studies on Salix Distribution in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research studied the ecological factors affecting Salix distribution in Egypt. Two species of Salix were recorded, S. tetrasperma (only male) and S. mucronata (both sexes). They were recorded at River Nile canal system and in the Eastern Oasis. Female S. mucronata was recorded in the all studied habitats, where the male of same species was recorded only in Fayoum Region. Salix tetrasperma neither recorded in Upper Egypt nor Eastern Oasis. Elevation from water surface, soil texture, soil salinity and temperature were the most effective factors affecting the distribution of Salix sp.

Emad A. Al Sherif; Wafaa Amer; Salah Eldin Ali Khodary; Walaa Azmy

2009-01-01

17

Connecicut River ecological study: a synopsis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper recounts some salient features of an extensive study of the thermal effects of the Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company's electric generating plant on biota of the lower Connecticut River. The work includes a description of the plume, an examination of the anadromous shad population, a discussion of the affected ichthvofauna and entrainment, and an account of alterations in benthic fauna. This study has several distinctive attributes, among them that it was begun before the Water Quality Act (1965) and that it had a long-term before-and-after character, beginning in 1965 before the plant began operating and continuing during operation (1968-1973). Ecological alterations observed to date appear to be well within the limits of acceptability, and in large measure, wrought by mechanical rather than thermal factors

1975-04-05

18

Ecological feasibility studies in restoration decision making.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The restoration of degraded systems is essential for maintaining the provision of valuable ecosystem services, including the maintenance of aesthetic values. However, restoration projects often fail to reach desired goals for a variety of ecologic, financial, and social reasons. Feasibility studies that evaluate whether a restoration effort should even be attempted can enhance restoration success by highlighting potential pitfalls and gaps in knowledge before the design phase of a restoration. Feasibility studies also can bring stakeholders together before a restoration project is designed to discuss potential disagreements. For these reasons, a feasibility study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of restoring a tidal freshwater marsh in the Potomac River near Alexandria, Virginia. The study focused on science rather than engineering questions, and thus differed in approach from other feasibility studies that are mostly engineering driven. The authors report the framework they used to conduct a feasibility study to inform other potential restoration projects with similar goals. The seven steps of the framework encompass (1) initiation of a feasibility study, (2) compilation of existing data, (3) collection of current site information, (4) examination of case studies, (5) synthesis of information in a handbook, (6) meeting with selected stakeholders, and (7) evaluation of meeting outcomes. By conducting a feasibility study using the seven-step framework, the authors set the stage for conducting future compliance studies and enhancing the chance of a successful restoration.

Hopfensperger KN; Engelhardt KA; Seagle SW

2007-06-01

19

Ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book turns to the freshment, the teacher, for preparation of ecological topics for lessons, but also to pupils of the secondary stage II, and the main course ecology. The book was knowingly held simple with the restriction to: the ecosystem and its abiotic basic functions, simple articles on population biology, bioceonotic balance ith the questions of niche formation and the life form types coherent with it, of the substance and energy household, the production biology and space-wise and time-wise differentations within an ecological system form the main points. A central role in the volume is given to the illustrations. Their variety is to show and deepen the coherences shown. (orig./HP)

1978-01-01

20

Studies on rhizobial ecology using marker genes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Not only traditional approaches such as serology, antibiotic resistance and plasmid profile analysis but also technologies based on molecular biology have been used for strain identification in studies on microbial ecology. Many methods suffer from certain limitations because they are often laborious and time consuming, requiring analysis of individual nodules, and therefore only a restricted amount of data can be collected. Use of marker genes has become popular, especially when they allow visual identification. The Escherichia coli gusA marker gene has proved to be a highly suitable tool for studying plant-microbe interactions. Nodules containing gusA marked rhizobia can be identified simply by their blue colour, which they produce after incubation in a phosphate buffer containing the substrate X-gluc, but marked bacteria can also be detected on plates or in liquid culture. Colorigenic markers have several advantages, since they are easy to use and it is possible to analyse a large sample size. They are suitable for competition studies of Rhizobium, detecting also double occupancy in nodules, and for studies on motility and survival. Marker genes greatly facilitate screening for successful strains in a specific environment and could be used in future for quality control of inoculants. (author). 30 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

The wing in yeast heat shock transcription factor (HSF) DNA-binding domain is required for full activity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The yeast heat shock transcription factor (HSF) belongs to the winged helix family of proteins. HSF binds DNA as a trimer, and additional trimers can bind DNA co-operatively. Unlike other winged helix–turn–helix proteins, HSF’s wing does not appear to contact DNA, as based on a previously solved...

Cicero, Marco P.; T. Hubl, Susan; Harrison, Celia J.; Littlefield, Otis; Hardy, Jeanne A.; Nelson, Hillary C. M.

22

Active fragments of the antihemorrhagic protein HSF from serum of habu (Trimeresurus flavoviridis).  

Science.gov (United States)

Certain snakes have antihemorrhagic proteins in their sera. Habu serum factor (HSF), an antihemorrhagic protein isolated from the serum of the Japanese habu snake (Trimeresurus flavoviridis) is composed of two cystatin-like domains (D1 and D2) and a His-rich domain, and it inhibits several snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). The activity of HSF can be abolished by trinitrophenylation of Lys residues with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid. Upon complex formation of HSF with SVMP, however, the loss of its inhibitory activity by the chemical modification was suppressed, and Lys(15), Lys(41), and Lys(103) residues in HSF were not trinitrophenylated. In order to identify the domain that is critical to the inhibitory activity on SVMPs, native HSF was digested with papain followed by cleavage with cyanogen bromide, yielding a low-molecular mass fragment that was composed of two peptide chains (residues 5-89 and 312-317) linked by a disulfide bond. This fragment inhibited several SVMPs and showed significant antihemorrhagic activity. This indicates that the N-terminal half of D1 is indispensable for the antihemorrhagic activity of HSF. Furthermore, a three-dimensional model of two cystatin-like domains constructed by the homology modeling has indicated that three Lys residues (15, 41, and 103) are exposed to the same surface of HSF molecule. PMID:17222882

Aoki, Narumi; Deshimaru, Masanobu; Terada, Shigeyuki

2006-11-16

23

Induced mutations in gene-ecological studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A survey on gene-ecological studies carried out for 10 years with mutants and recombinants of Pisum is given. Genotypes with characters of economic interest were grown commonly with their parental variety in seven climatically different locations of India, in three African countries, Brazil and South Australia. The performance of material was compared with the findings obtained in the Federal Republic of Germany over a large number of generations. An early mutant shows tolerance to heat and drought and is being used agronomically in India. High-yielding fasciated mutants produced in this institute, however, cannot be used for breeding purposes in most of the countries tested. They have a gene suppressing the initiation of flower formation under short-day conditions. Forty-two Pisum mutants and recombinants were grown under long- and short-day conditions in a phytotron. Their flowering behaviour was evaluated, together with some other criteria of plant development. Each genotype was found to show its specific reaction to the two photoperiods used. In long day, some fasciated genotypes begin flowering many weeks later than under the long-day field conditions. In short day, they do not flower at all due to the presence of a mutant gene for long-day requirement. Some recombinants carrying a gene for earliness are either extremely late or do not flower at all under the influence of other mutant genes. A micromutant, not reliably discernible under field conditions, differs strongly from its mother variety in the phytotron, demonstrating that the term 'micromutation' is questionable. The results show that utilization of mutants in plant breeding could be much more effective if prospective genotypes were tested under different climatic conditions

1981-03-13

24

Correlation coefficients in ecologic studies of environment and cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of ecologic studies published during a 20-year period regarding environmental exposures and cancer in which correlation coefficients or coefficients of determination were used as a measure of association. The authors performed a descriptive analysis of published literature by conducting a systematic review of PubMed to identify eligible ecologic studies published between 1991 and 2010. The reported measure of association was extracted for all eligible studies. During the 20-year study period, 35/105 (33%, 95% confidence limits [CL]: 25%, 43%) ecologic studies used correlation coefficients or coefficients of determination as a measure of association. These results indicate that the use of correlation coefficients and coefficients of determination as measures of association in ecologic studies of environmental exposures and cancer is relatively common, despite extensive literature discouraging their interpretation as valid measures of association. PMID:22014198

Ojha, Rohit P; Offutt-Powell, Tabatha N; Evans, Eva L; Singh, Karan P

2011-01-01

25

A delayed antioxidant response in heat-stressed cells expressing a non-DNA binding HSF1 mutant.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To assess the consequences of inactivation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) during aging, we analyzed the effect of HSF1 K80Q, a mutant unable to bind DNA, and of dnHSF1, a mutant lacking the activation domain, on the transcriptome of cells 6 and 24 h after heat shock. The primary response to heat shock (6 h recovery), of which 30 % was HSF1-dependent, had decayed 24 h after heat shock in control cells but was extended in HSF1 K80Q and dnHSF1 cells. Comparison with literature data showed that even the HSF1 dependent primary stress response is largely cell specific. HSF1 K80Q, but not HSF1 siRNA-treated, cells showed a delayed stress response: an increase in transcript levels of HSF1 target genes 24 h after heat stress. Knockdown of NRF2, but not of ATF4, c-Fos or FosB, inhibited this delayed stress response. EEF1D_L siRNA inhibited both the delayed and the extended primary stress responses, but had off target effects. In control cells an antioxidant response (ARE binding, HMOX1 mRNA levels) was detected 6 h after heat shock; in HSF1 K80Q cells this response was delayed to 24 h and the ARE complex had a different mobility. Inactivation of HSF1 thus affects the timing and nature of the antioxidant response and NRF2 can activate at least some HSF1 target genes in the absence of HSF1 activity.

Hensen SM; Heldens L; van Genesen ST; Pruijn GJ; Lubsen NH

2013-07-01

26

A dominant-negative mutation of HSF2 associated with idiopathic azoospermia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Idiopathic azoospermia (IA) is a severe form of male infertility due to unknown causes. The HSF2 gene, encoding the heat shock transcription factor 2, had been suggested to play a significant role in the spermatogenesis process since the Hsf2-knockout male mice showed spermatogenesis defects. To examine whether HSF2 is involved in the pathogenesis of IA in human, we sequenced all the exons of HSF2 in 766 patients diagnosed with IA and 521 proven fertile men. A number of coding mutations private to the patient group, which include three synonymous mutations and five missense mutations, were identified. Of the missense mutations, our functional assay demonstrated that one heterozygous mutation, R502H, caused a complete loss of HSF2 function and that the mutant suppressed the normal function of the wild-type (WT) allele through a dominant-negative effect, thus leading to the dominant penetrance of the mutant allele. These results support a role for HSF2 in the pathogenesis of IA and further implicate this transcription factor as a potential therapeutic target.

Mou L; Wang Y; Li H; Huang Y; Jiang T; Huang W; Li Z; Chen J; Xie J; Liu Y; Jiang Z; Li X; Ye J; Cai Z; Gui Y

2013-02-01

27

A Novel Integrated Ecological Model for the study of Sustainability  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, there has been a growing interest among various sections of the society in the study of sustainability. Recently, a generalized mathematical model depicting a combined economic-ecological-social system has been proposed to help in the formal study of sustainabili...

28

Ecological Monographs ????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ecological Monographs, issued quarterly, publishes complex, multi-faceted studies that demand greater length than those published in Ecology or Ecological Applications. These are not merely long papers, but must tell a truly complicated scientific story with multiple components....

29

Ras-induced ROS upregulation affecting cell proliferation is connected with cell type-specific alterations of HSF1/SESN3/p21Cip1/WAF1 pathways.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oncogenes of the RAS family regulate many of the cell's activities, including proliferation, survival and differentiation. Activating mutations in these genes are common events for many types of cancer. One of the contradictory points concerning the biological significance of Ras activation is its dual effect (pro- or anti-proliferative) on cell reproduction. One of mechanisms by which Ras proteins influence cell growth is a regulation of intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), second messengers affecting variety of cellular processes including cell proliferation. Recently it was shown that repression of SESN1 and SESN3 genes, whose protein products control regeneration of peroxiredoxins, can play a critical role in Ras-induced ROS upregulation. In the present study we have found that Ras-induced repression of SESN3 expression and ROS upregulation is mediated via the modifications of transcriptional activity of HSF1. Interestingly, mutant Ras overexpression altered the activity of HSF1 in opposite directions in different cell contexts, in particular in human normal fibroblasts and HaCaT immortalized keratinocytes, but these opposite changes caused similar repression of SESN3 expression followed by elevation of ROS content and inhibition of cell proliferation in corresponding cell types. The inhibitory effect on cell proliferation was mediated by upregulation of p21(Cip1/WAF1). Thus, HSF1/SESN3/ROS/p21(Cip1/WAF1)-mediated deceleration of cell growth may contribute to cell defense systems protecting the organism from excessive proliferation of cells that overexpress activated Ras oncoproteins.

Zamkova M; Khromova N; Kopnin BP; Kopnin P

2013-03-01

30

Trends and missing parts in the study of movement ecology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Movement is important to all organisms, and accordingly it is addressed in a huge number of papers in the literature. Of nearly 26,000 papers referring to movement, an estimated 34% focused on movement by measuring it or testing hypotheses about it. This enormous amount of information is difficult to review and highlights the need to assess the collective completeness of movement studies and identify gaps. We surveyed 1,000 randomly selected papers from 496 journals and compared the facets of movement studied with a suggested framework for movement ecology, consisting of internal state (motivation, physiology), motion and navigation capacities, and external factors (both the physical environment and living organisms), and links among these components. Most studies simply measured and described the movement of organisms without reference to ecological or internal factors, and the most frequently studied part of the framework was the link between external factors and motion capacity. Few studies looked at the effects on movement of navigation capacity, or internal state, and those were mainly from vertebrates. For invertebrates and plants most studies were at the population level, whereas more vertebrate studies were conducted at the individual level. Consideration of only population-level averages promulgates neglect of between-individual variation in movement, potentially hindering the study of factors controlling movement. Terminology was found to be inconsistent among taxa and subdisciplines. The gaps identified in coverage of movement studies highlight research areas that should be addressed to fully understand the ecology of movement.

Holyoak M; Casagrandi R; Nathan R; Revilla E; Spiegel O

2008-12-01

31

Trends and missing parts in the study of movement ecology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Movement is important to all organisms, and accordingly it is addressed in a huge number of papers in the literature. Of nearly 26,000 papers referring to movement, an estimated 34% focused on movement by measuring it or testing hypotheses about it. This enormous amount of information is difficult to review and highlights the need to assess the collective completeness of movement studies and identify gaps. We surveyed 1,000 randomly selected papers from 496 journals and compared the facets of movement studied with a suggested framework for movement ecology, consisting of internal state (motivation, physiology), motion and navigation capacities, and external factors (both the physical environment and living organisms), and links among these components. Most studies simply measured and described the movement of organisms without reference to ecological or internal factors, and the most frequently studied part of the framework was the link between external factors and motion capacity. Few studies looked at the effects on movement of navigation capacity, or internal state, and those were mainly from vertebrates. For invertebrates and plants most studies were at the population level, whereas more vertebrate studies were conducted at the individual level. Consideration of only population-level averages promulgates neglect of between-individual variation in movement, potentially hindering the study of factors controlling movement. Terminology was found to be inconsistent among taxa and subdisciplines. The gaps identified in coverage of movement studies highlight research areas that should be addressed to fully understand the ecology of movement. PMID:19060194

Holyoak, Marcel; Casagrandi, Renato; Nathan, Ran; Revilla, Eloy; Spiegel, Orr

2008-12-05

32

Radiological Review Studies On Ismailia Canal Ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The present work is a brief review of pr-studies carried out on Ismailia Canal, Egypt, water ecosystem. Ismailia Canal water body is a bicarbonate stream with slight seasonal variations in its water chemical constituents. The canal water pH in all the stream locations are below 8.3 with low suspended matter(SM) content (22-33 mg.l-1). The mineralogical analysis of the canal bottom sediments consist mainly of quartz, smectite and kaolinite minerals. The ?- spectroscopic identification showed traces of naturally occurring radio nuclides (238U, 232Th and 40K). The average activity level of the dry samples ranged from 12 to 89 Bq.Kg-1 for the detected natural radio nuclides. Some parameters affected the sorption behaviour of radio nuclides on suspended matters and bottom sediments; such as solution pH, SM concentration, sediment grain size, carrier concentration and competing ions were studied. The reaction rates were investigated for each radionuclide studied. The distribution of the studied radio nuclides, between the liquid phase and the sediments phase was investigated, for both flowing and static systems. For both flowing and non-flowing (static), the depth penetration of the studied radio nuclides within the bottom sediment layers were found to vary from one radionuclide to the other. The total capacities of bottom sediments and the suspended matter were found to be low. As Ismailia Canal is an important source of water for public domestic uses, irrigation animals and the aquatic species; these situations have led to state that it is not recommended to release any liquid radioactive wastes to this canal. Furthermore, periodical radiometric analysis for the canal water and its components should be carried out.

2011-01-01

33

Aquatic ecological studies around nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioecology occupies a highly important place in the system of natural sciences and interacts with different fields of knowledge on earth's biosphere. Use of nuclear energy for different purposes causes release of radionuclides into the atmosphere. Therefore, knowledge of the distribution pattern of both natural and anthropogenic radionuclides is an essential prerequisite for evaluation and control of public exposures at the site of any nuclear power station. Radioecological studies provide considerable information on the environmental behavior of many nucleotides. In recent times, particular emphasis is being given to research on radionuclide transport and accumulation in living organisms, since critical pathways of transport of the same are food chains and food webs in the environment. Inhalation and ingestion are the most likely routes for internal contamination from radionuclides, wherein, exposure continues until the radioactive material is flushed from the body by natural processes, or when it decays. Several studies on animals have demonstrated that chronic inhalation and oral exposure to certain radionuclides may lead to serious health hazards. Even though innumerable studies have been conducted in medical science on effects of radiation on the human and higher animal systems, little is known about migration of radionuclides across the producers and bioaccumulation at trophic levels in the tropical and subtropical aquatic environment. In order to supplement this research gap, radioecological studies have been initiated at CIFE, Mumbai, with backup support from the Department of Atomic Energy (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre and Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited), in the form of a mega mission mode project on 'Aquatic radioecology'. Presently two existing nuclear power plant sites at Tarapur and Kalpakkam, two proposed at Jaitapur and Jabalpur have been selected for providing first hand information on levels of radionuclides in micro and macro fauna in the marine and freshwater ecosystem in the vicinity of NPP sites. Further the projects aim at elucidating the bio-geochemical transfer mechanisms of radionuclides across the trophic levels of the aquatic environment. (author)

2012-01-01

34

An ecological study on childhood autism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background and methods Idiopathic autism, suspected to be caused by exposure of genetically susceptible individuals to unknown environmental triggers, has increased dramatically in the past 25 years. The objectives of our study were to determine, using a linear regression model, whether the county prevalence of autism in the Pacific Northwest of the United States was associated with the source of drinking water for that county and whether this relationship was dependent on the level of environmental pollutants and meteorological factors in the county. Results We found the previously reported relationship between precipitation and autism in a county was dependent on the amount of drinking water derived from surface sources in the county. We also found a positive association between the EPA’s risk of neurological disease and autism, but this relationship was only present in warm areas. Conclusions Our study provides evidence for the hypothesis that environmental factors are associated with autism and that meteorological factors play a role in this relationship.

St-Hilaire Sophie; Ezike Victor O; Stryhn Henrik; Thomas Michael A

2012-01-01

35

Terrestrial ecology. Comprehensive study of the grassland biome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Terrestrial ecology and grassland biome studies are designed to characterize the biota of the Hanford Reservation, elucidate seasonal dynamics of plant productivity, decomposition and mineral behavior patterns of important plant communities, and, to study the response of these communities to important natural environmental stresses, such as weather, wildfire and man-induced alterations of communities (influenced by grazing cattle and severe mechanical disturbance of the soil, such as affected by plowing or burial of waste materials or construction activities). A detailed account of the important findings of a 5-yr study is currently being prepared by the terrestrial ecology section staff for publication as a contribution to the International Biological Program Grassland Biome project

1976-01-01

36

[Ecology and ecologies].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ecology (from the Greek words ?????, "house" and ????? "study of") is the science of the "house", since it studies the environments where we live. There are three main ways of thinking about Ecology: Ecology as the study of interactions (between humans and the environment, between humans and living beings, between all living beings, etc.), Ecology as the statistical study of interactions, Ecology as a faith, or rather as a science that requires a metaphysical view. The history of Ecology shows us how this view was released by the label of "folk sense" to gain the epistemological status of science, a science that strives to be interdisciplinary. So, the aim of Ecology is to study, through a scientific methodology, the whole natural world, answering to very different questions, that arise from several fields (Economics, Biology, Sociology, Philosophy, etc.). The plurality of issues that Ecology has to face led, during the Twentieth-century, to branch off in several different "ecologies". As a result, each one of these new approaches chose as its own field a more limited and specific portion of reality.

Valera L

2011-01-01

37

Decreased vitamin B12 availability induces ER stress through impaired SIRT1-deacetylation of HSF1.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a key determinant of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent epigenomic cellular regulations related to methylation/acetylation and its deficiency produces neurodegenerative disorders by elusive mechanisms. Sirtuin 1 deacetylase (SIRT1) triggers cell response to nutritional stress through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Recently, we have established a N1E115 dopaminergic cell model by stable expression of a transcobalamin-oleosin chimera (TO), which impairs cellular availability of vitamin B12, decreases methionine synthase activity and SAM level, and reduces cell proliferation. In contrast, oleosin-transcobalamin chimera (OT) does not modify the phenotype of transfected cells. Presently, the impaired cellular availability of vitamin B12 in TO cells activated irreversible ER stress pathways, with increased P-eIF-2?, P-PERK, P-IRE1?, ATF6, ATF4, decreased chaperon proteins and increased pro-apoptotic markers, CHOP and cleaved caspase 3, through reduced SIRT1 expression and consequently greater acetylation of heat-shock factor protein 1 (HSF1). Adding either B12, SIRT1, or HSF1 activators as well as overexpressing SIRT1 or HSF1 dramatically reduced the activation of ER stress pathways in TO cells. Conversely, impairing SIRT1 and HSF1 by siRNA, expressing a dominant negative form of HSF1, or adding a SIRT1 inhibitor led to B12-dependent ER stress in OT cells. Addition of B12 abolished the activation of stress transducers and apoptosis, and increased the expression of protein chaperons in OT cells subjected to thapsigargin, a strong ER stress stimulator. AdoX, an inhibitor of methyltransferase activities, produced similar effects than decreased B12 availability on SIRT1 and ER stress by a mechanism related to increased expression of hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1). Taken together, these data show that cellular vitamin B12 has a strong modulating influence on ER stress in N1E115 dopaminergic cells. The impaired cellular availability in vitamin B12 induces irreversible ER stress by greater acetylation of HSF1 through decreased SIRT1 expression, whereas adding vitamin B12 produces protective effects in cells subjected to ER stress stimulation.

Ghemrawi R; Pooya S; Lorentz S; Gauchotte G; Arnold C; Gueant JL; Battaglia-Hsu SF

2013-01-01

38

The SIRT1 modulators AROS and DBC1 regulate HSF1 activity and the heat shock response.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The heat shock response, the cellular response to protein damaging stress, is critical in maintaining proteostasis. The heat shock response is regulated by the transcription factor HSF1, which is activated upon heat shock and other stresses to induce the expression of molecular chaperones. SIRT1 has previously been shown to activate HSF1 by deacetylating it, leading to increased DNA binding ability. We have investigated how the heat shock response may be controlled by factors influencing SIRT1 activity. We found that heat shock results in an increase in the cellular NAD(+)/NADH ratio and an increase in recruitment of SIRT1 to the hsp70 promoter. Furthermore, we found that the SIRT1 modulators AROS and DBC1 have an impact on hsp70 transcription, HSF1 acetylation status, and HSF1 recruitment to the hsp70 promoter. Therefore, AROS and DBC1 are now two new targets available for therapeutic regulation of the heat shock response.

Raynes R; Pombier KM; Nguyen K; Brunquell J; Mendez JE; Westerheide SD

2013-01-01

39

The wing in yeast heat shock transcription factor (HSF) DNA-binding domain is required for full activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The yeast heat shock transcription factor (HSF) belongs to the winged helix family of proteins. HSF binds DNA as a trimer, and additional trimers can bind DNA co-operatively. Unlike other winged helix-turn-helix proteins, HSF's wing does not appear to contact DNA, as based on a previously solved crystal structure. Instead, the structure implies that the wing is involved in protein-protein interactions, possibly within a trimer or between adjacent trimers. To understand the function of the wing in the HSF DNA-binding domain, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was created that expresses a wingless HSF protein. This strain grows normally at 30 degrees C, but shows a decrease in reporter gene expression during constitutive and heat-shocked conditions. Removal of the wing does not affect the stability or trimeric nature of a protein fragment containing the DNA-binding and trimerization domains. Removal of the wing does result in a decrease in DNA-binding affinity. This defect was mainly observed in the ability to form the first trimer-bound complex, as the formation of larger complexes is unaffected by the deletion. Our results suggest that the wing is not involved in the highly co-operative nature of HSF binding, but may be important in stabilizing the first trimer bound to DNA. PMID:11292844

Cicero, M P; Hubl, S T; Harrison, C J; Littlefield, O; Hardy, J A; Nelson, H C

2001-04-15

40

The wing in yeast heat shock transcription factor (HSF) DNA-binding domain is required for full activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The yeast heat shock transcription factor (HSF) belongs to the winged helix family of proteins. HSF binds DNA as a trimer, and additional trimers can bind DNA co-operatively. Unlike other winged helix-turn-helix proteins, HSF's wing does not appear to contact DNA, as based on a previously solved crystal structure. Instead, the structure implies that the wing is involved in protein-protein interactions, possibly within a trimer or between adjacent trimers. To understand the function of the wing in the HSF DNA-binding domain, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was created that expresses a wingless HSF protein. This strain grows normally at 30 degrees C, but shows a decrease in reporter gene expression during constitutive and heat-shocked conditions. Removal of the wing does not affect the stability or trimeric nature of a protein fragment containing the DNA-binding and trimerization domains. Removal of the wing does result in a decrease in DNA-binding affinity. This defect was mainly observed in the ability to form the first trimer-bound complex, as the formation of larger complexes is unaffected by the deletion. Our results suggest that the wing is not involved in the highly co-operative nature of HSF binding, but may be important in stabilizing the first trimer bound to DNA.

Cicero MP; Hubl ST; Harrison CJ; Littlefield O; Hardy JA; Nelson HC

2001-04-01

 
 
 
 
41

Ras-induced ROS upregulation affecting cell proliferation is connected with cell type-specific alterations of HSF1/SESN3/p21Cip1/WAF1 pathways.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oncogenes of the RAS family regulate many of the cell's activities, including proliferation, survival and differentiation. Activating mutations in these genes are common events for many types of cancer. One of the contradictory points concerning the biological significance of Ras activation is its dual effect (pro- or anti-proliferative) on cell reproduction. One of mechanisms by which Ras proteins influence cell growth is a regulation of intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), second messengers affecting variety of cellular processes including cell proliferation. Recently it was shown that repression of SESN1 and SESN3 genes, whose protein products control regeneration of peroxiredoxins, can play a critical role in Ras-induced ROS upregulation. In the present study we have found that Ras-induced repression of SESN3 expression and ROS upregulation is mediated via the modifications of transcriptional activity of HSF1. Interestingly, mutant Ras overexpression altered the activity of HSF1 in opposite directions in different cell contexts, in particular in human normal fibroblasts and HaCaT immortalized keratinocytes, but these opposite changes caused similar repression of SESN3 expression followed by elevation of ROS content and inhibition of cell proliferation in corresponding cell types. The inhibitory effect on cell proliferation was mediated by upregulation of p21(Cip1/WAF1). Thus, HSF1/SESN3/ROS/p21(Cip1/WAF1)-mediated deceleration of cell growth may contribute to cell defense systems protecting the organism from excessive proliferation of cells that overexpress activated Ras oncoproteins. PMID:23388456

Zamkova, Maria; Khromova, Natalia; Kopnin, Boris P; Kopnin, Pavel

2013-02-06

42

Suitability of chestnut earlywood vessel chronologies for ecological studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wood anatomical features measured in dated tree rings have often proven to be of ecological value. However, little is known about the suitability and power of such measurements studied in a year-to-year basis as is done in dendrochronology. The present work is based on a comparative analysis of 60 dated time-series of earlywood features of chestnut (Castanea sativa) grown in the climatic context of the Southern part of the Swiss Alps. It has been shown that the earlywood vessel area is a suitable ecological indicator. This variable, although not very sensitive, contains environmental information that is different from that stored in all other ring-width and earlywood features we considered. The vessel size is mainly related to the temperature during two physiologically crucial periods for vessel growth: the end of the previous vegetation period (during reserve storage) and the onset of cambial activity (during cell division and vessel differentiation). Our work shows that the mean vessel size of the ring-porous chestnut contains ecophysiological information that can be used for research in dendrochronology.

Fonti P; Garcia-Gonzalez I

2004-07-01

43

Hydrodynamic and Ecological Assessment of Nearshore Restoration: A Modeling Study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Along the Pacific Northwest coast, much of the estuarine habitat has been diked over the last century for agricultural land use, residential and commercial development, and transportation corridors. As a result, many of the ecological processes and functions have been disrupted. To protect coastal habitats that are vital to aquatic species, many restoration projects are currently underway to restore the estuarine and coastal ecosystems through dike breaches, setbacks, and removals. Information on physical processes and hydrodynamic conditions are critical for the assessment of the success of restoration actions. Restoration of a 160- acre property at the mouth of the Stillaguamish River in Puget Sound has been proposed. The goal is to restore native tidal habitats and estuary-scale ecological processes by removing the dike. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was developed for the Stillaguamish River estuary to simulate estuarine processes. The model was calibrated to observed tide, current, and salinity data for existing conditions and applied to simulate the hydrodynamic responses to two restoration alternatives. Responses were evaluated at the scale of the restoration footprint. Model data was combined with biophysical data to predict habitat responses at the site. Results showed that the proposed dike removal would result in desired tidal flushing and conditions that would support four habitat types on the restoration footprint. At the estuary scale, restoration would substantially increase the proportion of area flushed with freshwater (

2010-04-10

44

New methodology for studying the structural ecology of occlusal caries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Microbiological studies of occlusal dental biofilms have hitherto been hampered by inaccessibility to the sampling site and demolition of the original biofilm architecture. The aim of the present study was to explore the spatial distribution of bacterial taxa in vivo at various stages of occusal caries, applying a new methodology involving preparation of embedded hard dental tissue slices for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal microscopy. 11 extracted teeth were included in the study and classified according to their occlusal caries status (active/inactive/sound; cavitated/non-cavitated). The teeth were fixed (paraformaldehyde 3 %), embedded (Technovit 8100), sectioned and decalcified (EDTA 17%, pH 7.0) before FISH was performed using oligonucleotide probes for the most abundant species/genera associated with occlusal caries including Streptococcus and Actinomyces. The findings were related to histological features of lesion penetration. The sites showed distinct differences in the bacterial composition and fluorescence intensity between different ecological niches in occlusal caries. Biofilm observed along the entrance of fissures showed an inner layer of microorganisms organized in palisades often identified as Actinomyces, covered by a more loosely structured bacterial layer consisting of diverse genera, similar to supra-gingival biofilm. Biofilm within the fissure proper seemed less metabolically active, as judged by the low fluorescence signal intensity and the presence of material of non-bacterial origin resembling developmental protein, calculus and/or dead bacteria. Bacterial invasion with penetration into the dentinal tubules was seen only at advanced stages of the caries process with manifest cavity formation. It is concluded that the new methodology represents a valuable supplement to previous methods for the study of microbial ecology in caries by allowing analysis of the structural composition of the undisturbed biofilm in caries lesions in vivo.

Dige, Irene; GrØnkjær, Lene

45

Inequality in maternal mortality in iran: an ecologic study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality (MM) is an avoidable death and there is national, international and political commitment to reduce it. The objective of this study is to examine the relation of MM to socioeconomic factors and its inequality in Iran's provinces at an ecologic level. METHODS: The overall MM from each province was considered for 3 years from 2004 to 2006. The five independent variables whose relations were studied included the literacy rate among men and women in each province, mean annual household income per capita, Gini coefficients in each province, and Human Development Index (HDI). The correlation of Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) to the above five variables was evaluated through Pearson's correlation coefficient (simple and weighted for each province's population) and linear regression - by considering MMR as the dependent variable and the Gini coefficient, HDI, and difference in literacy rate among men and women as the independent variables. RESULTS: The mean MMR in the years 2004-2006 was 24.7 in 100,000 live births. The correlation coefficients between MMR and literacy rate among women, literacy rate among men, the mean annual household income per capita, Gini coefficient and HDI were 0.82, 0.90, -0.61, 0.52 and -0.77, respectively. Based on multivariate regression, MMR was significantly associated with HDI (standardized B=-0.93) and difference in literacy rate among men and women (standardized B=-0.47). However, MMR was not significantly associated with the Gini coefficient. CONCLUSION: This study shows the association between socioeconomic variables and their inequalities with MMR in Iran's provinces at an ecologic level. In addition to the other direct interventions performed to reduce MM, it seems essential to especially focus on more distal factors influencing MMR.

Tajik P; Nedjat S; Afshar NE; Changizi N; Yazdizadeh B; Azemikhah A; Aamrolalaei S; Majdzadeh R

2012-02-01

46

[Study on the ecological regions of soybean in China. II. Ecological environment and representative varieties].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Based on the climatic and geographical condition, cropping system and season sowing types and maturity group (MG) types of 256 varieties in test from total cultivating regions of soybean in China, six ecological regions of soybean were suggested. Those are: Northern single cropping, spring planting eco-region(I), Huanghuaihai double cropping, spring and summer planting eco-region(II), Middle and lower Changjiang valley double cropping, spring and summer planting eco-region(III), Central south multiple cropping, spring, summer and autumn planting eco-region(IV), Southwest plateau double cropping, spring and summer planting eco-region(V), and South China tropical multiple cropping, all season planting eco-region(VI). The cultivating environmental condition and representative varieties were shown, and the characteristics of all ecological regions of soybean in China were also discussed in this paper.

Wang Y; Gai J

2002-01-01

47

Backyard Ecology.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Describes the Ecology Explorers, the community education component of Arizona State University's Central Arizona Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research project, which offers teacher internship programs that link university researchers, K-12 teachers, and students in studying urban ecology. Explains that student neighborhoods are dynamic ecosystems…

Elser, Monica; Musheno, Birgit; Saltz, Charlene

2003-01-01

48

Web Ecology ?????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Web Ecology is an electronic peer-reviewed journal issued by the European Ecological Federation in cooperation with the Oikos Editorial Office, Lund, Sweden. Ecologists from all countries are invited to publish original results on its pages. Web Ecology will publish studies and re...

49

Hydrodynamic and Ecological Assessment of Nearshore Restoration: A Modeling Study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Along the Pacific Northwest coast, much of the estuarine habitat has been diked over the last century for agricultural land use, residential and commercial development, and transportation corridors. As a result, many of the ecological processes and functions have been disrupted. To protect coastal habitats that are vital to aquatic species, many restoration projects are currently underway to restore the estuarine and coastal ecosystems through dike breaches, setbacks, and removals. Information on physical processes and hydrodynamic conditions are critical for the assessment of the success of restoration actions. Restoration of a 160- acre property at the mouth of the Stillaguamish River in Puget Sound has been proposed. The goal is to restore native tidal habitats and estuary-scale ecological processes by removing the dike. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was developed for the Stillaguamish River estuary to simulate estuarine processes. The model was calibrated to observed tide, current, and salinity data for existing conditions and applied to simulate the hydrodynamic responses to two restoration alternatives. Responses were evaluated at the scale of the restoration footprint. Model data was combined with biophysical data to predict habitat responses at the site. Results showed that the proposed dike removal would result in desired tidal flushing and conditions that would support four habitat types on the restoration footprint. At the estuary scale, restoration would substantially increase the proportion of area flushed with freshwater (< 5 ppt) at flood tide. Potential implications of predicted changes in salinity and flow dynamics are discussed relative to the distribution of tidal marsh habitat.

Yang, Zhaoqing; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Thom, Ronald M.; Fuller, Roger

2010-04-10

50

Trophic magnification factors: considerations of ecology, ecosystems, and study design.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent reviews by researchers from academia, industry, and government have revealed that the criteria used by the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants under the United Nations Environment Programme are not always able to identify the actual bioaccumulative capacity of some substances, by use of chemical properties such as the octanol-water partitioning coefficient. Trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were suggested as a more reliable tool for bioaccumulation assessment of chemicals that have been in commerce long enough to be quantitatively measured in environmental samples. TMFs are increasingly used to quantify biomagnification and represent the average diet-to-consumer transfer of a chemical through food webs. They differ from biomagnification factors, which apply to individual species and can be highly variable between predator-prey combinations. The TMF is calculated from the slope of a regression between the chemical concentration and trophic level of organisms in the food web. The trophic level can be determined from stable N isotope ratios (?(15) N). In this article, we give the background for the development of TMFs, identify and discuss impacts of ecosystem and ecological variables on their values, and discuss challenges and uncertainties associated with contaminant measurements and the use of ?(15) N for trophic level estimations. Recommendations are provided for experimental design, data treatment, and statistical analyses, including advice for users on reporting and interpreting TMF data. Interspecies intrinsic ecological and organismal properties such as thermoregulation, reproductive status, migration, and age, particularly among species at higher trophic levels with high contaminant concentrations, can influence the TMF (i.e., regression slope). Following recommendations herein for study design, empirical TMFs are likely to be useful for understanding the food web biomagnification potential of chemicals, where the target is to definitively identify if chemicals biomagnify (i.e., TMF?>?or?

Borgå K; Kidd KA; Muir DC; Berglund O; Conder JM; Gobas FA; Kucklick J; Malm O; Powell DE

2012-01-01

51

Cultural Studies and Media Ecology: Meyrowitz's Medium Theory and Carey's Cultural Studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines work of two communication and media studies scholars, Joshua Meyrowitz and James Carey. Suggests their studies represent media ecology with analyses of the dynamic interaction between communication, consciousness, and culture. Highlights how their work embodies a North American cultural studies approach to media studies (moving away from…

Flayhan, Donna P.

2001-01-01

52

An Ecological Flood Control System in Phoenix Island of Huzhou, China: A Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional flood control systems always have a conflict with natural ones, i.e., rivers in cities are usually straight and smooth, whereas natural ones are according to ecological mechanisms. Social and economic developments in the modern world require a new system combining ecological needs and traditional flood control system. Ecological flood control systems were put forward and defined as flood control systems with full consideration of ecological demands for sustainable development. In such systems, four aspects are promoted: connectivity of water system, landscapes of river and lakes, mobility of water bodies, and safety of flood control. In Phoenix Island, Huzhou, needs for ecological flood controls were analyzed from the four aspects above. The Water system layout was adjusted with the water surface ratio, which is the ratio of water surface area (including rivers, lakes, and other water bodies) to the total drainage area, and connectivity as controlling indicators. The designed water levels provided references for landscape plant selection. Mobility of the adjusted water system was analyzed, including flow direction and residence time. On the bases mentioned above, ecological flood control projects were planned with comprehensive consideration of the ecological requirements. The case study indicates that ecological needs can be integrated with flood control to develop ecological flood control systems that do not only prevent floods but also retain the ecological functions of water bodies.

Cheng Gao; Jun Liu; Zhuowen Wang

2013-01-01

53

Heat shock improves sca-1(+) stem cells survival and directs ischemic cardiomyocytes towards a prosurvival phenotype via exosomal transfer: a critical role for HSF1/miR-34a/HSP70 pathway.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Stem cell based therapy is a promising intervention for ischemic heart diseases. However, the functional integrity of stem cells is impaired in an ischemic environment. Here, we report a novel finding that heat shock significantly improves Sca-1(+) stem cell survival in an ischemic environment by the regulation of the triangle: Heat Shock Factor 1(HSF1), HSF1/miR-34a, Heat Shock Protein 70(HSP70). Initially we prove that HSP70 is the key chaperone mediating cytoprotective effect of heat shock in Sca-1(+) cells and then we establish miR-34a as a direct repressor of HSP70. We found that HSP70 was down-regulated in heat shocked Sca-1(+) stem cells ((HS) Sca-1(+) cells). Intriguingly, we demonstrate that the down-regulation of miR-34a is attributed to HSF1-mediated epigenetic repression through histone H3 Lys27 trimethylation (H3K27me3)on miR-34a promoter. Moreover, we show that heat shock induces exosomal transfer of HSF1 fromSca-1(+) cells, which directs ischemic cardiomyocytes towards a prosurvival phenotype by epigenetic repression of miR-34a. In addition, our in vivo study demonstrates that transplantation of (HS) Sca-1(+) cells significantly reduces apoptosis, attenuates fibrosis and improves global heart functions in ischemic myocardium. Hence, our study not only provides novel insights into the effects of heat shock on stem cell survival and paracrine behavior but may have therapeutic valuesfor stem cell therapy in ischemic heart diseases.. Stem Cells 2013.

Feng Y; Huang W; Meng W; Jegga AG; Wang Y; Cai W; Kim HW; Wen Z; Rao F; Modi RM; Yu X; Ashraf M

2013-10-01

54

HSF1-mediated oxidative stress response to menadione in Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377Y3 by using proteomic approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hat shock transcription factor HSF1 inthe yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulates a wide range of genes and functions in diverse cellular reactions. To investigate the physiological response of HSF1 inthe presence of menadione (MD) in S. cerevisiae KNU 5377Y3, wild-type (k3wt) and isogenic hsf1 mutant (k3h1) cells were introduced. HSF1 was induced when k3wt cells were exposed to the superoxide-generating agent MD and k3h1 cells were hypersensitive to MD. Under MD stress, k3h1 cells down-regulated the expression of metabolic enzymes (Hxk, Fba1, Pgk1, Eno2, and Adh1), antioxidant enzymes (Trx2 and porin), and molecular chaperones and their cofactors (Hsp104, Ssb1, Hsp60, Hsp42, Hsp26, Hsp12, Cpr1, and Sti1). In addition, k3h1 cells increased cellular hydroperoxide levels and protein carbonylation under MD stress as compared to k3wt cells. However, there was a moderate difference in the wild-type (b3wt) and mutant (b3h1) cells derived from S. cerevisiae S288Cunder the same conditions. Thus, these results show that HSF1 is an important component of the stress response system, acting as an activator of cell rescue genes in S. cerevisiae KNU5377Y3, and its expression protects the cells from MD-induced oxidative damage by maintaining redox homeostasis and proteostasis in the presence of MD.

Il-Sup Kim; Hyun Kim; Young-Saeng Kim; Ingnyol Jin; Ho-Sung Yoon

2013-01-01

55

Study on Ecological Compensation Policy among the Micro Subjects on Water Energy Resources Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The subjects of ecological compensation involve the nation, society, development enterprises of wa-ter-energy resources, as well as the location of resource itself. This paper systematically studies on how to make “water energy sources market compensation policy”, “the economic compensation policy for relevant interest subjects” and “the ecological compensation policy of basin ecological water.” So, it is necessary to exert the complementary function between market compensation and government compensation by the means of economic compensation and to establish the ecological compensation policy of basin ecological water, which is beneficial to coordinating the stakeholders’ interests of cross-region or inter-basin. And it is important and significant to establish constantly perfected ecological compensation policy among the micro subjects on water energy resources development, so as to coordinate interest relationships among various subjects and finally reach the aim of sustainable use of water energy resources and environmental protection as possible.

Shihua LI; Deshan TANG

2009-01-01

56

[Spatial distribution of leptospirosis in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: recovering the ecology of ecological studies].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Leptospirosis is an endemic disease in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and presents a broad diversity of exposure routes, reservoirs, etiological agents, and clinical features. The main objective of this work is to identify transmission areas and possible ecological components of leptospirosis transmission. This was accomplished through the aggregation of epidemiological data into spatial units that represent the State's socio-environmental diversity. The 1,274 confirmed leptospirosis cases that occurred in 2001 were georeferenced in the counties of residence. The county maps were overlaid on environmental units characterizing land use, altitude, and river basins. Incidence rates for each environmental class were calculated, along with their statistical significance, through GIS aggregation operations. The highest incidence rates were verified in coastal sedimentary areas with low altitude and predominantly agricultural land use. In these areas, most of the cases were associated with irrigated farming. The results suggest the existence of favorable ecological characteristics for leptospirosis transmission in places involving proliferation of peri-domiciliary rodents and intensive agricultural production. The article discusses the effects of data aggregation into environmental units, as well as strategies to control the endemic in the State.

Barcellos C; Lammerhirt CB; de Almeida MA; dos Santos E

2003-09-01

57

Ecological and taxonomical studies on phytoplanktons in Arab Gulf  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Arab Gulf is a semi closed sea, shallow in all its regions and important in carbonate, precipitation. Its water has the highest temperature in the world. Its salinity ranges 37-40% and effected by a diurnal tide. Light is to be not considered as a limiting factor for the primary productivity of the phytoplankton. It has a high content of dissolved oxygen and mostly reaching saturation condition. The pH is in alkaline (>8). The phytoplankton nutrients, namely nitrates, phosphates and silicates are present in higher concentrations in the north-west region than in waters near Kuwait, Qatar and United Arab Emirates. Chlorophyll-a content ranges between 0.2-13, 87 mg m/sup -3/. The primary productivity of the phytoplankton in the Gulf is higher than in the Arabian sea or the Indian Ocean. There are 527 species recorded in the Gulf dominated by diatoms (79%) followed by dinoflagellates (13%). The Arab Gulf and the Arabian and Red sea are considered within the Basic Indo-Oceanic Complex. The study includes some recommendations for further studies on ecological and taxonomical parameters in the Arab Gulf.

Al-Saadi, H.A.; Hadi, R.A.M.

1987-09-01

58

Study on remote sensing method for drawing up and utilizing ecological and natural map II; concentrated on drawing up a plant ecological classification map  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following with the flows of the environmental conservation, Korea has revised the law of natural environmental conservation. In this law, it has suggested to draw up an ecological nature figure for efficient preservation and utilization of a country. To draw up an ecological nature figure, it requires several evaluating factors. Among them, a plant ecological classification is a very important evaluating factor since it can evaluate a habitation area of natural organisms. This study investigated a drawing up method of plant ecological classification using satellite image data. However the limit of satellite image data and the quality of required plant ecological classification are not quite matched but if the satellite image data and the infrared color aerial photograph are mixed, it can be expected to have an excellent quality of plant ecological classification. 85 refs., 86 figs., 45 tabs.

Jeon, Seong Woo; Chung, Hwui Chul [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

1999-12-01

59

Ecological study of pathogenic vibrios in aquatic environments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An ecological study of pathogenic vibrios in aquatic environments of Okayama was carried out. The number of Vibrio parahaemolyticus detected in the sea area was comparatively smaler than that found in the survey of about two decades ago. Various reasons for the decrease in the case of food poisoning by V. parahaemolyticus have been suggested but the lower number of the vibrio in aquatic environments may be one explanation. Although the number of V. vulnificus was also not as large, most of the isolates possessed the pathogenic genes, vvp and vvh, suggesting the potential for fatal pathogenicity to patients having underlying diseases. As for V. cholerae, some non-O1/non-O139 serovar isolates were detected in a fresh water area, and many of them had hlyA, the gene for hemolysin which acts as a pathogenic factor in sporadic cases of diarrhea. Thus, the total number of pathogenic vibrios detected was not of concern. However, the marine products of these areas are shipped in wide area and are for general consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to continue to survey pathogenic vibrios in aquatic environments in order to ensure food hygiene.

Shinoda S; Furumai Y; Katayama S; Mizuno T; Miyoshi S

2013-01-01

60

Urbanization and non-communicable disease mortality in Thailand: an ecological correlation study.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study provides strong evidence from an LMIC that urbanization is associated with mortality from three lifestyle-associated diseases at an ecological level. Furthermore, our data suggest that both average household income and number of doctors per population are important factors to consider in ecological analyses of mortality. PMID:23279597

Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri; Wattanatchariya, Nisit; Doyle, Pat; Nitsch, Dorothea

2012-12-28

 
 
 
 
61

Urbanization and non-communicable disease mortality in Thailand: an ecological correlation study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study provides strong evidence from an LMIC that urbanization is associated with mortality from three lifestyle-associated diseases at an ecological level. Furthermore, our data suggest that both average household income and number of doctors per population are important factors to consider in ecological analyses of mortality.

Angkurawaranon C; Wattanatchariya N; Doyle P; Nitsch D

2013-02-01

62

Site-Specific ecological risk assessment. Case-study 2  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The decision supporting and integrating assessment tool, TRIAD, is used site-specific on PAH- and heavy metal contaminated sites in Denmark. The various aspects of the TRIAD approach are used on a set of chemistry-, ecotoxicology- and ecology related data collected among others in the EU project “Development of a decision support system for sustainable management of contaminated land by linking bioavailability, ecological risk and ground water pollution of organic pollutants”or in short “LIBERATION”. The presentation includes examples on how to scale and integrate the results from various scientific disciplines.

Jensen, John

63

Integrating Humans into Ecology: Opportunities and Challenges for Studying Urban Ecosystems  

Science.gov (United States)

This peer-reviewed resource from BioScience is about the effects of urbanization on ecosystems. Our central paradigm for urban ecology is that cities are emergent phenomena of local-scale, dynamic interactions among socioeconomic and biophysical forces. These complex interactions give rise to a distinctive ecology and to distinctive ecological forcing functions. Separately, both the natural and the social sciences have adopted complex system theory to study emergent phenomena, but attempts to integrate the natural and social sciences to understand human-dominated systems remain reductionist--these disciplines generally study humans and ecological processes as separate phenomena. Here we argue that if the natural and social sciences remain within their separate domains, they cannot explain how human-dominated ecosystems emerge from interactions between humans and ecological processes. We propose an integrated framework to test formal hypotheses about how human-dominated ecosystems evolve from those interactions.

MARINA ALBERTI, JOHN M. MARZLUFF, ERIC SHULENBERGER, GORDON BRADLEY, CLARE RYAN, and CRAIG ZUMBRUNNEN (;)

2003-12-01

64

Trends and missing parts in the study of movement ecology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

6 pages, 5 figures.-- Published online before print December 5, 2008.-- Supporting Information available at: http://www.pnas.org/content/suppl/2008/12/03/0800483105.DCSupplemental/0800483105SI.pdf , Movement Ecology: Special Feature in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. , Movement is importa...

Holyoak, Marcel; Casagrandi, Renato; Nathan, Ran; Revilla, Eloy; Spiegel, Orr

65

Investigating ecological speciation in non-model organisms: a case study on killer whale ecotypes.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Studies of ecological speciation tend to focus on a few model biological systems. In contrast, few studies on non-model organisms have been able to infer ecological speciation as the underlying mechanism of evolutionary divergence. Questions: What are the pitfalls in studying ecological speciation in non-model organisms that lead to this bias? What alternative approaches might redress the balance? Organism: Genetically differentiated types of the killer whale (Orcinus orca) exhibiting differences in prey preference, habitat use, morphology, and behaviour. Methods: Review of the literature on killer whale evolutionary ecology in search of any difficulty in demonstrating causal links between variation in phenotype, ecology, and reproductive isolation in this non-model organism. Results: At present, we do not have enough evidence to conclude that adaptive phenotype traits linked to ecological variation underlie reproductive isolation between sympatric killer whale types. Perhaps ecological speciation has occurred, but it is hard to prove. We will probably face this outcome whenever we wish to address non-model organisms – species in which it is not easy to apply experimental approaches and comparative studies among multiple taxon pairs. We need new genomic approaches that identify genes under selection and then link alleles to phenotypic differences and reproductive isolation.

Foote, Andrew David

2012-01-01

66

Advances in ecological studies on epiphytes in forest canopies  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Canopy-dwelling epiphytes and their associated dead organic matter are important floristic, structural and functional components in montane moist forests. Because of the difficulties related to access, the biodiversity and ecosystem-level functional attributes of epiphytes have received little attention in forests. With an increase in our understanding of epiphytic biodiversity and their roles in ecosystem-level interactions, combined with improved access to the forest canopy, studies on epiphytic organisms in forest canopies have p from the individual level to the ecosystem level. Biodiversity and biomass of epiphytes and their functional roles at the ecosystem-level are becoming a hot topic of recent study. Recent work in tree canopies in a variety of forest types, however, has pointed out that the role of epiphytes in ecosystem-level interactions are more important than previously thought due to their anatomical, morphological, and physiological characteristics. Considerable research conducted worldwide has shown that the forest canopy is a favorable habitat supporting a much richer epiphytic flora than previously thought. It was estimated that there are 29 500 epiphytic species, including 24 000 vascular epiphytes that account for 10% of the total vascular species in the world. There are large differences in the epiphytic biomass of forests worldwide ranging from 105-44 000 kg·hm~(-2). The biomass of epiphytic material of forest canopies was greater than the leaf biomass of host trees in some old growth forests. Epiphytes have a tremendous leaf area index ?LAI? and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems, and are Epiphytes play an important role in biodiversity, water sensitive indicators of environment change, due to rich The epiphyte community also provides a source of food and habitat for a variety of birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles, and insects. Species composition, growth and distribution of epiphytes are influenced by environmental factors and human disturbance. Research on epiphytes in forest canopies still is very active due to a lack of field data at the ecosystem level for a lot of forest types under different environmental conditions in many regions. International forest canopy networks have been established worldwide. To understand the relationship among community characteristics, environmental factors and epiphyte dynamics, and develop effective and standard methods and technologies for the study of forest canopies, more work is needed in this field. In China, there has been very little work on the ecology of epiphytes in forest canopies, and this remains a challenging and fruitful area for future research.

Liu Wenyao; Ma Wenzhang; Yang Lipan

2006-01-01

67

Fundamental Study on Gas Monitoring in CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System),  

Science.gov (United States)

A mass spectrometer and computer system was developed for conducting a fundamental study on gas monitoring in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System. Respiration and metabolism of the hamster and photosynthesis of the Spirulina were measured in a com...

I. Nishi T. Tateishi G. Tomizawa K. Nitta M. Oguchi

1987-01-01

68

STABLE ISOTOPES IN ECOLOGICAL STUDIES: NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN MIXING MODELS (URUGUAY)  

Science.gov (United States)

Stable isotopes are increasingly being used as tracers in ecological studies. One application uses isotopic ratios to quantify the proportional contributions of multiple sources to a mixture. Examples include pollution sources for air or water bodies, food sources for animals, ...

69

STABLE ISOTOPES IN ECOLOGICAL STUDIES: NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN MIXING MODELS (BRAZIL)  

Science.gov (United States)

Stable isotopes are increasingly being used as tracers in ecological studies. One application uses isotopic ratios to quantify the proportional contributions of multiple sources to a mixture. Examples include pollution sources for air or water bodies, food sources for animals, ...

70

The New Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes new techniques and approaches to ecology, including the systems approach, behavioral studies, the use of of radioistopes to investigate ecological cycles and energetics, and evolutionary ecology, all leading to a more sophisticated understanding of complex natural systems. (EB)

Bioscience, 1970

1970-01-01

71

Ecological study of the effects of nuclear power plants on benthic macroplant microcosms in subtropical and tropical estuaries. Annual progress report, 1974--1975  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Progress is reported on the following research projects: the dynamic ecology of Thalassia and studies of the Thalassia community; basic ecology of Thalassia growth and reproduction; red macroalgal ecology; green macroalgal ecology; transplantation of Thalassia; succession in a previously damaged Thalassia community at Turkey Point; and thermal ecology of the Thalassia community of Card Sound and Turkey Point. (U.S.)

1975-01-01

72

[Advances of studies on ecological risk of herbicide atrazine and its determination and remediation].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With wide application of chemical such as pesticide in farming, the coming problems of ecological risks and environmental pollution were increasingly serious. Residual material of atrazine was founded in the surface water, underground water, and atmospheric sedimentation, and it resulted in the global ecological influences. For atrazine could exit in soil for a long time and enrich in organism, it would bring about potential threaten on the safety of food. The results from experiments on animal indicated that atrazine had biological activity. So, there is an increasing demand for further studying on its ecological risks. In this paper, some viewpoints of the researches on atrazine were introduced. With the development of analytical techniques, the opportunities were created to study on the ecological risks of atrazine, and people should attach serious importance to the bioremediation techniques.

Li Q; Huang G; Wang Y; Liu X

2002-05-01

73

Beyond Urban Legends: An Emerging Framework of Urban Ecology, as Illustrated by the Baltimore Ecosystem Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The emerging discipline of urban ecology is shifting focus from ecological processes embedded within cities to integrative studies of large urban areas as biophysical-social complexes. Yet this discipline lacks a theory. Results from the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, part of the Long Term Ecological Research Network, expose new assumptions and test existing assumptions about urban ecosystems. The findings suggest a broader range of structural and functional relationships than is often assumed for urban ecological systems. We address the relationships between social status and awareness of environmental problems, and between race and environmental hazard. We present patterns of species diversity, riparian function, and stream nitrate loading. In addition, we probe the suitability of land-use models, the diversity of soils, and the potential for urban carbon sequestration. Finally, we illustrate lags between social patterns and vegetation, the biogeochemistry of lawns, ecosystem nutrient retention, and social-biophysical feedbacks. These results suggest a framework for a theory of urban ecosystems.

Steward T. A. Pickett (Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies;); Peter M. Groffman (Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies;); Mary L. Cadenasso (University of CaliforniaÃÂDavis;); J. Morgan Grove (USDA;); Lawrence E. Band (UNC-Chapel Hill;); Christopher G. Boone (Arizona State University;)

2008-02-01

74

Antagonistic interaction of HIV-1 Vpr with Hsf-mediated cellular heat shock response and Hsp16 in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression of the HIV-1 vpr gene in human and fission yeast cells displays multiple highly conserved activities, which include induction of cell cycle G2 arrest and cell death. We have previously characterized a yeast heat shock protein 16 (Hsp16) that suppresses the Vpr activities when it is overproduced in fission yeast. Similar suppressive effects were observed when the fission yeast hsp16 gene was overexpressed in human cells or in the context of viral infection. In this study, we further characterized molecular actions underlying the suppressive effect of Hsp16 on the Vpr activities. Results We show that the suppressive effect of Hsp16 on Vpr-dependent viral replication in proliferating T-lymphocytes is mediated through its C-terminal end. In addition, we show that Hsp16 inhibits viral infection in macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistically, Hsp16 suppresses Vpr activities in a way that resembles the cellular heat shock response. In particular, Hsp16 activation is mediated by a heat shock factor (Hsf)-dependent mechanism. Interestingly, vpr gene expression elicits a moderate increase of endogenous Hsp16 but prevents its elevation when cells are grown under heat shock conditions that normally stimulate Hsp16 production. Similar responsive to Vpr elevation of Hsp and counteraction of this elevation by Vpr were also observed in our parallel mammalian studies. Since Hsf-mediated elevation of small Hsps occurs in all eukaryotes, this finding suggests that the anti-Vpr activity of Hsps is a conserved feature of these proteins. Conclusion These data suggest that fission yeast could be used as a model to further delineate the potential dynamic and antagonistic interactions between HIV-1 Vpr and cellular heat shock responses involving Hsps.

Benko Zsigmond; Liang Dong; Agbottah Emmanuel; Hou Jason; Taricani Lorena; Young Paul G; Bukrinsky Michael; Zhao Richard Y

2007-01-01

75

[Ecological vulnerability of coal mining area: a case study of Shengli Coalfield in Xilinguole of Inner Mongolia, China].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, an ecological vulnerability evaluation index system for the Shengli Coalfield in Xilinguole of Inner Mongolia was established, which included 16 factors in ecological sensitivity, natural and social pressure, and ecological recovery capacity, respectively. Based on the expert scoring method and analytic hierarchy process (AHP), an ecological vulnerability model was built for the calculation of the regional ecological vulnerability by means of RS and GIS spatial analysis. An analysis of the relationships between land use and ecological vulnerability was also made, and the results were tested by spatial auto-correlation analysis. Overall, the ecological vulnerability of the study area was at medium-high level. The exploitation of four opencast areas in the Coalfield caused a significant increase of ecological vulnerability. Moreover, due to the effects of mine drained water and human activities, the 300 -2000 m around the opencast areas was turning into higher ecologically fragile area. With further exploitation, the whole Coalfield was evolved into moderate and heavy ecological vulnerability area, and the coal resources mining was a key factor in this process. The cluster analysis showed that the spatial distribution of the ecological vulnerability in the study area had reasonable clustering characteristics. To decrease the population density, control the grazing capacity of grassland, and regulate the ratios of construction land and cultivated land could be the optimal ways for resolving the natural and social pressure, and to increase the investment and improve the vegetation recovery coefficient could be the fundamental measures for decreasing the ecological vulnerability of the study area.

Quan ZJ; Li Y; Li JS; Han Y; Xiao NW; Fu MD

2013-06-01

76

Political Cultural Ecology and the Study of Regions in Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper shows why Cultural Ecology, understood as a method to explore the relationships between the environment and cultural processes, has deeply influenced a whole generation of Mexican anthropologists as a result of the teachings of Ángel Palerm and Eric Wolf. The practical application of Steward’s theories to the processes of Mexican regional formation, linked to the use of hydraulic technologies as part of both adaptative cultural strategies and the political control of water in the process of food production, shows that Cultural Ecology, understood as cultural management of natural environments, as it happens with Economy, is designed and politically manipulated in the context of deeply unequal societies with unadaptative consequences.El artículo muestra por qué la ecología cultural, entendida como un método para indagar en las relaciones entre el medio ambiente y los procesos culturales ha arraigado en una generación de antropólogos mexicanos como consecuencia del magisterio de Ángel Palerm y Eric Wolf. La aplicación práctica de las teorías de Steward a los procesos de formación regional mexicana vinculados a usos políticos de tecnologías hidráulicas como parte, tanto de estrategias culturales de adaptación como de control político del agua en el proceso de producción de alimentos, ha puesto de manifiesto que la ecología cultural, entendida como manejo cultural de entornos naturales, al igual que la economía, es diseñada y manejada políticamente en el contexto de sociedades profundamente desiguales con consecuencias maladaptantes.

Fábregas Puig, Andrés

2009-01-01

77

Ecological studies on the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) on the Savannah River Plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is the largest vertebrate of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), reaching a maximum length of 3.7 meters (12 feet) and weighing up to 175 kg (385 pounds). Currently, populations in coastal South Carolina are considered Threatened, whereas populations in inland areas (such as the SRP) are still Endangered. Because of their legal status and economic and ecological importance, it is important to determine the environmental impacts of SRP operations on the local alligator population. The major objectives under the Endangered Species Program of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) were as follows: (1) document and compare the present status and distribution of alligators on the SRP to previous surveys, in order to determine long-term changes in population abundance; (2) establish baseline population and ecological parameters of the Steel Creek population so that the ecological effects of L-Reactor operations can be determined, and (3) conduct ecological research on the immediate impacts of thermal effluents on American alligators. Gladden et al., (1985) summarized data on previous population surveys, temporal changes in the Par Pond population, preliminary results of the Steel Creek surveys and Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) research on the effects of thermal effluents. This report summarizes the current status of the SRP population, presents data on the abundance, movement patterns and activity cycles of the Steel Creek population, and presents additional data on the effect of cooling water releases on alligator ecology and behavior.

Seigel, R.A.; Brandt, L.A.; Knight, J.L.; Novak, S.S.

1986-06-01

78

Ecological optimization and performance study of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat engines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concept of finite time thermodynamics is used to determine the ecological function of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat engine cycles. The ecological function is defined as the power output minus power loss (irreversibility), which is the ambient temperature times, the entropy generation rate. The ecological function is maximized with respect to cycle temperature ratio and the expressions for the corresponding power output and thermal efficiency are derived at the optimal operating conditions. The effect of different operating parameters, the effectiveness on the hot, cold and the regenerative side heat exchangers, the cycle temperature ratio, heat capacitance ratio and the internal irreversibility parameter on the maximum ecological function are studied. It is found that the effect of regenerator effectiveness is more than the hot and cold side heat exchangers and the effect of the effectiveness on cold side heat exchanger is more than the effectiveness on the hot side heat exchanger on the maximum ecological function. It is also found that the effect of internal irreversibility parameter is more than the other parameters not only on the maximum ecological function but also on the corresponding power output and the thermal efficiency.

2002-10-21

79

LANDSCAPE ECOLOGICAL METHOD TO STUDY AGRICULTURAL VEGETATION: SOME EXAMPLES FROM THE PO VALLEY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vegetation is the most important landscape component, as regards to its ability to catch solar energy and to transform it, but also to shape the landscape, to structure the space, to create the fit environment for different animal species, to contribute to the maintenance of a correct metastability level for the landscape, etc. It is a biological system which acts under the constraints of the principles of the System Theory and owns the same properties of any other living system: so, it is a complex adaptive, hierarchical, dynamic, dissipative, self-organizing, self-transcendent, autocatalytic, self-maintaining system and follows the non-equilibrium thermodynamic. Its ecological state can be investigated through the comparison between “gathered data” (pathology) and “normal data” (physiology) for analogous types of vegetation. The Biological Integrated School of Landscape Ecology provides an integrated methodology to define ecological threshold limits of the different Agricultural Landscape types and applies to agricultural vegetation the specific part of the new methodology already tested to studying forests (the Landscape Biological Survey of Vegetation). Ecological quality, better and worst parameters, biological territorial capacity of vegetated corridors, agricultural field, poplar groves, orchards and woody remnant patches are investigated. Some examples from diverse agricultural landscapes of the Po Valley will be discussed. KEY WORDS: agricultural landscape, vegetation, landscape ecology, landscape health, Biological Integrated Landscape Ecology, Landscape Biological Survey of vegetation.

E. GIGLIO

2006-01-01

80

Ecological optimization and performance study of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat engines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concept of finite time thermodynamics is used to determine the ecological function of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat engine cycles. The ecological function is defined as the power output minus power loss (irreversibility), which is the ambient temperature times, the entropy generation rate. The ecological function is maximized with respect to cycle temperature ratio and the expressions for the corresponding power output and thermal efficiency are derived at the optimal operating conditions. The effect of different operating parameters, the effectiveness on the hot, cold and the regenerative side heat exchangers, the cycle temperature ratio, heat capacitance ratio and the internal irreversibility parameter on the maximum ecological function are studied. It is found that the effect of regenerator effectiveness is more than the hot and cold side heat exchangers and the effect of the effectiveness on cold side heat exchanger is more than the effectiveness on the hot side heat exchanger on the maximum ecological function. It is also found that the effect of internal irreversibility parameter is more than the other parameters not only on the maximum ecological function but also on the corresponding power output and the thermal efficiency. (Author)

Tyagi, S.K.; Kaushik, S.C.; Salhotra, R. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Centre for Energy Studies, New Delhi (India)

2002-10-21

 
 
 
 
81

Ecology of Urban Bees: A Review of Current Knowledge and Directions for Future Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban bee ecology is an emerging field that holds promise for advancing knowledge of bee community dynamics and promoting bee conservation. Published studies of bee communities in urban and suburban habitats are fewer than those documenting bees in agricultural and wildland settings. As land lost to urbanization is predicted to increase in coming years the necessity of studying urban bee populations is growing. We reviewed 59 publications on urban bee ecology with the following goals, to assess current knowledge, to highlight areas in need of further research, and to suggest applications of study findings to bee conservation. Identified trends in urban areas included the following, negative correlation between bee species richness and urban development, increase in abundance of cavity-nesters in urban habitats, and scarcity of floral specialists. Future directions for studying urban bee ecology include incorporation of landscape-scale assessments, conducting manipulative experiments and actively designing urban bee habitats.

Jennifer L. Hernandez; Gordon W. Frankie; Robbin W. Thorp

2009-01-01

82

Case study of ecological risk assessment at an Alaska airport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An ecological risk assessment was conducted for 10 sites at a remote location that has unique biological resources. Chemicals of concern included petroleum, metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, and dioxins and furans. Risks to 23 species of mammals and birds were evaluated by using toxicity reference values and a hazard quotient approach analogous to the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) approach for evaluating noncarcinogenic human health effects. Risks to fish and aquatic invertebrates were evaluated using risk-based concentrations for water analogous to the USEPA's water quality criteria. Risks to plants were evaluated using risk-based concentrations for soil. Toxicity reference values and risk-based concentrations were developed by applying uncertainty factors to the highest quality toxicity data available in the literature. Intake rates for wildlife were obtained from the USEPA's wildlife exposure factors handbook, or were estimated using allometric equations. The sizes of wildlife home ranges were compared with the size of each site to determine species- and site-specific exposure frequencies. Indicator chemicals were selected to represent the chemical and toxicological characteristics of petroleum fractions. The species most often at risk were found to be fish and aquatic invertebrates, as well as small-bodied, ground-dwelling or ground-feeding wildlife

1995-01-01

83

Studies on Biology and Ecology of Microplitis prodeniae (Viereck)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper deals with the biology and ecology of Microplitis prodeniae (Viereck), a dominant braconid wasp parasited on Spodoptera litura Fabricius, one of the most important pests in tobacco fields. The wasp has two climaxes on population dynamics, one of which occurs at the last ten day of April and the other occurs at the mid - ten day of June, which can control its host in some degree. It emerges normally all day long at 24?28? and 75%?85% RH. But the emergence chiefly occurs at 4?6 am. The quantity of female wasp is more than that of the male^s in the natural condition. The average sex ratio of the wasp is 2.30:1, The adult fed by nutrition expecially 25% solution of glucose can prolong their longevity significantly and the condition with higher hunidity is also beneficial to the adult survival. The equation between its longevity and hunidity can be described as y=13.759 7+0.155 1x. The relations between development duration and temperature from the stage of parasitism to incunabulum and incunabulum to emergence can be described as N=134.0426/(T - 9?5234)and N=84.8558/(T - 11.5965), respectively, the results of which fit in with x-2 test.

Chen Qianjin; Zhang Genshun; Guan Baobin; Zhang Yuzhen; Chen Jiahua

2003-01-01

84

Ecological Economics ?????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The journal is concerned with extending and integrating the study and management of "nature's household" (ecology) and "humankind's household" (economics). This integration is necessary because conceptual and professional isolation have led to economic and environmental policies which are mutually d...

85

Ecological forecasting under climatic data uncertainty: a case study in phenological modeling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forecasting ecological responses to climate change represents a challenge to the ecological community because models are often site-specific and climate data are lacking at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. We use a case study approach to demonstrate uncertainties in ecological predictions related to the driving climatic input data. We use observational records, derived observational datasets (e.g. interpolated observations from local weather stations and gridded data products) and output from general circulation models (GCM) in conjunction with site based phenology models to estimate the first flowering date (FFD) for three woody flowering species. Using derived observations over the modern time period, we find that cold biases and temperature trends lead to biased FFD simulations for all three species. Observational datasets resolved at the daily time step result in better FFD predictions compared to simulations using monthly resolution. Simulations using output from an ensemble of GCM and regional climate models over modern and future time periods have large intra-ensemble spreads and tend to underestimate observed FFD trends for the modern period. These results indicate that certain forcing datasets may be missing key features needed to generate accurate hindcasts at the local scale (e.g. trends, temporal resolution), and that standard modeling techniques (e.g. downscaling, ensemble mean, etc) may not necessarily improve the prediction of the ecological response. Studies attempting to simulate local ecological processes under modern and future climate forcing therefore need to quantify and propagate the climate data uncertainties in their simulations.

2010-01-01

86

Ecological optimization and parametric study of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat pumps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This communication presents the ecological optimization and parametric study of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat pump cycles, in which the external irreversibility is due to finite temperature difference between working fluid and external reservoirs while the internal irreversibilities are due to regenerative heat loss and other entropy generations within the cycle. The ecological function is defined as the heating load minus the irreversibility (power loss) which is ambient temperature times the entropy generation. The ecological function is optimized with respect to working fluid temperatures, and the expressions for various parameters at the optimal operating condition are obtained. The effects of different operating parameters on the performance of these cycles have been studied. It is found that the effect of internal irreversibility parameter is more pronounced than the other parameters on the performance of these cycles. (author)

2002-08-21

87

[Analyzing spatial-temporal dynamics of the ecological niche: a marten (Martes martes) population case study].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A potential of discriminant analysis is demonstrated in a case study of the common marten (Martes martes L., 1758) ecological niche within the Central Forest Reserve and its buffer zone. The analysis is aimed at identifying how the probability to encounter a marten's footprint along a walking route depends on the relief and other parameters of the environment discerned by remote sensing. The analyses that were done individually for each of the eleven months from a three-year observation period have revealed the pattern of the species spatial distribution and a measure of its association with the environment to be dependent, to a large extent, on the weather conditions. In general, associations with the environment do increase under unfavorable conditions. The methods are suggested that integrate outcomes of the monthly analyses into a general map of habitat types. The technique presented has wide application opportunities in studying the ecology of populations and solving problems of practical ecology.

Puzachenko IuG; Zheltukhin AS; Sandlerski? RB

2010-11-01

88

[Analyzing spatial-temporal dynamics of the ecological niche: a marten (Martes martes) population case study].  

Science.gov (United States)

A potential of discriminant analysis is demonstrated in a case study of the common marten (Martes martes L., 1758) ecological niche within the Central Forest Reserve and its buffer zone. The analysis is aimed at identifying how the probability to encounter a marten's footprint along a walking route depends on the relief and other parameters of the environment discerned by remote sensing. The analyses that were done individually for each of the eleven months from a three-year observation period have revealed the pattern of the species spatial distribution and a measure of its association with the environment to be dependent, to a large extent, on the weather conditions. In general, associations with the environment do increase under unfavorable conditions. The methods are suggested that integrate outcomes of the monthly analyses into a general map of habitat types. The technique presented has wide application opportunities in studying the ecology of populations and solving problems of practical ecology. PMID:21268859

Puzachenko, Iu G; Zheltukhin, A S; Sandlerski?, R B

89

Ecological optimization and parametric study of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat pumps  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This communication presents the ecological optimization and parametric study of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat pump cycles, in which the external irreversibility is due to finite temperature difference between working fluid and external reservoirs while the internal irreversibilities are due to regenerative heat loss and other entropy generations within the cycle. The ecological function is defined as the heating load minus the irreversibility (power loss) which is ambient temperature times the entropy generation. The ecological function is optimized with respect to working fluid temperatures, and the expressions for various parameters at the optimal operating condition are obtained. The effects of different operating parameters on the performance of these cycles have been studied. It is found that the effect of internal irreversibility parameter is more pronounced than the other parameters on the performance of these cycles. (Author)

Tyagi, S.K.; Kaushik, S.C.; Salohtra, R. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Centre for Energy Studies, New Delhi (India)

2002-08-21

90

Ecological validity of hyperactivity studies: two field experiments with carefully selected hyperactive and clumsy children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main issue of this thesis concerns possible information processing deficits in hyperactive children, studied in complex tasks representative of daily life situations. Especially the ecological validity of experimental clinical research with hyperactive children has been subject of study. It is i...

Vaessen, Wim,

91

ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF RESTORATED TRADITIONAL SETTLEMENTS: A CASE STUDY IN KALE?Ç? (ANTALYA)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Historical fabrics of the cities reflect the cultural backgrounds of the societies. For centuries in historical urban settlements formed via experiences the most appropriate structure type to the climatic conditions and the region, has been produced. With the industrial revolution, to be able to have more comfortable places in the settlement, fossil fuel based energy consumption began to be generally preferred. As a result, the ecological balance in the nature has begun to deteriorate in an irrevocable way. To find a solution for the situation, in ecological architecture and planning issues various ecological structure criteria is defined. Accordingly, buildings appropriate to the local and climatic characteristics are meant to be constructed besides the use of renewable energy sources and minimizing energy consumption. When historical city fabrics are analyzed in the ecological context, one can observe that these include sustainable structure characteristics. In order for the buildings to be renewed and restored in accordance with their original structures, great care should be given in terms of financial resource, manpower, material and control.Antalya Kaleiçi which was chosen as the working area was analyzed in terms of settlement structure, building form and structure cover, place organization, material choice, renewable, clean energy usage and water saving and usage and it was determined to have ecological, sustainable settlement characteristics. Traditional architecture samples which have been built by the people after trial and error for centuries and with the solutions appropriate to the climatic and environmental conditions are highly appropriate to the ecological design criteria as structures and settlements peculiar to the district. However the mistakes in the restoration of the buildings used for touristic aims after 1970s, adding of new necessary functions to the buildings, not taking care of the original structure and materials show that historical urban fabric of the city is faced with the danger of losing its ecological feature.In this study, Antalya-Kaleiçi historical urban settlement which was built in the context of the ecological design criteria and which has conventional houses that achieved to reach our day has been discussed. When houses with historical fabric which are experiencing a function shift to ensure sustainability in today's conditions are analyzed in terms of ecological design criteria, we will mention the sustainability of the criteria obtained in terms of availability and the problems faced with the restoration.

R. Eser GÜLTEK?N; Hacer MUTLU DANACI

2011-01-01

92

Air pollution and case fatality of SARS in the People's Republic of China: an ecologic study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has claimed 349 lives with 5,327 probable cases reported in mainland China since November 2002. SARS case fatality has varied across geographical areas, which might be partially explained by air pollution level. Methods Publicly accessible data on SARS morbidity and mortality were utilized in the data analysis. Air pollution was evaluated by air pollution index (API) derived from the concentrations of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and ground-level ozone. Ecologic analysis was conducted to explore the association and correlation between air pollution and SARS case fatality via model fitting. Partially ecologic studies were performed to assess the effects of long-term and short-term exposures on the risk of dying from SARS. Results Ecologic analysis conducted among 5 regions with 100 or more SARS cases showed that case fatality rate increased with the increment of API (case fatality = - 0.063 + 0.001 * API). Partially ecologic study based on short-term exposure demonstrated that SARS patients from regions with moderate APIs had an 84% increased risk of dying from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs (RR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.41–2.40). Similarly, SARS patients from regions with high APIs were twice as likely to die from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs. (RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.31–3.65). Partially ecologic analysis based on long-term exposure to ambient air pollution showed the similar association. Conclusion Our studies demonstrated a positive association between air pollution and SARS case fatality in Chinese population by utilizing publicly accessible data on SARS statistics and air pollution indices. Although ecologic fallacy and uncontrolled confounding effect might have biased the results, the possibility of a detrimental effect of air pollution on the prognosis of SARS patients deserves further investigation.

Cui Yan; Zhang Zuo-Feng; Froines John; Zhao Jinkou; Wang Hua; Yu Shun-Zhang; Detels Roger

2003-01-01

93

Arabidopsis heat shock factor HsfA1a directly senses heat stress, pH changes, and hydrogen peroxide via the engagement of redox state.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Arabidopsis heat shock factor HsfA1a is present in a latent, monomeric state under normal conditions; its activation involves heat stress-induced trimerization, binding to heat shock element in target promoters, and the acquisition of transcriptional competence. HsfA1a is an important regulator for heat stress-induced gene expression and thermotolerance. However, it is not clear whether HsfA1a is directly activated by stress and the mechanisms of the stress signaling are poorly understood. We analyzed HsfA1a activation by trimerization and DNA-binding assays in vitro and in vivo in response to heat stress, low/high pH, and hydrogen peroxide treatments. Our results show that purified recombinant HsfA1a was activated by these stress treatments in vitro. The same treatments also induced the binding to HSP18.2 and HSP70 promoters as examined by chromatin immunoprecipitation, and the HsfA1a DNA binding paralleled the mRNA expression of its target genes induced by different stresses. Stress-induced DNA-binding could be reversed, both in vitro and in vivo, by subsequent incubation with reducing agents (DTT, NADPH). These data suggest that HsfA1a can directly sense stress and become activated, and this process is dependent on the redox state. An N-terminal deletion of the amino acid residues from 48 to 74 negatively affected pH- and hydrogen peroxide-, but not heat-stress sensing.

Liu Y; Zhang C; Chen J; Guo L; Li X; Li W; Yu Z; Deng J; Zhang P; Zhang K; Zhang L

2013-03-01

94

Ecological studies on the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) on the Savannah River Plant. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study: Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is the largest vertebrate of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), reaching a maximum length of 3.7 meters (12 feet) and weighing up to 175 kg (385 pounds). Currently, populations in coastal South Carolina are considered Threatened, whereas populations in inland areas (such as the SRP) are still Endangered. Because of their legal status and economic and ecological importance, it is important to determine the environmental impacts of SRP operations on the local alligator population. The major objectives under the Endangered Species Program of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) were as follows: (1) document and compare the present status and distribution of alligators on the SRP to previous surveys, in order to determine long-term changes in population abundance; (2) establish baseline population and ecological parameters of the Steel Creek population so that the ecological effects of L-Reactor operations can be determined, and (3) conduct ecological research on the immediate impacts of thermal effluents on American alligators. Gladden et al., (1985) summarized data on previous population surveys, temporal changes in the Par Pond population, preliminary results of the Steel Creek surveys and Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) research on the effects of thermal effluents. This report summarizes the current status of the SRP population, presents data on the abundance, movement patterns and activity cycles of the Steel Creek population, and presents additional data on the effect of cooling water releases on alligator ecology and behavior.

Seigel, R.A.; Brandt, L.A.; Knight, J.L.; Novak, S.S.

1986-06-01

95

The social ecology of treatment: case study of a service system for maltreated children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Difficulties in improving services for maltreated children can be attributed in part to misunderstanding of how the forces determining service availability and procedures operate. A case study of an attempt to modify one service delivery system is presented and analyzed in terms of social ecological theory. Recommendations are made for improving services to families, both directly and by means of system interventions.

Crittenden PM

1992-01-01

96

Ecological studies of Bulinus rohlfsi, the intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium in the Volta Lake  

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In the present ecological study of cercarial transmission of Schistosoma haematobium in the Volta Lake, Ghana, habitat observations and sampling of Bulinus truncatus rohlfsi were conducted within a 60-km stretch of shoreline. Observations revealed that human water contact sites in each village under...

Klumpp, R. K.; Chu, K. Y.

97

Mesocosm soil ecological risk assessment tool for GMO 2nd tier studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) of GMO is basically identical to ERA of chemical substances, when it comes to assessing specific effects of the GMO plant material on the soil ecosystem. The tiered approach always includes the option of studying more complex but still realistic ecosystem level effec...

D'Annibale, Alessandra; Maraldo, Kristine; Larsen, Thomas; Strandberg, Beate; Cortet, Jérôme; Vincze, Éva; Audisio, Paolo Aldo

98

Organisms for Teaching: "Artemia salina": An Easily Cultured Invertebrate Ideally Suited for Ecological Studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper includes a general account of the biology of the brine shrimp, instructions on how the organism may be cultured, the results of some experiments on the ecology and population biology of the species, and some suggestions for further studies. (Author/CW)

Ward-Booth, Kirsty; Reiss, Michael

1988-01-01

99

Ecological studies of small vertebrates in Pu-contaminated study areas of NTS and TTR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ecological studies of vertebrates in plutonium-contaminated areas of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were initiated in March 1972, and have continued to date. In September 1973, standard census methods were also employed to derive a qualitative and quantitative inventory of vertebrate biota of four Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) study areas of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). A checklist of vertebrates of NAEG study areas of NTS and TTR is presented. Data are presented on vertebrate composition, relative abundance, and seasonal status in the study areas. Concentrations of 239Pu and 241Am were determined in pelt or skin, GI tract, and carcass of 13 lizards and 16 mammals resident on Clean Slate 2, TTR, and Area 11, NTS. A total of 71 animals were collected for radioanalysis. However, the data were not available at the time this report was written. Pu tissue burdens were highest in lizards from Area 11 GZ. Maximum values obtained in nCi/g ash were 30.9, 42.2, and 0.43 for the pelt, GI tract, and carcass, respectively. Maximum 239Pu values in tissues of small rodents from Area 11 (not from GZ) were 11.4, 6.49, and 0.20 nCi/g ash for pelt, GI tract, and carcass, respectively. Pu/Am ratios were relatively consistent in tissue samples of lizards and small mammals from Area 11 (approximately 6:1, Pu/Am). Pu/Am ratios were not consistent in vertebrates of Clean Slate 2, TTR, and appeared to be lower in carcass (28:1, Pu/Am in mammals) than GI tract (9:1, Pu/Am in mammals). Although this trend was more conspicuous in mammals, it was also evident in reptiles. (auth)

1975-01-01

100

[Ecological vulnerability of coal mining area: a case study of Shengli Coalfield in Xilinguole of Inner Mongolia, China].  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, an ecological vulnerability evaluation index system for the Shengli Coalfield in Xilinguole of Inner Mongolia was established, which included 16 factors in ecological sensitivity, natural and social pressure, and ecological recovery capacity, respectively. Based on the expert scoring method and analytic hierarchy process (AHP), an ecological vulnerability model was built for the calculation of the regional ecological vulnerability by means of RS and GIS spatial analysis. An analysis of the relationships between land use and ecological vulnerability was also made, and the results were tested by spatial auto-correlation analysis. Overall, the ecological vulnerability of the study area was at medium-high level. The exploitation of four opencast areas in the Coalfield caused a significant increase of ecological vulnerability. Moreover, due to the effects of mine drained water and human activities, the 300 -2000 m around the opencast areas was turning into higher ecologically fragile area. With further exploitation, the whole Coalfield was evolved into moderate and heavy ecological vulnerability area, and the coal resources mining was a key factor in this process. The cluster analysis showed that the spatial distribution of the ecological vulnerability in the study area had reasonable clustering characteristics. To decrease the population density, control the grazing capacity of grassland, and regulate the ratios of construction land and cultivated land could be the optimal ways for resolving the natural and social pressure, and to increase the investment and improve the vegetation recovery coefficient could be the fundamental measures for decreasing the ecological vulnerability of the study area. PMID:24066564

Quan, Zhan-Jun; Li, Yuan; Li, Jun-Sheng; Han, Yu; Xiao, Neng-Wen; Fu, Meng-Di

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

The Analysis of Social Ecology and Physical Development Process of Cities (Towns) Case Study: Alvand City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims the analysis of immigration influence on Alvand city resident's economical and living situation and its subsequent effects on Alvand city's social structure and its ecology and even its adjacency to industrial Alborz city. This analysis focuses on Alvand city's physical development using the software techniques such as GIS and using population data resulted from immigration which effects its physical development. We have increasingly witnessed the job-looking based immigrations since 1966 to 2006 which appeared differently in social, physical and spatial structure. This alternation and newly different situation has been seen apparently. The president's economic situation and immigration issue which considered as the most essential factor resulting in the ecology movements concerning Alvand city's circumstances. Such a factor could be seen in cultural varieties in Alvand city. This study also analyzes the ecological factors such as the immigration, economical situation, ecological movements and its influence on physical development using the descriptive and correlational methods to prove whether there is a logical relation among varieties providing that this statement is confirmed, this relation will be able to describe and explain the correlations in the different forms. The results show that immigration has influenced the spatial distribution of social groups and physical development of Alvand city.

Heshmati Ahmad; Marsousi Nafiseh; Farhoodi; Rahmat-o-allat; Ali Akbari, Esmail

2013-01-01

102

Ecological stability of landscape - ecological infrastructure - ecological management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Field Workshop 'Ecological Stability of Landscape - Ecological Infrastructure - Ecological Management' was held within a State Environmental Programme financed by the Federal Committee for the Environment. The objectives of the workshop were to present Czech and Slovak approaches to the ecological stability of the landscape by means of examples of some case studies in the field, and to exchange ideas, theoretical knowledge and practical experience on implementing the concept of ecological infrastructure in landscape management. Out of 19 papers contained in the proceedings, 3 items were inputted to the INIS system. (Z.S.)

1992-01-01

103

The legacy of biosphere 2 for the study of biospherics and closed ecological systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The unprecedented challenges of creating Biosphere 2, the world's first laboratory for biospherics, the study of global ecology and long-term closed ecological system dynamics, led to breakthrough developments in many fields, and a deeper understanding of the opportunities and difficulties of material closure. This paper will review accomplishments and challenges, citing some of the key research findings and publications that have resulted from the experiments in Biosphere 2. Engineering accomplishments included development of a technique for variable volume to deal with pressure differences between the facility and outside environment, developing methods of atmospheric leak detection and sealing, while achieving new standards of closure, with an annual atmospheric leakrate of less than 10%, or less than 300 ppm per day. This degree of closure permitted detailed tracking of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and trice gases such as nitrous oxide and ethylene over the seasonal variability of two years. Full closure also necessitated developing new approaches and technologies for complete air, water, and wastewater recycle and reuse within the facility. The development of a soil-based highly productive agricultural system was a first in closed ecological systems, and much was learned about managing a wide variety of crops using non-chemical means of pest and disease control. Closed ecological systems have different temporal biogeochemical cycling and ranges of atmospheric components because of their smaller reservoirs of air, water and soil, and higher concentration of biomass, and Biosphere 2 provided detailed examination and modeling of these accelerated cycles over a period of closure which measured in years. Medical research inside Biosphere 2 included the effects on humans of lowered oxygen: the discovery that human productivity can be maintained with good health with lowered atmospheric oxygen levels could lead to major economies on the design of space stations and planetary/lunar settlements. The improved health resulting from the calorie-restricted but nutrient dense Biosphere 2 diet was the first such scientifically controlled experiment with humans. The success of Biosphere 2 in creating a diversity of terrestrial and marine environments, from rainforest to coral reef, allowed detailed studies with comprehensive measurements such that the dynamics of these complex biomic systems are now better understood. The coral reef ecosystem, the largest artificial reef ever built, catalyzed methods of study now being applied to planetary coral reef systems. Restoration ecology advanced through the creation and study of the dynamics of adaptation and self-organization of the biomes in Biosphere 2. The international interest that Biosphere 2 generated has given new impetus to the public recognition of the sciences of biospheres (biospherics), biomes and closed ecological life systems. The facility, although no longer a materially-closed ecological system, is being used as an educational facility by Columbia University as an introduction to the study of the biosphere and complex system ecology and for carbon dioxide impacts utilizing the complex ecosystems created in Biosphere '.The many lessons learned from Biosphere 2 are being used by its key team of creators in their design and operation of a laboratory-sized closed ecological system, the Laboratory Biosphere, in operation as of March 2002, and for the design of a Mars on Earth ™ prototype life support system for manned missions to Mars and Mars surface habitats. Biosphere 2 is an important foundation for future advances in biospherics and closed ecological system research.

Allen, J. P.; Nelson, M.; Alling, A.

104

The legacy of Biosphere 2 for the study of biospherics and closed ecological systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The unprecedented challenges of creating Biosphere 2, the world's first laboratory for biospherics, the study of global ecology and long-term closed ecological system dynamics, led to breakthrough developments in many fields, and a deeper understanding of the opportunities and difficulties of material closure. This paper will review accomplishments and challenges, citing some of the key research findings and publications that have resulted from the experiments in Biosphere 2. Engineering accomplishments included development of a technique for variable volume to deal with pressure differences between the facility and outside environment, developing methods of atmospheric leak detection and sealing, while achieving new standards of closure, with an annual atmospheric leakrate of less than 10%, or less than 300 ppm per day. This degree of closure permitted detailed tracking of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and trace gases such as nitrous oxide and ethylene over the seasonal variability of two years. Full closure also necessitated developing new approaches and technologies for complete air, water, and wastewater recycle and reuse within the facility. The development of a soil-based highly productive agricultural system was a first in closed ecological systems, and much was learned about managing a wide variety of crops using non-chemical means of pest and disease control. Closed ecological systems have different temporal biogeochemical cycling and ranges of atmospheric components because of their smaller reservoirs of air, water and soil, and higher concentration of biomass, and Biosphere 2 provided detailed examination and modeling of these accelerated cycles over a period of closure which measured in years. Medical research inside Biosphere 2 included the effects on humans of lowered oxygen: the discovery that human productivity can be maintained with good health with lowered atmospheric oxygen levels could lead to major economies on the design of space stations and planetary/lunar settlements. The improved health resulting from the calorie-restricted but nutrient dense Biosphere 2 diet was the first such scientifically controlled experiment with humans. The success of Biosphere 2 in creating a diversity of terrestrial and marine environments, from rainforest to coral reef, allowed detailed studies with comprehensive measurements such that the dynamics of these complex biomic systems are now better understood. The coral reef ecosystem, the largest artificial reef ever built, catalyzed methods of study now being applied to planetary coral reef systems. Restoration ecology advanced through the creation and study of the dynamics of adaptation and self-organization of the biomes in Biosphere 2. The international interest that Biosphere 2 generated has given new impetus to the public recognition of the sciences of biospheres (biospherics), biomes and closed ecological life systems. The facility, although no longer a materially-closed ecological system, is being used as an educational facility by Columbia University as an introduction to the study of the biosphere and complex system ecology and for carbon dioxide impacts utilizing the complex ecosystems created in Biosphere '. The many lessons learned from Biosphere 2 are being used by its key team of creators in their design and operation of a laboratory-sized closed ecological system, the Laboratory Biosphere, in operation as of March 2002, and for the design of a Mars on Earth(TM) prototype life support system for manned missions to Mars and Mars surface habitats. Biosphere 2 is an important foundation for future advances in biospherics and closed ecological system research.

Allen JP; Nelson M; Alling A

2003-01-01

105

Assessing ecological land use and water demand of river systems: a case study in Luanhe River, North China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic and social development has greatly increased ecological water demand and modified land use of river systems worldwide, causing overall degradation of many of these systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks for regionalization on the eco-environmental function of river systems are formulated and applied to the Luanhe River system. Based on its eco-environmental functions, this river can be regionalized into four types of first-class functional areas: ecological preservation areas, habitat restoration areas, ecological buffer areas and development and utilization areas. Considering the overall eco-environmental functions, we assessed the ecological land use of the Luanhe River system. The total area of basic ecological land use is 876.98 km2; the restrictive ecological land use is 1745.52 km2; ecological land use of the river system returned from farmland is 284.25 km2; and that returned from construction land is 17.35 km2. The average minimum ecological flow of mainstreams in upper and middle reaches of the Luanhe River is 4.896 m3 s?1 based on the habitat method. And the recommended minimum and suitable annual ecological water demand of channels in the lower reaches are 391 million m3 and 819.5 million m3, respectively. The evaporation and seepage consumption and vegetation consumption in riparian zones of the Luanhe River system are approximately 132.6 million m3 and 145.3 million m3 per year, respectively. Our results suggest that is crucial to regulate the instream ecological water use of the Luanhe River's mainstream starting from the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system. We recommend accelerating ecological land-use planning and strengthening the regulation of ecological water use on this river system focusing on important lower reaches under the condition of competitive water demand.

D. H. Yan; G. Wang; H. Wang; T. L. Qin

2012-01-01

106

Ecological Research ????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ecological Research has been published in English by the Ecological Society of Japan since 1986. The journal publishes original research papers, reviews, technical reports, and notes and comments covering all aspects of ecology and ecological sciences. ????????????????????????????

107

An Experimental Ecological Study of a Garden Compost Heap.  

Science.gov (United States)

A quantitative study of the fauna of a garden compost heap shows it to be similar to that of organisms found in soil and leaf litter. Materials, methods, and results are discussed and extensive tables of fauna lists, wet/dry masses, and statistical analyses are presented. (Author/DH)

Curds, Tracy

1985-01-01

108

Applications of C and N stable isotopes to ecological and environmental studies in seagrass ecosystems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen are increasingly used in marine ecosystems, for ecological and environmental studies. Here, we examine some applications of stable isotopes as ecological integrators or tracers in seagrass ecosystem studies. We focus on both the use of natural isotope abundance as food web integrators or environmental tracers and on the use of stable isotopes as experimental tools. As ecosystem integrators, stable isotopes have helped to elucidate the general structure of trophic webs in temperate, Mediterranean and tropical seagrass ecosystems. As environmental tracers, stable isotopes have proven their utility in sewage impact measuring and mapping. However, to make such environmental studies more comprehensible, future works on understanding of basic reasons for variations of N and C stable isotopes in seagrasses should be encouraged. At least, as experimental tracers, stable isotopes allow the study of many aspects of N and C cycles at the scale of a plant or at the scale of the seagrass ecosystem.

Lepoint, Gilles [Centre MARE, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie, Institut de Chimie, B6, Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)]. E-mail: g.lepoint@ulg.ac.be; Dauby, Patrick [Centre MARE, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie, Institut de Chimie, B6, Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, rue Vautier, B1000 Brussels (Belgium); Gobert, Sylvie [Centre MARE, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie, Institut de Chimie, B6, Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

2004-12-01

109

Applications of C and N stable isotopes to ecological and environmental studies in seagrass ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen are increasingly used in marine ecosystems, for ecological and environmental studies. Here, we examine some applications of stable isotopes as ecological integrators or tracers in seagrass ecosystem studies. We focus on both the use of natural isotope abundance as food web integrators or environmental tracers and on the use of stable isotopes as experimental tools. As ecosystem integrators, stable isotopes have helped to elucidate the general structure of trophic webs in temperate, Mediterranean and tropical seagrass ecosystems. As environmental tracers, stable isotopes have proven their utility in sewage impact measuring and mapping. However, to make such environmental studies more comprehensible, future works on understanding of basic reasons for variations of N and C stable isotopes in seagrasses should be encouraged. At least, as experimental tracers, stable isotopes allow the study of many aspects of N and C cycles at the scale of a plant or at the scale of the seagrass ecosystem

2004-01-01

110

Exploring Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems Through Comparative Studies and Theory Development: Introduction to the Special Issue  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This special issue of Ecology and Society on exploring resilience in social-ecological systems draws together insights from comparisons of 15 case studies conducted during two Resilience Alliance workshops in 2003 and 2004. As such, it represents our current understanding of resilience theory and the issues encountered in our attempts to apply it.

Brian H. Walker; John M. Anderies; Ann P. Kinzig; Paul Ryan

2006-01-01

111

Exploring Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems Through Comparative Studies and Theory Development: Introduction to the Special Issue  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This special issue of Ecology and Society on exploring resilience in social-ecological systems draws together insights from comparisons of 15 case studies conducted during two Resilience Alliance workshops in 2003 and 2004. As such, it represents our current understanding of resilience theory and th...

Brian H. Walker; John M. Anderies; Ann P. Kinzig; Paul Ryan

112

Study of Evaluation Characterisitics of Ecological Infrastructure and Countermeasure in Pivot Cities of Three Gorges Reservoir Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ecological infrastructure is involved with ecological security and health of cities.At present there are so many studies about it. However, quantitative study is muchindetermination and imperfection. In this paper in order to ravel out this problem, the evaluation indexes system are established on the basis of air system, greenbelt system and water system from the conception and connotation of ecological infrastructure. They do not only consult inside and outside of Chinese ecological cities and garden cities but also consult with internal and international related index standard. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the method of comprehensive index evaluation are applied to establish the evaluation model. Then it studies the quality and evolvement characteristics of ecolocal infrastructure in the case of main town of Chongqing, Yichang, Fulin, Wanzhou——the four pivot cities of Three Gorges Reservoir Region from 2002 to 2005. Finally, the paper draws a conclusion by qulitative and quantitative analysis showing that the quality of ecological infrastructure of four cities is in rise. At present, the quality of ecological infrastructure of Yichang and Fulin remains with better grade; Wanzhou and the main town of Chongqin belongs to common grade. The integrated quality conditins of ecological infrstructure of these four cities follow the sequence (from high to low ) : Yichang> Fulin> Wanzhou> main town of Chongqing. The quality of ecological infrastructure of four cities is known through evaluation analysis, which has provided a scientific basis for the cities Three Gorges Reseveoir Region in programming.

QIN Qu; FENG Wei-bo; SU Wei-ci; Peng Li

2009-01-01

113

The genus Crataegus L.: an ecological and molecular study.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed at the indentification of the species and genotypes of the genus Crataegus in Syria and determination of the genetic relationships among them based on the analysis of genomic and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) using ISSRs and CAPS techniques. Morphological characterization carried out on 49 Crataegus samples collected from different geographical regions of Syria revealed four Crataegus species: C. monogyna, C. sinaica, C. aronia and C. azarolus. In the dendrogram constructed for those samples based on ISSRs (20 primers), all samples that belong to C. monogyna were clustered in one cluster. Samples of the other three species were overlaped in another cluster. Two samples of these were the most distant from all other samples in the dendrogram and were suggested to represent hybrid species or subspecies. When CAPS technique was applied on four Crataegus samples that represent the four suggested species using 22 cpDNA regions and 90 endonucleases, no polymorphism was detected neither in amplification products sizes nor in restriction profiles. The inability of detection of variation in cpDNA among species suggested can be attributed to the low level of evolution of the cpDNA in the genus, and to the possibility that some of these species are either subspecies or hybrids since the cpDNA is inherited through one parent only. PMID:21443158

MirAli, N; Al-Odat, M; Haider, N; Nabulsi, I

2011-01-01

114

Ecological studies in the middle reach of Chesapeake Bay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Passage of estuarine water and phytoplankton through the cooling system of the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plant in the summer months of 1977-1981 resulted in frequent reductions of phytoplankton densities particularly during periods when flagellated taxa dominated total cell numbers. Entrainment-induced reductions in chlorophyll were observed on only four occasions, however. Phytoplankton productivity as oxygen evolution or 14C-uptake was even more susceptible to the effects of passing through the cooling system. Inhibition of productivitiy was observed during periods dominated by flagellated cells and generally occurred with ambient water temperature ? 250C. Results from track autoradiography employed in 1981 indicated that carbon fixation in the commonly observed flagellate Cryptomonas acuta was significantly depressed during July, August and September. In contrast, the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum and the diatoms Cyclotella caspia and Thalassionema nitzschioides were not affected by entrainment. Although entrainment affects Cryptomonas and flagellate-dominated assemblages in the summer there are no detectable effects of power plant operations on cell densities or productivity in flagellate-dominated waters in the vicinity of the power plant. Transitory exposure of estuarine zooplankton to the elevated temperatures of CCNPP entrainment and discharge plumes was generally non-lethal. In the species selected for study the survival rate after entrainment was 65 to 100%. The effects of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen levels upon entrained organisms were also analyzed. (orig.).

1987-01-01

115

The genus Crataegus L.: an ecological and molecular study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed at the indentification of the species and genotypes of the genus Crataegus in Syria and determination of the genetic relationships among them based on the analysis of genomic and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) using ISSRs and CAPS techniques. Morphological characterization carried out on 49 Crataegus samples collected from different geographical regions of Syria revealed four Crataegus species: C. monogyna, C. sinaica, C. aronia and C. azarolus. In the dendrogram constructed for those samples based on ISSRs (20 primers), all samples that belong to C. monogyna were clustered in one cluster. Samples of the other three species were overlaped in another cluster. Two samples of these were the most distant from all other samples in the dendrogram and were suggested to represent hybrid species or subspecies. When CAPS technique was applied on four Crataegus samples that represent the four suggested species using 22 cpDNA regions and 90 endonucleases, no polymorphism was detected neither in amplification products sizes nor in restriction profiles. The inability of detection of variation in cpDNA among species suggested can be attributed to the low level of evolution of the cpDNA in the genus, and to the possibility that some of these species are either subspecies or hybrids since the cpDNA is inherited through one parent only.

MirAli N; Al-Odat M; Haider N; Nabulsi I

2011-01-01

116

Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitors activate the heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) stress response pathway and improve glucose regulation in diabetic mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The cytoprotective stress response factor HSF1 regulates the transcription of the chaperone HSP70, which exhibits anti-inflammatory effects and improves insulin sensitivity. We tested the therapeutic potential of this pathway in rodent models of diabetes using pharmacological tools. Activation of the HSF1 pathway was achieved using potent inhibitors of the upstream regulatory protein, HSP90. Treatment with AUY922, a selective HSP90 inhibitor led to robust inhibition of JNK1 phosphorylation, cytoprotection and improved insulin signaling in cells, consistent with effects observed with HSP70 treatment. Chronic dosing with HSP90 inhibitors reversed hyperglycemia in the diabetic db/db mouse model, and improved insulin sensitivity in the diet-induced obese mouse model of insulin resistance, further supporting the concept that the HSF1 pathway is a potentially viable anti-diabetes target.

Lee JH; Gao J; Kosinski PA; Elliman SJ; Hughes TE; Gromada J; Kemp DM

2013-01-01

117

Ecological study on littoral and infralittoral isopods from Ubatuba, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The isopod species of rocky shores and shallow infralittoral zone from Enseada do Flamengo, Ubatuba, were studied. The sampling was done during Autumn (1965) and during Autumn and Springtime (1975) at six stations classified according to wave exposure. The intensity of the waves and the type of substratum showed to be important factors influencing distribution, abundance and diversity of the fauna. The highest density of isopods occurred in Dictyota ciliolata. A relation between species diversity and the degree of wave action was disclosed. Species diversity rised from exposed to moderately exposed sites and decreased with the increase in shelter.No presente trabalho, foram estudados os padrões de distribuição vertical e horizontal da fauna de Isopoda de costões rochosos, bem como sua abundância relativa nos vários substratos investigados, visando ao conhecimento de alguns aspectos de sua ecologia. As coletas foram realizadas nas zonas litoral e infralitoral da Enseada do Flamengo, Ubatuba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. As estações de coleta variaram quanto ao grau de exposição às ondas e profundidade. As amostras do litoral foram coletadas em abril e setembro de 1975 e janeiro de 1976, enquanto que as do infralitoral referem-se a abril e maio de 1965. Verificou-se que a exposição às ondas é um fator muito importante na distribuição das espécies, havendo animais que só foram encontrados nas condições ecológicas oferecidas por locais expostos e semi-expostos, e outros que só o foram em locais abrigados. Entretanto, existem espécies que ocorreram nas três situações, sendo geralmente mais abundantes em uma delas em particular. O tipo de substrato mostrou ser outro fator que exerce grande influência na distribuição das espécies. Substratos diferentes, coletados em um mesmo local e submetidos às mesmas condições ambientais, apresentaram variação na composição e abundância relativa da fauna de Isopoda. Esta variação é dependente da estrutura do substrato, da proteção e da quantidade de nichos que ele oferece às espécies. A maior densidade de isópodes foi obtida em Dictyota ciliolata, na franja do infralitoral. Foi encontrada uma relação entre diversidade de espécies e grau de exposição às ondas. A diversidade de espécies aumenta dos lugares expostos para os semi-expostos e decresce muito destes para os abrigados. O presente estudo revelou, também, a existência de uma variação estacional na abundância relativa e na diversidade das espécies, sendo ambas mais elevadas em setembro.

Ana Maria Setubal Pires

1981-01-01

118

Ecological study on littoral and infralittoral isopods from Ubatuba, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho, foram estudados os padrões de distribuição vertical e horizontal da fauna de Isopoda de costoes rochosos, bem como sua abundância relativa nos vários substratos investigados, visando ao conhecimento de alguns aspectos de sua ecologia. As coletas foram realizadas nas zonas litoral e infralitoral da Enseada do Flamengo, Ubatuba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. As estações de coleta variaram quanto ao grau de exposição às ondas e profundidade. A (more) s amostras do litoral foram coletadas em abril e setembro de 1975 e janeiro de 1976, enquanto que as do infralitoral referem-se a abril e maio de 1965. Verificou-se que a exposição as ondas e um fator muito importante na distribuiçao das espécies, havendo animais que sõ foram encontrados nas condições ecológicas oferecidas por locais expostos e semi-expostos, e outros que são foram em locais abrigados. Entretanto, existem espécies que ocorreram nas três situações, sendo geralmente mais abundantes em uma delas em particular. O tipo de substrato mostrou ser outro fator que exerce grande influencia na distribuição das espécies. Substratos diferentes, coletados em um mesmo local e submetidos as mesmas condições ambientais, apresentaram variação na composição e abundância relativa da fauna de Lsopo-da. Esta variação e dependente da estrutura do substrato, da proteção e da quantidade de nichos que ele oferece as espécies. A maior densidade de isopodes foi obtida em Dictyota ciliolata, na franja do infralitoral. Foi encontrada uma relação entre diversidade de espécies e grau de exposição as ondas. A diversidade de espécies aumenta dos lugares expostos para os semi-expostos e decresce muito destes para os abrigados. O presente estudo revelou, também, a existência de uma variação estacional na abundância relativa e na diversidade das espécies, sendo ambas mais elevadas em setembro. Abstract in english The isopod species of rocky shores and shallow infralittoral zone from Enseada do Flamengo, Ubatuba, were studied. The sampling was done during Autumn (1965) and during Autumn and Springtime (1975) at six stations classified according to wave exposure. The intensity of the waves and the type of substratum showed to be important factors influencing distribution, abundance and diversity of the fauna. The highest density of isopods occurred in Dictyota ciliolata. A relation (more) between species diversity and the degree of wave action was disclosed. Species diversity rised from exposed to moderately exposed sites and decreased with the increase in shelter.

Pires, Ana Maria Setubal

1981-01-01

119

Ecological study on littoral and infralittoral isopods from Ubatuba, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho, foram estudados os padrões de distribuição vertical e horizontal da fauna de Isopoda de costões rochosos, bem como sua abundância relativa nos vários substratos investigados, visando ao conhecimento de alguns aspectos de sua ecologia. As coletas foram realizadas nas zonas litoral e infralitoral da Enseada do Flamengo, Ubatuba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. As estações de coleta variaram quanto ao grau de exposição às ondas e profundidade. (more) As amostras do litoral foram coletadas em abril e setembro de 1975 e janeiro de 1976, enquanto que as do infralitoral referem-se a abril e maio de 1965. Verificou-se que a exposição às ondas é um fator muito importante na distribuição das espécies, havendo animais que só foram encontrados nas condições ecológicas oferecidas por locais expostos e semi-expostos, e outros que só o foram em locais abrigados. Entretanto, existem espécies que ocorreram nas três situações, sendo geralmente mais abundantes em uma delas em particular. O tipo de substrato mostrou ser outro fator que exerce grande influência na distribuição das espécies. Substratos diferentes, coletados em um mesmo local e submetidos às mesmas condições ambientais, apresentaram variação na composição e abundância relativa da fauna de Isopoda. Esta variação é dependente da estrutura do substrato, da proteção e da quantidade de nichos que ele oferece às espécies. A maior densidade de isópodes foi obtida em Dictyota ciliolata, na franja do infralitoral. Foi encontrada uma relação entre diversidade de espécies e grau de exposição às ondas. A diversidade de espécies aumenta dos lugares expostos para os semi-expostos e decresce muito destes para os abrigados. O presente estudo revelou, também, a existência de uma variação estacional na abundância relativa e na diversidade das espécies, sendo ambas mais elevadas em setembro. Abstract in english The isopod species of rocky shores and shallow infralittoral zone from Enseada do Flamengo, Ubatuba, were studied. The sampling was done during Autumn (1965) and during Autumn and Springtime (1975) at six stations classified according to wave exposure. The intensity of the waves and the type of substratum showed to be important factors influencing distribution, abundance and diversity of the fauna. The highest density of isopods occurred in Dictyota ciliolata. A relation (more) between species diversity and the degree of wave action was disclosed. Species diversity rised from exposed to moderately exposed sites and decreased with the increase in shelter.

Pires, Ana Maria Setubal

1981-06-01

120

A Study of Optimizing Spatial Structure for Urban Under Ecological Approach:A Case of Jiulongpo District in Chongqing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Along with the highly speedy urbanization and the industrialization in china, the disordered land utilization has led to land overuse and ecological destruction. However, the city planning and ecosystem proect planning have grown according to rules oneself. the contradictionbetween economic growth and ecological protection is more evident than ever before. The ecological feasible space for urban development was established based on GIS methodology, combining an ecological function regionalization approach and a economic development feasibility analysis technique. Accordingly, urban spatial structure could be divided into four types, consisting of forbidden construction zone, restricted construction zone, preferential construction zone and primary construction zone. The integrated method for a case study on Jiulongpo district, Chongqing showed that the areas of these four categories of Jiulongpo accounted of 15.54%,24.14%,12.95%and 47.37% respectively. Demonstrational analysis shows that the essence of urban planning founding on ecological priority benefits to natural reconstruction and reservation; the spatial layout based on the ecology analysis safeuards the healthily and sustainable development of city ecosystem.The methodology was valuable for reducing ecological risks and environmental impacts of urban master plan, and thus was relevant for promoting the national campaign of strategic environmental assessment. The study was guide to city planning and ecological protection planning.

MIN Jie

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Enhanced sensitivity of colon tumour cells to natural killer cell cytotoxicity after mild thermal stress is regulated through HSF1-mediated expression of MICA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Previously we showed that mild thermal stress increased natural killer (NK) cell-mediated tumour cytotoxicity and that this could be blocked by anti-NKG2D or anti-MICA (major histolocompatability complex (MHC) class I related chain A) antibodies. Here, we investigated the role of the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) in thermal regulation of MICA expression in tumour cells in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hyperthermia experiments were conducted in vitro and in mice using a target temperature of 39.5?°C. Apoptotic cells and NK cells in situ were visualised by use of the TUNEL assay or expression of NKp46 respectively. Using Colo205 cells, HSF1 message was blocked utilising siRNA while luciferase reporter assays were used to measure the activity of the MICA promoter in vitro. Cell surface MICA was measured by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Following whole body hyperthermia (WBH), tumour tissues showed an increase in NK cells and apoptosis. Mild thermal stress resulted in a transient increase in surface MICA and enhanced NK cytotoxicity of the Colo205 colon cancer cell line. Silencing (mRNA) HSF1 expression in Colo205 cells prevented the thermal enhancement of MICA message and surface protein levels, with partial loss of thermally enhanced NK cytotoxicity. Mutations of the HSF1 binding site on the MICA promoter implicated HSF1 in the thermal enhancement of MICA. Some, but not all, patient-derived colon tumour derived xenografts also exhibited an enhanced MICA message expression after WBH. CONCLUSIONS: Up-regulation of MICA expression in Colo205 cells and enhanced sensitivity to NK cell killing following mild thermal stress is dependent upon HSF1.

Dayanc BE; Bansal S; Gure AO; Gollnick SO; Repasky EA

2013-08-01

122

Ecological studies on the intermediate host snails and the relevance to schistosomiasis control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A detailed knoledge of distribution patterns schistosome intermediate hsts and their populations dynamics and factors affecting these patterns will provide useful information about the possibilities and desirability of conducting snail control measures in various transmission situations. On the basis of various case studies the association between the occurence of human water contacts and the presence of schistosome intermediate hosts or infections in the intermediate hosts is illustrated. Other parameters affecting snail distribution patterns and density fluctuations are discussed. It is concluded that ecological studies on the intermediate host are extremely relevant, either to optimally apply existing control measures or to develop alternative measures of snail control, such as ecological or biological control.

Henry Madsen

1992-01-01

123

An Improvement in Total RNA Isolation Protocol for Ecologic Studies: Case Study Tobacco Cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many experimental techniques related to molecular biology such as the Northern blot analysis, RNA protection assays, in situ hybridization and RT-PCR need maximum-yielded, highly purified RNA samples. Researchers who study with RNA extraction are well known for being extremely sensitive about their chemical solutions, equipment, glassware and even laboratories. Taking certain precautions, which are given in protocol, is more convenient than obtaining a low 260/280 spectrophotometric ratio or a blank line in RT-PCR gel for ecologic studies. In the improved protocol, which is presented here, each step was tested many times and high-quality total RNA was determined. Using this protocol, 260/280 spectrophotometric ratio was found between 1.88-1.97 and total RNA was found between 174.6-184.3 µg RNA g cell FW-1 in tobacco cells. However, in order to obtain RNA with high purity levels, an additional step may be necessary to eliminate contaminating DNA depending on the sample characteristics.

Senol Boztok; Burcin Cokuysal

2006-01-01

124

Field studies to determine the ecological effects of cleanup methods on oiled shorelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This study identifies research needed to assess the ecological effects and efficiency of various spill cleanup methods for oiled salt marshes. This is part of a larger program with the goal of developing ecologically based cleanup methods for a variety of shoreline habitats using controlled shoreline oiling plus various cleanup methods, preceded and followed by ecological monitoring. The information provided by these experiments will strengthen the scientific base available to support decision makers during spills and provide a sound approach to spill response planners. The first phase of the program has involved the design of a proposed experiment and selection of a site. A literature review has been completed as well as an evaluation of state and federal permitting procedures for experimental shoreline oiling. Development of the field study, which has yet to be implemented, included the following components: Identified a Spartina marsh as the priority habitat for the first phase of the program; Selected a proposed experimental site in Louisiana; Proposed the treatment methods to be evaluated, such as flushing and vegetation cropping. Previous controlled oil spill experiments have provided valuable data on the effects and efficiency of different cleanup techniques in a variety of habitats. More can be learned by such experimental oilings, where pre-spill data, dosage, and pre- and post-spill monitoring are controlled, than it is possible to learn from studying spills of opportunity

1993-04-01

125

ECOLOGICAL EDUCATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While in most emerging and developing countries, the population has a lower ecological footprint in the developed countries have a larger footprint.There is also an alarming contrast between a person perception of her liability for damages to its environment and its actual size. These misconceptions may have their source in the absence of awareness of risks from climate change, culture or religion.The purpose of this study is to analyze the situation at the international and Romanian level and to draw attention on the necessity of un ecological education.

GABRIELA GYONGY MIHUT

2011-01-01

126

An ecology of text: using text retrieval to study alife on the net.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

I introduce a new alife model, an ecology based on a corpus of text, and apply it to the analysis of posts to USENET News. In this corporal ecology posts are organisms, the newsgroups of NetNews define an environment, and human posters situated in their wider context make up a scarce resource. I apply latent semantic indexing (LSI), a text retrieval method based on principal component analysis, to distill from the corpus those replicating units of text. LSI arrives at suitable replicators because it discovers word co-occurrences that segregate and recombine with appreciable frequency. I argue that natural selection is necessarily in operation because sufficient conditions for its occurrence are met: replication, mutagenicity, and trait/fitness covariance. I describe a set of experiments performed on a static corpus of over 10,000 posts. In these experiments I study average population fitness, a fundamental element of population ecology. My study of fitness arrives at the unhappy discovery that a flame-war, centered around an overly prolific poster, is the king of the jungle.

Best ML

1997-01-01

127

Ecological Optimization and Parametric Study of an Irreversible Regenerative Modified Brayton Cycle with Isothermal Heat Addition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: An ecological optimization along with a detailed parametric study of an irreversible regenerative Brayton heat engine with isothermal heat addition have been carried out with external as well as internal irreversibilities. The ecological function is defined as the power output minus the power loss (irreversibility) which is ambient temperature times the entropy generation rate. The external irreversibility is due to finite temperature difference between the heat engine and the external reservoirs while the internal irreversibilities are due to nonisentropic compression and expansion processes in the compressor and the turbine respectively and the regenerative heat loss. The ecological function is found to be an increasing function of the isothermal-, sink- and regenerative-side effectiveness, isothermal-side inlet temperature, component efficiencies and sink-side temperature while it is found to be a decreasing function of the isobaric-side temperature and effectiveness and the working fluid heat capacitance rate. The effects of the isobaric-side effectiveness are found to be more than those of the other parameters and the effects of turbine efficiency are found to be more than those of the compressor efficiency on all the performance parameters of the cycle.

Sudhir Kumar Tyagi; Subhash Chandra Kaushik; Vivek Tiwari

2003-01-01

128

Wildfire History and Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

Part of a great site on the land use history of the Colorado Plateau from Northern Arizona University, this site offers a brief overview of wildfire history and ecology on the Plateau with links to information about ponderosa pine fire ecology, reintroduction of fire to forest ecosystems, and fire ecology research studies.

2008-09-17

129

Ancient DNA from marine mammals : studying long-lived species over ecological and evolutionary timescales  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Marine mammals have long generation times and broad, difficult to sample distributions, which makes inferring evolutionary and demographic changes using field studies of extant populations challenging. However, molecular analyses from sub-fossil or historical materials of marine mammals such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an oppor- tunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have focused on detecting changes in genetic diversity following periods of exploitation and environmental change. To date, these studies have shown that even small sample sizes can provide useful information on historical genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also been used in investigations of changes in distribution and range of marine mammal species; we review these studies and discuss the limitations of such ‘presence only’ studies. Combining aDNA data with stable isotopes can provide further insights into changes in ecology and we review past studies and suggest future potential applications. We also discuss studies recon- structing inter- and intra-specific phylogenies from aDNA sequences and discuss how aDNA sequences could be used to estimate mutation rates. Finally, we highlight some of the problems of aDNA studies on marine mammals, such as obtaining sufficient sample sizes and calibrating for the marine reservoir effect when radiocarbon-dating such wide-ranging species.

Foote, Andrew David; Hofreiter, Michael

2012-01-01

130

Ancient DNA from marine mammals: studying long-lived species over ecological and evolutionary timescales.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Marine mammals have long generation times and broad, difficult to sample distributions, which makes inferring evolutionary and demographic changes using field studies of extant populations challenging. However, molecular analyses from sub-fossil or historical materials of marine mammals such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an opportunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have focused on detecting changes in genetic diversity following periods of exploitation and environmental change. To date, these studies have shown that even small sample sizes can provide useful information on historical genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also been used in investigations of changes in distribution and range of marine mammal species; we review these studies and discuss the limitations of such 'presence only' studies. Combining aDNA data with stable isotopes can provide further insights into changes in ecology and we review past studies and suggest future potential applications. We also discuss studies reconstructing inter- and intra-specific phylogenies from aDNA sequences and discuss how aDNA sequences could be used to estimate mutation rates. Finally, we highlight some of the problems of aDNA studies on marine mammals, such as obtaining sufficient sample sizes and calibrating for the marine reservoir effect when radiocarbon-dating such wide-ranging species.

Foote AD; Hofreiter M; Morin PA

2012-01-01

131

Spatial epidemiology and spatial ecology study of worldwide drug-resistant tuberculosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a major public health problem caused by various factors. It is essential to systematically investigate the epidemiological and, in particular, the ecological factors of DR-TB for its prevention and control. Studies of the ecological factors can provide information on etiology, and assist in the effective prevention and control of disease. So it is of great significance for public health to explore the ecological factors of DR-TB, which can provide guidance for formulating regional prevention and control strategies. Methods Anti-TB drug resistance data were obtained from the World Health Organization/International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (WHO/UNION) Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance, and data on ecological factors were collected to explore the ecological factors for DR-TB. Partial least square path modeling (PLS-PM), in combination with ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, as well as geographically weighted regression (GWR), were used to build a global and local spatial regression model between the latent synthetic DR-TB factor ("DR-TB") and latent synthetic risk factors. Results OLS regression and PLS-PM indicated a significant globally linear spatial association between "DR-TB" and its latent synthetic risk factors. However, the GWR model showed marked spatial variability across the study regions. The "TB Epidemic", "Health Service" and "DOTS (directly-observed treatment strategy) Effect" factors were all positively related to "DR-TB" in most regions of the world, while "Health Expenditure" and "Temperature" factors were negatively related in most areas of the world, and the "Humidity" factor had a negative influence on "DR-TB" in all regions of the world. Conclusions In summary, the influences of the latent synthetic risk factors on DR-TB presented spatial variability. We should formulate regional DR-TB monitoring planning and prevention and control strategies, based on the spatial characteristics of the latent synthetic risk factors and spatial variability of the local relationship between DR-TB and latent synthetic risk factors.

Liu Yunxia; Jiang Shiwen; Liu Yanxun; Wang Rui; Li Xiao; Yuan Zhongshang; Wang Lixia; Xue Fuzhong

2011-01-01

132

Ecological Applications ????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ecological Applications invites contributions from scientists, policy makers, and managers concerned with the full spectrum of ecological applications. Included within this spectrum are global climate change and biogeochemistry, conservation biology, ecotoxicology and pollution ecology, fishe...

133

Three tomato genes code for heat stress transcription factors with a region of remarkable homology to the DNA-binding domain of the yeast HSF.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Heat stress (hs) treatment of cell cultures of Lycopersicon peruvianum (Lp, tomato) results in activation of preformed transcription factor(s) (HSF) binding to the heat stress consensus element (HSE). Using appropriate synthetic HSE oligonucleotides, three types of clones with potential HSE binding ...

Scharf, K D; Rose, S; Zott, W; Schöffl, F; Nover, L; Schöff, F

134

Relationships between black tea consumption and key health indicators in the world: an ecological study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate potential statistical relationships between black tea consumption and key health indicators in the world. The research question is: Does tea consumption is correlated with one or more epidemiological indicators? DESIGN: Ecological study using a systematic data-mining approach in which the unit of the analysis is a population of one country. SETTING: Six variables, black tea consumption data and prevalence data of respiratory diseases, infectious diseases, cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, have been studied at a global level. PARTICIPANTS: Data from 50 participating countries in the World Health Survey were investigated. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES MEASURES: Level of statistical relationships between variables. RESULTS: Principal component analysis established a very high contribution of the black tea consumption parameter on the third axis (81%). The correlation circle confirmed that the 'black tea' vector was negatively correlated with the diabetes vector and was not correlated with any of the other four health indicators. A linear correlation model then confirmed a significant statistical correlation between high black tea consumption and low diabetes prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: This innovative study establishes a linear statistical correlation between high black tea consumption and low diabetes prevalence in the world. These results are consistent with biological and physiological studies conducted on the effect of black tea on diabetes and confirm the results of a previous ecological study in Europe. Further epidemiological research and randomised studies are necessary to investigate the causality.

Beresniak A; Duru G; Berger G; Bremond-Gignac D

2012-01-01

135

Ecology, Microbial  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microbial ecology is a relatively young discipline within the field of microbiology. Its modern history spans just the past 60 years, and the field is defined by its emphasis on understanding the interactions of microbes with their environment, rather than their behavior under artificial laboratory conditions. Because microbes are ubiquitous, microbial ecologists study a broad diversity of habitats that range from aquatic to terrestrial to plant- or animal-associated. This has made it a challenge to identify unifying principles within the field. One approach is to recognize that although the activity of microbes in nature have effects at the macroscale, they interact with their physical, chemical and biological milieu at a scale of micrometers. At this scale, several different microbial ecosystems can be defined, based upon association with particles, the presence of environmental gradients and the continuous availability of water. Principles applicable to microbial ecology reflect not only their population ecology and physiological ecology, but also their broad versatility and quantitative importance in the biosphere as biogeochemical catalysts and capacity for rapid physiological and evolutionary responses.

Konopka, Allan

2009-05-15

136

Ecological bias in studies of the short-term effects of air pollution on health  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been a great deal of research into the short-term effects of air pollution on health with a large number of studies modelling the association between aggregate disease counts and environmental exposures measured at point locations, for example via air pollution monitors. In such cases, the standard approach is to average the observed measurements from the individual monitors and use this in a log-linear health model. Hence such studies are ecological in nature being based on spatially aggregated health and exposure data. Here we investigate the potential for bias in the estimates of the effects on health when estimating the short-term effects of air pollution on health. Such ecological bias may occur if a simple summary measure, such as a daily mean, is not a suitable summary of a spatially variable pollution surface. We assess the performance of commonly used models when confronted with such issues using simulation studies and compare their performance with a model specifically designed to acknowledge the effects of exposure aggregation. In addition to simulation studies, we apply the models to a case study of the short-term effects of particulate matter on respiratory mortality using data from Greater London for the period 2002-2005. We found a significant increased risk of 3% (95% CI 1-5%) associated with the average of the previous three days exposure to particulate matter (per 10 ?g m?3 PM10).

Shaddick, Gavin; Lee, Duncan; Wakefield, Jonathan

2013-06-01

137

Introduction to Ecological Landscaping: A Holistic Description and Framework to Guide the Study and Management of Urban Landscape Parcels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urbanized ecosystems and urban human populations are expanding around the world causing many negative environmental effects. A challenge for achieving sustainable urban social-ecological systems is understanding how urbanized landscapes can be designed and managed to minimize negative outcomes. To this end, an interdisciplinary Ecological Landscaping conference was organized to examine the interacting sociocultural and ecological causes and consequences of landscaping practices and products. This special issue of Cities and the Environment contains a diverse set of articles arising from that conference. In this introductory paper, we describe the meaning of ecological landscaping and a new conceptual framework that helps organize the topic’s complex issues. The essence of ecological landscaping is a holistic systems-thinking perspective for understanding the interrelationships among physical-ecological and sociocultural variables that give rise to the patterns and processes of biodiversity, abiotic conditions, and ecosystem processes within and among individually-managed urban landscape parcels. This perspective suggests that 1) variables not considered part of traditional landscaping and 2) the effects of landscaping within an individual parcel on variables outside of it must both be considered when making design and management decisions about a parcel. To illustrate how these points help create a more holistic, ecological approach to landscaping, a traditional ecosystem model is used to create a framework for discussing how sociocultural and physical-ecological inputs to a landscape parcel affect its characteristics and outputs. As exemplified by papers in this issue, an integrated sociocultural-ecological approach to the study of urban landscaping practices and products is needed to 1) understand why and how humans design and mange urban landscape parcels, 2) describe how the combined characteristics and outputs of many parcels give rise to the emergent ecosystem properties of urbanized areas, and 3) develop effective educational programs that catalyze adoption of sustainable landscaping choices and practices. The paper concludes with a discussion of challenges for the future of ecological landscaping research and practice, and a list of preliminary guidelines for ecological landscaping. We hope that this special issue will increase understanding, visibility, and research about the value of an ecological approach to urban landscaping.

Loren B. Byrne; Parwinder Grewal

2008-01-01

138

Effects of ionizing radiations on reticulated polymers associated to nuclear wastes. The HSF-SIMS technique contribution; Effets des radiations ionisantes sur les polymeres reticules associes aux dechets nucleaires. Apport de la technique HSF-SIMS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Among the materials used for confinement of nuclear wastes of low and medium level activity the epoxyde resins are known as matrices which preserve well their properties in an ionizing environment. This work is dedicated to the investigation of the modifications occurring in molecular structure of these materials as well as of the ion exchange resins they incorporate, irradiated in different conditions. The first part deals with the analysis of a commercial reticulated epoxyde resin submitted to a 2 MGy integral dose gamma irradiation under two different dose rate (51 and 900 Gy/h), and under two different environments (air and water). The results obtained with the techniques providing structure information (time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HSF-SIMS) and FT-IR spectrometry) confirm those obtained by techniques sensible to macroscopic properties of material (DMA, DSC), taking into account that no noticeable irradiation effect can be made evident inside the material. On the other hand, an irradiation carried out in air results in a superficial oxidation, due probably to the action of the air radiolysis products. The preliminary results of an ion irradiation followed by an in-situ HSF-SIMS analysis pointed out to a basic difference between the energy amount transferred by gamma photons and fast ions; the last ones being able to induce scissions of the nearby liaisons in the material. The second part of this work is concerned with the ion exchange resins of the type PS-DVB saturated in water and non-active ions, simulating real wastes, irradiated in the same conditions as the epoxyde resins. In contrast to the results on the last one, it appears that the irradiation of these materials results primarily in scissions of the functional groups on which the ions are attached. In addition to this finding it appears that the role of water as carrying outward the attached ions appears to be fundamental 175 refs.

Debre, O. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire

1997-06-30

139

Marine mollusks from Australia and New Zealand: chemical and ecological studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Marine mollusks contain structurally diverse terpenes, polyketides, polypropionates and nitrogenous metabolites that may confer an ecological advantage on the host organism. From a chemical perspective, the most studied Australian taxa include representatives of the nudibranchs and sea hares, which are characterised by terpenes acquired from their specialised diets of sponges and algae, respectively. In contrast, siphonariid limpets that are prevalent on temperate seashores carry out de novo biosynthesis of polypropionate metabolites. Nitrogenous compounds isolated from Australian marine mollusks include precursors to the first commercially significant marine bioproduct, Tyrian Purple, and metabolites that are characteristic of ingested cyanobacteria.

Garson MJ

2006-01-01

140

Marine mollusks from Australia and New Zealand: chemical and ecological studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine mollusks contain structurally diverse terpenes, polyketides, polypropionates and nitrogenous metabolites that may confer an ecological advantage on the host organism. From a chemical perspective, the most studied Australian taxa include representatives of the nudibranchs and sea hares, which are characterised by terpenes acquired from their specialised diets of sponges and algae, respectively. In contrast, siphonariid limpets that are prevalent on temperate seashores carry out de novo biosynthesis of polypropionate metabolites. Nitrogenous compounds isolated from Australian marine mollusks include precursors to the first commercially significant marine bioproduct, Tyrian Purple, and metabolites that are characteristic of ingested cyanobacteria. PMID:17153342

Garson, M J

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Studies on the sandfly fauna of Samuel Ecological Station, Porto Velho Municipality, Rondônia State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a study of sandfly species in the Samuel Ecological Station, in Porto Velho, Rondônia State, the following species were identified: Lutzomyia brasiliensis, L. evangelistai, L. gomezi, L. anduzei, L. flaviscutellata, L. richardwardi, L. shawi, L. umbratilis, L. yuilli yuilli, L. dendrophyla, L. puctigeniculata, L. shannoni, L. amazonensis, L. ayrozai, L. carrerai carrerai, L. claustrei, L. davisi and L. lainsoni. L. richardwardi, L. umbratilis and L. c. carrerai were the predominant species captured of man forming 60.30% of the total catch. L. richarwardi was the most frequent at ground level (29.9%), while L. umbratilis predominated in the canopy (48.5%).

Alfredo C. R. de Azevedo; Sérgio L. Bessa Luz; Maurício L. Vilela; Elizabeth F. Rangel

1993-01-01

142

Scientometric diagnosis of the use of remote sensing images in Landscape Ecology studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work analyzed the implementation of images from the remote sensors ASTER, CBERS, IKONOS, LANDSAT, MODIS, NOAA, QUICKBIRD and SPOT in Brazilian and international Landscape Ecology studies, developed between 1991 and July 2009. The study analyzed works published in article form using the ISI Web of Knowledge website, and theses and dissertations from the “Thesis Database” at CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Ensino Superior). A total of 124 Brazilian and 144 international published works were examined, analyzing 11 and six parameters, respectively. It was observed that the images from sensors MODIS (53%) and LANDSAT (32%) are employed more frequently in international research studies, whereas in Brazil there is preference for products from LANDSAT (65%) and SPOT (11%). The interval with the highest scientific output occurred between 1999 and 2009 (95%) in Brazil and from 1997 to 2009 (93%) internationally, while 2008 was the most significant year for both assessments, accounting for 19 and 18% of published works, respectively. The intense use of satellite imagery in Landscape Ecology studies observed in the last decade indicates there will be an increase in this technology in landscape analysis in coming years.  

Mariana Cristina Sarragiotto; Evanilde Benedito

2012-01-01

143

Ecological impact assessment in data-poor systems: a case study on metapopulation persistence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Legislation on the protection of biodiversity (e.g., European Union Habitat and Bird Directives) increasingly requires ecological impact assessment of human activities. However, knowledge and understanding of relevant ecological processes and species responses to different types of impact are often incomplete. In this paper we demonstrate with a case study how impact assessment can be carried out for situations where data are scarce but some expert knowledge is available. The case study involves two amphibian species, the great crested newt (Triturus cristatus) and the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) in the nature reserve the Meinweg in the Netherlands, for which plans are being developed to reopen an old railway track called the Iron Rhine. We assess the effects of this railway track and its proposed alternatives (scenarios) on the metapopulation extinction time and the occupancy times of the patches for both species using a discrete-time stochastic metapopulation model. We quantify the model parameters using expert knowledge and extrapolated data. Because of our uncertainty about these parameter values, we perform a Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis. This yields an estimate of the probability distribution of the model predictions and insight into the contribution of each distinguished source of uncertainty to this probability distribution. We show that with a simple metapopulation model and an extensive uncertainty analysis it is possible to detect the least harmful scenario. The ranking of the different scenarios is consistent. Thus, uncertainty analysis can enhance the role of ecological impact assessment in decision making by making explicit to what extent incomplete knowledge affects predictions.

Etienne RS; Vos CC; Jansen MJ

2003-12-01

144

"Real time" genetic manipulation: a new tool for ecological field studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Field experiments with transgenic plants often reveal the functional significance of genetic traits important for plant performance in their natural environments. Until now, only constitutive overexpression, ectopic expression and gene silencing methods have been used to analyze gene-related phenotypes in natural habitats. These methods do not allow sufficient control over gene expression to study ecological interactions in real-time, genetic traits playing essential roles in development, or dose-dependent effects. We applied the sensitive dexamethasone (DEX)-inducible pOp6/LhGR expression system to the ecological model plant Nicotiana attenuata and established a lanolin-based DEX application method to facilitate ectopic gene expression and RNAi mediated gene silencing in the field and under challenging conditions (e.g. high temperature, wind and UV radiation). Fully established field-grown plants were used to silence phytoene desaturase and thereby cause photobleaching only in specific plant sectors, and to activate expression of the cytokinin (CK) biosynthesis gene isopentenyl transferase (ipt). We used ipt expression to analyze the role of CK's in both the glasshouse and field to understand resistance to the native herbivore Tupiocoris notatus, which attack plants at small spatial scales. By spatially restricting ipt expression and elevating CK levels in single leaves, T. notatus damage increased, demonstrating CK's role in this plant-herbivore interaction at a small scale. As the arena of most ecological interactions is highly constrained in time and space, these tools will advance the genetic analysis of dynamic traits that matter for plant performance in nature. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Schäfer M; Brütting C; Gase K; Reichelt M; Baldwin I; Meldau S

2013-07-01

145

Landscape ecology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper the authors outline an approach to landscape study that employs a hierarchical paradigm of pattern and behavior. Although emphasis is on forested landscapes, we can generalize a theory of landscape ecology. Attention is focused on the wide range of phenomena in a natural terrestrial landscape by considering the apparent complexity of landscape dynamics and illustrating how a hierarchical paradigm lends itself to simplifying such complexity. This perspective also affords insights into the management of man-dominated landscapes.

Urban, D.L.; O' Neill, R.V.; Shugart, H.H. Jr.

1987-02-01

146

Marine ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Studies on marine ecology included marine pollution; distribution patterns of Pu and Am in the marine waters, sediments, and organisms of Bikini Atoll and the influence of physical, chemical, and biological factors on their movements through marine biogeochemical systems; transfer and dispersion of organic pollutants from an oil refinery through coastal waters; transfer of particulate pollutants, including sediments dispersed during construction of offshore power plants; and raft culture of the mangrove oysters

1977-01-01

147

Ecology of medical care in a publicly funded health care system: a registry study in Sweden.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To explore the influence of sociodemographic factors on access to appointments with physicians in primary, secondary, and tertiary health care in a publicly funded health care system. DESIGN: A population-based registry study. SETTING: Different health care settings in Västernorrland county, Sweden. SUBJECTS: All residents in the county at the end of 2006. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of people per 1000 residents who had at least one appointment with a physician in an average month in different health care settings. RESULTS: A total of 87 people had appointments with a physician in primary health care, 44 in outpatient clinics at a regional hospital, 20 in an emergency department, 14 in home care, and two in a university hospital outpatient clinic. Twelve were hospitalized at a regional hospital and <1 at the university hospital. Being young or elderly, female, divorced, widowed, and having a contractor as usual source of care were all independently associated with higher odds of receiving primary care. CONCLUSIONS: The physician's office in primary care is the setting that has the potential to affect the largest number of people. The extent of the use of health care was independently influenced by all sociodemographic characteristics studied, which highlights the importance of individual factors in future resource allocation. Regarding availability the ecology model provides superior information as compared with the absolute number of physicians' appointments. The prerequisites in Sweden of high-quality registries and unique personal identification numbers encourage future research on the ecology model to optimize accessibility of health care.

Ferro A; Kristiansson PM

2011-09-01

148

Assessment of Regional Sustainability Based on Modified Ecological Footprint: A Case Study of Suzhou, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological Footprint (EF) is an effective method to measure quantitatively sustainable development. However original EF analysis of sustainability at the regional scale provides easily misinterpreted information, which could not reflect truly the pressure of the regional population on the local ecosystem due to the regional import and export. A regional ecosystem could support the local population consumption entirely depending on import, while shift the ecological pressure to other regions and the local ecosystems is thus well preserved. To assess sustainability of a region exactly, two concepts of the consumptive EF and productive EF were put forward. As we acknowledged that original EF only measures human demand for biological goods and services, and does not capture other aspects of social or economic sustainability. Therefore, to assess comprehensively regional sustainability, we attempted to combine several social indicators including unit GDP (Gross Domestic Product) EF, integrated development satisfaction, comprehensive pressure index with the indicator of EF. Also the application to a municipal was discussed. The time series of EF of study area were accounted and the sustainable development status were assessed from 1993 to 2002. Based on the result of EF analysis and the realities of study area, the feasibility of amendments proposed were assessed. Results showed that the amendments proposed were reasonable and feasible, and the resized model could better evaluate the sustainability of a region.

Yang, Haizhen; Li, Aimei; Ye, Tian

2010-11-01

149

A comparative ecological study of selected cancers in Kanawha County, West Virginia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study compares mortality rates for selected causes of death in Kanawha County, West Virginia, to rates reported in a number of geographically defined populations for 1950-1984. Specific conditions selected for study included cancers of the biliary passages and liver, the bladder and other urinary organs, and the central nervous system (CNS), as well as leukemia and aleukemia, lymphosarcoma and reticulosarcoma, Hodgkin's disease, and cancer of all other lymphopoietic tissue. The analysis made use of several techniques for the investigation of ecological data, including the modeling of rates using Poission regression. The primary findings of this study concern two subgroups of cancers of the lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue: (1) leukemia and aleukemia, and (2) lymphosarcoma and reticulosarcoma. For both subgroups of cancers, white male residents of Kanawha County show evidence of significantly elevated mortality rates over the 35-year period of this study.

Day R; Talbott EO; Marsh GM; Case BW

1992-01-01

150

The (limited) political influence of ecological economics. A case study on Dutch environmental policies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the ecological economics (EE) discourse attempts to influence environmental policy, empirical studies have concluded that its success in this endeavour has been limited thus far. In the Netherlands, however, two EE-related policy concepts, Environmental Utilisation Space and Ecological Footprint, were strongly present in environmental policy during certain periods in time, but subsequently disappeared from the environmental agenda. The central question of this article is how these ups and downs of the EE concepts can be understood: which factors determine their rise on and fall from the policy agenda over time? To answer this question, this article offers a conceptual model informed by the approaches in political science on framing, agenda-setting and knowledge utilisation. We conclude that the interplay of concept-specific characteristics, the formation of coalitions around the concept and contextual variables explain the rise and fall of the aforementioned concepts. A match between the dominant policy frame and the core elements of the concept provides the opportunity for the two concepts to be pushed on the agenda. We observe the alternation of 'constraining' frames, which allows for EE concepts to survive, and 'reconciling' frames, which block agenda entrance for EE concepts. Furthermore, the alternation of these frames seems to correlate with economic and public environmental attention cycles in the Netherlands. (author)

2010-07-15

151

The (limited) political influence of ecological economics. A case study on Dutch environmental policies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although the ecological economics (EE) discourse attempts to influence environmental policy, empirical studies have concluded that its success in this endeavour has been limited thus far. In the Netherlands, however, two EE-related policy concepts, Environmental Utilisation Space and Ecological Footprint, were strongly present in environmental policy during certain periods in time, but subsequently disappeared from the environmental agenda. The central question of this article is how these ups and downs of the EE concepts can be understood: which factors determine their rise on and fall from the policy agenda over time? To answer this question, this article offers a conceptual model informed by the approaches in political science on framing, agenda-setting and knowledge utilisation. We conclude that the interplay of concept-specific characteristics, the formation of coalitions around the concept and contextual variables explain the rise and fall of the aforementioned concepts. A match between the dominant policy frame and the core elements of the concept provides the opportunity for the two concepts to be pushed on the agenda. We observe the alternation of 'constraining' frames, which allows for EE concepts to survive, and 'reconciling' frames, which block agenda entrance for EE concepts. Furthermore, the alternation of these frames seems to correlate with economic and public environmental attention cycles in the Netherlands. (author)

Boezeman, Daan; Leroy, Pieter [Political Sciences of the Environment, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9108, 6500 HK Nijmegen (Netherlands); Maas, Rob; Kruitwagen, Sonja [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, P.O. Box 303, 3720 AH Bilthoven (Netherlands)

2010-07-15

152

Incorporating methane into ecological footprint analysis. A case study of Ireland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) accounting is important to global ecological footprint analysis. However methane (CH4), with a global warming potential (GWP) 25 times that of CO2, should not be neglected as an environmental indicator for informed environmental management. While this is a significant component, the CH4 associated with imported embodied energy should also be included in national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories. This study proposes an initial method for incorporating methane into ecological footprint analyses and hopes to inform future debate on its inclusion. In order to account for differences in methane intensities from exporting countries, methane intensities for OECD countries were calculated using emission and energy consumption estimates taken directly from National Inventory Reports (NIR), published in conjunction with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). For other countries the methane intensities were estimated using energy balances published by the International Energy Association (IEA) and IPCC default emission factors. In order to estimate embodied organic methane, material imports and exports were translated into units (such as live animals) capable of conversion into methane emissions. A significant increase in Ireland's footprint results from the inclusion of the GWP of methane is included within the footprint calculation. (author)

2009-05-15

153

Incorporating methane into ecological footprint analysis. A case study of Ireland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) accounting is important to global ecological footprint analysis. However methane (CH{sub 4}), with a global warming potential (GWP) 25 times that of CO{sub 2}, should not be neglected as an environmental indicator for informed environmental management. While this is a significant component, the CH{sub 4} associated with imported embodied energy should also be included in national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories. This study proposes an initial method for incorporating methane into ecological footprint analyses and hopes to inform future debate on its inclusion. In order to account for differences in methane intensities from exporting countries, methane intensities for OECD countries were calculated using emission and energy consumption estimates taken directly from National Inventory Reports (NIR), published in conjunction with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). For other countries the methane intensities were estimated using energy balances published by the International Energy Association (IEA) and IPCC default emission factors. In order to estimate embodied organic methane, material imports and exports were translated into units (such as live animals) capable of conversion into methane emissions. A significant increase in Ireland's footprint results from the inclusion of the GWP of methane is included within the footprint calculation. (author)

Walsh, Conor; O' Regan, Bernadette; Moles, Richard [Centre for Environmental Research, Chemical and Environmental Sciences Department, University of Limerick (Ireland)

2009-05-15

154

Species delimitation in fungal endophyte diversity studies and its implications in ecological and biogeographic inferences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The estimation of species diversity in fungal endophyte communities is based either on species counts or on the assignment of operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Consequently, the application of different species recognition criteria affects not only diversity estimates but also the ecological hypotheses that arise from those observations. The main objective of the study was to examine how the choice and number of genetic markers and species delimitation criteria influence biodiversity estimates. Here, we compare approaches to defining species boundaries in three dominant species complexes of tropical endophytes, specially Colletotrichum gloeosporioides agg., Pestalotiopsis microspora agg. and Trichoderma harzianum agg., from two Amazonian trees: Hevea brasiliensis and H. guianensis. Molecular tools were used to describe and compare the diversity of the different assemblages. Multilocus phylogenetic analyses [gpd, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and tef1] and modern techniques for phylogenetic species delimitation were overlaid with ecological data to recognize putative species or OTUs. The results demonstrate that ITS alone generally underestimates the number of species predicted by other nuclear loci. These results question the use of ITS and arbitrary divergence thresholds for species delimitation.

Gazis R; Rehner S; Chaverri P

2011-07-01

155

Species delimitation in fungal endophyte diversity studies and its implications in ecological and biogeographic inferences.  

Science.gov (United States)

The estimation of species diversity in fungal endophyte communities is based either on species counts or on the assignment of operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Consequently, the application of different species recognition criteria affects not only diversity estimates but also the ecological hypotheses that arise from those observations. The main objective of the study was to examine how the choice and number of genetic markers and species delimitation criteria influence biodiversity estimates. Here, we compare approaches to defining species boundaries in three dominant species complexes of tropical endophytes, specially Colletotrichum gloeosporioides agg., Pestalotiopsis microspora agg. and Trichoderma harzianum agg., from two Amazonian trees: Hevea brasiliensis and H. guianensis. Molecular tools were used to describe and compare the diversity of the different assemblages. Multilocus phylogenetic analyses [gpd, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and tef1] and modern techniques for phylogenetic species delimitation were overlaid with ecological data to recognize putative species or OTUs. The results demonstrate that ITS alone generally underestimates the number of species predicted by other nuclear loci. These results question the use of ITS and arbitrary divergence thresholds for species delimitation. PMID:21557783

Gazis, Romina; Rehner, Stephen; Chaverri, Priscila

2011-05-09

156

Ecological validity and the study of publics: The case for organic public engagement methods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This essay argues for a method of public engagement grounded in the criteria of ecological validity. Motivated by what Hammersly called the responsibility that comes with intellectual authority: "to seek, as far as possible, to ensure the validity of their conclusions and to participate in rational debate about those conclusions" (1993: 29), organic public engagement follows the empirical turn in citizenship theory and in rhetorical studies of actually existing publics. Rather than shaping citizens into either the compliant subjects of the cynical view or the deliberatively disciplined subjects of the idealist view, organic public engagement instead takes Asen's advice that "we should ask: how do people enact citizenship?" (2004: 191). In short, organic engagement methods engage publics in the places where they already exist and through those discourses and social practices by which they enact their status as publics. Such engagements can generate practical middle-range theories that facilitate future actions and decisions that are attentive to the local ecologies of diverse publics.

Gehrke PJ

2013-07-01

157

The integration of GPS, vegetation mapping and GIS in ecological and behavioural studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite navigation receivers are increasingly being used in ecological and behavioural studies to track the movements of animals in relation to the environments in which they live and forage. Concurrent recording of the animal's foraging behaviour (e.g. from jaw movement recording) allows foraging locations to be determined. By combining the animal GPS movement and foraging data with habitat and vegetation maps using a Geographical Information System (GIS) it is possible to relate animal movement and foraging location to landscape and habitat features and vegetation types. This powerful approach is opening up new opportunities to study the spatial aspects of animal behaviour, especially foraging behaviour, with far greater precision and objectivity than before. Advances in GPS technology now mean that sub-metre precision systems can be used to track animals, extending the range of application of this technology from landscape and habitat scale to paddock and patch scale studies. As well as allowing ecological hypotheses to be empirically tested at the patch scale, the improvements in precision are also leading to the approach being increasing extended from large scale ecological studies to smaller (paddock) scale agricultural studies. The use of sub-metre systems brings both new scientific opportunities and new technological challenges. For example, fitting all of the animals in a group with sub-metre precision GPS receivers allows their relative inter-individual distances to be precisely calculated, and their relative orientations can be derived from data from a digital compass fitted to each receiver. These data, analyzed using GIS, could give new insights into the social behaviour of animals. However, the improvements in precision with which the animals are being tracked also needs equivalent improvements in the precision with which habitat and vegetation are mapped. This needs some degree of automation, as vegetation mapping at a fine spatial scale using the traditional manual approach is far too time consuming. This paper explores these issues, discussing new applications as well as approaches to overcoming some of the associated problems.

Steven Mark Rutter

2007-01-01

158

Extraction of high-quality host DNA from feces and regurgitated seeds: a useful tool for vertebrate ecological studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available DNA extraction methods for genotyping non-invasive samples have led to great advances in molecular research for ecological studies, and have been particularly useful for analyzing threatened species. However, scarce amounts of fragmented DNA and the presence of Taq polymerase inhibitors in non-invasive samples are potential problems for subsequent PCR amplifications. In this study we describe a novel technique for extracting DNA from alimentary tract cells found on external surfaces of feces and regurgitated seeds. The presence of contaminants and inhibitors is minimized and samples are preserved intact for use in other ecological research (e.g. trophic studies). The amplification efficiency and purity of the extracted DNA from feces were significantly higher than in commonly used extraction procedures. Moreover, DNA of two bird species was identified from seeds expelled by regurgitation. Therefore, this method may be suitable for future ecological studies of birds, and other vertebrate groups.

PATRICIA MARRERO; ROSA FREGEL; VICENTE M CABRERA; MANUEL NOGALES

2009-01-01

159

Biodiversity and productivity of Rana Patap Sagar lake a thermo-ecological study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rana Pratap Sagar (RPS) in Rajasthan, is a man made fresh water reservoir and is balancing between Gandhi Sagar on upstream and Jawahar sagar on its down stream. On its eastern bank there exists Rawatbhata Site, comprising of multi -nuclear facilities. There are four PHWR units of Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) which are in operations, two are under construction and another two are under advanced stage of planning. In addition to nuclear power plants the Site also houses a Heavy Water Plant and other allied facilities such as cobalt facility and waste management facilities. RAPS draws water from RPS lake through a 300 m long conduit pipe located at lake bottom about 20 m below the surface. Duly treated low level radioactive liquid effluents from RAPS facilities are injected to the warmed condenser outlet and then allowed to discharge to RPS in a controlled manner. The warm water is likely to remain at the surface and get mixed with lake water and cooled due to dilutions, evaporation from lake surface and wind currents. The heat release to the RPS lake through condenser outlet may effect the microbiological and water quality parameters, planktonic biodiversity, fish productivity etc. and thus it is imperative to conduct the thermal ecological study to assess the extent of maturation of the water body to identify its present trophic status in terms of eutrophication. This presentation gives the details of thermal ecological studies carried out at Rana Pratap Sagar lake during 2002-2004 under DAE-BRNS project.. The study includes monitoring of several water quality parameters, biological and bacterial parameters and data on thermal stratification in respect of RPS reservoir. The data so obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. The probabilistic and possibilistic approaches have been applied to evaluate ecological risk. The study reveals that there is no adverse effect on RPS water quality owing to receive the warmed effluents from RAPS. Furthermore, it shows that RPS water is nearly homogeneous and shows weak thermocline and chemocline patterns. Based on monitoring data, the reservoir can be assigned mild eutrophic status. (author)

2007-01-01

160

The need for an ecological approach within the study and comprehension of cognitive processes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Los procesos cognitivos organizan y transforman inferencialmente la información sensorio-perceptiva del medio. La base de dichos procesos es ecológica. Se entiende como ecológica toda relación entre un organismo viviente y su medio para alcanzar los balances entre su medio interno y externo. Esas relaciones permiten explicar las funciones preservadoras de la vida. La representación mental es una función preservadora de la vida. Cada especie desarrolla (como requisit (more) o de superviviencia) su propia representación holográfica del medio ambiente, pero esta representación adquiere la máxima complejidad cognitiva en la especie humana. Si un desbalance se perpetúa, lleva a la muerte del organismo y a la extinción de la especie. En esto reside la importancia del enfoque ecológico y la profundización del mismo. La explicación de los procesos cognitivos ha avanzado a través de un esquema ecológico tipo abajo/arriba, bottom-up, más que a través de esquemas formales - proposicionales de tipo teoricista arriba / abajo o top-down. Abstract in english Cognitive processes are information, meaning, structure organization and transformation processes, most of which are inferential. Then, an important question about cognitive processes is: What is their deepest basis? Where, when, how and at what level do they originate? Here, it is proposed that the original and deepest basis of cognitive processes is essentially ecological and sustained on the permanent unity and relationship between the living organism and its environme (more) nt. We understand as ecological the undecomposable union between a living organism and its environment, as well as every kind of immediate and stepwise relationship between them. The relationships between a living organism and its environment is held everyday and continuously in order to get its life-preserving resources and to adopt their adequate, best or most successful actions and reactions over the environment, as well as to reach its necessary internal and external balances with and within it. In these terms, the elementary perception and categorization are seen as basic cognitive processes originated in that permanent and whole ecological relationship. This way, representation systems and information processes as developed by each species are seen as basic preservation functions (life-preservation functions) in the teleonomic sense given by Pittendrigh (1958) and later used by Lorenz (1986) within his ethological approach. These arguments support the idea that any species, whatever simpler or complex it may be, whenever it is endowed of minimal sensors (elementary sensory perceptive receptors) for light (sight), odor (olfaction), sound (hearing), taste and tactile stimuli, etc., can form and must have a minimal representation of its immediate surroundings; and so that those living organisms can then count on or have at their own's disposal a minimal mental representation of the immediate and customary environment in which they live and survive along all their lifetime. Otherwise these living organisms will soon and easily die, and its species will be exposed to be extinguished soon too. So, all these argumentations are required and provided in order to analyze and explain the origin of cognitive processes within an ecological bottom-up direction. The main approaches adopted to sustain this ecological view originate in Gibson's (1979) studies on direct perception, in Rosch's (1978) approaches to natural and prototypical categorization of concept-formation, and, finally, it is also found in different attempts by Schank and Abelson (1977) and other authors to describe, for example, the formation of semantic primitives, or of schemata and scripts on alternative and ever changing areas of commonplace social experience and representations. One cue is to easily differentiate between the role and definition between defined attributes and characteristic or prototypical attributes when referring to concepts and their schemes or networks of relationship

López Alonso, Alfredo Oscar; Minervino, Ricardo

2007-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

What is dental ecology?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are not dentally adapted. Interpreting these data was only possible by combining our areas of expertise (dental anatomy [FC] and primate ecology [MS]). By integrating theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of both areas of research, we adopted the term "dental ecology"-defined as the broad study of how teeth respond to the environment. Specifically, we view dental ecology as an interpretive framework using teeth as a vehicle for understanding an organism's ecology, which builds upon earlier work, but creates a new synthesis of anatomy and ecology that is only possible with detailed knowledge of living primates. This framework includes (1) identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, within the context of feeding ecology, behavior, habitat variation, and anthropogenic change, (2) assessing ways in which dental development and biogeochemical signals can reflect habitat, environmental change and/or stress, and (3) how dental microstructure and macro-morphology are adapted to, and reflect feeding ecology. Here we define dental ecology, provide a short summary of the development of this perspective, and place our new work into this context.

Cuozzo FP; Sauther ML

2012-06-01

162

Integrating a DNA barcoding project with an ecological survey: a case study on temperate intertidal polychaete communities in Qingdao, China  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we integrated a DNA barcoding project with an ecological survey on intertidal polychaete communities and investigated the utility of CO1 gene sequence as a DNA barcode for the classification of the intertidal polychaetes. Using 16S rDNA as a complementary marker and combining morphological and ecological characterization, some of dominant and common polychaete species from Chinese coasts were assessed for their taxonomic status. We obtained 22 haplotype gene sequences of 13 taxa, including 10 CO1 sequences and 12 16S rDNA sequences. Based on intra- and inter-specific distances, we built phylogenetic trees using the neighbor-joining method. Our study suggested that the mitochondrial CO1 gene was a valid DNA barcoding marker for species identification in polychaetes, but other genes, such as 16S rDNA, could be used as a complementary genetic marker. For more accurate species identification and effective testing of species hypothesis, DNA barcoding should be incorporated with morphological, ecological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic information. The application of DNA barcoding and molecular identification in the ecological survey on the intertidal polychaete communities demonstrated the feasibility of integrating DNA taxonomy and ecology.

Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Zhinan; Chen, Haiyan; Sun, Renhua; Wang, Hui; Guo, Lei; Pan, Haijian

2010-07-01

163

Ecological consequences of biological invasions: three invertebrate case studies in the north-eastern Baltic Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

Population dynamics and ecological impacts of the cirriped Balanus improvisus, the polychaete Marenzelleria neglecta and the cladoceran Cercopagis pengoi were investigated in the north-eastern Baltic Sea. After an increase during the first decade of invasion, the density of M. neglecta and C. pengoi declined afterwards. The studied abiotic environmental variables did not explain the interannual variability in the seasonal cycles of M. neglecta and C. pengoi indicating that the species are at their initial phase of invasion. The population dynamics of B. improvisus was best described by water temperature. B. improvisus promoted the growth of the green alga Enteromorpha intestinalis. M. neglecta enhanced the content of sediment chlorophyll a and reduced growth and survival of the polychaete Hediste diversicolor and growth of the amphipod Monoporeia affinis. Concurrent with the invasion of C. pengoi the abundance of small-sized cladocerans declined, especially above the thermocline. C. pengoi had become an important food for nine-spined stickleback, bleak, herring and smelt.

Kotta, Jonne; Kotta, Ilmar; Simm, Mart; Lankov, Ain; Lauringson, Velda; Põllumäe, Arno; Ojaveer, Henn

2006-05-01

164

An ecological study of cancer mortality rates in high altitude counties of the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To test the hypothesis that sustained, increased hemoglobin levels as measured by residence in high altitudes lead to an increase of malignant cancer deaths, we performed an assessment of U.S. cancer mortality rates for people residing in high altitude counties compared with those in counties with altitudes close to sea level. This included a graphical analysis of mortality rates for all cancers, female breast cancer, respiratory system cancer (RSC) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), computation of standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and Poisson regression modeling. Overall, our ecological evaluation showed statistically significantly reduced SMRs and rate ratios (RRs) for high altitude residents compared to sea level residents. For the causes of death categories examined, we found no evidence that persons residing in high altitude counties are at an elevated risk of cancer mortality compared with persons living close to sea level. Our results corroborate previous altitude studies of cancer mortality.

Youk AO; Buchanich JM; Fryzek J; Cunningham M; Marsh GM

2012-06-01

165

An ecological study of cancer mortality rates in high altitude counties of the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

To test the hypothesis that sustained, increased hemoglobin levels as measured by residence in high altitudes lead to an increase of malignant cancer deaths, we performed an assessment of U.S. cancer mortality rates for people residing in high altitude counties compared with those in counties with altitudes close to sea level. This included a graphical analysis of mortality rates for all cancers, female breast cancer, respiratory system cancer (RSC) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), computation of standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and Poisson regression modeling. Overall, our ecological evaluation showed statistically significantly reduced SMRs and rate ratios (RRs) for high altitude residents compared to sea level residents. For the causes of death categories examined, we found no evidence that persons residing in high altitude counties are at an elevated risk of cancer mortality compared with persons living close to sea level. Our results corroborate previous altitude studies of cancer mortality. PMID:22724612

Youk, Ada O; Buchanich, Jeanine M; Fryzek, Jon; Cunningham, Michael; Marsh, Gary M

2012-06-01

166

Radio-ecological studies on the air-soil-vine-wine food chain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report summarizes the results of the first three years (1983-85) of the radio-ecological studies on wine which were performed on eight sites from major German wine-growing regions involving red and white wine varieties typical of their region. The radionuclides of tritium, carbon 14, strontium 90, cesium 137, radium 226 and sodium 40 were examined for their contents and presence in the food chain of air-soil-vine-wine in order to determine the pollution situation in grapes and wine and to gain information on their behaviour in the food chain. A number of soil parameters important for nutrient uptake were determined to describe the site. (orig./MG).

1987-01-01

167

Studies on Sustainable Development of Ecological Sports Tourism Resources and Its Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Through the analysis of ecological sports tourism resources and its characteristics, we investigated the key ecological sports tourism resources from the angle of regional planning, industrialization programming, design and so on in the present paper and put forward novel countermeasure for sustainable development.

Pengfei Zhu

2009-01-01

168

GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND ECOLOGY CASE STUDY – ?ARCU MOUNTAINS (SOUTHERN CARPATHIANS)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The significance of geographic information systems (GIS) for environmental managment and resource planning has increased in recent years. Current ecological theory, in particular ecosystem theoy, is characteriyed by a new better understanding of ecosystem patterns and dynamics. This paper describes some of the basic application methods using GIS in connection with ecological factors constrained by relief in ?arcu Mountains, Southern Carpathians.

M. Török – Oance; Rodica Török – Oance

2003-01-01

169

Association between mortality from suicide in England and antidepressant prescribing: an ecological study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Antidepressant prescribing has been increasing in England. Studies in other countries suggest that while this may be associated with reduced suicide rates, it may also be associated with increased fatal poisoning from antidepressant drugs. We therefore conducted an ecological study to assess the association between prescription rates for antidepressants and suicide or fatal antidepressant-related poisoning in England. Methods The Office for National Statistics provided information on the number of suicides, antidepressant-related poisoning deaths and populations for England between 1993 and 2002. The Department of Health supplied data on prescriptions for all antidepressants dispensed in England. Associations between prescriptions and deaths were assessed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results There were 46,747 suicides, 3,987 deaths involving tricyclic antidepressants and 430 involving selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and other antidepressants. Increased antidepressant prescribing was statistically associated with a fall in suicide rates (Spearman's rs = -0.73, p = 0.02) and fatal poisoning involving tricyclic antidepressants (rs = -0.64, p = 0.05). In contrast, increased prescribing of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and other antidepressants was statistically associated with an increase in fatal poisoning involving these drugs (rs = 0.99, p Conclusion Increased prescribing of antidepressants may indicate improved diagnosis and treatment of depression in primary care. Our analysis suggests that this was accompanied by lower suicide rates. A decrease in poisoning deaths involving tricyclic antidepressants may suggest a change in preference for using serotonin reuptake inhibitors and other antidepressant drugs for high-risk patients. This may also partially explain the increase in deaths involving these drugs. Due to the ecological nature of the design, we cannot say conclusively whether reduced suicide rates are a direct consequence of increased antidepressant prescribing rates. To confirm these associations, individual level data on prescribing and suicide is needed.

Morgan Oliver WC; Griffiths Clare; Majeed Azeem

2004-01-01

170

Ecological risk perception in the societies in transition: Case study of Baltic States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The state of the environment and human health in countries that arise after the collapse of the USSR in influenced by different factors. The heritage of the previous regime can be characterized with a high environmental pollution level. However the transition from centrally planned to a free market economy is accompanied not only with changes in the political and social system, but also with changes in attitudes and in environmental values. All these processes have been analyzed on example of Baltic states analyzing the changes in ecological risk perception in societies of different economical and political structure. The ecological risk perception at first is associated with education level, especially regarding environmental education. However another important aspect is the perception of ecological risk at level of state policy. Just now this aspect can be regarded as the most important factor in ecological risk perception. Surprisingly low is the role of scientifical expertise in the ecological risk identification.

Klavins, M.; Cimdins, P.; Rodinov, V. [Univ. of Latvia, Riga (Latvia)

1994-12-31

171

Ecology of testate amoebae (Protista) in south-central Alaska peatlands: building transfer-function models for palaeoenvironmental studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Testate amoebae are valuable indicators of peatland hydrology and have been used in many palaeoclimatic studies in peatlands. Because the species' ecological optima may vary around the globe, the development of transfer function models is an essential prerequisite for regional palaeoclimatic studies...

Payne, Richard J.; Kishaba, Keiko; Blackford, Jeff J.; Mitchell, Edward A. D.

172

Ecology of testate amoebae (Protista) in south-central Alaska peatlands:building transfer-function models for palaeoenvironmental studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Testate amoebae are valuable indicators of peatland hydrology and have been used in many palaeoclimatic studies in peatlands. Because the species' ecological optima may vary around the globe, the development of transfer function models is an essential prerequisite for regional palaeoclimatic studies...

Payne, Richard J.; Kishaba, Keiko; Blackford, Jeff J.; Mitchell, Edward A. D.

173

Factors Associated with Dengue Mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean, 1995–2009: An Ecological Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, we aimed to estimate the effect that environmental, demographic, and socioeconomic factors have on dengue mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean. To that end, we conducted an observational ecological study, analyzing data collected between 1995 and 2009. Dengue mortality rates w...

Díaz-Quijano, Fredi Alexander; Waldman, Eliseu Alves

174

Ecological niche of Legionella pneumophila  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the ecological niches, relationships and controls of Legionella derived from environmental sources. Only as clinical cases and studies relate directly to the ecological understanding of the bacterium will they be discussed. This review seeks to separate the ecological parameters associated with Legionella that are often incorporated into the medical literature as well as to highlight specific ecological studies. A series of ecological studies demonstrates the niches of Legionella, the ecological parameters that allow the bacterium to survive, grow and to be disseminated. Relationships among given habitats are explored along with biological relationships within a given habitat.

Fliermans, C.B.

1983-01-01

175

Ecology Letters ?????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ecology Letters is a forum for the very rapid publication of the most novel research in ecology. Manuscripts relating to the ecology of all taxa, in any biome and geographic area will be considered, and priority will be given to those papers exploring or testing clearly stated hypotheses. The...

176

Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was built on the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the mid-1980's. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 12 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Research conducted by the SREL has focused primarily on four questions related to these wetlands: (1) Prior to construction, what fauna and flora were present at the DWPF site and at similar, yet undisturbed, alternative sites (2) By comparing the Carolina bay at the DWPF site (Sun Bay) with an undisturbed control Carolina bay (Rainbow Bay), what effect is construction having on the organisms that inhabited the DWPF site (3) By comparing control streams with streams on the periphery of the DWPF site, what effect is construction having on the peripheral streams (4) How effective have efforts been to lessen the impacts of construction, both with respect to erosion control measures and the construction of refuge ponds'' as alternative breeding sites for amphibians that formerly bred at Sun Bay Through the long-term census-taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has begun to evaluate the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. Similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive Orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10CFR1022).

Pechmann, J.H.K.; Scott, D.E.; McGregor, J.H.; Estes, R.A.; Chazal, A.C.

1993-02-01

177

The epidemiology of drug abuse: current issues. Ecological studies of narcotic addiction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Narcotic addiction is concentrated in certain places and among particular social groups. Heretofore it has not been possible to assess which environmental factors are critical for the initiation of narcotic use, its transition to narcotic addiction; and subsequently, entry into treatment or whether there are environments which select those particularly prone to social deviancy while others migrate out. There are few systematic descriptions of the social and environmental distribution of narcotic addicts. This paper describes the initial results of assessing the characteristics of the social environment (1970 Federal Census) of 3,000 individual narcotic addicts from the Lower East Side of Manhattan who were treated at the Beth Israel Medical Center. Pearson correlations between treated addiction ratios and 1970 Census characteristics were calculated for 13 health areas. Out of 103 socio-economic characteristics from the NIMH Mental Health Demographic Profile System, 29 were statistically significant at p less that 0.01 and 28 at 0.01 less than p less than 0.05. Highly significant correlations were found for households with children, female headed (r = .94, F= 90.3) and population in poverty (r = .89, F = 41.7). Correlations with density (over 1.01 persons per room) or population mobility (residing in different house five years ago) were not statistically significant. This paper has outlined some of the methodological and theoretical problems of ecological studies of narcotic addiction, and emphasized the need for concentration on the socio-dynamics of diffusion. Methodological problems include consideration of the time and place of onset; demographic standardization; ascertainment differentials; clinical characterization; and assessment within individuals of ecological correlations.

Richman A

1977-03-01

178

Migration Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

This site from the University of Lund, Sweden, introduces various research studies in the field of Migration Ecology including research information on "Orientation and navigation," "Flight," "Migration patterns," and "Energetics." The mission of the group is "to forward, by research and teaching, the understanding of adaptive values and evolutionary possibilities and limitations in animal migration, -flight, -orientation and energetics." Many of the group's publications are available for free as PDFs, and the site offers a simple search mechanism to help visitors find the publications they are seeking.

Alerstam, Thomas

2008-01-15

179

An ecological study of cancer incidence in Port Hope, Ontario from 1992 to 2007  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A plant processing radium and uranium ores has been operating in the town of Port Hope since 1932. Given the nuclear industry located in the community and ongoing public health concerns, cancer incidence rates in Port Hope were studied for a recent 16 year period (1992–2007) for continued periodic cancer incidence surveillance of the community. The cancer incidence in the local community for all cancers combined was similar to the Ontario population, health regions with similar socio-economic characteristics in Ontario and in Canada, and the Canadian population. No statistically significant differences in childhood cancer, leukaemia or other radiosensitive cancer incidence were observed, with the exception of statistically significant elevated lung cancer incidence among women. However, the statistical significance was reduced or disappeared when the comparison was made to populations with similar socio-economic characteristics. These findings are consistent with previous ecological, case-control and cohort studies conducted in Port Hope, environmental assessments, and epidemiological studies conducted elsewhere on populations living around similar facilities or exposed to similar environmental contaminants. Although the current study covered an extended period of time, the power to detect risk at the sub-regional level of analysis was limited since the Port Hope population is small (16?500). The study nevertheless indicated that large differences in cancer incidence are not occurring in Port Hope compared to other similar communities and the general population. (paper)

2013-01-01

180

Floristical and Ecological Studies on Burned Blackpine (Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb) Holmboe) Forest Area at Central Anatolia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the burned forest area between 1999-2002 the floristical and ecological studies were conducted. In this period, successional development of the area was observed. After the fire in 1995, new life forms migrated from unburned parts of Sundiken Mountains and occupied the burned area in 7-8 years. T...

Atila Ocak; Latif Kurt; Mehmet Oz; G. Nilhan Tug

 
 
 
 
181

Support for NATO Advanced Study Institute on molecular ecology of aquatic microbes, August 28--September 9, 1994. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a summary paper for a NATO Advanced Study Institute sponsored meeting entitled `The Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes` held in Luccia, Italy from August 28 to September 9, 1994. A full reference book for the proceedings is to be published later.

Joint, I.

1995-06-16

182

Revisiting the Affect Regulation Model of Binge Eating: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Using Ecological Momentary Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

The affect regulation model of binge eating, which posits that patients binge eat to reduce negative affect (NA), has received support from cross-sectional and laboratory-based studies. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves momentary ratings and repeated assessments over time and is ideally suited to identify temporal antecedents and…

Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

2011-01-01

183

Prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren, and climate in west European countries: an ecologic study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries.

Arnedo-Pena A; García-Marcos L; Bercedo-Sanz A; Aguinaga-Ontoso I; González-Díaz C; García-Merino A; Busquets-Monge R; Suárez-Varela MM; Batlles-Garrido J; Blanco-Quirós AA; López-Silvarrey A; García-Hernández G; Fuertes J

2013-09-01

184

Prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren, and climate in west European countries: an ecologic study  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries.

Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Águeda; Busquets-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo A.; López-Silvarrey, Angel; García-Hernández, Gloria; Fuertes, Jorge

2013-09-01

185

A GIS APPLICATION AND RESOURCE TOOL FOR USE ON STUDIES OF THE LAKE TEXOMA ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigations are underway at Lake Texoma to develop tools and information needed to evaluate the transport and attenuation of contaminants and stressors in a lake ecosystem, and link them to observable ecological effects. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), ...

186

Ecotoxicogenomics to Support Ecological Risk Assessment: A Case Study with Bisphenol A in Fish  

Science.gov (United States)

Toxicogenomic approaches are being increasingly applied in the field of ecotoxicology. Given the growing availability of ecotoxicogenomic data, the Agency and the broader scientific community are actively engaged in considering how best to use those data to support ecological ris...

187

A study on leaf-structure and the diversity of xerophytes ecology adaptation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The leaves of 62 xerophytes in northwest China were investigated with structure observation under light microscope, the compute of biology statistics and fuzzy cluster analysis. The diversity of xerophyte^s ecological adaptation is discussed.

Wang Xunling; Ma Ji

1999-01-01

188

Ecological study on mangrove forest in East Coast of North Sumatra  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ecological studies on mangrove forest in East Coast of North Sumatra have been carried out with field work in transect method and laboratory analyses. This study would be covered on floristic composition, abrasion, green belt, soil properties, and water quality of mangroves. Land system map and landsat TM imagery (year 1996 coverage) as main material in this study were used and overlay to determine training area. Based on vegetation inventory found that 20 mangrove species and by vegetation analyses, we known that Avicennia marina was as dominant tree species of seedling and sapling stage. Tree stage was not found in the area, yet. Environment properties of the mangrove area were suitable for mangrove growth and rehabilitation with the exception of pyrite content in the mangrove soil. Average of mangrove green belt was 25 m with range from 10 to 80 m in KJP (Kajapah) land system and 30 m with range 10 to 50 m in PTG (Putting) land system. Abrasion rate in the area was very high, i.e. 6 m per year in KJP land system, and 10 m per year in PTG land system.

ONRIZAL; CECEP KUSMANA

2008-01-01

189

Frontiers of torenia research: innovative ornamental traits and study of ecological interaction networks through genetic engineering.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Advances in research in the past few years on the ornamental plant torenia (Torenia spps.) have made it notable as a model plant on the frontier of genetic engineering aimed at studying ornamental characteristics and pest control in horticultural ecosystems. The remarkable advantage of torenia over other ornamental plant species is the availability of an easy and high-efficiency transformation system for it. Unfortunately, most of the current torenia research is still not very widespread, because this species has not become prominent as an alternative to other successful model plants such as Arabidopsis, snapdragon and petunia. However, nowadays, a more global view using not only a few selected models but also several additional species are required for creating innovative ornamental traits and studying horticultural ecosystems. We therefore introduce and discuss recent research on torenia, the family Scrophulariaceae, for secondary metabolite bioengineering, in which global insights into horticulture, agriculture and ecology have been advanced. Floral traits, in torenia particularly floral color, have been extensively studied by manipulating the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways in flower organs. Plant aroma, including volatile terpenoids, has also been genetically modulated in order to understand the complicated nature of multi-trophic interactions that affect the behavior of predators and pollinators in the ecosystem. Torenia would accordingly be of great use for investigating both the variation in ornamental plants and the infochemical-mediated interactions with arthropods.

Nishihara M; Shimoda T; Nakatsuka T; Arimura G

2013-01-01

190

Microbial ecology studies of spontaneous fermentation: starter culture selection for prickly pear wine production.  

Science.gov (United States)

A procedure for designing starter cultures for fermentation is illustrated for prickly pear wine production. The illustration includes kinetic studies on inoculated and spontaneous fermentation, microorganism identification studies based on molecular biology tools, and microbial ecology studies, which led to the selection of strains that are capable of synthesizing alcohol and desirable volatile compounds. Results show that a mixed starter inoculum containing?Pichia fermentans?and?Saccharomyces cerevisiae?leads to a fermented product that contains 8.37% alcohol (v/v). The gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis shows the presence of 9 major volatile compounds (Isobutanol, Isopentanol, Ethyl acetate, Isoamyl acetate, Ethyl octanoate, Ethyl decanoate, Ethyl 9-decanoate, ?-Phenylethyl acetate, and Phenylethyl alcohol) that have ethereal, fruity, aromatic notes that are considered to be essential for a fine wine flavor. These compounds harmonically synergize with the alcohol to produce a fermented product with a unique flavor and taste. Several assays using the mixed culture show that the process is stable, predictable, controllable, and reproducible. Moreover, the results show that a mixed culture leads to a broader range of aromatic products than that produced by a single, pure culture. Therefore, we conclude that combinations of?Saccharomyces?strains and?non-Saccharomyces?strains can be used to obtain high-quality fermented beverages from prickly pear juice. PMID:22417507

Rodríguez-Lerma, G K; Gutiérrez-Moreno, K; Cárdenas-Manríquez, M; Botello-Álvarez, E; Jiménez-Islas, H; Rico-Martínez, R; Navarrete-Bolaños, J L

2011-06-02

191

Frontiers of torenia research: innovative ornamental traits and study of ecological interaction networks through genetic engineering.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in research in the past few years on the ornamental plant torenia (Torenia spps.) have made it notable as a model plant on the frontier of genetic engineering aimed at studying ornamental characteristics and pest control in horticultural ecosystems. The remarkable advantage of torenia over other ornamental plant species is the availability of an easy and high-efficiency transformation system for it. Unfortunately, most of the current torenia research is still not very widespread, because this species has not become prominent as an alternative to other successful model plants such as Arabidopsis, snapdragon and petunia. However, nowadays, a more global view using not only a few selected models but also several additional species are required for creating innovative ornamental traits and studying horticultural ecosystems. We therefore introduce and discuss recent research on torenia, the family Scrophulariaceae, for secondary metabolite bioengineering, in which global insights into horticulture, agriculture and ecology have been advanced. Floral traits, in torenia particularly floral color, have been extensively studied by manipulating the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways in flower organs. Plant aroma, including volatile terpenoids, has also been genetically modulated in order to understand the complicated nature of multi-trophic interactions that affect the behavior of predators and pollinators in the ecosystem. Torenia would accordingly be of great use for investigating both the variation in ornamental plants and the infochemical-mediated interactions with arthropods. PMID:23803155

Nishihara, Masahiro; Shimoda, Takeshi; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Arimura, Gen-Ichiro

2013-06-26

192

Nursing workload and patient safety--a mixed method study with an ecological restorative approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the potential association between nursing workload and patient safety in the medical and surgical inpatient units of a teaching hospital. METHOD: a mixed method strategy (sequential explanatory design). RESULTS: the initial quantitative stage of the study suggest that increases in the number of patients assigned to each nursing team lead to increased rates of bed-related falls, central line-associated bloodstream infections, nursing staff turnover, and absenteeism. During the subsequent qualitative stage of the research, the nursing team stressed medication administration, bed baths, and patient transport as the aspects of care that have the greatest impact on workload and pose the greatest hazards to patient, provider, and environment safety. CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrated significant associations between nursing workload and patient safety. We observed that nursing staff with fewer patients presented best results of care-related and management-related patient safety indicators. In addition, the tenets of ecological and restorative thinking contributed to the understanding of some of the aspects in this intricate relationship from the standpoint of nursing providers. They also promoted a participatory approach in this study.

de Magalhães AM; Dall'Agnol CM; Marck PB

2013-01-01

193

Microbial ecology studies of spontaneous fermentation: starter culture selection for prickly pear wine production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A procedure for designing starter cultures for fermentation is illustrated for prickly pear wine production. The illustration includes kinetic studies on inoculated and spontaneous fermentation, microorganism identification studies based on molecular biology tools, and microbial ecology studies, which led to the selection of strains that are capable of synthesizing alcohol and desirable volatile compounds. Results show that a mixed starter inoculum containing?Pichia fermentans?and?Saccharomyces cerevisiae?leads to a fermented product that contains 8.37% alcohol (v/v). The gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis shows the presence of 9 major volatile compounds (Isobutanol, Isopentanol, Ethyl acetate, Isoamyl acetate, Ethyl octanoate, Ethyl decanoate, Ethyl 9-decanoate, ?-Phenylethyl acetate, and Phenylethyl alcohol) that have ethereal, fruity, aromatic notes that are considered to be essential for a fine wine flavor. These compounds harmonically synergize with the alcohol to produce a fermented product with a unique flavor and taste. Several assays using the mixed culture show that the process is stable, predictable, controllable, and reproducible. Moreover, the results show that a mixed culture leads to a broader range of aromatic products than that produced by a single, pure culture. Therefore, we conclude that combinations of?Saccharomyces?strains and?non-Saccharomyces?strains can be used to obtain high-quality fermented beverages from prickly pear juice.

Rodríguez-Lerma GK; Gutiérrez-Moreno K; Cárdenas-Manríquez M; Botello-Álvarez E; Jiménez-Islas H; Rico-Martínez R; Navarrete-Bolaños JL

2011-08-01

194

Baseline aquatic ecology: a case study of Dahanu thermal power station in west coast of India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Baseline ecological studies of three creeks surrounded to a 500 MW coal based thermal power station that has been installed at Dahanu in west coast of India have been studied. Water samples were collected in summer, post-monsoon and winter seasons from surface, middle and bottom of the water columns at left and right banks and centre of the creeks, during high tide and low tide, and also during day and night for characterization of physico-chemical (temperature, transparency, pH, salinity, dissolved solids, suspended solids, alkalinity, nutrients etc. including heavy metals), microbiological and biological (phytoplankton, primary productivity, zooplankton, meiobenthos and nekton, viz. macrobenthos, fish, prawn, molluscs etc.) parameters. Studies revealed that abiotic features of the creeks were comparable to other similar type of ecosystems in India. Besides detritus, the ecosystem comprised of five trophic levels, viz. producer and consumers 1 through 4. While computing biomass of each trophic level, semialternating pattern of pyramids were obtained. Meiobenthos, comprising of 25 parent of the total biomass of fauna, had a significant role in the ecosystem. Index of biotic integrity, incorporating 25 attributes, was employed to evaluate the impact of predicted rise (2.3 degC) of ambient water temperature on creek biota. Evaluation revealed a marginal positive impact of the project on the ecosystem. (author)

2002-01-01

195

DNA barcoding a regional bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) fauna and its potential for ecological studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA barcoding has been evaluated for many animal taxa and is now advocated as a reliable and rapid means for species-level identification. The coming-to-light of this identification tool is timely as we are now facing perhaps the greatest rate of species loss in recent millennia. This study contributes to an ever-increasing number of published accounts of DNA barcoding successfully and accurately distinguishing animal taxa, in this instance, the bee fauna of Nova Scotia, Canada. Most members of this well-known fauna were resolved with particular clarity; the average intraspecific divergence was less than 0.5%, and COI sequences from over 75% of the province's species are now in the Barcodes of Life Data System. DNA barcoding also revealed some surprises within this fauna, including the possible recognition of two undescribed genetically unique species, one in the genus Ceratina (subgenus Zadontomerus), the second in the genus Andrena (subgenus Larandrena); both are presently receiving further taxonomic study. In addition, DNA barcoding has allowed sex-associations among two pairs of cleptoparasitic species. The resulting utility of DNA barcoding for ecological studies of bee communities is discussed. PMID:21564979

Sheffield, Cory S; Hebert, Paul D N; Kevan, Peter G; Packer, Laurence

2009-05-01

196

DNA barcoding a regional bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) fauna and its potential for ecological studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

DNA barcoding has been evaluated for many animal taxa and is now advocated as a reliable and rapid means for species-level identification. The coming-to-light of this identification tool is timely as we are now facing perhaps the greatest rate of species loss in recent millennia. This study contributes to an ever-increasing number of published accounts of DNA barcoding successfully and accurately distinguishing animal taxa, in this instance, the bee fauna of Nova Scotia, Canada. Most members of this well-known fauna were resolved with particular clarity; the average intraspecific divergence was less than 0.5%, and COI sequences from over 75% of the province's species are now in the Barcodes of Life Data System. DNA barcoding also revealed some surprises within this fauna, including the possible recognition of two undescribed genetically unique species, one in the genus Ceratina (subgenus Zadontomerus), the second in the genus Andrena (subgenus Larandrena); both are presently receiving further taxonomic study. In addition, DNA barcoding has allowed sex-associations among two pairs of cleptoparasitic species. The resulting utility of DNA barcoding for ecological studies of bee communities is discussed.

Sheffield CS; Hebert PD; Kevan PG; Packer L

2009-05-01

197

Frontiers of torenia research: innovative ornamental traits and study of ecological interaction networks through genetic engineering  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in research in the past few years on the ornamental plant torenia (Torenia spps.) have made it notable as a model plant on the frontier of genetic engineering aimed at studying ornamental characteristics and pest control in horticultural ecosystems. The remarkable advantage of torenia over other ornamental plant species is the availability of an easy and high-efficiency transformation system for it. Unfortunately, most of the current torenia research is still not very widespread, because this species has not become prominent as an alternative to other successful model plants such as Arabidopsis, snapdragon and petunia. However, nowadays, a more global view using not only a few selected models but also several additional species are required for creating innovative ornamental traits and studying horticultural ecosystems. We therefore introduce and discuss recent research on torenia, the family Scrophulariaceae, for secondary metabolite bioengineering, in which global insights into horticulture, agriculture and ecology have been advanced. Floral traits, in torenia particularly floral color, have been extensively studied by manipulating the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways in flower organs. Plant aroma, including volatile terpenoids, has also been genetically modulated in order to understand the complicated nature of multi-trophic interactions that affect the behavior of predators and pollinators in the ecosystem. Torenia would accordingly be of great use for investigating both the variation in ornamental plants and the infochemical-mediated interactions with arthropods.

2013-01-01

198

ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF CYANOBACTERIA IN SEWAGE POND OF H.E.C INDUSTRIAL AREA, RANCHI INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ecological study of the sewage stabilization pond of HEC area, Hatia, Ranchi has been taken for the first time in this area. Studies were conducted to determine the occurrence and abundance of cyanobacteria in relation to physico-chemical characteristics of sewage pond. It assumes significance of algae mostly cyanobacteria can be used as bioindicators of water pollution in different water habitat of the area. Increased eutrophication from domestic effluent, sewage promotes the development of algal bloom. This study indicates the maximum occurrence and abundance of Microcystis, Oscillatoria, and phormidium spp. in all sites of the sewage pond. The physico-chemical analysis shows maximum nitrogen up to 35.4 mg l-1, 4.8 mg l-1 phosphate, 147.131 mg l-1 chloride and alkaline nature of water throughout the year favour the growth of cyanophycean members and promote algal bloom formation of Microcystis aeruginosa, O.princeps and O.tenuis in this pond.

Amit Kumar; Radha Sahu

2012-01-01

199

Ecological Studies on Al-Khadoud Spring, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Al-Khadoud spring is one of the most important water resources in Al-Hassa Governorate, Saudi Arabia. However, much of its biotic information is still unknown. This study presented preliminary ecological information of this aquatic body. Regarding to macrophytes, a total of eight species were observed along the study sites. These species include two submerged aquatic plants (Potamogeton pectinatus L. and Ceratophyllum demersum L.). The common distributed species are Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trimex Steud and Cyperus rotundus (L.). On the other hand, a total of 20 algal genera were recorded with 7 genera of Chlorophyceae, 8 of Bacillariophyceae, 4 of Cyanophyceae and one of Euglenophyceae. The common phytoplankton occurred in all three investigated sites were Chlorella vulgaris, Mougeotia sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Actinastrum sp. Regarding to the biotic fauna, different forms of unicellular zooplankton such as Paramecium and Amoeba were recorded. Invertebrates such as freshwater insects and some freshwater snails were documented in the study sites including Melanodies tuberculata, Melanopsis praemorsa and Lymnaea auricularia. As regard to vertebrates, one species of fish, Aphanius dispar, dominate the spring basin and its extended channels.

Mohammed A. Al-Kahtani; Ashraf M. Youssef; Adel A. Fathi

2007-01-01

200

Ecological Niche of Legionella Pneumophila.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the ecological niches, relationships and controls of Legionella derived from environmental sources. Only as clinical cases and studies relate directly to the ecological understanding of the bacterium will they be discussed. This revie...

C. B. Fliermans

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

The use of chronosequences in studies of ecological succession and soil development  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. Chronosequences and associated space-for-time substitutions are an important and often necessary tool for studying temporal dynamics of plant communities and soil development across multiple time-scales. However, they are often used inappropriately, leading to false conclusions about ecological patterns and processes, which has prompted recent strong criticism of the approach. Here, we evaluate when chronosequences may or may not be appropriate for studying community and ecosystem development. 2. Chronosequences are appropriate to study plant succession at decadal to millennial time-scales when there is evidence that sites of different ages are following the same trajectory. They can also be reliably used to study aspects of soil development that occur between temporally linked sites over time-scales of centuries to millennia, sometimes independently of their application to shorter-term plant and soil biological communities. 3. Some characteristics of changing plant and soil biological communities (e.g. species richness, plant cover, vegetation structure, soil organic matter accumulation) are more likely to be related in a predictable and temporally linear manner than are other characteristics (e.g. species composition and abundance) and are therefore more reliably studied using a chronosequence approach. 4. Chronosequences are most appropriate for studying communities that are following convergent successional trajectories and have low biodiversity, rapid species turnover and low frequency and severity of disturbance. Chronosequences are least suitable for studying successional trajectories that are divergent, species-rich, highly disturbed or arrested in time because then there are often major difficulties in determining temporal linkages between stages. 5. Synthesis. We conclude that, when successional trajectories exceed the life span of investigators and the experimental and observational studies that they perform, temporal change can be successfully explored through the judicious use of chronosequences.

Walker LawrenceR; Wardle DavidA; Bardgett RichardD; Clarkson BruceD

2010-07-01

202

Metabolic ecology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ecological theory that is grounded in metabolic currencies and constraints offers the potential to link ecological outcomes to biophysical processes across multiple scales of organization. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) has emphasized the potential for metabolism to serve as a unified theory of ecology, while focusing primarily on the size and temperature dependence of whole-organism metabolic rates. Generalizing metabolic ecology requires extending beyond prediction and application of standardized metabolic rates to theory focused on how energy moves through ecological systems. A bibliometric and network analysis of recent metabolic ecology literature reveals a research network characterized by major clusters focused on MTE, foraging theory, bioenergetics, trophic status, and generalized patterns and predictions. This generalized research network, which we refer to as metabolic ecology, can be considered to include the scaling, temperature and stoichiometric models forming the core of MTE, as well as bioenergetic equations, foraging theory, life-history allocation models, consumer-resource equations, food web theory and energy-based macroecology models that are frequently employed in ecological literature. We conclude with six points we believe to be important to the advancement and integration of metabolic ecology, including nomination of a second fundamental equation, complementary to the first fundamental equation offered by the MTE.

Humphries MM; McCann KS

2013-07-01

203

Do photobionts influence the ecology of lichens? A case study of environmental preferences in symbiotic green alga Asterochloris (Trebouxiophyceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution patterns of symbiotic algae are thought to be conferred mainly by their hosts, however, they may originate in algal environmental requirements as well. In lichens, predominantly terrestrial associations of fungi with algae or cyanobacteria, the ecological preferences of photobionts have not been directly studied so far. Here, we examine the putative environmental requirements in lichenized alga Asterochloris, and search for the existence of ecological guilds in Asterochloris-associating lichens. Therefore, the presence of phylogenetic signal in several environmental traits was tested. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated set of internal transcribed spacer rDNA and actin type I intron sequences from photobionts associated with lichens of the genera Lepraria and Stereocaulon (Stereocaulaceae, Ascomycota) revealed 13 moderately to well-resolved clades. Photobionts from particular algal clades were found to be associated with taxonomically different, but ecologically similar lichens. The rain and sun exposure were the most significant environmental factor, clearly distinguishing the Asterochloris lineages. The photobionts from ombrophobic and ombrophilic lichens were clustered in completely distinct clades. Moreover, two photobiont taxa were obviously differentiated based on their substrate and climatic preferences. Our study, thus reveals that the photobiont, generally the subsidiary member of the symbiotic lichen association, could exhibit clear preferences for environmental factors. These algal preferences may limit the ecological niches available to lichens and lead to the existence of specific lichen guilds. PMID:21699598

Peksa, Ond?ej; Skaloud, Pavel

2011-06-23

204

Do photobionts influence the ecology of lichens? A case study of environmental preferences in symbiotic green alga Asterochloris (Trebouxiophyceae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The distribution patterns of symbiotic algae are thought to be conferred mainly by their hosts, however, they may originate in algal environmental requirements as well. In lichens, predominantly terrestrial associations of fungi with algae or cyanobacteria, the ecological preferences of photobionts have not been directly studied so far. Here, we examine the putative environmental requirements in lichenized alga Asterochloris, and search for the existence of ecological guilds in Asterochloris-associating lichens. Therefore, the presence of phylogenetic signal in several environmental traits was tested. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated set of internal transcribed spacer rDNA and actin type I intron sequences from photobionts associated with lichens of the genera Lepraria and Stereocaulon (Stereocaulaceae, Ascomycota) revealed 13 moderately to well-resolved clades. Photobionts from particular algal clades were found to be associated with taxonomically different, but ecologically similar lichens. The rain and sun exposure were the most significant environmental factor, clearly distinguishing the Asterochloris lineages. The photobionts from ombrophobic and ombrophilic lichens were clustered in completely distinct clades. Moreover, two photobiont taxa were obviously differentiated based on their substrate and climatic preferences. Our study, thus reveals that the photobiont, generally the subsidiary member of the symbiotic lichen association, could exhibit clear preferences for environmental factors. These algal preferences may limit the ecological niches available to lichens and lead to the existence of specific lichen guilds.

Peksa O; Skaloud P

2011-09-01

205

[Mortality due to circulatory disorders and the evolution of family health in Brazil: an ecological study].  

Science.gov (United States)

The scope of this study was to analyze deaths due to circulatory disorders in parallel with the evolution of the Family Health Strategy (FHS) in Brazil. It is an ecological and retrospective study based on the temporal evolution of the FHS and mortality rates due to circulatory disorders in Brazil. A description of the inhabitant x FHS coverage ratio and health indicators related to mortality due to circulatory disorders was carried out. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient test was used for the statistical association. There was a population increase of 15% in Brazil, evolution of 761% in the number of FHS units and 5% increase in mortality due to circulatory disorders. The population x FHS ratio rose from 52,838 (1998) to 7,084 (2006) people assisted by FHS units. North and northeast regions showed growth in mortality rates due to circulatory disorders and in 21 states (81%) there was a positive correlation between this mortality and FHS units (r: > 0.7; p < 0.01). Finally, the FHS is regarded as an important public health policy, which has achieved successful results in Brazil since its implementation. However, in general terms, its expansion has not influenced the reduction of mortality due to circulatory disorders, which is an indicator that has increased in the country. PMID:23670469

Ceccon, Roger Flores; Borges, Diego Olschowsky; Paes, Lucilene Gama; Klafke, Jonatas Zeni; Viecili, Paulo Ricardo Nazário

2013-05-01

206

National suicide rates and mental health system indicators: An ecological study of 191 countries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The relative contributions of psychiatric morbidity and psychosocial stress to suicide, and the efficacy of mental health systems in reducing population suicide rates, are currently unclear. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate whether national suicide rates are associated with their corresponding mental health system indicators. METHODS: Relevant data were retrieved from the following sources: the World Health Organization, the United Nations Statistics Division and the Central Intelligence Agency World Fact book. Suicide rates of 191 countries were compared with their mental health system indicators using an ecological study design and multivariate non-parametric robust regression models. RESULTS: Significant positive correlations between suicide rates and mental health system indicators (p<0.001) were documented. After adjusting for the effects of major macroeconomic indices using multivariate analyses, numbers of psychiatrists (p=0.006) and mental health beds (p<0.001) were significantly positively associated with population suicide rates. CONCLUSIONS: Countries with better psychiatric services experience higher suicide rates. Although these associations should be interpreted with caution, as the issues are complex, we suggest that population-based public health strategies may have greater impact on national suicide rates than curative mental health services for individuals.

Rajkumar AP; Brinda EM; Duba AS; Thangadurai P; Jacob KS

2013-07-01

207

Diabetes mortality and environmental heavy metals in North Carolina counties: An ecological study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Arsenic, beryllium, cadmium and nickel have been associated with the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in populations exposed to these elements. However, diabetes mortality has not been evaluated. This ecological study correlated airborne concentrations of these metals with diabetes mortality in North Carolina counties. Methods: County level data were extracted from the 2000 US Census, the 1999 US Environmental Protection Agency National Air Toxins Assessment, and 2001-2005 diabetes mortality rates by county from the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics. Multivariable linear regression correlated airborne concentrations of each element with diabetes mellitus mortality rates in all 100 North Carolina counties controlling for county-level characteristics. Airborne concentrations were logarithmically transformed to normalize their distribution. Results: The lowest air concentrations detected were beryllium and cadmium, with nickel showing the highest concentration. Logarithmic concentrations spanned from 3.74 to 4.02 orders of magnitude. County-level diabetes mortality rates were negatively associated with median county income, but positively associated with county-level air concentrations of arsenic, beryllium, cadmium and nickel. Conclusions: These results support diabetes mortality effects of air pollution, and agree with other studies correlating arsenic, beryllium, cadmium and nickel with diabetes prevalence. Policy implications include regulating point source air pollution.

John G. Spangler

2012-01-01

208

Radon in Drinking Water and Cancer Mortality: An Ecological Study in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is limited information on the health effects of radon in drinking water in spite of their potential exposures. We conducted an ecological study in a small town in Japan where the groundwater with high concentrations of radon is supplied as utilities. A total of 607 cancer deaths were ascertained by vital statistics in that town from 1972 to 1997. Standardized mortality ratios on the basis of national rates were 1.01 (95% confidence interval; 0.93-1.09) for all cancers, 1.10 (0.95-1.28) for stomach cancer, 0.88 (0.70-1.10) for lung cancer, and 1.14 (0.87-1.48) for liver cancer. Mortality from liver cancer was significantly higher than that of two surrounding control cities combined, with a relative risk of 1.40 (1.04-1.89) based on Poisson regression analysis. Lack of information on possible confounders including diet, alcohol drinking, smoking and hepatitis virus infection, is the main limitation of the study, which precludes the evaluation of causal associations.

2008-08-07

209

Hydrology and ecology of pinyon-juniper woodlands: Conceptual framework and field studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pinyon-juniper woodlands represent an important ecosystem in the semiarid western United States. Concern over the sustainability of, and management approaches for, these woodlands is increasing. As in other semiarid environments, water dynamics and vegetation patterns in pinyon-juniper woodlands are highly interrelated. An understanding of these relationships can aid in evaluating various management strategies. In this paper we describe a conceptual framework designed to increase our understanding of water and vegetation in pinyon-juniper woodlands. The framework comprises five different scales, at each of which the landscape is divided into {open_quotes}functional units{close_quotes} on the basis of hydrologic characteristics. The hydrologic behavior of each unit and the connections between units are being evaluated using an extensive network of hydrological and ecological field studies on the Pajarito Plateau in northern New Mexico. Data from these studies, coupled with application of the conceptual model, have led to the development of a number of hypotheses concerning the interrelationships of water and vegetation in pinyon-juniper woodlands.

Wilcox, B.P.; Breshears, D.D.

1994-09-01

210

The ecological model and the study of child abuse in Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Physical abuse and exploitative child labor are two common forms of child abuse in Nigeria. Exploitative child labor exists in both the formal and informal sectors where children work as hairdressers, beggars' assistants, hawkers, and as factory and agricultural workers under conditions characterized by long hours, hazardous environment, and meager remuneration. Research on the incidence of physical abuse in Nigeria is less systematic, and few empirical studies are available. Physical abuse is primarily the result of corporal punishment which has become excessive. Poverty and the existence of a dependent capitalist economy are often proffered as the primary causes of child abuse. While both explanations have some validity, their unidimensional nature limits their explanatory capacity. These explanations also lead to the belief that very little can be done to improve the quality of children's lives until the social order is restructured. The ecological model proposes that child abuse can best be understood if it is analyzed multidimensionally with emphasis on the individual, family, social environment, and cultural milieau, as well as the dynamic interaction between these levels. This model appears appropriate for the study of child abuse in Nigeria, and its application is advocated as a vehicle for improving the quality of child abuse research.

Wilson-Oyelaran EB

1989-01-01

211

The ecological model and the study of child abuse in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical abuse and exploitative child labor are two common forms of child abuse in Nigeria. Exploitative child labor exists in both the formal and informal sectors where children work as hairdressers, beggars' assistants, hawkers, and as factory and agricultural workers under conditions characterized by long hours, hazardous environment, and meager remuneration. Research on the incidence of physical abuse in Nigeria is less systematic, and few empirical studies are available. Physical abuse is primarily the result of corporal punishment which has become excessive. Poverty and the existence of a dependent capitalist economy are often proffered as the primary causes of child abuse. While both explanations have some validity, their unidimensional nature limits their explanatory capacity. These explanations also lead to the belief that very little can be done to improve the quality of children's lives until the social order is restructured. The ecological model proposes that child abuse can best be understood if it is analyzed multidimensionally with emphasis on the individual, family, social environment, and cultural milieau, as well as the dynamic interaction between these levels. This model appears appropriate for the study of child abuse in Nigeria, and its application is advocated as a vehicle for improving the quality of child abuse research. PMID:2776046

Wilson-Oyelaran, E B

1989-01-01

212

STUDIES ON THE ECOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION OF MICROORGANIS MIS IN THE VVFST LAKE?HANGZ HOU  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ecological distributions of different microbial physiological groups in West Lake?Hangzhou were studied from 1995 to 1996.The heterotrophic bacteria including amm onifie rs?cellulose decomposers?nitrate reducers and denitrifiers were rich in Yuhu Lake? where the water was eutrophic;while autotrophic bacteria?shch as ammonia oxidizers and nitrite oxidizers?were more com mon in Xiaonan Lake where the water quality was relativelygood·Ammonifiers and cellulose decomposers had the negative relations with ambient tempe rat ure?no matter whether they were in the water body or in the sediment·Compared with historical data?it was founded that the heterotrophic bacteria and coliform groups were decreased significantly after comprehensive treatment of West Lake in 1986?but recently they have increasing trend .After determining 78 heterotrophic strains isolated in water body in Apr .1996 .The authors found that Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae were the dominat-ed species;in 117 heterotrophic strains isolated from the sediments in Oct .1995 and Mar. 1996?about 50%were belonged to Bacillus and about 24%were Enterobacteriaceae .According to the data supplied by co?operators?it was founded that am monifiers?cellulose decomposers?nitrate reducers and denitrifiers in the water body had more constrained relationswith total nitrogen than with total phosphorous .It was also founded that these bacteria had the negative relationship with the densities of phytoplankton and zooplankton.

WU Gen?fu; W U Xue?chang; W U Jie; XUAN Mao?dong

2000-01-01

213

The ecological effectiveness of protected areas: a case study for South African birds  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

While the importance of individual protected areas (PAs) to biological conservation is widely acknowledged, rather few empirical studies have explicitly attempted to assess their ecological effectiveness. Significantly, this includes consideration of how well they represent the biodiversity of taxonomic groups for which the designation of these areas was not a primary or intentional goal. Here, we provide one of the most detailed comparisons to date of the avian biodiversity found inside and outside PAs, focusing on three PAs distributed widely across South Africa. Typically, bird assemblages were richer, with a higher density, and a different structural and functional composition inside than outside the PAs. Importantly, insectivore richness was much higher inside than outside, and the converse was true of granivores. Overall, these findings suggest that PAs do indeed provide valuable repositories for native biodiversity, with species richness, density and species composition being substantially different beyond their bounds. With human land-use increasing in South Africa, and habitat transformation recognized as a major and growing threat to biodiversity, such differences are expected to become greater.

Greve, M.; Chown, S. L.

2011-01-01

214

[Ecological studies on mollusk populations of medical and veterinary relevance existing in La Coca farm].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: ecological studies were carried out on mollusk populations of medical and veterinary importance with emphasis on Fasciola hepatica intermediary hosts species. OBJECTIVES: to determine the relative abundance of populations and the possible use of some species as biological control agents against F. hepatica intermediary hosts. METHODS: a total of 13 freshwater bodies were sampled during March and November, 2008 using Capture by effort unit method to capture the mollusks RESULTS: thirteen mollusk species (12 gastropods and 1 bivalve) were found after sampling. The relative abundance of species varied in different types of habitat. The intermediary host species of fascioliasis were dominant in two sites. Fossaria cubensis was dominant in Canal de la Entrada despite the presence of Melanoides tuberculata. The specie Pseudosuccinea columella was more abundant in Los Mangos. In La Presa del Matadero y Las Palmas despite the presence of these species, the prevailing ones were Physa acuta and some planorbids. CONCLUSIONS: the sites where intermediary hosts of Fasciola hepatica predominated were identified through data on the distribution and relative abundance. In some sites Melanoides tuberculata was present and acted as a biological control agent but it did not in others. Therefore, an evaluation on using a different thiarid would be useful to control these species.

Wong Sarmiento L; Vázquez Perera AA; Quesada Martínez M; Sánchez Noda J; Hevia Jiménez Y; Fuentes Leyva J; Ramos Pérez R

2010-01-01

215

Studies on the response and adaptability to the ecological environment of dry cultivation rice  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The response and adaptability of dry cultivation rice (Yangdao 6, mulching with plastic film and unmulching) on ecological factors were studied. The results showed that under dry cultivation conditions stem and root of rice created changes adaptability of morphological and anatomical structure. As it is seen from results that there was a significant three times multinomial equation between different leaf position and leaf area in dry cultivation and paddy field, i.e, according to the model of three times multinomial, there was significant difference between dry cultivation and paddy field to the leaf position in largest leaf area and to flag leaf area. As compared with paddy field, the dry cultivation resulted in a higher content of Chl and SLW, a higher respiration rate of root, but there was no significant difference between dry cultivation and paddy field to Pn and respiration rate of rice leaves. At higher PFD (>1200 ?mol/(m~2·s)) and Tl (>30 ?), Tr and Gs in unmulching and paddy field was higher than that of mulching with plastic film (P < 0.01). On clear days, the diurnal changes of Tr and Gs in dry cultivation and paddy field rice related significance to PFD, Tl and VPD, PFD has a significant effect on Tr and Gs, and WUE of mulching with plastic film was higher than that of unmulching and paddy field rice. Water saving efficiency and irrigation of times optimal dose were also discussed.

Tao Hanzhi; Huang Wenjiang; Zhang Yuping; Hu Yan; Huang Yide; Fang Yiping; Cai Yongping

2002-01-01

216

Non invasive methods for genetic analysis applied to ecological and behavioral studies in Latino-America  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Documenting the presence and abundance of the neotropical mammals is the first step for understanding their population ecology, behavior and genetic dynamics in designing conservation plans. The combination of field research with molecular genetics techniques are new tools that provide valuable biological information avoiding the disturbance in the ecosystems, trying to minimize the human impact in the process to gather biological information. The objective of this paper is to review the available non invasive sampling techniques that have been used in Neotropical mammal studies to apply to determine the presence and abundance, population structure, sex ratio, taxonomic diagnostic using mitochondrial markers, and assessing genetic variability using nuclear markers. There are a wide range of non invasive sampling techniques used to determine the species identification that inhabit an area such as searching for tracks, feces, and carcasses. Other useful equipment is the camera traps that can generate an image bank that can be valuable to assess species presence and abundance by morphology. With recent advances in molecular biology, it is now possible to use the trace amounts of DNA in feces and amplify it to analyze the species diversity in an area, and the genetic variability at intraspecific level. This is particularly helpful in cases of sympatric and cryptic species in which morphology failed to diagnose the taxonomic status of several species of brocket deer of the genus Mazama.

Susana González; José Mauricio Barbanti Duarte

2007-01-01

217

The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 2 study of the radio-ecological consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The data compiled and processed within the framework of the French-German Initiative represent the so far most comprehensive collection of electronic data that has ever been put together on the topic of the 'Study of the radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'.The R.E.D.A.C. database system provides a powerful tool for the reconstruction of the dispersion of radionuclides through ecosystems and food chains and for the interpretation and prediction of their long-term behaviour. This allows the development of effective countermeasures to minimise risks to human health and improve the overall environmental situation. R.E.D.A.C. can also be used for the development and verification of realistic radioecology models. As the data were acquired under realistic conditions, the results can be used directly for model calculations in emergencies. This allows concrete planning, e. g. in connection with the securing of waste, its disposal, and the ecological restoration of waste disposal sites. The data also allow a reconstruction of the radioecological situation in the past, an analysis of the current situation, and predictions of future developments of the accident consequences on a large as well as on a small scale. (N.C.)

2006-01-01

218

Morphological, anatomical and ecological studies on some Orchis (Orchidaceae) taxa of Mediterranean region, Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, nine species mainly distributed in Mediterranean (+ Aegean region) region of Turkey were investigated in terms of 15 morphological, 16 anatomical and 5 ecological characteristics. Those species are Orchis anatolica Boiss., Orchis italica Poiret, Orchis laxiflora Lam., Orchis morio L. subsp. morio, Orchis provincialis Balbis ex DC., Orchis purpurea Hudson, Orchis sancta L., Orchis simia Lam., Orchis tridentata Scop. In conclusion, we found that O. laxiflora was characterized by the longest plant height and O. purpurea had the biggest tuber; whereas O. italica was identified by the highest number of leafs and O. purpurea had the longest leaf length and widest leaf width. Additionally, the other species which were characterized by different morphological and anatomical parameters are as follow: O. sancta with the longest bract length, O. italica and O. simia with the longest sepal lengths, O. laxiflora with the shortest and widest labellum, O. simia with the longest petal length, O. sancta with longest caudiculum length, O. anatolica with the longest spur length and O. provincialis with the longest ovary length. Particularly, O. laxiflora and O. purpurea species present essential divergence from the aspect of anatomical features of leaf surface in comparison with the other species. Morphological and anatomical traits of the species were attributed to the habitat selections of the species since that character differs along with each species. PMID:23424837

Sevgi, Ece; Altundag, Ernaz; Kara, Omer; Sevgi, Orhan; Tecimen, Huseyin Baris; Bolat, Ilyas

2012-04-01

219

Morphological, anatomical and ecological studies on some Orchis (Orchidaceae) taxa of Mediterranean region, Turkey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, nine species mainly distributed in Mediterranean (+ Aegean region) region of Turkey were investigated in terms of 15 morphological, 16 anatomical and 5 ecological characteristics. Those species are Orchis anatolica Boiss., Orchis italica Poiret, Orchis laxiflora Lam., Orchis morio L. subsp. morio, Orchis provincialis Balbis ex DC., Orchis purpurea Hudson, Orchis sancta L., Orchis simia Lam., Orchis tridentata Scop. In conclusion, we found that O. laxiflora was characterized by the longest plant height and O. purpurea had the biggest tuber; whereas O. italica was identified by the highest number of leafs and O. purpurea had the longest leaf length and widest leaf width. Additionally, the other species which were characterized by different morphological and anatomical parameters are as follow: O. sancta with the longest bract length, O. italica and O. simia with the longest sepal lengths, O. laxiflora with the shortest and widest labellum, O. simia with the longest petal length, O. sancta with longest caudiculum length, O. anatolica with the longest spur length and O. provincialis with the longest ovary length. Particularly, O. laxiflora and O. purpurea species present essential divergence from the aspect of anatomical features of leaf surface in comparison with the other species. Morphological and anatomical traits of the species were attributed to the habitat selections of the species since that character differs along with each species.

Sevgi E; Altundag E; Kara O; Sevgi O; Tecimen HB; Bolat I

2012-04-01

220

Integrated ecological risk assessment of pesticides in tropical ecosystems: a case study with carbofuran in Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the present study is to contribute an ecologically relevant assessment of the ecotoxicological effects of pesticide applications in agricultural areas in the tropics, using an integrated approach with information gathered from soil and aquatic compartments. Carbofuran, an insecticide/nematicide used widely on sugarcane crops, was selected as a model substance. To evaluate the toxic effects of pesticide spraying for soil biota, as well as the potential indirect effects on aquatic biota resulting from surface runoff and/or leaching, field and laboratory (using a cost-effective simulator of pesticide applications) trials were performed. Standard ecotoxicological tests were performed with soil (Eisenia andrei, Folsomia candida, and Enchytraeus crypticus) and aquatic (Ceriodaphnia silvestrii) organisms, using serial dilutions of soil, eluate, leachate, and runoff samples. Among soil organisms, sensitivity was found to be E. crypticus < E. andrei < F. candida. Among the aqueous extracts, mortality of C. silvestrii was extreme in runoff samples, whereas eluates were by far the least toxic samples. A generally higher toxicity was found in the bioassays performed with samples from the field trial, indicating the need for improvements in the laboratory simulator. However, the tool developed proved to be valuable in evaluating the toxic effects of pesticide spraying in soils and the potential risks for aquatic compartments.

Chelinho S; Lopes I; Natal-da-Luz T; Domene X; Nunes ME; Espíndola EL; Ribeiro R; Sousa JP

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
221

Sweetened drink and snacking cues in adolescents: a study using ecological momentary assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to identify physical, social, and intrapersonal cues that were associated with the consumption of sweetened beverages and sweet and salty snacks among adolescents from lower SES neighborhoods. Students were recruited from high schools with a minimum level of 25% free or reduced cost lunches. Using ecological momentary assessment, participants (N=158) were trained to answer brief questionnaires on handheld PDA devices: (a) each time they ate or drank, (b) when prompted randomly, and (c) once each evening. Data were collected over 7days for each participant. Participants reported their location (e.g., school grounds, home), mood, social environment, activities (e.g., watching TV, texting), cravings, food cues (e.g., saw a snack), and food choices. Results showed that having unhealthy snacks or sweet drinks among adolescents was associated with being at school, being with friends, feeling lonely or bored, craving a drink or snack, and being exposed to food cues. Surprisingly, sweet drink consumption was associated with exercising. Watching TV was associated with consuming sweet snacks but not with salty snacks or sweet drinks. These findings identify important environmental and intrapersonal cues to poor snacking choices that may be applied to interventions designed to disrupt these food-related, cue-behavior linked habits. PMID:23583312

Grenard, Jerry L; Stacy, Alan W; Shiffman, Saul; Baraldi, Amanda N; MacKinnon, David P; Lockhart, Ginger; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Boyle, Sarah; Beleva, Yuliyana; Koprowski, Carol; Ames, Susan L; Reynolds, Kim D

2013-04-11

222

Non invasive methods for genetic analysis applied to ecological and behavioral studies in Latino-America  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Documenting the presence and abundance of the neotropical mammals is the first step for understanding their population ecology, behavior and genetic dynamics in designing conservation plans. The combination of field research with molecular genetics techniques are new tools that provide valuable biological information avoiding the disturbance in the ecosystems, trying to minimize the human impact in the process to gather biological information. The objective of this paper (more) is to review the available non invasive sampling techniques that have been used in Neotropical mammal studies to apply to determine the presence and abundance, population structure, sex ratio, taxonomic diagnostic using mitochondrial markers, and assessing genetic variability using nuclear markers. There are a wide range of non invasive sampling techniques used to determine the species identification that inhabit an area such as searching for tracks, feces, and carcasses. Other useful equipment is the camera traps that can generate an image bank that can be valuable to assess species presence and abundance by morphology. With recent advances in molecular biology, it is now possible to use the trace amounts of DNA in feces and amplify it to analyze the species diversity in an area, and the genetic variability at intraspecific level. This is particularly helpful in cases of sympatric and cryptic species in which morphology failed to diagnose the taxonomic status of several species of brocket deer of the genus Mazama.

González, Susana; Duarte, José Mauricio Barbanti

2007-07-01

223

Air Manganese Levels and Chronic Liver Disease Mortality in North Carolina Counties: An Ecological Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Manganese is an essential trace element which is toxic in high doses. Over the past several decades, manganese has replaced lead as the anti-knock agent in gasoline, raising concern about air and road-side contamination with this element. In addition, manganese is absorbed by the liver, making specific populations (e.g., pregnant women, infants and children, and patients with liver disease) susceptible to its toxic effects. Using data from the US Census Bureau, the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics, and the US Environmental Protection Agency, this ecological study evaluated chronic liver disease mortality rates in North Carolina’s 100 counties. It correlated these rates with county-level demographics as well as on-road and non-road air borne manganese concentrations. Median income by county was inversely associated with chronic liver disease mortality, while the logarithmically transformed airborne concentrations of on-road manganese were positively correlated with county-level chronic liver disease mortality. Because environmental manganese near roads is likely to increase over time, these pilot findings potentially have regulatory implications and argue for further research.

John G. Spangler

2012-01-01

224

Wider income gaps, wider waistbands? An ecological study of obesity and income inequality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To see if obesity, deaths from diabetes, and daily calorie intake are associated with income inequality among developed countries. DESIGN: Ecological study of 21 developed countries.Countries: Countries were eligible for inclusion if they were among the top 50 countries with the highest gross national income per capita by purchasing power parity in 2002, had a population over 3 million, and had available data on income inequality and outcome measures. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Percentage of obese (body mass index >30) adult men and women, diabetes mortality rates, and calorie consumption per capita per day. RESULTS: Adjusting for gross national per capita income, income inequality was positively correlated with the percentage of obese men (r = 0.48, p = 0.03), the percentage of obese women (r = 0.62, p = 0.003), diabetes mortality rates per 1 million people (r = 0.46, p = 0.04), and average calories per capita per day (r = 0.50, p = 0.02). Correlations were stronger if analyses were weighted for population size. The effect of income inequality on female obesity was independent of average calorie intake. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity, diabetes mortality, and calorie consumption were associated with income inequality in developed countries. Increased nutritional problems may be a consequence of the psychosocial impact of living in a more hierarchical society.

Pickett KE; Kelly S; Brunner E; Lobstein T; Wilkinson RG

2005-08-01

225

Sweetened drink and snacking cues in adolescents: a study using ecological momentary assessment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to identify physical, social, and intrapersonal cues that were associated with the consumption of sweetened beverages and sweet and salty snacks among adolescents from lower SES neighborhoods. Students were recruited from high schools with a minimum level of 25% free or reduced cost lunches. Using ecological momentary assessment, participants (N=158) were trained to answer brief questionnaires on handheld PDA devices: (a) each time they ate or drank, (b) when prompted randomly, and (c) once each evening. Data were collected over 7days for each participant. Participants reported their location (e.g., school grounds, home), mood, social environment, activities (e.g., watching TV, texting), cravings, food cues (e.g., saw a snack), and food choices. Results showed that having unhealthy snacks or sweet drinks among adolescents was associated with being at school, being with friends, feeling lonely or bored, craving a drink or snack, and being exposed to food cues. Surprisingly, sweet drink consumption was associated with exercising. Watching TV was associated with consuming sweet snacks but not with salty snacks or sweet drinks. These findings identify important environmental and intrapersonal cues to poor snacking choices that may be applied to interventions designed to disrupt these food-related, cue-behavior linked habits.

Grenard JL; Stacy AW; Shiffman S; Baraldi AN; MacKinnon DP; Lockhart G; Kisbu-Sakarya Y; Boyle S; Beleva Y; Koprowski C; Ames SL; Reynolds KD

2013-08-01

226

The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 2 study of the radio-ecological consequences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The data compiled and processed within the framework of the French-German Initiative represent the so far most comprehensive collection of electronic data that has ever been put together on the topic of the 'Study of the radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'.The R.E.D.A.C. database system provides a powerful tool for the reconstruction of the dispersion of radionuclides through ecosystems and food chains and for the interpretation and prediction of their long-term behaviour. This allows the development of effective countermeasures to minimise risks to human health and improve the overall environmental situation. R.E.D.A.C. can also be used for the development and verification of realistic radioecology models. As the data were acquired under realistic conditions, the results can be used directly for model calculations in emergencies. This allows concrete planning, e. g. in connection with the securing of waste, its disposal, and the ecological restoration of waste disposal sites. The data also allow a reconstruction of the radioecological situation in the past, an analysis of the current situation, and predictions of future developments of the accident consequences on a large as well as on a small scale. (N.C.)

NONE

2006-03-15

227

Effect of Ecological Walking Training in Sedentary Elderly People: Act on Aging Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Purpose of the Study: This study aims to investigate the effects of a walking program on aerobic endurance and function in a sample of sedentary elderly people. DESIGN AND METHODS: For this study, 126 sedentary individuals were recruited: 63 individuals (mean age = 74.1±6.0 years) for the control group and 63 (mean age = 72.0±4.5 years) for the intervention group. The intervention consisted of walking training including balance exercises and lower limb strength activities twice a week for 4 months. We collected baseline and post-test measurements of aerobic endurance, lower limb strength, and mobility. We also measured aerobic endurance at increments of 4, 8, and 12 weeks between the baseline and the post-test. We used analyses of covariance with baseline value, gender, age, and body mass index scores as covariates (p < . 05) and calculated the effect size for the effects of the intervention. The changeover time of aerobic endurance was also analyzed with the repeated analysis of variance (p < .05). RESULTS: The intervention group showed steady and significant improvements with respect to the 6-min walk (aerobic endurance) from 447.89 m (SD 73.87) to 561.51 m (SD 83.96), as well as the 30-s chair stand (lower limb strength) from 10 (SD 3) to 13 (SD 3) number of times and the Timed Up and Go Test (mobility) from 8.53 s (SD 2.86) to 7.13 s (SD 1.76) at the post-test, whereas the control group showed significant decrease in all measurements. IMPLICATION: These results underline that an ecological walking training program can be used to improve physical functioning among sedentary elderly people.

Magistro D; Liubicich ME; Candela F; Ciairano S

2013-05-01

228

Effect of Ecological Walking Training in Sedentary Elderly People: Act on Aging Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose of the Study: This study aims to investigate the effects of a walking program on aerobic endurance and function in a sample of sedentary elderly people. DESIGN AND METHODS: For this study, 126 sedentary individuals were recruited: 63 individuals (mean age = 74.1±6.0 years) for the control group and 63 (mean age = 72.0±4.5 years) for the intervention group. The intervention consisted of walking training including balance exercises and lower limb strength activities twice a week for 4 months. We collected baseline and post-test measurements of aerobic endurance, lower limb strength, and mobility. We also measured aerobic endurance at increments of 4, 8, and 12 weeks between the baseline and the post-test. We used analyses of covariance with baseline value, gender, age, and body mass index scores as covariates (p < . 05) and calculated the effect size for the effects of the intervention. The changeover time of aerobic endurance was also analyzed with the repeated analysis of variance (p < .05). RESULTS: The intervention group showed steady and significant improvements with respect to the 6-min walk (aerobic endurance) from 447.89 m (SD 73.87) to 561.51 m (SD 83.96), as well as the 30-s chair stand (lower limb strength) from 10 (SD 3) to 13 (SD 3) number of times and the Timed Up and Go Test (mobility) from 8.53 s (SD 2.86) to 7.13 s (SD 1.76) at the post-test, whereas the control group showed significant decrease in all measurements. IMPLICATION: These results underline that an ecological walking training program can be used to improve physical functioning among sedentary elderly people. PMID:23682170

Magistro, Daniele; Liubicich, Monica Emma; Candela, Filippo; Ciairano, Silvia

2013-05-15

229

A 12-Year Ecological Study of Hip Fracture Rates among Older Taiwanese Adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hip fracture rates in Taiwan are among the highest in the world. The aim of this study was to describe the trends of hip fracture hospitalizations among Taiwanese elderly (aged ? 65 years) and the trends of antiosteoporosis medication expenditure from 1999 to 2010. We conducted an ecological study using inpatient health care-utilization data from the Department of Health, and medication expenditure data from the IMS Health, Taiwan. The International Classification of Disease, Clinical Modification, 9th version, code 820 was used to identify hip fracture hospitalizations. Medications included alendronate, calcitonin, ibandronate, raloxifene, strontium ranelate, teriparatide, and zoledronic acid. Year 2010 was assigned as the reference point for age-standardized rates, currency exchange (to the US dollar), and discount rates. Over the 12-year study period, age-standardized hip fracture hospitalizations decreased by 2.7 % annually (p for trend < 0.001) for Taiwanese elders. The decline was more obvious among those aged ?75 years (6.1 %). However, the number of hip fracture hospitalizations increased from 14,342 to 18,023. Total hospitalization costs increased by US$0.6 ± 0.2 million annually (p for trend = 0.002); however, the per capita costs decreased by US$23.0 ± 8.0 (p for trend = 0.017). The total medication expenditure increased 7.2-fold, from US$8.1 million to US$58.9 million, accounting for an increase in the overall pharmaceutical market by fivefold, from 3.4 to 15.9 ‰ (both p for trend < 0.001). From 1999 to 2010, there was a decline in hip fracture rates among elderly Taiwanese adults with a concomitant increase in antiosteoporosis medication expenditure.

Chan DC; Lee YS; Wu YJ; Tsou HH; Chen CT; Hwang JS; Tsai KS; Yang RS

2013-07-01

230

Ecology, ethics, and professional environmental practice: The Yucca Mountain, Nevada, project as a case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The US Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to develop a geologic repository for disposing of high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this commentary, the ecology program for the DOE's Yucca Mountain Project is discussed from the perspective of state-of-the-art ecosystem analysis, environmental ethics, and standards of professional practice. Specifically at issue is the need by the Yucca Mountain ecology program to adopt an ecosystem approach that encompasses the current strategy based on population biology and community ecology alone. The premise here is that an ecosystem approach is essential for assessing the long-term potential environmental impacts at Yucca Mountain in light of the thermal effects expected to be associated with heat from radioactive decay

1995-01-01

231

ECOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE BIOTOP STATIONAL FACTORS FROM PRATICOL ECOSYSTEMS FROM SIRET MEADOW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research are propose a featuring of natural ground as well as a topical natural mood of everglade and terraces biota the praticol ecosystems situated on Siret Culoar. The main natural ecological factors by medium and ecopedobiota are emphasize with their influence regarding the structure and function of praticol biocenoses. We made the impact matrix zone and local (climatically, pedologically and anthropically) who emphasizing the negative ecological main factors and their effects, as a result of irrational aggressive and maintenance of praticol surface which do to an unreasonable user of trophic potentials.

Geanina Bireescu; Iuliana Breaban; L. Bireescu; E. Teodorescu

2005-01-01

232

ECOLOGICAL AND ENZYMATHICAL STUDY UPON SOIL RESOURCES FROM FOREST ECOSYSTEMS IN MIDDLE PRUT RIVER COURSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rezultatele experimentale prezentate în lucrarea de fa?? fac parte dintr-un studiu ecologic multidisciplinar desf??urat în cadrul Programului Na?ional de Cercetare BIOSTAR în ecosisteme forestiere naturale ?i antropizate din Lunca Prutului (Prisecani Ia?i). Diagnoza ecologic? a solului eviden?iaz? un poten?ial trofic ridicat care nu-i utilizat la optim în sezonul estival foarte secetos. Studiul poten?ialului enzimatic ne prezint? valori mijlocii, ceva mai ridicate în p?duri naturale.

Geanina Bireescu; Lazar Bireescu; Iuliana Breaban; Oana Cristina Stan

2006-01-01

233

What is dental ecology?  

Science.gov (United States)

Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are not dentally adapted. Interpreting these data was only possible by combining our areas of expertise (dental anatomy [FC] and primate ecology [MS]). By integrating theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of both areas of research, we adopted the term "dental ecology"-defined as the broad study of how teeth respond to the environment. Specifically, we view dental ecology as an interpretive framework using teeth as a vehicle for understanding an organism's ecology, which builds upon earlier work, but creates a new synthesis of anatomy and ecology that is only possible with detailed knowledge of living primates. This framework includes (1) identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, within the context of feeding ecology, behavior, habitat variation, and anthropogenic change, (2) assessing ways in which dental development and biogeochemical signals can reflect habitat, environmental change and/or stress, and (3) how dental microstructure and macro-morphology are adapted to, and reflect feeding ecology. Here we define dental ecology, provide a short summary of the development of this perspective, and place our new work into this context. PMID:22610892

Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L

2012-06-01

234

Periodical Ecological Study of Deliya Lake of Visnagar. At. Visnagar. Ta.Visnagar, Gujarat, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visnagar city is located in north Gujarat (72 30 n and 73 30 n 23 0 e and 23 35 e). Visnagar taluka is popularly known as ‘Shikshan Nagari’ and also known as Copper city. The climate of visnagar is tropical arid to marginal semi-arid. It is strongly periodic and seasonal. There are many fresh water bodies are situated at and arou Deliya lake is natural fresh water body having 19 hector area & circular in shape. It is located between latitude230 41’ 60’’N longitude720 32’ 60’’ E. it is oldest lake of visnagar. It is also known as hanuman temple talav. Constructed before 10’th century.nd Visnagar taluka. The present study deals with the physico-chemical status of deliya lake. This water bodies has dense growth of algae and planktons in its. Physico-chemical status of lakes belongs to Visnagar Taluka were studied in year 2011. The physico- chemical parameters show pH, Dissolve Oxygen, totol dissolved Solid, E.C., Chloride, Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Calcium, Calcium Hardness, Magnesium, Magnesium Hardness, Fluoride, Nitrate, COD, BOD, etc and water is essential for living organisms especially like flora and fauna observed through various field trips. Showing abundance of analytic species and spirulina species with many other members of chlorophyceae. Euglenophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and cyanophyceae, microbiological analysis shows positive results for E.Coli, Vibro sp. and many other pathogenic. An isolated area of the lake is totally infested with eicchornia Spe. The migratory and local bird like plegadis falcinellus, Ardea parpurea, Egretta intermediate. Ardeola grayli, Dendrocygna, jaranica (and many more have been observed). If the sewage and other waste are diverted to some appropriate area other than the lake water quality and ecology of the pond can be restored and will be used in drinking and agriculture by the people.

H.V.JOSHI , DR. R.S.PATEL

2013-01-01

235

Radio-ecological study of the Lodeve mining complex (France) 1981-1985  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The radio-ecological study of the Lodeve mining complex (mine + uranium process plant) was carried out between 1981 and 1985. Four aquatic compartments -water, sediments, vegetals, fish- were studied in eight stations selected on the basis of the existence of two liquid wastes. The measurements essentially concerned radium 226 and uranium 238 but also lead 210 (1985), thorium 232, potassium 40 and cesium 137. Spectrometry ? Ge-Li, emanometry and fluorimetry were used. Only a small brook -Rivernoux- an affluent of the Lergue river, shows radium and uranium activity levels higher than those measured upstream of the site; and this for the four compartments. In water, radium is associated with the solved cationic fraction (66%) and with materials in suspension (21%), whereas uranium is essentially associated with the solved anionic fraction (84%); the radium migration potentialities are therefore lesser than that of uranium. Radium distribution in fish is as follows: flesh (5 to 15%), skeleton (12%), viscera (30%) and skin + fins (30%). Radium concentration (or exchange) factors are always higher than those corresponding to uranium. In general, they are more important in non-influenced zones than in influenced zones (Rivernoux); this implies that radium and uranium evacuated by the mining complex are, at least partly, in non bio-available forms. For water/fish exchange a concentration factor of 100 will be considered for radium. On the basis of this value a weekly consumption of 200 g of fried gudgeon gives an annual committed dose equivalent corresponding to 0.86% of the dose authorized for the public (5.10-3 Sv.an-1)

1987-01-01

236

Religious subgroups influencing vaccination coverage in the Dutch Bible belt: an ecological study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Netherlands has experienced epidemics of vaccine preventable diseases largely confined to the Bible belt, an area where -among others- orthodox protestant groups are living. Lacking information on the vaccination coverage in this minority, and its various subgroups, control of vaccine preventable diseases is focused on the geographical area of the Bible belt. However, the adequacy of this strategy is questionable. This study assesses the influence of presence of various orthodox protestant subgroups (orthodox protestant denominations, OPDs) on municipal vaccination coverage in the Bible belt. Methods We performed an ecological study at municipality level. Data on number of inhabitants, urbanization level, socio-economical status, immigration and vaccination coverage were obtained from national databases. As religion is not registered in the Netherlands, membership numbers of the OPDs had to be obtained from church year books and via church offices. For all municipalities in the Netherlands, the effect of presence or absence of OPDs on vaccination coverage was assessed by comparing mean vaccination coverage. For municipalities where OPDs were present, the effect of each of them (measured as membership ratio, the number of members proportional to total number of inhabitants) on vaccination coverage was assessed by bivariate correlation and multiple regression analysis in a model containing the determinants immigration, socio-economical status and urbanization as well. Results Mean vaccination coverage (93.5% ± 4.7) in municipalities with OPDs (n = 135) was significantly lower (p Conclusion As variance in municipal vaccination coverage in the Bible belt is largely explained by membership ratios of the various OPDs, control of vaccine preventable diseases should be focused on these specific risk groups. In current policy part of the orthodox protestant risk group is missed.

Ruijs Wilhelmina LM; Hautvast Jeannine LA; van der Velden Koos; de Vos Sjoerd; Knippenberg Hans; Hulscher Marlies EJL

2011-01-01

237

Anatomical, chemical, and ecological factors affecting tree species choice in dendrochemistry studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently, element concentrations in tree rings have been used to monitor metal contamination, fertilization, and the effects of acid precipitation on soils. This has stimulated interest in which tree species may be suitable for use in studies of long-term trends in environmental chemistry. Potential radial translocation of elements across living boundaries can be a confounding factor in assessing environmental change. The selection of species which minimizes radial translocation of elements can be critical to the success of dendrochemical research. Criteria for selection of species with characteristics favorable for dendrochemical analysis are categorized into (1) habitat-based factors, (2) xylem-based factors, and (3) element-based factors. A wide geographic range and ecological amplitude provide an advantage in calibration and better controls on the effects of soil chemistry. The most important xylem-based criteria are heartwood moisture content, permeability, and the nature of the sapwood-heartwood transition. The element of interest is important in determining suitable tree species because all elements are not equally mobile or detectable in the xylem. Ideally, the tree species selected for dendrochemical study will be long-lived, grow on a wide range of sites over a large geographic distribution, have a distinct heartwood with a low number of rings in the sapwood, a low heartwood moisture content, and have low radial permeability. Recommended temperate zone North American species include white oak (Quercus alba L.), post oak (Q. stellate Wangenh.), eastern redcedar (funiperus virginiana L.), old-growth Douglas-fir [Pseudoaugu menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] and big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.). In addition, species such as bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata Engelm. syn. longaeva), old-growth redwood [Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.], and giant sequoia [S. gigantea (Lindl.) Deene] may be suitable for local purposes. 118 refs., 2 tabs.

Cutter, B.E.; Guyette, R.P. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

1993-07-01

238

Concern about passive smoking and tobacco control policies in European countries: an ecological study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Because of the magnitude of the global tobacco epidemic, the World Health Organisation developed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), an international legally binding treaty to control tobacco use. Adoption and implementation of specific tobacco control measures within FCTC is an outcome of a political process, where social norms and public opinion play important roles. The objective of our study was to examine how a country's level of tobacco control is associated with smoking prevalence, two markers of denormalisation of smoking (social disapproval of smoking and concern about passive smoking), and societal support for tobacco control. METHODS: An ecological study was conducted, using data from two sources. The first source was the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) from 2011, which quantifies the implementation of tobacco control policies in European Union (EU) countries. Data on smoking prevalence, societal disapproval of smoking, concern about passive smoking, and societal support for policy measures were taken from the Eurobarometer survey of 2009. Data from Eurobarometer surveys were aggregated to country level. Data from the 27 European Union member states were used. RESULTS: Smoking prevalence rates in 2009 were negatively associated with a country's TCS 2011 score, although not statistically significant (r = -.25; p = .21). Experience of societal disapproval was positively associated with higher TCS scores, though not significantly (r = .14; p = .48). The same was true for societal support for tobacco control (r = .27; p = .18). The TCS score in 2011 was significantly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .42; p =.03). Support for tobacco control measures was also strongly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .52, p = .006). CONCLUSIONS: Smokers in countries with a higher TCS score were more concerned about whether their smoke harms others. Further, support for tobacco control measures is higher in countries that have more of these concerned smokers. Concerns about passive smoking seem central in the implementation of tobacco control measures, stressing the importance of continuing to educate the public about the harm from passive smoking.

Willemsen MC; Kiselinova M; Nagelhout GE; Joossens L; Knibbe RA

2012-01-01

239

Ecological Indicators ????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ultimate aim of Ecological Indicators is to integrate the monitoring and assessment of ecological and environmental indicators with management practices. The journal provides a forum for the discussion of the applied scientific development and review of traditional indicator approaches as...

240

Ecological Complexity ?????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ecological Complexity is an international journal devoted to the publication of high quality, peer-reviewed articles on all aspects of biocomplexity in the environment, theoretical ecology, and special issues on topics of current interest. The scope of the journal is wide and interdisciplinar...

 
 
 
 
241

Combined assessment and regulation on ecological land use and water demand of the river system: a case study in Luanhe River, North China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With economic and social development, ecological water and land use of the river system were seriously misappropriated, which resulted in overall degradation of the river systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks of regionalisation on the eco-environmental function of the river systems were preliminarily formulated. According to the river eco-environmental functions, Luanhe River was regionalised into four types of first-class functional areas, i.e., ecological preservation areas, habitat restoration areas, ecological buffer areas and development and utilisation areas. Combined with the main functions of all functional areas, ecological land use of the river system in Luanhe River was assessed and planned. The total area of basic ecological land use was 876.98 km2; that of restrictive ecological land use was 1745.52 km2; that of ecological land use of the river system returned from farmland was 284.25 km2; and that returned from construction land was 17.35 km2. Combined with prototype observation experiments, the average minimum ecological flow of mainstreams in upper and middle reaches of the Luanhe River was 4.896 m3 s?1 with the habitat method. The evaporation and seepage consumption of the river system in Luanhe River and vegetation consumption in riparian zones were about 133 million m3 and 145 million m3 per year, respectively. Downwards from the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system, the mainstream of the Luanhe River was the crucial reach for regulation on instream ecological water use. It was required to speed up ecological land use planning of the river system and strengthen the regulation of ecological water use in important lower reaches of the Luanhe River under the condition of competitive water demand.

D. H. Yan; G. Wang; H. Wang; T. L. Qin

2011-01-01

242

Women and environment. A socio-ecological study for women on the reformation of the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This study addresses the following issues: contributions to improve our environment; the impact of pollutants on our health; the pollution of food and water; water quality regulations. Protection of the environment is defined as the sum total of measures that safeguard woman's natural environment and maintain a biological equilibrium. The efficiency of technological solutions to protect the environment is strictly limited by ecological factors. The goal of environmental protection is to ensure the survival of womankind. Just like plants and animals, the human race is part of an ecosystem. Once this system is destroyed, there is nothing technical measures of environmental protection can do to reverse the process. Life on earth depends on the equilibrium between the oxygen produced by chlorophyllous plants and the oxygen consumed by human beings, animals and technological processes. My interviews with young women and children show that women could contribute very much to the melioration of the environment. The majority of women is trying to switch to non-chemically engineered products, which improves the quality of our water. Biological gardening is preferred by a small minority of women only, but many women take the separation of waste very seriously. However, individual actions can do little to solve the problem of pollution caused by road and air traffic. Life in the fast lane condemns us to the use of cars and airplanes. In the foreseeable future, this means more rather than less pollution. With genetic engineering developing at a breathtaking rate, it seems impossible to avoid a large-scale modification of our food and agricultural produce. So far, many Austrian women fail to appreciate the trend towards genetic manipulation. Neither on the farm nor in the food products themselves is it possible to distinguish genetically engineered innovations. However, behind the consumer's back, this revolution of the food industry is pushed through at an ever greater speed. Because a majority of the population rejects such foodstuffs outright. Nevertheless, genetically engineered food products have already found their way into Austrian groceries stores, and this development is set to gather pace in years to come. This study gives priority to the question whether women can improve the environment. As I have mentioned before, women can indeed contribute to an improvement of the environment. However, only big ecological organizations can return nature to its pristine state, but any such efforts are currently foiled by the greed for profit of large corporations. As a conclusion of this study, it is fair to say that women can contribute to the reformation of the environment, for instance by reducing the toxic discharge into rivers and lakes, by separating waste and promoting recycled products, and by relying on biological products to promote a healthier lifestyle. The substitution of fossil fuels with electric power or natural gas for heating purposes clearly improves the quality of the air in one's own private environment. Green belts in residential areas and plants in the house are sources of oxygen that protect the respiratory system against damaging environmental influences. The survey also showed that women do not know enough about a healthy lifestyle, but they are eager to learn more about this issue. Several statements revealed interesting experiences. If women are increasingly interested in a healthy environment and turn to biologically farmed natural products, the soil will be able to regenerate, and this would clearly benefit the environment. (author)

2000-01-01

243

Radio-ecological studies on the river Lippe (1982-1983)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In 1982 and 1983 the Laboratory for Radio-ecology of water bodies of the Federal Institute for Fishery performed radio-ecological studies on the river Lippe, on the Datteln-Hamm-Canal and on one section of the Rhine near the city of Wesel in order to enable expert examination of the population's exposure to radiation originating from effluents of the planned Hamm Nuclear Power Plant (HNP). The present-day distribution of artificial and natural radionuclides in water, fish, seston, sediment and in drill cores from the Lippe and the pastures lying within the flood area was examined using radio-chemical methods and the nuclear-radiation measurement technique. The contents of the stable elements of antimony, nickel, cobalt, zinc, manganese, iron, silver and phosphorus in water and fish were determined to obtain some suggestions concerning the behaviour of radionuclides which are expected in the waste water of the HNP but which cannot be found in the environment at present. Concerning uptake and incorporation of radioactive nuclides in the bodies of fish from the Lippe and the Rhine section studied, mean concentration factors could be calculated from the measured values for the state of equilibrium. One single-time emission with the cooling water of the Westfalen nuclear power plant was examined using the inactive tracer of Dysprosium in order to study the behaviour of the emission cloud when running off with the river water. With this examination, complete cross-mixing at 800 m downstream from the cooling-water re-entry building was found at a Lippe downstream flow rate of 22 cbm/s which corresponds to its annual mean. The down-stream flow graph could be described by a dispersion graph showing a marked trailing effect. The cloud-fail values which were higher compared with those of the graph, could possibly be explained by recirculation obtaining with cooling water influx. (orig.)[de] Um eine gutachterliche Ueberpruefung der Strahlenexposition der Bevoelkerung durch die Ableitungen des geplanten Kernkraftwerkes Hamm (KKH) zu ermoeglichen, wurden durch das Labor fuer Radiooekologie der Gewaesser der Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Fischerei in den Jahren 1982 und 1983 radiooekologische Studien in der Lippe, dem Datteln-Hamm-Kanal, sowie in einem Abschnitt des Rheines bei Wesel durchgefuehrt. Unter Anwendung radiochemischer Methoden und mit Hilfe der Kernstrahlungsmesstechnik wurde die derzeitige Verteilung von kuenstlichen und natuerlichen Radionukliden im Wasser, in den Fischen, im Seston, im Sediment sowie in Bohrkernen aus der Lippe und dem im Ueberschwemmungsbereich liegenden Weideland untersucht. Um einen Hinweis auf das Verhalten der Radionuklide zu erhalten, die im Abwasser des KKH erwartet werden, aber zur Zeit nicht in der Umwelt gefunden werden koennen, wurden die Gehalte der stabilen Elemente Antimon, Nickel, Kobalt, Zink, Mangan, Eisen, Silber und Phosphor im Wasser und in den Fischen bestimmt. Fuer die Aufnahme radioaktiver Nuklide in das Fleisch der Fische aus der Lippe und dem untersuchten Rheinabschnitt wurden aus den Messwerten fuer den Gleichgewichtsfall die mittleren Konzentrationsfaktoren berechnet. Mit dem inaktiven Tracer Dysprosium wurde eine einmalige Emission mit dem Kuehlwasser des Kraftwerkes Westfalen untersucht, um das Verhalten der Emissionswolke beim Ablaufen mit dem Flusswasser zu studieren. Bei dieser Untersuchung wurde bei einem Lippeabfluss von 22 m3/s, was einem mittleren Jahresabfluss entspricht, eine vollstaendige Querdurchmischung 800 m unterhalb des Wiedereinleitbauwerkes festgestellt. Die abfliessende Kurve liess sich durch eine Dispersionskurve beschreiben. Dabei wurde ein ausgepraegter Trailing-Effekt erkannt. Die gegenueber der Kurve erhoehten Werte am Ende der Wolke koennten durch eine Rezirkulation bei der Kuehlwassereinleitung erklaert werden. (orig./MG)

1984-01-01

244

Sudbury soils study : human health and ecological risk assessment : a case study in science, process and perception  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation discussed the public relations and public opinion strategies used as part of a soils study conducted to assess the risk of mining activities in the Sudbury region to human health and the environment. The human health risk assessment (HHRA) study was conducted and administered by a multi-stakeholder technical committee attended by the public. The study was comprised of extensive soil collection and analysis; a review of historical soils data; and extensive human health and ecological risk assessments. Extensive sampling was also conducted on air, dust, and locally-produced foods. A public advisory committee was formed to disseminate scientific information to the community. Scientific data obtained in the study were reviewed by experts in various fields. Results of the study were also peer-reviewed by an independent expert review panel comprised of leading specialists in human health, toxicology, speciation, and risk assessment. The study showed that the identified risks were over-estimated in the interest of protecting human health. It was concluded that the HHRA's findings were generally accepted by the public. tabs., figs.

2009-01-01

245

Extremely low frequency (ELF) communication system--ecological monitoring program: Wisconsin bird studies. Final report, June 1984-September 1990  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was designed to isolate effects of electromagnetic (EM) fields produced by extremely low frequency (ELF) antenna systems on bird species breeding in or migrating through Wisconsin. Specifically, the aim was to determine any differences in bird species richness and abundance between areas close to the antenna and those far enough away to be unaffected by the antenna. Characteristics examined included total species richness and abundance, abundance of common bird species, and abundance of birds within selected guilds. Measurements of vegetation identified differences and similarities between control and treatment areas. Habitat variables were used in analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare numbers of abundant bird species in control versus treatment areas after adjustments for habitat differences. Extremely low frequency, Ecology, Electromagnetic fields, ELF Communications system, Environmental studies, ELF Ecological monitoring program.

Hanowski, J.M.; Blake, J.G.; Niemi, G.J.; Collins, P.T.

1991-02-01

246

Comparative transcriptome profiling analyses during the lag phase uncover YAP1, PDR1, PDR3, RPN4, and HSF1 as key regulatory genes in genomic adaptation to the lignocellulose derived inhibitor HMF for Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to adapt and in situ detoxify lignocellulose derived inhibitors such as furfural and HMF. The length of lag phase for cell growth in response to the inhibitor challenge has been used to measure tolerance of strain performance. Mechanisms of yeast tolerance at the genome level remain unknown. Using systems biology approach, this study investigated comparative transcriptome profiling, metabolic profiling, cell growth response, and gene regulatory interactions of yeast strains and selective gene deletion mutations in response to HMF challenges during the lag phase of growth. Results We identified 365 candidate genes and found at least 3 significant components involving some of these genes that enable yeast adaptation and tolerance to HMF in yeast. First, functional enzyme coding genes such as ARI1, ADH6, ADH7, and OYE3, as well as gene interactions involved in the biotransformation and inhibitor detoxification were the direct driving force to reduce HMF damages in cells. Expressions of these genes were regulated by YAP1 and its closely related regulons. Second, a large number of PDR genes, mainly regulated by PDR1 and PDR3, were induced during the lag phase and the PDR gene family-centered functions, including specific and multiple functions involving cellular transport such as TPO1, TPO4, RSB1, PDR5, PDR15, YOR1, and SNQ2, promoted cellular adaptation and survival in order to cope with the inhibitor stress. Third, expressed genes involving degradation of damaged proteins and protein modifications such as SHP1 and SSA4, regulated by RPN4, HSF1, and other co-regulators, were necessary for yeast cells to survive and adapt the HMF stress. A deletion mutation strain ?rpn4 was unable to recover the growth in the presence of HMF. Conclusions Complex gene interactions and regulatory networks as well as co-regulations exist in yeast adaptation and tolerance to the lignocellulose derived inhibitor HMF. Both induced and repressed genes involving diversified functional categories are accountable for adaptation and energy rebalancing in yeast to survive and adapt the HMF stress during the lag phase of growth. Transcription factor genes YAP1, PDR1, PDR3, RPN4, and HSF1 appeared to play key regulatory rules for global adaptation in the yeast S. cerevisiae.

Ma Menggen; Liu Z Lewis

2010-01-01

247

Using the Urban Environment to Engage Youths in Urban Ecology Field Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

|Recent science education reform proponents explicitly put forward the idea that all students, regardless of culture, gender, race, or socioeconomic status, are capable of understanding and doing science. To address this need, the authors have developed and implemented a field-based urban ecology science program to engage traditionally…

Barnett, Michael; Lord, Charles; Strauss, Eric; Rosca, Camelia; Langford, Heather; Chavez, Dawn; Deni, Leah

2006-01-01

248

Urban Environmental Education: Leveraging Technology and Ecology to Engage Students in Studying the Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

|In this paper, we describe the outcomes of the first year of an intensive, urban ecology focused, summer program for urban high school youth. Students in our program conduct scientific investigations of their urban ecosystems while exploring potential career options in science and technology fields. In conducting their investigations, the…

Barnett, Michael; Vaughn, Meredith Houle; Strauss, Eric; Cotter, Lindsey

2011-01-01

249

A system-wide approach to explaining variation in potentially avoidable emergency admissions: national ecological study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Some emergency admissions can be avoided if acute exacerbations of health problems are managed by the range of health services providing emergency and urgent care. AIM: To identify system-wide factors explaining variation in age sex adjusted admission rates for conditions rich in avoidable admissions. DESIGN: National ecological study. SETTING: 152 emergency and urgent care systems in England. METHODS: Hospital Episode Statistics data on emergency admissions were used to calculate an age sex adjusted admission rate for conditions rich in avoidable admissions for each emergency and urgent care system in England for 2008-2011. RESULTS: There were 3 273 395 relevant admissions in 2008-2011, accounting for 22% of all emergency admissions. The mean age sex adjusted admission rate was 2258 per year per 100 000 population, with a 3.4-fold variation between systems (1268 and 4359). Factors beyond the control of health services explained the majority of variation: unemployment rates explained 72%, with urban/rural status explaining further variation (R(2)=75%). Factors related to emergency departments, hospitals, emergency ambulance services and general practice explained further variation (R(2)=85%): the attendance rate at emergency departments, percentage of emergency department attendances converted to admissions, percentage of emergency admissions staying less than a day, percentage of emergency ambulance calls not transported to hospital and perceived access to general practice within 48 h. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to reduce avoidable admissions should be targeted at deprived communities. Better use of emergency departments, ambulance services and primary care could further reduce avoidable emergency admissions.

O'Cathain A; Knowles E; Maheswaran R; Pearson T; Turner J; Hirst E; Goodacre S; Nicholl J

2013-07-01

250

Factors associated with maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: an ecological study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal health is one of the major worldwide health challenges. Currently, the unacceptably high levels of maternal mortality are a common subject in global health and development discussions. Although some countries have made remarkable progress, half of the maternal deaths in the world still take place in Sub-Saharan Africa where little or no progress has been made. There is no single simple, straightforward intervention that will significantly decrease maternal mortality alone; however, there is a consensus on the importance of a strong health system, skilled delivery attendants, and women's rights for maternal health. Our objective was to describe and determine different factors associated with the maternal mortality ratio in Sub-Saharan countries. Methods An ecological multi-group study compared variables between many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa using data collected between 1997 and 2006. The dependent variable was the maternal mortality ratio, and Health care system-related, educational and economic indicators were the independent variables. Information sources included the WHO, World Bank, UNICEF and UNDP. Results Maternal mortality ratio values in Sub-Saharan Africa were demonstrated to be high and vary enormously among countries. A relationship between the maternal mortality ratio and some educational, sanitary and economic factors was observed. There was an inverse and significant correlation of the maternal mortality ratio with prenatal care coverage, births assisted by skilled health personnel, access to an improved water source, adult literacy rate, primary female enrolment rate, education index, the Gross National Income per capita and the per-capita government expenditure on health. Conclusions Education and an effective and efficient health system, especially during pregnancy and delivery, are strongly related to maternal death. Also, macro-economic factors are related and could be influencing the others.

Alvarez Jose; Gil Ruth; Hernández Valentín; Gil Angel

2009-01-01

251

Areca Nut Chewing and Risk of Atrial Fibrillation in Taiwanese Men: A Nationwide Ecological Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Areca nut chewing is associated with the risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and cardiovascular mortality. Although a few case reports or case series have suggested the link between areca nut chewing and cardiac arrhythmias, information about the relationship between areca nut chewing and atrial fibrillation (AF) is lacking. Thus, a nationwide ecological study was conducted to investigate this. Methods: Two national datasets, the nationwide population-based 2005 Taiwan National Health Insurance Research dataset (NHIRD) and the 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), were used for analyses. The clinical characteristics, inhabited area and medical histories for 375,360 eligible males were retrieved from the 2005 NHIRD. Health related behaviors including areca nut chewing, cigarette smoking, infrequent vegetable eating, and exercise habit were collected from the 2005 NHIS. The prevalence of AF and the areca nut chewing rate were evaluated by multivariate analysis. Results: Of the 375,360 males (mean age, 44 years old), 1,326 (0.35%) were diagnosed with AF. The higher areca nut chewing rate, the higher prevalence rate of AF in Taiwan (Spearman correlation coefficient r = 0.558, p = 0.007). After adjusting for other covariates, the current areca nut chewing rate was found to be independently associated with the prevalence of AF. The adjusted odd ratio for areca nut chewing was 1.02 (95% CI = 1.00-1.04) in risk of AF prevalence. Conclusions: Areca nut chewing is independently associated with the prevalence of AF in Taiwanese men. However, further exploration of the underlying mechanisms is necessary.

Tsai, Wei-Chung; Chen, Chung-Yu; Kuo, Hsuan-Fu; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Tang, Wei-Hua; Chu, Chih-Sheng; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Su, Ho-Ming; Hsu, Po-Chao; Jhuo, Shih-Jie; Lin, Ming-Yen; Lee, Kun-Tai; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung; Lai, Wen-Ter

2013-01-01

252

Collective trauma in northern Sri Lanka: a qualitative psychosocial-ecological study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex situations that follow war and natural disasters have a psychosocial impact on not only the individual but also on the family, community and society. Just as the mental health effects on the individual psyche can result in non pathological distress as well as a variety of psychiatric disorders; massive and widespread trauma and loss can impact on family and social processes causing changes at the family, community and societal levels. Method This qualitative, ecological study is a naturalistic, psychosocial ethnography in Northern Sri Lanka, while actively involved in psychosocial and community mental health programmes among the Tamil community. Participatory observation, key informant interviews and focus group discussion with community level relief and rehabilitation workers and government and non-governmental officials were used to gather data. The effects on the community of the chronic, man-made disaster, war, in Northern Sri Lanka were compared with the contexts found before the war and after the tsunami. Results Fundamental changes in the functioning of the family and the community were observed. While the changes after the tsunami were not so prominent, the chronic war situation caused more fundamental social transformations. At the family level, the dynamics of single parent families, lack of trust among members, and changes in significant relationships, and child rearing practices were seen. Communities tended to be more dependent, passive, silent, without leadership, mistrustful, and suspicious. Additional adverse effects included the breakdown in traditional structures, institutions and familiar ways of life, and deterioration in social norms and ethics. A variety of community level interventions were tried. Conclusion Exposure to conflict, war and disaster situations impact on fundamental family and community dynamics resulting in changes at a collective level. Relief, rehabilitation and development programmes to be effective will need to address the problem of collective trauma, particularly using integrated multi-level approaches.

Somasundaram Daya

2007-01-01

253

Areca nut chewing and risk of atrial fibrillation in Taiwanese men: a nationwide ecological study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Areca nut chewing is associated with the risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and cardiovascular mortality. Although a few case reports or case series have suggested the link between areca nut chewing and cardiac arrhythmias, information about the relationship between areca nut chewing and atrial fibrillation (AF) is lacking. Thus, a nationwide ecological study was conducted to investigate this. METHODS: Two national datasets, the nationwide population-based 2005 Taiwan National Health Insurance Research dataset (NHIRD) and the 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), were used for analyses. The clinical characteristics, inhabited area and medical histories for 375,360 eligible males were retrieved from the 2005 NHIRD. Health related behaviors including areca nut chewing, cigarette smoking, infrequent vegetable eating, and exercise habit were collected from the 2005 NHIS. The prevalence of AF and the areca nut chewing rate were evaluated by multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Of the 375,360 males (mean age, 44 years old), 1,326 (0.35%) were diagnosed with AF. The higher areca nut chewing rate, the higher prevalence rate of AF in Taiwan (Spearman correlation coefficient r=0.558, p=0.007). After adjusting for other covariates, the current areca nut chewing rate was found to be independently associated with the prevalence of AF. The adjusted odd ratio for areca nut chewing was 1.02 (95% CI=1.00-1.04) in risk of AF prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Areca nut chewing is independently associated with the prevalence of AF in Taiwanese men. However, further exploration of the underlying mechanisms is necessary.

Tsai WC; Chen CY; Kuo HF; Wu MT; Tang WH; Chu CS; Lin TH; Su HM; Hsu PC; Jhuo SJ; Lin MY; Lee KT; Sheu SH; Lai WT

2013-01-01

254

Prodromal functioning of migraine patients relative to their interictal state--an ecological momentary assessment study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Smartphones were used in an online Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) design to test prodromal functioning relative to the interictal state in migraine patients. Eighty-seven participants completed an electronic diary 4 times daily during 3-6 weeks to monitor their migraine attacks. Twice daily the diary additionally included 16 multi-answer questions covering physical symptoms (30 items), cognitive-affective functioning (25 items) and external factors (25 items). Eight clustered prodromal features were identified in the current study: sensory sensitivity, pain/stiffness, fatigue, cognitive functioning, positive affect, negative affect, effort spent and stressors encountered. Per feature, individual change scores with interictal control days--excluding 24-hour post-attack recovery--were computed for six 12-hour pre-attack time windows covering three prodromal days. Linear mixed model (fixed-effect) analysis established significant increases in sensory sensitivity, pain/stiffness and fatigue, and a tendency for increased negative affect, in the 12 hours prior to the attack. Positive affect and cognitive functioning were impaired both in the 25-36 hour and--more strongly--in the 12-hour time window before the attack. No effects were found for effort spent and stressors encountered. Exploratory (random effect) analysis revealed significant individual differences in the change scores in sensory sensitivity, pain/stiffness, fatigue and negative affect. It is concluded that the prodromal change in migraine--relative to interictal functioning--predominantly exists within the last 12 hours before attack onset. Individual diversity is large, however. Future research should zoom in to identify prodrome development within the 12 pre-attack hours as well as to isolate individual patterns.

Houtveen JH; Sorbi MJ

2013-01-01

255

Urban green and its relation with air pollution: ecological studies in the Metropolitan area of Rome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tropospheric ozone (O3) and Particulate Matter (PM) have become a major concern in most European cities. In particular, in Italy the O3 concentrations exceed the limits established for the protection of both human health and vegetation. More integrative studies are revealing that urban trees could concretely help in improving air quality, not only because of their well known aesthetic and recreational benefit, but also for their capability to reduce air temperature and to remove air pollutants. This reduction takes place both directly, by dry deposition to plant surfaces and uptake through stomata, and indirectly, by mitigation of the urban heat island intensity by canopy transpiration and building shading, that lowers the activity of chemical reactions that led to the formation of photochemical pollutants in air. This is of particular importance especially for those cities located in the Mediterranean Basin, whose urban vegetation is often characterized by VOC-emitting species that can contribute significantly to the O3 formation and destruction dynamics. The aim of this paper is to present a short review of ecological research performed on vegetation of the metropolitan area of Rome, at different spatial and temporal scale, in order to evaluate the functional role of urban green to monitor and improve urban air quality. In the frame of the project HEREPLUS (EU FP7), all of this information, opportunely integrated with climatic and pollutant data, will be implemented in a GIS and, by the use of geo-statistical methods, the ameliorating effect of urban vegetation will be quantified and mapped.

Fausto Manes; Elisabetta Salvatori; Giuseppe La Torre; Paolo Villari; Marcello Vitale; Daniele Biscontini; Guido Incerti

2008-01-01

256

Socio-ecological adaptation to climate change: A comparative case study from the Mediterranean wine industry in France and Australia  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The article aims to present a systemic and comparative framework to study adaptation to climate change in agricultural systems. Mediterranean viticulture, projected to experience significant and rapid changes in climate, is used as a case study. We apply an international socio-ecological approach focusing on viticulture in Roussillon (France) and McLaren Vale (Australia). Mixed-methods, including analysis of meteorological data, semi-structured interviews and field observations, guide an analysis of the exposure, sensitivity and adaptation of the two viticultural systems to climate change. We found that the exposure to climate change is likely to become more acute in the two regions by 2060, and that the sensitivity and adaptive capacity of viticultural systems to such change depend strongly on the complex interaction of ecological and socio-economic factors. Most studies focusing on viticulture and climate change are either oriented towards plant physiology, phenological modelling or the economic future of the industry in one region. The research bridges discipline approaches to provide a holistic comparative analysis to guide adaptation, and argues that socio-ecological analyses will become increasingly important to support adaptation decision-making.

Lereboullet AL; Beltrando G; Bardsley DK

2013-01-01

257

Terrestrial animal ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Animal Ecology project is an integral part of the terrestrial ecology program. For convenience, it is reported separately because of the specialized nature of its techniques. It includes studies to characterize faunal populations taxonomically and ecologically and to estimate density and biomass of important mammal, bird, herpetofauna, and invertebrate populations. Extensive studies of small mammal populations conducted in past years are being summarized for open literature publication. Methodology and techniques developed in the animal ecology program are expected to be vital to studies to be initiated under a newly funded 189 entitled Radioecology of Waste Management Zones. These kinds of supportive studies will be needed to determine dietary habits of important animals inhabiting waste management zones, construction of realistic food chain models, and estimating radioactivity doses to biota

1976-01-01

258

Ecological study of the fungal populations of the acidic Tinto River in southwestern Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

The characterization of the microbial ecology of the Tinto River, an extreme habitat with an extremely low pH and a high concentration of heavy metals, revealed an unexpected level of microbial richness. A variety of microbial eukaryotes was isolated, among them several fungal strains that were identified and their physiological characteristics studied. Ninety strains of yeast were isolated from the Tinto River. Fifty-two percent of them were capable of growth in vitro using medium amended with river water. They belong to 6 genera of basidiomycetes (Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus, Tremella, Holtermannia, Leucosporidium, and Mrakia) and 2 of ascomycetes (Candida and Williopsis). In addition, 349 strains of hyphomycetes belonging to 17 genera (most of them ascomycetes) were isolated and studied. Forty-four percent of the isolated filamentous fungi (154 strains) were capable of growing in vitro using medium amended with Tinto River water. Of this percentage, 19% (29 strains) belonged to the genus Penicillium (16 species) and 66% (102 strains) were included in the genera Scytalidium, Bahusakala, Phoma, and Heteroconium or showed dark sterile mycelia, which probably are of dematiaceous hyphomycetes. In addition, we characterized strains of the ascomycete genera Lecythophora and Acremonium and of the zygomycete genus Mortierella, all of them capable of growing in medium amended with river water. Statistical correlation of biological and physicochemical variables suggested a positive relationship between the dematiaceous hyphomycetes and the most extreme physicochemical conditions found in the Tinto River. Principal components analysis confirmed this relationship and also showed that the Acremonium and Lecythophora groups had environmental preferences similar to those of dematiaceous fungi. The spatial positions of the sampling sites were grouped in 2 main clusters: (i) sampling sites in the mine zone in which most of the dematiaceous, Acremonium, and Lecythophora strains were isolated and (ii) sites that were not in the mine zone and sampling station 5 from which were isolated mainly strains of fungi that were not capable of growing in the medium amended with river water and species of the Penicillium genus. PMID:15644909

López-Archilla, A I; González, A E; Terrón, M C; Amils, R

2004-11-01

259

Using Parallel Computers To Simulate Individual--Oriented Models In Ecology: A Case Study  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One major drawback using individual--oriented modelsin ecology is the computing performance necessary fortheir simulation. This is especially true for modelswhich are best analysed by observing an animatedoutput while running the simulation and interactivelychanging the systems behavior. Today, the necessaryperformance can only be made available by parallelcomputers. Although the advantages of parallel computersused in the field of ecology are widely accepted(Haefner 1992; Villa 1992), only few examples ofindividual--oriented models being implemented on parallelhardware exist. This paper demonstrates the useof so called MIMD--computers (multiple instructionsmultiple data) as well as the use of SIMD--computers(single instruction multiple data) for an individual--oriented model of schooling fishes (Huth and Wissel1992). From the given results we draw some generalconclusions about the use of parallel computers for thesimulation of individual--oriented models.INTRODUCTI...

Helmut Lorek; Michael Sonnenschein

260

Using Parallel Computers To Simulate Individual-Oriented Models In Ecology: A Case Study  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One major drawback using individual--oriented modelsin ecology is the computing performance necessary fortheir simulation. This is especially true for modelswhich are best analysed by observing an animatedoutput while running the simulation and interactivelychanging the systems behavior. Today, the necessaryperformance can only be made available by parallelcomputers. Although the advantages of parallel computersused in the field of ecology are widely accepted(Haefner 1992; Villa 1992), only few examples ofindividual--oriented models being implemented on parallelhardware exist. This paper demonstrates the useof so called MIMD--computers (multiple instructionsmultiple data) as well as the use of SIMD--computers(single instruction multiple data) for an individual--oriented model of schooling fishes (Huth and Wissel1992). From the given results we draw some generalconclusions about the use of parallel computers for thesimulation of individual--oriented models.INTRODUCTI...

Helmut Lorek; Michael Sonnenschein

 
 
 
 
261

Urban Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

When people think about the concept and idea of ecology, they may not immediately picture a bustling urban street or a network of interconnected bike paths. Since 1975, a group of architects and activists have been thinking about exactly those things in terms of urban ecology (and a good deal more to boot), coupling it with a conviction that urban ecology can draw on ecology, public participation and urban planning "to help design and build healthier cities." Given these ideas, it seems logical that this organization has its roots in the Bay Area, and continues to offer up interesting plans and proposals, many of which can be found on the website. One such document is the Walkable Streets Toolkit, which is designed for use by communities that seek to make their streets more pedestrian friendly. Additionally, visitors will want to look at current and past editions of The Urban Ecologist, which is the group's quarterly newsletter.

262

Phytoplankton Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

This site describes phytoplankton ecology research by marine ecologists at Mote Marine Laboratory (MML), an independent, nonprofit research organization based in Sarasota, Florida. The emphasis of MML's phytoplankton ecology research is the photophysiology of marine algae -- with recent emphasis on the ability to predict and possibly mitigate blooms of the toxic marine dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium breve. The no-frills phytoplankton ecology homepage describes research and offers data (maps, figures, tables) from 1998 and 1999 projects on Red Tide transects, Nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations, and Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (ECOHAB) transect data, among several others. The site also offers general information on Red Tides, Red Tide conditions in Southwest Florida, a chronology of historic Red Tide events, and links to related resources.

263

A method for under-sampled ecological network data analysis: plant-pollination as case study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we develop a method, termed the Interaction Distribution (ID) method, for analysis of quantitative ecological network data. In many cases, quantitative network data sets are under-sampled, i.e. many interactions are poorly sampled or remain unobserved. Hence, the output of statistical analyses may fail to differentiate between patterns that are statistical artefacts and those which are real characteristics of ecological networks. The ID method can support assessment and inference of under-sampled ecological network data. In the current paper, we illustrate and discuss the ID method based on the properties of plant-animal pollination data sets of flower visitation frequencies. However, the ID method may be applied to other types of ecological networks. The method can supplement existing network analyses based on two definitions of the underlying probabilities for each combination of pollinator and plant species: (1), pi,j: the probability for a visit made by the i’th pollinator species to take place on the j’th plant species; (2), qi,j: the probability for a visit received by the j’th plant species to be made by the i’th pollinator. The method applies the Dirichlet distribution to estimate these two probabilities, based on a given empirical data set. The estimated mean values for pi,j and qi,j reflect the relative differences between recorded numbers of visits for different pollinator and plant species, and the estimated uncertainty of pi,j and qi,j decreases with higher numbers of recorded visits.

Peter B. Sorensen; Christian F. Damgaard; Beate Strandberg; Yoko L Dupont; Marianne B Pedersen; Luisa G. Carvalheiro; Jacobus C. Biesmeijer; Jens Mogens Olsen; Melanie Hagen; Simon G Potts

2012-01-01

264

Linking Ecological and Perceptual Assessments for Environmental Management: a Coral Reef Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Integrating information from a range of community members in environmental management provides a more complete assessment of the problem and a diversification of management options, but is difficult to achieve. To investigate the relationship between different environmental interpretations, I compared three distinct measures of anchor damage on coral reefs: ecological measures, perceptual meanings, and subjective health judgments. The ecological measures identified an increase in the number of overturned corals and a reduction in coral cover, the perceptual meanings identified a loss of visual quality, and the health judgments identified a reduction in the health of the coral reef sites associated with high levels of anchoring. Combining the perceptual meanings and health judgments identified that the judgment of environmental health was a key feature that both scientific and lay participants used to describe the environment. Some participants in the survey were familiar with the coral reef environment, and others were not. However, they provided consistent judgment of a healthy coral reef, suggesting that these judgments were not linked to present-day experiences. By combining subjective judgments and ecological measures, the point at which the environment is deemed to lose visual quality was identified; for these coral reefs, if the level of damage rose above 10.3% and the cover of branching corals dropped below 17.1%, the reefs were described as unhealthy. Therefore, by combining the information, a management agency can involve the community in identifying when remedial action is required or when management policies are effectively maintaining a healthy ecosystem.

Elizabeth A. Dinsdale

2009-01-01

265

Floristical and Ecological Studies on Burned Blackpine (Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb) Holmboe) Forest Area at Central Anatolia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the burned forest area between 1999-2002 the floristical and ecological studies were conducted. In this period, successional development of the area was observed. After the fire in 1995, new life forms migrated from unburned parts of Sundiken Mountains and occupied the burned area in 7-8 years. There were 133 plant taxa were collected at the first year of the study and during the successional development the number of plant taxa decreased to 75. The secondary succession of the area were determined between 1999-2002. After the fire the dominant plant species of the study area is Cistus laurifolius.

Atila Ocak; Latif Kurt; Mehmet Oz; G. Nilhan Tug

2007-01-01

266

Age adjustment in ecological studies: using a study on arsenic ingestion and bladder cancer as an example  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its limitations, ecological study design is widely applied in epidemiology. In most cases, adjustment for age is necessary, but different methods may lead to different conclusions. To compare three methods of age adjustment, a study on the associations between arsenic in drinking water and incidence of bladder cancer in 243 townships in Taiwan was used as an example. Methods A total of 3068 cases of bladder cancer, including 2276 men and 792 women, were identified during a ten-year study period in the study townships. Three methods were applied to analyze the same data set on the ten-year study period. The first (Direct Method) applied direct standardization to obtain standardized incidence rate and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis. The second (Indirect Method) applied indirect standardization to obtain standardized incidence ratio and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis instead. The third (Variable Method) used proportions of residents in different age groups as a part of the independent variables in the multiple regression models. Results All three methods showed a statistically significant positive association between arsenic exposure above 0.64 mg/L and incidence of bladder cancer in men and women, but different results were observed for the other exposure categories. In addition, the risk estimates obtained by different methods for the same exposure category were all different. Conclusions Using an empirical example, the current study confirmed the argument made by other researchers previously that whereas the three different methods of age adjustment may lead to different conclusions, only the third approach can obtain unbiased estimates of the risks. The third method can also generate estimates of the risk associated with each age group, but the other two are unable to evaluate the effects of age directly.

Guo How-Ran

2011-01-01

267

Constructing ecologies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We synthesize the generic properties of ecologically realistic multi-trophic level models and define criteria for ecological realism. We define an "ecospace" in which all ecologically realistic dynamics are confined, and construct "resource rays" that define the resources available to each species at every point in the ecospace. Resource rays for a species are lines from a vertex of maximum resource to the opposite boundary where no resources are available. The growth functions of all biota normally decrease along their resource rays, and change sign from positive to negative. This property prescribes that each species must have a zero isosurface within the ecospace. We illustrate our conditions on a highly cited three trophic level model from population dynamics, showing how to extend this system biologically consistently to a closed ecological system. Our synthesis extends the concept of carrying capacity of population models to explicitly include exhaustion of limiting resources, and so allows for population biology models to be considered as ecologically closed systems with respect to a key limiting nutrient. This approach unifies many theoretical and applied models in a common biogeochemical framework, facilitates better understanding of the key structures of complex ecologies, and suggests strategies for efficient design of experiments.

Cropp R; Norbury J

2012-02-01

268

An ecological time-series study of heat-related mortality in three European cities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Europe has experienced warmer summers in the past two decades and there is a need to describe the determinants of heat-related mortality to better inform public health activities during hot weather. We investigated the effect of high temperatures on daily mortality in three cities in Europe (Budapest, London, and Milan), using a standard approach. Methods An ecological time-series study of daily mortality was conducted in three cities using Poisson generalized linear models allowing for over-dispersion. Secular trends in mortality and seasonal confounding factors were controlled for using cubic smoothing splines of time. Heat exposure was modelled using average values of the temperature measure on the same day as death (lag 0) and the day before (lag 1). The heat effect was quantified assuming a linear increase in risk above a cut-point for each city. Socio-economic status indicators and census data were linked with mortality data for stratified analyses. Results The risk of heat-related death increased with age, and females had a greater risk than males in age groups ?65 years in London and Milan. The relative risks of mortality (per °C) above the heat cut-point by gender and age were: (i) Male 1.10 (95%CI: 1.07–1.12) and Female 1.07 (1.05–1.10) for 75–84 years, (ii) M 1.10 (1.06–1.14) and F 1.08 (1.06–1.11) for ?85 years in Budapest (?24°C); (i) M 1.03 (1.01–1.04) and F 1.07 (1.05–1.09), (ii) M 1.05 (1.03–1.07) and F 1.08 (1.07–1.10) in London (?20°C); and (i) M 1.08 (1.03–1.14) and F 1.20 (1.15–1.26), (ii) M 1.18 (1.11–1.26) and F 1.19 (1.15–1.24) in Milan (?26°C). Mortality from external causes increases at higher temperatures as well as that from respiratory and cardiovascular disease. There was no clear evidence of effect modification by socio-economic status in either Budapest or London, but there was a seemingly higher risk for affluent non-elderly adults in Milan. Conclusion We found broadly consistent determinants (age, gender, and cause of death) of heat related mortality in three European cities using a standard approach. Our results are consistent with previous evidence for individual determinants, and also confirm the lack of a strong socio-economic gradient in heat health effects currently in Europe.

Ishigami Ai; Hajat Shakoor; Kovats R Sari; Bisanti Luigi; Rognoni Magda; Russo Antonio; Paldy Anna

2008-01-01

269

?????????????—???????????? Development of Ecological Economy, Accelerate Wetland Conservation—The case study on West Dongting Lake Nature Reserve  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Since established, the West Dongting Lake Nature Reserve has taken full advantage of ecological economics theories and system engineering methods to change the production and consumption patterns. This article expounds that the West Dongting Lake Nature Reserve makes the best of the wetland resources to develop ecological economy, such as ecological tourism, Organic Fisheries and so on within the ecological capacities, and effectively promotes the protection of the ecological environment, and offers reasonable proposals for the future development of the wetland ecological economy.

???

2013-01-01

270

Ecology of estuaries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book is a summary of information available on estuarine ecology, that reviews concepts and problems of estuaries and assesses the value of these coastal systems. It investigates such topics as water circulation and mixing, trace elements, nutrients, organic matter, and sedimentary processes, with reviews on more than two decades of intense study. Chapters reflect contributions from a variety of interdisciplinary sciences including botany, chemistry, ecology, geology, physics, and zoology.

Kennish, M.J.

1986-01-01

271

Assessment of ecological studies examining the risk of thyroid cancer in children through radiation exposure following the nuclear power plant disaster in Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiological studies can be divided into studies with an individual database (cohort studies, case control studies) and studies with aggregate data (ecological studies). The former have the advantage that they can make use of methods based on risk models and examine dose-effect curves with due consideration to potential confounders, but the drawback of being expensive. Studies based on aggregate data can take account of large case numbers at comparatively low cost. However, ecological studies are also associated with serious methodological problems, especially when the goal is to find causal links (''ecological bias''). Thus it is well known that variations in a confounding factor (such as smoking in a study on lung cancer through radon) can invalidate the results of studies based on aggregate data. On the other hand, the only studies to have produced quantitative results on the risk of acquiring thyroid cancer through 131I exposure during childhood in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl disaster happen to be based on aggregate data. The purpose of the present paper is to examine problems associated with ecological studies which have already been in the focus of many studies of epidemiological methodology in terms of whether they are relevant to studies investigating connections between thyroid cancer and 131I exposure. It also presents the results of several simulation studies which examine the degree of distortion associated with ecological analyses.

2005-01-01

272

Ecological approach to the study of medicinal plants: Soil-plant relationship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A very important parameter for the utilization of medicinal plants is the quality of active substances. The quality of the plant active substances does not depend only on its physiological potential and condition, but also on the environmental factors. The status of microelements in the soil and the basic ecological indices of plants, as the site indicators, at two localities on Mt. Kosmaj are presented. It was concluded that these relationships are very complex, in most cases identical and in direct correlation with the representation of individual plant species. Medicinal plants were analyzed in the first place because of their potential exploitation.

Obratov-Petkovi? Dragica; Popovi? Ivana; Kadovi? Ratko; Belanovi? Snežana; Mileti? Zoran D.

2004-01-01

273

Summarizing history of the Nevada Applied Ecology Groups' environmental studies of transuranics and other radionuclides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents historical summaries of the research programs at the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG). NAEG was formed in 1970 as an outgrowth of the formation of the Office of Effects Evaluation and an anticipation by NV management of what was to become the National Environmental Policy Act. The objectives of the NAEG programs were: (1) delineate locations of contamination; (2) determine concentrations in ecosystem components; (3) quantify rates of movement among ecosystem components; and (4) evaluate potential dose from plutonium and other radionuclides

1984-01-01

274

Testing hypotheses on the ecological patterns of rarity using a novel model of study: snake communities worldwide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The theoretical and empirical causes and consequences of rarity are of central importance for both ecological theory and conservation. It is not surprising that studies of the biology of rarity have grown tremendously during the past two decades, with particular emphasis on patterns observed in insects, birds, mammals, and plants. I analyse the patterns of the biology of rarity by using a novel model system: snake communities worldwide. I also test some of the main hypotheses that have been proposed to explain and predict rarity in species. I use two operational definitions for rarity in snakes: Rare species (RAR) are those that accounted for 1% to 2% of the total number of individuals captured within a given community; Very rare species (VER) account for ?1% of individuals captured. I analyse each community by sample size, species richness, continent, climatic region, habitat and ecological characteristics of the RAR and VER species. Positive correlations between total species number and the fraction of RAR and VER species and between sample size and rare species in general were found. As shownin previous insect studies, there is a clear trend for the percentage of RAR and VER snake species to increase in species-rich, tropical African and South American communities. This study also shows that rare species are particularly common in the tropics, although habitat type did not influence the frequency of RAR and VER species. This analysis also confirms the commonly accepted ecological hypothesis that body size and rarity are clearly and widely correlated in natural animal communities. However, in snake communities there is often an association between large and small species among the rare species, and a tendency for ophiophagous species to be rare. In addition, there was no support for the hypothesis that rare species should be typically phylogenetically primitive. The hypothesis that species with narrower realized ecological niches are more likely to be rare or very rare is supported by the evidence presented here on snake communities. In general, this study shows that snakes may make ”model organisms” for studies on the biology of rarity.

L. Luiselli

2006-01-01

275

Founding RGB ecology: The ecology of synthesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is an arising need to interpret an amount of ecological information that is more and more available. It is not only the pursuit of an easy handling of a large amount of data, but above all the quest for a deep and multivariate interpretation of many sources of ecological info. To this aim, I introduce here RGB ecology as a new branch of ecology devoted to the cartographic synthesis of ecological information. RGB ecology has the following properties: (1) it can not be separated from GIS cartography; (2) it can compact ecological information along space and time; (3) it can create a decision space for management decisions; (4) it can go beyond the third dimension by using compressive statistical techniques. RGB ecology can also be an effective flanker of several branches of ecology, such as landscape ecology, conservation ecology, urban ecology, forest ecology and so forth.

Alessandro Ferrarini

2012-01-01

276

Is Acoustic Ecology About Ecology? - Reflections on the International Conference on Acoustic Ecology "Stockholm, Hey Listen!" 1998  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There are advantages with integrating the study of soundscapes with a more general framework, such as ecology. Soundscape studies will be able to use the rich theoretical framework of ecology, as well as benefit from publicity due to the current ecological movement. However, ecology puts new demands on the theoretical concepts used in soundscape studies, and these new demands are likely to cause some problems. This article aims at exposing one of the basic conceptual differences between soundscape studies and ecology -- the difference between a phenomenological and an ecological approach -- and to discuss some of its consequences.

Johan Redstrm

277

Modeling socioeconomic and ecologic aspects of land-use change. A case study of Central Rondonia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Land use change is one of the major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Prevalent types of land-use change include replacing forests with agriculture, mines or ranches; forest degradation from collection of firewood; and forest logging. A global effect of wide-scale deforestation is an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, which may affect climate. Regional effects include loss of biodiversity and disruption of hydrologic regimes. Local effects include soil erosion, siltation and decreases in soil fertility, loss of extractive reserves, and disruption of indigenous people. Modeling land use change requires combining socioeconomic and ecological factors because socioeconomic forces frequently initiate land-use change and are affected by the subsequent ecological degradation. This paper describes a modeling system that integrates submodels of human colonization and impacts to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land use scenarios. Immigration which follows road building or paving is a major factor in the rapid deforestation of previously inaccessible areas. Roads facilitate colonization, allow access for large machines, and provide transportation routes for mort of raw materials and produce.

Dale, V.H.; Pedlowski, M.A.; O`Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F.

1992-11-01

278

Integrated cytogenetic, ecological, and DNA barcode study reveals cryptic diversity in Simulium (Gomphostilbia) angulistylum (Diptera: Simuliidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An integrated approach based on cytogenetics, molecular genetics, and ecology was used to examine diversity in the black fly Simulium angulistylum Takaoka & Davies in Thailand. Cytological analysis revealed three cytoforms (A, B, and C) of S. angulistylum differentiated by fixed chromosome inversions. Distributions of these cytoforms were associated with ecology. Cytoforms A and B were found in low-altitude habitats (<600 m above sea level), whereas cytoform C occurred at high altitudes (>1000 m above sea level). Mitochondrial DNA sequences of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcoding region revealed significant genetic differentiation among the cytoforms. The mitochondrial DNA haplotype network revealed divergent lineages within cytoforms, indicating additional hidden diversity. Therefore, integrated approaches are necessary for fully understanding black fly biodiversity. Population genetic analysis revealed high genetic structuring that could be due to the habitat preferences of S. angulistylum. Phylogeographic analyses indicated population demographic expansion at the mid-Pleistocene (900 000 years ago), which is older than for other black flies and insects in the Southeast Asian mainland. The high level of genetic structure and diversity, therefore, could also be due to the long demographic history of S. angulistylum.

Pramual P; Kuvangkadilok C

2012-06-01

279

Political ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.)

1979-01-01

280

Ecological niche  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ecological niche of an organism is the set of environmental conditions under which the particular functions of the organism could be expected to assure its survival. It comprises both the set of conditions where the organism lives (often termed the habitat of the organism) and the functional role of the organism in the ecosystem. Recent works in niche theory have enabled ecologists to develop predictions and actual applications. The history of the niche concept, applications of niche theory, and ecological differences between similar species are discussed.

Shugart, H.H.

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Cancer risk among residents of Rhineland-Palatinate winegrowing communities: a cancer-registry based ecological study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Aim To investigate the cancer risk among residents of Rhineland-Palatinate winegrowing communities in an ecological study. Methods On the basis of the Rhineland-Palatinate cancer-registry, we calculated age-adjusted incidence rate ratios for communities with a medium area under wine cultivation (>5 to 20 percent) and a large area under wine cultivation (>20 percent) in comparison with communities with a small area under wine cultivation (>0 to 5 percent). In a side analysis, standardized cancer incidence ratios (SIR) were computed separately for winegrowing communities with small, medium and large area under wine cultivation using estimated German incidence rates as reference. Results A statistically significant positive association with the extent of viniculture can be observed for non-melanoma skin cancer in both males and females, and additionally for prostate cancer, bladder cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in males, but not in females. Lung cancer risk is significantly reduced in communities with a large area under cultivation. In the side-analysis, elevated SIR for endocrine-related tumors of the breast, testis, prostate, and endometrium were observed. Conclusion This study points to a potentially increased risk of skin cancer, bladder cancer, and endocrine-mediated tumors in Rhineland-Palatinate winegrowing communities. However, due to the explorative ecologic study design and the problem of multiple testing, these findings are not conclusve for a causal relationship.

Seidler Andreas; Hammer Gaël; Husmann Gabriele; König Jochem; Krtschil Anne; Schmidtmann Irene; Blettner Maria

2008-01-01

282

Design of an ecological momentary assessment study of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and non-specific physical symptoms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance (IEI) attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) refers to self-reported sensitivity mainly characterised by the attribution of non-specific physical symptoms to low-level EMF exposure emitted from sources such as mobile phones. Scientific studies have not provided evidence for the existence of IEI-EMF, but these studies did not resemble the real-life situation or suffered from poor exposure characterisation and biased recall of health symptoms. To improve existing methods for the study of IEI-EMF, an Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) study is designed. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study is an EMA study in which respondents carry personal exposure metres (exposimeters) that measure radiofrequency (RF) EMF, with frequent assessment of health symptoms and perceived EMF exposure through electronic diary registration during five consecutive days. Participants will be a selection from an epidemiological study who report to be sensitive to RF EMF. The exposimeters measure electric field strength in 12 frequency bands. Diary questions include the occurrence and severity of 10 non-specific physical symptoms, mood states and perceived exposure to (sources of) EMF. The relationship of actual and perceived EMF exposure and mood with non-specific physical symptoms will be analysed using multilevel regression analysis with time-shift models. DISCUSSION: The study has several advantages over previous studies, including assessment of personal EMF exposure and non-specific physical symptoms by an ecological method with a minimised chance of recall bias. The within-person design reduces confounding by time-stable factors (eg, personal characteristics). In the conduct of the study and the analysis and interpretation of its outcomes, some methodological issues including a high participant burden, reactivity, compliance to the study protocol and the potential of chance findings due to multiple statistical testing will be accounted for and limited as much as possible.

Bogers RP; Bolte JF; Houtveen JH; Lebret E; van Strien RT; Schipper CM; Alkadhimi M; Baliatsas C; van Kamp I

2013-01-01

283

Design of an ecological momentary assessment study of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and non-specific physical symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance (IEI) attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) refers to self-reported sensitivity mainly characterised by the attribution of non-specific physical symptoms to low-level EMF exposure emitted from sources such as mobile phones. Scientific studies have not provided evidence for the existence of IEI-EMF, but these studies did not resemble the real-life situation or suffered from poor exposure characterisation and biased recall of health symptoms. To improve existing methods for the study of IEI-EMF, an Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) study is designed. Methods and analysis The study is an EMA study in which respondents carry personal exposure metres (exposimeters) that measure radiofrequency (RF) EMF, with frequent assessment of health symptoms and perceived EMF exposure through electronic diary registration during five consecutive days. Participants will be a selection from an epidemiological study who report to be sensitive to RF EMF. The exposimeters measure electric field strength in 12 frequency bands. Diary questions include the occurrence and severity of 10 non-specific physical symptoms, mood states and perceived exposure to (sources of) EMF. The relationship of actual and perceived EMF exposure and mood with non-specific physical symptoms will be analysed using multilevel regression analysis with time-shift models. Discussion The study has several advantages over previous studies, including assessment of personal EMF exposure and non-specific physical symptoms by an ecological method with a minimised chance of recall bias. The within-person design reduces confounding by time-stable factors (eg, personal characteristics). In the conduct of the study and the analysis and interpretation of its outcomes, some methodological issues including a high participant burden, reactivity, compliance to the study protocol and the potential of chance findings due to multiple statistical testing will be accounted for and limited as much as possible.

Bogers, Rik P; Bolte, John F B; Houtveen, Jan H; Lebret, Erik; van Strien, Rob T; Schipper, C Maarten A; Alkadhimi, Mehdi; Baliatsas, Christos; van Kamp, Irene

2013-01-01

284

Benefits of studies of overwintering birds for understanding resident bird ecology and promoting development of conservation capacity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Funding of ecological research and monitoring of Neotropical migratory birds on their overwintering grounds has benefited both migratory and permanent-resident species. Using examples from our work in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic, we demonstrate that ecological research of overwintering migrants often provides information about the ecology and demography of little-known tropical resident birds. Critically important long-term monitoring in Puerto Rico with a focus on winter residents has provided information on the relationships between annual rainfall and fluctuations in resident bird populations and survival rates. It also has alerted local biologists to declines in resident bird populations, including a decline apparently driven by the entry of a brood parasite. But migrant-focused research may also have had an underappreciated effect on the development of conservation capacity and conservation efforts in host countries. Investments in research on Neotropical migrants overwintering on Hispaniola have resulted in a huge increase in field training of students and wildlife professionals, promoted conservation awareness at local and national levels, played an important role in the growth and professionalization of key environmental organizations, spawned a growing ecotourism industry for bird-watching, and driven national park management planning and conservation efforts for all bird species. We encourage funding organizations and agencies to consider the broader impacts of funding migratory-bird research and monitoring efforts, and we encourage researchers in the tropics to use protocols that provide the most information about all the birds that use the study areas involved and to be aware of important opportunities that they may have to build capacity in host countries.

Latta SC; Faaborg J

2009-04-01

285

Benefits of Studies of Overwintering Birds for Understanding Resident Bird Ecology and Promoting Development of Conservation Capacity  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Funding of ecological research and monitoring of Neotropical migratory birds on their overwintering grounds has benefited both migratory and permanent-resident species. Using examples from our work in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic, we demonstrate that ecological research of overwintering migrants often provides information about the ecology and demography of little-known tropical resident birds. Critically important long-term monitoring in Puerto Rico with a focus on winter residents has provided information on the relationships between annual rainfall and fluctuations in resident bird populations and survival rates. It also has alerted local biologists to declines in resident bird populations, including a decline apparently driven by the entry of a brood parasite. But migrant-focused research may also have had an underappreciated effect on the development of conservation capacity and conservation efforts in host countries. Investments in research on Neotropical migrants overwintering on Hispaniola have resulted in a huge increase in field training of students and wildlife professionals, promoted conservation awareness at local and national levels, played an important role in the growth and professionalization of key environmental organizations, spawned a growing ecotourism industry for bird-watching, and driven national park management planning and conservation efforts for all bird species. We encourage funding organizations and agencies to consider the broader impacts of funding migratory-bird research and monitoring efforts, and we encourage researchers in the tropics to use protocols that provide the most information about all the birds that use the study areas involved and to be aware of important opportunities that they may have to build capacity in host countries.

LATTA STEVENC; FAABORG JOHN

2009-04-01

286

A Basic Introduction to Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecology is the science that studies the interactions and relationships that exist among living organisms with each other and their environment. This selection offers tools necessary to define ecology, while gaining a better understanding of its application to real world experiences. It offers instruction in basic ecological terms, while explaining the meaning of the biotic and abiotic factors within an environment and presents examples of those influences. You will also find information necessary to identify the basic factors necessary for living.

Galle, Janet R.; Warren, Patricia A.

2005-01-01

287

The stability of thoracic segmentation in trilobites: a case study in developmental and ecological constraints.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The decline in origination rate of new metazoan body plans following the Cambrian radiation has been suggested to reflect developmental canalization in derived taxa, limiting their ability to evolve forms with radically different morphotypes. Segmentation is a fundamental aspect of arthropod body plan, and here we show that a derived trilobite that secondarily converged on a morphotype characteristic of basal members of the clade also reverted to a pattern of segmental variability common among basal trilobites. Hence a secular trend in loss of variability of the trilobite thorax was not due to the evolution of an inviolable developmental constraint. This result challenges the notion of developmental canalization in phylogenetically derived taxa. Rather, early variability in trilobites may be the result of ecological factors that promoted segment-rich thoracic morphotypes during Cambrian time.

Hughes NC; Chapman RE; Adrain JM

1999-07-01

288

The stability of thoracic segmentation in trilobites: a case study in developmental and ecological constraints.  

Science.gov (United States)

The decline in origination rate of new metazoan body plans following the Cambrian radiation has been suggested to reflect developmental canalization in derived taxa, limiting their ability to evolve forms with radically different morphotypes. Segmentation is a fundamental aspect of arthropod body plan, and here we show that a derived trilobite that secondarily converged on a morphotype characteristic of basal members of the clade also reverted to a pattern of segmental variability common among basal trilobites. Hence a secular trend in loss of variability of the trilobite thorax was not due to the evolution of an inviolable developmental constraint. This result challenges the notion of developmental canalization in phylogenetically derived taxa. Rather, early variability in trilobites may be the result of ecological factors that promoted segment-rich thoracic morphotypes during Cambrian time. PMID:11324017

Hughes, N C; Chapman, R E; Adrain, J M

289

Lake Restoration in Terms of Ecological Resilience: a Numerical Study of Biomanipulations under Bistable Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An abstract version of the comprehensive aquatic simulation model (CASM) is found to exhibit bistability under intermediate loading of nutrient input, supporting the alternative-stable-states theory and field observations for shallow lakes. Our simulations of biomanipulations under the bistable conditions reveal that a reduction in the abundance of zooplanktivorous fish cannot switch the system from a turbid to a clear state. Rather, a direct reduction of phytoplankton and detritus was found to be most effective to make this switch in the present model. These results imply that multiple manipulations may be effective for practical restorations of lakes. We discuss the present results of biomanipulations in terms of ecological resilience in multivariable systems or natural systems.

Takashi Amemiya; Takatoshi Enomoto; A. G. Rossberg; Noriko Takamura; Kiminori Itoh

2005-01-01

290

Local Perceptions of Changes in Traditional Ecological Knowledge: A Case Study from Malekula Island, Vanuatu.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) is a critical global resource that may be eroding amid social and environmental change. Here, we present data on local perceptions of TEK change from three communities on Malekula Island in Vanuatu. Utilizing a structured interview (n = 120), we find a common perception of TEK loss. Participants defined two key periods of TEK erosion (roughly 1940-1960 and 1980-present), and noted that TEK decline was driven both external (e.g., church) and internal (e.g., shifting values) processes. Erosion was perceived to more comprehensive in the worldview domain than in aspects of ethnobiological knowledge and practice. These data indicate the perceived fragility of TEK systems and the complexity of TEK change. TEK systems are critical to natural resource management, and data such as these will assist in designing nuanced responses to the ongoing loss of cultural knowledge and practice.

McCarter J; Gavin MC

2013-08-01

291

Evaluation of agricultural ecological environment in determining the capable areas: A case study of city of Esfahan, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The nature of different activities in production, agriculture as well as distribution and consumption section, called as expansionist activities, largely influence the ability of the land. Production of consumable material, which is required for increasing population in various areas, and their attractions make it possible to earn more profit and it causes a significant pressure on soil and water resources and can threaten environmental pollution and human food security. A self-interested attitude on land resources has led to run short-term programs without considering the ecological capability of the land. These mentioned problems are, significantly intensified particularly in arid and semi-arid areas with severe limitations of water and soil quality and quantity. Therefore, land allocation based on ecological capability and self-purification indexes, used for land use planning, is an appropriate response to meet the deficiencies noted. This paper studies the agricultural capable lands based on land capability. The proposed study uses GIS software capabilities with application of the environmental ability evaluation model, as a holistic approach, to make sustainable development research in the region. The results indicate that suitable lands for agriculture in the whole area in different classes are widespread and with regards to dependency of more than 90 percent of people to agricultural activities, serious attention of authorities is required for providing the appropriate baseline and avoiding land use change to develop this activity.

Sedigheh Kiani Salmi; Sayed Eskandar Seydaie; Sayed Hedayat-o-lah Noori; Dariush Rahimi

2013-01-01

292

A phylogeographic study of the endemic rodent Eliurus carletoni (Rodentia: Nesomyinae) in an ecological transition zone of Northern Madagascar.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We conducted a mitochondrial phylogeographic study of the endemic dry forest rodent Eliurus carletoni (Rodentia: Nesomyinae) in an ecological transition zone of northern Madagascar (Loky-Manambato) and 2 surrounding regions (Ankarana and Analamerana). The main goal was to assess the evolutionary consequences on this taxon of the complex landscape features and Quaternary ecological vicissitudes. Three haplogroups were identified from the 215 specimens obtained from 15 populations. High levels of genetic diversity and significant genetic differentiation among populations were observed. The different geographical subdivisions of the study area by regions, by river catchment zones, and the physical distance between populations are not correlated with genetic patterns. In contrast, population structure is mostly explained by the geographic distribution of the samples among existing forest blocks. E. carletoni experienced a genetic bottleneck between 18 750 and 7500 years BP, which correlates with periods when moister climates existed on the island. Overall, our data suggest that the complex genetic patterns of E. carletoni can be explained by Quaternary climatic vicissitudes that resulted in habitat fluctuations between dry and humid forests, as well as subsequent human-induced fragmentation of forest habitat.

Rakotoarisoa JE; Raheriarisena M; Goodman SM

2013-01-01

293

Ecological network analysis of an urban metabolic system based on input-output tables: Model development and case study for Beijing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

If cities are considered as "superorganisms", then disorders of their metabolic processes cause something analogous to an "urban disease". It is therefore helpful to identify the causes of such disorders by analyzing the inner mechanisms that control urban metabolic processes. Combining input-output analysis with ecological network analysis lets researchers study the functional relationships and hierarchy of the urban metabolic processes, thereby providing direct support for the analysis of urban disease. In this paper, using Beijing as an example, we develop a model of an urban metabolic system that accounts for the intensity of the embodied ecological elements using monetary input-output tables from 1997, 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2007, and use this data to compile the corresponding physical input-output tables. This approach described the various flows of ecological elements through urban metabolic processes and let us build an ecological network model with 32 components. Then, using two methods from ecological network analysis (flow analysis and utility analysis), we quantitatively analyzed the physical input-output relationships among urban components, determined the ecological hierarchy of the components of the metabolic system, and determined the distribution of advantage-dominated and disadvantage-dominated relationships, thereby providing scientific support to guide restructuring of the urban metabolic system in an effort to prevent or cure urban "diseases".

Zhang Y; Zheng H; Fath BD; Liu H; Yang Z; Liu G; Su M

2013-09-01

294

[Calculation model of urban water resources ecological footprint and its application: a case study in Shenyang City of Northeast China].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Water resources ecological footprint can directly reflect the pressure of human social and economic activities to water resources, and provide important reference for the rational utilization of water resources. Based on the existing ecological footprint models and giving full consideration of the water resources need of urban ecological system, this paper established a new calculation model of urban water resources ecological footprint, including domestic water account, process water account, public service water account, and ecological water requirement account. According to the actual situation of Shenyang City, the key parameters of the model were determined, and the water resources ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity of the City were calculated and analyzed. From 2000 to 2009, the water resources ecological footprint per capita of the City presented an overall decreasing trend, but still had an annual ecological deficit. As compared to that in 2000, the water resources ecological footprint per capita was decreased to 0.31 hm2 in 2005, increased slightly in 2006 and 2007, and remained stable in 2008 and 2009, which suggested that the sustainable utilization of water resources in Shenyang City had definite improvement, but was still in an unsustainable development situation.

Wang J; Zhang CX; Yu YT; Li FY; Ma F

2012-08-01

295

Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS) began during FY-1984. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 15 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Through the long-term census taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has been evaluating the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10 CFR 1022).

NONE

1994-11-01

296

Implicit and explicit drug-related cognitions during detoxification treatment are associated with drug relapse: an ecological momentary assessment study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Relapse is a major problem in drug addiction treatment. Both drug craving and drug-related cognitions (e.g., attentional bias and implicit attitudes to drugs) may contribute to relapse. Using ecological momentary assessments, we examined whether craving and cognitions assessed during drug detoxification treatment were associated with relapse. METHOD: Participants were 68 heroin-dependent inpatients undergoing clinical detoxification at an addiction treatment center. Participants carried around a personal digital assistant for 1 week. Participants completed up to 4 random assessments (RAs) per day. They also completed an assessment when they experienced a temptation to use drugs (TA). At each assessment, participants reported their craving and attitudes to drugs. Implicit cognitions were assessed with a drug Stroop task (attentional bias) and an Implicit Association Test (implicit attitudes). RESULTS: Individuals who relapsed during the study week exhibited a larger attentional bias and more positive implicit attitudes to drugs than did nonrelapsers at TAs (but not RAs). In addition, compared to nonrelapsers, relapsers reported higher levels of craving and more positive explicit attitudes to drugs at TAs than at RAs. Additional within-subject analyses revealed that attentional bias for drugs at TAs increased before relapse. CONCLUSIONS: Drug-related cognitive processes assessed with ecological momentary assessments were associated with relapse during drug detoxification. Real-time assessment of craving and cognitions may help to identify which individuals are at risk of relapse and when they are at risk of relapse.

Marhe R; Waters AJ; van de Wetering BJ; Franken IH

2013-02-01

297

Ecological data in Integrated Coastal Zone Management: case study of Posidonia oceanica meadows along the Corsican coastline (Mediterranean Sea).  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) contributes towards maximizing the benefits provided by the coastal zone and minimizing conflicts and the harmful effects of activities upon each other. The coastal zone includes highly productive and biologically diverse ecosystems, but ecological data (including structure and processes) seem to be neglected. The purpose of this article is to present a case study of Posidonia oceanica meadows (seagrass beds) along the Corsican coastline (Mediterranean Sea) in order to exemplify the usefulness of ecological data to Integrated Costal Management programs. We will try to determine how the use of organisms could be enhanced. These investigations show the undoubted success of the Corsican Posidonia oceanica protection program, with a detailed description of the ICZM that precisely presents each component (e.g., mapping, assessment of water quality, implementation of a system to aid decision-making concerning the installation of new aquaculture units). This experience on the Corsican coasts could be used as an example in order to transfer to other locations in the Mediterranean Sea and/or to other target species. PMID:17001505

Pergent-Martini, Christine; Pasqualini, Vanina; Ferrat, Lila; Pergent, Gérard

2006-09-25

298

Landscape and soil regionalization in southern Brazilian Amazon and contiguous areas: methodology and relevance for ecological studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soils of a large tropical area with differentiated landscapes cannot be treated uniformly for ecological applications. We intend to develop a framework based on physiography that can be used in regional applications. The study region occupies more than 1.1 million km² and is located at the junction of the savanna region of Central Brazil and the Amazon forest. It includes a portion of the high sedimentary Central Brazil plateau and large areas of mostly peneplained crystalline shield on the border of the wide inner-Amazon low sedimentary plain. A first broad subdivision was made into landscape regions followed by a more detailed subdivision into soil regions. Mapping information was extracted from soil survey maps at scales of 1:250000-1:500000. Soil units were integrated within a homogenized legend using a set of selected attributes such as taxonomic term, the texture of the B horizon and the associated vegetation. For each region, a detailed inventory of the soil units with their area distribution was elaborated. Ten landscape regions and twenty-four soil regions were recognized and delineated. Soil cover of a region is normally characterized by a cluster composed of many soil units. Soil diversity is comparable in the landscape and the soil regions. Composition of the soil cover is quantitatively expressed in terms of area extension of the soil units. Such geographic divisions characterized by grouping soil units and their spatial estimates must be used for regional ecological applications.

Boris Volkoff; Francisco Fujita de Castro Mello; Stoécio Malta Ferreira Maia; Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino Cerri

2012-01-01

299

Ecological differentiation of cryptic species within an asexual protist morphospecies: a case study of filamentous green alga Klebsormidium (Streptophyta).  

Science.gov (United States)

Taxa of microbial eukaryotes defined on morphological basis display a large degree of genetic diversity, implying the existence of numerous cryptic species. However, it has been postulated that genetic diversity merely mirrors accumulation of neutral mutations. As a case taxon to study cryptic diversity in protists, we used a widely distributed filamentous genus, Klebsormidium, specifically the lineage E (K. flaccidum/K. nitens complex) containing a number of morphologically similar strains. Fourteen clades were recognized in the phylogenetic analysis based on a concatenated ITS rDNA + rbcL data set of more than 70 strains. The results of inferred character evolution indicated the existence of phylogenetic signal in at least two phenotypic characters (production of hydro-repellent filaments and morphology of zoosporangia). Moreover, the lineages recovered exhibited strong ecological preferences to one of the three habitat types: natural subaerial substrata, artificial subaerial substrata, and aquatic habitats. We interpret these results as evidence of existence of a high number of cryptic species within the single morphospecies. We consider that the permanent existence of genetically and ecologically well-defined cryptic species is enabled by the mechanism of selective sweep. PMID:23648118

Škaloud, Pavel; Rindi, Fabio

2013-05-06

300

Landscape and soil regionalization in southern Brazilian Amazon and contiguous areas: methodology and relevance for ecological studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Soils of a large tropical area with differentiated landscapes cannot be treated uniformly for ecological applications. We intend to develop a framework based on physiography that can be used in regional applications. The study region occupies more than 1.1 million km² and is located at the junction of the savanna region of Central Brazil and the Amazon forest. It includes a portion of the high sedimentary Central Brazil plateau and large areas of mostly peneplained cryst (more) alline shield on the border of the wide inner-Amazon low sedimentary plain. A first broad subdivision was made into landscape regions followed by a more detailed subdivision into soil regions. Mapping information was extracted from soil survey maps at scales of 1:250000-1:500000. Soil units were integrated within a homogenized legend using a set of selected attributes such as taxonomic term, the texture of the B horizon and the associated vegetation. For each region, a detailed inventory of the soil units with their area distribution was elaborated. Ten landscape regions and twenty-four soil regions were recognized and delineated. Soil cover of a region is normally characterized by a cluster composed of many soil units. Soil diversity is comparable in the landscape and the soil regions. Composition of the soil cover is quantitatively expressed in terms of area extension of the soil units. Such geographic divisions characterized by grouping soil units and their spatial estimates must be used for regional ecological applications.

Volkoff, Boris; Mello, Francisco Fujita de Castro; Maia, Stoécio Malta Ferreira; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
301

Molecular ecological network analyses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Understanding the interaction among different species within a community and their responses to environmental changes is a central goal in ecology. However, defining the network structure in a microbial community is very challenging due to their extremely high diversity and as-yet uncultivated status. Although recent advance of metagenomic technologies, such as high throughout sequencing and functional gene arrays, provide revolutionary tools for analyzing microbial community structure, it is still difficult to examine network interactions in a microbial community based on high-throughput metagenomics data. RESULTS: Here, we describe a novel mathematical and bioinformatics framework to construct ecological association networks named molecular ecological networks (MENs) through Random Matrix Theory (RMT)-based methods. Compared to other network construction methods, this approach is remarkable in that the network is automatically defined and robust to noise, thus providing excellent solutions to several common issues associated with high-throughput metagenomics data. We applied it to determine the network structure of microbial communities subjected to long-term experimental warming based on pyrosequencing data of 16 S rRNA genes. We showed that the constructed MENs under both warming and unwarming conditions exhibited topological features of scale free, small world and modularity, which were consistent with previously described molecular ecological networks. Eigengene analysis indicated that the eigengenes represented the module profiles relatively well. In consistency with many other studies, several major environmental traits including temperature and soil pH were found to be important in determining network interactions in the microbial communities examined. To facilitate its application by the scientific community, all these methods and statistical tools have been integrated into a comprehensive Molecular Ecological Network Analysis Pipeline (MENAP), which is open-accessible now (http://ieg2.ou.edu/MENA). CONCLUSIONS: The RMT-based molecular ecological network analysis provides powerful tools to elucidate network interactions in microbial communities and their responses to environmental changes, which are fundamentally important for research in microbial ecology and environmental microbiology.

Deng Y; Jiang YH; Yang Y; He Z; Luo F; Zhou J

2012-01-01

302

[Optimization of ecological footprint model based on environmental pollution accounts: a case study in Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To solve the problem of ignoring the calculation of environment pollution in traditional ecological footprint model accounts, this paper put forward an optimized ecological footprint (EF) model, taking the pollution footprint into account. In the meantime, the environmental capacity's calculation was also added into the system of ecological capacity, and further used to do ecological assessment of Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration in 2005. The results showed a perfect inosculation between the ecological footprint and the development characteristics and spatial pattern, and illustrated that the optimized EF model could make a better orientation for the environmental pollution in the system, and also, could roundly explain the environmental effects of human activity. The optimization of ecological footprint model had better integrality and objectivity than traditional models.

Bai Y; Zeng H; Wei JB; Zhang WJ; Zhao HW

2008-08-01

303

[Ecologically tolerable levels of abiotic factors. Study of freshwater bodies in Asiatic part of Russia and Uzbekistan  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ecologically tolerable levels (ETL) of environmental factors have been determined for freshwater ecosystems in Asiatic part of Russia and neighboring countries (basins of Ob, Yenisei, Lena, Amur, and Syr-Darya rivers). Inobservance of ecologically tolerable levels degrades ecological status of the ecosystems manifested as deviation from normal saprobic indices of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and periphyton as well as biotic indices of zoobenthos. The basins were compared by the calculated ETL values for over 40 physicochemical indices. The revealed ecologically tolerable levels were compared with the standard maximum tolerable concentrations.

Maksimov VN; Abakumov VA; Bulgakov NG; Levich AP; Terekhin AT

2002-09-01

304

Ecology in Urban Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

|In this course guide to the teaching of urban ecology, six learning activities on the following topics are outlined: (1) city location and growth; (2) an in-depth study of New Orleans; (3) city shape and structure; (4) size and spacing of cities; (5) cities with special functions; (6) local community study. Educational objectives for each…

Johnson, Letitia K.; Ryan, Michael

305

Chemo-ecological studies on hexactinellid sponges from the Southern Ocean.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hexactinellids (glass sponges) are an understudied class with syncytial organization and poor procariotic associations, thought to lack defensive secondary metabolites. Poriferans, though, are outstanding sources of bioactive compounds; nonetheless, a growing suspicion suggests that many of these chemicals could be symbiont-derived. In Polar latitudes, sponges are readily invaded by diatoms, which could provide natural products. Hexactinellids are typical of deep waters; but in Antarctica, they dominate the upper shelf providing shelter and food supply to many opportunistic mesograzers and macroinvertebrates, which exert strong ecological pressures on them. Aiming to examine the incidence of defensive activities of hexactinellids against consumption, feeding experiments were conducted using their lipophilic fractions. Antarctic hexactinellid and demosponge extracts were tested against the asteroid Odontaster validus and the amphipod Cheirimedon femoratus as putative sympatric, omnivorous consumers. Hexactinellids yielded greater unpalatable activities towards the amphipod, while no apparent allocation of lipophilic defenses was noted. After chemical analyses on the lipophilic fractions from these Antarctic glass sponges, quite similar profiles were revealed, and no peculiar secondary metabolites, comparable to those characterizing other poriferans, were found. Instead, the lipidic compounds 5?(H)-cholestan-3-one and two glycoceramides were isolated for their particular outspread presence in our samples. The isolated compounds were further assessed in asteroid feeding assays, and their occurrence was evaluated for chemotaxonomical purposes in all the Antarctic samples as well as in glass sponges from other latitudes by NMR and MS. Characteristic sphingolipids are proposed as chemical markers in Hexactinellida, with possible contributions to the classification of this unsettled class.

Núñez-Pons L; Carbone M; Paris D; Melck D; Ríos P; Cristobo J; Castelluccio F; Gavagnin M; Avila C

2012-05-01

306

Myco-ecological studies of natural morel bearing sites in Shivalik hills of Himachal Pradesh, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seven natural morel-bearing sites were investigated during fruiting season of Morchella for their physico-chemical and soil microbiota to determine conditions required for morel fructification. Sandy loam soils with humus and high aeration supported the morel fruiting. Soil temperature between 18-22.7 C, air temperature 23-27 C at low elevations and 18-27 C at high elevations, pH slightly acidic to neutral (6.5 to 7.0) and high electrical conductivity (44.4 to 176.3 µS) were recorded during natural occurrence of morel fruiting. Elemental analysis of soil revealed high carbon, nitrogen, calcium, nitrates, sodium and lead with low phosphates, chlorides and potassium below the fruit body in comparison to soil away from the fruit body. Hyphomyces ocraseus, Phoma sp., Blastomyces, Acremoniella, Gliomastix and Cladosporium were invariably found associated with the soil beneath Morchella. Four bacterial species, namely, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus varians, Bacillus sphaericus and Pseudomonas spp., were also isolated from almost all the natural morel bearing sites. These myco-ecological conditions of natural morel bearing sites are of significance in controlled domestication trials.

S. K. Singh; S. Kamal; M. Tiwari; R. D. Rai; R. C. Upadhyay

2004-01-01

307

A Preliminary Study on the Fauna Composition and Ecological Distribution of Waterfowl of Leizhou Peninsula Wetland  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Survey of the fauna composition and ecological distribution of waterfowl of Leizhou Peninula was conducted from Oct., 1998 to Jun., 2000. The results showed: 56 species of water birds were recorded, which belong to 7 orders, 9 families, in Leizhou Peninsula. Among these water birds, Ardeidae, Anatidae and Charadriidae and Scoipacidae are predominant, and 41 species were identified. In 56 species of the water birds, 35 species of Palearctic birds, 13 species of Oriental birds and 8 species of widespread birds. There are 33 species winter birds, 13 species are residents, 7 species are passengers, 3 species are summer birds. Among winter birds, Anatidae and Charadriidae and Scoipacidae are predominant; resident birds are mainly composed of Ardeidae. Most of Laridae are winter birds in this area. Thirty eight species of water birds are protected by relative laws or agreements. Total of 49 water birds in Leizhou Peninsula distribute in coastal wetland mostly. Mangrove is the most important habitat of water birds, 37 species of water birds were found in mangrove.

Wu Shibao; Ke Yayong; Wu Guisheng; Lu Kaihe; Bi Xiaofeng

2002-01-01

308

Ecological responses of natural and planted forests to thinning in southeastern Korea: a chronosequence study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effects of forest thinning on community level properties have not been understood yet in Korea. We investigated regenerationpatterns and trajectories after a disturbance by applying a chronosequence approach. Light availability, litter andwoody debris cover, and species composition were determined for twenty 50 m line-transect samples representing a disturbanceduration gradient (within 11 years). Environmental factors such as light availability and coverage of woody debrisand litter changed abruptly after thinning and then returned to the pre-disturbance state. Although species richnesswas gained at shrub and ground layer in a limited way in both forests, cover of various functional types revealed diversityin their responses. Notably, Alnus firma stands exhibited a larger increment of cover in woody plants. Ordination analysisrevealed different regeneration trajectories between natural and planted stands. Based on ordination analysis, rehabilitatedstands showed movement to alternative states compared with natural ones, reflecting lower resilience to perturbation(i.e., lower stability). Our results suggest that community resilience to artificial thinning depends on properties ofthe dominant species. But to get more explanatory ecological information, longer-term static observations are required.

Yong-Chan Cho; Jung Hun Pee; Gyeong Soon Kim; Bon-Yoel Koo; Hyun Je Cho; Chang Seok Lee

2011-01-01

309

Ecology, Complexity, and Metaphor  

Science.gov (United States)

This peer-reviewed article from Bioscience is about Ecology, Complexity and Metaphor.Complexity has recently risen to prominence in ecology as part of a broader interest that suggests its status is something more than just a scientific theory or property of reality. It may be helpful to consider complexity, and related terms such as "self-organization," as recent metaphors deployed to advance knowledge on fundamental questions in ecology, including the relationship between parts and wholes, and between order and disorder. Though not commonly viewed as such, metaphors are an indispensable component of science, and should not be appraised as true or false, but rather in terms of how they help or hinder knowledge. By understanding metaphor as a necessary ally and not a threat to ecological knowledge, we may enrich our contextual understanding of complexity while continuing to invoke it in useful ways. The special section introduced by this article features essays by two prominent experts in ecology, complexity, and metaphor: science studies scholar Evelyn Fox Keller and theoretical ecologist Simon Levin

JAMES D. PROCTOR and BRENDON M. H. LARSON (;)

2005-12-01

310

Respuesta celular de línea de hepatoma humano (HepG2) al estrés hipotérmico con recuperación: Inducción de la expresión de Hsp60, Hsp70, y Hsf1 Human hepatoma cell line (Hep G2) cellular response to hypothermic stress with recovery: Induction of Hsp70, Hsp60 and Hsf1 expression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizó la respuesta celular de células HepG2 expuestas a hipotermia con posterior recuperación. Los hallazgos ultraestructurales en células sometidas a estrés hipotérmico incluyeron mitocondrias edematizadas, núcleos picnóticos, vacuolas y reorganización nucleolar en forma de anillo. Tales cambios están relacionados con diferencias significativas en la inducción de la expresión de Hsp60, Hsp70 inducible y Hsf 1 monomérico en todas las muestras tratadas, pero no de Hsc70. La respuesta celular a la hipotermia puede ser relacionada con la inducción sinergística de las HspThe cell response of human HepG2 cells exposed to hypothermia with rewarming was analyzed. Ultrastructural findings in hypothermic stressed cells showed swollen mitochondria, dispersed chromatin, vacuoles and ring-shape nucleolar reorganization. These changes were coupled with significative differences in the induction of Hsp60, inducible Hsp70 and monomeric Hsf1 in all treated samples, but not in Hsc 70 expression. Cellular response to hypothermia could be associated with the synergistic induction of Hsp expression

Alegna Rada; Elizabeth Merentes; Marianela Rodríguez; Guillermo Anselmi; Mirian Strauss

2010-01-01

311

Human hepatoma cell line (Hep G2) cellular response to hypothermic stress with recovery: Induction of Hsp70, Hsp60 and Hsf1 expression/ Respuesta celular de línea de hepatoma humano (HepG2) al estrés hipotérmico con recuperación: Inducción de la expresión de Hsp60, Hsp70, y Hsf1  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se analizó la respuesta celular de células HepG2 expuestas a hipotermia con posterior recuperación. Los hallazgos ultraestructurales en células sometidas a estrés hipotérmico incluyeron mitocondrias edematizadas, núcleos picnóticos, vacuolas y reorganización nucleolar en forma de anillo. Tales cambios están relacionados con diferencias significativas en la inducción de la expresión de Hsp60, Hsp70 inducible y Hsf 1 monomérico en todas las mues (more) tras tratadas, pero no de Hsc70. La respuesta celular a la hipotermia puede ser relacionada con la inducción sinergística de las Hsp Abstract in english The cell response of human HepG2 cells exposed to hypothermia with rewarming was analyzed. Ultrastructural findings in hypothermic stressed cells showed swollen mitochondria, dispersed chromatin, vacuoles and ring-shape nucleolar reorganization. These changes were coupled with significative differences in the induction of Hsp60, inducible Hsp70 and monomeric Hsf1 in all treated samples, but not in Hsc 70 expression. Cellular response to hypothermia could be associated with the synergistic induction of Hsp expression

Rada, Alegna; Merentes, Elizabeth; Rodríguez, Marianela; Anselmi, Guillermo; Strauss, Mirian

2010-12-01

312

Evolutionary ecology: next generation inference.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oak forests support a rich ecology of fellow travellers, but how do these fare when the forests move during glacial cycles? The answers revealed by a new study are important for ecology, but being able to get answers at all highlights a turning point in evolutionary inference.

Baird SJ

2012-03-01

313

Learning the ecological niche.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cornerstone of ecological theory is the ecological niche. Yet little is known about how individuals come to adopt it: whether it is innate or learned. Here, we report a cross-fostering experiment in the wild where we transferred eggs of blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus, to nests of great tits, Parus major, and vice versa, to quantify the consequences of being reared in a different social context, but in an environment otherwise natural to the birds. We show that early learning causes a shift in the feeding niche in the direction of the foster species and that this shift lasts for life (foraging conservatism). Both species changed their feeding niches, but the change was greater in the great tit with its less specialized feeding behaviour. The study shows that cultural transmission through early learning is fundamental to the realization of ecological niches, and suggests a mechanism to explain learned habitat preference and sympatric speciation in animals. PMID:17015332

Slagsvold, Tore; Wiebe, Karen L

2007-01-01

314

Learning the ecological niche.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A cornerstone of ecological theory is the ecological niche. Yet little is known about how individuals come to adopt it: whether it is innate or learned. Here, we report a cross-fostering experiment in the wild where we transferred eggs of blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus, to nests of great tits, Parus major, and vice versa, to quantify the consequences of being reared in a different social context, but in an environment otherwise natural to the birds. We show that early learning causes a shift in the feeding niche in the direction of the foster species and that this shift lasts for life (foraging conservatism). Both species changed their feeding niches, but the change was greater in the great tit with its less specialized feeding behaviour. The study shows that cultural transmission through early learning is fundamental to the realization of ecological niches, and suggests a mechanism to explain learned habitat preference and sympatric speciation in animals.

Slagsvold T; Wiebe KL

2007-01-01

315

[Study on the ecological risk of wild veined rapa whelk (Rapana venosa) exposured to organotin compounds in Bohai Bay, China].  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study evaluated the potential ecological risk of organotin compounds (OTs) to wild veined rapa whelk (Rapana Venosa) population in Bohai Bay. The results showed that the imposex rate was 12.5% and 6.48% in Dashentang and Nanpaihe coastal areas, with relative penis size index of 9.61 and 12.45, respectively. The concentrations of butyltin compounds and phenyltin compounds were 39.04 ng x g(-1) dw and 46.48 ng x g(-1) dw in muscle tissues, and 32.09 ng x g(-1) dw and 109.03 ng x g(-1) dw in digest gland, respectively. Based on TBT levels in the muscles of all samples, a risk quotient of 0.024 was derived, indicating certain risk of OTs at current levels to wild veined rapa whelk populations in Bohai Bay. PMID:23798116

An, Li-Hui; Zhang, Yan-Qiang; Song, Shuang-Shuang; Liu, Yue; Gao, Jun-Min; Chen, Hao; Zhao, Xing-Ru; Lei, Kun; Zheng, Bing-Hui

2013-04-01

316

[Study on the ecological risk of wild veined rapa whelk (Rapana venosa) exposured to organotin compounds in Bohai Bay, China].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study evaluated the potential ecological risk of organotin compounds (OTs) to wild veined rapa whelk (Rapana Venosa) population in Bohai Bay. The results showed that the imposex rate was 12.5% and 6.48% in Dashentang and Nanpaihe coastal areas, with relative penis size index of 9.61 and 12.45, respectively. The concentrations of butyltin compounds and phenyltin compounds were 39.04 ng x g(-1) dw and 46.48 ng x g(-1) dw in muscle tissues, and 32.09 ng x g(-1) dw and 109.03 ng x g(-1) dw in digest gland, respectively. Based on TBT levels in the muscles of all samples, a risk quotient of 0.024 was derived, indicating certain risk of OTs at current levels to wild veined rapa whelk populations in Bohai Bay.

An LH; Zhang YQ; Song SS; Liu Y; Gao JM; Chen H; Zhao XR; Lei K; Zheng BH

2013-04-01

317

Water balance: case study of a constructed wetland as part of the bio-ecological drainage system (BIOECODS).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Bio-ecological Drainage System, or BIOECODS, is an urban drainage system located at the Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia. It consists of a constructed wetland as a part of the urban drainage system to carry storm water in a closed system. In this closed system, the constructed wetland was designed particularly for further treatment of storm water. For the purpose of studying the water balance of the constructed wetland, data collection was carried out for two years (2007 and 2009). The results show that the constructed wetland has a consistent volume of water storage compared to the outflow for both years with correlation coefficients (R(2)) of 0.99 in 2007 and 0.86 in 2009.

Ayub KR; Zakaria NA; Abdullah R; Ramli R

2010-01-01

318

Water balance: case study of a constructed wetland as part of the bio-ecological drainage system (BIOECODS).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bio-ecological Drainage System, or BIOECODS, is an urban drainage system located at the Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia. It consists of a constructed wetland as a part of the urban drainage system to carry storm water in a closed system. In this closed system, the constructed wetland was designed particularly for further treatment of storm water. For the purpose of studying the water balance of the constructed wetland, data collection was carried out for two years (2007 and 2009). The results show that the constructed wetland has a consistent volume of water storage compared to the outflow for both years with correlation coefficients (R(2)) of 0.99 in 2007 and 0.86 in 2009. PMID:20962410

Ayub, Khairul Rahmah; Zakaria, Nor Azazi; Abdullah, Rozi; Ramli, Rosmaliza

2010-01-01

319

Cooperation and the evolutionary ecology of bacterial virulence: the Bacillus cereus group as a novel study system.  

Science.gov (United States)

How significant is social evolution theory for the maintenance of virulence in natural populations? We assume that secreted, distantly acting virulence factors are highly likely to be cooperative public goods. Using this assumption, we discuss and critically assess the potential importance of social interactions for understanding the evolution, diversity and distribution of virulence in the Bacillus cereus group, a novel study system for microbial social biology. We conclude that dynamic equilibria in Cry toxin production, as well as strong spatial structure and population bottlenecks in hosts are the main ecological factors maintaining the cooperative secretion of virulence factors and argue that collective action has contributed to the evolution of narrow host range. Non-linearities in the benefits associated with public goods, as well as the lack of private secretion systems in the Firmicutes may also explain the prevalence and importance of distantly acting virulence factors in B. cereus and its relatives. PMID:23702950

Raymond, Ben; Bonsall, Michael B

2013-05-23

320

Cooperation and the evolutionary ecology of bacterial virulence: the Bacillus cereus group as a novel study system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

How significant is social evolution theory for the maintenance of virulence in natural populations? We assume that secreted, distantly acting virulence factors are highly likely to be cooperative public goods. Using this assumption, we discuss and critically assess the potential importance of social interactions for understanding the evolution, diversity and distribution of virulence in the Bacillus cereus group, a novel study system for microbial social biology. We conclude that dynamic equilibria in Cry toxin production, as well as strong spatial structure and population bottlenecks in hosts are the main ecological factors maintaining the cooperative secretion of virulence factors and argue that collective action has contributed to the evolution of narrow host range. Non-linearities in the benefits associated with public goods, as well as the lack of private secretion systems in the Firmicutes may also explain the prevalence and importance of distantly acting virulence factors in B. cereus and its relatives.

Raymond B; Bonsall MB

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
321

Filling gaps in large ecological databases: consequences for the study of global-scale plant functional trait patterns  

Science.gov (United States)

With the advent of remotely sensed data and coordinated efforts to create global databases, the ecological community has progressively become more data-intensive. However, in contrast to other disciplines, statistical ways of handling these large data sets, especially the gaps which are inherent to them, are lacking. Widely used theoretical approaches, for example model averaging based on Akaike's information criterion (AIC), are sensitive to missing values. Yet, the most common way of handling sparse matrices - the deletion of cases with missing data (complete case analysis) - is known to severely reduce statistical power as well as inducing biased parameter estimates. In order to address these issues, we present novel approaches to gap filling in large ecological data sets using matrix factorization techniques. Factorization based matrix completion was developed in a recommender system context and has since been widely used to impute missing data in fields outside the ecological community. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of probabilistic matrix factorization techniques for imputing missing data in ecological matrices using two imputation techniques. Hierarchical Probabilistic Matrix Factorization (HPMF) effectively incorporates hierarchical phylogenetic information (phylogenetic group, family, genus, species and individual plant) into the trait imputation. Advanced Hierarchical Probabilistic Matrix Factorization (aHPMF) on the other hand includes climate and soil information into the matrix factorization by regressing the environmental variables against residuals of the HPMF. One unique opportunity opened up by aHPMF is out-of-sample prediction, where traits can be predicted for specific species at locations different to those sampled in the past. This has potentially far-reaching consequences for the study of global-scale plant functional trait patterns. We test the accuracy and effectiveness of HPMF and aHPMF in filling sparse matrices, using the TRY database of plant functional traits (http://www.try-db.org). TRY is one of the largest global compilations of plant trait databases (750 traits of 1 million plants), encompassing data on morphological, anatomical, biochemical, phenological and physiological features of plants. However, despite of unprecedented coverage, the TRY database is still very sparse, severely limiting joint trait analyses. Plant traits are the key to understanding how plants as primary producers adjust to changes in environmental conditions and in turn influence them. Forming the basis for Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs), plant traits are also fundamental in global change studies for predicting future ecosystem changes. It is thus imperative that missing data is imputed in as accurate and precise a way as possible. In this study, we show the advantages and disadvantages of applying probabilistic matrix factorization techniques in incorporating hierarchical and environmental information for the prediction of missing plant traits as compared to conventional imputation techniques such as the complete case and mean approaches. We will discuss the implications of using gap-filled data for global-scale studies of plant functional trait - environment relationship as opposed to the above-mentioned conventional techniques, using examples of out-of-sample predictions of foliar Nitrogen across several species' ranges and biomes.

Schrodt, Franziska; Shan, Hanhuai; Fazayeli, Farideh; Karpatne, Anuj; Kattge, Jens; Banerjee, Arindam; Reichstein, Markus; Reich, Peter

2013-04-01

322

Studies on Some Hexaploid Wheat Varieties (Triticum aestivum L.) under the Agro-ecological Conditions of District Poonch, Azad Kashmir  

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Full Text Available Hexaploid wheat has the largest cultivation area among all other crop plants, due to its adaptability to different agro-climatic zones. To cater for the requirements of varied regional breeding programs a screening trial was conducted, in which six hexaploid wheat genotypes were executed for their adaptability under the agro-ecological environment of district Poonch, Azad Kashmir. Punjab-96, khyber-87 and pirsabak-91 have shown maximum plant height, number of spikelets/plant, spike length and 1000 grains weight. Increase in number of tillers/plant was only reported for variety Punjab-96. In this study only Punjab-96 was recommended for general cultivation in district Poonch, Azad Kashmir.

Muhammad Fareed Khan; Asad Hussain Shah; Mumtaz Hussain

2002-01-01

323

[Conditions linked to the integration of the ecologic approach to the programming of prevention-promotion offered to elderly clients by the CSSS of Quebec: a case study].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This multiple case study investigates conditions influencing the integration of the ecological approach in disease prevention and health promotion (DPHP) programs offered to older adults by local health organizations in Quebec. Scheirer's (1981) implementation model guided the study of five Centres de Santé et Services Sociaux chosen in line with the ecological dimension of their DPHP programs. Documentary analyses were conducted along with thirty-eight semi-structured interviews among professionals and managers. Three categories of factors were explored: professional, organizational and environmental factors. Results indicate the ecological dimension of programs is influenced by organizational norms, competing priorities, team structure, external partnerships, preconceived ideas regarding DPHP for older adults, along with professional interest and training. These results provide levers for action toward optimizing services offered to the older population through disease prevention and health promotion programs.

Leblanc MÈ; Richard L; Bisaillon A; Gauvin L; Ducharme F; Trudel M

2011-12-01

324

The significance of the default : A study in environmental law methodology with emphasis on ecological sustainability and international biodiversity law  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The legal operationalisation of ecological sustainability concerns all levels of legal control. The ensuring of full biodiversity is an indispensible component of ecological sustainability. At the same time, biodiversity losses continue to be a serious problem in many regions of the world. The in...

Jóhannsdóttir, Aðalheiður

325

Ecological performance and possible origin of a ubiquitous but under-studied gastropod  

Science.gov (United States)

Invasions by non-indigenous species (NIS) have been suggested to alter local, regional and global biota on unprecedented scales. To manage NIS, it is pivotal to identify whether a species is introduced or native, but even today the geographical origin of thousands of species worldwide remain uncertain. Most of these 'cryptogenic species' are inconspicuous and rare, but in a few instances, they can also be abundant and conspicuous species, with large impacts on community structure. The identification of cryptogenic species, and summarizing information on their most likely origin, is an important task in invasion biology, and can highlight the need for research and management. Here, we document that the gastropod Batillaria australis in the Swan River estuary (Perth, Western Australia) is a conspicuous species of uncertain origin. A literature review combined with new survey data revealed that all evidence point to a recent human-mediated transfer; for example, it is absent from the fossil record, was first collected in 1954, has a low parasite diversity, has increased its population size dramatically in recent times, is separated by >3000 km from conspecifics, has no long-distance dispersal mechanisms, and existing ocean currents run against a natural range extension. Surprisingly, despite political and scientific focus on NIS hardly any ecological data have been published on this species from Western Australia. We show that B. australis is highly abundant in both seagrass beds (424 ± 29 ind m -2) and on unvegetated sand flats (92 ± 22 ind m -2) being orders of magnitudes more abundant than any native gastropod in the Swan River. Experiments showed that high resistance to predation and environmental stress potentially explains its success. From our survey data, we calculated that >3.6 billion invasive snails today occupy the Swan River. This large snail populations support other organisms; for example, almost 1 billion macroalgae are found attached to living B. australis and >100 million hermit crabs occupy its empty shells. Given Battilaria's high abundance, wide distribution, large size, persistent shells that support other organisms and bioturbating behavior, it seems inescapable that this potential invader has impacted the ecosystem functioning of the Swan River. We argue that the search for abundant species of uncertain origin should continue, and that these species generally should be treated with the same interest as high status invaders to mitigate impacts in already invaded systems and to avoid secondary spread into neighboring ecosystems.

Thomsen, Mad S.; Wernberg, Thomas; Tuya, Fernando; Silliman, Brian R.

2010-05-01

326

The power of genetic monitoring for studying demography, ecology and genetics of a reintroduced brown bear population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genetic monitoring has rarely been used for wildlife translocations despite the potential benefits this approach offers, compared to traditional field-based methods. We applied genetic monitoring to the reintroduced brown bear population in northern Italy. From 2002 to 2008, 2781 hair and faecal samples collected noninvasively plus 12 samples obtained from captured or dead bears were used to follow the demographic and geographical expansion and changes in genetic composition. Individual genotypes were used to reconstruct the wild pedigree and revealed that the population increased rapidly, from nine founders to >27 individuals in 2008 (lambda=1.17-1.19). Spatial mapping of bear samples indicated that most bears were distributed in the region surrounding the translocation site; however, individual bears were found up to 163 km away. Genetic diversity in the population was high, with expected heterozygosity of 0.74-0.79 and allelic richness of 4.55-5.41. However, multi-year genetic monitoring data showed that mortality rates were elevated, immigration did not occur, one dominant male sired all cubs born from 2002 to 2005, genetic diversity declined, relatedness increased, inbreeding occurred, and the effective population size was extremely small (Ne=3.03, ecological method). The comprehensive information collected through genetic monitoring is critical for implementing future conservation plans for the brown bear population in the Italian Alps. This study provides a model for other reintroduction programmes by demonstrating how genetic monitoring can be implemented to uncover aspects of the demography, ecology and genetics of small and reintroduced populations that will advance our understanding of the processes influencing their viability, evolution, and successful restoration.

De Barba M; Waits LP; Garton EO; Genovesi P; Randi E; Mustoni A; Groff C

2010-09-01

327

The power of genetic monitoring for studying demography, ecology and genetics of a reintroduced brown bear population.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic monitoring has rarely been used for wildlife translocations despite the potential benefits this approach offers, compared to traditional field-based methods. We applied genetic monitoring to the reintroduced brown bear population in northern Italy. From 2002 to 2008, 2781 hair and faecal samples collected noninvasively plus 12 samples obtained from captured or dead bears were used to follow the demographic and geographical expansion and changes in genetic composition. Individual genotypes were used to reconstruct the wild pedigree and revealed that the population increased rapidly, from nine founders to >27 individuals in 2008 (lambda=1.17-1.19). Spatial mapping of bear samples indicated that most bears were distributed in the region surrounding the translocation site; however, individual bears were found up to 163 km away. Genetic diversity in the population was high, with expected heterozygosity of 0.74-0.79 and allelic richness of 4.55-5.41. However, multi-year genetic monitoring data showed that mortality rates were elevated, immigration did not occur, one dominant male sired all cubs born from 2002 to 2005, genetic diversity declined, relatedness increased, inbreeding occurred, and the effective population size was extremely small (Ne=3.03, ecological method). The comprehensive information collected through genetic monitoring is critical for implementing future conservation plans for the brown bear population in the Italian Alps. This study provides a model for other reintroduction programmes by demonstrating how genetic monitoring can be implemented to uncover aspects of the demography, ecology and genetics of small and reintroduced populations that will advance our understanding of the processes influencing their viability, evolution, and successful restoration. PMID:20735733

De Barba, M; Waits, L P; Garton, E O; Genovesi, P; Randi, E; Mustoni, A; Groff, C

2010-08-23

328

Use of 16S rRNA and rpoB Genes as Molecular Markers for Microbial Ecology Studies?  

Science.gov (United States)

Several characteristics of the 16S rRNA gene, such as its essential function, ubiquity, and evolutionary properties, have allowed it to become the most commonly used molecular marker in microbial ecology. However, one fact that has been overlooked is that multiple copies of this gene are often present in a given bacterium. These intragenomic copies can differ in sequence, leading to identification of multiple ribotypes for a single organism. To evaluate the impact of such intragenomic heterogeneity on the performance of the 16S rRNA gene as a molecular marker, we compared its phylogenetic and evolutionary characteristics to those of the single-copy gene rpoB. Full-length gene sequences and gene fragments commonly used for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were compared at various taxonomic levels. Heterogeneity found between intragenomic 16S rRNA gene copies was concentrated in specific regions of rRNA secondary structure. Such “heterogeneity hot spots” occurred within all gene fragments commonly used in molecular microbial ecology. This intragenomic heterogeneity influenced 16S rRNA gene tree topology, phylogenetic resolution, and operational taxonomic unit estimates at the species level or below. rpoB provided comparable phylogenetic resolution to that of the 16S rRNA gene at all taxonomic levels, except between closely related organisms (species and subspecies levels), for which it provided better resolution. This is particularly relevant in the context of a growing number of studies focusing on subspecies diversity, in which single-copy protein-encoding genes such as rpoB could complement the information provided by the 16S rRNA gene.

Case, Rebecca J.; Boucher, Yan; Dahllof, Ingela; Holmstrom, Carola; Doolittle, W. Ford; Kjelleberg, Staffan

2007-01-01

329

Development of a concept for a long-term ecological monitoring system on the river Rhine. Phase 1: bibliographic study. Annex 1. Chronological bibliography and materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This bibliographic study describes the ecological changes to which the ecosystem Rhine river/floodplain has been exposed from its historical state, free of anthropogenic impacts, to its present state, marked by strong anthropogenic impacts. By classifying these changes it is possible to define reference states of the river which should become the basis for the restoration of certain conditions of the ecosystem river/floodplain and to discuss related targets and actions. A comparison of historical and present states of the ecosystem allows proposals to be derived for measuring parameters for a future ecological monitoring programme for the river Rhine. Finally, gaps in knowledge are revealed, which at present hinder the ecological monitoring of the river, its shores and floodplains. Annex I lists the references arranged in the order of authors and years of publication, presents a list of experts, an overview on research projects, current measuring and observation programmes on the river Rhine and makes proposals for future monitoring sites. (orig.).

1994-01-01

330

Is intensive measurement of body image reactive? A two-study evaluation using Ecological Momentary Assessment suggests not.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Intensive assessment methods (e.g., Ecological Momentary Assessment [EMA]) are increasingly used to capture body image experiences in daily life. One concern with EMA is multiple assessments may increase reactivity to internal or external cues, potentially biasing measurement. Reactivity to EMA was evaluated in two studies (Study 1: N=63 female undergraduates, Study 2: N=131 women with high body dissatisfaction/disordered eating). Participants completed five daily surveys on handheld computers for 1-2 weeks and body image-related questionnaires at the start and end of each study. Results showed no systematic changes in pre- and post-EMA measures or momentary EMA reports, suggesting women were not reactive to the EMA protocols. Completing 1-2 weeks of EMA does not appear to affect body dissatisfaction, mood, or attitudes in non-clinical or at-risk samples of women. These studies provide evidence that EMA methods can be used to assess real-world body image experiences without undue concern about measurement reactivity.

Heron KE; Smyth JM

2013-01-01

331

Learning about Environmental Issues in Engineering Programmes: A Case Study of First-Year Civil Engineering Students' Contextualisation of an Ecology Course  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes how first-year civil engineering students interpreted the content and structure of an ecology course. Students' learning processes were analysed from an intentional perspective, i.e. a perspective that takes into account the students' educational aims and conceptions of the study situation. Interviews were carried out with six civil…

Lundholm, Cecilia

2004-01-01

332

"Inbreeding and its Relevance to Early and Pre-reproductive Mortality Rates in Iran, an Ecological Study"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Consanguinity has been a long-standing social habit among Iranians. The effect of consanguinity on early death (stillbirth plus infant death) and pre-reproductive mortality (death before age 15 years) was studied in an ecological study in 10 provinces of Iran (including, Boosheher, Chaharmahal-O-Bakhtiari, East Azarbaijan, Ilam, Fars, Kashan, Kerman, Kermanshah, Markazi, Semnan, and Yazd). The rates of early death and pre-reproductive mortality of the study populations were derived from the data from 20th March 2000 to 19th March 2001. Statistical analysis showed that there were significant correlation coefficients between mean of inbreeding coefficients of provinces and either early death (r=+0.611, t=2.32, df=9, P=0.046) or pre-reproductive mortality (r=+0.627, t=2.41, df=9, P=0.039) rates. When consider the frequency of consanguinity in terms of individual city of the study provinces, statistical analysis showed that early death (r=+0.324, t=3.18, df =86, P=0.002) was significantly correlated with the mean of inbreeding coefficients of populations.

M Saadat; H Mohabbatkar

2003-01-01

333

Middle and High School Students' Exposure to Alcohol- and Smoking-Related Media: A Pilot Study Using Ecological Momentary Assessment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The goals of this study were to assess the feasibility of using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to measure adolescents' exposure to alcohol and smoking-related media. A sample of 20 middle and high school students completed a 2-week EMA protocol in which they monitored exposures to alcohol and smoking-related media. Results showed that adolescents were highly compliant with the study protocol. A total of 255 exposures to alcohol (67%) and smoking (33%) were captured, representing an average of 8.50 (SD = 5.82) alcohol-related media exposures and 4.25 (SD = 3.67) smoking-related media exposures per participant, during the study period. Exposures tended to occur in the afternoon (52% alcohol; 54% smoking), at point of sale (44% alcohol; 65% smoking), and on days leading up to the weekend (57% alcohol; 57% smoking). Exposures were also likely in the presence of family (69% alcohol; 56% smoking). Overall, results of this small pilot provide preliminary evidence that EMA is a useful tool for tracking and characterizing middle and high school students' real-world exposures to alcohol- and smoking-related media. Future studies may suggest mechanisms by which media exposures lead to youth uptake of drinking and smoking behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Scharf DM; Martino SC; Setodji CM; Staplefoote BL; Shadel WG

2013-06-01

334

Evolutionary Ecology Research ???????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Evolutionary Ecology Research is a professional scientific journal focusing on the overlap between ecology and evolution. In 2002, the journal expanded its coverage of macroecology and macroevolution. It has not reduced its attention to the other areas of evolutionary ecology. ?????????...

335

Advances in Ecological Research ??????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Advances in Ecological Research presents a wide range of papers on all aspects of ecology. Topics include the physiology, populations, and communities of plants and animals, as well as landscape and ecosystem ecology. ?????Elsevier???????????????????????????????

336

Vegetation Dynamics Depending on Ecological Particularities of Bozanta Mare (Maramures County-Romania) Tailing Pound. Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study follows an ecological demarch of reintegration in the scenary through revegetation of an anthropic ground, consisting in a waste pond formed from the flotation activity of non-ferrous ores. Problem statement: To support the formation of a compact vegetal layer, having an anti-errosion and a restoration role, a preliminary study was required regarding the spontaneous settlement of different vegetal species. We have followed the specific floristic composition and the biodiversity on the waste pond, the manner of association of plant species, and the possible interractions with other species from the biocenosis (microorganisms and fungi). We have also studied the pace at which vegetal species settle, as well as the reciprocal influence, from the point of view of vegetation, with the neighbouring area, since the desideratum is the settlement of a vegetation similar to the natural one. Approach: The aim of the research is to draw a list of the vegetal taxa installed on the pond, as well as to detect some succession stages or some possible vegetal associations. We have established the share of different species in the vegetal layer on the waste pond through an analysis of the ecological preferences, of the geographical origin of plant species, of the cariological and bioform profile. All this was done to compare the possible vegetal associations which settle on such anthropic grounds with the neighbouring vegetation. The approach used was the classical one in fitosociology, recommended by the Central European Fitosociological School adapted to the pedo-climatic conditions in Romania. Results: Over 50 species of plants and fungi spontaniously settled have been listed, and we have followed their association as well as their distribution, compared to the microclimatical conditions of the waste pond. In this way,we have distinguished species with a large potential of revegetating highly polluted with heavy metals waste ponds and sites. Conclusions/Recommendations: Starting from this study, we may establish a formula of sustaining the vegetation and using the interractions among species in order to stimulate the settlement of a dense vegetation which might ensure anti-errosion protection and landscape integration.

Monica Marian; Leonard M. Cozmuta; Camelia Varga; Anca M. Cozmuta; Eugen Nour

2009-01-01

337

Dual neuroprotective pathways of a pro-electrophilic compound via HSF-1-activated heat-shock proteins and Nrf2-activated phase 2 antioxidant response enzymes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Activation of the Keap1/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway and consequent induction of phase 2 antioxidant enzymes is known to afford neuroprotection. Here, we present a series of novel electrophilic compounds that protect neurons via this pathway. Natural products, such as carnosic acid (CA), are present in high amounts in the herbs rosemary and sage as ortho-dihydroquinones, and have attracted particular attention because they are converted by oxidative stress to their active form (ortho-quinone species) that stimulate the Keap1/Nrf2 transcriptional pathway. Once activated, this pathway leads to the production of a series of antioxidant phase 2 enzymes. Thus, such dihydroquinones function as redox-activated 'pro-electrophiles'. Here, we explored the concept that related para-dihydroquinones represent even more effective bioactive pro-electrophiles for the induction of phase 2 enzymes without producing toxic side effects. We synthesized several novel para-hydroquinone-type pro-electrophilic compounds (designated D1 and D2) to analyze their protective mechanism. DNA microarray, PCR, and western blot analyses showed that compound D1 induced expression of heat-shock proteins (HSPs), including HSP70, HSP27, and DnaJ, in addition to phase 2 enzymes such as hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), NADP(H) quinine-oxidoreductase1, and the Na(+)-independent cystine/glutamate exchanger (xCT). Treatment with D1 resulted in activation of Nrf2 and heat-shock transcription factor-1 (HSF-1) transcriptional elements, thus inducing phase 2 enzymes and HSPs, respectively. In this manner, D1 protected neuronal cells from both oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related stress. Additionally, D1 suppressed induction of 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), an ER chaperone protein, and inhibited hyperoxidation of peroxiredoxin 2 (PRX2), a molecule that is in its reduced state can protect from oxidative stress. These results suggest that D1 is a novel pro-electrophilic compound that activates both the Nrf2 and HSF-1 pathways, and may thus offer protection from oxidative and ER stress.

Satoh T; Rezaie T; Seki M; Sunico CR; Tabuchi T; Kitagawa T; Yanagitai M; Senzaki M; Kosegawa C; Taira H; McKercher SR; Hoffman JK; Roth GP; Lipton SA

2011-11-01

338

Ecological subsidies: a conceptual framework for integrating ecosystem and exposure studies in linked aquatic-terrestrial systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecology and ecotoxicology share common goals - tracing and quantifying material flux in the environment. Bridging these disciplines is challenging because their practitioners have slightly different methods, terminologies and objectives. For example, ecologists strive to identify...

339

Evolving digital ecological networks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

"It is hard to realize that the living world as we know it is just one among many possibilities" [1]. Evolving digital ecological networks are webs of interacting, self-replicating, and evolving computer programs (i.e., digital organisms) that experience the same major ecological interactions as biological organisms (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism, and mutualism). Despite being computational, these programs evolve quickly in an open-ended way, and starting from only one or two ancestral organisms, the formation of ecological networks can be observed in real-time by tracking interactions between the constantly evolving organism phenotypes. These phenotypes may be defined by combinations of logical computations (hereafter tasks) that digital organisms perform and by expressed behaviors that have evolved. The types and outcomes of interactions between phenotypes are determined by task overlap for logic-defined phenotypes and by responses to encounters in the case of behavioral phenotypes. Biologists use these evolving networks to study active and fundamental topics within evolutionary ecology (e.g., the extent to which the architecture of multispecies networks shape coevolutionary outcomes, and the processes involved).

Fortuna MA; Zaman L; Wagner AP; Ofria C

2013-01-01

340

Evolving digital ecological networks.  

Science.gov (United States)

"It is hard to realize that the living world as we know it is just one among many possibilities" [1]. Evolving digital ecological networks are webs of interacting, self-replicating, and evolving computer programs (i.e., digital organisms) that experience the same major ecological interactions as biological organisms (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism, and mutualism). Despite being computational, these programs evolve quickly in an open-ended way, and starting from only one or two ancestral organisms, the formation of ecological networks can be observed in real-time by tracking interactions between the constantly evolving organism phenotypes. These phenotypes may be defined by combinations of logical computations (hereafter tasks) that digital organisms perform and by expressed behaviors that have evolved. The types and outcomes of interactions between phenotypes are determined by task overlap for logic-defined phenotypes and by responses to encounters in the case of behavioral phenotypes. Biologists use these evolving networks to study active and fundamental topics within evolutionary ecology (e.g., the extent to which the architecture of multispecies networks shape coevolutionary outcomes, and the processes involved). PMID:23533370

Fortuna, Miguel A; Zaman, Luis; Wagner, Aaron P; Ofria, Charles

2013-03-07

 
 
 
 
341

EvolMarkers: a database for mining exon and intron markers for evolution, ecology and conservation studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent innovations in next-generation sequencing have lowered the cost of genome projects. Nevertheless, sequencing entire genomes for all representatives in a study remains expensive and unnecessary for most studies in ecology, evolution and conservation. It is still more cost-effective and efficient to target and sequence single-copy nuclear gene markers for such studies. Many tools have been developed for identifying nuclear markers, but most of these have focused on particular taxonomic groups. We have built a searchable database, EvolMarkers, for developing single-copy coding sequence (CDS) and exon-primed-intron-crossing (EPIC) markers that is designed to work across a broad range of phylogenetic divergences. The database is made up of single-copy CDS derived from BLAST searches of a variety of metazoan genomes. Users can search the database for different types of markers (CDS or EPIC) that are common to different sets of input species with different divergence characteristics. EvolMarkers can be applied to any taxonomic group for which genome data are available for two or more species. We included 82 genomes in the first version of EvolMarkers and have found the methods to be effective across Placozoa, Cnidaria, Arthropod, Nematoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Chordata and plants. We demonstrate the effectiveness of searching for CDS markers within annelids and show how to find potentially useful intronic markers within the lizard Anolis.

Li C; Riethoven JJ; Naylor GJ

2012-09-01

342

Exploring Collaborative Training with Educational Computer Assisted Simulations in Health Care Education: An Empirical Ecology of Resources Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explores collaborative training with educational computer assisted simulations (ECAS) in health care education. The use of simulation technology is increasing in health care education (Issenberg et al., 2005; Bradley, 2006), and research is addressing the techniques of its application. Calls have been made for informing the field with existing and future educational research (e.g. Issenberg et al., 2011). This study investigates and examines collaboration as a technique for structuring simulation training. Part of a larger research and development project (H?ll et al., 2011; H?ll & S?derstr?m, 2012), this paper primarily utilizes qualitative observation analysis of dentistry students learning radiology to investigate the challenges that screen-based simulation technology poses for collaborative learning. Grounded in Luckin’s ecology of resources framework (Luckin, 2010) and informed by computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) research, the study identifies some disadvantages of free collaboration that need to be dealt with for collaboration to be a beneficial technique for ECAS in health care education. The discussion focuses on the use of scripts (Weinberger et al., 2009) to filter the interactions between the learner and the more able partner, supporting the collaborative-learning activity and enhancing learning with ECAS in health care education.

Lars O. Hall

2012-01-01

343

Valuation of ecological resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ecological resources are resources that have functional value to ecosystems. Frequently, these functions are overlooked in terms of the value they provide to humans. Environmental economics is in search of an appropriate analysis framework for such resources. In such a framework, it is essential to distinguish between two related subsets of information: (1) ecological processes that have intrinsic value to natural ecosystems; and (2) ecological functions that are values by humans. The present study addresses these concerns by identifying a habitat that is being displaced by development, and by measuring the human and ecological values associated with the ecological resources in that habitat. It is also essential to determine which functions are mutually exclusive and which are, in effect, complementary or products of joint production. The authors apply several resource valuation tools, including contingent valuation methodology (CVM), travel cost methodology (TCM), and hedonic damage-pricing (HDP). One way to derive upper-limit values for more difficult-to-value functions is through the use of human analogs, because human-engineered systems are relatively inefficient at supplying the desired services when compared with natural systems. Where data on the relative efficiencies of natural systems and human analogs exist, it is possible to adjust the costs of providing the human analog by the relative efficiency of the natural system to obtain a more realistic value of the function under consideration. The authors demonstrate this approach in an environmental economic case study of the environmental services rendered by shrub-steppe habitats of Benton County, Washington State.

Scott, M.J.; Bilyard, G.R.; Link, S.O.; Ricci, P.F.; Seely, H.E.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Westerdahl, H.E.

1995-04-01

344

The situation and development of chemical ecology(I):Ecological biochemistry  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The biological moleculas especially the secondary substances are summarized, and the situation and development in ecological biochemistry, including types, structure, biosynthetic pathways and the ecological effects of the biochemical substances are studied also.

Li Yuwen

1998-01-01

345

Ecological transition towards a sustainable energy system. Case studies on biogas production and use in Germany and Peru. Study of the European Commission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The energy system - defined as the production, distribution and consumption of energy - plays an important role in sustainability because it is interlinked with economic development, environmental protection and also, in developing countries, with the basic need for a food supply. The energy system has to be studied in relation to the urgent global problems, such as increasing pollution, growing world population, deforestation, exploitation of nonrenewable resources etc. The study, therefore, has the following objectives: - Identification of basic needs by the definition of physical, economic and social indicators for sustainable development. - Definition of the energy system, in terms of processes from energy production to energy use, including actors and networks. -Identification of the main problem areas in industrialized and developing countries relating to the energy system, of necessary improvements and of activities which are essential for the fulfillment of basic needs. - Definition and description of the conventional energy system with its process chains and actors and of an ecological energy system. - Identification of technical and socioeconomic impacts of these systems and their relations to the sustainability indicators. - Analysis of barriers and promotion of measures for the ecological transi tion (actors, R and D, technology transfer, information, motivation, consultation, training, subsidies, and other policy implications). (orig./SR).

1996-01-01

346

Molecular ecological network analyses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the interaction among different species within a community and their responses to environmental changes is a central goal in ecology. However, defining the network structure in a microbial community is very challenging due to their extremely high diversity and as-yet uncultivated status. Although recent advance of metagenomic technologies, such as high throughout sequencing and functional gene arrays, provide revolutionary tools for analyzing microbial community structure, it is still difficult to examine network interactions in a microbial community based on high-throughput metagenomics data. Results Here, we describe a novel mathematical and bioinformatics framework to construct ecological association networks named molecular ecological networks (MENs) through Random Matrix Theory (RMT)-based methods. Compared to other network construction methods, this approach is remarkable in that the network is automatically defined and robust to noise, thus providing excellent solutions to several common issues associated with high-throughput metagenomics data. We applied it to determine the network structure of microbial communities subjected to long-term experimental warming based on pyrosequencing data of 16?S rRNA genes. We showed that the constructed MENs under both warming and unwarming conditions exhibited topological features of scale free, small world and modularity, which were consistent with previously described molecular ecological networks. Eigengene analysis indicated that the eigengenes represented the module profiles relatively well. In consistency with many other studies, several major environmental traits including temperature and soil pH were found to be important in determining network interactions in the microbial communities examined. To facilitate its application by the scientific community, all these methods and statistical tools have been integrated into a comprehensive Molecular Ecological Network Analysis Pipeline (MENAP), which is open-accessible now (http://ieg2.ou.edu/MENA). Conclusions The RMT-based molecular ecological network analysis provides powerful tools to elucidate network interactions in microbial communities and their responses to environmental changes, which are fundamentally important for research in microbial ecology and environmental microbiology.

Deng Ye; Jiang Yi-Huei; Yang Yunfeng; He Zhili; Luo Feng; Zhou Jizhong

2012-01-01

347

Extant forest plantations as a potential bridge between social needs and ecological management: A comparative case study analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the face of global deforestation, there is a challenge to balance the management of areas of high conservation concern and social interests. As a response to the growing human-environment interface and the use of forests for subsistence, plantations became a management tool to provide for wood harvesting during the 1970s. Some plantations were subsequently protected from harvest as conservation of all forests increased. Plantations that are now illegal to harvest can cause local animosities toward forest protection to increase and may also result in concentrated harvesting impacts on surrounding natural forests. In this article, we analyzed case studies of plantations from El Salvador and Niger. By utilizing distinctly disparate case studies, commonalities between the two can illuminate possible management lessons. In the comparison of El Salvador and Niger forest plantations we found the following commonalities: utilizing plantations for sustainable harvest has the to potential to reduce animosity between managers and stakeholders; plantations can serve as a risk-averse testing ground for novel managerial practices; and the sustainable harvest of plantations can reduce deforestation and impacts on biodiversity in natural remnant forests. We argue that extant plantations currently under illegal harvesting legislation could become the epicenters of social and ecological conservation through a management shift to sustainable harvesting. By focusing on these relics, managers could work with stakeholders to change unduly burdening restrictions and promote cooperation between conservationists and local populations.

Paulson Priebe ME; Müller JG

2013-09-01

348

Oral ingestion of hexavalent chromium through drinking water and cancer mortality in an industrial area of Greece - An ecological study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Hexavalent chromium is a known carcinogen when inhaled, but its carcinogenic potential when orally ingested remains controversial. Water contaminated with hexavalent chromium is a worldwide problem, making this a question of significant public health importance. Methods We conducted an ecological mortality study within the Oinofita region of Greece, where water has been contaminated with hexavalent chromium. We calculated gender, age, and period standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for all deaths, cancer deaths, and specific cancer types of Oinofita residents over an 11-year period (1999 - 2009), using the greater prefecture of Voiotia as the standard population. Results A total of 474 deaths were observed. The SMR for all cause mortality was 98 (95% CI 89-107) and for all cancer mortality 114 (95% CI 94-136). The SMR for primary liver cancer was 1104 (95% CI 405-2403, p-value Conclusions Elevated cancer mortality in the Oinofita area of Greece supports the hypothesis of hexavalent chromium carcinogenicity via the oral ingestion pathway of exposure. Further studies are needed to determine whether this association is causal, and to establish preventive guidelines and public health recommendations.

Linos Athena; Petralias Athanassios; Christophi Costas A; Christoforidou Eleni; Kouroutou Paraskevi; Stoltidis Melina; Veloudaki Afroditi; Tzala Evangelia; Makris Konstantinos C; Karagas Margaret R

2011-01-01

349

Rodent sperm analysis in field-based ecological risk assessment: pilot study at Ravenna army ammunition plant, Ravenna, Ohio  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rodent sperm analysis is a visable method for use in field studies of risk at contaminated sites. - Ecological risk assessment (ERA) guidance recommends that field-truthing efforts proceed when modeled hazard quotients (HQs) suggest that toxicological effects are occurring to site receptors. To date, no field methods have been proposed by the regulatory community that can lead to definitive determinations of acceptable or unacceptable risk for birds and mammals, the two terrestrial classes of receptors that are commonly assessed using the HQ method. This paper describes rodent sperm analysis (RSA) as a viable method to be applied in the field at sites with historical contamination. RSA is capable of detecting biological differences that bear on reproduction, a highly regarded toxicological endpoint of concern in USEPA Superfund-type ERAs. The results of RSA's first application at a study site are reported and discussed. The paper also provides the rationale for RSA's efficacy in the context of Superfund and other environmental cleanup programs, where limited time and money are available to determine and evaluate the field condition.

Tannenbaum, L.V.; Bazar, M.; Hawkins, M.S.; Cornaby, B.W.; Ferguson, E.A.; Chantelle Carroll, L.; Ryan, P.F

2003-05-01

350

Extant forest plantations as a potential bridge between social needs and ecological management: A comparative case study analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the face of global deforestation, there is a challenge to balance the management of areas of high conservation concern and social interests. As a response to the growing human-environment interface and the use of forests for subsistence, plantations became a management tool to provide for wood harvesting during the 1970s. Some plantations were subsequently protected from harvest as conservation of all forests increased. Plantations that are now illegal to harvest can cause local animosities toward forest protection to increase and may also result in concentrated harvesting impacts on surrounding natural forests. In this article, we analyzed case studies of plantations from El Salvador and Niger. By utilizing distinctly disparate case studies, commonalities between the two can illuminate possible management lessons. In the comparison of El Salvador and Niger forest plantations we found the following commonalities: utilizing plantations for sustainable harvest has the to potential to reduce animosity between managers and stakeholders; plantations can serve as a risk-averse testing ground for novel managerial practices; and the sustainable harvest of plantations can reduce deforestation and impacts on biodiversity in natural remnant forests. We argue that extant plantations currently under illegal harvesting legislation could become the epicenters of social and ecological conservation through a management shift to sustainable harvesting. By focusing on these relics, managers could work with stakeholders to change unduly burdening restrictions and promote cooperation between conservationists and local populations. PMID:24036094

Paulson Priebe, M E; Müller, J G

2013-09-11

351

Factors Associated with Dengue Mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean, 1995-2009: An Ecological Study  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we aimed to estimate the effect that environmental, demographic, and socioeconomic factors have on dengue mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean. To that end, we conducted an observational ecological study, analyzing data collected between 1995 and 2009. Dengue mortality rates were highest in the Caribbean (Spanish-speaking and non-Spanish-speaking). Multivariate analysis through Poisson regression revealed that the following factors were independently associated with dengue mortality: time since identification of endemicity (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] = 3.2 [for each 10 years]); annual rainfall (aRR = 1.5 [for each 103 L/m2]); population density (aRR = 2.1 and 3.2 for 20–120 inhabitants/km2 and > 120 inhabitants/km2, respectively); Human Development Index > 0.83 (aRR = 0.4); and circulation of the dengue 2 serotype (aRR = 1.7). These results highlight the important role that environmental, demographic, socioeconomic, and biological factors have played in increasing the severity of dengue in recent decades.

Diaz-Quijano, Fredi Alexander; Waldman, Eliseu Alves

2012-01-01

352

Case studies and mathematical models of ecological speciation. 1. Cichlids in a crater lake  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A recent study of a pair of sympatric species of cichlids in Lake Apoyo in Nicaragua is viewed as providing probably one of the most convincing examples of sympatric speciation to date. Here, we describe and study a stochastic, individual-based, explicit genetic model tailored for this cichlid syste...

Gavrilets, Sergey; Vose, Aaron; Barluenga, Marta; Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel

353

Ecological study in forest reserve of Ghasemloo (Shohada) valley and it's adjacent areas, Urmia-Iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Forest reserve of Ghasemloo valley (Shohada) and it's adjacent areas with 577 hectare surface area has located in south of Urmia and is known as an important natural plant station of Urmia. It is studied with respect the important factors which influencing vegetation cover in whole, particularly, with refer to composition and Formation of plant communities. To study the area, Brown-Blanquet's method was used. Plant samples were collected from 77 sample plots. The study resulted in recognition of four herbaceous types and seven shrub communities in study area. In addition, the investigation led to the fact that the most important factors which influencing the vegetation cover, are: geographical orientation, altitude, gradient and soil texture. More over, the study also resulted to preparation ofa colour vegetation map with 1/20000 scale.

Malekmohammadi L; Mahmoudzadeh A; Hassanzadeh A

2007-10-01

354

Side biases in humans (Homo sapiens): three ecological studies on hemispheric asymmetries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hemispheric asymmetries and side biases have been studied in humans mostly in laboratory settings, and evidence obtained in naturalistic settings is scarce. We here report the results of three studies on human ear preference observed during social interactions in noisy environments, i.e., discotheques. In the first study, a spontaneous right-ear preference was observed during linguistic exchange between interacting individuals. This lateral bias was confirmed in a quasi-experimental study in which a confederate experimenter evoked an ear-orienting response in bystanders, under the pretext of approaching them with a whispered request. In the last study, subjects showed a greater proneness to meet an experimenter's request when it was directly addressed to the right rather than the left ear. Our findings are in agreement both with laboratory studies on hemispheric lateralization for language and approach/avoidance behavior in humans and with animal research. The present work is one of the few studies demonstrating the natural expression of hemispheric asymmetries, showing their effect in everyday human behavior.

Marzoli D; Tommasi L

2009-09-01

355

Side biases in humans ( Homo sapiens): three ecological studies on hemispheric asymmetries  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemispheric asymmetries and side biases have been studied in humans mostly in laboratory settings, and evidence obtained in naturalistic settings is scarce. We here report the results of three studies on human ear preference observed during social interactions in noisy environments, i.e., discotheques. In the first study, a spontaneous right-ear preference was observed during linguistic exchange between interacting individuals. This lateral bias was confirmed in a quasi-experimental study in which a confederate experimenter evoked an ear-orienting response in bystanders, under the pretext of approaching them with a whispered request. In the last study, subjects showed a greater proneness to meet an experimenter’s request when it was directly addressed to the right rather than the left ear. Our findings are in agreement both with laboratory studies on hemispheric lateralization for language and approach/avoidance behavior in humans and with animal research. The present work is one of the few studies demonstrating the natural expression of hemispheric asymmetries, showing their effect in everyday human behavior.

Marzoli, Daniele; Tommasi, Luca

2009-09-01

356

Environmental evaluation of societal industrial ecology - Case studies of its implementation in the Swedish transport and building sectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis is a study of how to environmentally evaluate the Swedish concept 'kretsloppsanpassning', here termed Societal Industrial Ecology (SIE). The thesis is based on three case studies of its implementation in the transport and building sectors. The aim of the thesis is to study to what extent the implementation of SIE in the transport and building sectors leads to changes in material and energy flows and their management. The environmental management (solely in the transport sector) was studied in order to check implemented measures against the governmental goal definitions and validate the measures' inclusion and scope in the SIE concept. In order to environmentally analyse and discuss the changes in environmental management regarding material and energy flows, the industrial metabolism perspective was used. Then, measures were analysed as to how environmental evaluation could be applied and what the possible result would be. Finally, the implications of environmental evaluation for environmental management were discussed. The implementation of SIE in the transport and building sectors has generally lead to that the main part of measures are implemented on material outflows. However, the monitoring of material flows was mainly found on the inflow side. This means that the measures taken were not audited and the quantified information concerning material inflows seem not to influence planning of measures. implemented and planned SIE measures sometimes take place in a wider context than the internal organisation and thereby affect other actors in society. Compared with traditional environmental measuring, this makes other demands on how to environmentally evaluated these measures. Especially, wider system boundaries are a prerequisite to address and evaluate SIE measures. Environmental. evaluation in a systems approach would not result in a precise answer, even if the system studied were less complex than an industrial system. There are a lot of parameters affecting the final outcome, such as system boundaries, study objects, limitations, interpretation of the result and more, everyone contingent upon values.

Roth, L.

2001-08-01

357

Screening study of population health status in the ecologically unfavorable districts of North Kazakhstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The goal of this study is health status assessment of population living in North Kazakhstan settlements adjoining to fallings locations of detached parts of rockets' carriers. During study the physical development of children in the given settlements was estimated, The distribution of different pathology kinds among children, adults and juveniles was considered. The examination of 969 children and 1332 adults (juveniles including) was carried out. A high distribution of diverse pathologies kinds was revealed

2003-12-12

358

Integration of Local Ecological Knowledge and Conventional Science: a Study of Seven Community-Based Forestry Organizations in the USA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Natural resource management decisions can be based on incomplete knowledge when they lack scientific research, monitoring, and assessment and/or simultaneously fail to draw on local ecological knowledge. Many community-based forestry organizations in the United States attempt to address these knowledge gaps with an integrated ecological stewardship approach that balances ecological, social, and economic goals. This paper examines the use and integration of local knowledge and conventional science in ecological stewardship and monitoring by seven community-based forestry demonstration projects. Through document reviews and interviews with both participants and partners of all of these community-based organizations, we found that all the community-based forestry groups incorporated local ecological knowledge into many aspects of their management or monitoring activities, such as collaboratively designing monitoring programs with local ranchers, forest workers, and residents; involving local people in collecting data and interpreting results; and documenting the local ecological knowledge of private forest landowners, long-time residents, and harvesters of nontimber forest products. We found that all the groups also used conventional science to design or conduct ecological assessments, monitoring, or research. We also found evidence, in the form of changes in attitudes on the part of local people and conventional scientists and jointly produced reports, that the two types of knowledge were integrated by all groups. These findings imply that community-based forestry groups are redistributing the power of conventional science through the use of diverse knowledge sources. Still, several obstacles prevented some local, traditionally under-represented groups from being significantly involved in monitoring and management decisions, and their knowledge has not yet been consistently incorporated.

Heidi L. Ballard; Maria E. Fernandez-Gimenez; Victoria E. Sturtevant

2008-01-01

359

Study of the sustentability indicator ecological footprint: a theoretical-empirical approach Estudo do indicador de sustentabilidade "Pegada Ecológica":uma abordagem teórico-empírica.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article aims to describe the methodology of Ecological Footprint, a tool to measure, communicate and compare the development of nations, using a theoretical and empirical grounds through a literature search conducted in the literature. The content of the study initially discusses the deinitions, the assumptions adopted, the method for calculating the indicator and the main advantages and disadvantages of using the method of Ecological Footprint. The results for this indicator, in different countries worldwide, shows that Brazil has an ecological surplus, allowing the social and economic development with conservation of natural resources.Neste artigo, tem-se como objetivo descrever a metodologia da Pegada Ecológica (Ecological Footprint), uma ferramenta para medir, comunicar e comparar o desenvolvimento das nações, utilizando uma fundamentação teórico-empírica por meio de uma pesquisa bibliográfica realizada na literatura especializada. Este estudo aborda, inicialmente as definições, as premissas adotadas, o método para o cálculo do indicador e as principais vantagens e desvantagens da utilização do método da Pegada ecológica. Os resultados obtidos para este indicador, em diferentes países, revelam que o Brasil possui um superávit ecológico, que permite o desenvolvimento social e econômico com a conservação dos recursos naturais.

Marcia França Ribeiro; José Antonio Peixoto; Leydervan de Souza Xavier

2009-01-01

360

Simulation and experimental studies of operators' decision styles and crew composition while using an ecological and traditional user interface for the control room of a nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of this research is threefold: (1) use of the Skill-, Rule-, and Knowledge-based levels of cognitive control -- the SRK framework -- to develop an integrated information processing conceptual framework (for integration of workstation, job, and team design); (2) to evaluate the user interface component of this framework -- the Ecological display; and (3) to analyze the effect of operators' individual information processing behavior and decision styles on handling plant disturbances plus their performance on, and preference for, Traditional and Ecological user interfaces. A series of studies were conducted. In Part I, a computer simulation model and a mathematical model were developed. In Part II, an experiment was designed and conducted at the EBR-II plant of the Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho. It is concluded that: the integrated SRK-based information processing model for control room operations is superior to the conventional rule-based model; operators' individual decision styles and the combination of their styles play a significant role in effective handling of nuclear power plant disturbances; use of the Ecological interface results in significantly more accurate event diagnosis and recall of various plant parameters, faster response to plant transients, and higher ratings of subject preference; and operators' decision styles affect on both their performance and preference for the Ecological interface

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Geographic patterns of hepatocellular carcinoma mortality with exposure to iron in groundwater in Taiwanese population: an ecological study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Many studies have examined the risk factors for HCC (including hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, aflatoxin, retinol, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption). However, data from previous studies on the association between iron exposure, land subsidence, and HCC mortality/incidence were limited, especially in Taiwanese population. We aimed to explore the geographical distribution of HCC mortality rates by township-specific data and to evaluate the association between HCC mortality, land subsidence, and iron levels in groundwater in Taiwan. METHODS: We conducted an ecological study and calculated the HCC age-standardized mortality/incidence rates according to death certificates issued in Taiwan from 1992 to 2001 and incidence data from 1995-1998. The land subsidence dataset before 2005 and iron concentrations in groundwater in 1989 are also involved in this study. Both geographical information systems and Pearson correlation coefficients were used to analyze the relationship between HCC mortality rates, land subsidence, and iron concentrations in groundwater. RESULTS: Township-specific HCC mortality rates are higher in southwestern coastal townships where serious land subsidence and higher township-specific concentrations of iron in groundwater are present. The Pearson correlation coefficients of iron concentrations in groundwater and ASRs of HCC were 0.286 (P?=?0.004) in males and 0.192 (P?=?0.058) in females for mortality data; the coefficients were 0.375 (P?study showed that HCC mortality is clustered in southwestern Taiwan and the association with the iron levels in groundwater in Taiwanese population warrant further investigation.

Shyu HJ; Lung CC; Ho CC; Sun YH; Ko PC; Huang JY; Pan CC; Chiang YC; Chen SC; Liaw YP

2013-01-01

362

Why nursing? Applying a socio-ecological framework to study career choices of double degree nursing students and graduates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To report a study that investigated the career development, aspirations, and choices of undergraduate students and graduates of nursing double degree programmes. BACKGROUND: Over one-third of Australian undergraduate nursing students study by double degree mode. Their career destinations will have an impact on the availability of graduates in a time of nursing shortages, but little is known about why nursing students choose double degrees or take up a career in nursing vs. the other specialization. DESIGN: A qualitative study using two longitudinal methods. METHODS: The study was conducted in 2008-2009 with 68 participants from an Australian regional university offering double degrees in nursing. A time series method involved interviews with 12 first year students followed by focus group interviews with 22 final year students. A longitudinal method involved repeated interviews with 34 graduates. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically. RESULTS: Enrolment in a double degree was influenced by advice from significant others; previous experiences of health care; and the anticipated rewards associated with a choice of two careers. Career development and decisions of undergraduates were influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic rewards distinctive to each area of specialization and marketing and job availability. For graduates, the impact of workplace experiences such as prior practicums and past and present workplace support were foremost. CONCLUSION: This study provides previously unknown information about double degree nursing students' and graduates' career development and career choices over time. A socio-ecological framework adapted to nursing enabled a broad understanding of the many environments and contexts that confirm or discourage a nursing career.

Hickey N; Sumsion J; Harrison L

2013-08-01

363

Respiratory and mental health effects of wildfires: an ecological study in Galician municipalities (north-west Spain)  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background During the summer of 2006, a wave of wildfires struck Galicia (north-west Spain), giving rise to a disaster situation in which a great deal of the territory was destroyed. Unlike other occasions, the wildfires in this case also threatened farms, houses and even human lives, with the result that the perception of disaster and helplessness was the most acute experienced in recent years. This study sought to analyse the respiratory and mental health effects of the August-2006 fires, using consumption of anxiolytics-hypnotics and drugs for obstructive airway diseases as indicators. Methods We conducted an analytical, ecological geographical- and temporal-cluster study, using municipality-month as the study unit. The independent variable was exposure to wildfires in August 2006, with municipalities thus being classified into the following three categories: no exposure; medium exposure; and high exposure. Dependent variables were: (1) anxiolytics-hypnotics; and (2) drugs for obstructive airway diseases consumption. These variables were calculated for the two 12-month periods before and after August 2006. Additive models for time series were used for statistical analysis purposes. Results The results revealed a higher consumption of drugs for obstructive airway diseases among pensioners during the months following the wildfires, in municipalities affected versus those unaffected by fire. In terms of consumption of anxiolytics-hypnotics, the results showed a significant increase among men among men overall -pensioners and non-pensioners- in fire-affected municipalities. Conclusions Our study indicates that wildfires have a significant effect on population health. The coherence of these results suggests that drug utilisation research is a useful tool for studying morbidity associated with environmental incidents.

Caamano-Isorna Francisco; Figueiras Adolfo; Sastre Isabel; Montes-Martínez Agustín; Taracido, Margarita; Piñeiro-Lamas María

2011-01-01

364

Recent studies on the microbial ecology of the upper gastrointestinal tract.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microecological problems have escalated recently in clinical medicine. We studied the microecology of the upper small bowel. Duodenal flora was examined, displaying microbial growth in 90.8% of the 400 patients examined. The microflora was classified according to germ quality into definite types of colonization. Frequency of microbial colonization is normally 36.7% and 63.3% by overgrowth, indicating differing dysbioses. Simulation of microbial overgrowth in the duodenum is possible with a continuous-flow culture, demonstrating a biocenosis of several groups of micro-organisms with great metabolic activity. Continuous culture technique suggests possibilities for future studies of human gastrointestinal microecology.

Bernhardt H; Knoke M

1989-07-01

365

Resource intruders and robustness of social-ecological systems: an irrigation system of Southeast Spain, a case study  

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Full Text Available Globalization increases the vulnerability of traditional social-ecological systems (SES) to the incursion of new resource appropriators, i.e. intruders. New external disturbances that increase the physical and socio-political accessibility of SES (e.g. construction of a new road) and weak points in institutional SES of valuable common-pool resources are some of the main factors that enhance the encroachment of intruders. The irrigation system of the northwest Murcia Region (Spain) is an example used in this article of the changes in the structure and robustness of a traditional SES as a result of intruders. In this case study, farmers have traditionally used water from springs to irrigate their lands but, in recent decades, large agrarian companies have settled in this region, using groundwater to irrigate new lands. This intrusion had caused the levels of this resource to drop sharply. In an attempt to adapt, local communities are intensifying the use of resources and are constructing new physical infrastructures; consequently, new vulnerabilities are emerging. This situation seems to be heading toward the inevitably collapse of this traditional SES. From an institutional viewpoint, some recommendations are offered to enhance the robustness of SES in order to mitigate the consequences of intruders.

Irene Pérez; M. A. Janssen; A. Tenza; A. Giménez; A. Pedreño; M. Giménez

2011-01-01

366

Emergence Unites Ecology and Society  

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Full Text Available The effort to combine analysis of ecosystems and social systems requires a firm theoretical basis. When humans are present in an ecosystem, their actions affect emergent structures; this paper examines forms of emergence that account for the presence of humans. Humans monitor and regulate ecosystems based on their cultural systems. Cultural systems consist of concepts linked in complicated ways that can form consistent world views, can contain inconsistencies, and may or may not accurately model the properties of a social–ecological system. Consequently, human monitoring and regulating processes will differ, depending on cultural systems. Humans, as agents, change or maintain pre-existing material and cultural emergent structures. The presentation is illustrated with a case study of fire-prone forests. The paper shows that explicit attention to emergence serves very well in unifying the following requirements for social–ecological analysis: coherent and observable definitions of sustainability; ways to link ecological and social phenomena; ways to understand cultural reasons for stability and instability in dynamic social–ecological systems; and ways to include human self-evaluation and culture within dynamic models of social–ecological systems. Analysis of cultural emergent structures clarifies many differences in assumptions among the fields of economics, sociology, political science, ecology, and ecological economics. Because it can be readily applied to empirical questions, the framework provides a good way to organize policy analysis that is not dominated by one or another discipline.

Ronald L. Trosper

2005-01-01

367

DAE, BRNS co-ordinated research project (CRP) on the thermal ecological studies (TES) - a perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present studies underscored the value of long term base line data on temperature and other physico-chemical parameters of natural water bodies as an essential pre-requisite for sitting power plants, planning industrial discharges into natural water bodies, ensuring minimal impacts on fauna and flora

2007-01-01

368

Information seeking by blind and sight impaired citizens: an ecological study  

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Full Text Available The article reports a study which investigated information seeking by blind and sight impaired people, with particular emphasis on the role of the Internet. A literature review revealed a paucity of studies about the information-seeking behaviour of groups of people with disabilities, including blind and sight impaired people. The study focussed very specifically on both personal lives and broader social contexts. The techniques for collecting qualitative data included two focus groups involving 16 participants and 15 individual interviewees, from both city and country settings. The findings of the study address issues of information needs, information sources, the role of the Internet in meeting needs and the barriers to the use of the Internet. A major conclusion is that people who are blind and sight impaired deserve to be provided with a range of ways of meeting information needs, as are available for people with normal sight. Given the inexorable continuing impact of the information age, it is also concluded that ways must be found so that people with disabilities can participate equitably in the information economy.

2000-01-01

369

Ecological and Physiological Studies of Gymnodinium catenatum in the Mexican Pacific: A Review  

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Full Text Available This review presents a detailed analysis of the state of knowledge of studies done in Mexico related to the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum, a paralytic toxin producer. This species was first reported in the Gulf of California in 1939; since then most studies in Mexico have focused on local blooms and seasonal variations. G. catenatum is most abundant during March and April, usually associated with water temperatures between 18 and 25 ºC and an increase in nutrients. In vitro studies of G. catenatum strains from different bays along the Pacific coast of Mexico show that this species can grow in wide ranges of salinities, temperatures, and N:P ratios. Latitudinal differences are observed in the toxicity and toxin profile, but the presence of dcSTX, dcGTX2-3, C1, and C2 are usual components. A common characteristic of the toxin profile found in shellfish, when G. catenatum is present in the coastal environment, is the detection of dcGTX2-3, dcSTX, C1, and C2. Few bioassay studies have reported effects in mollusks and lethal effects in mice, and shrimp; however no adverse effects have been observed in the copepod Acartia clausi. Interestingly, genetic sequencing of D1-D2 LSU rDNA revealed that it differs only in one base pair, compared with strains from other regions.

Christine J. Band-Schmidt; José J. Bustillos-Guzmán; David J. López-Cortés; Ismael Gárate-Lizárraga; Erick J. Núñez-Vázquez; Francisco E. Hernández-Sandoval

2010-01-01

370