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Sample records for ecological studies hsf

  1. Lessons from the use of genetically modified Drosophila melanogaster in ecological studies: Hsf mutant lines show highly trait-specific performance in field and laboratory thermal assays

    Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Loeschcke, Volker; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård

    2009-01-01

    . 2.  We have tested the importance of inducible heat shock proteins (Hsps) under different thermal conditions using two heat shock factor (Hsf) mutant lines (either able (Hsf+) or unable (Hsf0) to mount a heat stress response) and an outbred laboratory adapted wild-type line of Drosophila...... melanogaster under both laboratory and field conditions.3.  In the field, there was a tendency towards better performance of Hsf+ flies relative to Hsf0 flies, but as compared with wild-type the performance of both mutant lines was very low.4.  In the laboratory tests, Hsf+ flies had higher heat knock......-down resistance relative to Hsf0 flies but in other assays on heat, cold and desiccation resistance there was either no difference between the two mutant lines or the Hsf0 line had higher performance. Also, the superiority of the wild-type flies under field conditions was trait specific.5.  The results emphasize...

  2. HSF1 overexpression enhances oncolytic effect of replicative adenovirus

    Deng Youwen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background E1B55kD deleted oncolytic adenovirus was designed to achieve cancer-specific cytotoxicity, but showed limitations in clinical study. To find a method to increase its efficacy, we investigated the correlation between oncolytic effect of such oncolytic adenovirus Adel55 and intracellular heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1 activity. Methods In the present study, human breast cancer cell line Bcap37 was stably transfected with constitutively active HSF1 (cHSF1 or HSF1 specific siRNA (HSF1i to establish increased or decreased HSF1 expression levels. Cytotoxicity of Adel55 was analyzed in these cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, Adel55 incorporated with cHSF1 (Adel55-cHSF1 was used to treat various tumor xenografts. Results Adel55 could achieve more efficient oncolysis in cHSF1 transfected Bcap37 cells, both in vitro and in vivo. However, inhibition of HSF1 expression by HSF1i could rescue Bcap37 cell line from oncolysis by Adel55. A time course study of viral replication established a correlation between higher replication of Adel55 and cytolysis or tumor growth inhibition. Then, we constructed Adel55-cHSF1 for tumor gene therapy and demonstrated that it is more potent than Adel55 itself in oncolysis and replication in both Bcap37 and SW620 xenografts. Conclusions cHSF1 enhances the Adel55 cell-killing potential through increasing the viral replication and is a potential therapeutic implication to augment the potential of E1B55kD deleted oncolytic adenovirus by increasing its burst.

  3. 热休克转录因子1在肝细胞癌中的表达及意义%The study of expression of HSF1 primary hepatic carcinoma

    李袆; 王葵

    2009-01-01

    higher than that in its adjacent liver tissues.Both were involved in the primary hepatic carcinoma tumorigenesis.The mRNA expression of HSF1 were not associated with the patient′s gender,age,tumor size,pathologic grade or pathologic type,as well as level of serum AFP.It may create a new diagnostic method and treatment of PHC to study HSF1 further in primary hepatic carcinoma tumorigenesis.

  4. Ecological baseline studies

    Vickers, D.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental studies of Merritt Island are discussed. Five areas of the island's ecology are examined. They include: a terrestrial community analyses, a plant community study, a small mammal population study, a rainfall study, and an ichthyological analyses.

  5. Riluzole increases the amount of latent HSF1 for an amplified heat shock response and cytoprotection.

    Jingxian Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Induction of the heat shock response (HSR and increased expression of the heat shock proteins (HSPs provide mechanisms to ensure proper protein folding, trafficking, and disposition. The importance of HSPs is underscored by the understanding that protein mis-folding and aggregation contribute centrally to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a cell-based hsp70-luciferease reporter gene assay system to identify agents that modulate the HSR and show here that clinically relevant concentrations of the FDA-approved ALS drug riluzole significantly increased the heat shock induction of hsp70-luciferse reporter gene. Immuno-Western and -cytochemical analysis of HSF1 show that riluzole increased the amount of cytosolic HSF1 to afford a greater activation of HSF1 upon heat shock. The increased HSF1 contributed centrally to the cytoprotective activity of riluzole as hsf1 gene knockout negated the synergistic activity of riluzole and conditioning heat shock to confer cell survival under oxidative stress. Evidence of a post-transcriptional mechanism for the increase in HSF1 include: quantitation of mRNA(hsf1 by RT-PCR showed no effect of either heat shock or riluzole treatment; riluzole also increased the expression of HSF1 from a CMV-promoter; analysis of the turnover of HSF1 by pulse chase and immunoprecipitation show that riluzole slowed the decay of [(35S]labeled-HSF1. The effect of riluzole on HSF1 was qualitatively different from that of MG132 and chloroquine, inhibitors of the proteasome and lysosome, respectively, and appeared to involve the chaperone-mediated autophagy pathway as RNAi-mediated knockdown of CMA negated its effect. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that riluzole increased the amount of HSF1 to amplify the HSR for cytoprotection. Our study provides novel insight into the mechanism that regulates HSF1 turnover, and identifies the degradation of HSF1 as a target for

  6. 热应激预处理影响鼠背轴型皮瓣HSP70、HSF1表达的实验研究%Study of Heat Stress Pretreatment Effect on Expressions of HSP70,HSF1 in Axial Flap of Rats

    刘哲伟; 苏开新; 陈军; 姚建; 李辉; 王海华; 赵鑫

    2014-01-01

    目的探讨热应激预处理(HSP)对缺血皮瓣组织的保护作用及其与皮瓣中热休克蛋白70(HSP70)和热休克因子1(HSF1)的关系。方法将96只雄性Sprague Dawley 大鼠随机分为缺血组与实验组(HSP+缺血组)。缺血组:皮瓣模型制备后,阻断皮瓣蒂部第1h、2h、4h、6h、8h、10h共6个时间点,每时间点后观测皮瓣存活面积、HSP70、HSF1的变化,并进行统计学分析;实验组( HSP+缺血组):先予以加热预处理,之后与缺血组相同。结果单纯缺血组皮瓣成活率下降率较实验组(HSP+缺血组)明显,差异有显著性(P<0.05),热应激预处理各组皮瓣的HSP70、HSF1合成量与皮瓣存活率呈正相关(r=0.7577,P<0.01)。结论热应激预处理能够改善皮瓣组织的存活率,HSP70、HSF1在热应激预处理改善皮瓣存活率的保护作用中发挥着重要的作用。%Objective This study was to reveal the continuous changes of HSP70 and HSF1 in the delayed and pro-tection of heat stress pretreatment on ischemic preconditioning axial flap in rats. Methods Animals were divided into two groups randomly:HSP+IPC group,ischemic pretreatment group( IPC) . In IPC group,rats skin flaps received ischemic pretreatment for 1 h,2 h,4 h,6 h,8 h,10 h,and the survival rate of the skin flaps,the contents of HSP70 and HSF1 were examined at the 6 time points. HSP+IPC group was given heat stress pretreatment and then the same treatment as IPC group. Results The survival rates of IPC descends more significantly than that of HSR+IPC. The survival rates of skin flaps have positive correlation with the contents of HSP70 and HSF1(r=0. 7577,P<0. 01). Conclusions Heat stress pretreatment can improve the survival rate of ischemia flap and the mechanism of the protection can be related to the func-tion of HSP70 and HSF1.

  7. Prokaryotic Expression and Purification of Heat Shock Factor HSF1 in Arabidopsis thaliana%拟南芥热激因子HSF1的表达与纯化

    郭丽红; 王定康; 袁燕; 刘开庆; 陈雪; 陈善娜

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] This study was to express and purify Arabidopsis thaliana heat shock factor HSF1. [Method] Using Escherichia coli M15 harboring HSF1 (pQE32/His6-HSF1, pREP4) as experimental materials, HSF1 was induced to express with isopropy1-β-D-galactoside (IPTG); then the expression product was purified using Ni-NTA-agarose affinity chromatography and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. [Result] HSF1 of Arabidopsis thaliana was successfully expressed and purified. [Conclusion] This study provides materials for understanding the blinding site of HSF1 on Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome, further laying a good foundation for revealing the regulatory mechanism and physiological function of HSF1.

  8. Audubon Ecology Study Program.

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    The materials in the set include a student reader "The Story of Ecology," a leaders' guide, and a large, pictorial wall chart. The student reader is divided into 10 units relating to a definition of ecology, the sun and life, air and the water cycle, major divisions of the earth, plants and food chains, distribution of plants and animals,…

  9. 小鼠MEF/Hsf1-/-/Hsf1细胞系的重建及Hsf1,SV40T-ag蛋白的表达%Reconstitute MEF/Hsf1-/-/Hsf1 mouse cell line and expression of Hsf1, SV40-Tag proteins

    蒋杞英; 张智; 胡延忠; 王明丽; 马远方

    2014-01-01

    目的:重建热休克转录因子1(Heat shock transcription factor 1,Hsf1)过表达的MEF/Hsf1-/-/Hsf1细胞系,为进一步研究Hsf1的功能提供实验模型.方法:将携带Hsf1全长基因的逆转录病毒载体pWZL-blast-flag-Hsf1,通过瞬时转染的方法,转染产生病毒的小鼠包装细胞293 Phoenix.用病毒上清直接感染MEF/Hsf1-/-细胞,建立Hsf1稳定表达的MEF/Hsf1-/-/Hsf1细胞系.通过Western blot实验,检测Hsf1和SV40T抗原(T-antigen,T-ag)蛋白的表达.结果:Hsf1蛋白在MEF/Hsf1-/-/Hsf1细胞中的表达比WT/MEF细胞强,而在MEF/Hsf1-/-细胞中没有明显表达.SV40T-ag蛋白在MEF/Hsf1-/-细胞中的表达明显比WT/MEF细胞和MEF/Hsf1-/-/Hsf1细胞强,而SV40T-ag蛋白在WT/MEF细胞中的表达强于MEF/Hsf1-/-/Hsf1细胞.结论:成功建立了MEF/Hsf1-/-/Hsf1细胞系;Hsf1参与了对SV40T-ag蛋白的表达调控.

  10. Analysis of the Effects of HSF1 Inhibition in Colon Cancer

    Williams, Linda Marie

    2014-01-01

    The deleterious effects o f physiological and environmental stresses which provoke cell damage is defended by a fundamental cellular mechanism, the heat shock response (HSR), mediated by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). Evidence suggests th a t genetic depletion of HSF1 dramatically protects mice from tumor formation mediated by RAS over-activation or p53 inactivation both commonly mutated in colorectal cancer. Here we studied the effects of silencing HSF1 in HCT116 wt, HCT p53 - /- and HKE3 colon...

  11. BAG3 affects the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress

    Bcl2-associated athoanogene (BAG) 3 is a member of the co-chaperone BAG family. It is induced by stressful stimuli such as heat shock and heavy metals, and it regulates cellular adaptive responses against stressful conditions. In this study, we identified a novel role for BAG3 in regulating the nuclear shuttling of HSF1 during heat stress. The expression level of BAG3 was induced by heat stress in HeLa cells. Interestingly, BAG3 rapidly translocalized to the nucleus upon heat stress. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 under normal and stressed conditions and co-translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress. We also demonstrated that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 via its BAG domain. Over-expression of BAG3 down-regulates the level of nuclear HSF1 by exporting it to the cytoplasm during the recovery period. Depletion of BAG3 using siRNA results in reduced nuclear HSF1 and decreased Hsp70 promoter activity. BAG3 in MEF(hsf1−/−) cells actively translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress suggesting that BAG3 plays a key role in the processing of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress. - Highlights: • The expression level of BAG3 is induced by heat stress. • BAG3 translocates to the nucleus upon heat stress. • BAG3 interacts with HSF1 and co-localizes to the nucleus. • BAG3 is a key regulator for HSF1 nuclear shuttling

  12. BAG3 affects the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress

    Jin, Young-Hee [Department of Biochemistry, Dongguk University College of Oriental Medicine, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang-Gun [Department of Pathology, Chosun University College of Dentistry, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo-A., E-mail: ksooa@dongguk.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Dongguk University College of Oriental Medicine, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-21

    Bcl2-associated athoanogene (BAG) 3 is a member of the co-chaperone BAG family. It is induced by stressful stimuli such as heat shock and heavy metals, and it regulates cellular adaptive responses against stressful conditions. In this study, we identified a novel role for BAG3 in regulating the nuclear shuttling of HSF1 during heat stress. The expression level of BAG3 was induced by heat stress in HeLa cells. Interestingly, BAG3 rapidly translocalized to the nucleus upon heat stress. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 under normal and stressed conditions and co-translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress. We also demonstrated that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 via its BAG domain. Over-expression of BAG3 down-regulates the level of nuclear HSF1 by exporting it to the cytoplasm during the recovery period. Depletion of BAG3 using siRNA results in reduced nuclear HSF1 and decreased Hsp70 promoter activity. BAG3 in MEF(hsf1{sup −/−}) cells actively translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress suggesting that BAG3 plays a key role in the processing of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress. - Highlights: • The expression level of BAG3 is induced by heat stress. • BAG3 translocates to the nucleus upon heat stress. • BAG3 interacts with HSF1 and co-localizes to the nucleus. • BAG3 is a key regulator for HSF1 nuclear shuttling.

  13. HSF1-deficiency affects gait coordination and cerebellar calbindin levels.

    Ingenwerth, Marc; Estrada, Veronica; Stahr, Anna; Müller, Hans Werner; von Gall, Charlotte

    2016-09-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play an important role in cell homeostasis and protect against cell damage. They were previously identified as key players in different ataxia models. HSF1 is the main transcription factor for HSP activation. HSF1-deficient mice (HSF1-/-) are known to have deficiencies in motor control test. However, little is known about effects of HSF1-deficiency on locomotor, especially gait, coordination. Therefore, we compared HSF-deficient (HSF1-/-) mice and wildtype littermates using an automated gait analysis system for objective assessment of gait coordination. We found significant changes in gait parameters of HSF1-/- mice reminiscent of cerebellar ataxia. Immunohistochemical analyses of a cerebellum revealed co-localization of HSF1 and calbindin in Purkinje cells. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis of a potential interconnection between HSF1 and calbindin in Purkinje cells. Calbindin levels were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting, respectively. While quantitative PCR revealed no differences in calbindin mRNA levels between HSF1+/+ and HSF1-/- mice, calbindin protein levels, however, were significantly decreased in a cerebellum of HSF1-/- mice. A pathway analysis supports the hypothesis of an interconnection between HSF1 and calbindin. In summary, the targeted deletion of HSF1 results in changes of locomotor function associated with changes in cerebellar calbindin protein levels. These findings suggest a role of HSF1 in regular Purkinje cell calcium homeostasis. PMID:27173427

  14. Cloning and sequence analysis of hsf, an outer membrane protein gene of Pasteurella multocida serotype B:2

    A. Priyadarshini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to clone, sequence and analyze the hsf, an outer membrane protein gene of Pasteurella multocida serotype B:2 Materials and Methods: hsf gene was amplified from genomic DNA of P. multocida. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR product was cloned in pET-32a vector and was characterized. hsf gene was sequenced, analyzed and phylogenetic tree was constructed taking sequences of other strains. Results: Amplicon size was found to be 785 bp. Recombinant got characterized through colony PCR and restriction enzyme analysis. Conclusion: hsf gene of P. multocida serotype B is similar to serotype A, but different from serotype D. Further work is needed to evaluate role of Hsf protein in protection studies and to study the antigenic properties of this recombinant protein as a candidate for vaccine.

  15. Targeting HSF1 in Cancer Therapy%靶向HSF1在肿瘤治疗中的作用

    吴谓; 刘飞飞; 刘颖; 张继虹

    2016-01-01

    Recently, many heat shock protein 90 inhibitors have been used against cancers in clinical trials. Discovery of these inhibitors is a milestone for cancer treatment, with more therapeu-tic programs for cancers developed. Cancer cells are more dependent on the function of highly con-served HSF1, which, as a transcript factor, can promote the transcription and expression of HSF. HSF1 is essential for the initial and development of cancers, which can regulate the abnormal sig-ning in cancer cells, inhibit the aneuploidy increased by cell mitosis and apoptosis of cancer cells and promote the metastasis and metabolism of cancer cells. With the development and application of screening methods for small molecule drugs, compounds targeting HSF1 have been reported, inclu-ding quercetin and triptolide. Here, we review the advances in the studies on HSF1-targeting drugs and elucidate the characteristics and mechanism of this type of drugs.%目前许多热休克蛋白90抑制剂已经用于抗癌的临床试验,这些抑制剂的产生是肿瘤治疗的里程碑,为癌症治疗探索出更多的新方法。高度保守的热休克转录因子1(heat shock factor 1, HSF1)作为转录因子促进热休克蛋白基因的转录和表达,肿瘤细胞比正常细胞更依赖其功能, HSF1对肿瘤的起始和维持是必需的:调控肿瘤细胞异常信号,抑制有丝分裂增加基因组非整倍性,抑制肿瘤细胞发生凋亡和促进肿瘤细胞转移和代谢等。随着很多小分子药物筛选方法不断的发现和运用,目前已有部分以HSF1为靶点的化合物研究报道,主要有槲皮素和雷公藤内酯抑制HSF1,同时减少热休克反应。文章综述了以HSF1为靶点的药物的研究前沿,并分别阐述了这类药物作用特点和机制。

  16. Deteriorated stress response in stationary-phase yeast: Sir2 and Yap1 are essential for Hsf1 activation by heat shock and oxidative stress, respectively.

    Inbal Nussbaum

    Full Text Available Stationary-phase cultures have been used as an important model of aging, a complex process involving multiple pathways and signaling networks. However, the molecular processes underlying stress response of non-dividing cells are poorly understood, although deteriorated stress response is one of the hallmarks of aging. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a valuable model organism to study the genetics of aging, because yeast ages within days and are amenable to genetic manipulations. As a unicellular organism, yeast has evolved robust systems to respond to environmental challenges. This response is orchestrated largely by the conserved transcription factor Hsf1, which in S. cerevisiae regulates expression of multiple genes in response to diverse stresses. Here we demonstrate that Hsf1 response to heat shock and oxidative stress deteriorates during yeast transition from exponential growth to stationary-phase, whereas Hsf1 activation by glucose starvation is maintained. Overexpressing Hsf1 does not significantly improve heat shock response, indicating that Hsf1 dwindling is not the major cause for Hsf1 attenuated response in stationary-phase yeast. Rather, factors that participate in Hsf1 activation appear to be compromised. We uncover two factors, Yap1 and Sir2, which discretely function in Hsf1 activation by oxidative stress and heat shock. In Δyap1 mutant, Hsf1 does not respond to oxidative stress, while in Δsir2 mutant, Hsf1 does not respond to heat shock. Moreover, excess Sir2 mimics the heat shock response. This role of the NAD+-dependent Sir2 is supported by our finding that supplementing NAD+ precursors improves Hsf1 heat shock response in stationary-phase yeast, especially when combined with expression of excess Sir2. Finally, the combination of excess Hsf1, excess Sir2 and NAD+ precursors rejuvenates the heat shock response.

  17. Enhanced antitumoral efficacy and immune response following conditionally replicative adenovirus containing constitutive HSF1 delivery to rodent tumors

    Fan Rong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oncolytic adenoviruses are promising as anticancer agents but have limited clinical responses. Our previous study showed that heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1 overexpression could increase the anti-tumor efficacy of E1B55kD deleted oncolytic adenovirus through increasing the viral burst. Due to the important roles of heat shock proteins (HSPs in eliciting innate and adaptive immunity, we reasoned that besides increasing the viral burst, HSF1 may also play a role in increasing tumor specific immune response. Methods In the present study, intra-dermal murine models of melanoma (B16 and colorectal carcinoma (CT26 were treated with E1B55kD deleted oncolytic adenovirus Adel55 or Adel55 incorporated with cHSF1, HSF1i, HSP70, or HSP90 by intra-tumoral injection. Tumors were surgically excised 72 h post injection and animals were analyzed for tumor resistance and survival rate. Results Approximately 95% of animals in the Adel55-cHSF1 treated group showed sustained resistance upon re-challenge with autologous tumor cells, but not in PBS, Adel55, or Adel55-HSF1i treated groups. Only 50–65% animals in the Adel55-HSP70 and Adel55-HSP90 treated group showed tumor resistance. Tumor resistance was associated with development of tumor type specific cellular immune responses. Adel55-cHSF1 treatment also showed higher efficacy in diminishing progression of the secondary tumor focus than Adel55-HSP70 or Adel55-HSP90 treatment. Conclusions Besides by increasing its burst in tumor cells, cHSF1 could also augment the potential of E1B55kD deleted oncolytic adenovirus by increasing the tumor-specific immune response, which is beneficial to prevent tumor recurrence. cHSF1 is a better gene for neoadjuvant immunotherapy than other heat shock protein genes.

  18. Overexpression of Heat Shock Factor Gene HsfA3 Increases Galactinol Levels and Oxidative Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Song, Chieun; Chung, Woo Sik; Lim, Chae Oh

    2016-06-30

    Heat shock factors (Hsfs) are central regulators of abiotic stress responses, especially heat stress responses, in plants. In the current study, we characterized the activity of the Hsf gene HsfA3 in Arabidopsis under oxidative stress conditions. HsfA3 transcription in seedlings was induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and an endogenous H2O2 propagator, 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone (DBMIB). HsfA3-overexpressing transgenic plants exhibited increased oxidative stress tolerance compared to untransformed wild-type plants (WT), as revealed by changes in fresh weight, chlorophyll fluorescence, and ion leakage under light conditions. The expression of several genes encoding galactinol synthase (GolS), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), which function as antioxidants in plant cells, was induced in HsfA3 overexpressors. In addition, galactinol levels were higher in HsfA3 overexpressors than in WT under unstressed conditions. In transient transactivation assays using Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts, HsfA3 activated the transcription of a reporter gene driven by the GolS1 or GolS2 promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that GolS1 and GolS2 are directly regulated by HsfA3. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that GolS1 and GolS2 are directly regulated by HsfA3 and that GolS enzymes play an important role in improving oxidative stress tolerance by increasing galactinol biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:27109422

  19. Molecular cloning of hsf1 and hsbp1 cDNAs, and the expression of hsf1, hsbp1 and hsp70 under heat stress in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Xu, Dongxue; Sun, Lina; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2016-08-01

    The heat shock response (HSR) is known for the elevated synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs) under heat stress, which is mediated primarily by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). Heat shock factor binding protein 1 (HSBP1) and feedback control of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) are major regulators of the activity of HSF1. We obtained full-length cDNA of genes hsf1 and hsbp1 in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, which are the second available for echinoderm (after Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), and the first available for holothurian. The full-length cDNA of hsf1 was 2208bp, containing a 1326bp open reading frame encoding 441 amino acids. The full-length cDNA of hsbp1 was 2850bp, containing a 225bp open reading frame encoding 74 amino acids. The similarities of A. japonicus HSF1 with other species are low, and much higher similarity identities of A. japonicus HSBP1 were shared. Phylogenetic trees showed that A. japonicus HSF1 and HSBP1 were clustered with sequences from S. purpuratus, and fell into distinct clades with sequences from mollusca, arthropoda and vertebrata. Analysis by real-time PCR showed hsf1 and hsbp1 mRNA was expressed constitutively in all tissues examined. The expression of hsf1, hsbp1 and hsp70 in the intestine at 26°C was time-dependent. The results of this study might provide new insights into the regulation of heat shock response in this species. PMID:26952354

  20. Does the ecological study of managed habitats constitute "real" ecology?

    Gábor L. L(O)VEI

    2011-01-01

    Ecology is not a very "old" science,with about one hundred years of history.In the early period,the general attitude was that the study of undisturbed ecological systems will provide us with clues of how the world is organised.To understand this world,we should study the regions,ecosystems,habitats that are still in their undisturbed condition,far from settlements,are uncultivated,and unspoilt.From these,we can form a picture how things should be.We can then use this knowledge to wisely manage other habitats,more under the influence

  1. Analysis list: Hsf1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Hsf1 Gonad,Neural + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Hsf1....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Hsf1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyu...shu-u/mm9/target/Hsf1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Hsf1.Gonad.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Hsf1.Neural.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Gonad.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Neural.gml ...

  2. Molecular evolution and expression divergence of the Populus euphratica Hsf genes provide insight into the stress acclimation of desert poplar.

    Zhang, Jin; Jia, Huixia; Li, Jianbo; Li, Yu; Lu, Mengzhu; Hu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock transcription factor (Hsf) family is one of the most important regulators in the plant kingdom. Hsf has been demonstrated to be involved in various processes associated with plant growth, development as well as in response to hormone and abiotic stresses. In this study, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of Hsf family in desert poplar, Populus euphratica. Total of 32 genes encoding Hsf were identified and they were classified into three main classes (A, B, and C). Gene structure and conserved motif analyses indicated that the members in each class were relatively conserved. Total of 10 paralogous pairs were identified in PeuHsf family, in which nine pairs were generated by whole genome duplication events. Ka/Ks analysis showed that PeuHsfs underwent purifying selection pressure. In addition, various cis-acting elements involved in hormone and stress responses located in the promoter regions of PeuHsfs. Gene expression analysis indicated that several PeuHsfs were tissue-specific expression. Compared to Arabidopsis, more PeuHsf genes were significantly induced by heat, drought, and salt stresses (21, 19, and 22 PeuHsfs, respectively). Our findings are helpful in understanding the distinguished adaptability of P. euphratica to extreme environment and providing a basis for functional analysis of PeuHsfs in the future. PMID:27425424

  3. Molecular evolution and expression divergence of the Populus euphratica Hsf genes provide insight into the stress acclimation of desert poplar

    Zhang, Jin; Jia, Huixia; Li, Jianbo; Li, Yu; Lu, Mengzhu; Hu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock transcription factor (Hsf) family is one of the most important regulators in the plant kingdom. Hsf has been demonstrated to be involved in various processes associated with plant growth, development as well as in response to hormone and abiotic stresses. In this study, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of Hsf family in desert poplar, Populus euphratica. Total of 32 genes encoding Hsf were identified and they were classified into three main classes (A, B, and C). Gene structure and conserved motif analyses indicated that the members in each class were relatively conserved. Total of 10 paralogous pairs were identified in PeuHsf family, in which nine pairs were generated by whole genome duplication events. Ka/Ks analysis showed that PeuHsfs underwent purifying selection pressure. In addition, various cis-acting elements involved in hormone and stress responses located in the promoter regions of PeuHsfs. Gene expression analysis indicated that several PeuHsfs were tissue-specific expression. Compared to Arabidopsis, more PeuHsf genes were significantly induced by heat, drought, and salt stresses (21, 19, and 22 PeuHsfs, respectively). Our findings are helpful in understanding the distinguished adaptability of P. euphratica to extreme environment and providing a basis for functional analysis of PeuHsfs in the future. PMID:27425424

  4. [Ecological studies in environmental health: Beyond epidemiology].

    Blanco-Becerra, Luis C; Pinzón-Flórez, Carlos E; Idrovo, Álvaro J

    2015-08-01

    Ecological studies provide important and frequent sources of evidence of environmental health, since their unit of analysis is populations. This review summarizes the foundations of ecological studies with the premise that they can be performed using quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods. It presents the logic behind their design, their role in exploring causality, the variables and categories of analysis and the design principles and techniques used to collect data. Examples of ecological studies performed in Latin America are then presented, as well as some common methodological problems and options to address them. Lastly, the relevance of quantitative and qualitative ecological studies to environmental health as a way to overcome the dominance of conceptual and methodological individualism is highlighted, though ecological studies alone do not suffice for studying population health. PMID:26535754

  5. Analysis of Genetic Polymorphisms of HSF1 and HSBP1 Gene in Holstein Ox%荷斯坦种公牛HSF1和HSBP1基因多态性分析

    王延久; 李建斌; 王长法; 鞠志花; 黄金明; 李荣岭; 仲跻峰; 何剑斌; 李秋玲

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim was to study the genetic polymorphisms of HSF1 and HSBP1 gene in Holstein ox. [ Method] DNA direct sequencing was used for SNPs loci scanning,and CRS-PCR and PCR-RFLP method were used for genotyping of four SNPs in 162 Holstein ox,so as to analyze the polymorphism of HSF1 and HSBP1 gene. [ Result] The scanning results showed that a novel SNP was discovered at 1451 (G/T)in HSF1 gene and three novel SNPs of 324(G/C) ,589(C/T) ,651(C/G) were discovered in the second intron of HSBP1 gene. The polymorphism of HSF1 and HSBP1 gene analysis results showed that,for HSF1 ,the frequency of the AA genotype was higher and A allele was the dominant allele. While for HSBF1 ,AB,AA and BB appeared more frequently,dominant allele at 589 (C/T) was A, and that at 324 (G/C) and 651 (C/G)was B. Chi-square test indicated that 1451(G/T) polymorphic site in the HSF1 gene and 589(C/T) polymorphic site in HSBP1 gene were met Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in Holstein (P > 0.05 ), while 324 (G/C) and 651 (C/G) polymorphicsites in the HSBP1 gene were not meet Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0. 05). [ Conclusion ] The study can provide trial basis for deeply researching the function of HSF1 and HSBP1 gene.%[目的]研究荷斯坦种公牛HSF1和HSBP1基因多态性.[方法]通过DNA测序技术对牛HSF1和HSBP1基因进行SNPs位点扫描,利用CRS-PCR和PCR-RFLP方法对4个单核苷酸多态性(SNPs)进行基因型分型,分析162头荷斯坦种公牛HSF1和HSBP1基因的多态性.[结果]扫描结果表明,在HSF1基因1451(G/T)处发现1个新SNP.在HSBP1基因第2内含子上发现3个新SNPs,分别为324(G/C)、589(C/T)和651(C/G).多态性分析结果表明,HSF1基因1451(G/T)住点的SNP的AA基因型频率最高,优势等住基因为A,而HSBP1基因3个SNP频率最高的基因型分别为AB、AA和BB,优势等位基因589(C/T)为A,而324(G/C)和651(C/G)均为B.χ适合性检验表明,HSF1基因1451(G/T)位点在荷斯坦种公牛群体中已

  6. Comparison of Copy Number of HSF Genes in Two Buffalo Genomes.

    Lal, Shardul Vikram; Mukherjee, Ayan; Brahma, Biswajit; Gohain, Moloya; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Saini, Sushil Kumar; Mishra, Purushottam; Ahlawat, Sonika; Upadhyaya, Ramesh C; Datta, Tirtha K; De, Sachinandan

    2016-07-01

    The copy number variation (CNV) is the number of copies of a particular gene in the genotype of an individual. Recent evidences show that the CNVs can vary in frequency and occurrence between breeds. These variations reportedly allowed different breeds to adapt to different environments. As copy number variations follow Mendelian pattern of inheritance, identification and distribution of these variants between populations can be used to infer the evolutionary history of the species. In this study, we have examined the absolute copy number of four Heat shock factor genes viz. HSF-1, 2, 4, and 5 in two different breeds of buffalo species using real-time PCR. Here, we report that the absolute copy number of HSF2 varies between the two breeds. In contrast no significant difference was observed in the copy number for HSF-1, 4, and 5 between the two breeds. Our results provide evidence for the presence of breed specific differences in HSF2 genomic copy number. This seems to be the first step in delineating the genetic factors underlying environmental adaptation between the two breeds. Nevertheless, a more detailed study is needed to characterize the functional consequence of this variation. PMID:26953680

  7. HSF1 transcriptional activity mediates alcohol induction of Vamp2 expression and GABA release

    Florence P. Varodayan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many central synapses are highly sensitive to alcohol, and it is now accepted that short-term alterations in synaptic function may lead to longer term changes in circuit function. The regulation of postsynaptic receptors by alcohol has been well studied, but the mechanisms underlying the effects of alcohol on the presynaptic terminal are relatively unexplored. To identify a pathway by which alcohol regulates neurotransmitter release, we recently investigated the mechanism by which ethanol induces the Vamp2 gene, but not Vamp1, in mouse primary cortical cultures. These two genes encode isoforms of synaptobrevin, a vesicular soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE protein required for synaptic vesicle fusion. We found that alcohol activates the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1 to induce Vamp2 gene expression, while Vamp1 mRNA levels remain unaffected. As the Vamp2 gene encodes a SNARE protein, we then investigated whether ethanol exposure and HSF1 transcriptional activity alter neurotransmitter release using electrophysiology. We found that alcohol increased the frequency of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-mediated miniature IPSCs via HSF1, but had no effect on mEPSCs. Overall, these data indicate that alcohol induces HSF1 transcriptional activity to trigger a specific coordinated adaptation in GABAergic presynaptic terminals. This mechanism could explain some of the changes in synaptic function that occur soon after alcohol exposure, and may underlie some of the more enduring effects of chronic alcohol intake on local circuit function.

  8. Heat Shock Factors HsfB 1 and HsfB2b Are Involved in the Regulation of Pdfl.2 Expression and Pathogen Resistance in Arabidopsis

    Mukesh Kumar; Wolfgang Busch; Hannah Birke; Birgit Kemmerling; Thorsten N(U)rnberger; Friedrich Sch(o)ffl

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the functional roles of heat stress-induced class B-heat shock factors in Arabidopsis, we investigated T-DNA knockout mutants of AtHsfB1 and AtHsfB2b. Micorarray analysis of double knockout hsfBl/hsfB2b plants revealed as strong an up-regulation of the basal mRNA-levels of the defensin genes Pdfl.2a/b in mutant plants.The Pdfexpression was further enhanced by jasmonic acid treatment or infection with the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. The single mutant hsfB2b and the double mutant hsfB1/B2b were significantly improved in disease resistance after A. brassicicola infection. There was no indication for a direct interaction of Hsf with the promoter of Pdfl.2, which is devoid of perfect HSE consensus Hsf-binding sequences. However, changes in the formation of late HsfA2-dependent HSE binding were detected in hsfB1/B2b plants. This suggests that HsfB1/B2b may interact with class A-Hsf in regulating the shut-off of the heat shock response. The identification of Pdfgenes as targets of Hsf-dependent negative regulation is the first evidence for an interconnection of Hsf in the regulation of biotic and abiotic responses.

  9. HSF1 is essential for the resistance of zebrafish eye and brain tissues to hypoxia/reperfusion injury.

    Nathan R Tucker

    Full Text Available Ischemia and subsequent reperfusion (IR produces injury to brain, eye and other tissues, contributing to the progression of important clinical pathologies. The response of cells to IR involves activation of several signaling pathways including those activating hypoxia and heat shock responsive transcription factors. However, specific roles of these responses in limiting cell damage and preventing cell death after IR have not been fully elucidated. Here, we have examined the role of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1 in the response of zebrafish embryos to hypoxia and subsequent return to normoxic conditions (HR as a model for IR. Heat shock preconditioning elevated heat shock protein expression and protected zebrafish embryo eye and brain tissues against HR-induced apoptosis. These effects were inhibited by translational suppression of HSF1 expression. Reduced expression of HSF1 also increased cell death in brain and eye tissues of embryos subjected to hypoxia and reperfusion without prior heat shock. Surprisingly, reduced expression of HSF1 had only a modest effect on hypoxia-induced expression of Hsp70 and no effect on hypoxia-induced expression of Hsp27. These results establish the zebrafish embryo as a model for the study of ischemic injury in the brain and eye and reveal a critical role for HSF1 in the response of these tissues to HR. Our results also uncouple the role of HSF1 expression from that of Hsp27, a well characterized heat shock protein considered essential for cell survival after hypoxia. Alternative roles for HSF1 are considered.

  10. Study on ecological migration in Xinjiang, China

    Abliz Yusup; Osman Niyaz

    2006-01-01

    This paper expounds on the meaning of migration and the status quo of studies at home and abroad on migration and ecological migration. It focuses on the discussion of the necessity of ecological migration in Xinjiang, and the problems faced by the ecological emigrants, such as the lack of water, the serious land salination and basification,sand storms, and the adaptation to the environment. Besides, it probes into the problems existing in the ecological migration, including the unscientific design of the moving project, the defects of the reclamation work, and the irrational treatment of the relation between ecological migration and regional development. Based on this, we put forward some suggestions about and countermeasures against those problems.

  11. 热休克因子1对FasL的调控作用%The transcription regulation of HSF1 on FasL

    鄂顺梅; 陈茶; 曾建明; 邹江英

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究人热休克因子1( HSF1)对Fas配体(FasL)启动子转录活性的影响.方法 用在线启动子分析软件分析FasL启动子区转录因子结合位点;凝胶阻滞实验(EMSA)研究内源性HSF1与FasL启动子区的热休克元件(HSE)结合能力;将组成型活化的HSF1突变体与FasL启动子表达载体FasL-luc共同转染HeLa细胞,采用双荧光素酶报告基因检测系统,检测荧光索酶活性.结果 在FasL启动子区发现HSE核心序列(nGAAnnTTCn),HSF1可以与该HSE体外结合;荧光素酶活性测定发现HSF1明显上调FasL-luc转录活性,突变该HSE,则转录激活作用消失.结论 HSF1对FasL具有转录调控作用.%Objective To explore the transcription regulation and molecular mechanism of heat shock factor 1(HSF1) on Fas ligand of human and mouse. Methods The conserved region within FasL promoter upstream of the translational start site that contains heat shock element (HSE) was analyzed. DNA binding activity of HSF1 on the HSE of FasL promoter was studied by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA).HeLa cells transiently transfected with pcDNA or pcDNA-HSFld203-315 and pGL3-FasL.Dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to study the transcriptional activity of HSF1 among different groups. Results HSE consists of one perfect nGAAn pentamers, housed within the proximal region of the FasL promoter. HSF1 can directly bind to this element and upregulated transcriptional activity of FasL promoter. The mutation of HSE can abrogate the ability of HSF1 to bind and abrogate the promoter activity. Conclusion HSF1 induce transactivation activity of FasL.

  12. Over-expression of OsHsfA7 enhanced salt and drought tolerance in transgenic rice

    Ai-Ling Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins play an important role in plant stresstolerance and are mainly regulated by heat shock transcriptionfactors (Hsfs. In this study, we generated transgenic riceover-expressing OsHsfA7 and carried out morphologicalobservation and stress tolerance assays. Transgenic plantsexhibited less, shorter lateral roots and root hair. Under salttreatment, over-expressing OsHsfA7 rice showed alleviativeappearance of damage symptoms and higher survival rate, leafelectrical conductivity and malondialdehyde content of transgenicplants were lower than those of wild type plants. Meanwhile,transgenic rice seedlings restored normal growth but wild typeplants could not be rescued after drought and re-wateringtreatment. These findings indicate that over-expression ofOsHsfA7 gene can increase tolerance to salt and drought stressesin rice seedlings. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(1: 31-36

  13. Molecular cloning and expression of a human heat shock factor, HSF1

    Rabindran, S.K.; Giorgi, G.; Clos, J.; Wu, C. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1991-08-15

    Human cells respond to heat stress by inducing the binding of a preexisting transcriptional activator (heat shock factor, HSF) to DNA. The authors isolated recombinant DNA clones for a human cDNA fragment. The human HSF1 probe was produced by the PCR with primers deduced from conserved amino acids in the Drosophila and yeast HSF sequences. The human HSF1 mRNA is constitutively expressed in HeLa cells under nonshock conditions and encodes a protein with four conserved leucine zipper motifs. Like its counterpart in Drosophila, human HSF1 produced in Escherichia coli in the absence of heat shock is active as a DNA binding transcription factor, suggesting that the intrinsic activity of HSF is under negative control in human cells. Surprisingly, an independently isolated human HSF clone, HSF2, is related to but significantly different from HSF.

  14. Synchronization of circadian Per2 rhythms and HSF1-BMAL1:CLOCK interaction in mouse fibroblasts after short-term heat shock pulse.

    Teruya Tamaru

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms are the general physiological processes of adaptation to daily environmental changes, such as the temperature cycle. A change in temperature is a resetting cue for mammalian circadian oscillators, which are possibly regulated by the heat shock (HS pathway. The HS response (HSR is a universal process that provides protection against stressful conditions, which promote protein-denaturation. Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1 is essential for HSR. In the study presented here, we investigated whether a short-term HS pulse can reset circadian rhythms. Circadian Per2 rhythm and HSF1-mediated gene expression were monitored by a real-time bioluminescence assay for mPer2 promoter-driven luciferase and HS element (HSE; HSF1-binding site-driven luciferase activity, respectively. By an optimal duration HS pulse (43°C for approximately 30 minutes, circadian Per2 rhythm was observed in the whole mouse fibroblast culture, probably indicating the synchronization of the phases of each cell. This rhythm was preceded by an acute elevation in mPer2 and HSF1-mediated gene expression. Mutations in the two predicted HSE sites adjacent (one of them proximally to the E-box in the mPer2 promoter dramatically abolished circadian mPer2 rhythm. Circadian Per2 gene/protein expression was not observed in HSF1-deficient cells. These findings demonstrate that HSF1 is essential to the synchronization of circadian rhythms by the HS pulse. Importantly, the interaction between HSF1 and BMAL1:CLOCK heterodimer, a central circadian transcription factor, was observed after the HS pulse. These findings reveal that even a short-term HS pulse can reset circadian rhythms and cause the HSF1-BMAL1:CLOCK interaction, suggesting the pivotal role of crosstalk between the mammalian circadian and HSR systems.

  15. Heterotypic Signals from Neural HSF-1 Separate Thermotolerance from Longevity.

    Douglas, Peter M; Baird, Nathan A; Simic, Milos S; Uhlein, Sarah; McCormick, Mark A; Wolff, Suzanne C; Kennedy, Brian K; Dillin, Andrew

    2015-08-18

    Integrating stress responses across tissues is essential for the survival of multicellular organisms. The metazoan nervous system can sense protein-misfolding stress arising in different subcellular compartments and initiate cytoprotective transcriptional responses in the periphery. Several subcellular compartments possess a homotypic signal whereby the respective compartment relies on a single signaling mechanism to convey information within the affected cell to the same stress-responsive pathway in peripheral tissues. In contrast, we find that the heat shock transcription factor, HSF-1, specifies its mode of transcellular protection via two distinct signaling pathways. Upon thermal stress, neural HSF-1 primes peripheral tissues through the thermosensory neural circuit to mount a heat shock response. Independent of this thermosensory circuit, neural HSF-1 activates the FOXO transcription factor, DAF-16, in the periphery and prolongs lifespan. Thus a single transcription factor can coordinate different stress response pathways to specify its mode of protection against changing environmental conditions. PMID:26257177

  16. Heterotypic Signals from Neural HSF-1 Separate Thermotolerance from Longevity

    Peter M. Douglas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrating stress responses across tissues is essential for the survival of multicellular organisms. The metazoan nervous system can sense protein-misfolding stress arising in different subcellular compartments and initiate cytoprotective transcriptional responses in the periphery. Several subcellular compartments possess a homotypic signal whereby the respective compartment relies on a single signaling mechanism to convey information within the affected cell to the same stress-responsive pathway in peripheral tissues. In contrast, we find that the heat shock transcription factor, HSF-1, specifies its mode of transcellular protection via two distinct signaling pathways. Upon thermal stress, neural HSF-1 primes peripheral tissues through the thermosensory neural circuit to mount a heat shock response. Independent of this thermosensory circuit, neural HSF-1 activates the FOXO transcription factor, DAF-16, in the periphery and prolongs lifespan. Thus a single transcription factor can coordinate different stress response pathways to specify its mode of protection against changing environmental conditions.

  17. Protein refolding in peroxisomes is dependent upon an HSF1-regulated function

    Heldens, Lonneke; van Genesen, Siebe T.; Hanssen, Lars L. P.; Hageman, Jurre; Kampinga, Harm H.; Lubsen, Nicolette H.

    2012-01-01

    Post-heat shock refolding of luciferase requires chaperones. Expression of a dominant negative HSF1 mutant (dnHSF1), which among other effects depletes cells of HSF1-regulated chaperones, blocked post-heat shock refolding of luciferase targeted to the cytoplasm, nucleus, or peroxisomes, while refold

  18. Thermal discharges and ecological studies - an overview

    Thermal ecological studies (TES) formulated and funded by BRNS are fine examples of coordinated research program in our country. There were at least eight different research laboratories with various backgrounds involved in these studies with a commitment to study the effect of thermal discharge into water bodies scientifically. BRNS has already underlined the concern of the people living within the vicinity of the power plants on their livelihood which depends on fish catch etc., and the stipulations laid down by statutory bodies for the temperature rise due to thermal discharge to be viewed in a global perspective

  19. Hsf1 activation inhibits rapamycin resistance and TOR signaling in yeast revealed by combined proteomic and genetic analysis.

    Sricharan Bandhakavi

    Full Text Available TOR kinases integrate environmental and nutritional signals to regulate cell growth in eukaryotic organisms. Here, we describe results from a study combining quantitative proteomics and comparative expression analysis in the budding yeast, S. cerevisiae, to gain insights into TOR function and regulation. We profiled protein abundance changes under conditions of TOR inhibition by rapamycin treatment, and compared this data to existing expression information for corresponding gene products measured under a variety of conditions in yeast. Among proteins showing abundance changes upon rapamycin treatment, almost 90% of them demonstrated homodirectional (i.e., in similar direction transcriptomic changes under conditions of heat/oxidative stress. Because the known downstream responses regulated by Tor1/2 did not fully explain the extent of overlap between these two conditions, we tested for novel connections between the major regulators of heat/oxidative stress response and the TOR pathway. Specifically, we hypothesized that activation of regulator(s of heat/oxidative stress responses phenocopied TOR inhibition and sought to identify these putative TOR inhibitor(s. Among the stress regulators tested, we found that cells (hsf1-R206S, F256S and ssa1-3 ssa2-2 constitutively activated for heat shock transcription factor 1, Hsf1, inhibited rapamycin resistance. Further analysis of the hsf1-R206S, F256S allele revealed that these cells also displayed multiple phenotypes consistent with reduced TOR signaling. Among the multiple Hsf1 targets elevated in hsf1-R206S, F256S cells, deletion of PIR3 and YRO2 suppressed the TOR-regulated phenotypes. In contrast to our observations in cells activated for Hsf1, constitutive activation of other regulators of heat/oxidative stress responses, such as Msn2/4 and Hyr1, did not inhibit TOR signaling. Thus, we propose that activated Hsf1 inhibits rapamycin resistance and TOR signaling via elevated expression of specific

  20. Study of Teacher Development Based on the Ecological Perspective

    Liu Bo; Xiao Qianyin; Xiong Feng

    2014-01-01

    Based on the understanding of the ecology background, the ecological system of Teacher Development (TD) is constructed and the influential factors, such as the natural, social environment, regulatory environment and the physiological and psychological environment, which have an effect on TD, are analyzed in the present study. Besides, with the combination of the ecological characteristics of TD, The sustainable model for TD is proposed. In accordance with the ecological principles of TD and w...

  1. Ecological studies on Prochlorococcus in China seas

    2002-01-01

    Prochlorococcus, a tiny oxygenic photosynthetic picoplankton with unique pigment composition, has been found to be ubiquitous and abundant in the world oceans, and has been recognized to be closely related to living resources and environmental issues. It has attracted the interest of marine biologists since its discovery, and field data on it over global oceans have accumulated rapidly in the past 10 years. In China, we have studied Prochlorococcus for 8 years, achieving a basic ecological understanding. The presence of Prochlorococcus in China seas, marginal seas of the west Pacific, was confirmed, and its distribution patterns were also brought to light. Prochlorococcus is very abundant in the South China Sea and the offshore regions of the East China Sea. It is seasonally present in the southeast part of the Yellow Sea and absent in the Bohai Sea. Temporal and spatial variations of the abundance of Prochlorococcus and their affecting factors, physiological and ecological characteristics of Prochlorococcus and their relationships to the other groups of picoplankton, and the importance of Prochlorococcus in total biomass and possible roles in living resources and environmental problems are discussed. In the future, isolation of different Prochlorococcus strains from the China seas and their physiological characteristics, genetic diversity, phylogenies and gene exploiture, etc. are important issues to be addressed.

  2. Molecular characterization and expression of HSP70, HSF and HSBP genes inOctopus vulgaris during thermal stress

    HONG Jingni; MAO Yong; NIU Sufang; SUN Tiantian; SU Yongquan

    2015-01-01

    Temperature is an important environmental factor that affects the growth and survival ofOctopus vulgaris, the common octopus. To understand the protective mechanism thatO.vulgaris exhibits under heat stress, we used rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) to obtain full-length sequences of three heat stress response related genes: (1) the heat shock protein 70 (OvHSP70), (2) the heat shock transcription factor (OvHSF) , and (3) the heat shock factor-binding protein (OvHSBP) ofO.vulgaris. The OvHSP70, OvHSF, and OvHSBP proteins contained 2 222 bp, 2 264 bp, 841 bp that encoded for 635, 458 and 90 amino acids, respectively. The results of multiple sequence alignment showed that the amino acid sequences of OvHSP70 were highly conserved with respect to other species. Similarly, the DNA binding domain, the trimerization domain of OvHSF, and the coiled coil region of OvHSBP also had highly conserved regions. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results indicated that OvHSP70 was temperature-dependent and time-dependent, showing a positive response to heat stress. On exposure to 28°C and to 30°C, the mRNA expression levels of OvHSF and OvHSBP were higher than those in the control group at 24°C. The mRNA expression of OvHSBP significantly increased with heat treatment at 26°C, while the mRNA expression of OvHSF decreased. The experimental results indicated that the expression of OvHSP70, OvHSF and OvHSBP were all sensitive to heat stress, which suggests that these three genes may play an important role forO.vulgaris in responding to environmental stress. Thus, this study sets a theoretical foundation for further in-depth studies on the molecular protective mechanisms of the heat response inO.vulgaris.

  3. Tomato HsfA1a plays a critical role in plant drought tolerance by activating ATG genes and inducing autophagy

    Wang, Yu; Cai, Shuyu; Yin, Lingling; Kai SHI; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Zhou, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy plays critical roles in plant responses to stress. In contrast to the wealth of information concerning the core process of plant autophagosome assembly, our understanding of the regulation of autophagy is limited. In this study, we demonstrated that transcription factor HsfA1a played a critical role in tomato tolerance to drought stress, in part through its positive role in induction of autophagy under drought stress. HsfA1a expression was induced by drought stress. Virus-induced Hs...

  4. Downregulation of chloroplast RPS1 negatively modulates nuclear heat-responsive expression of HsfA2 and its target genes in Arabidopsis.

    Hai-Dong Yu

    Full Text Available Heat stress commonly leads to inhibition of photosynthesis in higher plants. The transcriptional induction of heat stress-responsive genes represents the first line of inducible defense against imbalances in cellular homeostasis. Although heat stress transcription factor HsfA2 and its downstream target genes are well studied, the regulatory mechanisms by which HsfA2 is activated in response to heat stress remain elusive. Here, we show that chloroplast ribosomal protein S1 (RPS1 is a heat-responsive protein and functions in protein biosynthesis in chloroplast. Knockdown of RPS1 expression in the rps1 mutant nearly eliminates the heat stress-activated expression of HsfA2 and its target genes, leading to a considerable loss of heat tolerance. We further confirm the relationship existed between the downregulation of RPS1 expression and the loss of heat tolerance by generating RNA interference-transgenic lines of RPS1. Consistent with the notion that the inhibited activation of HsfA2 in response to heat stress in the rps1 mutant causes heat-susceptibility, we further demonstrate that overexpression of HsfA2 with a viral promoter leads to constitutive expressions of its target genes in the rps1 mutant, which is sufficient to reestablish lost heat tolerance and recovers heat-susceptible thylakoid stability to wild-type levels. Our findings reveal a heat-responsive retrograde pathway in which chloroplast translation capacity is a critical factor in heat-responsive activation of HsfA2 and its target genes required for cellular homeostasis under heat stress. Thus, RPS1 is an essential yet previously unknown determinant involved in retrograde activation of heat stress responses in higher plants.

  5. TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that regulates a suite of heat stress protection genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) including previously unknown Hsf targets

    Xue, Gang-ping; Drenth, Janneke; McIntyre, C. Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress is a significant environmental factor adversely affecting crop yield. Crop adaptation to high-temperature environments requires transcriptional reprogramming of a suite of genes involved in heat stress protection. This study investigated the role of TaHsfA6f, a member of the A6 subclass of heat shock transcription factors, in the regulation of heat stress protection genes in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat), a poorly understood phenomenon in this crop species. Expression analysis s...

  6. Studies on rhizobial ecology using marker genes

    Not only traditional approaches such as serology, antibiotic resistance and plasmid profile analysis but also technologies based on molecular biology have been used for strain identification in studies on microbial ecology. Many methods suffer from certain limitations because they are often laborious and time consuming, requiring analysis of individual nodules, and therefore only a restricted amount of data can be collected. Use of marker genes has become popular, especially when they allow visual identification. The Escherichia coli gusA marker gene has proved to be a highly suitable tool for studying plant-microbe interactions. Nodules containing gusA marked rhizobia can be identified simply by their blue colour, which they produce after incubation in a phosphate buffer containing the substrate X-gluc, but marked bacteria can also be detected on plates or in liquid culture. Colorigenic markers have several advantages, since they are easy to use and it is possible to analyse a large sample size. They are suitable for competition studies of Rhizobium, detecting also double occupancy in nodules, and for studies on motility and survival. Marker genes greatly facilitate screening for successful strains in a specific environment and could be used in future for quality control of inoculants. (author). 30 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  7. Cloning, Localization and Expression Analysis of ZmHsf-like Gene in Zea mays

    LI Hui-cong; LI Guo-liang; LIU Zi-hui; ZHANG Hong-mei; ZHANG Yan-min; GUO Xiu-lin

    2014-01-01

    Using homology cloning method, a heat shock transcription factor (Hsf) like gene, ZmHsf-like, was cloned from maize (Zea mays) leaves. Sequence analyses showed that the open reading frame (ORF) of the gene ZmHsf-like is 1 404 bp long, encoding 467 amino acids. The sequence of amino acids encoded by ZmHsf-like contains the most conserved and typical DNA-binding domain of Hsf family. By bombardment into onion epidermis, we ifrstly found that the ZmHsf-like was subcellular-located in nucleus. NucPred analysis revealed there is a classic NLS of KKRR peptide in protein. Real-time PCR showed that ZmHsf-like gene expressed in leaves, stems and roots of maize seedlings under normal growth conditions, and the highest expression level was in roots, lower in leaves and the lowest in stems. The ZmHsf-like gene expression could be up-regulated by heat shock, PEG, ABA, and H2O2 in different degrees, among which the heat shock and ABA worked more efifciently. Obvious differences of the peak value and its corresponding time point of ZmHsf-like gene expression were observed among treatments. Experiments with inhibitor further suggested that the up-regulation ZmHsf-like gene expression of heat shock was H2O2-dependent while the induction of ZmHsf-like with PEG did not depend on the existence of H2O2. These results pointed out that ZmHsf-like gene probably regulates responsive reactions to abiotic stresses especially heat shock and drought through different signal transduction pathways.

  8. Inhibition of heat shock factor1 response enhances PS-341-mediated glioma cell apoptosis%抑制 HSF-1增强 PS-341诱导胶质瘤细胞凋亡

    王宏瑜; 毕云科; 刘耀华; 徐龙庆; 王瑞恒; 赵世光

    2014-01-01

    目的:探索HSF1是否能诱导HSPs的高表达,以及抑制HSF1是否能够增强PS-341诱导胶质瘤细胞凋亡。方法 Western检测HSP70、HSF1的表达,以及JNK的磷酸化。转染siRNA敲除HSF1,胎盘蓝染色及sub-G1检测细胞凋亡。结果胶质瘤细胞中HSP70及HSF1的表达明显高于正常脑组织。敲除HSF1能通过抑制HSP70明显增强PS-341诱导的胶质瘤细凋亡,并能增强及延长JNK通路的活化。在HSF1+/+细胞中, PS-341能够强烈诱导HSP70的表达;而在HSF1-/-细胞中,PS-341诱导并延长了JNK通路的激活。热休克预处理对两种细胞活性都没明显影响,但能明显增强HSF1+/+细胞对抗PS-341诱导凋亡的能力。结论胶质瘤细胞中,HSF1的激活能促进HSPs的表达,进而对抗PS-341诱导的细胞凋亡。抑制HSF-1能增强PS-341诱导胶质瘤细胞凋亡,这有望成为一种新的胶质瘤治疗途径。%Objective Proteasome inhibitor have profound effects on tumor growth and cause cells to undergo apoptosis .PS-341,as an extremely potent and selective proteasome inhibitor , which is the first proteasome inhibitor to be used in clinical practice with the approve of FDA , can induces cell death via JNK pathway in vitro in glioma .However,suppressing proteasome complex by PS-341 may induce activation of heat shock factor 1 ( HSF1 ) , which can induce the expression of heat shock proteins ( HSPs ) to against cellular stress .In this study , we explored whether HSF 1 could induce expression of HSPs and whether inhibition of HSF 1 could enhance cell damage induced by PS-341 in glioma cells.Methods Surgically excised specimens from 30 patients with glioma (gradeⅡ-Ⅳ) and 10 normal brain control specimens obtained at autopsy were collected from the Department of Neurosurgery ,The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University , China.The histological characteristics of 30 patients with glioma were established based on World Health

  9. Lubei Ecological Industry Project:A Case Study in China

    Feng Jiutian

    2004-01-01

    Lubei General Company of Enterprise Group, Shangdong Province, set up joint enterprises industrial ecosystem by sharing resources, symbiosis industry and compact structure. As an ecological industry park, the industrial ecosystem has been operated successfully with rich experiment and has become one of ecological industry examples in the world. Based on the case study of Lubei ecological industry project, components of industrial chains,matter recycle and conversion, energy cycle and multilevel utilization, systematic structure and impact factor identification are analyzed and summarized in this paper. The possible extension and development of Lubei ecological industry project in future is brought forward as well.

  10. Transcription factors GAF and HSF act at distinct regulatory steps to modulate stress-induced gene activation

    Fuda, Nicholas J.; Mahat, Dig B.; Core, Leighton J.; Guertin, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional level is fundamental to development and homeostasis. Inducible systems are invaluable when studying transcription because the regulatory process can be triggered instantaneously, allowing the tracking of ordered mechanistic events. Here, we use precision run-on sequencing (PRO-seq) to examine the genome-wide heat shock (HS) response in Drosophila and the function of two key transcription factors on the immediate transcription activation or repression of all genes regulated by HS. We identify the primary HS response genes and the rate-limiting steps in the transcription cycle that GAGA-associated factor (GAF) and HS factor (HSF) regulate. We demonstrate that GAF acts upstream of promoter-proximally paused RNA polymerase II (Pol II) formation (likely at the step of chromatin opening) and that GAF-facilitated Pol II pausing is critical for HS activation. In contrast, HSF is dispensable for establishing or maintaining Pol II pausing but is critical for the release of paused Pol II into the gene body at a subset of highly activated genes. Additionally, HSF has no detectable role in the rapid HS repression of thousands of genes. PMID:27492368

  11. Molecular ecology studies of marine Synechococcus

    MA Ying; JIAO Nianzhi

    2004-01-01

    Cyanobacteria of the genus Synechococcus is a dominant component of microbial community in the world's oceans, and is a major contributor to marine primary productivity and thus plays an important role in carbon cycling in the oceans. Besides the ecological importance, the cultivability also made Synechococcus a very special group of marine microorganisms, which has attracted great attention from oceanographers and biologists. Great progress in the physiology, biochemistry and phylogeny of Synechococcus has been made since its discovery. We here review the current status of molecular ecology of marine Synechococcus and give a perspective into the future based on our understanding of the literature and our own work.

  12. Ecological Benefits Evaluation in Ecological Migration Zone Based on Ecological Green Equivalent: A Case Study of Migration Zone in Yanchi County

    Yun; SHI; Muwen; HAN; Zhuzhou; ZHUANG; Chao; Ma; Jin; WU; Xue; MA

    2015-01-01

    With four ecological migration zones in Huamachi Town of Yanchi County in Ningxia Autonomous Region as the object of study,we carry out the evaluation of ecological benefits in ecological migration zone. Using the SPOT satellite remote sensing image in 2008 and UAV aerophotographic image in 2013,we first monitor and analyze the land use change over five years in the study area,and then adopt ecological green equivalent evaluation model for the evaluation of ecological benefits in the ecological migration zone. Studies have shown that:( i) from 2008 to 2013,the ecological green equivalent in the study area was increased and the ecological environment was improved;( ii) the ecological green equivalent in the study area was less than 1 in 2008 and 2013,and ecological environment was still fragile in the migration zone;( iii)the forest coverage rate of the study area was 20% less than the minimum forest coverage rate of the United Nations,but 15% higher than the forest coverage rate of the Ministry of Environmental Protection. There is a large gap between the forest coverage rate based on ecological green equivalent and optimal forest coverage rate,suggesting that the land use still needs to be adjusted in study area,and it is necessary to increase efforts to strengthen ecological restoration and continue to implement forest conservation,returning land for farming to forestry and other measures.

  13. The master regulator of the cellular stress response (HSF1 is critical for orthopoxvirus infection.

    Claire Marie Filone

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The genus Orthopoxviridae contains a diverse group of human pathogens including monkeypox, smallpox and vaccinia. These viruses are presumed to be less dependent on host functions than other DNA viruses because they have large genomes and replicate in the cytoplasm, but a detailed understanding of the host factors required by orthopoxviruses is lacking. To address this topic, we performed an unbiased, genome-wide pooled RNAi screen targeting over 17,000 human genes to identify the host factors that support orthopoxvirus infection. We used secondary and tertiary assays to validate our screen results. One of the strongest hits was heat shock factor 1 (HSF1, the ancient master regulator of the cytoprotective heat-shock response. In investigating the behavior of HSF1 during vaccinia infection, we found that HSF1 was phosphorylated, translocated to the nucleus, and increased transcription of HSF1 target genes. Activation of HSF1 was supportive for virus replication, as RNAi knockdown and HSF1 small molecule inhibition prevented orthopoxvirus infection. Consistent with its role as a transcriptional activator, inhibition of several HSF1 targets also blocked vaccinia virus replication. These data show that orthopoxviruses co-opt host transcriptional responses for their own benefit, thereby effectively extending their functional genome to include genes residing within the host DNA. The dependence on HSF1 and its chaperone network offers multiple opportunities for antiviral drug development.

  14. HSF1的抗炎症作用机制

    王玉玺; 敖杰男

    2009-01-01

    目前,已经发现4种热休克转录因子(Heat Shock Transcription Factor,HSF),除HSF3存在于鸟类基因外,其它三种(HSF1、HSF2、HSF4)可见于哺乳动物细胞,不同种类的HSF结构上相似,但功能上存在不同程度的差异:HSF1可以被热应激、氧化应激、化学应激和生理应激等激活,主要介导热休克蛋白(HSPs)合成,HSF2在发育和细胞分化的不同阶段调节热休克基因的表达,HSF4可能阻遏某些蛋白质的表达,其基因突变与白内障的早发形式密切相关。其中HSF1对机体炎症的保护作用除了通过诱导保护性基因表达上调来实现外,还可通过抑制损伤性基因表达下调来实现。

  15. Expression of HSF2 decreases in mitosis to enable stress-inducible transcription and cell survival

    Elsing, Alexandra N.; Aspelin, Camilla; Björk, Johanna K.; Bergman, Heidi A.; Himanen, Samu V.; Kallio, Marko J.; Roos-Mattjus, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Unless mitigated, external and physiological stresses are detrimental for cells, especially in mitosis, resulting in chromosomal missegregation, aneuploidy, or apoptosis. Heat shock proteins (Hsps) maintain protein homeostasis and promote cell survival. Hsps are transcriptionally regulated by heat shock factors (HSFs). Of these, HSF1 is the master regulator and HSF2 modulates Hsp expression by interacting with HSF1. Due to global inhibition of transcription in mitosis, including HSF1-mediated expression of Hsps, mitotic cells are highly vulnerable to stress. Here, we show that cells can counteract transcriptional silencing and protect themselves against proteotoxicity in mitosis. We found that the condensed chromatin of HSF2-deficient cells is accessible for HSF1 and RNA polymerase II, allowing stress-inducible Hsp expression. Consequently, HSF2-deficient cells exposed to acute stress display diminished mitotic errors and have a survival advantage. We also show that HSF2 expression declines during mitosis in several but not all human cell lines, which corresponds to the Hsp70 induction and protection against stress-induced mitotic abnormalities and apoptosis. PMID:25202032

  16. Role of HSF1 Knock-out in Protection of Heat Shock Response Against Endotoxemia%HSF1基因剔除对HSR抗内毒素血症的影响

    陈广文; 王慷慨; 刘瑛; 唐道林; 肖献忠

    2008-01-01

    利用内毒素(LPS)血症小鼠模型,观察HSF1基因剔除对热休克反应(HSR)保护作用的影响.采用腹腔注射LPS建立内毒素血症小鼠模型,HSR采用肛温42℃维持15 min,室温恢复24 h,利用RT-PCR、苏木素-伊红(HE)染色、丙二醛测定以及死亡率,计算和分析重要脏器组织中炎症介质基因的表达、脏器损伤程度及小鼠存活率.注射LPS 15mg/kg 72 h后HSR+LPS(HSF1+/+)组存活率(7/15)显著高于LPS(HSF1+/+)组(0/15)、LPS(HSF1-/-)组(0/14)和HSR+LPS(HSF1-/-)组(0/14),而注射LPS 14 mg/kg 72 h后,LPS(HSF1+/+)组存活率(5/15)显著高于LPS(HSF1-/-)组(0/13)和HSR+LPS(HSF1-/-)组(0/13).在注射LPS 12 h后LPS(HSF1+/+)组、LPS(HSF1-/-)组和HSR+LPS(HSF1-/-)组的心、肺组织丙二醛含量显著升高,但HSR+LPS(HSF1+/+)组不升高.肺组织炎症介质基因IL-IB、IL-6、TNF-α、CCL-2、SOCS3、MCSF、GCSF、IL-15在LPS(HSF1-/-)组和LPS(HSF1+/+)组表达上调,HSR+LPS(HSF1-/-)组除IL-15较低外其他上调更甚,HSR+LPS(HSF1+/+)组除IL-1β和TNF-α较高外其他显著下调.注射LPS后LPS(HSF1+/+)组和LPS(HSF1-/-)组的肺、肝、肾病理形态改变明显,HSR+LPS(HSF1+/+)组改变较轻,HSR+LPS(HSF1-/-)组改变更加严重.HSF1基因剔除能显著消减HSR对内毒素血症小鼠的保护作用.

  17. Ecology Sports Studies Carried Out in School Sports

    Shuyu, Xia

    In the 1970 s, people began to care for the environment and concern about the ecology thinking in sports, to study the modern sports facing the ecology problems, to explore "people, sports, environment" the harmonious development of the way. In the paper from the actual conditions of the school briefly discuss the advantages of carrying out 3.3 no complete teaching schemas and the main difficulties it faces, and then propose appropriate measures to provide a theoretical basis for the ecology sports better carried out in school sports.

  18. Structures of HSF2 Reveal Mechanisms for Differential Regulation of Human Heat Shock Factors

    Jaeger, Alex M.; Pemble, Charles W.; Sistonen, Lea; Thiele, Dennis J.

    2016-01-01

    Heat Shock Transcription Factor (HSF) family members function in stress protection and in human disease including proteopathies, neurodegeneration and cancer. The mechanisms that drive distinct post-translational modifications, co-factor recruitment and target gene activation for specific HSF paralogs are unknown. We present high-resolution crystal structures of the human HSF2 DNA-binding domain (DBD) bound to DNA, revealing an unprecedented view of HSFs that provides insights into their unique biology. The HSF2 DBD structures resolve a novel carboxyl-terminal helix that directs the coiled-coil domain to wrap around DNA, exposing paralog-specific sequences of the DBD surface, for differential post-translational modifications and co-factor interactions. We further demonstrate a direct interaction between HSF1 and HSF2 through their coiled-coil domains. Together, these features provide a new model for HSF structure as the basis for differential and combinatorial regulation to influence the transcriptional response to cellular stress. PMID:26727490

  19. Study of tourist motivation to Guangzhou urban ecological parks

    Li, Min; Wang, Fengtang

    2012-01-01

    Based on the push - pull theory, this article show the empirical studies of tourists' travel motivation to Guangzhou Ecological Park. We identified four push factors and three pull factors which are of the potential features of travel motivation, and on this basis, using analysis of variance to further test the significant differences of push and pull factors in the demographic characteristics of different groups. The conclusion has a certain reference value to the Ecological Park in Guangzhou to attract tourists.

  20. Cloning and expression of HSF1 cDNA from Hainan Eld's deer%海南坡鹿HSF1cDNA的克隆与表达

    成鹰; 林杰材; 满初日嘎; 杜丽; 王凤阳; 刘涛; 李治深; 许世英; 符运南; 林贤梅; 吴科榜

    2009-01-01

    采用RT-PCR和RACE方法扩增海南坡鹿热休克转录调节因子1(Heat shock transcription factor 1,HSF1)cDNA全长,将扩增产物与pMD20-T载体连接,重组质粒经PCR、酶切鉴定后测序并进行生物信息学分析;构建pET28a-hdHSF1表达载体,经IPTG诱导表达后,进行SDS-PAGE和Western blot分析.结果显示,海南坡鹿HSF1cDNA全长为2 036 bp,含有1个1 578 bp的开放阅读框,编码525个氨基酸.经生物信息学分析,HSF1是一个等电点为4.93的亲水性蛋白.经IPTG诱导表达后,得到一个带组氨酸标签的约62 kD的融合蛋白,用抗His单克隆抗体进行Western blot,得到一条约62 kD特异性抗体结合带,表明海南坡鹿HSF1原核表达载体成功构建并表达.

  1. Behavioral Characterization of HSF1 Knockout Male Mice%雄性HSF1基因缺陷小鼠的行为改变

    朱熊兆; 程明; 彭敏; 姚树桥

    2007-01-01

    为研究HSF1基因缺陷小鼠的行为特征,探索HSF1基因在小鼠行为表现中的作用.选取6~7个月大雄性HSF1基因缺陷小鼠39只及野生型小鼠36只进行情绪性评分、旷场实验、高架十字迷宫实验、简易迷津实验、T-CAT实验、独木桥实验和悬挂实验以观察其情绪性唤醒水平、焦虑水平、探索行为、工作记忆能力和运动能力.结果表明HSF1基因缺陷小鼠的情绪唤醒水平和焦虑水平较低、探索行为减少、T-CAT中转换率较低,提示小鼠的情绪、探索动机和工作记忆受HSF1基因的调控.

  2. 不同hsf1基因型对小鼠心肌组成型αBC表达的影响%EFFECTS OF hsf1 GENOTYPE ON THE CONSTITUTIVE EXPRESSION OF αB-CRYSTALLIN IN MICE MYOCARDIUM

    刘莉; 张红慧; 丁国宪; 程蕴琳; 晏良军; Benjamin I J

    2004-01-01

    目的:了解热休克转录因子1(heat shock transcription factor 1,HSF1)基因对小鼠心肌组成型(B晶体蛋白(αB-Crystallin,αBC)表达的影响.方法:用Western Blot和免疫组织化学方法,测定组成型αBC在HSF1基因野生型(hsf1+ / +)和HSF1基因敲除型(hsf1- / -)小鼠心肌中的表达.结果:αBC在hsf1- / - 和 hsf1+ / +小鼠心肌表达量分别为68.42%±4.16% 和100%±7.58%(心肌可溶性组分,P<0.05),20.53%±1.01%和37.55%±1.91%(心肌不可溶性组分,P<0.05);免疫组化显示αBC在hsf1- / -心肌细胞内的表达信号较hsf1+ / +明显减弱.结论:hsf1基因是介导组成型αBC基因表达重要的、但不是唯一的因子.

  3. The Study on the ecological education of community residents based on the viewpoint of ecological civilization

    田文明; 黄辉

    2015-01-01

    The essay focuses on the analysis of necessity and urgency of the mobilization to conduct a comprehensive ecological protection for community residents.The author emphasizes the significance of strengthen community residents ecological education.Based on the present situation of the ecological education of community residents,community residents' ecological education is carried out,has great significance and importance.

  4. Expression and Purification of Heat Shock Factor HSF1 in Arabidopsis thaliana%拟南芥热激因子HSF1的表达与纯化

    郭丽红; 王定康; 袁燕; 刘开庆; 张乐民

    2009-01-01

    [目的] 表达和纯化拟南芥热激因子HSF1.[方法] 以构建的能表达热激因子HSF1的大肠杆菌Escherichia coli M15(pQE32/ His6- HSF1,pREP4)为材料,用异丙基硫代-β-D-半乳糖苷(IPTG)诱导表达HSF1,再通过镍亲和层析纯化表达的HSF1,通过变性的聚丙酰胺(SDS-PAGE)电泳分析表达蛋白和纯化蛋白.[结果] 试验获得了表达的HSF1,并且进一步获得了纯化的HSF1.[结论]该研究为探讨拟南芥HSF1在基因组的结合位点提供了试验材料,为全面认识HSF1作用机理和生理功能奠定了基础.

  5. Investigations on biological functions of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) using a gene knock out mouse model

    2001-01-01

    HSF1 is the major heat shock transcription factor that binds heat shock element (HSE) in the promoter of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and controls rapid HSP induction in cells subjected to various stresses such as elevated temperature, chemicals, or exposure to toxins. Although at least four members of the vertebrate HSF have been cloned, details of their individual physiological roles remain relatively obscure. To clarify the exact in vivo functions of HSF1 and assess whether HSF1 exhibits redundant or unique roles, we have created homozygous Hsf1-/- mice using standard gene targeting techniques and isolated Hsf1-/- embryonic fibroblasts. Here we demonstrate that heat shock response (HSR) was not attainable in Hsf1-/- embryonic fibroblasts, and this response was required for thermotolerance and protection against heat-induced apoptosis, and that homozygous Hsf1-/- mice, which survived to adulthood according to genetic background, exhibited multiple phenotypes including: (1) placental defects that reduced embryonic viability after late midgestation (day 13.5); (2) growth retardation; (3) female infertility caused by preimplantation lethality, and (4) increased mortality (+/+ vs -/-, P<0.05) and exaggerated production of proinflammatory cytokine, TNF α (+/- vs -/-, P<0.05) after endotoxin challenge. Interestingly, although Hsf1-/- mice exhibited placental defects and embryonic death, basal HSP expression is not appreciably altered during embryonic development by the HSF1 null mutation, suggesting this factor might be involved in regulating some non-HSP genes or signaling pathways which may be important for development. Taken together, our results established direct causal effects for the HSF1 transactivator in regulating diverse physiological and pathophysiological conditions such as developnent, growth, reproduction, apoptosis and sepsis. The present work also provided a useful mammalian model for further investigating the implications of Hsf1 and its target

  6. Stable isotope methods in biological and ecological studies of arthropods

    Hood-Nowotny, R.C.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    This is an eclectic review and analysis of contemporary and promising stable isotope methodologies to study the biology and ecology of arthropods. It is augmented with literature from other disciplines, indicative of the potential for knowledge transfer. It is demonstrated that stable isotopes can b

  7. Radiological Review Studies On Ismailia Canal Ecology

    The present work is a brief review of pr-studies carried out on Ismailia Canal, Egypt, water ecosystem. Ismailia Canal water body is a bicarbonate stream with slight seasonal variations in its water chemical constituents. The canal water pH in all the stream locations are below 8.3 with low suspended matter(SM) content (22-33 mg.l-1). The mineralogical analysis of the canal bottom sediments consist mainly of quartz, smectite and kaolinite minerals. The γ- spectroscopic identification showed traces of naturally occurring radio nuclides (238U, 232Th and 40K). The average activity level of the dry samples ranged from 12 to 89 Bq.Kg-1 for the detected natural radio nuclides. Some parameters affected the sorption behaviour of radio nuclides on suspended matters and bottom sediments; such as solution pH, SM concentration, sediment grain size, carrier concentration and competing ions were studied. The reaction rates were investigated for each radionuclide studied. The distribution of the studied radio nuclides, between the liquid phase and the sediments phase was investigated, for both flowing and static systems. For both flowing and non-flowing (static), the depth penetration of the studied radio nuclides within the bottom sediment layers were found to vary from one radionuclide to the other. The total capacities of bottom sediments and the suspended matter were found to be low. As Ismailia Canal is an important source of water for public domestic uses, irrigation animals and the aquatic species; these situations have led to state that it is not recommended to release any liquid radioactive wastes to this canal. Furthermore, periodical radiometric analysis for the canal water and its components should be carried out.

  8. Effect of democracy on health: ecological study

    Franco, Álvaro; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Ruiz, Maria Teresa

    2004-01-01

    Can political regimes be singled out as a factor affecting health? Rating countries by the extent of their freedom is a useful proxy for measuring the effects of democracy on health related variables. Although the influence of democracy in preventing famines has been reported, there have been no empirical studies on the relation between the extent of freedom allowed by political regimes and the effect on a nation’s health. We explored the effect of democracy on life expectancy and...

  9. Science and ecological literacy in undergraduate field studies education

    Mapp, Kim J.

    There is an ever-increasing number of issues that face our world today; from climate change, water and food scarcity, to pollution and resource extraction. Science and ecology play fundamental roles in these problems, and yet the understanding of these fields is limited in our society (Miller, 2002; McBride, Brewer, Berkowitz, and Borrie, 2013). Across the nation students are finishing their undergraduate degrees and are expected to enter the workforce and society with the skills needed to succeed. The deficit of science and ecological literacy in these students has been recognized and a call for reform begun (D'Avanzo, 2003 and NRC, 2009). This mixed-methods study looked at how a field studies course could fill the gap of science and ecological literacy in undergraduates. Using grounded theory, five key themes were data-derived; definitions, systems thinking, human's role in the environment, impetus for change and transference. These themes where then triangulated for validity and reliability through qualitative and quantitative assessments. A sixth theme was also identified, the learning environment. Due to limited data to support this themes' development and reliability it is discussed in Chapter 5 to provide recommendations for further research. Key findings show that this field studies program influenced students' science and ecological literacy through educational theory and practice.

  10. HSF1基因表达升高与大肠癌%Induction of HSF1 expression and sporadic colorectal cancer

    方永明; 董琦; 岑辉; 唐小萍; 郑树

    2004-01-01

    目的:探讨散发性人结直肠癌发生发展中可能的信号转导通路.方法:应用8条信号通路基因芯片筛选结直肠癌组织与正常粘膜组织表达差异基因;提取35例结直肠癌患者配对的癌组织及正常粘膜组织(阴性切缘组织,距肿瘤10 cm以上)总RNA,以RT-PCR的方法对有差异的基因进行表达差异比较.结果:结直肠癌组织中hsf1、hsp27及inos的表达明显高于正常组织.经35例结直肠癌患者癌组织与正常大肠粘膜组织对比,癌组织中hsf1、hsp27、inos表达增高,其中hsf1为86%(30/35),inos为63%(22/35).结论:在结直肠癌组织中hsf1、hsp27及inos基因被激活,其中可能存在热刺激应激信号转导通路激活的通道.

  11. Characterizing HSF1 Binding and Post-Translational Modifications of hsp70 Promoter in Cultured Cortical Neurons: Implications in the Heat-Shock Response.

    Andrea V Gómez

    Full Text Available Causes of lower induction of Hsp70 in neurons during heat shock are still a matter of debate. To further inquire into the mechanisms regulating Hsp70 expression in neurons, we studied the activity of Heat Shock Factor 1 (HSF1 and histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs at the hsp70 promoter in rat cortical neurons. Heat shock induced a transient and efficient translocation of HSF1 to neuronal nuclei. However, no binding of HSF1 at the hsp70 promoter was detected while it bound to the hsp25 promoter in cortical neurons during heat shock. Histone PTMs analysis showed that the hsp70 promoter harbors lower levels of histone H3 and H4 acetylation in cortical neurons compared to PC12 cells under basal conditions. Transcriptomic profiling data analysis showed a predominant usage of cryptic transcriptional start sites at hsp70 gene in the rat cerebral cortex, compared with the whole brain. These data support a weaker activation of hsp70 canonical promoter. Heat shock increased H3Ac at the hsp70 promoter in PC12 cells, which correlated with increased Hsp70 expression while no modifications occurred at the hsp70 promoter in cortical neurons. Increased histone H3 acetylation by Trichostatin A led to hsp70 mRNA and protein induction in cortical neurons. In conclusion, we found that two independent mechanisms maintain a lower induction of Hsp70 in cortical neurons. First, HSF1 fails to bind specifically to the hsp70 promoter in cortical neurons during heat shock and, second, the hsp70 promoter is less accessible in neurons compared to non-neuronal cells due to histone deacetylases repression.

  12. Hsp90 orchestrates transcriptional regulation by Hsf1 and cell wall remodelling by MAPK signalling during thermal adaptation in a pathogenic yeast.

    Michelle D Leach

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal adaptation is essential in all organisms. In yeasts, the heat shock response is commanded by the heat shock transcription factor Hsf1. Here we have integrated unbiased genetic screens with directed molecular dissection to demonstrate that multiple signalling cascades contribute to thermal adaptation in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. We show that the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 interacts with and down-regulates Hsf1 thereby modulating short term thermal adaptation. In the longer term, thermal adaptation depends on key MAP kinase signalling pathways that are associated with cell wall remodelling: the Hog1, Mkc1 and Cek1 pathways. We demonstrate that these pathways are differentially activated and display cross talk during heat shock. As a result ambient temperature significantly affects the resistance of C. albicans cells to cell wall stresses (Calcofluor White and Congo Red, but not osmotic stress (NaCl. We also show that the inactivation of MAP kinase signalling disrupts this cross talk between thermal and cell wall adaptation. Critically, Hsp90 coordinates this cross talk. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90 disrupts the Hsf1-Hsp90 regulatory circuit thereby disturbing HSP gene regulation and reducing the resistance of C. albicans to proteotoxic stresses. Hsp90 depletion also affects cell wall biogenesis by impairing the activation of its client proteins Mkc1 and Hog1, as well as Cek1, which we implicate as a new Hsp90 client in this study. Therefore Hsp90 modulates the short term Hsf1-mediated activation of the classic heat shock response, coordinating this response with long term thermal adaptation via Mkc1- Hog1- and Cek1-mediated cell wall remodelling.

  13. Terrestrial ecology. Comprehensive study of the grassland biome

    Terrestrial ecology and grassland biome studies are designed to characterize the biota of the Hanford Reservation, elucidate seasonal dynamics of plant productivity, decomposition and mineral behavior patterns of important plant communities, and, to study the response of these communities to important natural environmental stresses, such as weather, wildfire and man-induced alterations of communities (influenced by grazing cattle and severe mechanical disturbance of the soil, such as affected by plowing or burial of waste materials or construction activities). A detailed account of the important findings of a 5-yr study is currently being prepared by the terrestrial ecology section staff for publication as a contribution to the International Biological Program Grassland Biome project

  14. Immunolocalization of anti-hsf1 to the acetabular glands of infectious schistosomes suggests a non-transcriptional function for this transcriptional activator.

    Kenji Ishida

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a chronically debilitating disease caused by parasitic worms of the genus Schistosoma, and it is a global problem affecting over 240 million people. Little is known about the regulatory proteins and mechanisms that control schistosome host invasion, gene expression, and development. Schistosome larvae, cercariae, are transiently free-swimming organisms and infectious to man. Cercariae penetrate human host skin directly using proteases that degrade skin connective tissue. These proteases are secreted from anucleate acetabular glands that contain many proteins, including heat shock proteins. Heat shock transcription factors are strongly conserved activators that play crucial roles in the maintenance of cell homeostasis by transcriptionally regulating heat shock protein expression. In this study, we clone and characterize the schistosome Heat shock factor 1 gene (SmHSF1. We verify its ability to activate transcription using a modified yeast one-hybrid system, and we show that it can bind to the heat shock binding element (HSE consensus DNA sequence. Our quantitative RT-PCR analysis shows that SmHSF1 is expressed throughout several life-cycle stages from sporocyst to adult worm. Interestingly, using immunohistochemistry, a polyclonal antibody raised against an Hsf1-peptide demonstrates a novel localization for this conserved, stress-modulating activator. Our analysis suggests that schistosome Heat shock factor 1 may be localized to the acetabular glands of infective cercariae.

  15. Induction of HSF1 expression is associated with sporadic colorectal cancer

    Hui Cen; Shu Zheng; Yong-Ming Fang; Xiao-Ping Tang; Qi Dong

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the activation of signal transduction pathways related with the carcinogenesis of sporadic colon cancers.METHODS: A gene array monitoring the activation of 8 signal transduction pathways (PathwayFinder GEArray) was used to screen the differentially expressed genes between colorectal cancer and normal colon tissues. The differentially expressed genes were further analyzed by RT-PCR, using RNA derived from colorectal cancer and normal colon tissue of 35 patients.RESULTS: The expression of HSF1, HSF27, HSP90 and iNOS was increased in colon cancer tissues compared to normal colon tissue using PathwayFinder GEArray. The RT-PCR results showed that the expression of HSF1 was increased in 86% (30/35) patients and the expression of iNOS was increased in 63% (22/35) patients.CONCLUSION: The induction of HSF1 gene expression is associated with sporadic colon cancer. HSF1 induces heat shock stress signaling pathway, which might play a role in the carcinogenesis of sporadic colorectal cancer.

  16. Hsf1 Is Required for the Nuclear Translocation of p53 Tumor Suppressor

    Qiang Li

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the p53 tumor suppressor is most frequently inactivated by genetic mutations, exclusion from the nucleus is also seen in human tumors. We have begun to examine p53 nuclear importation by isolating a series of mutant cells in which the temperature-sensitive murine p53Val135 mutant is sequestered in the cytoplasm. We previously showed that that three of them (ALTR12, ALTR19, and ALTR25 constituted a single complementation group. Here, we found that ALTR12 cells are more sensitive to heat stress than either ALTR19 or ALTR25 and that there was a complete lack of induction of Hsp70 in response to heat shock. Western blot analysis showed no expression of the Hsf1 transcription factor, and neither heat shock nor azetidine could induce p53 nuclear localization in ALTR12 cells but did in parental A1–5 cells. Suppression of Hsf1 in A1–5 cells with quercetin or an Hsf1 siRNA reduced p53 nuclear importation and inhibited p53-mediated activation of a p21 reporter. Most convincingly, p53 nuclear importation could be restored in ALTR12 cells by introducing an exogenous Hsf1 gene. Collectively, our result suggests that Hsf1 is required for p53 nuclear importation and activation and implies that heat shock factors play a role in the regulation of p53.

  17. Temporal and Spatial Melanoma Trends in Austria: An Ecological Study

    Daniela Haluza; Stana Simic; Hanns Moshammer

    2014-01-01

    Annual solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is mostly determined by latitude and altitude. Over the last decades, increasing UVR ground levels have been observed. Exposure to UVR is associated with a life-time risk to develop melanoma, a malign skin cancer. Thus, we hypothesized that melanoma incidence in Austria is associated with altitude of place of living and time of diagnosis. We investigated this hypothesis in an ecological study by district and year for Austrian melanoma incidence ...

  18. 禁食通过 HSF1保护肝脏缺血再灌注损伤%Fasting protects mice against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury through HSF1

    崔小兰; 张常明; 李大伟; 张江; 夏强

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨短期禁食对肝脏缺血再灌注损伤的影响及和 HSF1的关系。方法小鼠随机分为两大组8小组,第一大组为假手术组,再进一步分为4个小组:A 组 HSF1Alb-小鼠正常饮食,B 组 HSF1Alb-小鼠禁食16 h,C 组HSF1Alb+小鼠正常饮食,D 组 HSF1Alb+小鼠禁食16 h。对照组只进行开关腹和游离左外叶不进行阻断和开放左外叶血流;第二大组为缺血再灌注组,进一步分为4个小组:E 组 HSF1Alb-小鼠正常饮食,F 组 HSF1Alb-小鼠禁食16 h,G 组HSF1Alb+小鼠正常饮食,H 组 HSF1Alb+小鼠禁食16 h。缺血再灌注组进行小鼠左外叶30%的缺血60 min 再灌注6 h实验。检测各组小鼠血清 ALT、AST。通过比较各组血清转氨酶的水平以及评价肝组织病理损伤的程度,来判断短期禁食及 HSF1对小鼠缺血再灌注损伤的影响。结果假手术组禁食和不禁食对血清转氨酶没有明显差别,缺血再灌注组中, HSF1Alb-小鼠禁食组的转氨酶明显低于正常饮食组,但在 HSF1Alb+小鼠看不到这一明显的保护作用;HSF1Alb-小鼠禁食组的肝组织损伤明显减轻。结论禁食能明显减轻肝脏缺血再灌注损伤,禁食的肝脏缺血再灌注损伤的保护作用在HSF1-/-小鼠被消除。%Objective To investigate the effect of short-term fasting on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (IR)injury and its relationship with heat shock factor 1 (HSF1 ).Methods A hepatic ischemia/reperfusion model was built.The left lateral liver was subjected to 60 minutes of ischemia followed by 6 hours of reperfusion,then the left liver and blood was collected.Male HSF1Alb-and HSF1Alb+ mice were randomly divided into 2 groups:control group (with false operation);IR group,which were subjected to ischemia for 60min and reperfusion for 6h.Furthermore,both groups were divided into 4 subgroups according to the fasting and HSF1Alb.Levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate

  19. A Direct Regulatory Interaction between Chaperonin TRiC and Stress-Responsive Transcription Factor HSF1

    Daniel W. Neef

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1 is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that protects cells from protein-misfolding-induced stress and apoptosis. The mechanisms by which cytosolic protein misfolding leads to HSF1 activation have not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that HSF1 is directly regulated by TRiC/CCT, a central ATP-dependent chaperonin complex that folds cytosolic proteins. A small-molecule activator of HSF1, HSF1A, protects cells from stress-induced apoptosis, binds TRiC subunits in vivo and in vitro, and inhibits TRiC activity without perturbation of ATP hydrolysis. Genetic inactivation or depletion of the TRiC complex results in human HSF1 activation, and HSF1A inhibits the direct interaction between purified TRiC and HSF1 in vitro. These results demonstrate a direct regulatory interaction between the cytosolic chaperone machine and a critical transcription factor that protects cells from proteotoxicity, providing a mechanistic basis for signaling perturbations in protein folding to a stress-protective transcription factor.

  20. Defining the Essential Function of Yeast Hsf1 Reveals a Compact Transcriptional Program for Maintaining Eukaryotic Proteostasis.

    Solís, Eric J; Pandey, Jai P; Zheng, Xu; Jin, Dexter X; Gupta, Piyush B; Airoldi, Edoardo M; Pincus, David; Denic, Vladimir

    2016-07-01

    Despite its eponymous association with the heat shock response, yeast heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1) is essential even at low temperatures. Here we show that engineered nuclear export of Hsf1 results in cytotoxicity associated with massive protein aggregation. Genome-wide analysis revealed that Hsf1 nuclear export immediately decreased basal transcription and mRNA expression of 18 genes, which predominately encode chaperones. Strikingly, rescuing basal expression of Hsp70 and Hsp90 chaperones enabled robust cell growth in the complete absence of Hsf1. With the exception of chaperone gene induction, the vast majority of the heat shock response was Hsf1 independent. By comparative analysis of mammalian cell lines, we found that only heat shock-induced but not basal expression of chaperones is dependent on the mammalian Hsf1 homolog (HSF1). Our work reveals that yeast chaperone gene expression is an essential housekeeping mechanism and provides a roadmap for defining the function of HSF1 as a driver of oncogenesis. PMID:27320198

  1. Ecological interaction and phylogeny, studying functionality on composed networks

    Cruz, Claudia P. T.; Fonseca, Carlos Roberto; Corso, Gilberto

    2012-02-01

    We study a class of composed networks that are formed by two tree networks, TP and TA, whose end points touch each other through a bipartite network BPA. We explore this network using a functional approach. We are interested in how much the topology, or the structure, of TX (X=A or P) determines the links of BPA. This composed structure is a useful model in evolutionary biology, where TP and TA are the phylogenetic trees of plants and animals that interact in an ecological community. We make use of ecological networks of dispersion of fruits, which are formed by frugivorous animals and plants with fruits; the animals, usually birds, eat fruits and disperse their seeds. We analyse how the phylogeny of TX determines or is correlated with BPA using a Monte Carlo approach. We use the phylogenetic distance among elements that interact with a given species to construct an index κ that quantifies the influence of TX over BPA. The algorithm is based on the assumption that interaction matrices that follows a phylogeny of TX have a total phylogenetic distance smaller than the average distance of an ensemble of Monte Carlo realisations. We find that the effect of phylogeny of animal species is more pronounced in the ecological matrix than plant phylogeny.

  2. Study of ecological situation for the West Kazakhstan south districts

    In this paper the results of comprehensive research for ecological status of Karabota, Kaztal, Dzhangaly, Dzhanibek and Akzhaik districts of the West Kazakhstan districts adjoining to 'Kapustin Yar' and Azgir' test sites are presented. In the indicated districts the following examinations were conducted: analysis of soils samples; bottom sediments, flora and fauna samples for determination of radionuclide and heavy metals content in its; determination of absorption dose with population by the EPR dosimetry method by human teeth enamel; study of α-radiation accumulation in a diverse trees' annual rings

  3. Study on RS- and GIS-based ecological capital assessment in arid areas

    ZHOU Kefa; CHEN Xi; ZHOU Huarong; ZHANG Qing; ZUO Qiting; ZHANG Haibo; YAN Jinfeng; CHEN Chuan

    2006-01-01

    Ecological capital assessment is currently one of the important research contents in the interdisciplinary field of ecology, resources economics, environmental economics and ecological economics. To scientifically assess ecological capital redounds to decision-makers to consider the ecological cost in economic development, and is also necessary for sustainable economic development in arid areas. Based on the theory of landscape ecology,in this paper the per unit area ecological capital values in arid areas are researched by using the Landsat TM data, CBERS satellite data, meteorological data, MODIS satellite data and other ecological data,and the RS- and GIS-based models of assessing ecological capital values in arid areas are developed.Moreover, based on the field-measured data, a case study on ecological capital assessment in the Manas River basin, Xinjiang in 2003 is carried out. The basin is divided into 4 ecological capital areas so as to quantitatively calculate the ecological capital values of the ecosystems, analyze the spatial distribution of ecological capital, and chart the maps of spatial distribution of ecological capital. The results show that the total ecological capital value of the ecosystems in the Manas River basin in 2003 was 1.49454×1011yuan RMB. In spatial distribution, the ecological capital decreases from the alpine zones to the plains and from the oases to the deserts, which accords with the distribution of vegetation zonality in this arid area.The assessed results can objectively reflect the ecological capital and its spatial distribution in the arid basin, and can also provide reference for roundly carrying out the assessment of ecological capital in arid areas.

  4. Isolation of a cDNA for HSF 2: Evidence for two heat shock factor genes in humans

    Schuetz, T.J.; Gallo, G.J.; Sheldon, L.; Kingston, R.E. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (United States) Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Tempst, P. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States))

    1991-08-15

    The heat shock response is transcriptionally regulated by an evolutionarily conserved protein termed heat shock factor (HSF). The authors report the purification to homogeneity and the partial peptide sequence of HSF from HeLa cells. The peptide sequence was used to isolate a human cDNA with a predicted open reading frame that has homology to the DNA binding domains of both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila HSFs. The cDNA directs the synthesis of a protein that binds to the heat shock element with specificity identical to HeLa HSF and stimulates transcription from a heat shock promoter. The expressed protein cross-reacts with anti-HSF antibodies. Surprisingly, however, this cDNA does not encode all of the peptides obtained from purified HeLa HSF. These peptides are encoded by a distinct human cDNA. HSF1. It therefore appears that there is a human heat shock factor gene family and that at least two separate but related HSF proteins regulate the stress response in humans.

  5. 大鼠再生肝中hsbp1、hsf1、hsf2、hsp70表达水平改变的分析%ANALYSIS OF CHANGES ABOUT hsbp1, hsf1, hsf2 AND hsp70'S EXPRESSION LEVELS IN RAT'S REGENERATING LIVER

    苏丽娟; 常翠芳; 韩鸿鹏; 马辉; 徐存拴

    2006-01-01

    在克隆了大鼠热休克因子结合蛋白1基因(hsbp1)全长cDNA基础上,进一步分析它在肝再生中作用.用SD纯系大鼠为材料,按Higgens等方法建立大鼠部分肝切除(PH)模型;用原位杂交等方法分析hsbp1在肝再生中表达变化;用基因表达谱芯片分析hsbp1、hsf1、hsf2和hsp70在肝再生中表达变化.原位杂交和基因表达谱芯片分析表明,PH后6h和66-144h,hsp1表达发生了有意义上调;8-16h,hsf1表达发生了有意义上调;2-16h,hsf2表达发生了有意义上调;0.5-24h,hsp70表达发生了有意义上调.假手术(只打开腹腔和翻动肝叶,但不进行部分肝切除)后0.5-2h,hsbp1表达发生了有意义下调;8-16h,hsf1表达发生了有意义上调;0-144h,hsf2未发生有意义表达变化;0.5-30h,hsp70表达发生了有意义上调.根据实验结果推测,PH后hsbp1表达上调可增加细胞内HSBP1量,促进生长、发育、分化相关基因表达和再生肝的组织结构功能重建;(假)手术后hsbp1表达下调可减少细胞内HSBP1量,有利于HSF1上调hsp70表达,提高机体和肝脏抗损伤能力.

  6. The translational study of apathy – an ecological approach

    Flurin eCathomas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Apathy, a quantitative reduction in goal-directed behavior, is a prevalent symptom dimension with a negative impact on functional outcome in various neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and depression. The aim of this review is to show that interview-based assessment of apathy in humans and observation of spontaneous rodent behavior in an ecological setting can serve as an important complementary approach to already existing task-based assessment, to study and understand the neurobiological bases of apathy. We first discuss the paucity of current translational approaches regarding animal equivalents of psychopathological assessment of apathy. We then present the existing evaluation scales for the assessment of apathy in humans and propose five sub-domains of apathy, namely self-care, social interaction, exploration, work/education and recreation. Each of the items in apathy evaluation scales can be assigned to one of these sub-domains. We then show that corresponding, well-validated behavioral readouts exist for rodents and that, indeed, three of the five human apathy sub-domains have a rodent equivalent. In conclusion, the translational ecological study of apathy in humans and mice is possible and will constitute an important approach to increase the understanding of the neurobiological bases of apathy and the development of novel treatments.

  7. Unmanned Aircraft Systems complement biologging in spatial ecology studies.

    Mulero-Pázmány, Margarita; Barasona, Jose Ángel; Acevedo, Pelayo; Vicente, Joaquín; Negro, Juan José

    2015-11-01

    The knowledge about the spatial ecology and distribution of organisms is important for both basic and applied science. Biologging is one of the most popular methods for obtaining information about spatial distribution of animals, but requires capturing the animals and is often limited by costs and data retrieval. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have proven their efficacy for wildlife surveillance and habitat monitoring, but their potential contribution to the prediction of animal distribution patterns and abundance has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this study, we assess the usefulness of UAS overflights to (1) get data to model the distribution of free-ranging cattle for a comparison with results obtained from biologged (GPS-GSM collared) cattle and (2) predict species densities for a comparison with actual density in a protected area. UAS and biologging derived data models provided similar distribution patterns. Predictions from the UAS model overestimated cattle densities, which may be associated with higher aggregated distributions of this species. Overall, while the particular researcher interests and species characteristics will influence the method of choice for each study, we demonstrate here that UAS constitute a noninvasive methodology able to provide accurate spatial data useful for ecological research, wildlife management and rangeland planning. PMID:26640661

  8. Ecological speciation in the tropics: insights from comparative genetic studies in Amazonia

    Beheregaray, Luciano B.; Cooke, Georgina M.; Chao, Ning L.; Landguth, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution creates and sustains biodiversity via adaptive changes in ecologically relevant traits. Ecologically mediated selection contributes to genetic divergence both in the presence or absence of geographic isolation between populations, and is considered an important driver of speciation. Indeed, the genetics of ecological speciation is becoming increasingly studied across a variety of taxa and environments. In this paper we review the literature of ecological speciation in the tropics. W...

  9. Ecological Compensation Mechanism of Agricultural Water Resources: An Empirical Study in Zhejiang, China

    Qichang Hu

    2015-01-01

    Ecological compensation is a new area in the field of resources environment. In this study, we set an empirical analysis model about ecological compensation mechanism and analyze influential factors based on agricultural perspective. The result shows that: first, loss of development opportunities is the most important factor that will affect ecological compensation, the regression coefficient is 0.071; sec, environmental protection cost is the most significant variable in ecological compensat...

  10. A DNA sequence directed mutual transcription regulation of HSF1 and NFIX involves novel heat sensitive protein interactions.

    Umashankar Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Though the Nuclear factor 1 family member NFIX has been strongly implicated in PDGFB-induced glioblastoma, its molecular mechanisms of action remain unknown. HSF1, a heat shock-related transcription factor is also a powerful modifier of carcinogenesis by several factors, including PDGFB. How HSF1 transcription is controlled has remained largely elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By combining microarray expression profiling and a yeast-two-hybrid screen, we identified that NFIX and its interactions with CGGBP1 and HMGN1 regulate expression of HSF1. We found that CGGBP1 organizes a bifunctional transcriptional complex at small CGG repeats in the HSF1 promoter. Under chronic heat shock, NFIX uses CGGBP1 and HMGN1 to get recruited to this promoter and in turn affects their binding to DNA. Results show that the interactions of NFIX with CGGBP1 and HMGN1 in the soluble fraction are heat shock sensitive due to preferential localization of CGGBP1 to heterochromatin after heat shock. HSF1 in turn was found to bind to the NFIX promoter and repress its expression in a heat shock sensitive manner. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: NFIX and HSF1 exert a mutual transcriptional repressive effect on each other which requires CGG repeat in HSF1 promoter and HSF1 binding site in NFIX promoter. We unravel a unique mechanism of heat shock sensitive DNA sequence-directed reciprocal transcriptional regulation between NFIX and HSF1. Our findings provide new insights into mechanisms of transcription regulation under stress.

  11. New methodology for studying the structural ecology of occlusal caries

    Dige, Irene; Grønkjær, Lene; Nyvad, Bente

    Microbiological studies of occlusal dental biofilms have hitherto been hampered by inaccessibility to the sampling site and demolition of the original biofilm architecture. The aim of the present study was to explore the spatial distribution of bacterial taxa in vivo at various stages of occusal...... caries, applying a new methodology involving preparation of embedded hard dental tissue slices for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal microscopy. 11 extracted teeth were included in the study and classified according to their occlusal caries status (active/inactive/sound; cavitated...... related to histological features of lesion penetration. The sites showed distinct differences in the bacterial composition and fluorescence intensity between different ecological niches in occlusal caries. Biofilm observed along the entrance of fissures showed an inner layer of microorganisms organized in...

  12. Study on ecological structures of coastal lakes in Antarctic continent

    2000-01-01

    Coastal region on the Antarctic continent, where it is under the influences both of ocean and ice sheet, as well as frequent human activities, could be considered as a fragile zone in Antarctic ecological environment. There are many lakes in coastal region, showing much differences from each other in physical-chemical features because of individual evolutionary history in their geographical environments, and suffering from different outside factors, such as climate changes and precipitation. Thus, it results in respective biological distribution and ecological structure in lakes. The present paper reports the results from the studies of chemical components, species distributions and community structures, which mainly consisted of planktons in lakes in the Vestfold Hills (68°38'S, 78°06'E), and the Larsemann Hills (69°30'S, 76°20'E), East Antarctica. It also treats the biological diversities and nutrient relationships of these different types of lakes. So as to provide more scientific basis for monitoring of climate changes and environmental protection in Antarctica.

  13. E2F, HSF2, and miR-26 in thyroid carcinoma: bioinformatic analysis of RNA-sequencing data.

    Lu, J C; Zhang, Y P

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism of thyroid carcinoma (THCA) using bioinformatics. RNA-sequencing data of THCA (N = 498) and normal thyroid tissue (N = 59) were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Next, gene expression levels were calculated using the TCC package and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the edgeR package. A co-expression network was constructed using the EBcoexpress package and visualized by Cytoscape, and functional and pathway enrichment of DEGs in the co-expression network was analyzed with DAVID and KOBAS 2.0. Moreover, modules in the co-expression network were identified and annotated using MCODE and BiNGO plugins. Small-molecule drugs were analyzed using the cMAP database, and miRNAs and transcription factors regulating DEGs were identified by WebGestalt. A total of 254 up-regulated and 59 down-regulated DEGs were identified between THCA samples and controls. DEGs enriched in biological process terms were related to cell adhesion, death, and growth and negatively correlated with various small-molecule drugs. The co-expression network of the DEGs consisted of hub genes (ITGA3, TIMP1, KRT19, and SERPINA1) and one module (JUN, FOSB, and EGR1). Furthermore, 5 miRNAs and 5 transcription factors were identified, including E2F, HSF2, and miR-26. miR-26 may participate in THCA by targeting CITED1 and PLA2R1; E2F may participate in THCA by regulating ITGA3, TIMP1, KRT19, EGR1, and JUN; HSF2 may be involved in THCA development by regulating SERPINA1 and FOSB; and small-molecule drugs may have anti-THCA effects. Our results provide novel directions for mechanistic studies and drug design of THCA. PMID:26985959

  14. Packaging and distributing ecological data from multisite studies

    Olson, R.J.; Voorhees, L.D.; Field, J.M.; Gentry, M.J.

    1996-10-01

    Studies of global change and other regional issues depend on ecological data collected at multiple study areas or sites. An information system model is proposed for compiling diverse data from dispersed sources so that the data are consistent, complete, and readily available. The model includes investigators who collect and analyze field measurements, science teams that synthesize data, a project information system that collates data, a data archive center that distributes data to secondary users, and a master data directory that provides broader searching opportunities. Special attention to format consistency is required, such as units of measure, spatial coordinates, dates, and notation for missing values. Often data may need to be enhanced by estimating missing values, aggregating to common temporal units, or adding other related data such as climatic and soils data. Full documentation, an efficient data distribution mechanism, and an equitable way to acknowledge the original source of data are also required.

  15. Ecological and sociological considerations of wind energy: A multidisciplinary study

    Bicknell, Lucas John

    Wind energy is quickly becoming a critical technology for providing Americans with renewable energy, and rapid construction of wind facilities may have impacts on both wildlife and human communities. Understanding both the social and ecological issues related to wind energy development could provide a framework for effectively meeting human energy needs while conserving species biodiversity. In this research I looked at two aspects of wind energy development: public attitudes toward wind energy development and wind facility impacts on local bat populations. These papers present aspects of wind energy development that have been the subject of increasing study. This preliminary research is intended to demonstrate the responsibility we have to making well-informed decisions as we continue to expand wind energy development. Additionally, I hope to generate interest in interdisciplinary study as a means to broaden the scope of research by making use of the diverse tools available within different disciplines.

  16. Study on Ecological Compensation System and Land Desertification Control

    Lu, Zhixiang; Gao, Bingtao

    2009-01-01

    The problems of desertification control in China are analyzed from the perspective of ecological compensation. Firstly, there is no guarantee of ecological compensation system in desertification control. On the basis of knowing land desertification connotation, the western region is taken as an example to analyze the serious consequence brought by land desertification, besides, the connotation and importance of ecological compensation are summarized, as well as the views related to resolve th...

  17. Ecological tax reform - an optimal solution?. Critical remarks on the DIW study ''Economic effects of an ecological tax reform''

    Through the latest expertise of the German institute for economic research (DIW) regarding an ecological tax reform, the discussion about a tax system considering the shortage of the ressource environment and a deficiency of demand regarding the ressource work is newly provoked. The focus of this article is a critical dealing with the methodical procedure of the German institute for economic reserarch when analyzing the national economic effect of a concretely formulated ecological tax law scenario. When assessing the overall economic consequences of a tax reform, it is recommended to use an analysis instrument, which is farly more consistent compared to the instruments by DIW, and which is more problem adequate through the increased resort to financial knowledge. Based on the obvious weakness of the DIW study, a more extensive comprehension for an ecological tax reform is pleaded for, standing out for an application of taxes based on division of labour and oriented to the objective. (orig./UA)

  18. Inequality in maternal mortality in Iran: An ecologic study

    Parvin Tajik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Maternal mortality (MM is an avoidable death and there is national, international and political commitment to reduce it. The objective of this study is to examine the relation of MM to socioeconomic factors and its inequality in Iran′s provinces at an ecologic level. Methods : The overall MM from each province was considered for 3 years from 2004 to 2006. The five independent variables whose relations were studied included the literacy rate among men and women in each province, mean annual household income per capita, Gini coefficients in each province, and Human Development Index (HDI. The correlation of Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR to the above five variables was evaluated through Pearson′s correlation coefficient (simple and weighted for each province′s population and linear regression-by considering MMR as the dependent variable and the Gini coefficient, HDI, and difference in literacy rate among men and women as the independent variables. Results: The mean MMR in the years 2004-2006 was 24.7 in 100,000 live births. The correlation coefficients between MMR and literacy rate among women, literacy rate among men, the mean annual household income per capita, Gini coefficient and HDI were 0.82, 0.90, −0.61, 0.52 and −0.77, respectively. Based on multivariate regression, MMR was significantly associated with HDI (standardized B=−0.93 and difference in literacy rate among men and women (standardized B=−0.47. However, MMR was not significantly associated with the Gini coefficient. Conclusion: This study shows the association between socioeconomic variables and their inequalities with MMR in Iran′s provinces at an ecologic level. In addition to the other direct interventions performed to reduce MM, it seems essential to especially focus on more distal factors influencing MMR.

  19. HSF1 Induced High Expression of KLF4 Gene in Heat-shock Response%HSF1在热休克反应中对KLF4基因表达的影响

    刘瑛; 张华莉; 袁灿; 王秋鹏; 刘梅冬; 涂自智; 肖献忠

    2004-01-01

    [目的]观察热休克因子1(HSF1)在热休克反应中对Kruppel 样因子4(KLF4)基因表达的影响;采用生物信息学方法初步探讨KLF4在热休克反应中调控的下游基因.[方法]采用HSF1基因敲除小鼠热休克模型,抽提HSF1基因敲除小鼠(HSF1-/-)和野生型小鼠(HSF1+/+)心肌及肺组织的总RNA进行RT-PCR和Northern blot实验,观察KLF4 mRNA表达的情况.用热休克处理和HSF1过表达的小鼠RAW264.7巨噬细胞,抽提总RNA进行RT-PCR实验,观察KLF4 mRNA表达的情况;用TESS分析启动子含有KLF4结合位点的下游基因.[结果]热休克处理后,HSF1+/+小鼠组织中KLF4 mRNA的水平明显增加,HSF1-/-小鼠组织中KLF4 mRNA水平的增加明显低于HSF1+/+小鼠.小鼠RAW264.7巨噬细胞受热刺激后,KLF4 mRNA的水平明显增加;在HSF1过表达细胞中KLF4的表达也明显增高.经TESS软件分析发现6个启动子区含有KLF4结合位点的下游基因.[结论]HSF1诱导KLF4基因在热休克反应中呈现高表达.

  20. Dynamic Changes of Land Ecological Carrying Capacity Based on the Ecological Footprint——By the Case Study of Chengdu City

    Wenfu PENG; Xiaolan ZHONG; Qiuyang LI; Qin LI

    2012-01-01

    Chengdu City is in the period of rapid urbanization and industrialization, and the disturbance derived from human activities on environment is increasing remarkablely in recent 20 years. The pressure on environment, economy and population is also increasing and land use in Chengdu has changed enormously. As struc- ture and function of land ecological system change obviously, sustainable development of land productivity has been an important goal and strategic task from now on, and it is necessary to systematically research land ecological carrying capacity based on ecological footprint. The ecological footprint of Chengdu City in the past ten years was calculated and analyzed from the spatial and temporal aspects according to statistical data from 1998 to 2008, as per ecological footprint method, ecological carrying capacity and the GIS spatial analysis method, and regression analysis method. The ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity values from 2009 to 2019 in Chengdu City were predicted through calculation results in the past ten years. The results show that the ecological footprint and ecological deficit of land use from 1998 to 2008 increased in Chengdu City. The ecological deficit of land use within the city center was in high levels in the past ten years, and the ecological footprint kept raising, especially in areas, such as Shuangliu, Chongzhou, Qingyang among 9 city areas, 4 counties and 6 districts in Chengdu City. There is fanlike distribution of ecological deficit of land use. Analysis shows that the social and natural ecological system is uneven distribution, which is not in sustainable de- velopment situation. The results of the study show that the economic, social and natural ecological system in Chengdu City is not sustainable, and the ecological foot- print is uneven distribution. The analysis of the dynamic change of land ecological carrying capacity in Chengdu City is very important for city government in the pro- cess of the

  1. Role of HSF1 in spatial learning task%HSF1基因在空间学习记忆能力中的作用研究

    彭敏; 姚树桥; 朱熊兆

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨热休克因子1(heat shock factor 1,HSF1)在小鼠Morris水迷宫空间学习任务中的作用.方法 HSF1+/+小鼠12只,HSF1-/-小鼠12只,进入空间学习任务实验.小鼠在Morris水迷宫中训练7d后,处死,剥离前额叶,液氮冻存,Western blots检测磷酸化的细胞外调节蛋白激酶(phospho-Extracellular regulated protein kinases, P-Erk1/2)表达水平.结果 HSF1-/-小鼠在Morris水迷宫定向航行实验中,第1天至第7天逃避潜伏期均明显长于HSF1+/+小鼠(P<0.05).Western blots显示:HSF1-/-小鼠在Morris水迷宫学习任务中前额叶内P-Erk1/2水平明显低于HSF1+/+小鼠(P<0.05)相应的脑区.结论 HSF1在Morris水迷宫学习任务中能够维持前额叶Erk1/2激活,因而在Morris水迷宫空间学习任务中起着重要的作用.

  2. Expression of HSF1 and XAF1 in Gastro-intestinal Cancer%HSF1与XAF1基因在胃肠肿瘤中表达的研究

    李霆; 陈村龙; 王继德; 崔生达; 崔丹瑜; 郭文

    2007-01-01

    目的 已知X连锁凋亡抑制蛋白(XIAP)相关因子1(XAF1)在胃肠癌细胞中低表达,本研究的目的 在于探讨XAF1与热休克转录因子1(HSF1)在胃肠癌中的表达情况及其相互关系.方法 应用免疫印迹分析法检测胃癌、大肠癌组织以及胃肠道肿瘤细胞株中的XAF1及HSF1蛋白表达;用含有HSF1的真核表达载体转染胃肠道肿瘤细胞株或用RNA干扰的方法上调或下调HSF1表达,同步检测对XAF1表达的影响;用应激原刺激诱导HSFl表达.观察对XAF1表达的作用.结果 在胃肠癌组织中HSF1的表达高于正常组织;在胃肠癌细胞株中XAF1与HSF1的表达呈负相关,应激刺激上调HSF1的同时下调XAF1表达.结论 胃肠道肿瘤细胞高表达HSF1,其结果是抑制XAF1表达,这种机制应该是XAF1在(胃肠道)肿瘤细胞中低表达并导致肿瘤细胞凋亡缺失的原因之一.

  3. Proteasome activity or expression is not altered by activation of the heat shock transcription factor Hsf1 in cultured fibroblasts or myoblasts.

    Taylor, David M; Kabashi, Edor; Agar, Jeffrey N; Minotti, Sandra; Durham, Heather D

    2005-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) with chaperoning function work together with the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway to prevent the accumulation of misfolded, potentially toxic proteins, as well as to control catabolism of the bulk of cytoplasmic, cellular protein. There is evidence for the involvement of both systems in neurodegenerative disease, and a therapeutic target is the heat shock transcription factor, Hsf1, which mediates upregulation of Hsps in response to cellular stress. The mechanisms regulating expression of proteasomal proteins in mammalian cells are less well defined. To assess any direct effect of Hsf1 on expression of proteasomal subunits and activity in mammalian cells, a plasmid encoding a constitutively active form of Hsf1 (Hsf1act) was expressed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking Hsf1 and in cultured human myoblasts. Plasmid encoding an inactivatible form of Hsf1 (Hsf1inact) served as control. In cultures transfected with plasmid hsf1act, robust expression of the major stress-inducible Hsp, Hsp70, occurred but not in cultures transfected with hsf1inact. No significant changes in the level of expression of representative proteasomal proteins (structural [20Salpha], a nonpeptidase beta subunit [20Sbeta3], or 2 regulatory subunits [19S subunit 6b, 11 Salpha]) or in chymotrypsin-, trypsin-, and caspaselike activities of the proteasome were measured. Thus, stress-induced or pharmacological activation of Hsf1 in mammalian cells would upregulate Hsps but not directly affect expression or activity of proteasomes. PMID:16184768

  4. The SIRT1 modulators AROS and DBC1 regulate HSF1 activity and the heat shock response.

    Rachel Raynes

    Full Text Available The heat shock response, the cellular response to protein damaging stress, is critical in maintaining proteostasis. The heat shock response is regulated by the transcription factor HSF1, which is activated upon heat shock and other stresses to induce the expression of molecular chaperones. SIRT1 has previously been shown to activate HSF1 by deacetylating it, leading to increased DNA binding ability. We have investigated how the heat shock response may be controlled by factors influencing SIRT1 activity. We found that heat shock results in an increase in the cellular NAD(+/NADH ratio and an increase in recruitment of SIRT1 to the hsp70 promoter. Furthermore, we found that the SIRT1 modulators AROS and DBC1 have an impact on hsp70 transcription, HSF1 acetylation status, and HSF1 recruitment to the hsp70 promoter. Therefore, AROS and DBC1 are now two new targets available for therapeutic regulation of the heat shock response.

  5. A study on the measurement for forest ecological benefit

    张杰; 李绪尧; 姜秋来; 李长胜; 刘鹏; 董丹峰; 林丽莎; 徐文婷

    2000-01-01

    The indexes of dependent variables of the measurement on the forest ecological benefits were defined according to the analysis of the multiple ecological benefits of forest. This indexes system includes water-reserving, soil and water conservation, wind and sand suppression, microclimate improvement, carbon dioxide assimilation, atmosphere purification, flood and drought mitigation, tourism resource and wild creature protection benefits. The main factors from the numerous factors that affect dependent variables were chosen as independent variables. At last, a multivariate linear model was established for measurement of forest ecological benefit. With this multivariate linear model the forest ecological benefit of China was calculated. The forest ecological benefit of China is 723816 million yuan per year, which equals to 23.07% of the gross domestic product of China.

  6. Identification of MicroRNA SNPs of HSF1 Gene and Their Association with Heat Tolerance in Chinese Holstein%中国荷斯坦牛HSF1基因microRNA SNPs与耐热性能的相关性研究

    李秋玲; 鞠志花; 贾祥捷; 黄金明; 李建斌; 李荣岭; 李芳; 王长法; 仲跻峰

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] Heat shock transcription factorl (HSF1) is the key protein in regulating heat stress response. [Method] The polymorphisms of HSF1 gene and their association with heat tolerance in 638 Chinese Holstein cattle were investigated for the purpose of providing molecular marker information to facilitate the breeding efficiency ofthermo tolerant cows.Primers were designed to amplify HSF1 gene fragment. DNA sequencing, PCR-SSCP and PCR-RFLP methods were used to analyze the polymorphisms. MicroRNA SNPs of HSF1 gene were localized by blasting to miRBASE database. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype were analyzed using SHEsis software. The association of these polymorphisms with heat tolerance index including potassium content in erythrocytes (PCE), decrease rate of milk production (R), rectal temperature (RT) and heat-tolerance coefficient (HTC) was analyzed by SAS software. The transcriptional level of HSF1 mRNA under heat stress conditions was studied by fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR technology. [Result] Two novel microRNA SNPs, T909C and G4693T, were found. The cows with CC and CT genotype showed higher heat tolerance than those with TT genotype at T909C locus (P< 0.05). The cows with TT genotype showed higher heat tolerance than those with GG genotype at G4693T locus (P<0.05). Four haplotype and 10 haplotype combinations were found. The cows with H2H4 haplotype combination had lower PCE, RT and higher HCT than those with H1H3 haplotype combination (P<0.05). The cows with H2H4 haplotype combination had lower R than those with H1H1 haplotype combination (P<0.05). H2H4 was the heat tolerant haplotype combination. The transcriptional level of HSF1 mRNA under heat stress conditions was different in different tissues. The highest is that in heart, which is 11.24-fold enrichment than that in muscle (P<0.05). [Conclusion] microRNA SNPs of HSF1 gene could be chosen as the molecular markers for choosing thermo tolerant dairy cattle in breeding program

  7. Hydrodynamic and Ecological Assessment of Nearshore Restoration: A Modeling Study

    Along the Pacific Northwest coast, much of the estuarine habitat has been diked over the last century for agricultural land use, residential and commercial development, and transportation corridors. As a result, many of the ecological processes and functions have been disrupted. To protect coastal habitats that are vital to aquatic species, many restoration projects are currently underway to restore the estuarine and coastal ecosystems through dike breaches, setbacks, and removals. Information on physical processes and hydrodynamic conditions are critical for the assessment of the success of restoration actions. Restoration of a 160- acre property at the mouth of the Stillaguamish River in Puget Sound has been proposed. The goal is to restore native tidal habitats and estuary-scale ecological processes by removing the dike. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was developed for the Stillaguamish River estuary to simulate estuarine processes. The model was calibrated to observed tide, current, and salinity data for existing conditions and applied to simulate the hydrodynamic responses to two restoration alternatives. Responses were evaluated at the scale of the restoration footprint. Model data was combined with biophysical data to predict habitat responses at the site. Results showed that the proposed dike removal would result in desired tidal flushing and conditions that would support four habitat types on the restoration footprint. At the estuary scale, restoration would substantially increase the proportion of area flushed with freshwater (< 5 ppt) at flood tide. Potential implications of predicted changes in salinity and flow dynamics are discussed relative to the distribution of tidal marsh habitat.

  8. HSF1生理特征及调控HSP表达的研究进展%Progress in the Physical Character and Regulation of HSF1

    徐雪; 马中富; 黄帆

    2008-01-01

    热休克因子1(the heat shock factorl,HSF1)通过与热休克蛋白基因上游的热休克元件相结合而调控热休克蛋白的表达,保护机体免受应激因素损害.其活化受到理化因素、细胞因子等不同水平机制的调控,具有结构、功能、活化以及调控过程的自身特点.

  9. The wing in yeast heat shock transcription factor (HSF) DNA-binding domain is required for full activity

    Cicero, Marco P.; T. Hubl, Susan; Harrison, Celia J.; Littlefield, Otis; Hardy, Jeanne A.; Nelson, Hillary C. M.

    2001-01-01

    The yeast heat shock transcription factor (HSF) belongs to the winged helix family of proteins. HSF binds DNA as a trimer, and additional trimers can bind DNA co-operatively. Unlike other winged helix–turn–helix proteins, HSF’s wing does not appear to contact DNA, as based on a previously solved crystal structure. Instead, the structure implies that the wing is involved in protein–protein interactions, possibly within a trimer or between adjacent trimers. To unders...

  10. Hsf1对人肝癌细胞株PLC/PRF5的生长调控作用%Regulatory fe fect of Hsf1 on PLC/PRF5 hepa toma cells proliferation

    蒋杞英; 张智; 王明丽; 马远方

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨热休克转录因子1(Heat shock transcription factor 1,Hsf1)对人肝癌细胞株PLC/PRF5生长的调控作用。方法:通过shRNA基因沉默技术,构建 Hsf1基因沉默的PLC/PRF5肝癌细胞株。采用 Western blot检测PLC/PRF5肝癌细胞Hsf 1、p53和Rb蛋白的表达。通过四甲基偶氮唑盐( Methylthiazolyl tetrazolium assay ,MTT)法、平板克隆实验和细胞周期的检测,观察PLC/PRF5细胞株的增殖情况。结果:shRNA-Hsf1能有效地沉默Hsf1在PLC /PRF5细胞中的表达;shRNA-Hsf1能有效阻滞细胞周期于G1期,抑制PLC/PRF5细胞的生长速度和细胞克隆形成率;Hsf1基因沉默可上调PLC/PRF5细胞p53和Rb蛋白的表达。结论:Hsf1基因沉默可通过上调p53和Rb蛋白的表达抑制肝癌细胞株PLC/PRF5的增殖。%Objective:To explore the regulatory effect of Hsf 1 on PLC/PRF5 hepatoma cells proliferation.Methods: By shRNA gene silencing technology ,constructed PLC/PRF5 hepatoma cell line of Hsf 1 gene silencing.To detect the expression of Hsf 1, p53 and Rb proteins in PLC/PRF5 hepatoma cells by Western blot.The proliferation of PLC/PRF5 cell line was observed by methylthiazolyl tetrazolium assay ( MTT ) , plate clone formation assay ( PCFA ) and cell cycle assay.Results: shRNA-Hsf1 could significantly inhibit the expression of Hsf 1 in PLC/PRF5 cells.It could induce PLC/PRF5 cells stopping at G1 phase of cell cycle , inhibit cell proliferation and colonal formation;silencing Hsf1 caused up-regulation of p53 and Rb proteins expression in PLC/PRF5 cells.Conclusion: Silencing Hsf1 is involved in up-regulation of p53 and Rb proteins expression , which results in inhibiting proliferation of PLC/PRF5 hepatoma cells.

  11. The progress in the study of Arctic pack ice ecology

    何剑锋; 王桂忠; 蔡明红; 李少菁

    2004-01-01

    The sea ice community plays an important role in the Arctic marine ecosystem. Because of the predicted environmental changes in the Arctic environment and specifically related to sea ice, the Arctic pack ice biota has received more attention in recent years using modern ice-breaking research vessels. Studies show that the Arctic pack ice contains a diverse biota and besides ice algae, the bacterial and protozoan biomasses can be high. Surprisingly high primary production values were observed in the pack ice of the central Arctic Ocean. Occasionally biomass maximum were discovered in the interior of the ice floes, a habitat that had been ignored in most Arctic studies. Many scientific questions, which deserve special attention, remained unsolved due to logistic limitations and the sea ice characteristics. Little is know about the pack ice community in the central Arctic Ocean. Almost no data exists from the pack ice zone for the winter season. Concerning the abundance of bacteria and protozoa, more studies are needed to understand the microbial network within the ice and its role in material and energy flows. The response of the sea ice biota to global change will impact the entire Arctic marine ecosystem and a long-term monitoring program is needed. The techniques, that are applied to study the sea ice biota and the sea ice ecology, should be improved.

  12. Identifying Ecological Red Lines: A Case Study of the Coast in Liaoning Province

    Chuansheng Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The global decline in estuarine and coastal ecosystems is affecting critical ecosystem services. The spatial agglomeration of population, industries and resources has led to the emergence of regionally-specific ecological problems. Therefore, identifying “ecological red lines”, based on specific natural and environmental features, could help to differentiate the economic development and ecological protection directions or potentials of different regions in future. The aim of this case study is to define the ecological red line in the coastal zone of Liaoning Province, China, by evaluating the ecological importance and environmental stress in its marine and terrestrial ecosystems. For this purpose, the ecological importance of this area was first classified into four conservation indices (species, wetland, water and coast and islands and assigned values of 5, 3 and 1 for indications of high, moderate and minor importance. In the meantime, environmental stress was also classified into four indices (water environment, salinization, soil erosion and erosion of coasts and islands and assigned values of 5, 3 and 1 for indications of high, moderate and low stress, respectively. Then, based on an overlay analysis and evaluation of the above results, we defined two grades of ecological red line zones. Grade I ecological red line zones contain the areas with critical and diverse ecosystem services, areas of high importance for species conservation and nature reserves, as well as ecologically-vulnerable and sensitive areas. It is important in these areas to maintain the biological diversity and to improve the quality of the ecological environment, which should be strictly protected and explicitly controlled. Grade II ecological red line zones display areas with minimum requirements for maintaining the basic needs of a livable environment and human health, moderate to minor levels of ecological importance and high to moderate levels of environmental

  13. An Ecological Flood Control System in Phoenix Island of Huzhou, China: A Case Study

    Zhuowen Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional flood control systems always have a conflict with natural ones, i.e., rivers in cities are usually straight and smooth, whereas natural ones are according to ecological mechanisms. Social and economic developments in the modern world require a new system combining ecological needs and traditional flood control system. Ecological flood control systems were put forward and defined as flood control systems with full consideration of ecological demands for sustainable development. In such systems, four aspects are promoted: connectivity of water system, landscapes of river and lakes, mobility of water bodies, and safety of flood control. In Phoenix Island, Huzhou, needs for ecological flood controls were analyzed from the four aspects above. The Water system layout was adjusted with the water surface ratio, which is the ratio of water surface area (including rivers, lakes, and other water bodies to the total drainage area, and connectivity as controlling indicators. The designed water levels provided references for landscape plant selection. Mobility of the adjusted water system was analyzed, including flow direction and residence time. On the bases mentioned above, ecological flood control projects were planned with comprehensive consideration of the ecological requirements. The case study indicates that ecological needs can be integrated with flood control to develop ecological flood control systems that do not only prevent floods but also retain the ecological functions of water bodies.

  14. Identifying Ecological Red Lines: A Case Study of the Coast in Liaoning Province

    Chuansheng Wang; Guiyan Sun; Lijuan Dang

    2015-01-01

    The global decline in estuarine and coastal ecosystems is affecting critical ecosystem services. The spatial agglomeration of population, industries and resources has led to the emergence of regionally-specific ecological problems. Therefore, identifying “ecological red lines”, based on specific natural and environmental features, could help to differentiate the economic development and ecological protection directions or potentials of different regions in future. The aim of this case study i...

  15. MEDIA, ECOLOGY AND WILDLIFE CONSERVATION: AN ANALYTICAL RESEARCH STUDY OF DUDHWA NATIONAL PARK

    Anurag Swaroop; M. K. Padhy

    2015-01-01

    Ecology is a science of ecosystems or totality of reciprocal interactions between living organisms and their physical surroundings (Clark 1973). The word ecology signifies the study of environments: their structure, content, and impact on people. Ecology is theoretically an academic discipline, such as mathematics or physics. The word wildlife is usually associated with non-domesticated vertebrates, but has broadly related to all wild animals, plants and other organisms. People from diverse f...

  16. Temporal and Spatial Melanoma Trends in Austria: An Ecological Study

    Daniela Haluza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Annual solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR is mostly determined by latitude and altitude. Over the last decades, increasing UVR ground levels have been observed. Exposure to UVR is associated with a life-time risk to develop melanoma, a malign skin cancer. Thus, we hypothesized that melanoma incidence in Austria is associated with altitude of place of living and time of diagnosis. We investigated this hypothesis in an ecological study by district and year for Austrian melanoma incidence (1990–2010 and mortality (1970–2011 data. As expected, incidence rates increased with altitude (about 2% per 10 m and year (about 2%. Additionally, melanoma incidence rates were about 50% higher in urban than in rural districts. In contrast, mortality rates decreased with altitude (for males: 0.4% per 10 m, for women: 0.7% per 10 m, respectively. The observed discrepancy between incidence and mortality data could partly be explained by melanoma diagnosis at earlier tumor stage in districts with higher altitude. Possible reasons for this finding include higher awareness of patients, better diagnostic performance of medical professionals working at higher altitudes, or slower tumor growth due to protective effects of sun light-associated vitamin D synthesis.

  17. Temporal and spatial melanoma trends in Austria: an ecological study.

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2014-01-01

    Annual solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is mostly determined by latitude and altitude. Over the last decades, increasing UVR ground levels have been observed. Exposure to UVR is associated with a life-time risk to develop melanoma, a malign skin cancer. Thus, we hypothesized that melanoma incidence in Austria is associated with altitude of place of living and time of diagnosis. We investigated this hypothesis in an ecological study by district and year for Austrian melanoma incidence (1990-2010) and mortality (1970-2011) data. As expected, incidence rates increased with altitude (about 2% per 10 m) and year (about 2%). Additionally, melanoma incidence rates were about 50% higher in urban than in rural districts. In contrast, mortality rates decreased with altitude (for males: 0.4% per 10 m, for women: 0.7% per 10 m, respectively). The observed discrepancy between incidence and mortality data could partly be explained by melanoma diagnosis at earlier tumor stage in districts with higher altitude. Possible reasons for this finding include higher awareness of patients, better diagnostic performance of medical professionals working at higher altitudes, or slower tumor growth due to protective effects of sun light-associated vitamin D synthesis. PMID:24398911

  18. mTOR is essential for the proteotoxic stress response, HSF1 activation and heat shock protein synthesis.

    Shiuh-Dih Chou

    Full Text Available The target of rapamycin (TOR is a high molecular weight protein kinase that regulates many processes in cells in response to mitogens and variations in nutrient availability. Here we have shown that mTOR in human tissue culture cells plays a key role in responses to proteotoxic stress and that reduction in mTOR levels by RNA interference leads to increase sensitivity to heat shock. This effect was accompanied by a drastic reduction in ability to synthesize heat shock proteins (HSP, including Hsp70, Hsp90 and Hsp110. As HSP transcription is regulated by heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1, we examined whether mTOR could directly phosphorylate this factor. Indeed, we determined that mTOR could directly phosphorylate HSF1 on serine 326, a key residue in transcriptional activation. HSF1 was phosphorylated on S326 immediately after heat shock and was triggered by other cell stressors including proteasome inhibitors and sodium arsenite. Null mutation of S326 to alanine led to loss of ability to activate an HSF1-regulated promoter-reporter construct, indicating a direct role for mTOR and S326 in transcriptional regulation of HSP genes during stress. As mTOR is known to exist in at least two intracellular complexes, mTORC1 and mTOR2 we examined which complex might interact with HSF1. Indeed mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin prevented HSF1-S326 phosphorylation, suggesting that this complex is involved in HSF1 regulation in stress. Our experiments therefore suggest a key role for mTORC1 in transcriptional responses to proteotoxic stress.

  19. Study on the Programming Standard for Ecological Rescue in General Land Use Planning

    Bai Wei; Hao Jinmin; Zhang Qiuping

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims at establishing the operation idea based on the analysis of the connotation, principles and reference indexes for programming standard for ecological rescue. The paper puts forward that the programming standard should take into account the natural, social and economic reference indexes, and modifies the scale and distribution of the ecological rescue according to the order of ecological safety, social safety and economic development. The paper suggests that the land planning department should strengthen the study and datum accumulation in order to establish the technology regulations of programming standard of the ecological rescue.

  20. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of HSF1 cDNA Full Length of Hainan Yellow Cattle%海南黄牛HSF1 cDNA全长的克隆与序列分析

    成鹰; 林杰材; 满初日嘎; 米华存; 祁超; 李治深; 杜丽; 王凤阳; 刘涛; 申明霞; 张莉娜; 张巍; 吴科榜

    2008-01-01

    目的:根据人、小鼠HSF1cDNA保守区序列设计引物,通过PCR方法扩增海南黄牛HSF1cDNA,并进行序列分析.方法:利用RT-PER、半巢式PCR以及3'-RACE技术分段扩增得到了海南黄牛HSF1cDNA序列,测序正确后进行拼接.用DNANAN生物信息学软件分析海南黄牛HSF1cDNA与赫里福德牛、人、小鼠同源性和海南黄牛HSF1蛋白的氨基酸组成、等电点、亲/疏水区等蛋白质性质,并根据各种动物HSF1蛋白绘制进化树.结果:(1)海南黄牛的HSF1 cDNA序列全长为1 993bp,包括150bp的5'非翻译区,1 578bp的开放阅读框以及264bp(不含poly(A)尾)的3'非翻译区,编码524个氨基酸,分子量为56.42 kD,等电点(pI)为4.79.(2)海南黄牛的HSF1 cDNA与赫里福德牛、小鼠和人HSF1 cDNA的同源性分别为98.99%、81.78%、87.82%,相应编码蛋白氨基酸序列的同源性分别为98.86%、83.84%、89.06%,其中N-末端和C-末端高度保守,而中间区域存在缺失或替换.(3)根据氨基酸序列构建不同动物HSF1蛋白的进化树,与采用经典遗传分类法构建的进化树基本一致.结论:首次克隆了海南黄牛HSF1 cDNA全长,分析表明:海南黄牛HSF1蛋白是亲水性蛋白,在8种动物中,其同源性大于73%,高度保守.海南黄牛与赫里福德牛HSF1蛋白同源性高达98.86%,在三聚体化区域、转录调节域和激活域存在6个位点的单氨基酸突变,这些发现为进一步揭示海南黄牛抗热性状形成的分子机制提供了重要依据.

  1. Site-Specific ecological risk assessment. Case-study 2

    Jensen, John

    The decision supporting and integrating assessment tool, TRIAD, is used site-specific on PAH- and heavy metal contaminated sites in Denmark. The various aspects of the TRIAD approach are used on a set of chemistry-, ecotoxicology- and ecology related data collected among others in the EU project...... “Development of a decision support system for sustainable management of contaminated land by linking bioavailability, ecological risk and ground water pollution of organic pollutants”or in short “LIBERATION”. The presentation includes examples on how to scale and integrate the results from various scientific...

  2. 前列腺癌中HSF1蛋白的表达及与临床病理特征的相关性%Correlation Between Expression of HSF1 and Clinicopathological Features of Prostate Cancer

    张晓波; 齐琳; 唐正严; 阮景德

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨HSF1在前列腺癌组织中的表达及与前列腺癌各项临床病理特征的关系.方法 应用免疫组织化学法和图像分析系统研究82例前列腺癌标本中HS目的 表达情况.结果 HSF1蛋白在前列腺癌癌细胞胞浆部化染色阳性,阳性表达率为89.2%.HSF1在前列腺癌组织中的表达与Gleason评分呈正相关(r=0.66,P<0.001).HSF1表达与PSA水平随PSA升高而升高,呈正相关(r=0.76,P<0.001).结论 HSF1蛋白在前列腺癌中表达增加,可能与调控热休克蛋白家族成员作用机制有关.

  3. PCR方法在HSF1基因敲除小鼠基因型分析中的应用%Genotype Analysis of HSF1 Gene Knockout Mice with Polymerase Chain Reaction

    陈广文; 刘喜玲; 肖献忠

    2002-01-01

    目的为HSF1基因敲除鼠探索快速、简单的基因型PCR检测方法.方法设计两对引物扩增野生型HSF1基因和HSF1缺陷突变基因的DNA片段,用PCR仪梯度方案测试最佳退火温度,并将所得基因型结果与经典的Southern blot方法比较.结果野生型仅在562 bp处有一条条带,突变纯合子仅在377 bp处有一条条带,杂合子则在377 bp和562 bp处出现两条条带. 用PCR方法获得的HSF1基因分析结果与经典的Southern blot方法获得的结果完全一致.结论用PCR方法分析HSF1基因敲除鼠的基因型具有快速、简单、廉价和适用的特点.

  4. 双荧光素酶报告质粒检测小鼠巨噬细胞热休克转录因子1调控核转录因子kappa B活性的研究%A Study of the Effects of HSF1 on NF-κB Activity in RAW264.7 Macrophages by Dual-luciferase Assay

    李雄; 罗成群; 周建大; 贺全勇; 徐阳成

    2010-01-01

    目的:观察烧伤血清刺激后小鼠巨噬细胞NF-κB活性的变化,以及HSF1对NF-κB可能的调控作用.方法:制作15%TBSA Ⅲ°烧伤小鼠模型,提取烧伤血清.通过表达质粒与报告质粒共转染,检测烧伤血清诱导下NF-κB活性的变化以及过表达HSFI后NF-κB活性的变化规律.结果:对比正常血清,烧伤血清刺激后相对荧光素酶活性早期即明显增加(P<0.05),这种变化在诱导后2 h即达到高峰,12 h后逐渐下降;过表达HSF1可以显著抑制烧伤血清引起这种活性变化(P<0.05).结论:烧伤后NF-κB早期即活化,热休克反应可能通过HSF1途径抑制NF-κB的活性.

  5. Estimating bacterial diversity for ecological studies: methods, metrics, and assumptions.

    Julia Birtel

    Full Text Available Methods to estimate microbial diversity have developed rapidly in an effort to understand the distribution and diversity of microorganisms in natural environments. For bacterial communities, the 16S rRNA gene is the phylogenetic marker gene of choice, but most studies select only a specific region of the 16S rRNA to estimate bacterial diversity. Whereas biases derived from from DNA extraction, primer choice and PCR amplification are well documented, we here address how the choice of variable region can influence a wide range of standard ecological metrics, such as species richness, phylogenetic diversity, β-diversity and rank-abundance distributions. We have used Illumina paired-end sequencing to estimate the bacterial diversity of 20 natural lakes across Switzerland derived from three trimmed variable 16S rRNA regions (V3, V4, V5. Species richness, phylogenetic diversity, community composition, β-diversity, and rank-abundance distributions differed significantly between 16S rRNA regions. Overall, patterns of diversity quantified by the V3 and V5 regions were more similar to one another than those assessed by the V4 region. Similar results were obtained when analyzing the datasets with different sequence similarity thresholds used during sequences clustering and when the same analysis was used on a reference dataset of sequences from the Greengenes database. In addition we also measured species richness from the same lake samples using ARISA Fingerprinting, but did not find a strong relationship between species richness estimated by Illumina and ARISA. We conclude that the selection of 16S rRNA region significantly influences the estimation of bacterial diversity and species distributions and that caution is warranted when comparing data from different variable regions as well as when using different sequencing techniques.

  6. Aggregation of polyQ proteins is increased upon yeast aging and affected by Sir2 and Hsf1: novel quantitative biochemical and microscopic assays.

    Aviv Cohen

    Full Text Available Aging-related neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases, are characterized by accumulation of protein aggregates in distinct neuronal cells that eventually die. In Huntington's disease, the protein huntingtin forms aggregates, and the age of disease onset is inversely correlated to the length of the protein's poly-glutamine tract. Using quantitative assays to estimate microscopically and capture biochemically protein aggregates, here we study in Saccharomyces cerevisiae aging-related aggregation of GFP-tagged, huntingtin-derived proteins with different polyQ lengths. We find that the short 25Q protein never aggregates whereas the long 103Q version always aggregates. However, the mid-size 47Q protein is soluble in young logarithmically growing yeast but aggregates as the yeast cells enter the stationary phase and age, allowing us to plot an "aggregation timeline". This aging-dependent aggregation was associated with increased cytotoxicity. We also show that two aging-related genes, SIR2 and HSF1, affect aggregation of the polyQ proteins. In Δsir2 strain the aging-dependent aggregation of the 47Q protein is aggravated, while overexpression of the transcription factor Hsf1 attenuates aggregation. Thus, the mid-size 47Q protein and our quantitative aggregation assays provide valuable tools to unravel the roles of genes and environmental conditions that affect aging-related aggregation.

  7. Expression of hsp70, hsp90 and hsf1 in the reef coral Acropora digitifera under prospective acidified conditions over the next several decades

    Masako Nakamura

    2012-02-01

    Ocean acidification is an ongoing threat for marine organisms due to the increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. Seawater acidification has a serious impact on physiologic processes in marine organisms at all life stages. On the other hand, potential tolerance to external pH changes has been reported in coral larvae. Information about the possible mechanisms underlying such tolerance responses, however, is scarce. In the present study, we examined the effects of acidified seawater on the larvae of Acropora digitifera at the molecular level. We targeted two heat shock proteins, Hsp70 and Hsp90, and a heat shock transcription factor, Hsf1, because of their importance in stress responses and in early life developmental stages. Coral larvae were maintained under the ambient and elevated CO2 conditions that are expected to occur within next 100 years, and then we evaluated the expression of hsps and hsf1 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Expression levels of these molecules significantly differed among target genes, but they did not change significantly between CO2 conditions. These findings indicate that the expression of hsps is not changed due to external pH changes, and suggest that tolerance to acidified seawater in coral larvae may not be related to hsp expression.

  8. Ecological studies on rain forest in Northern Suriname

    Schulz, J.P.

    1960-01-01

    During the years 1955-1957 ecological data were collected in various types of mesophytic forest occurring in the northern half of central Suriname (fig. 1). Physiognomically as well as floristically these forests correspond with the type of vegetation which in the other parts of tropical America gen

  9. Study on remote sensing method for drawing up and utilizing ecological and natural map II; concentrated on drawing up a plant ecological classification map

    Jeon, Seong Woo; Chung, Hwui Chul [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    Following with the flows of the environmental conservation, Korea has revised the law of natural environmental conservation. In this law, it has suggested to draw up an ecological nature figure for efficient preservation and utilization of a country. To draw up an ecological nature figure, it requires several evaluating factors. Among them, a plant ecological classification is a very important evaluating factor since it can evaluate a habitation area of natural organisms. This study investigated a drawing up method of plant ecological classification using satellite image data. However the limit of satellite image data and the quality of required plant ecological classification are not quite matched but if the satellite image data and the infrared color aerial photograph are mixed, it can be expected to have an excellent quality of plant ecological classification. 85 refs., 86 figs., 45 tabs.

  10. HSF1中的半胱氨酸残基氧化还原状态对其功能的调节%HSF1 may have Integrated Redox Dependent Regulation of Cysteine Residues into Its Function Response

    林正; 黄帆; 罗兰; 张式鸿; 马中富; 吴兴刚; 徐康

    2005-01-01

    人热休克转录因子1(heat shock transcription factor l,HSF1)的结构和功能与其半胱氨酸残基的氧化还原化学性能相关.为了鉴别在氧化还原状态改变时参与分子内双硫键交联的HSF1半胱氨酸残基,了解其氧化还原化学性改变在生物学调节中的重要性,通过建立和应用重组人HSF1中的5个半胱氨酸突变体和1个双重突变体,并用已知的巯基氧化介导剂联氨(diamide,H2N·NH2)和还原介导剂二硫苏糖醇(DTT)与在体外转录和翻译的HSF1突变体蛋白质预孵育,观察其构象和与DNA结合活性的改变.结果显示,与野生型一样,所有的HSF1半胱氨酸突变体都能被热激活并与DNA结合;联氨预处理能阻断这种作用,但对突变体C153S和双重突变体G373、378S无效.氧化还原状态对HSF1构象改变显示联氨能使HSF1野生型和突变体C36T和C103Y形成氧化型HSF1(ox-HSF1)构象,但对C153S和C373、378S双重突变体不起作用,而单一突变体C373S或C378S在联氨作用下分别形成二种分子量稍不同的ox-HSF1构象.结果提示,在氧化条件下HSF1中的半胱氨酸残基C153可能与C373或与G378形成分子内二硫键交联;在对抗氧化作用上5C153和C373、C378起着"关闭性"作用,预防了HSF1的激活.

  11. CASE STUDY: Community Based Ecological Mangrove Rehabilitation (CBEMR) in Indonesia

    Brown, Ben; Fadillah, Ratna; Nurdin, Yusran; Soulsby, Iona; Ahmad, Rio

    2014-01-01

    While successful examples of large-scale (5 000-10 000 ha) ecological wetland/mangrove rehabilitation projects exist worldwide, mangrove rehabilitation efforts in Indonesia, both large and small, have mainly failed. The majority of projects (both government programs and non-government initiatives) have oversimplified the technical processes of mangrove rehabilitation, favouring the direct planting of a restricted subset of mangrove species (from the family Rhizophoracea), commonly in the lowe...

  12. Ecological Studies On The Bottom Fauna Of Lake Manala, Egypt

    Khalil, Magdy T. [مجدي توفيق خليل

    1990-01-01

    An ecological survey has been conducted for the benthic Community in Lake Manzala during May and June, 1985. The diversity and distribution of organisms are largely determined by salinity. Mean abundance of benthic fauna ranged from 1494 to 2820 organisms/m2 for sampling transects. Pisidium and Melanoides mollusca dominate the low salinity southern regions, while Cerastoctenna, Abra and Alvania species dominate the saline sectors. Two other species of considerable importance in the lake ...

  13. Political Cultural Ecology and the Study of Regions in Mexico

    Fábregas Puig, Andrés

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows why Cultural Ecology, understood as a method to explore the relationships between the environment and cultural processes, has deeply influenced a whole generation of Mexican anthropologists as a result of the teachings of Ángel Palerm and Eric Wolf. The practical application of Steward’s theories to the processes of Mexican regional formation, linked to the use of hydraulic technologies as part of both adaptative cultural strategies and the political control of water in the p...

  14. Studies on marine oil spills and their ecological damage

    Mei, Hong; Yin, Yanjie

    2009-09-01

    The sources of marine oil spills are mainly from accidents of marine oil tankers or freighters, marine oil-drilling platforms, marine oil pipelines, marine oilfields, terrestrial pollution, oil-bearing atmosphere, and offshore oil production equipment. It is concluded upon analysis that there are two main reasons for marine oil spills: (I) The motive for huge economic benefits of oil industry owners and oil shipping agents far surpasses their sense of ecological risks. (II) Marine ecological safety has not become the main concern of national security. Oil spills are disasters because humans spare no efforts to get economic benefits from oil. The present paper draws another conclusion that marine ecological damage caused by oil spills can be roughly divided into two categories: damage to marine resource value (direct value) and damage to marine ecosystem service value (indirect value). Marine oil spills cause damage to marine biological, fishery, seawater, tourism and mineral resources to various extents, which contributes to the lower quality and value of marine resources.

  15. Ecological niche transferability using invasive species as a case study.

    Miguel Fernández

    Full Text Available Species distribution modeling is widely applied to predict invasive species distributions and species range shifts under climate change. Accurate predictions depend upon meeting the assumption that ecological niches are conserved, i.e., spatially or temporally transferable. Here we present a multi-taxon comparative analysis of niche conservatism using biological invasion events well documented in natural history museum collections. Our goal is to assess spatial transferability of the climatic niche of a range of noxious terrestrial invasive species using two complementary approaches. First we compare species' native versus invasive ranges in environmental space using two distinct methods, Principal Components Analysis and Mahalanobis distance. Second we compare species' native versus invaded ranges in geographic space as estimated using the species distribution modeling technique Maxent and the comparative index Hellinger's I. We find that species exhibit a range of responses, from almost complete transferability, in which the invaded niches completely overlap with the native niches, to a complete dissociation between native and invaded ranges. Intermediate responses included expansion of dimension attributable to either temperature or precipitation derived variables, as well as niche expansion in multiple dimensions. We conclude that the ecological niche in the native range is generally a poor predictor of invaded range and, by analogy, the ecological niche may be a poor predictor of range shifts under climate change. We suggest that assessing dimensions of niche transferability prior to standard species distribution modeling may improve the understanding of species' dynamics in the invaded range.

  16. Ecological niche transferability using invasive species as a case study.

    Fernández, Miguel; Hamilton, Healy

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution modeling is widely applied to predict invasive species distributions and species range shifts under climate change. Accurate predictions depend upon meeting the assumption that ecological niches are conserved, i.e., spatially or temporally transferable. Here we present a multi-taxon comparative analysis of niche conservatism using biological invasion events well documented in natural history museum collections. Our goal is to assess spatial transferability of the climatic niche of a range of noxious terrestrial invasive species using two complementary approaches. First we compare species' native versus invasive ranges in environmental space using two distinct methods, Principal Components Analysis and Mahalanobis distance. Second we compare species' native versus invaded ranges in geographic space as estimated using the species distribution modeling technique Maxent and the comparative index Hellinger's I. We find that species exhibit a range of responses, from almost complete transferability, in which the invaded niches completely overlap with the native niches, to a complete dissociation between native and invaded ranges. Intermediate responses included expansion of dimension attributable to either temperature or precipitation derived variables, as well as niche expansion in multiple dimensions. We conclude that the ecological niche in the native range is generally a poor predictor of invaded range and, by analogy, the ecological niche may be a poor predictor of range shifts under climate change. We suggest that assessing dimensions of niche transferability prior to standard species distribution modeling may improve the understanding of species' dynamics in the invaded range. PMID:25785858

  17. Studies on Marine Oil Spills and Their Ecological Damage

    MEI Hong; YIN Yanjie

    2009-01-01

    The sources of marine oil spills are mainly from accidents of marine oil tankers or freighters, marine oil-drilling platforms, marine oil pipelines, marine oilfields, terrestrial pollution, oil-bearing atmosphere, and offshore oil production equipment. It is concluded upon analysis that there are two main reasons for marine oil spills: (Ⅰ) The motive for huge economic benefits of oil Industry owners and oil shipping agents far surpasses their sense of ecological risks. (Ⅱ) Marine ecological safety has not become the main concern of national security. Oil spills are disasters because humans spare no efforts to get economic benefits from oil. The present paper draws another conclusion that marine ecological damage caused by oil spills can be roughly divided into two categories: damage to marine resource value (direct value) and damage to marine ecosystem service value (indirect value). Marine oil spills cause damage to marine biological, fishery, seawater, tourism and mineral resources to various extents, which contributes to the lower quality and value of marine resources.

  18. Hsf1-潜在的睾丸支持细胞雄激素受体靶基因%Hsf1 as a potential target of androgen/AR in mouse sertoli cells

    王亚东; 叶炯贤; 牟丽莎; 来永庆; 李贤新; 桂耀庭

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨雄激素受体(AR)对睾丸支持细胞中热休克转录因子1(Hsf1)基因表达的影响及其分子机制.方法 采用PCR法及Western blot法检测,AR特异性敲除(S-AR-/y)小鼠和野生型(WT)小鼠睾丸组织中Hsf1的表达,观察雄激素对TM4细胞系中Hsf1和热休克蛋白(HSPs)表达的影响.结果 与WT小鼠比较,S-AR-/y小鼠睾丸组织中Hsf1表达水平升高(P<0.05);雄激素显著降低TM4细胞中热休克转录因子-1(HSF1)表达(P<0.05),并且HSF1能够升高热休克蛋白105(HSP105)和HSP60水平.结论 Hsf1可能是睾丸支持细胞中AR调控的靶基因.%Objective To identify the heat shook transcription factor-l( Hsfl ) as a target gene of AR in sertoli cells and its molecular mechanism in male infertility. Methods PCR and Western blot was used to compare the expression level of Hsfl in sertoli cell-selective knockout AR mice ( S-AR-/y ) with wild type mice ( WT ) and TM4 cell line with or without testosterone. Results Hsfl expression level in S-AR-/y mice was significantly increased compared with WT mice. On condition of testosterone, Hsfl expression of TM4 cell line was significantly reduced in both mRNA and protein level. Moreover, our data suggested that HSF1 acted as a positive factor for target gene expression, in particular regulating heat shock protein 105 ( HSP105 ) and HSP60. Conclusion The Hsfl may plays as a novel target gene of AR in mice sertoli cells.

  19. Assessing Landscape Ecological Risk in a Mining City: A Case Study in Liaoyuan City, China

    Jian Peng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Landscape ecological risk assessment can effectively identify key elements for landscape sustainability, which directly improves human wellbeing. However, previous research has tended to apply risk probability, measured by overlaying landscape metrics to evaluate risk, generally lacking a quantitative assessment of loss and uncertainty of risk. This study, taking Liaoyuan City as a case area, explores landscape ecological risk assessment associated with mining cities, based on probability of risk and potential ecological loss. The assessment results show landscape ecological risk is lower in highly urbanized areas than those rural areas, suggesting that not only cities but also natural and semi-natural areas contribute to overall landscape-scale ecological risk. Our comparison of potential ecological risk in 58 watersheds in the region shows that ecological loss are moderate or high in the 10 high-risk watersheds. The 35 moderate-risk watersheds contain a large proportion of farmland, and the 13 low-risk watersheds are mainly distributed in flat terrain areas. Our uncertainty analyses result in a close range between simulated and calculated values, suggesting that our model is generally applicable. Our analysis has good potential in the fields of resource development, landscape planning and ecological restoration, and provides a quantitative method for achieving landscape sustainability in a mining city.

  20. Ecological responses to contamination: a meta-analysis of experimental marine studies.

    O'Brien, Allyson L; Keough, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Identifying general response patterns to contamination in the environment is critical for reliable assessments of ecosystem health. However, it is not often clear if there are biases in the information used to understand general effects of contamination. To investigate this we conducted a review of 314 studies that experimentally manipulated contaminants and measured the effects on marine invertebrate taxa. The majority of studies investigated the effects of metals (54%) on individual taxa (mainly bivalves, amphipods, copepods). Ecologically relevant responses to contamination were measured in only 22% of the studies. A meta-analysis using studies that measured ecological responses to copper illustrated a general negative effect of copper and highlighted the bias towards field or laboratory experiments that measure community or individual-level responses. There is a need for diversification of studies that investigate the ecological effects of contamination as an important advancement in ecotoxicology and ecological research and environmentally relevant risk assessments. PMID:25247875

  1. HSF-1, HIF-1and HSP90 expression on recombinant Pichia pastoris under fed-batch fermentation

    Andrea B. Zepeda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pichia pastoris is a methylotrophic yeast used as an efficient expression system for heterologous protein production as compared to other expression systems. Considering that every cell must respond to environmental changes to survive and differentiate, determination of endogenous protein related to heat stress responses and hypoxia, it would necessary to establish the temperature and methanol concentration conditions for optimal growth. The aim of this study is characterize the culture conditions through the putative biomarkers in different conditions of temperature and methanol concentration. Three yeast cultures were performed: 3X = 3% methanol -10 °C, 4X = 3% methanol -30 °C, and 5X = 1% methanol -10 °C. The expression level of HIF-1α, HSF-1, HSP-70 and HSP-90 biomarkers were measured by Western blot and in situ detection was performed by immunocytochemistry. The western blot results of HIF-1α and HSP-90 did not indicate statistically significant in the culture conditions studied. Respect to biomarkers location, HIF-1α and HSP-90 presented differences between cultures. In conclusion, the results suggest the cultures in a hypoxic condition produce a high density and yeast cells smaller. Beside the high density would not necessary related with a high production of recombinant proteins in modified-genetically P. pastoris.

  2. Amchitka aquatic ecology studies, third quarter, January through March 1968: Progress report

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of the aquatic ecology study include an assessment of the fish and aquatic invertebrate populations in the streams and in the ponds throughout the...

  3. A holistic approach to studying social-ecological systems and its application to southern Transylvania

    Jan Hanspach; Tibor Hartel; Andra I. Milcu; Friederike Mikulcak; Ine Dorresteijn; Jacqueline Loos; Henrik von Wehrden; Tobias Kuemmerle; David Abson; Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki; András Báldi; Joern Fischer

    2014-01-01

    Global change presents risks and opportunities for social-ecological systems worldwide. Key challenges for sustainability science are to identify plausible future changes in social-ecological systems and find ways to reach socially and environmentally desirable conditions. In this context, regional-scale studies are important, but to date, many such studies have focused on a narrow set of issues or applied a narrow set of tools. Here, we present a holistic approach to work through the complex...

  4. Applications of C and N stable isotopes to ecological and environmental studies in seagrass ecosystems

    Lepoint, Gilles; Dauby, Patrick; Gobert, Sylvie

    2004-01-01

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen are increasingly used in marine ecosystems, for ecological and environmental studies. Here, we examine some applications of stable isotopes as ecological integrators or tracers in seagrass ecosystem studies. We focus on both the use of natural isotope abundance as food web integrators or environmental tracers and on the use of stable isotopes as experimental tools. As ecosystem integrators, stable isotopes have helped to elucidate the general structure o...

  5. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory has completed 10 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site. This progress report examines water quality studies on streams peripheral to the DWPF construction site and examines the effectiveness of ''refuge ponds'' in ameliorating the effects of construction on local amphibians. Individual papers on these topics are indexed separately. 93 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs

  6. Use of residence time models in ecological studies of transuranics

    The paper discusses the applicability of different types of ecological models. An explanation of the various concepts and the basis for residence time models and how they are correlated is presented. Mean residence time and pseudo residence time are terms useful for more complicated systems. The term chromatography defines a conceptual model, but the processes involved are limited to diffusion, dispersion, convection, adsorption and desorption. The most sophisticated type of models are the simulation models. Regression equations are used to calculate the transfer between pools of simulation models. However, simulation models consider processes in great detail and processes are described by appropriate equations. Lack of useful parameter values in the main limitation for applying such models. Their main value is in promoting understanding of radioecological processes and in identifying missing information. (author)

  7. The Effects of Materialism and Consumer Ethics on Ecological Behavior: An Empirical Study

    Hülya Bakırtaş

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available World populations have increased day by day. Thus, production volume of companies have increased depend on increasing population. Besides, fashion and/or technologyinfluence consumer’s goods or services purchasing decision. Consequently, the type and the number of product produced have increased and natural resources both more are being used and depleted. At this point has come to the fore the consumer’s environmental concern and ecological behavior and has gained importance. Studies about environmentalconcern in marketing began depending on living of some problems in the early 1970s. Environmental concern concept assesses in terms of both individual concern and socialconcern. Individual concern states to abuse of the environment of individual consumers while social concern states perceived need for social, political, and legal changes to protect the environment. There is a positive relationship between environmental concern and ecological behavior. This study was examined the relationship between materialism,consumer ethics, environmental concern and ecological consumer behavior. This study was carried out between dates of September and November 2013. To test thehypotheses of the study, regression analysis has been used. Results show that consumer ethics has positive impact on both environmental concern and ecological behaviour ofconsumer. Besides, materialism has negative impact on ecological behaviour.Keywords: Environmental concern, consumer ethics, materialism, ecological behavior.

  8. Assessing Landscape Ecological Risk in a Mining City: A Case Study in Liaoyuan City, China

    Jian Peng; Minli Zong; Yi'na Hu; Yanxu Liu; Jiansheng Wu

    2015-01-01

    Landscape ecological risk assessment can effectively identify key elements for landscape sustainability, which directly improves human wellbeing. However, previous research has tended to apply risk probability, measured by overlaying landscape metrics to evaluate risk, generally lacking a quantitative assessment of loss and uncertainty of risk. This study, taking Liaoyuan City as a case area, explores landscape ecological risk assessment associated with mining cities, based on probability of ...

  9. Ecological Optimization and Parametric Study of an Irreversible Regenerative Modified Brayton Cycle with Isothermal Heat Addition

    Vivek Tiwari; Subhash Chandra Kaushik; Sudhir Kumar Tyagi

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: An ecological optimization along with a detailed parametric study of an irreversible regenerative Brayton heat engine with isothermal heat addition have been carried out with external as well as internal irreversibilities. The ecological function is defined as the power output minus the power loss (irreversibility) which is ambient temperature times the entropy generation rate. The external irreversibility is due to finite temperature difference between the heat engine and the exter...

  10. Spatial variation in lake benthic macroinvertebrate ecological assessment: a synthesis of European case studies

    Sandin, Leif Leonard; Solimini, Angelo G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes eight case studies that were analysed as part of the research theme ``lake benthic macroinvertebrates'' forming part of the EU-funded WISER project ``Water bodies in Europe: Integrative Systems to assess Ecological status and Recovery''. The relationships between lake benthi...... our aim is to provide useful information for designing monitoring programs and invertebrate based ecological classification tools with the ultimate aim to improve a sound management of European lake ecosystems....

  11. Ecological speciation in the tropics: insights from comparative genetic studies in Amazonia.

    Beheregaray, Luciano B; Cooke, Georgina M; Chao, Ning L; Landguth, Erin L

    2014-01-01

    Evolution creates and sustains biodiversity via adaptive changes in ecologically relevant traits. Ecologically mediated selection contributes to genetic divergence both in the presence or absence of geographic isolation between populations, and is considered an important driver of speciation. Indeed, the genetics of ecological speciation is becoming increasingly studied across a variety of taxa and environments. In this paper we review the literature of ecological speciation in the tropics. We report on low research productivity in tropical ecosystems and discuss reasons accounting for the rarity of studies. We argue for research programs that simultaneously address biogeographical and taxonomic questions in the tropics, while effectively assessing relationships between reproductive isolation and ecological divergence. To contribute toward this goal, we propose a new framework for ecological speciation that integrates information from phylogenetics, phylogeography, population genomics, and simulations in evolutionary landscape genetics (ELG). We introduce components of the framework, describe ELG simulations (a largely unexplored approach in ecological speciation), and discuss design and experimental feasibility within the context of tropical research. We then use published genetic datasets from populations of five codistributed Amazonian fish species to assess the performance of the framework in studies of tropical speciation. We suggest that these approaches can assist in distinguishing the relative contribution of natural selection from biogeographic history in the origin of biodiversity, even in complex ecosystems such as Amazonia. We also discuss on how to assess ecological speciation using ELG simulations that include selection. These integrative frameworks have considerable potential to enhance conservation management in biodiversity rich ecosystems and to complement historical biogeographic and evolutionary studies of tropical biotas. PMID:25653668

  12. Affect Regulation and Purging: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study in Purging Disorder

    Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that affect may play an important role in the propensity to purge among women with Purging Disorder (PD). However, prior work has been constrained to cross-sectional or laboratory designs which impact temporal interpretations and ecological validity. This study examined the role of negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) in triggering and maintaining purging in PD using ecological momentary assessment. Women with PD (N=24) made multiple daily ratings of affect and beha...

  13. Toward a Network Perspective of the Study of Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems

    Ryan R. J. McAllister

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Formal models used to study the resilience of social-ecological systems have not explicitly included important structural characteristics of this type of system. In this paper, we propose a network perspective for social-ecological systems that enables us to better focus on the structure of interactions between identifiable components of the system. This network perspective might be useful for developing formal models and comparing case studies of social-ecological systems. Based on an analysis of the case studies in this special issue, we identify three types of social-ecological networks: (1 ecosystems that are connected by people through flows of information or materials, (2 ecosystem networks that are disconnected and fragmented by the actions of people, and (3 artificial ecological networks created by people, such as irrigation systems. Each of these three archytypal social-ecological networks faces different problems that influence its resilience as it responds to the addition or removal of connections that affect its coordination or the diffusion of system attributes such as information or disease.

  14. The transcriptional coactivator PGC1α protects against hyperthermic stress via cooperation with the heat shock factor HSF1.

    Xu, L; Ma, X; Bagattin, A; Mueller, E

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are required for the clearance of damaged and aggregated proteins and have important roles in protein homeostasis. It has been shown that the heat shock transcription factor, HSF1, orchestrates the transcriptional induction of these stress-regulated chaperones; however, the coregulatory factors responsible for the enhancement of HSF1 function on these target genes have not been fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that the cold-inducible coactivator, PGC1α, also known for its role as a regulator of mitochondrial and peroxisomal biogenesis, thermogenesis and cytoprotection from oxidative stress, regulates the expression of HSPs in vitro and in vivo and modulates heat tolerance. Mechanistically, we show that PGC1α physically interacts with HSF1 on HSP promoters and that cells and mice lacking PGC1α have decreased HSPs levels and are more sensitive to thermal challenges. Taken together, our findings suggest that PGC1α protects against hyperthermia by cooperating with HSF1 in the induction of a transcriptional program devoted to the cellular protection from thermal insults. PMID:26890141

  15. The ecology of early farming: A Mogollon case study

    Swanson, Steve

    The Mimbres region of southwest New Mexico is ideal for investigating the coevolutionary relationships among human impact, ecosystem processes, and settlement stability during the development of sedentism and agriculture. A resilience framework guides interpretations of nuanced relations among land use strategies and impacts through an examination of ecosystem processes around Mimbres pithouse sites. Analytical methods include multitemporal analysis of satellite imagery to measure vegetation response to precipitation variability and GIS-based spatial analyses to examine differences in ecosystem response for prehistoric sites and adjacent unoccupied locations in similar ecological settings. Palynological and architectural analyses provide independent means of assessing prehistoric impact and settlement choices (respectively). To evaluate the relative contribution of prehistoric selection and impact on occupation length, models are developed for "choice"---ecosystem characteristics that attracted initial settlement, and "impact"---modification to ecosystems resulting from prehistoric land use. Choices reflecting productivity maximization find support; prehistoric impact played a smaller role. Pollen data suggest even small prehistoric occupations shifted plant communities towards r-strategist taxa, but impacts were not long-lived, and legacy effects of Mimbres land use on modern ecosystem processes may be minor. Some Mimbres settlements had large, long occupations (villages), but most settlements were small and only briefly occupied (farmsteads). Greater architectural investment in early houses at villages than at farmsteads suggests occupation length was planned during initial construction. Satellite data indicate locations for each type of settlement were selected based on the way vegetation responds to precipitation variability. Farmsteads were constructed where pluvial effects last longer, but the effects of drought are more severe. Shorter use of these

  16. Ecological Footprint of Research University Students: A Pilot Case Study in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

    See Tan Ang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological footprint (EF is potential to be applied in universities to assist building management units to coordinate in order to reduce environmental impact and to achieve sustainable resource consumption from its main activities including teaching-learning, research and operations. As many Malaysian universities declare to become sustainability campus, the adoption of ecological footprint in measuring campus sustainability will provide insight and better understanding about the performance of campus sustainability efforts. The main concept of ecological footprint which convert levels of consumption into the amount of land needed, will able to reveal the average student performance and impacts towards the campus. Further, a study is conducted to determine the average ecological footprint level of students in research universities Malaysia considering students formed the majority of the community in a campus. A pilot study has been conducted in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM among students staying in hostel together with staffs from UTM Office of Student Affairs and Alumni (HEMA and UTM Office of Asset and Development (PHB. Then, Redefining Progress (RP ecological footprint online calculator is used in computing the ecological footprint of UTM students.

  17. Ecological risk assessment guidance for preparation of remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    Pentecost, E.D.; Vinikour, W.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial assessment investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfired Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), an RI/FS work plan win have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping the process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites. An overview analysis of early ecological risk assessment methods (i.e., in the 1980s) at Superfund sites was conducted by the EPA (1989a). That review provided a perspective of attention given to ecological issues in some of the first RI/FS studies. By itself, that reference is of somewhat limited value; it does, however, establish a basis for comparison of past practices in ecological risk with current, more refined methods.

  18. Ecological risk assessment guidance for preparation of remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial assessment investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfired Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), an RI/FS work plan win have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping the process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites. An overview analysis of early ecological risk assessment methods (i.e., in the 1980s) at Superfund sites was conducted by the EPA (1989a). That review provided a perspective of attention given to ecological issues in some of the first RI/FS studies. By itself, that reference is of somewhat limited value; it does, however, establish a basis for comparison of past practices in ecological risk with current, more refined methods

  19. Ecological risk caused by land use change in the coastal zone: a case study in the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone

    China's coastal zone plays an important role in ecological services production and social-economic development; however, extensive and intensive land resource utilization and land use change have lead to high ecological risk in this area during last decade. Regional ecological risk assessment can provide fundamental knowledge and scientific basis for better understanding of the relationship between regional landscape ecosystem and human activities or climate changes, facilitating the optimization strategy of land use structure and improving the ecological risk prevention capability. In this paper, the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone is selected as the study site, which is undergoing a new round of coastal zone exploitation and has endured substantial land use change in the past decade. Land use maps of 2000, 2005 and 2010 were generated based on Landsat images by visual interpretation method, and the ecological risk index was then calculated. The index was 0.3314, 0.3461 and 0.3176 in 2000, 2005 and 2010 respectively, which showed a positive transition of regional ecological risk in 2005

  20. Investigating Cooperative Behavior in Ecological Settings: An EEG Hyperscanning Study

    Petti, Manuela; He, Eric J.; De Giusti, Vittorio; He, Bin; Astolfi, Laura; Babiloni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated interactions between individuals are fundamental for the success of the activities in some professional categories. We reported on brain-to-brain cooperative interactions between civil pilots during a simulated flight. We demonstrated for the first time how the combination of neuroelectrical hyperscanning and intersubject connectivity could provide indicators sensitive to the humans’ degree of synchronization under a highly demanding task performed in an ecological environment. Our results showed how intersubject connectivity was able to i) characterize the degree of cooperation between pilots in different phases of the flight, and ii) to highlight the role of specific brain macro areas in cooperative behavior. During the most cooperative flight phases pilots showed, in fact, dense patterns of interbrain connectivity, mainly linking frontal and parietal brain areas. On the contrary, the amount of interbrain connections went close to zero in the non-cooperative phase. The reliability of the interbrain connectivity patterns was verified by means of a baseline condition represented by formal couples, i.e. pilots paired offline for the connectivity analysis but not simultaneously recorded during the flight. Interbrain density was, in fact, significantly higher in real couples with respect to formal couples in the cooperative flight phases. All the achieved results demonstrated how the description of brain networks at the basis of cooperation could effectively benefit from a hyperscanning approach. Interbrain connectivity was, in fact, more informative in the investigation of cooperative behavior with respect to established EEG signal processing methodologies applied at a single subject level. PMID:27124558

  1. Case study of ecological risk assessment at an Alaska airport

    An ecological risk assessment was conducted for 10 sites at a remote location that has unique biological resources. Chemicals of concern included petroleum, metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, and dioxins and furans. Risks to 23 species of mammals and birds were evaluated by using toxicity reference values and a hazard quotient approach analogous to the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) approach for evaluating noncarcinogenic human health effects. Risks to fish and aquatic invertebrates were evaluated using risk-based concentrations for water analogous to the USEPA's water quality criteria. Risks to plants were evaluated using risk-based concentrations for soil. Toxicity reference values and risk-based concentrations were developed by applying uncertainty factors to the highest quality toxicity data available in the literature. Intake rates for wildlife were obtained from the USEPA's wildlife exposure factors handbook, or were estimated using allometric equations. The sizes of wildlife home ranges were compared with the size of each site to determine species- and site-specific exposure frequencies. Indicator chemicals were selected to represent the chemical and toxicological characteristics of petroleum fractions. The species most often at risk were found to be fish and aquatic invertebrates, as well as small-bodied, ground-dwelling or ground-feeding wildlife

  2. Ecological study of the effects of nuclear power plants on benthic macroplant microcosms in subtropical and tropical estuaries. Annual progress report, 1974--1975

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: the dynamic ecology of Thalassia and studies of the Thalassia community; basic ecology of Thalassia growth and reproduction; red macroalgal ecology; green macroalgal ecology; transplantation of Thalassia; succession in a previously damaged Thalassia community at Turkey Point; and thermal ecology of the Thalassia community of Card Sound and Turkey Point. (U.S.)

  3. RhoA Activation Sensitizes Cells to Proteotoxic Stimuli by Abrogating the HSF1-Dependent Heat Shock Response.

    Roelien A M Meijering

    Full Text Available The heat shock response (HSR is an ancient and highly conserved program of stress-induced gene expression, aimed at reestablishing protein homeostasis to preserve cellular fitness. Cells that fail to activate or maintain this protective response are hypersensitive to proteotoxic stress. The HSR is mediated by the heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1, which binds to conserved heat shock elements (HSE in the promoter region of heat shock genes, resulting in the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP. Recently, we observed that hyperactivation of RhoA conditions cardiomyocytes for the cardiac arrhythmia atrial fibrillation. Also, the HSR is annihilated in atrial fibrillation, and induction of HSR mitigates sensitization of cells to this disease. Therefore, we hypothesized active RhoA to suppress the HSR resulting in sensitization of cells for proteotoxic stimuli.Stimulation of RhoA activity significantly suppressed the proteotoxic stress-induced HSR in HL-1 atrial cardiomyocytes as determined with a luciferase reporter construct driven by the HSF1 regulated human HSP70 (HSPA1A promoter and HSP protein expression by Western Blot analysis. Inversely, RhoA inhibition boosted the proteotoxic stress-induced HSR. While active RhoA did not preclude HSF1 nuclear accumulation, phosphorylation, acetylation, or sumoylation, it did impair binding of HSF1 to the hsp genes promoter element HSE. Impaired binding results in suppression of HSP expression and sensitized cells to proteotoxic stress.These results reveal that active RhoA negatively regulates the HSR via attenuation of the HSF1-HSE binding and thus may play a role in sensitizing cells to proteotoxic stimuli.

  4. 苯并[a]芘对内皮细胞HSF1与HSE结合特性分析

    徐增光; 文冠华; 杨晓波; 杨进波; 邬堂春

    2005-01-01

    目的研究苯并[a]芘(BaP)作用下热休克转录因子1(HSF1)与热休克元件(HSE)结合特性,分析BaP对热应激蛋白70(HSP70)的表达的影响。方法取对数生长期的猪主动脉内皮细胞传代培养,分别以不同浓度的BaP染毒(0、0.1、0.5、1、5、10μmol/L)24h,提取细胞核蛋白,用凝胶阻滞电泳实验(EMSA)检测结合率。结果低(0.1μM)、中剂量(0.5,1μM)BaP可使HSF1-HSE结合率上升,高剂量(5,10μM)BaP使HSF1-HSE结合率明显降低。结论BaP可改变细胞HSF1-HSE结合能力,低、中剂量的BaP使HSF1-HSE结合率升高,提示可促进HSP70表达,高浓度BaP可抑制HSP70的表达。

  5. Ecological optimization and performance study of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat engines

    The concept of finite time thermodynamics is used to determine the ecological function of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat engine cycles. The ecological function is defined as the power output minus power loss (irreversibility), which is the ambient temperature times, the entropy generation rate. The ecological function is maximized with respect to cycle temperature ratio and the expressions for the corresponding power output and thermal efficiency are derived at the optimal operating conditions. The effect of different operating parameters, the effectiveness on the hot, cold and the regenerative side heat exchangers, the cycle temperature ratio, heat capacitance ratio and the internal irreversibility parameter on the maximum ecological function are studied. It is found that the effect of regenerator effectiveness is more than the hot and cold side heat exchangers and the effect of the effectiveness on cold side heat exchanger is more than the effectiveness on the hot side heat exchanger on the maximum ecological function. It is also found that the effect of internal irreversibility parameter is more than the other parameters not only on the maximum ecological function but also on the corresponding power output and the thermal efficiency

  6. Ecological Compensation Mechanism of Agricultural Water Resources: An Empirical Study in Zhejiang, China

    Qichang Hu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological compensation is a new area in the field of resources environment. In this study, we set an empirical analysis model about ecological compensation mechanism and analyze influential factors based on agricultural perspective. The result shows that: first, loss of development opportunities is the most important factor that will affect ecological compensation, the regression coefficient is 0.071; sec, environmental protection cost is the most significant variable in ecological compensation, the sig value is 0.007 and the regression coefficient is positive; third, public awareness has high coefficient value as 0.048, means that public awareness plays a positive effect. Overall, the regression model of the empirical results with the above assumptions, under the 10% significant level, the loss of development opportunities; environmental protection cost; the compensation standard; public awareness of the value of ecological environment variable are significantly variables that affecting ecological compensation and the effects of other variables are not obvious. On this basis, we put forward relevant suggestions.

  7. EVOLVEMENT AND CONTROL OF VULNERABLE ECOLOGICAL REGION--A Case Study in Ongniud Banner and Aohan Banner, Inner Mongolia

    RAN Sheng-hong; JIN Jian-jun

    2004-01-01

    The evolvement of a vulnerable ecological region is a dynamic process, which is affected by various factors. During the evolvement process, human activities have a decisive effect. The purpose of studying vulnerable ecological region is to control human economic activities and to develop a negative feedback modulation mechanism.This paper established a model of vulnerable ecological region's evolvement by considering four synthetic variables.These synthetic variables are ecological carrying capacity, ecological resilience, economic development intensity, and economic development velocity. Finally, Ongniud Banner and Aohan Banner in North China were taken as study cases to simulate the evolvement processes of vulnerable ecological regions under different conditions of economic development. The results show that human activities have an important influence on the evolvement trend of vulnerable ecological region.

  8. Future ecological studies of Brazilian headwater streams under global-changes

    Marcos Callisto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper results from discussions triggered during the "Stream Ecology Symposium" that took place at the XIII Congress of the Brazilian Society of Limnology in September of 2011 in Natal, Brazil. Based on our experiences, we have raised several questions regarding ecological studies of headwater streams facing threats under global-changes and proposed numerous subjects to be addressed in future studies in Brazil. These studies deal with the necessity of knowing species biology and the elaboration of models to assess changes (which implies the availability of time-series or large-scale data sets; the ecology of riparian zones and the interchange of materials and energy across the land-water boundaries; forest conversions and standardized sampling strategies and data treatment to assess global change.

  9. Ecological forecasting under climatic data uncertainty: a case study in phenological modeling

    Forecasting ecological responses to climate change represents a challenge to the ecological community because models are often site-specific and climate data are lacking at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. We use a case study approach to demonstrate uncertainties in ecological predictions related to the driving climatic input data. We use observational records, derived observational datasets (e.g. interpolated observations from local weather stations and gridded data products) and output from general circulation models (GCM) in conjunction with site based phenology models to estimate the first flowering date (FFD) for three woody flowering species. Using derived observations over the modern time period, we find that cold biases and temperature trends lead to biased FFD simulations for all three species. Observational datasets resolved at the daily time step result in better FFD predictions compared to simulations using monthly resolution. Simulations using output from an ensemble of GCM and regional climate models over modern and future time periods have large intra-ensemble spreads and tend to underestimate observed FFD trends for the modern period. These results indicate that certain forcing datasets may be missing key features needed to generate accurate hindcasts at the local scale (e.g. trends, temporal resolution), and that standard modeling techniques (e.g. downscaling, ensemble mean, etc) may not necessarily improve the prediction of the ecological response. Studies attempting to simulate local ecological processes under modern and future climate forcing therefore need to quantify and propagate the climate data uncertainties in their simulations.

  10. Theories of practice - new inspiration for ecological economic studies on consumption

    Røpke, Inge

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics behind ever-increasing consumption have long been a core issue of ecological economics. Studies on this topic have traditionally drawn not only on insights from economics, but also from such disciplines as sociology, anthropology and psychology. In recent years, a practice theory app...... consumption, and the need for collective efforts supported by research into the co-evolution of domestic practices, systems of provision, supply chains and production....... relation to studies of everyday life, domestic practices and consumption, and to argue that this approach can be fruitful for ecological economics and other fields interested in the environmental aspects of consumption. The paper emphasizes the immense challenge involved in promoting sustainable...

  11. Estimating survival rates in ecological studies with small unbalanced sample sizes: an alternative Bayesian point estimator

    Christian Damgaard

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, the survival rates in experimental ecology are presented using odds ratios or log response ratios, but the use of ratio metrics has a problem when all the individuals have either died or survived in only one replicate. In the empirical ecological literature, the problem often has been ignored or circumvented by different, more or less ad hoc approaches. Here, it is argued that the best summary statistic for communicating ecological results of frequency data in studies with small unbalanced samples may be the mean of the posterior distribution of the survival rate. The developed approach may be particularly useful when effect size indexes, such as odds ratios, are needed to compare frequency data between treatments, sites or studies.

  12. Studying stress responses in the post-genomic era: its ecological and evolutionary role

    Jesper G Sørensen; Volker Loeschcke

    2007-04-01

    Most investigations on the effects of and responses to stress exposures have been performed on a limited number of model organisms in the laboratory. Here much progress has been made in terms of identifying and describing beneficial and detrimental effects of stress, responses to stress and the mechanisms behind stress tolerance. However, to gain further understanding of which genes are involved in stress resistance and how the responses are regulated from an ecological and evolutionary perspective there is a need to combine studies on multiple levels of biological organization from DNA to phenotypes. Furthermore, we emphasize the importance of studying ecologically relevant traits and natural or semi-natural conditions to verify whether the results obtained are representative of the ecological and evolutionary processes in the field. Here, we will review what we currently know about thermal adaptation and the role of different stress responses to thermal challenges in insects, particularly Drosophila. Furthermore, we address some key questions that require future attention.

  13. Influence of HSF1 Gene Knockout on Mouse Growth and Reproduction%热休克因子1基因剔除对小鼠生长繁殖的影响

    陈广文; 刘喜玲; 刘可

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察HSF1基因剔除对小鼠生长、繁殖的影响.方法 用HSF1基因剔除纯合子、杂合子和野生型小鼠建立交配对,HSF1基因正常繁殖组(简称HSF1正常组)30对、HSF1基因缺陷繁殖组(简称HSF1缺陷组)72对.观察母鼠产仔数、生产胎数、每胎产仔数、成年鼠体重.结果 HSF1缺陷组母鼠平均产仔数(13.00±11.50)较少,与HSF1正常组(26.46±16.02)比较差异有显著性(P0.05).HSF1缺陷组成年小鼠平均体重(20.53±4.62)较轻,与HSF1正常组(23.06±3.39)比较差异有显著性(P<0.01).结论 HSF1基因剔除小鼠被广泛应用于研究HSF1功能,但HSF1基因剔除对生殖、生长和健康状态的影响不容忽视.

  14. Ecological studies of small vertebrates in Pu-contaminated study areas of NTS and TTR

    Ecological studies of vertebrates in plutonium-contaminated areas of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were initiated in March 1972, and have continued to date. In September 1973, standard census methods were also employed to derive a qualitative and quantitative inventory of vertebrate biota of four Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) study areas of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). A checklist of vertebrates of NAEG study areas of NTS and TTR is presented. Data are presented on vertebrate composition, relative abundance, and seasonal status in the study areas. Concentrations of 239Pu and 241Am were determined in pelt or skin, GI tract, and carcass of 13 lizards and 16 mammals resident on Clean Slate 2, TTR, and Area 11, NTS. A total of 71 animals were collected for radioanalysis. However, the data were not available at the time this report was written. Pu tissue burdens were highest in lizards from Area 11 GZ. Maximum values obtained in nCi/g ash were 30.9, 42.2, and 0.43 for the pelt, GI tract, and carcass, respectively. Maximum 239Pu values in tissues of small rodents from Area 11 (not from GZ) were 11.4, 6.49, and 0.20 nCi/g ash for pelt, GI tract, and carcass, respectively. Pu/Am ratios were relatively consistent in tissue samples of lizards and small mammals from Area 11 (approximately 6:1, Pu/Am). Pu/Am ratios were not consistent in vertebrates of Clean Slate 2, TTR, and appeared to be lower in carcass (28:1, Pu/Am in mammals) than GI tract (9:1, Pu/Am in mammals). Although this trend was more conspicuous in mammals, it was also evident in reptiles. (auth)

  15. Air pollution and case fatality of SARS in the People's Republic of China: an ecologic study

    Yu Shun-Zhang

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS has claimed 349 lives with 5,327 probable cases reported in mainland China since November 2002. SARS case fatality has varied across geographical areas, which might be partially explained by air pollution level. Methods Publicly accessible data on SARS morbidity and mortality were utilized in the data analysis. Air pollution was evaluated by air pollution index (API derived from the concentrations of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and ground-level ozone. Ecologic analysis was conducted to explore the association and correlation between air pollution and SARS case fatality via model fitting. Partially ecologic studies were performed to assess the effects of long-term and short-term exposures on the risk of dying from SARS. Results Ecologic analysis conducted among 5 regions with 100 or more SARS cases showed that case fatality rate increased with the increment of API (case fatality = - 0.063 + 0.001 * API. Partially ecologic study based on short-term exposure demonstrated that SARS patients from regions with moderate APIs had an 84% increased risk of dying from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs (RR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.41–2.40. Similarly, SARS patients from regions with high APIs were twice as likely to die from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs. (RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.31–3.65. Partially ecologic analysis based on long-term exposure to ambient air pollution showed the similar association. Conclusion Our studies demonstrated a positive association between air pollution and SARS case fatality in Chinese population by utilizing publicly accessible data on SARS statistics and air pollution indices. Although ecologic fallacy and uncontrolled confounding effect might have biased the results, the possibility of a detrimental effect of air pollution on the prognosis of SARS patients deserves further investigation.

  16. A holistic approach to studying social-ecological systems and its application to southern Transylvania

    Jan Hanspach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Global change presents risks and opportunities for social-ecological systems worldwide. Key challenges for sustainability science are to identify plausible future changes in social-ecological systems and find ways to reach socially and environmentally desirable conditions. In this context, regional-scale studies are important, but to date, many such studies have focused on a narrow set of issues or applied a narrow set of tools. Here, we present a holistic approach to work through the complexity posed by cross-scale interactions, spatial heterogeneity, and multiple uncertainties facing regional social-ecological systems. Our approach is spatially explicit and involves assessments of social conditions and natural capital bundles, social-ecological system dynamics, and current development trends. The resulting understanding is used in combination with scenario planning to map how current development trends might be amplified or dampened in the future. We illustrate this approach via a detailed case study in southern Transylvania, Romania, one of Europe's most significant biocultural refugia. Our goal was to understand current social-ecological dynamics and assess risks and opportunities for sustainable development. Our findings show that historical events have strongly shaped current conditions and current development trends in southern Transylvania. Moreover, although external drivers (including EU policies set the general direction of regional development trajectories, local factors, including education, leadership, and the presence of bridging organizations, can enhance or counteract their effects. Our holistic approach was useful for generating an in-depth understanding of a regional social-ecological system and could be transferred to other parts of the world.

  17. ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF RESTORATED TRADITIONAL SETTLEMENTS: A CASE STUDY IN KALEİÇİ (ANTALYA

    Hacer MUTLU DANACI

    2011-12-01

    show that historical urban fabric of the city is faced with the danger of losing its ecological feature.In this study, Antalya-Kaleiçi historical urban settlement which was built in the context of the ecological design criteria and which has conventional houses that achieved to reach our day has been discussed. When houses with historical fabric which are experiencing a function shift to ensure sustainability in today's conditions are analyzed in terms of ecological design criteria, we will mention the sustainability of the criteria obtained in terms of availability and the problems faced with the restoration.

  18. Incorporating ecological risk assessment into remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), and RI/FS work plan will have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites

  19. Study on Ecological Remediation for Water and Soil Conservation of a Small Watershed

    Chunjuan; ZHANG; Xueying; HE

    2013-01-01

    Taking the waterhead area of the middle line project for diverting water from the south to the north,Hanjiang watershed in Shiquan, as an example,ecological remediation of the small watershed was studied from aspects of necessity,practicability,plans and aims. The ecological restoration for soil and water conservation in Hanjiang River basin can not only control soil erosion and effectively protect water resources to provide clean water for people living in the lower reaches of Hanjiang mainstream,but also increase farmers’ income and protect environment, which is both typical and exemplary.

  20. Ecological shortage

    The Meadows study (Limits to Growth) has made the environmental problem popular, but it has reduced the ecological problem to one of population and raw materials, leaving the conditions of social organisation and developmental policy out of consideration. This means that in spite of the repeated moral appeals, developing countries are left to their natural fate while fear and resignation are spread in the industrial nations. The present study tries to contradict this trend in consideration of interdependences in ecological development. (orig.)

  1. HSF1抑制热应激所致RAW264.7巨噬细胞凋亡%HSF1 inhibits heat stress-induced apoptosis in Raw264.7 macrophages

    鄂顺梅; 肖卫民; 王慷慨; 王秋鹏; 刘梅冬; 刘可; 肖献忠

    2006-01-01

    目的:探讨热休克因子1(heat shock factor 1, HSF1)对热应激所致Raw264.7巨噬细胞凋亡的影响.方法:采用热应激(42.5 ℃±0.5 ℃)处理稳定表达小鼠HSF1基因的Raw264.7巨噬细胞1 h,37 ℃分别恢复6,9,12,24 h,采用流式细胞术,hoechst33258染色和DNA琼脂糖凝胶电泳检测细胞凋亡.结果:流式细胞术结果显示,热应激后对照组(转空载体)细胞凋亡核百分率较热应激前明显升高,9 h达峰值(约为60%),此时荧光染色可见30%的细胞出现核固缩,凋亡小体等典型的凋亡形态学改变;并于热应激后6,9,12 h均能检测到清晰的DNA梯状条带.与转空载体对照组相比,HSF1过表达能显著降低热应激所致凋亡及明显抑制DNA的断裂.结论:HSF1可以抑制热应激所致的Raw264.7巨噬细胞凋亡.

  2. AtHsfA2 modulates expression of stress responsive genes and enhances tolerance to heat and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis

    LI Chunguang; CHEN Qijun; GAO Xinqi; QI Bishu; CHEN Naizhi; XU Shouming; CHEN Jia; WANG Xuechen

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for considerable interlinking between the responses to heat stress and oxidative stress, and recent researches suggest heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) play an important role in linking heat shock with oxidative stress signals. In this paper, we present evidence that AtHsfA2 modulated expression of stress responsive genes and enhanced tolerance to heat and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis. Using Northern blot and quantitative RT-PCR analysis, we demonstrated that the expression of AtHsfA2 was induced by not only HS but also oxidative stress. By functional analysis of AtHsfA2 knockout mutants and AtHsfA2 overexpressing transgenic plants, we also demonstrated that the mutants displayed reduced the basal and acquired thermotolerance as well as oxidative stress tolerance but the overexpression lines displayed increased tolerance to these stress. The phenotypes correlated with the expression of some Hsps and APX1, ion leakage, H2O2 level and degree of oxidative injuries. These results showed that, by modulated expression of stress responsive genes, AtHsfA2 enhanced tolerance to heat and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis. So we suggest that AtHsfA2 plays an important role in linking heat shock with oxidative stress signals.

  3. Studies on some ecological aspects of Balanus amphitrite (Cirripedia: Thoracica)

    Desai, D.V.

    The year round breeding capability of Balanus amphitrite indicates a potential for continuous recruitment. The recruitment pattern however indicated a lull during monsoon. The study site experiences increased land run off lowering the salinity...

  4. Chironomids (Diptera, Nematocera) of Temporary Pools - an Ecological Case Study

    Dettinger-Klemm, Paul-Martin Andreas

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to determine how Chironomidae cope with the environmental changes to which temporary pools are exposed. Are the species specifically adapted to the habitat or opportunistic? The problem was approached by: (a) an emergence study done in the Lahnberge mountain range (Marburg, Hesse, Germany) on three pools that were subjected to different lengths of drought (two of which were really temporary an...

  5. Road ecology and Neotropical amphibians: contributions for future studies

    Paula Eveline Ribeiro D'Anunciação

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many species of amphibians have suffered serious population declines. Several factors contribute separately or jointly to these declines. However, the reduction of an available habitat due to human expansion is still the main cause, and roads are a major mean for this expansion. Both the construction phase and the subsequent use of roads have negative consequences for amphibians. We reviewed the literature on the subject within the Neotropical context. To this end, the paper begins with a summary of recent reviews and proceeds through an analysis of sampling methods used in roadkill studies, mitigation measures and the Neotropical scenario and concludes with several suggestions to guide future studies. More attention will be given to roadkills, which is one of the primary impacts on wildlife that is caused by roads. Even in the Neotropical zone most studies are foot-based, the richness and abundance of amphibians affected are higher in regions outside the Neotropics. One possible explanation is that in the other regions, the proportion of studies exclusively on amphibians is bigger. Regarding mitigation measures, most studies only indicates what should be used, but do not implement or evaluate their effectiveness.

  6. Mood disorders in everyday life : A systematic review of experience sampling and ecological momentary assessment studies

    Aan het Rot, M.; Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, the study of mood disorder patients using experience sampling methods (ESM) and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has yielded important findings. In patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), the dynamics of their everyday mood have been associated with various aspec

  7. College of Science graduate student awarded National Institutes of Health fellowship to study disease ecology

    Doss, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Camille Harris of Ridgeland, Miss., a graduate student in biological sciences, has been awarded a prestigious National Institutes of Health (NIH) Graduate Research Fellowship for her study of forest disturbance and its ecological impacts on LaCrosse Virus, a mosquito-borne disease that can cause seizures, coma, paralysis, and permanent brain damage in severe cases.

  8. Ecological bases for the forestry of the natural forest, Case study of the Catival (Prioretum copaiferae)

    A first development is presented for Colombia of the ecological bases for the forestry by means of the case study of the Catival consortium (prioretum copaiferae); recapturing the results of the investigations carried out for more of 16 years for the National Corporation of Investigation and Forestall Development-CONIF and the company Pizano adding the achievements of other investigations

  9. The socio-ecological impacts of small dams: A case study of Mushandike Sanctuary, Zimbabwe

    Gwazani, R.; Gandiwa, E.; Gandiwa, P.; Mhaka, V.; Hungwe, T.; Muza, M.

    2012-01-01

    Demand and supply of water over space and time is being influenced by changes in land use, population growth, industrial development and construction of dams. In this study, we focus on Mushandike dam located in Mushandike Sanctuary, Zimbabwe, and evaluate the socio-ecological impacts associated wit

  10. Revitalizing Traditional Ecological Knowledge: A Study in an Alpine Rural Community

    Ianni, Elena; Geneletti, Davide; Ciolli, Marco

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to contribute to the debate on the value and the role of ecological knowledge in modern conservation strategies, with reference to the results of a case study conducted in the community of Montagne, located within a World Heritage site in the Italian Alps. This community is a paradigmatic example of the multiple transformations experienced by cultural landscapes in Alpine areas under the influence of global change. This study seeks to understand whether ecological knowledge is still in place in the community, and what the relationship is between the knowledge transmission and land use and social changes that have occurred in recent decades. To that end, the community is described by identifying the key variables (social, institutional, and ecological) that have historically shaped the landscape and the future priorities of the residents. Forest expansion, the most significant change in land use in the last 60 years, is analyzed using aerial photos; changes in biodiversity-related knowledge in the community are quantified by analyzing the inter-generational differences in plant species recognition. Results are discussed in the context of the current situation of the Montagne community, and the recommendation is made that policies and actions to promote traditional ecological knowledge protection or recovery in Europe be viewed as an important part of the recovery of community sovereignty and vitality. Lastly, concrete actions that can be implemented in our case study are proposed.

  11. Daily Emotional Dynamics in Depressed Youth: A Cell Phone Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    Silk, Jennifer S.; Forbes, Erika E.; Whalen, Diana J.; Jakubcak, Jennifer L.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Ryan, Neal D.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    This study used a new cell phone ecological momentary assessment approach to investigate daily emotional dynamics in 47 youths with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 32 no-psychopathology controls (CON) (ages 7-17 years). Information about emotional experience in the natural environment was obtained using answer-only cell phones, while MDD…

  12. An Ecological Study of Gray Goose Marsh, Alviso California

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The area of our study is located in the heart of the 300m wide strip of land just north of Triangle Marsh, known as Gray Goose Marsh. This land used to be part of...

  13. Sex specific effects of heat induced hormesis in Hsf-deficient Drosophila melanogaster

    Sørensen, J G; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Kristensen, K V;

    2007-01-01

    In insects mild heat stress early in life has been reported to increase life span and heat resistance later in life, a phenomenon termed hormesis. Here, we test if the induction of the heat shock response by mild heat stress is mediating hormesis in longevity and heat resistance at older age. To...... test this hypothesis we used two heat shock transcription factor (Hsf) mutant stocks. One stock harbours a mutation giving rise to a heat sensitive Hsf which inactivates the heat shock response at high temperature and the other is a rescued mutant giving rise to a wild-type phenotype. We measured...... longevity, heat resistance and expression level of a heat shock protein, Hsp70, in controls and mildly heat treated flies. We found a marked difference between males and females with males showing a beneficial effect of the early heat treatment on longevity and heat resistance later in life in the rescued...

  14. Ecological study of some parasitic helminths of aquatic organisms

    Geets, A.; P. Van Damme; Hamerlynck, O.

    1988-01-01

    Except for Monogenea, most other helminth parasites (Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda and Acanthocephala) of aquatic organisms have a rather complex life cycle, which includes one or more intermediate hosts. Studies have been carried out on the elucidation of helminth life cycles and on parasite-host relationships. Knowledge of the feeding behaviour of the host is a very useful starting-point for elucidation of the life cycles of its' parasites. Asymphylodora demeli, a trematode of two sympatric go...

  15. Project CHOICE: #100. A Career Unit for Grades 3 and 4. Ecology Workers. (Agriculture and Ecological Studies Occupations Career Cluster).

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    This teaching unit, Ecology Workers, is one in a series of career guides developed by Project CHOICE (Children Have Options in Career Education) to provide the classroom teacher with a source of career-related activities linking third and fourth grade elementary classroom experiences with the world of work. Part of the Agriculture and Ecological…

  16. The ecological footprint method on a farm level – a case study on a UK organic farm with parallel cropping

    Schmutz, Dr Ulrich; Firth, Chris; Lewis, Kevin; Lillywhite, Mr Robert

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the farming community to understand and improve their ecological footprint and reduce CO2-carbon emissions. This case study compares the ecological footprint of organic and conventional cabbage, celeriac, sugar beet and winter wheat crops on a UK commercial, parallel cropping, farm. Results show lower ecological footprints and energy ratios in all organic crops. However, CO2-emissions per unit yield are only lower if the fertility building is not considered. In...

  17. The importance of neighborhood ecological assets in community dwelling old people aging outcomes: A study in Northern Portugal

    Bastos, Alice M.; Faria, Carla G.; Moreira, Emília; Morais, Diana; Melo-de-Carvalho, José M.; Paul, M. Constança

    2015-01-01

    Human development is a bidirectional, person-context relational process, but scarce evidence is available about the relation between the individual variability across the life-span and the neighborhood ecological assets. Therefore, it is important that research focus not only on personal characteristics but on ecological assets as well. This way this study aims to analyze the association between neighborhood ecological assets categorized into four dimensions: human, physical or institutional,...

  18. The importance of neighborhood ecological assets in community dwelling old people aging outcomes: A study in Northern Portugal

    Carla Gomes Faria; M. Constança Paúl

    2015-01-01

    Human development is a bidirectional, person-context relational process, but scarce evidence is available about the relation between the individual variability across the life-span and the neighborhood ecological assets. Therefore, it is important that research focus not only on personal characteristics but on ecological assets as well. This way this study aims to analyze the association between neighborhood ecological assets categorized into 4 dimensions: human, physical or institutional, so...

  19. Ecological study on mangrove forest in East Coast of North Sumatra

    ONRIZAL; CECEP KUSMANA

    2008-01-01

    Ecological studies on mangrove forest in East Coast of North Sumatra have been carried out with field work in transect method and laboratory analyses. This study would be covered on floristic composition, abrasion, green belt, soil properties, and water quality of mangroves. Land system map and landsat TM imagery (year 1996 coverage) as main material in this study were used and overlay to determine training area. Based on vegetation inventory found that 20 mangrove species and by vegetation a...

  20. Ecological studies in the middle reach of Chesapeake Bay

    Passage of estuarine water and phytoplankton through the cooling system of the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plant in the summer months of 1977-1981 resulted in frequent reductions of phytoplankton densities particularly during periods when flagellated taxa dominated total cell numbers. Entrainment-induced reductions in chlorophyll were observed on only four occasions, however. Phytoplankton productivity as oxygen evolution or 14C-uptake was even more susceptible to the effects of passing through the cooling system. Inhibition of productivitiy was observed during periods dominated by flagellated cells and generally occurred with ambient water temperature ≥ 250C. Results from track autoradiography employed in 1981 indicated that carbon fixation in the commonly observed flagellate Cryptomonas acuta was significantly depressed during July, August and September. In contrast, the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum and the diatoms Cyclotella caspia and Thalassionema nitzschioides were not affected by entrainment. Although entrainment affects Cryptomonas and flagellate-dominated assemblages in the summer there are no detectable effects of power plant operations on cell densities or productivity in flagellate-dominated waters in the vicinity of the power plant. Transitory exposure of estuarine zooplankton to the elevated temperatures of CCNPP entrainment and discharge plumes was generally non-lethal. In the species selected for study the survival rate after entrainment was 65 to 100%. The effects of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen levels upon entrained organisms were also analyzed. (orig.)

  1. Social determinants of tuberculosis in Europe: a prospective ecological study.

    Ploubidis, George B; Palmer, Melissa J; Blackmore, Charlotte; Lim, Tek-Ang; Manissero, Davide; Sandgren, Andreas; Semenza, Jan C

    2012-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is considered to be a disease of poverty, since its incidence is exacerbated by socioeconomic factors, inconsistent or partial treatment practices, and immigration from endemic countries. A prospective country level study, using a comprehensive dataset of TB incidence and prevalence taken from countries within the World Health Organization (WHO) European region, was conducted. We employed quintile regression to investigate the prospective association between baseline (measured in 2000) and a nation's wealth, level of egalitarianism, migration rate, health-related lifestyle and social capital with TB incidence and prevalence over a 10-yr period (2000-2009). We found that ∼50% of TB variation is accounted for by a nation's wealth and level of egalitarianism. We observed a negative prospective association between logged gross domestic product and TB rates, and a positive prospective association between income inequality and TB. National income levels per capita and income inequality are important predictors for TB incidence and prevalence in the WHO European region. They account for 50% of country-level variation, indicating the importance of a combined absolute and relative socioeconomic disadvantage in the development of TB. These findings also provide a tool for forecasting potential fluctuations in the level of TB epidemics in the WHO European region, with respect to socioeconomic changes. PMID:22267772

  2. The genus Crataegus L.: an ecological and molecular study.

    MirAli, N; Al-Odat, M; Haider, N; Nabulsi, I

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the indentification of the species and genotypes of the genus Crataegus in Syria and determination of the genetic relationships among them based on the analysis of genomic and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) using ISSRs and CAPS techniques. Morphological characterization carried out on 49 Crataegus samples collected from different geographical regions of Syria revealed four Crataegus species: C. monogyna, C. sinaica, C. aronia and C. azarolus. In the dendrogram constructed for those samples based on ISSRs (20 primers), all samples that belong to C. monogyna were clustered in one cluster. Samples of the other three species were overlaped in another cluster. Two samples of these were the most distant from all other samples in the dendrogram and were suggested to represent hybrid species or subspecies. When CAPS technique was applied on four Crataegus samples that represent the four suggested species using 22 cpDNA regions and 90 endonucleases, no polymorphism was detected neither in amplification products sizes nor in restriction profiles. The inability of detection of variation in cpDNA among species suggested can be attributed to the low level of evolution of the cpDNA in the genus, and to the possibility that some of these species are either subspecies or hybrids since the cpDNA is inherited through one parent only. PMID:21443158

  3. The Analysis of Social Ecology and Physical Development Process of Cities (Towns Case Study: Alvand City

    Heshmati Ahmad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims the analysis of immigration influence on Alvand city resident's economical and living situation and its subsequent effects on Alvand city's social structure and its ecology and even its adjacency to industrial Alborz city. This analysis focuses on Alvand city's physical development using the software techniques such as GIS and using population data resulted from immigration which effects its physical development. We have increasingly witnessed the job-looking based immigrations since 1966 to 2006 which appeared differently in social, physical and spatial structure. This alternation and newly different situation has been seen apparently. The president's economic situation and immigration issue which considered as the most essential factor resulting in the ecology movements concerning Alvand city's circumstances. Such a factor could be seen in cultural varieties in Alvand city. This study also analyzes the ecological factors such as the immigration, economical situation, ecological movements and its influence on physical development using the descriptive and correlational methods to prove whether there is a logical relation among varieties providing that this statement is confirmed, this relation will be able to describe and explain the correlations in the different forms. The results show that immigration has influenced the spatial distribution of social groups and physical development of Alvand city.

  4. Comprehensive Evaluation of Urban Sprawl on Ecological Environment Using Multi-Source Data: a Case Study of Beijing

    Wang, Hao; Ning, Xiaogang; Zhu, Weiwei; Li, Fei

    2016-06-01

    With urban population growing and urban sprawling, urban ecological environment problems appear. Study on spatiotemporal characteristics of urban sprawl and its impact on ecological environment is useful for ecological civilization construction. Although a lot of work has been conducted on urban sprawl and its impact on ecological environment, resolution of images to extract urban boundary was relatively coarse and most studies only focused on certain indicators of ecological environment, rather than comprehensive evaluation of urban ecological environmental impact. In this study, high-resolution remote sensing images of Beijing from aerial photography in 2002 and 2013 respectively are employed to extract urban boundary with manual interpretation. Fractional Vegetation Coverage (FVC), Water Density (WD), Impervious Surfaces Coverage (ISC), Net Primary Production (NPP), and Land Surface Temperature (LST) are adopted to represent ecological environment. The ecological environment indicators are measured with some general algorithms by combining Landsat images, GIS data and metrological data of 243 day, 2001 and 244 day, 2013. In order to evaluate the impact of urban sprawl on ecological environment, pseudo changes due to metrological variation and other noise in this time period are removed after images calibration. The impact of urban sprawl on ecological environment is evaluated at different scales of urban extent, Beijing ring road and watershed. Results show that Beijing had been undergoing a rapid urbanization from 2002 to 2013, with urban area increase from 600 square kilometres to 987 square kilometres. All ecological environment indicators except LST became terrible in urban sprawl region, with carbon reduction of approximate 40508 tons. The Beiyun River watershed of Beijing degraded seriously since ISC increased to 0.59. Gratifyingly, ecological environment indicators including NDVI, NPP, and LST inside of 4th Ring Road became well.

  5. Ecological study on littoral and infralittoral isopods from Ubatuba, Brazil

    Ana Maria Setubal Pires

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available The isopod species of rocky shores and shallow infralittoral zone from Enseada do Flamengo, Ubatuba, were studied. The sampling was done during Autumn (1965 and during Autumn and Springtime (1975 at six stations classified according to wave exposure. The intensity of the waves and the type of substratum showed to be important factors influencing distribution, abundance and diversity of the fauna. The highest density of isopods occurred in Dictyota ciliolata. A relation between species diversity and the degree of wave action was disclosed. Species diversity rised from exposed to moderately exposed sites and decreased with the increase in shelter.No presente trabalho, foram estudados os padrões de distribuição vertical e horizontal da fauna de Isopoda de costões rochosos, bem como sua abundância relativa nos vários substratos investigados, visando ao conhecimento de alguns aspectos de sua ecologia. As coletas foram realizadas nas zonas litoral e infralitoral da Enseada do Flamengo, Ubatuba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. As estações de coleta variaram quanto ao grau de exposição às ondas e profundidade. As amostras do litoral foram coletadas em abril e setembro de 1975 e janeiro de 1976, enquanto que as do infralitoral referem-se a abril e maio de 1965. Verificou-se que a exposição às ondas é um fator muito importante na distribuição das espécies, havendo animais que só foram encontrados nas condições ecológicas oferecidas por locais expostos e semi-expostos, e outros que só o foram em locais abrigados. Entretanto, existem espécies que ocorreram nas três situações, sendo geralmente mais abundantes em uma delas em particular. O tipo de substrato mostrou ser outro fator que exerce grande influência na distribuição das espécies. Substratos diferentes, coletados em um mesmo local e submetidos às mesmas condições ambientais, apresentaram variação na composição e abundância relativa da fauna de Isopoda. Esta varia

  6. Applications of C and N stable isotopes to ecological and environmental studies in seagrass ecosystems.

    Lepoint, Gilles; Dauby, Patrick; Gobert, Sylvie

    2004-12-01

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen are increasingly used in marine ecosystems, for ecological and environmental studies. Here, we examine some applications of stable isotopes as ecological integrators or tracers in seagrass ecosystem studies. We focus on both the use of natural isotope abundance as food web integrators or environmental tracers and on the use of stable isotopes as experimental tools. As ecosystem integrators, stable isotopes have helped to elucidate the general structure of trophic webs in temperate, Mediterranean and tropical seagrass ecosystems. As environmental tracers, stable isotopes have proven their utility in sewage impact measuring and mapping. However, to make such environmental studies more comprehensible, future works on understanding of basic reasons for variations of N and C stable isotopes in seagrasses should be encouraged. At least, as experimental tracers, stable isotopes allow the study of many aspects of N and C cycles at the scale of a plant or at the scale of the seagrass ecosystem. PMID:15556172

  7. Applications of C and N stable isotopes to ecological and environmental studies in seagrass ecosystems

    Lepoint, Gilles [Centre MARE, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie, Institut de Chimie, B6, Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)]. E-mail: g.lepoint@ulg.ac.be; Dauby, Patrick [Centre MARE, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie, Institut de Chimie, B6, Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, rue Vautier, B1000 Brussels (Belgium); Gobert, Sylvie [Centre MARE, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie, Institut de Chimie, B6, Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2004-12-01

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen are increasingly used in marine ecosystems, for ecological and environmental studies. Here, we examine some applications of stable isotopes as ecological integrators or tracers in seagrass ecosystem studies. We focus on both the use of natural isotope abundance as food web integrators or environmental tracers and on the use of stable isotopes as experimental tools. As ecosystem integrators, stable isotopes have helped to elucidate the general structure of trophic webs in temperate, Mediterranean and tropical seagrass ecosystems. As environmental tracers, stable isotopes have proven their utility in sewage impact measuring and mapping. However, to make such environmental studies more comprehensible, future works on understanding of basic reasons for variations of N and C stable isotopes in seagrasses should be encouraged. At least, as experimental tracers, stable isotopes allow the study of many aspects of N and C cycles at the scale of a plant or at the scale of the seagrass ecosystem.

  8. Studying the complexity of change: toward an analytical framework for understanding deliberate social-ecological transformations

    Michele-Lee Moore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Faced with numerous seemingly intractable social and environmental challenges, many scholars and practitioners are increasingly interested in understanding how to actively engage and transform the existing systems holding such problems in place. Although a variety of analytical models have emerged in recent years, most emphasize either the social or ecological elements of such transformations rather than their coupled nature. To address this, first we have presented a definition of the core elements of a social-ecological system (SES that could potentially be altered in a transformation. Second, we drew on insights about transformation from three branches of literature focused on radical change, i.e., social movements, socio-technical transitions, and social innovation, and gave consideration to the similarities and differences with the current studies by resilience scholars. Drawing on these findings, we have proposed a framework that outlines the process and phases of transformative change in an SES. Future research will be able to utilize the framework as a tool for analyzing the alteration of social-ecological feedbacks, identifying critical barriers and leverage points and assessing the outcome of social-ecological transformations.

  9. Designing principles of an ecological water storage basin on coastal saline: a case study

    LIU Ping-ping; YIN Cheng-qing; QU Jiu-hui; ZHANG Guang-yun; FENG Wen-qing; LIU Jun-xin; ZHONG Zhi

    2005-01-01

    The degradation of water source environment becomes serious problems accompanying with rapid urbanization in China.Ecological engineering provides ecologically sound and cost-effective solution to solving this problem. As a case study, a 15 hm2 ecological water storage basin for a water plant was designed and constructed on the TEDA area in Tianjin City. Located on saline, the construction of this project has to face serious difficulties, such as high salinity, scarce seed banks of macrophytes, and strong winds. Freshwater replacement, soil emendation and macrophytes planting at the basinshore, wooden water breaker and plastic membrane installation and other measures were conducted for the assistance of plant community establishment. The result showed that the chloride concentration in the basin water decreased from 11600 mg/L to less than 100 mg/L, and the chloride content in the basin sediment decreased from 2.1% to0.35 % after freshwater soaking. The introduced macrophytes of 8 species all survived and 11 other macrophytes species were occurred in the basin. A new ecosystem was created with increased biological diversity in the original saline, and the water quality was improved. This ecological water storage basin also provided a pleasing landscape for local people.

  10. Study on the Characteristics of Ecological Water Requirement in Maijishan Scenic Spot

    Jinyong PU; Xiaowei LI

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to explore the characteristics of ecological water requirement in Maijishan Scenic Spot. [Methed] The characteristics of ecologi- cal water requirement in Maijishan Scenic Spot were analyzed based on,the data of soil humidity and meteorology of the spot. [Result] The result showed that the actual annual ecological water requirement in the spot was 678×10^6 m^3, and the proportion of soil water and evapotranspiration were 21% and 79%, respectively; the minimum annual ecological water requirement quota in the spot was 480.27×10^6 m^3, and the proportion of soil water and evapotranspiration were 16% and 84%, respectively; the minimum annual suitable ecological water requirement quota in the spot was 624.22×10^6 m^3, and the proportion of soil water and evapotranspiration were 18% and 82%, respectively. The precipitation was 614×10^6 m^3, and consumptive water surplus reached up to 78×10^6 m^3. The years when the precipitation was higher than the evapotranspiration accounted for 76%. Since 1980s, the evapotranspiration showed a linearly increasing trend. The precipitation was higher than the evapotranspiration from Jun. to Oct. and less than the evapotranspiration from Nov. to Dec. and Jan. to May. Evapotranspiration water requirement was regulated by soil water. The dis- parity between precipitation and evapotranspiration was huge in spring, thus having certain influence on waterfalls and streams in the spot. [Conclusion] The results of this study provided a basis for the rational use and long-term planning of the water sources in Maijishan Scenic Spot.

  11. Can Social Theory Adequately Address Nature-Society Issues? Do political ecology and science studies in Geography incorporate ecological change?

    Nightingale, Andrea J.

    2006-01-01

    There has been an expansion of interest in nature-society issues within human geography spurred by the rich, sophisticated analyses of environment-development issues within the Third World. This latter work emerged out of the fusion of cultural ecology and the political economy of resource use, but scholars are increasingly turning towards post-structuralism to engage with the complex, mutual constitution of symbolic and material struggles over land and resources. Yet to some e...

  12. Heterozygote Advantage Probably Maintains Rhesus Factor Blood Group Polymorphism: Ecological Regression Study

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Rhesus factor polymorphism has been an evolutionary enigma since its discovery in 1939. Carriers of the rarer allele should be eliminated by selection against Rhesus positive children born to Rhesus negative mothers. Here I used an ecologic regression study to test the hypothesis that Rhesus factor polymorphism is stabilized by heterozygote advantage. The study was performed in 65 countries for which the frequencies of RhD phenotypes and specific disease burden data were available. I performe...

  13. Correlations between cutaneous malignant melanoma and other cancers: An ecological study in forty European countries

    Pablo Fernandez-Crehuet Serrano; Jose Luis Fernandez-Crehuet Serrano; Mohamed Farouk Allam; Rafael Fernandez-Crehuet Navajas

    2016-01-01

    Background: The presence of noncutaneous neoplasms does not seem to increase the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma; however, it seems to be associated with the development of other hematological, brain, breast, uterine, and prostatic neoplasms. An ecological transversal study was conducted to study the geographic association between cutaneous malignant melanoma and 24 localizations of cancer in forty European countries. Methods: Cancer incidence rates were extracted from GLOBOCAN datab...

  14. Relationships between black tea consumption and key health indicators in the world: an ecological study

    Beresniak, Ariel; Duru, Gerard; Berger, Genevieve; Bremond-Gignac, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate potential statistical relationships between black tea consumption and key health indicators in the world. The research question is: Does tea consumption is correlated with one or more epidemiological indicators? Design Ecological study using a systematic data-mining approach in which the unit of the analysis is a population of one country. Setting Six variables, black tea consumption data and prevalence data of respiratory diseases, infectio...

  15. A novel HSF4 gene mutation (p.R405X causing autosomal recessive congenital cataracts in a large consanguineous family from Pakistan

    Cheema Abdul

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary cataracts are most frequently inherited as autosomal dominant traits, but can also be inherited in an autosomal recessive or X-linked fashion. To date, 12 loci for autosomal recessive cataracts have been mapped including a locus on chromosome 16q22 containing the disease-causing gene HSF4 (Genbank accession number NM_001040667. Here, we describe a family from Pakistan with the first nonsense mutation in HSF4 thus expanding the mutational spectrum of this heat shock transcription factor gene. Methods A large consanguineous Pakistani family with autosomal recessive cataracts was collected from Quetta. Genetic linkage analysis was performed for the common known autosomal recessive cataracts loci and linkage to a locus containing HSF4 (OMIM 602438 was found. All exons and adjacent splice sites of the heat shock transcription factor 4 gene (HSF4 were sequenced. A mutation-specific restriction enzyme digest (HphI was performed for all family members and unrelated controls. Results The disease phenotype perfectly co-segregated with markers flanking the known cataract gene HSF4, whereas other autosomal recessive loci were excluded. A maximum two-point LOD score with a Zmax = 5.6 at θ = 0 was obtained for D16S421. Direct sequencing of HSF4 revealed the nucleotide exchange c.1213C > T in this family predicting an arginine to stop codon exchange (p.R405X. Conclusion We identified the first nonsense mutation (p.R405X in exon 11 of HSF4 in a large consanguineous Pakistani family with autosomal recessive cataract.

  16. [Ecological compensation based on farmers' willingness: A case study of Jingsan County in Hubei Province, China].

    Yu, Liang-liang; Cai, Yin-ying

    2015-01-01

    Farmland protection is a pressing issue in China' s major agricultural regions because of the strategic importance of these regions for national food security. This study quantified the appropriate ecological compensation criteria for farmland protection by way of estimating farmers' opportunity cost and willingness to adopt environment-friendly farming practices. Based on survey data collected from Jingsan County, Hubei Province, a Tobit model was constructed to identify factors affecting farmers' willingness to accept (WTA). The result showed that with appropriate economic compensation for farmland protection, 77.1% and 64.7% of the surveyed households were willing to reduce usage of fertilizers and pesticides. When the reduced rates of fertilizer and pesticide increased from 50%, farmers' opportunity costs of production respectively increased from 1198 and 5850 yuan to 9698 and 9750 yuan per hectare per year, and their WTA increased from 4750 and 7313 yuan to 9781 and 12393 yuan per hectare per year. Farmers' opportunity cost and WTA in reducing pesticide inputs were larger than those in reducing the same rate of fertilizer inputs, and in each case farmers' WTA was greater than their opportunity cost. A farm' s distance from township, farmers' knowledge about the ecology of farmland, and their expectation to improve the ecological environment of farmland had positive, significant effect on the farmers' WTA to reducing fertilization, while farmers' education level and the overall economic condition of the village had significantly negative effect. The proportion of agriculture income, farmers' knowledge about the ecology of farmland, and their expectation to improve the ecological environment of farmland had positive, significant effect on the farmers' WTA to reducing pesticide, while household' cash income and the overall economic condition of the village had significantly negative effect. PMID:25985673

  17. Role of green structure and ecological services: a case study of bahawalpur city, pakistan

    Cities can make broader contribution to achieve the goals of sustainable development as they are considered major consumers of resources and ecological services. Ecological services provide a range of benefits at local, regional and global levels. Terrestrial ecosystem has different components in urban environment that provides ecological services to its inhabitants. Cities not only benefit from the internal urban ecosystem but also depend upon other ecosystems beyond the city limit. Green structure is an important component in terms of making city more sustainable and habitable. Green structure in urban environment means green infrastructure that is planned and supports sustainable that is planned and supports sustainable urban development. From planning perspective, spatial structure of green space provides a basis for sustainable urban development. In sustainable perspective, green structure more than the sum of green spaces. It is considered as spatial network of open spaces, public and private gardens and parks, sports fields, allotment gardens, woodlands and recreational grounds. Therefore, it is considered as a significant part of built-up environment and major source of ecological services. To structure urban areas of sustainable development, it is necessary to develop a proportion between grey and green cities. Keeping in view, research has been conducted to investigate spatial network of green structure in planned areas of Bahawalpur City of Pakistan. This study analyzes the ecological services generated from the investigated green structures, and helped develop an approach of inter-relation between green environment and urban society. Moreover, strategies for better land-use planning in green and sustainable perspective have been proposed. (author)

  18. Site study plan for ecology, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary Draft

    1987-06-01

    The Ecology Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of studies which include surveys for endangered, threatened, and candidate species; vegetation characterization, including mapping and cover typing, plant succession, wetlands description, and preexisting stresses; and wildlife community characterization, including availability and quality of habitats and descriptions of mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, and invertebrate populations. The plan for each study describes the need for the study, study design, data management and use, schedule and personnel requirements, and quality assurance. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document (SRP-RD). 83 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Site study plan for ecology, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary Draft

    The Ecology Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of studies which include surveys for endangered, threatened, and candidate species; vegetation characterization, including mapping and cover typing, plant succession, wetlands description, and preexisting stresses; and wildlife community characterization, including availability and quality of habitats and descriptions of mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, and invertebrate populations. The plan for each study describes the need for the study, study design, data management and use, schedule and personnel requirements, and quality assurance. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document (SRP-RD). 83 refs., 3 tabs

  20. Observations on Introduced Species Maintenance and Reproduction Characteristic of BALB/c-HSF1 Knock-out Mice%BALB/c-HSF1基因剔除小鼠的引种、保种与繁殖特性的观察

    丁志刚; 陈广文; 俞远京; 肖献忠

    2002-01-01

    对引入的BALB/c-HSF1基因剔除小鼠近一年的繁殖、生长发育情况进行了系统观察,并就三种繁殖方式的繁殖鼠交配率、受胎率、分娩率、胎间隔及哺乳期仔鼠成活率进行了比较.结果表明,与野生型(HSF1+/+)动物比较,HSF1的缺乏对动物的繁殖有一定影响;胎间隔与动物的胎次无明显的相关性,而生长曲线与BALB/c的生长曲线类似,这种现象可能与HSF1基因剔除小鼠有BALB/c的血缘有关.

  1. Using Ecological Propensity Score to Adjust for Missing Confounders in Small Area Studies

    Wang, Yingbo; Richardson, Sylvia; Hansell, Anna; Blangiardo, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Small area ecological studies are commonly used in epidemiology to assess the impact of area level risk factors on health outcomes when data are only available in an aggregated form. However the estimates are often biased due to unmeasured confounders which cannot be account for. Extra confounding information can be provided through external datasets like surveys / cohorts, where the data are available at the individual level rather than at the area level; however they typically lack the geog...

  2. “Real time” genetic manipulation: a new tool for ecological field studies

    Schäfer, Martin; Brütting, Christoph; Gase, Klaus; Reichelt, Michael; Baldwin, Ian; Meldau, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Field experiments with transgenic plants often reveal the functional significance of genetic traits important for plant performance in their natural environments. Until now, only constitutive overexpression, ectopic expression and gene silencing methods have been used to analyze gene-related phenotypes in natural habitats. These methods do not allow sufficient control over gene expression to study ecological interactions in real-time, genetic traits playing essential roles in development, or ...

  3. Chemical ecology of the carrot fly, Psila rosae (F.): laboratory and field studies

    Selby, Martin James

    2004-01-01

    The carrot fly (Psila rosae F.) is an important pest of the cultivated carrot (Daucus carota) and other crop species in the family Apiaceae, since the larvae burrow into and feed on the developing roots. Current P. rosae control relies heavily upon the use of chemical insecticides, but these are inadequate. The aims of this study were to investigate the chemical ecology of P. rosae, particularly with regard to long range attractant and repellent semiochemicals suitable for incorporation into ...

  4. The Effects of Materialism and Consumer Ethics on Ecological Behavior: An Empirical Study

    Hülya Bakırtaş; G Canberk Buluşa; İbrahim Bakırtaş

    2014-01-01

    World populations have increased day by day. Thus, production volume of companies have increased depend on increasing population. Besides, fashion and/or technologyinfluence consumer’s goods or services purchasing decision. Consequently, the type and the number of product produced have increased and natural resources both more are being used and depleted. At this point has come to the fore the consumer’s environmental concern and ecological behavior and has gained importance. Studies about en...

  5. A system-wide approach to explaining variation in potentially avoidable emergency admissions: national ecological study

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Knowles, Emma; Maheswaran, Ravi; Pearson, Tim; Turner, Janette; Hirst, Enid; Goodacre, Steve; Nicholl, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Background Some emergency admissions can be avoided if acute exacerbations of health problems are managed by the range of health services providing emergency and urgent care. Aim To identify system-wide factors explaining variation in age sex adjusted admission rates for conditions rich in avoidable admissions. Design National ecological study. Setting 152 emergency and urgent care systems in England. Methods Hospital Episode Statistics data on emergency admissions were used to calculate an a...

  6. A guide to studying the socio-ecological transition in european agriculture

    González de Molina, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows the potential of the Social Metabolism approach to study the industrialization of the agriculture. It provides information about the physical functioning of agrarian systems over time and their spatial differences. It also sheds light on how the industrialisation of agriculture occurred; in other words, how the Socio-Ecological Transition (SET) took place in agriculture. The paper begins defining the characteristic features of the Organic Agrarian Metabolism (OAM), the starti...

  7. Association of UV radiation with Parkinson's disease incidence: A nationwide French ecologic study

    Elbaz, A; Sofiane, K; Wald, Lucien; Dugravot, A.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Moisan, F.; Kravietz, A

    2016-01-01

    International audience Meeting: 20th International Congress Abstract Number: 467 Objective: Using ultraviolet B (UV-B) as a surrogate for vitamin D levels, we conducted a nationwide ecologic study in France in order to examine the association of UV-B exposure with Parkinson's disease (PD) incidence. Background: In addition to regulating calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism, vitamin D is involved in multiple biological pathways. Lower vitamin D is associated with increased mortality, in ...

  8. Identifying Distinct Quitting Trajectories after an Unassisted Smoking Cessation Attempt: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    Bachmann, Monica S.; Znoj, Hansjörg; Brodbeck, Jeannette

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed at identifying distinct quitting trajectories over 29 days after an unassisted smoking ces- sation attempt by ecological momentary assessment (EMA). In order to validate these trajectories we tested if they predict smoking frequency up to six months later. Methods: EMA via mobile phones was used to collect real time data on smoking (yes/no) after an unassisted quit attempt over 29 days. Smoking frequency one, three and six months after the quit attempt was assesse...

  9. STS and Political Ecology in dialogue: future directions for a social study of environmental controversies

    Cherlet, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that the two young and burgeoning academic disciplines Science and Technology Studies (sts) and Political Ecology (pe) are unusually apt for a common, interdisciplinary research programme to analyse the interrelation of environmental problems with environmental science and environmental policies. Sts and pe are disciplines that have arisen from two completely different backgrounds, but nowadays they share more than one would simply deduce from their historical development....

  10. 过表达HSF1及ASK1基因对H2O2刺激后心肌细胞内ROS水平的影响%The influences of overexpression of HSF1 and ASK1 on ROS levels in H2O2 -treated cardiac myocytes

    张磊; 梁艳艳; 牛玉宏; 姜红; 邹云增; 葛均波

    2007-01-01

    目的 研究热休克因子1(HSF1)及凋亡信号调节激酶1(ASK1)对过氧化氢(H2O2)刺激后心肌细胞内活性氧簇水平(ROS)变化的影响.方法 对不同组培养心肌细胞分别单独转染质粒HSF1,ASK1,及共转染HSF1+ASK1,48h待其充分表达后用1 mmol/LH2O2刺激心肌细胞30m in,检测细胞内ROS水平,并与相应转染后未刺激组及未转染的对照组比较,观察ROS水平的变化.结果 (1)所有H2O2刺激组心肌细胞内ROS水平均高于相同转染条件下的非刺激组(P<0.05);(2)相同H2O2刺激条件下,各组ROS水平:HSF1组低于对照组(P<0.05),ASK1组与对照组无显著差异,HSF1+ASK1组与单转HSF1组相比有升高的趋势;(3)相同H2O2刺激条件下,各组刺激后比刺激前ROS水平增高的幅度:HSF1组低于对照组(P<0.05),ASK1组与对照组无显著差别,HSF1+ASK1组与单转HSF1组相比有升高的趋势.结论 在H2O2刺激条件下,HSF1可通过降低心肌细胞内的ROS水平来发挥细胞保护作用,而ASK1对细胞内ROS水平无影响,但其可干扰HSF1对ROS的抑制作用.

  11. Case study of building of conservation coalitions to conserve ecological interactions.

    Chen, Gao; Luo, Shihong; Mei, Nianshu; Shen, Dingfang; Sun, Weibang

    2015-12-01

    We engaged experts in various fields of study (pollination ecology, chemical ecology, and ethnobotany), invited community participation, and provided environmental education in an effort to conserve an endangered birthwort (Aristolochia delavayi) and a vulnerable pipevine swallowtail (Byasa daemonius). Scientists studied the uptake and sequestration of the secondary metabolites aristolochic acids from A. delavayi leaves by different stages of pipevine swallowtail as a defense mechanism; low fruit set of the myophilous A. delavayi due to pollinator limitation; and the emission of chemical signals that attract parasitic wasps by the prepupae of B. daemonius. The results of these studies were part of an education program delivered by personnel of non-governmental organizations. The program was devised to deliver information to the public about the health risks of consuming A. delavayi individuals (aristolochic-acid-associated cancers) and to establish a bridge between the public and scientific research. Following delivery of the program, the behavior of residents changed considerably. Community residents were involved in management activities, including participation in a program to promote understanding of ecological interactions between A. delavayi and B. daemonius; designing an in situ conservation site; monitoring A. delavayi and B. daemonius individuals; and promoting the natural fruit set of A. delavayi by scattering animal excrement to attract fly pollinators. The integration of scientific information and community participation appears to have resulted in an increase in abundance of threatened A. delavayi and B. daemonius populations. We believe the involvement of local people in conservation is necessary for successful species conservation. PMID:26372410

  12. In vitro research on the molecular mechanism of the functions of HSF1, HMGB1 and IL-10%HSF1与HMGB1和IL-10作用分子机制的体外研究及意义

    艾云智; 陈丹; 罗文福; 张先安; 罗成群

    2012-01-01

    目的:本研究以RAW264.7细胞系为研究对象,烧伤血清刺激建立烧伤细胞模型,在体外研究HSF1的抗炎症机制.方法:Western blot法检测烧伤血清刺激前后RAW264.7细胞中HSF1与NF-κB表达,凝胶阻滞法(EMSA)检测HSF1与炎症因子HMGB1和抗炎症因子IL-10基因启动子区相互作用,同时检测NF-κB是否参与上述的相互作用.结果:正常培养条件下的RAW264.7细胞几乎不表达HSF1,少量表达NF-κB,加入烧伤血清刺激后大量表达HSF1和NF-κB.HSF1与HMGB1和IL-10基因的启动子区HSE有相互作用.NF-κB不参与HSF1与HMGB1和IL-10基因启动子区HSE的结合.结论:HSF1与HMGB1和IL-10的启动子区HSE结合,抑制HMGB1的表达,促进IL-10的表达.在炎症反应中HMGB1和IL-10的表达不直接受NF-κB的调节.

  13. Ecological stability of landscape - ecological infrastructure - ecological management

    The Field Workshop 'Ecological Stability of Landscape - Ecological Infrastructure - Ecological Management' was held within a State Environmental Programme financed by the Federal Committee for the Environment. The objectives of the workshop were to present Czech and Slovak approaches to the ecological stability of the landscape by means of examples of some case studies in the field, and to exchange ideas, theoretical knowledge and practical experience on implementing the concept of ecological infrastructure in landscape management. Out of 19 papers contained in the proceedings, 3 items were inputted to the INIS system. (Z.S.)

  14. Comprehensive evaluation of regional ecological security for land use: a case study of Yanchi County, Ningxia Province

    2008-01-01

    As an Abstract study conception,most researches of ecological security generally are macro-scale theoretical study with a regional,national or global perspective.Micro-scale research mainly concentrates on ecological risk,ecosystem health and ecosystem safety.In order to assess regional ecological security and to accomplish the transition from micro-scale to macro-scale research,a Driving-Function-State-Output-Respond model framework (DFSOR model) is put forward in this paper according to the analyses on regional population,society,economy,resources,environment and ecological risks.In empirical research an index .system is set out to evaluate ecological security of land use.The DFSOR model comprises five group of indicators:(1) driving indicators,which include social population pressure and economic pressure;(2) Junction indicators,which include human function,hydrodynamic function,wind function and gravity function;(3) state indicators,which include soil resources,water resources and land use/land cover;(4) output indicators,which include production output and ecological risk output;(5) response indicators,which are composed of all sorts of policies and measures for improving production of ecosystem.The method and procedure for ecological security evaluation is put forward based on DFSOR model as well.In the case study,Yanchi,the ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry,is chosen for the study.An index system built to evaluate ecological security based on the evaluation of regional ecological risks which including sandification,water erosion,soil salinization,soil pollution and shortage of water.The comprehens'ive evaluation result shows the regional ecological security index of land use in the research area increase obviously.But it is still in the state of low-graded danger.

  15. Thermal ecology of montane Atelopus (Anura: Bufonidae): A study of intrageneric diversity.

    Rueda Solano, Luis Alberto; Navas, Carlos A; Carvajalino-Fernández, Juan Manuel; Amézquita, Adolfo

    2016-05-01

    Harlequin frogs (Bufonidae: Atelopus) are among the most threatened frog genus in the world and reach very high elevations in the tropical Andes and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM). Learning about their thermal ecology is essential to infer sensitivity to environmental changes, particularly climate warming. We report on the activity temperature and thermoregulatory behavior of three high-elevation species of harlequin frogs, Atelopus nahumae, Atelopus laetissimus and Atelopus carrikeri. The first two mentioned live in streams in Andean rain forests, whereas A. carrikeri inhabits paramo streams in the SNSM. We studied the thermal ecology of these species in tree localities differing in altitude, and focused on activity body, operative, substrate and air temperature. A main trend was lower body temperature as elevation increased, so that differences among species were largely explained by differences in substrate temperature. However, this temperature variation was much lower in forest species than paramo species. The Atelopus species included in this work proved to be thermoconformers, a trend that not extended to all congenerics at high elevation. This diversity in thermal ecology poses important questions when discussing the impact of climate warming for high-elevation harlequin frogs. For example, forest species show narrow thermal ranges and, if highly specialized, may be more susceptible to temperature change. Paramo species such as A. carrikeri, in contrast, may be more resilient to temperature change. PMID:27157338

  16. 过表达热休克因子1突变体对RAW264.7细胞的影响%The effects of HSF1 mutant over-expression on RAW264.7 cells

    梁秋娟; 张华莉; 张玲俐; 涂自智

    2009-01-01

    目的 建立稳定转染热休克因子1(HSF1)显性正性和显性负性突变体的细胞株,并探讨HSF1突变体过表达对细胞生长的影响.方法 用脂质体将真核表达质粒pcDNA3.1(+)-HSF1+和pcDNA3.1(+)-HSF1-分别转染RAW264.7细胞株,G418筛选阳性单克隆,Western blot鉴定高表达的克隆,流式细胞术检测稳定转染HSF1突变体的细胞与转空载体细胞的生长及凋亡情况.结果 建立了稳定表达HSF1显性正性或显性负性突变体的细胞株,并发现转染HSF1突变体细胞能影响正常细胞增殖,但不引起细胞凋亡.结论 HSF1突变体能影响RAW264.7细胞正常生长周期.

  17. ECOLOGICAL EDUCATION

    GABRIELA GYONGY MIHUT

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available While in most emerging and developing countries, the population has a lower ecological footprint in the developed countries have a larger footprint.There is also an alarming contrast between a person perception of her liability for damages to its environment and its actual size. These misconceptions may have their source in the absence of awareness of risks from climate change, culture or religion.The purpose of this study is to analyze the situation at the international and Romanian level and to draw attention on the necessity of un ecological education.

  18. Immunology in wild nonmodel rodents: an ecological context for studies of health and disease.

    Jackson, J A

    2015-05-01

    Transcriptomic methods are set to revolutionize the study of the immune system in naturally occurring nonmodel organisms. With this in mind, the present article focuses on ways in which the use of 'nonmodel' rodents (not the familiar laboratory species) can advance studies into the classical, but ever relevant, epidemiologic triad of immune defence, infectious disease and environment. For example, naturally occurring rodents are an interesting system in which to study the environmental stimuli that drive the development and homeostasis of the immune system and, by extension, to identify where these stimuli are altered in anthropogenic environments leading to the formation of immunopathological phenotypes. Measurement of immune expression may help define individual heterogeneity in infectious disease susceptibility and transmission and facilitate our understanding of infection dynamics and risk in the natural environment; furthermore, it may provide a means of surveillance that can filter individuals carrying previously unknown acute infections of potential ecological or zoonotic importance. Finally, the study of immunology in wild animals may reveal interactions within the immune system and between immunity and other organismal traits that are not observable under restricted laboratory conditions. Potentiating much of this is the possibility of combining gene expression profiles with analytical tools derived from ecology and systems biology to reverse engineer interaction networks between immune responses, other organismal traits and the environment (including symbiont exposures), revealing regulatory architecture. Such holistic studies promise to link ecology, epidemiology and immunology in natural systems in a unified approach that can illuminate important problems relevant to human health and animal welfare and production. PMID:25689683

  19. AFSC/NMML: Bowhead Whale Feeding Ecology Study (BOWFEST): Aerial Survey in Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, 2007-2011

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Bowhead Whale Feeding Ecology Study (BOWFEST) was initiated in May 2007 through an Interagency Agreement between the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM)...

  20. Progress Report: Integrated Ecological Studies at Lisbon Bottom Unit, Big Muddy Fish and Wildlife Refuge, Fiscal Year 1999

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has been carrying out integrated ecological studies at the Lisbon Bottom Unit of the Big Muddy Fish and Wildlife Refuge since 1996. This...

  1. Studies of the breeding and population ecology of seabirds at Semidi Islands, Alaska: A summary of work completed in 1978

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Species mentioned include Fulmar, petrel, gull, kittiwake, murre, auklet, and puffin. Continued study of the reproductive ecology of Northern Fulmar.

  2. Global approach to ecological qualification of industrial products: Leather industry case-study; La qualificazione ecologica dei prodotti industriali: il case-study della produzione conciaria

    Grasso, G. [Ministero degli Affari Esteri, Rome (Italy); Bufalo, G. [Potenza Univ. (Italy). Facolta di Agraria; Manzo, G. [Salerno Univ. (Italy). Facolta di Economia e Commercio

    1994-09-01

    This paper deals with both economic and technical points of view of the arising question of ecological normalization of industrial products, for instance via informative quality marks. This is accomplished introducing adequate definitions of terms and specifications of objectives, based on such ecological criteria as global life-cycle of the product (`from cradle to grave`) and energy and matter complete process balance. In order to explain a concrete analysis of similar labelling and computing procedures, the specific case-study of environmental impact of leather goods was faced up. Regulation and deregulation measures of public policy concerning the environmental questions are also discussed, some emphasis doing on the normalization tools as ecolabel and ecoaudits. Finally economic analysis of ecological products is performed, involving concepts as ecological value, net added value, utilization value and ecological premium-price. Environmental factory costs for pollution control are so firstly changed in ecological quality characteristics and next in competitive market opportunities.

  3. An Ecological Flood Control System in Phoenix Island of Huzhou, China: A Case Study

    Zhuowen Wang; Jun Liu; Cheng Gao

    2013-01-01

    Traditional flood control systems always have a conflict with natural ones, i.e., rivers in cities are usually straight and smooth, whereas natural ones are according to ecological mechanisms. Social and economic developments in the modern world require a new system combining ecological needs and traditional flood control system. Ecological flood control systems were put forward and defined as flood control systems with full consideration of ecological demands for sustainable development. In ...

  4. ECOLOGICAL STUDIES ON ZOOPLANKTON OF THE WEST LAKE AND THE INFLOWS

    Li, Gouguo; Wei, Chongde; Zhou, Hong; Pei, Hongping

    1999-01-01

    Zooplankton ecology of the West Lake and the streams that flow into the lake were investigated during January-December 1995. Protozoans were the predominant group among 252 species of zooplankton, accounting for 50.4% of the total number. Due to the seasonal variations in density and biomass of zooplankton, were studied. Changqiao stream recorded the highest density of zooplankton among seven sampling points, with an average of 10,710 inds./L. The lowest density found was Jinsha stream (886 i...

  5. Study on City Environment, Safety and Health from the Viewpoint of Ecological Risks

    YIN Qian-liang

    2011-01-01

    Urban ecological risk analysis is a relatively new study field.Rapid industrial moderni ation and urbanization have significantly improved the living standards of the city.However, as environmental, safety and health issues are causing widespread concern, these problems have potential serious threat on ecosystems and human health.So how to solve many problems arising from city has become a key to sustainable development of human civilization.The present article analyzed the major problems that the city confronts and pointed out the main measures from the aspects of urban environment, safety and health.

  6. Converting redox signaling to apoptotic activities by stress-responsive regulators HSF1 and NRF2 in fenretinide treated cancer cells.

    Kankan Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pharmacological intervention of redox balance in cancer cells often results in oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis, attracting much attention for the development of a new generation of targeted therapy in cancer. However, little is known about mechanisms underlying the conversion from oxidative signaling to downstream activities leading cells to death. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We here report a systematic detection of transcriptome changes in response to oxidative signals generated in leukemia cells upon fenretinide treatment, implicating the occurrence of numerous stress-responsive events during the fenretinide induced apoptosis, such as redox response, endoplasmic reticulum stress/unfolded protein response, translational repression and proteasome activation. Moreover, the configuration of these relevant events is primarily orchestrated by stress responsive transcription factors, as typically highlighted by NF-E2-related factor-2 (NRF2 and heat shock factor 1 (HSF1. Several lines of evidence suggest that the coordinated regulation of these transcription factors and thus their downstream genes are involved in converting oxidative signaling into downstream stress-responsive events regulating pro-apoptotic and apoptotic activities at the temporal and spatial levels, typifying oxidative stress-mediated programmed death rather than survival in cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides a roadmap for understanding oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells, which may be further developed into more sophisticated therapeutic protocols, as implicated by synergistic induction of cell apoptosis using proteasome inhibitors with fenretinide.

  7. Students' exposure and career aspirations in ecology: A study using semi-structured interviews to gain knowledge of public school students

    Miller, Heather C.

    Ecology as a field is dominated by white males, McCarter (2003) has noted that women and minorities are underrepresented in the discipline of ecology across the United States. The contribution of this research is to assess and quantify, in a scientific manner, students' exposure, and career aspirations towards ecology; 226 student responses were coded from semi-structured interviews. The main objectives of this study, using student interviews, were the following: (1) assess the importance of exposure to ecology and ecological related topics to: gender, ethnicity, region, grades in science, grades in non-science, grade level, and interest in ecology career. (2) determine if early exposure to ecology (i.e. gained in high school) and ecological related topics is related to an increased interest of students continuing in an ecologically related field and (3) assess if high school students who have been involved in more outdoor related activities such as camping, hiking, hunting, and/or fishing, will be more likely to be interested in an ecological career. Overall, the results indicated that students interviewed for this study generally responded in a positive manner, and were generally interested in ecology. Some students were even interested in pursuing a career in ecology. The study revealed significant differences in the exposure of ecology between school locations, girls and boys, and whites and non-whites. The results of this research and avenues for future research are discussed.

  8. Ecological agriculture in South-India : an agro-economic comparison and study of transition

    Jager, de, A.E.J.; Werf, van der, F.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes two research programmes carried out on ecological agriculture in South-India. Experiences of twelve farmers in transition towards ecological agriculture are described and analysed. The comparative performance of seven farmer pairs, consisting of one ecological and one conventional reference farm, is analysed in relation to agronomic and economic performance

  9. Bioremediation in marine ecosystems: a computational study combining ecological modelling and flux balance analysis

    Marianna eTaffi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The pressure to search effective bioremediation methodologies for contaminated ecosystems has led to the large-scale identification of microbial species and metabolic degradation pathways. However, minor attention has been paid to the study of bioremediation in marine food webs and to the definition of integrated strategies for reducing bioaccumulation in species. We propose a novel computational framework for analysing the multiscale effects of bioremediation at the ecosystem level, based on coupling food web bioaccumulation models and metabolic models of degrading bacteria. The combination of techniques from synthetic biology and ecological network analysis allows the specification of arbitrary scenarios of contaminant removal and the evaluation of strategies based on natural or synthetic microbial strains.In this study, we derive a bioaccumulation model of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in the Adriatic food web, and we extend a metabolic reconstruction of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 (iJN746 with the aerobic pathway of PCBs degradation. We assess the effectiveness of different bioremediation scenarios in reducing PCBs concentration in species and we study indices of species centrality to measure their importance in the contaminant diffusion via feeding links.The analysis of the Adriatic sea case study suggests that our framework could represent a practical tool in the design of effective remediation strategies, providing at the same time insights into the ecological role of microbial communities within food webs.

  10. Simulation of Regionally Ecological Land Based on a Cellular Automation Model: A Case Study of Beijing, China

    Xiubin Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ecological land is like the “liver” of a city and is very useful to public health. Ecological land change is a spatially dynamic non-linear process under the interaction between natural and anthropogenic factors at different scales. In this study, by setting up natural development scenario, object orientation scenario and ecosystem priority scenario, a Cellular Automation (CA model has been established to simulate the evolution pattern of ecological land in Beijing in the year 2020. Under the natural development scenario, most of ecological land will be replaced by construction land and crop land. But under the scenarios of object orientation and ecosystem priority, the ecological land area will increase, especially under the scenario of ecosystem priority. When considering the factors such as total area of ecological land, loss of key ecological land and spatial patterns of land use, the scenarios from priority to inferiority are ecosystem priority, object orientation and natural development, so future land management policies in Beijing should be focused on conversion of cropland to forest, wetland protection and prohibition of exploitation of natural protection zones, water source areas and forest parks to maintain the safety of the regional ecosystem.

  11. Administrative Ecology

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  12. Environmental and ecological water requirement of river system: a case study of Haihe-Luanhe river system

    2001-01-01

    In order to reduce the environmental and ecological problems induced by water resources development and utilization, this paper proposes a concept of environmental and ecological water requirement. It is defined as the minimum water amount to be consumed by the natural water bodies to conserve its environmental and ecological functions. Based on the definition, the methods on calculating the amount of environmental and ecological water requirement are determined. In the case study on Haihe-Luanhe river system, the water requirement is divided into three parts, i.e., the basic in-stream flow, water requirement for sediment transfer and water consumption by evaporation of the lakes or everglades. The results of the calculation show that the environmental and ecological water requirement in the river system is about 124×108 m3, including 57×108 m3 for basic in-stream flow, 63×108m3 for sediment transfer and 4×l08m3 for net evaporation loss of lakes. The total amount of environmental and ecological water requirement accounts for 54% of the amount of runoff (228×108 m3). However, it should be realized that the amount of environmental and ecological water requirement must be more than that we have calculated. According to this result, we consider that the rational utilization rate of the runoff in the river systems must not be more than 40%. Since the current utilization rate of the river system, which is over 80%, has been far beyond the limitation, the problems of environment and ecology are quite serious. It is imperative to control and adjust water development and utilization to eliminate the existing problems and to avoid the potential ecological or environmental crisis.

  13. An Ecological View of Internet Health Information Seeking Behavior Predictors: Findings from the CHAIN Study

    Calvert, Joshua K; Aidala, Angela A; West, Josh H

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to further elucidate proximal and distal demographic and social predictors of Internet Health Information Seeking Behavior (IHISB) among a cohort of HIV+ individuals through an ecological framework. Methods: The Community Health Advisory & Information Network (CHAIN) project is an ongoing prospective study of a representative sample of persons living with HIV/AIDS in New York City and the Tri-County region. The study sample was drawn from a two-stage randomized technique with the clients of 43 medical and social service organizations with 693 HIV+ participants. Bivariate correlations were computed between IHISB and independent demographic variables in ecological blocks. Multivariate hierarchical logistic regression was used to test association between blocks of variables and IHISB. Results: Among the surveyed respondents (n=645) 50.3% indicated that they used the Internet. Being above the poverty line, having less than a high school education, and having fewer neighbors were statistically significant predictors of IHISB related to HIV. Conclusions: The benefits of accessing the Internet may influence health behavior and may be considered a target for interventions that aim to increase access to health related information online. Coupled with increased access, is the need for increased patient education interventions, and creative managed care approaches to ensure that information gleaned from online sources is interpretable and accurate in order to benefit the lives of those living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:24222812

  14. Ecological Factors and Adolescent Marijuana Use: Results of a Prospective Study in Santiago, Chile

    Jorge Delva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Despite the growing evidence that ecological factors contribute to substance use, the relationship of ecological factors and illicit drugs such as marijuana use is not well understood, particularly among adolescents in Latin America. Guided by social disorganization and social stress theories, we prospectively examined the association of disaggregated neighborhood characteristics with marijuana use among adolescents in Santiago, Chile, and tested if these relationships varied by sex. Methods: Data for this study are from 725 community-dwelling adolescents participating in the Santiago Longitudinal Study, a study of substance using behaviors among urban adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Adolescents completed a two-hour interviewer administered questionnaire with questions about drug use and factors related to drug using behaviors. Results: As the neighborhood levels of drug availability at baseline increased, but not crime or noxious environment, adolescents had higher odds of occasions of marijuana use at follow up, approximately 2 years later (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.16–1.66, even after controlling for the study’s covariates. No interactions by sex were significant. Discussion: The findings suggest that “poverty”, “crime”, and “drug problems” may not be synonyms and thus can be understood discretely. As Latin American countries re-examine their drug policies, especially those concerning decriminalizing marijuana use, the findings suggest that attempts to reduce adolescent marijuana use in disadvantaged neighborhoods may do best if efforts are concentrated on specific features of the “substance abuse environment”.

  15. Modeling direct and indirect climate change impacts on ecological networks : a case study on breeding habitat of Dutch meadow birds

    van Dijk, Jerry; Van Der Vliet, Roland E.; De Jong, Harm; Zeylmans Van Emmichoven, Maarten J.; Van Hardeveld, Henk A.; Dekker, Stefan C.; Wassen, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Climate change can directly affect habitats within ecological networks, but may also have indirect effects on network quality by inducing land use change. The relative impact of indirect effects of climate change on the quality of ecological networks currently remains largely unknown. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the relative impact of direct and indirect effects of climate change on a network of breeding habitat of four meadow bird species (Black-tailed g...

  16. Implementing fire history and fire ecology in fire risk assessment: the study case of Canton Ticino (southern Switzerland)

    CONEDERA, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The understanding of the ecological role of wildfires and the knowledge of its past natural and cultural dynamics in different ecosystems have been recognize as a prerequisite for a sustainable land and ecosystem management. The main objective of this work is to propose a methodological approach for implementing the knowledge derived from studies of fire history, fire ecology, and fire suppression strategies in fire risk analyses in a low-to medium fire-prone region such as the Canton Ticino.

  17. Assessing ecological land use and water demand of river systems: a case study in Luanhe River, North China

    Yan, D. H.; Wang, G; H. Wang; T. L. Qin

    2012-01-01

    Economic and social development has greatly increased ecological water demand and modified land use of river systems worldwide, causing overall degradation of many of these systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks for regionalization on the eco-environmental function of river systems are formulated and applied to the Luanhe River system. Based on its eco-environmental functions, this river can be regionalized into four types of first-class functional areas: ecological pres...

  18. The role of social and ecological processes in structuring animal populations: a case study from automated tracking of wild birds

    Farine, Damien R.; Firth, Josh A.; Aplin, Lucy M.; Crates, Ross A.; Culina, Antica; Garroway, Colin J.; Hinde, Camilla A; Kidd, Lindall R.; Milligan, Nicole D.; Psorakis, Ioannis; Radersma, Reinder; Verhelst, Brecht; Voelkl, Bernhard; Sheldon, Ben C.

    2015-01-01

    Both social and ecological factors influence population process and structure, with resultant consequences for phenotypic selection on individuals. Understanding the scale and relative contribution of these two factors is thus a central aim in evolutionary ecology. In this study, we develop a framework using null models to identify the social and spatial patterns that contribute to phenotypic structure in a wild population of songbirds. We used automated technologies to track 1053 individuals...

  19. The Transition of Cultural Ecology in Beidong District of Guizhou – A Case Study of Tianzhu Community

    Zhao, Xing; DONG, Baoling; Zhao, Yingzi

    2014-01-01

    Beidong minorities living together in Qingshui River valley are deeply influenced by Jing and Chu culture. Their ethnic and traditional culture was developed in the process of collision with foreign culture. In the several great social transformations, their cultural ecology was not imbalanced, but evolved and developed. Through the study on local knowledge of cultural ecology including agricultural production, ancestral hall and local-style dwelling house, full-scale drama and Yang Drama, ge...

  20. The role of geographical ecological studies in identifying diseases linked to UVB exposure and/or vitamin D.

    Grant, William B

    2016-01-01

    Using a variety of approaches, researchers have studied the health effects of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure and vitamin D. This review compares the contributions from geographical ecological studies with those of observational studies and clinical trials. Health outcomes discussed were based on the author's knowledge and include anaphylaxis/food allergy, atopic dermatitis and eczema, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, back pain, cancer, dental caries, diabetes mellitus type 1, hypertension, inflammatory bowel disease, lupus, mononucleosis, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, pneumonia, rheumatoid arthritis, and sepsis. Important interactions have taken place between study types; sometimes ecological studies were the first to report an inverse correlation between solar UVB doses and health outcomes such as for cancer, leading to both observational studies and clinical trials. In other cases, ecological studies added to the knowledge base. Many ecological studies include other important risk-modifying factors, thereby minimizing the chance of reporting the wrong link. Laboratory studies of mechanisms generally support the role of vitamin D in the outcomes discussed. Indications exist that for some outcomes, UVB effects may be independent of vitamin D. This paper discusses the concept of the ecological fallacy, noting that it applies to all epidemiological studies. PMID:27195055

  1. Ecological relevance of biomarkers in monitoring studies of macro-invertebrates and fish in Mediterranean rivers.

    Colin, Nicole; Porte, Cinta; Fernandes, Denise; Barata, Carlos; Padrós, Francesc; Carrassón, Maite; Monroy, Mario; Cano-Rocabayera, Oriol; de Sostoa, Adolfo; Piña, Benjamín; Maceda-Veiga, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean rivers are probably one of the most singular and endangered ecosystems worldwide due to the presence of many endemic species and a long history of anthropogenic impacts. Besides a conservation value per se, biodiversity is related to the services that ecosystems provide to society and the ability of these to cope with stressors, including climate change. Using macro-invertebrates and fish as sentinel organisms, this overview presents a synthesis of the state of the art in the application of biomarkers (stress and enzymatic responses, endocrine disruptors, trophic tracers, energy and bile metabolites, genotoxic indicators, histopathological and behavioural alterations, and genetic and cutting edge omic markers) to determine the causes and effects of anthropogenic stressors on the biodiversity of European Mediterranean rivers. We also discuss how a careful selection of sentinel species according to their ecological traits and the food-web structure of Mediterranean rivers could increase the ecological relevance of biomarker responses. Further, we provide suggestions to better harmonise ecological realism with experimental design in biomarker studies, including statistical analyses, which may also deliver a more comprehensible message to managers and policy makers. By keeping on the safe side the health status of populations of multiple-species in a community, we advocate to increase the resilience of fluvial ecosystems to face present and forecasted stressors. In conclusion, this review provides evidence that multi-biomarker approaches detect early signs of impairment in populations, and supports their incorporation in the standardised procedures of the Water Frame Work Directive to better appraise the status of European water bodies. PMID:26148426

  2. 'Real time' genetic manipulation: a new tool for ecological field studies.

    Schäfer, Martin; Brütting, Christoph; Gase, Klaus; Reichelt, Michael; Baldwin, Ian; Meldau, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Field experiments with transgenic plants often reveal the functional significance of genetic traits that are important for the performance of the plants in their natural environments. Until now, only constitutive overexpression, ectopic expression and gene silencing methods have been used to analyze gene-related phenotypes in natural habitats. These methods do not allow sufficient control over gene expression for the study of ecological interactions in real time, of genetic traits that play essential roles in development, or of dose-dependent effects. We applied the sensitive dexamethasone (DEX)-inducible pOp6/LhGR expression system to the ecological model plant Nicotiana attenuata and established a lanolin-based DEX application method to facilitate ectopic gene expression and RNA interference-mediated gene silencing in the field and under challenging conditions (e.g. high temperature, wind and UV radiation). Fully established field-grown plants were used to silence phytoene desaturase and thereby cause photobleaching only in specific plant sectors, and to activate expression of the cytokinin (CK) biosynthesis gene isopentenyl transferase (ipt). We used ipt expression to analyze the role of CKs in both the glasshouse and the field to understand resistance to the native herbivore Tupiocoris notatus, which attacks plants at small spatial scales. By spatially restricting ipt expression and elevating CK levels in single leaves, damage by T. notatus increased, demonstrating the role of CKs in this plant-herbivore interaction at a small scale. As the arena of most ecological interactions is highly constrained in time and space, these tools will advance the genetic analysis of dynamic traits that matter for plant performance in nature. PMID:23906159

  3. Ecological and Social Evaluation of Coastal Tourism Destination Development: A Case Study of Balekambang, East Java

    Luchman Hakim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is an important sector in developing countries to support economic growth, and coastal areas are famous destinations in tourism. The plan and design for Balekambang coastal area as a tourism destination in East Java, Indonesia has been formulated and published. However, it seems lack ecological and social perspectives. This study examines coral reefs structure as one of the ecological parameter and tourist perspectives as social parameter for destination development evaluation. Twenty belt-transects were established along Balekambang coastline, and then divided into three sections, the east, the centre and the west sections. Every belt-transect was 200m in length and consists of 15 plots 1 x 2m. The tourist perspectives to Balekambang were determined using questionnaire among 234 respondents. Based on the Morisita similarity index, the coral reef of east section consists of 2 zones, the centre consists of 5 zones and west section consists of 4 zones. The Shannon diversity index (H’ among zones at every location was ranged. The diversity index of the east section ranged from 2.07 to 2.72, the central section ranged from 1.32 to 4.20, and the west section ranged from 3.13 to 4.20. Zones that were close to the coastline had lowest diversity indices than zones that located far from the coastline. Mostly, tourists stated that Balekambang was interesting, but the object of tourism should be added. Respondent knew there were forest surrounding Balekambang, and it has the possibility to develop as tourism destination. These findings argue that the forest conversion to cottage area that planned by the local government in the west section should be reviewed. It seems forest in the west section should be developed as a forest park to meet tourist needs and redistribute tourist concentration in the coastline. Keywords: Ecological and social evaluation, coastal, tourism, sustainable development, East Java.

  4. Ecology, Microbial

    Konopka, Allan

    2009-03-19

    Microbial ecology is a relatively young discipline within the field of microbiology. Its modern history spans just the past 60 years, and the field is defined by its emphasis on understanding the interactions of microbes with their environment, rather than their behavior under artificial laboratory conditions. Because microbes are ubiquitous, microbial ecologists study a broad diversity of habitats that range from aquatic to terrestrial to plant- or animal-associated. This has made it a challenge to identify unifying principles within the field. One approach is to recognize that although the activity of microbes in nature have effects at the macroscale, they interact with their physical, chemical and biological milieu at a scale of micrometers. At this scale, several different microbial ecosystems can be defined, based upon association with particles, the presence of environmental gradients and the continuous availability of water. Principles applicable to microbial ecology reflect not only their population ecology and physiological ecology, but also their broad versatility and quantitative importance in the biosphere as biogeochemical catalysts and capacity for rapid physiological and evolutionary responses.

  5. Assessing ecological land use and water demand of river systems: a case study in Luanhe River, North China

    D. H. Yan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic and social development has greatly increased ecological water demand and modified land use of river systems worldwide, causing overall degradation of many of these systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks for regionalization on the eco-environmental function of river systems are formulated and applied to the Luanhe River system. Based on its eco-environmental functions, this river can be regionalized into four types of first-class functional areas: ecological preservation areas, habitat restoration areas, ecological buffer areas and development and utilization areas. Considering the overall eco-environmental functions, we assessed the ecological land use of the Luanhe River system. The total area of basic ecological land use is 876.98 km2; the restrictive ecological land use is 1745.52 km2; ecological land use of the river system returned from farmland is 284.25 km2; and that returned from construction land is 17.35 km2. The average minimum ecological flow of mainstreams in upper and middle reaches of the Luanhe River is 4.896 m3 s−1 based on the habitat method. And the recommended minimum and suitable annual ecological water demand of channels in the lower reaches are 391 million m3 and 819.5 million m3, respectively. The evaporation and seepage consumption and vegetation consumption in riparian zones of the Luanhe River system are approximately 132.6 million m3 and 145.3 million m3 per year, respectively. Our results suggest that is crucial to regulate the instream ecological water use of the Luanhe River's mainstream starting from the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system. We recommend accelerating ecological land-use planning and strengthening the regulation of ecological water use on this river system focusing on important lower reaches under the condition of competitive water demand.

  6. Introduction to Ecological Landscaping: A Holistic Description and Framework to Guide the Study and Management of Urban Landscape Parcels

    Parwinder Grewal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Urbanized ecosystems and urban human populations are expanding around the world causing many negative environmental effects. A challenge for achieving sustainable urban social-ecological systems is understanding how urbanized landscapes can be designed and managed to minimize negative outcomes. To this end, an interdisciplinary Ecological Landscaping conference was organized to examine the interacting sociocultural and ecological causes and consequences of landscaping practices and products. This special issue of Cities and the Environment contains a diverse set of articles arising from that conference. In this introductory paper, we describe the meaning of ecological landscaping and a new conceptual framework that helps organize the topic’s complex issues. The essence of ecological landscaping is a holistic systems-thinking perspective for understanding the interrelationships among physical-ecological and sociocultural variables that give rise to the patterns and processes of biodiversity, abiotic conditions, and ecosystem processes within and among individually-managed urban landscape parcels. This perspective suggests that 1 variables not considered part of traditional landscaping and 2 the effects of landscaping within an individual parcel on variables outside of it must both be considered when making design and management decisions about a parcel. To illustrate how these points help create a more holistic, ecological approach to landscaping, a traditional ecosystem model is used to create a framework for discussing how sociocultural and physical-ecological inputs to a landscape parcel affect its characteristics and outputs. As exemplified by papers in this issue, an integrated sociocultural-ecological approach to the study of urban landscaping practices and products is needed to 1 understand why and how humans design and mange urban landscape parcels, 2 describe how the combined characteristics and outputs of many parcels give rise to the

  7. Screen selection of target genes regulated by HSF1 in heat shock response from myocardium of gene knockout mice%从基因敲除小鼠心肌组织中筛选热休克反应中受HSF1调控的靶基因

    刘瑛; 袁灿; 张华莉; 王秋鹏; 肖献忠

    2004-01-01

    目的:用cDNA芯片从热休克转录因子1(HSF1)基因敲除小鼠心肌组织中筛选热休克反应受HSF1调控的靶基因.方法:用cDNA芯片检测热休克反应(42℃15min,恢复3h)中HSF1-/-小鼠心肌组织基因表达谱的改变(以HSF1+/+小鼠为对照);用RT-PCR对cDNA芯片筛选结果进行验证;对差异表达的已命名基因进行启动子区转录因子结合位点的分析.结果:共筛选到差异表达基因1142个;其中在HSF1-/-小鼠心肌中表达下调的基因为398个,已命名基因为173个;在HSF1-/-小鼠心肌中表达上调的基因为641个,已命名基因为235个.在HSF1-/-小鼠心肌中表达下调2.5倍的已命名基因中,有5个基因启动子区含有热休克元件(HSE);在HSF1-/-小鼠心肌中表达上调2.5倍的已命名基因中,有6个基因启动子区含有HSE.结论:在热休克反应中,HSF1可对多个基因的表达进行直接或间接的调控.

  8. Development and Application of Real-time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Detection of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Related Novel Gene HSF1 Expression%肝细胞癌患者外周血HSF1基因表达的检测及应用价值

    卢鹏; 冯薇; 李霄; 杨平; 寇明文; 胡延忠; 宋振顺

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立检测HSF1 mRNA的real-time PCR的方法,了解肝细胞癌患者外周血中HSF1的表达水平及其与各临床病理特征之间的关系.方法:利用real-time PCR的方法检测20例肝细胞癌患者及20例正常人群外周血中HSF1 mRNA的表达量.结果:肝细胞癌患者外周血中的HSFl mRNA表达量显著高于正常人群(P<0.05);肝细胞癌患者外周血中HSFI mRNA的表达水平在不同性别、肿瘤大小、门静脉侵犯情况、HbsAg水平及AFP水平的患者中的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);在不同病理分化程度、TNM分期的患者中的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:real-time PCR技术可以成功检测外周血中HSFl mRNA的表达量,HSF1可能与肝细胞癌的发生发展密切相关.%Objective: To establish a quantitative real-time PCR method for detection of HSF1 gene expression level in human hepatocellular carcinoma and to investigate the relationship between HSFl mRNA expression level and the clinicopathological characters. Methods: Real-time PCR was employed to determine the expression level of HSF1 mRNA in peripheral blood of 20 specimens of human hepatocellular carcinoma patients and normal human. Results: Comparing with normal human, HSF1 present higher expressions in human hepatocellular carcinoma patients (P0.05). There is statistical differences of HSF1 mRNA expression level between the group with different differentiations and TNM stages (P>0.05). Conclusion: The established quantitative real-time PCR method can successfully detect the expression level of HSF1 mRNA, which may be closely related to the occurrence and development of human hepatocellular carcinoma.

  9. Importance of thermal ecological studies in environment management around nuclear power plants

    In thermal power plants, only about 30% of the heat energy generated is converted to electricity. Remaining heat is released to the environment either to atmosphere or to the nearest water body. During the operation of plants, it is essential to ensure that the release of heated effluent does not lead to any harmful consequences to eco system. Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) has stipulated stringent regulation with respect to temperature of the heated effluent that can be released to the environment. All power plants under DAE are strictly following this stipulation. As a pro-active step, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) carried out a comprehensive environmental impact assessment studies at Kalpakkam (coastal) site and at Kaiga (inland) site. The studies at Kalpakkam were coordinated by Water and Steam Chemistry Laboratory, Kalpakkam and the studies at Kaiga site was coordinated by Environmental Survey Laboratory, Kaiga. In addition to temperature mapping at the mixing zone, a detailed analysis of influence of heated effluent on water quality, primary productivity, benthic eco system, bio geochemical cycle, fish composition and diversity were carried out by different specialist groups under a coordinated BRNS project. The comprehensive thermal ecological studies clearly indicated that release of heated effluents does not lead to any significant impact on the overall ecosystem of the respective water body at Kalpakkam and Kaiga sites. Data generated in these studies are very useful in the designing suitable out fall system so that ecology of the aquatic body is not disturbed. This paper presents the highlights of the importance of such studies and salient features of the studies. (author)

  10. How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran

    FATEMEH BAZDID VAHDATI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bazdid Vahdati F, Saeidi Mehrvarz Sh, Naqinezhad A, Gholizadeh H. 2014. How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran. Biodiversitas 15: 29-36. Species diversity is one of the most important indices for evaluating the stability and productivity of forest ecosystems. The aim of this research was to recognize ecological species groups and to determine the relationship between environmental variables and the distribution of ecological species groups. For this purpose, 25 400-m2 relevés were sampled using the Braun-Blanquet method. Vegetation was classified using modified Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN and resulted in three ecological species groups. Different species diversity indices were applied to quantify diversity of these species groups. ANOVA and Duncan’s tests indicated that all species and environmental variables except altitude changed significantly across the species groups. The results also showed that the group located in the northern aspect and on low slopes had the highest diversity indices compared with groups located in dry aspects and on high slopes. In reality, abundant precipitation (northern aspect ( and soil enrichment (low slopes are principal factors that provide suitable conditions for plant growth and species diversity. Thus, the study of diversity changes in ecological species groups can result in an ecologically precise perspective for managing forest ecosystems.

  11. How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran

    FATEMEH BAZDID VAHDATI¹,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran. Biodiversitas 15: 31-38. Species diversity is one of the most important indices for evaluating the stability and productivity of forest ecosystems. The aim of this research was to recognize ecological species groups and to determine the relationship between environmental variables and the distribution of ecological species groups. For this purpose, 25 400-m2 relevés were sampled using the Braun-Blanquet method. Vegetation was classified using modified Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN and resulted in three ecological species groups. Different species diversity indices were applied to quantify diversity of these species groups. ANOVA and Duncan’s tests indicated that all species and environmental variables except altitude changed significantly across the species groups. The results also showed that the group located in the northern aspect and on low slopes had the highest diversity indices compared with groups located in dry aspects and on high slopes. In reality, abundant precipitation (northern aspect ( and soil enrichment (low slopes are principal factors that provide suitable conditions for plant growth and species diversity. Thus, the study of diversity changes in ecological species groups can result in an ecologically precise perspective for managing forest ecosystems.

  12. STUDY ON ECOLOGICAL SPACE OF URBAN AGGLOMERATION--Taking Wuxi City as an Example

    2002-01-01

    From the angle of ecology, urban agglomeration presents relevant types of landscape structure, which in-clude Patch, Corridor and Matrix. There are different landscape features and different problems in different developmentphases. This paper has put forward five basic conditions for security pattern of landscape ecology of urban agglomeration,described quantitatively the features for landscape ecology in Wuxi, and analyzed ecological background of spatial expan-sion and spatial organization of urban development in Wuxi. From the angle of ecological land use and non-ecological landuse, the paper has analyzed the features of land use and ecological distribution of land in the urban area. The spatial mod-el of cities and towns in Wuxi is composed of one metropolis, two urban zones and three development axes. This thesishas planned preliminarily ecological protection network at four levels in the urban region according to four layers. At last,combining landscape ecology with urban space, a tentative security pattern of landscape ecology has been p1anned in Wux-i, namely Source-Buffer Zone and Metropolis, Radiating Routes and Expansion Direction of City, Strategic Point and Interac-tion between Cities and Towns, Inter-Source Linkage-Corridor of a Stable Landscape Structure.

  13. Ecological validity and the study of publics: The case for organic public engagement methods.

    Gehrke, Pat J

    2014-01-01

    This essay argues for a method of public engagement grounded in the criteria of ecological validity. Motivated by what Hammersly called the responsibility that comes with intellectual authority: "to seek, as far as possible, to ensure the validity of their conclusions and to participate in rational debate about those conclusions" (1993: 29), organic public engagement follows the empirical turn in citizenship theory and in rhetorical studies of actually existing publics. Rather than shaping citizens into either the compliant subjects of the cynical view or the deliberatively disciplined subjects of the idealist view, organic public engagement instead takes Asen's advice that "we should ask: how do people enact citizenship?" (2004: 191). In short, organic engagement methods engage publics in the places where they already exist and through those discourses and social practices by which they enact their status as publics. Such engagements can generate practical middle-range theories that facilitate future actions and decisions that are attentive to the local ecologies of diverse publics. PMID:23887250

  14. Gambling, games of skill and human ecology: a pilot study by a multidimensional analysis approach.

    Valera, Luca; Giuliani, Alessandro; Gizzi, Alessio; Tartaglia, Francesco; Tambone, Vittoradolfo

    2015-01-01

    The present pilot study aims at analyzing the human activity of playing in the light of an indicator of human ecology (HE). We highlighted the four essential anthropological dimensions (FEAD), starting from the analysis of questionnaires administered to actual gamers. The coherence between theoretical construct and observational data is a remarkable proof-of-concept of the possibility of establishing an experimentally motivated link between a philosophical construct (coming from Huizinga's Homo ludens definition) and actual gamers' motivation pattern. The starting hypothesis is that the activity of playing becomes ecological (and thus not harmful) when it achieves the harmony between the FEAD, thus realizing HE; conversely, it becomes at risk of creating some form of addiction, when destroying FEAD balance. We analyzed the data by means of variable clustering (oblique principal components) so to experimentally verify the existence of the hypothesized dimensions. The subsequent projection of statistical units (gamers) on the orthogonal space spanned by principal components allowed us to generate a meaningful, albeit preliminary, clusterization of gamer profiles. PMID:26783225

  15. Gambling, games of skill and human ecology: a pilot study by a multidimensional analysis approach

    Luca Valera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present pilot study aims at analyzing the human activity of playing in the light of an indicator of human ecology (HE. We highlighted the four essential anthropological dimensions (FEAD, starting from the analysis of questionnaires administered to actual gamers. The coherence between theoretical construct and observational data is a remarkable proof-of-concept of the possibility of establishing an experimentally motivated link between a philosophical construct (coming from Huizinga's Homo ludens definition and actual gamers' motivation pattern. The starting hypothesis is that the activity of playing becomes ecological (and thus not harmful when it achieves the harmony between the FEAD, thus realizing HE; conversely, it becomes at risk of creating some form of addiction, when destroying FEAD balance. We analyzed the data by means of variable clustering (oblique principal components so to experimentally verify the existence of the hypothesized dimensions. The subsequent projection of statistical units (gamers on the orthogonal space spanned by principal components allowed us to generate a meaningful, albeit preliminary, clusterization of gamer profiles.

  16. Incorporating methane into ecological footprint analysis. A case study of Ireland

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) accounting is important to global ecological footprint analysis. However methane (CH4), with a global warming potential (GWP) 25 times that of CO2, should not be neglected as an environmental indicator for informed environmental management. While this is a significant component, the CH4 associated with imported embodied energy should also be included in national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories. This study proposes an initial method for incorporating methane into ecological footprint analyses and hopes to inform future debate on its inclusion. In order to account for differences in methane intensities from exporting countries, methane intensities for OECD countries were calculated using emission and energy consumption estimates taken directly from National Inventory Reports (NIR), published in conjunction with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). For other countries the methane intensities were estimated using energy balances published by the International Energy Association (IEA) and IPCC default emission factors. In order to estimate embodied organic methane, material imports and exports were translated into units (such as live animals) capable of conversion into methane emissions. A significant increase in Ireland's footprint results from the inclusion of the GWP of methane is included within the footprint calculation. (author)

  17. The (limited) political influence of ecological economics. A case study on Dutch environmental policies

    Although the ecological economics (EE) discourse attempts to influence environmental policy, empirical studies have concluded that its success in this endeavour has been limited thus far. In the Netherlands, however, two EE-related policy concepts, Environmental Utilisation Space and Ecological Footprint, were strongly present in environmental policy during certain periods in time, but subsequently disappeared from the environmental agenda. The central question of this article is how these ups and downs of the EE concepts can be understood: which factors determine their rise on and fall from the policy agenda over time? To answer this question, this article offers a conceptual model informed by the approaches in political science on framing, agenda-setting and knowledge utilisation. We conclude that the interplay of concept-specific characteristics, the formation of coalitions around the concept and contextual variables explain the rise and fall of the aforementioned concepts. A match between the dominant policy frame and the core elements of the concept provides the opportunity for the two concepts to be pushed on the agenda. We observe the alternation of 'constraining' frames, which allows for EE concepts to survive, and 'reconciling' frames, which block agenda entrance for EE concepts. Furthermore, the alternation of these frames seems to correlate with economic and public environmental attention cycles in the Netherlands. (author)

  18. Terrestrial ecology

    The main effort of the Terrestrial Ecology Division has been redirected to a comprehensive study of the Espiritu Santo Drainage Basin located in northeastern Puerto Rico. The general objective are to provide baseline ecological data for future environmental assessment studies at the local and regional levels, and to provide through an ecosystem approach data for the development of management alternatives for the wise utilization of energy, water, and land resources. The interrelationships among climate, vegetation, soils, and man, and their combined influence upon the hydrologic cycle will be described and evaluated. Environmental management involves planning and decision making, and both require an adequate data base. At present, little is known about the interworkings of a complete, integrated system such as a drainage basin. A literature survey of the main research areas confirmed that, although many individual ecologically oriented studies have been carried out in a tropical environment, few if any provide the data base required for environmental management. In view of rapidly changing socio-economic conditions and natural resources limitations, management urgently requires data from these systems: physical (climatological), biological, and cultural. This integrated drainage basin study has been designed to provide such data. The scope of this program covers the hydrologic cycle as it is affected by the interactions of the physical, biological, and cultural systems

  19. Giving Back: Collaborations with Others in Ecological Studies on the Nevada National Security Site - 13058

    Formerly named the Nevada Test Site, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) was the historical site for nuclear weapons testing from the 1950's to the early 1990's. The site was renamed in 2010 to reflect the diversity of nuclear, energy, and homeland security activities now conducted at the site. Biological and ecological programs and research have been conducted on the site for decades to address the impacts of radiation and to take advantage of the relatively undisturbed and isolated lands for gathering basic information on the occurrence and distribution of native plants and animals. Currently, the Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) oversees the radiological biota monitoring and ecological compliance programs on the NNSS. The top priority of these programs are compliance with federal and state regulations. They focus on performing radiological dose assessments for the public who reside near the NNSS and for populations of plants and animals on the NNSS and in protecting important species and habitat from direct impacts of mission activities. The NNSS serves as an invaluable outdoor laboratory. The geographic and ecological diversity of the site offers researchers many opportunities to study human influences on ecosystems. NNSA/NSO has pursued collaborations with outside agencies and organizations to be able to conduct programs and studies that enhance radiological biota monitoring and ecosystem preservation when budgets are restrictive, as well as to provide valuable scientific information to the human health and natural resource communities at large. NNSA/NSO is using one current collaborative study to better assess the potential dose to the off-site public from the ingestion of game animals, the most realistic pathway for off-site public exposure at this time from radionuclide contamination on the NNSS. A second

  20. Biodiversity and productivity of Rana Patap Sagar lake a thermo-ecological study

    Rana Pratap Sagar (RPS) in Rajasthan, is a man made fresh water reservoir and is balancing between Gandhi Sagar on upstream and Jawahar sagar on its down stream. On its eastern bank there exists Rawatbhata Site, comprising of multi -nuclear facilities. There are four PHWR units of Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) which are in operations, two are under construction and another two are under advanced stage of planning. In addition to nuclear power plants the Site also houses a Heavy Water Plant and other allied facilities such as cobalt facility and waste management facilities. RAPS draws water from RPS lake through a 300 m long conduit pipe located at lake bottom about 20 m below the surface. Duly treated low level radioactive liquid effluents from RAPS facilities are injected to the warmed condenser outlet and then allowed to discharge to RPS in a controlled manner. The warm water is likely to remain at the surface and get mixed with lake water and cooled due to dilutions, evaporation from lake surface and wind currents. The heat release to the RPS lake through condenser outlet may effect the microbiological and water quality parameters, planktonic biodiversity, fish productivity etc. and thus it is imperative to conduct the thermal ecological study to assess the extent of maturation of the water body to identify its present trophic status in terms of eutrophication. This presentation gives the details of thermal ecological studies carried out at Rana Pratap Sagar lake during 2002-2004 under DAE-BRNS project.. The study includes monitoring of several water quality parameters, biological and bacterial parameters and data on thermal stratification in respect of RPS reservoir. The data so obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. The probabilistic and possibilistic approaches have been applied to evaluate ecological risk. The study reveals that there is no adverse effect on RPS water quality owing to receive the warmed effluents from RAPS. Furthermore, it

  1. Giving Back: Collaborations with Others in Ecological Studies on the Nevada National Security Site

    Scott A. Wade (NFO); Kathryn S. Knapp (NFO); Cathy A. Wills (NSTec)

    2013-02-24

    Formerly named the Nevada Test Site, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) was the historical site for nuclear weapons testing from the 1950s to the early 1990s. The site was renamed in 2010 to reflect the diversity of nuclear, energy, and homeland security activities now conducted at the site. Biological and ecological programs and research have been conducted on the site for decades to address the impacts of radiation and to take advantage of the relatively undisturbed and isolated lands for gathering basic information on the occurrence and distribution of native plants and animals. Currently, the Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) oversees the radiological biota monitoring and ecological compliance programs on the NNSS. The top priority of these programs are compliance with federal and state regulations. They focus on performing radiological dose assessments for the public who reside near the NNSS and for populations of plants and animals on the NNSS and in protecting important species and habitat from direct impacts of mission activities. The NNSS serves as an invaluable outdoor laboratory. The geographic and ecological diversity of the site offers researchers many opportunities to study human influences on ecosystems. NNSA/NSO has pursued collaborations with outside agencies and organizations to be able to conduct programs and studies that enhance radiological biota monitoring and ecosystem preservation when budgets are restrictive, as well as to provide valuable scientific information to the human health and natural resource communities at large. NNSA/NSO is using one current collaborative study to better assess the potential dose to the off-site public from the ingestion of game animals, the most realistic pathway for off-site public exposure at this time from radionuclide contamination on the NNSS. A second

  2. ECOLOGICAL EDUCATION

    GABRIELA GYONGY MIHUT

    2011-01-01

    While in most emerging and developing countries, the population has a lower ecological footprint in the developed countries have a larger footprint.There is also an alarming contrast between a person perception of her liability for damages to its environment and its actual size. These misconceptions may have their source in the absence of awareness of risks from climate change, culture or religion.The purpose of this study is to analyze the situation at the international and Romanian level an...

  3. Development Situations and Countermeasures of Low Carbon Ecological Circular Agriculture: A Case Study of Nantong City

    Yang, Chun-he; Qiao, Qi-cheng; Gu, Wei-bing; Sun, Jia-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Developing the low carbon ecological circular agriculture is an effective approach to realizing low carbon development of agriculture. Through investigation on existing measures and performance of development of low carbon type ecological circular agriculture in Nantong City, we analyzed the potential and problems of Nantong City in developing low carbon type ecological circular agriculture. Finally, with reference to domestic and foreign research achievements and practical experience, we put...

  4. Long-term ecological research in the Czech Republic - case study with a 3-year project

    Jelínková, E.; Straškrábová, Viera

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2001), s. 50-56. ISSN 1335-342X. [Long-Term Ecological Research Current State and Perspectives in the Central and Eastern Europe ILTER Regional Workshop /3./. Nitra, 23.05.2000-25.05.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/98/0727 Keywords : long-term ecological research * acidification * eutrophication Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.192, year : 2001

  5. Pastoralists and the Environmental State : A study of ecological resettlement in Inner Mongolia, China

    Zhang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    China's quest for sustainable development has given birth to a set of contested ‘ecological construction’ programmes. Focusing on ‘ecological resettlement’, a type of policy measure in a programme for restoring degraded grasslands, this thesis sets out a critical analysis in opposition to the dominant technical and managerial approaches to understanding environmentalisation. The aim is to draw out the politics of the formulation, implementation and effects of ecological resettlement at and ac...

  6. Extraction of high-quality host DNA from feces and regurgitated seeds: a useful tool for vertebrate ecological studies

    PATRICIA MARRERO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA extraction methods for genotyping non-invasive samples have led to great advances in molecular research for ecological studies, and have been particularly useful for analyzing threatened species. However, scarce amounts of fragmented DNA and the presence of Taq polymerase inhibitors in non-invasive samples are potential problems for subsequent PCR amplifications. In this study we describe a novel technique for extracting DNA from alimentary tract cells found on external surfaces of feces and regurgitated seeds. The presence of contaminants and inhibitors is minimized and samples are preserved intact for use in other ecological research (e.g. trophic studies. The amplification efficiency and purity of the extracted DNA from feces were significantly higher than in commonly used extraction procedures. Moreover, DNA of two bird species was identified from seeds expelled by regurgitation. Therefore, this method may be suitable for future ecological studies of birds, and other vertebrate groups.

  7. Studying the evolutionary ecology of cognition in the wild: a review of practical and conceptual challenges.

    Morand-Ferron, Julie; Cole, Ella F; Quinn, John L

    2016-05-01

    Cognition is defined as the processes by which animals collect, retain and use information from their environment to guide their behaviour. Thus cognition is essential in a wide range of behaviours, including foraging, avoiding predators and mating. Despite this pivotal role, the evolutionary processes shaping variation in cognitive performance among individuals in wild populations remain very poorly understood. Selection experiments in captivity suggest that cognitive traits can have substantial heritability and can undergo rapid evolution. However only a handful of studies have attempted to explore how cognition influences life-history variation and fitness in the wild, and direct evidence for the action of natural or sexual selection on cognition is still lacking, reasons for which are diverse. Here we review the current literature with a view to: (i) highlighting the key practical and conceptual challenges faced by the field; (ii) describing how to define and measure cognitive traits in natural populations, and suggesting which species, populations and cognitive traits might be examined to greatest effect; emphasis is placed on selecting traits that are linked to functional behaviour; (iii) discussing how to deal with confounding factors such as personality and motivation in field as well as captive studies; (iv) describing how to measure and interpret relationships between cognitive performance, functional behaviour and fitness, offering some suggestions as to when and what kind of selection might be predicted; and (v) showing how an evolutionary ecological framework, more generally, along with innovative technologies has the potential to revolutionise the study of cognition in the wild. We conclude that the evolutionary ecology of cognition in wild populations is a rapidly expanding interdisciplinary field providing many opportunities for advancing the understanding of how cognitive abilities have evolved. PMID:25631282

  8. Radio-ecological studies on the river Lippe (1982-1983)

    In 1982 and 1983 the Laboratory for Radio-ecology of water bodies of the Federal Institute for Fishery performed radio-ecological studies on the river Lippe, on the Datteln-Hamm-Canal and on one section of the Rhine near the city of Wesel in order to enable expert examination of the population's exposure to radiation originating from effluents of the planned Hamm Nuclear Power Plant (HNP). The present-day distribution of artificial and natural radionuclides in water, fish, seston, sediment and in drill cores from the Lippe and the pastures lying within the flood area was examined using radio-chemical methods and the nuclear-radiation measurement technique. The contents of the stable elements of antimony, nickel, cobalt, zinc, manganese, iron, silver and phosphorus in water and fish were determined to obtain some suggestions concerning the behaviour of radionuclides which are expected in the waste water of the HNP but which cannot be found in the environment at present. Concerning uptake and incorporation of radioactive nuclides in the bodies of fish from the Lippe and the Rhine section studied, mean concentration factors could be calculated from the measured values for the state of equilibrium. One single-time emission with the cooling water of the Westfalen nuclear power plant was examined using the inactive tracer of Dysprosium in order to study the behaviour of the emission cloud when running off with the river water. With this examination, complete cross-mixing at 800 m downstream from the cooling-water re-entry building was found at a Lippe downstream flow rate of 22 cbm/s which corresponds to its annual mean. The down-stream flow graph could be described by a dispersion graph showing a marked trailing effect. The cloud-fail values which were higher compared with those of the graph, could possibly be explained by recirculation obtaining with cooling water influx. (orig.)

  9. Effects of ionizing radiations on reticulated polymers associated to nuclear wastes. The HSF-SIMS technique contribution; Effets des radiations ionisantes sur les polymeres reticules associes aux dechets nucleaires. Apport de la technique HSF-SIMS

    Debre, O. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire

    1997-06-30

    Among the materials used for confinement of nuclear wastes of low and medium level activity the epoxyde resins are known as matrices which preserve well their properties in an ionizing environment. This work is dedicated to the investigation of the modifications occurring in molecular structure of these materials as well as of the ion exchange resins they incorporate, irradiated in different conditions. The first part deals with the analysis of a commercial reticulated epoxyde resin submitted to a 2 MGy integral dose gamma irradiation under two different dose rate (51 and 900 Gy/h), and under two different environments (air and water). The results obtained with the techniques providing structure information (time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HSF-SIMS) and FT-IR spectrometry) confirm those obtained by techniques sensible to macroscopic properties of material (DMA, DSC), taking into account that no noticeable irradiation effect can be made evident inside the material. On the other hand, an irradiation carried out in air results in a superficial oxidation, due probably to the action of the air radiolysis products. The preliminary results of an ion irradiation followed by an in-situ HSF-SIMS analysis pointed out to a basic difference between the energy amount transferred by gamma photons and fast ions; the last ones being able to induce scissions of the nearby liaisons in the material. The second part of this work is concerned with the ion exchange resins of the type PS-DVB saturated in water and non-active ions, simulating real wastes, irradiated in the same conditions as the epoxyde resins. In contrast to the results on the last one, it appears that the irradiation of these materials results primarily in scissions of the functional groups on which the ions are attached. In addition to this finding it appears that the role of water as carrying outward the attached ions appears to be fundamental 175 refs.

  10. Testing low cost OEM CO2 sensors for outdoor ecological studies

    Macintyre, C. M.; Risk, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    IR (Infrared) gas sensors are used extensively in CO2 research but price and power requirement often limits low-cost distributed sensing. In the past three years, sensors have been introduced to the industrial market at prices as low as $100 US for air-handling and automotive application. These inexpensive sensors are small in size, and have low power demand making them potentially ideal for low-cost distributed deployments. However, the sensors are only tested and calibrated for indoor use and for industrial standards and may not show their true potential for outdoor ecological studies. This poster summarizes the results of a sensor inter-comparison test, to document functionality, response time, electrical noise, precision, and accuracy, under varying moistures and temperatures broadly representative of a wide range of outdoor settings. The three selected sensors were placed in a closed loop system with a valving system using a LiCor Li-7000 as reference, controlled by a CR1000 datalogger that controlled CO2 and moisture concentrations content within the cell on the basis of LiCor readings. To achieve different temperatures, the tests were repeated at room temperature, inside a freezer (-18°C) and incubator (40°C). The tests involved repeatedly stepping the sensors from 2000 ppm CO2 to 400 ppm CO2 in 200 ppm or 400 ppm increments, at various moisture contents, and under the various temperature regimes. Vaisala 222 and 343 sensors were also part of the test group as comparators, as both are used widely in ecological research. The OEM sensors displayed good linearity, fast response time, and results comparable to Vaisala probes. In most cases the sensors performed beyond our expectations with notably less electrical noise than the Vaisala sensors and excellent power thriftiness. Some sensors showed better response to extreme moisture and temperature conditions. Provided that suitable protective embodiments were built around them, and that they are deployed in an

  11. Marine Vibrionaceae as a reservoir for bioprospecting and ecology studies

    Giubergia, Sonia

    transcriptome level the effects of chitin on the two vibrios Vibrio coralliilyticus and Photobacterium galatheae. It was shown that the dynamics of chitin colonization and utilization in these two species are similar to those reported for the well-characterized chitin colonizer Vibrio cholerae. Bacteria reach...... emerged as an untapped source of biodiversity, and this study investigated the marine bacterial family Vibrionaceae (“vibrios”) for its potential as reservoir of novel biodiversity and of species relevant for the ecology of the marine environment. The characterization of a novel species, Vibrio galatheae......, contributed to the understanding of the phylogeny and diversity of Vibrionaceae, while the use of growth conditions mimicking the niche of isolation showed that substrates that are abundant in the marine environment significantly influence the metabolism of vibrios. Indeed, during a screening of approximately...

  12. Radio-ecological studies on the air-soil-vine-wine food chain

    The report summarizes the results of the first three years (1983-85) of the radio-ecological studies on wine which were performed on eight sites from major German wine-growing regions involving red and white wine varieties typical of their region. The radionuclides of tritium, carbon 14, strontium 90, cesium 137, radium 226 and sodium 40 were examined for their contents and presence in the food chain of air-soil-vine-wine in order to determine the pollution situation in grapes and wine and to gain information on their behaviour in the food chain. A number of soil parameters important for nutrient uptake were determined to describe the site. (orig./MG)

  13. CHANGES OF HSF mRNA EXPRESSION IN RHESUS MONKEY TESTES DURING GERM CELL APOPTOSIS INDUCED BY HEAT STRESS OR HIGH DOSAGE OF TESTOSTERONE UNDECANOATE%HSF2 mRNA在热应激和大剂量11酸睾酮诱导恒河猴生精细胞凋亡中的表达变化

    周新昌; 胡召元; 邹如金; 刘以训

    2002-01-01

    为了探讨HSF2 mRNA在热应激和超生理剂量睾酮诱导恒河猴生精细胞凋亡中的表达变化,我们建立了手术诱导单侧隐睾和注射大剂量11酸睾酮(TU)恒河猴动物模型,应用3′末端标记分析(TUNEL)和原位杂交方法,检测睾丸细胞的凋亡信号和HSF2的表达变化.TUNEL结果显示热应激和超生理剂量睾酮能够诱导生精细胞出现凋亡信号,它分别于处理后第5天和第30天达到最强,表明热应激和睾酮干扰精子发生可能是通过生精细胞凋亡的方式来实现的.HSF2 mRNA水平在生精细胞凋亡早期(凋亡信号达到最强以前)略有降低,而在凋亡高峰期之后其表达急剧下降.Hsf2基因与我们以前研究的Hsp70-2基因的表达具有时间上的相关性,表明HSF2蛋白可能调控Hsp70-2基因的表达,而且HSF2可能通过多种方式影响精子的发生以及抑制生精细胞的凋亡.

  14. Occurrence of severe dengue in Rio de Janeiro: an ecological study

    Gerusa Gibson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the incidence of severe dengue during the 2008 epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and socioeconomic indicators, as well as indicators of health service availability and previous circulation of the dengue virus serotype-3 (DENV-3. Methods In this ecological study, the units of analysis were the districts of Rio de Janeiro. The data were incorporated into generalized linear models, and the incidence of severe dengue in each district was the outcome variable. Results The districts with more cases of dengue fever in the 2001 epidemic and a higher percentage of residents who declared their skin color or race as black had higher incidence rates of severe dengue in the 2008 epidemic [incidence rate ratio (IRR= 1.21; 95% confidence interval (95%CI= 1.05-1.40 and IRR= 1.34; 95%CI= 1.16-1.54, respectively]. In contrast, the districts with Family Health Strategy (FHS clinics were more likely to have lower incidence rates of severe dengue in the 2008 epidemic (IRR= 0.81; 95%CI= 0.70-0.93. Conclusions At the ecological level, our findings suggest the persistence of health inequalities in this region of Brazil that are possibly due to greater social vulnerability among the self-declared black population. Additionally, the protective effect of FHS clinics may be due to the ease of access to other levels of care in the health system or to a reduced vulnerability to dengue transmission that is afforded by local practices to promote health.

  15. Using large-scale climate indices in climate change ecology studies

    Forchhammer, Mads Cedergreen; Post, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Ecological responses, El Niño 3.4, Long-term climate variability, North Atlantic Oscillation, North Pacific Oscillation, Teleconnection patterns......Ecological responses, El Niño 3.4, Long-term climate variability, North Atlantic Oscillation, North Pacific Oscillation, Teleconnection patterns...

  16. Study on the Industrial Ecological Compensation in Inter-basin Regions

    Yachen Liu

    2010-01-01

    Aiming at the inter-basin pollution of water sources, the meaning, the content, and the system of the industrial ecological compensation are proposed in this article and the corresponding inter-basin industrial ecological compensation institution is suggested to be established.

  17. Methods of studying the functional ecology of protein and organ dynamics in birds

    Piersma, Theunis; Klaassen, Marcel; Adams, N.J.; Slotow, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    Birds are capable of adaptive responses to ecological challenges involving changes in body composition, including both body stores and functional tissues. These physiological adjustments may affect aspects of the birds’ ecology, such as choice of diet and microhabitat or susceptibility to aerial pre

  18. Data Explorations in Ecology: Salt Pollution as a Case Study for Teaching Data Literacy

    Harris, Cornelia; Berkowitz, Alan R.; Alvarado, Angelita

    2012-01-01

    Does working with first- and second-hand ecological data improve students' knowledge of ecological ideas, motivation and engagement in science, data exploration, and citizenship skills (students' ability to make informed decisions)? We have been exploring this question with high school science teachers in New York State for the past year using a…

  19. LPS致热家兔诱导HSF1聚合对体温及脑内AVP含量的影响%Effect of the polymerization of HSF1 on the febrile response and the content of vasopressin arginine in brain in LPS-induced fever rabbits

    金莲锦; 白宁; 曹宇

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨热休克因子1(HSF1)在脂多糖(LPS)致家兔发热过程中的作用及机制.方法 70只家兔随机分为4组:正常对照组(N)、槲皮素组(Q)、脂多糖组(L)和槲皮素+脂多糖组(Q+L).连续观察体温变化; Western blot方法检测不同实验条件下下丘脑HSF1和热休克蛋白70(HSP70)的表达;放射免疫法检测下丘脑及腹中隔区(VSA)精氨酸加压素(AVP)含量的变化.结果 ①各组体温变化最大值(△Tmax)由低至高顺序为:Q组<N组<L组<Q+ L组;其中,Q+L组与L组比较,△T(240~360 min期间)及体温反应指数TRI6均增高(P<0.05).②各组VSA中的AVP含量与体温变化呈正相关(r=0.913,P<0.01).Q+L组与L组比较,VSA中的AVP含量增高(240~360 min期间,P<0.05).③ HSF1三聚体的表达从致热后60 min(体温升高1.32±0.24℃)起逐渐增多,达到体温最高值时(180 min)为对照水平的1.752倍,此后,随着HSF1三聚体表达水平的进一步升高,体温逐渐下降.应用槲皮素(quercetin,Que)可抑制HSF1的聚合,可见当HSF1的聚合被抑制时HSP70表达水平相应降低.结论 发热时温度升高到一定程度可诱导下丘脑HSF1聚合,HSF1的聚合可限控体温的升高程度,而VSA中AVP含量的变化主要与体温升高的幅度有关.

  20. Expression and clinical significance of transcription factor HSF1 in human esophageal squamous carcinoma%转录因子HSF1在食管鳞状细胞癌组织中的表达及其临床意义

    冯子童; 田辉; 岳韦名; 李林; 李树海; 高存; 司立博; 鲁铭

    2015-01-01

    目的:检测热激因子1(heat-shock factor 1,HSF1)在食管鳞状细胞癌(esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,ESCC)组织中的表达水平,探讨其与ESCC临床病理特征及预后的关系.方法:选取2009年1月至2009年12月在山东大学齐鲁医院胸外科行手术治疗的90例ESCC患者的组织标本及50例相应癌旁组织标本,采用免疫组化法检测ESCC中HSF1蛋白的表达;另取20例2014年9月至2014年11月行手术切除的ESCC组织及癌旁组织标本,采用Real-time PCR法检测HSF1mRNA在ESCC及癌旁组织中的表达.分析HSF1蛋白表达与患者临床病理指标之间的关系,Kaplan-Meier法计算患者的5年生存率,Log-rank法比较患者的生存差别,Cox回归多因素分析判定独立的预后因素.结果:与癌旁组织相比,ESCC组织中HSF1 mRNA及蛋白的表达显著增高(均P<0.01);HSF1蛋白的表达与患者年龄(P=0.453)、性别(P =0.692)、吸烟史(P=o.318)及饮酒史(P =0.367)均无显著相关性,与淋巴结转移(P =0.002)、分化程度(P=0.012)及TNM分期(P =0.024)显著相关.单因素及多因素分析结果显示,HSF1高表达与患者不良预后有关.结论:HSF1在ESCC组织中呈现高表达,与ESCC的恶性进展及不良预后密切相关.

  1. Loss of Ecological Value in Farmland during Farmland Conversion:A Case Study of Shaanxi Province

    HE Xiao-ying; LI Fei; GUO Bei

    2012-01-01

    We divide the ecological functions of farmland into five types: soil conservation, water conservation, air purification, maintenance of biological diversity, entertainment and culture. Using the direct method of market evaluation, we establish the assessment model, to calculate the ecological service value of various functions, respectively, and then calculate the total loss of ecological value in farmland. Taking the case of Shaanxi Province, we calculate the total loss of ecological value in farmland in Shaanxi Province during the period 2000-2009 at 6 366.365 3 million yuan. Finally in order to rationally protect farmland, we put forth the following recommendations: correctly understanding the ecological benefit of farmland, and scientifically assessing the value of farmland; optimizing the industrial structure, and promoting intensive use of farmland; taking actions that suit local circumstances, and conducting rational planning of farmland use; strengthening multilateral cooperation, and establishing the common protection accountability mechanism of farmland.

  2. Effects of ionizing radiations on reticulated polymers associated to nuclear wastes. The HSF-SIMS technique contribution

    Among the materials used for confinement of nuclear wastes of low and medium level activity the epoxyde resins are known as matrices which preserve well their properties in an ionizing environment. This work is dedicated to the investigation of the modifications occurring in molecular structure of these materials as well as of the ion exchange resins they incorporate, irradiated in different conditions. The first part deals with the analysis of a commercial reticulated epoxyde resin submitted to a 2 MGy integral dose gamma irradiation under two different dose rate (51 and 900 Gy/h), and under two different environments (air and water). The results obtained with the techniques providing structure information (time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HSF-SIMS) and FT-IR spectrometry) confirm those obtained by techniques sensible to macroscopic properties of material (DMA, DSC), taking into account that no noticeable irradiation effect can be made evident inside the material. On the other hand, an irradiation carried out in air results in a superficial oxidation, due probably to the action of the air radiolysis products. The preliminary results of an ion irradiation followed by an in-situ HSF-SIMS analysis pointed out to a basic difference between the energy amount transferred by gamma photons and fast ions; the last ones being able to induce scissions of the nearby liaisons in the material. The second part of this work is concerned with the ion exchange resins of the type PS-DVB saturated in water and non-active ions, simulating real wastes, irradiated in the same conditions as the epoxyde resins. In contrast to the results on the last one, it appears that the irradiation of these materials results primarily in scissions of the functional groups on which the ions are attached. In addition to this finding it appears that the role of water as carrying outward the attached ions appears to be fundamental

  3. Morphological, hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological changes and challenges in river restoration - the Thur River case study

    Schirmer, M.; Luster, J.; Linde, N.; Perona, P.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Barry, D. A.; Hollender, J.; Cirpka, O. A.; Schneider, P.; Vogt, T.; Radny, D.; Durisch-Kaiser, E.

    2014-06-01

    River restoration can enhance river dynamics, environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity, but the underlying processes governing the dynamic changes need to be understood to ensure that restoration projects meet their goals, and adverse effects are prevented. In particular, we need to comprehend how hydromorphological variability quantitatively relates to ecosystem functioning and services, biodiversity as well as ground- and surface water quality in restored river corridors. This involves (i) physical processes and structural properties, determining erosion and sedimentation, as well as solute and heat transport behavior in surface water and within the subsurface; (ii) biogeochemical processes and characteristics, including the turnover of nutrients and natural water constituents; and (iii) ecological processes and indicators related to biodiversity and ecological functioning. All these aspects are interlinked, requiring an interdisciplinary investigation approach. Here, we present an overview of the recently completed RECORD (REstored CORridor Dynamics) project in which we combined physical, chemical, and biological observations with modeling at a restored river corridor of the perialpine Thur River in Switzerland. Our results show that river restoration, beyond inducing morphologic changes that reshape the river bed and banks, triggered complex spatial patterns of bank infiltration, and affected habitat type, biotic communities and biogeochemical processes. We adopted an interdisciplinary approach of monitoring the continuing changes due to restoration measures to address the following questions: How stable is the morphological variability established by restoration? Does morphological variability guarantee an improvement in biodiversity? How does morphological variability affect biogeochemical transformations in the river corridor? What are some potential adverse effects of river restoration? How is river restoration influenced by catchment-scale hydraulics

  4. Study on O2-supplying characteristics of Azolla in Controlled Ecological Life Support System

    Chen, Min; Deng, Sufang; Yang, Youquang; Huang, Yibing; Liu, Zhongzhu

    Azolla has high growth and propagation rate, strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability and rich nutrient value. It is able to be used as salad-type vegetable, and can also be cultured on wet bed in multi-layer condition. Hence, it possesses a potential functioning as providing O2, fresh vegetable and absorbing CO2 for Controlled Ecological Life Support System in space. In this study, we try to make clear the O2-providing characteristics of Azolla in controlled close chamber under manned condition in order to lay a foundation for Azolla as a biological component in the next ground simulated experiment and space application. A closed test cham-ber of Controlled Ecological Life Support System and Azolla wet-culturing devices were built to measure the changes of atmospheric O2-CO2 concentration inside chamber under "Azolla-fish -men" coexisting condition. The results showed that, the amount of O2 consumption is 80.49 83.07 ml/h per kilogram fish, the amount of CO2 emissions is 70.49 73.56 ml/(kg • h); O2 consumption of trial volunteers is 19.71 L/h, the volume of respiration release CO2 18.90 L/h .Artificial light intensity of Azolla wet culture under 70009000 Lx, people respiration and Azolla photosynthesis complemented each other, the atmospheric O2-CO2 concentration inside chamber maintained equilibration. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations in close chamber have obvious effects on enhancing Azolla net photosynthesis efficiency. This shows that Azolla has strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability, which equilibrates the O2-CO2 concentration inside chamber in favor of human survival, and then verifies the prospect of Azolla in space application.

  5. Ecological Study, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. in Golestan province (Deraznoo Mountain, Iran

    Mazandarani Masoumeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Many of Ziziphora species have been used in traditional medicine in North of Iran. This work was determined on ecological requirements, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. from Bovanloo region, Iran. Materials and Methods: Aerial parts of plant in blooming were collected from Deraznoo mountain (2500 m in August 2013, ecological and traditional data were recorded. The aqueous and methanol extracts were isolated by maceration, antioxidant capacity were measured by total antioxidant capacity (TAC, reducing power (RP and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH in comparison with butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT and butylated hydroxyanisole BHA antioxidant standard and then their antibacterial activity were studied in vitro against 9 gram positive and negative bacteria by using well method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assay. Results: Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. (Z. clinopodioides Lam often grows in sunny environment in Deraznoo mountain (2500 m, with annual rainfall of 334 mm and annual temperature of 10.3°C in temperate cold climate and sandy loam soil with Ec = 0.6 and pH = 6.9. It has been used by the rural people as an antispasm, anti-inflammatory, antifungal , anti-infective, sedative and expectorant agent to treat cold, flu, diarrhea, gasterointestinal disorder and stomach ache. The ethanol extract of plant had high antioxidant activity with IC50 values (32.5 ± 0.4 μg/ml especially in DPPH assay and exhibited good antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with IZ (28.1 ± 0.5, 24.8 ± 0.1, 19.4 ± 1.1 and 14.8 ± 1 mm, respectively with high MIC value of 14.5 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The methanol extract of Z. clinopodioides Lam. have suitable antibacterial and antioxidant activity which can be used as natural anti-infective agent to treat many infectious diseases.

  6. Affect Regulation and Purging: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study in Purging Disorder

    Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that affect may play an important role in the propensity to purge among women with Purging Disorder (PD). However, prior work has been constrained to cross-sectional or laboratory designs which impact temporal interpretations and ecological validity. This study examined the role of negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) in triggering and maintaining purging in PD using ecological momentary assessment. Women with PD (N=24) made multiple daily ratings of affect and behavior for two weeks. Multilevel models examined associations between affect and purging at different levels of analysis, including a novel analytic approach to address the specificity of changes in affect relative to purging behavior by comparing trajectories of change on purge versus non-purge days. For trajectories of affect over time, NA increased before purging and decreased following purging on purge days; however, only the decrease in NA following purging was significantly different from the trajectory of NA on non-purge days. Conversely, PA failed to increase before purging on purge days compared to a matched time-point on non-purge days. These findings suggest unique roles of PA in triggering and NA in maintaining purging in PD and support models in which purging functions to regulate affect. For comparisons of ratings before and after purging, NA increased and PA decreased after purging, highlighting how different analytic strategies produce different findings requiring integration into affect regulation models. These data provide insight into why women with PD purge after consuming normal amounts of food, a crucial first step for developing effective interventions. PMID:25688426

  7. Emotional Reactivity and Regulation in Anxious and Nonanxious Youth: A Cell-Phone Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    Tan, Patricia Z.; Forbes, Erika E.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Ryan, Neal D.; Siegle, Greg J.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Silk, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reviews have highlighted anxious youths' affective disturbances, specifically, elevated negative emotions and reliance on ineffective emotion regulation strategies. However, no study has examined anxious youth's emotional reactivity and regulation in real-world contexts. Methods: This study utilized an ecological momentary assessment…

  8. Attitudes, Opinions and Behavior of Managers on Application of Ecological Marketing in their Business - Testing Hypotheses - Case Study:Brasov County

    Funaru, M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of a quantitative research which studies the attitudes, opinions and behavior of managers of companies in Brasov on application of ecological marketing in their business. The research method used is a sample survey based. Research objectives are considering to determine the extent to which managers know and apply ecological marketing, reasons for which the ecological marketing application is a long-term strategy, views on the opportunity to apply ecological marketing etc. Conclusions drawn from testing of hypotheses of research show that, generally, managers of local firms consider ecological marketing as a long-term strategy of the company. The percentage of managers that applied ecological marketing in companies does not exceed 60%. A relatively small percentage of respondents believes that the application of ecological marketing within firms is a necessity, a social responsibility that can bring long-term benefits to companies.

  9. A Two-Year Ecological Study of Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a Brazilian Urban Slum.

    Panti-May, Jesús A; Carvalho-Pereira, Ticiana S A; Serrano, Soledad; Pedra, Gabriel G; Taylor, Josh; Pertile, Arsinoê C; Minter, Amanda; Airam, Vladimir; Carvalho, Mayara; Júnior, Nivison N; Rodrigues, Gorete; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Childs, James E; Begon, Mike; Costa, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The Norway or brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is among the most ubiquitous of rodents. However, the lack of studies describing Norway rat populations from tropical areas have limited our understanding regarding their demography and seasonal dynamics. In this study, we describe seasonal pattern in the abundance, reproductive parameters, and morphometrics of Norway rat populations in Salvador, Brazil. Rodents were trapped over four seasonal trapping periods (2013-2014) from three valleys. A total of 802 Norway rats were trapped over the course of the study over 7653 trap-nights. Norway rat abundance was high, but there was no significant differences between seasons. The reproductive parameters (e.g. frequency of pregnant and lactating females) did not show statistical differences between seasons. Female rats collected in the rainy season were heavier and older than females from the dry season. Salvador rats had a high incidence of pregnancy and birth rate (estimated birth rate of 79 young per year) compared to previous studies. The information generated is critical for the understanding of the ecology of Norway rat, the main reservoir of Leptospira in Salvador. However, future studies examining the effect of rodent control programs aimed at reducing populations, and determining rates of recovery, will further clarify our understanding of population dynamics. PMID:27015422

  10. A Two-Year Ecological Study of Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a Brazilian Urban Slum

    Panti-May, Jesús A.; Carvalho-Pereira, Ticiana S. A.; Serrano, Soledad; Pedra, Gabriel G.; Taylor, Josh; Pertile, Arsinoê C.; Minter, Amanda; Airam, Vladimir; Carvalho, Mayara; Júnior, Nivison N.; Rodrigues, Gorete; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.; Childs, James E.; Begon, Mike; Costa, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The Norway or brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is among the most ubiquitous of rodents. However, the lack of studies describing Norway rat populations from tropical areas have limited our understanding regarding their demography and seasonal dynamics. In this study, we describe seasonal pattern in the abundance, reproductive parameters, and morphometrics of Norway rat populations in Salvador, Brazil. Rodents were trapped over four seasonal trapping periods (2013–2014) from three valleys. A total of 802 Norway rats were trapped over the course of the study over 7653 trap-nights. Norway rat abundance was high, but there was no significant differences between seasons. The reproductive parameters (e.g. frequency of pregnant and lactating females) did not show statistical differences between seasons. Female rats collected in the rainy season were heavier and older than females from the dry season. Salvador rats had a high incidence of pregnancy and birth rate (estimated birth rate of 79 young per year) compared to previous studies. The information generated is critical for the understanding of the ecology of Norway rat, the main reservoir of Leptospira in Salvador. However, future studies examining the effect of rodent control programs aimed at reducing populations, and determining rates of recovery, will further clarify our understanding of population dynamics. PMID:27015422

  11. The Relationship between the Learning Ecology System and Students’ Engagement: A Case Study in Selangor

    Amla Mohd Salleh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available School engagement is a relatively new concept in education. However, studies have demonstrated that the concept is useful in predicting students’ academic achievement. The present study was conducted to examine Malaysian students’ school engagement status and to understand the factors that influenced their engagement. The survey method was used to collect data with a questionnaire measuring the level of students’ engagement in three psychological domains (cognitive, affective, and behavior. The influential factors were measured by learning about the ecological factors affecting the students’ academic engagement, including their teachers’ teaching practice and the support they received from teachers, peers, and parents. A total of 311 (male and female participants between the ages of 12 -16 years from form one, form two, form three, and form four in a school in Selangor were selected using a random sampling procedure. Data was analyzed using descriptive and correlational analyses. The results showed that male and female students exhibit significantly different levels of engagement. Female students have a higher level of engagement than males. Teachers’ teaching practices and the support students received from peers, parents, and teachers were positively correlated with students’ engagement level. Although the results of the study support the findings of previous studies, further studies are suggested to verify the present findings. Implications for schools and parenting practices are also discussed.

  12. A Two-Year Ecological Study of Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus in a Brazilian Urban Slum.

    Jesús A Panti-May

    Full Text Available The Norway or brown rat (Rattus norvegicus is among the most ubiquitous of rodents. However, the lack of studies describing Norway rat populations from tropical areas have limited our understanding regarding their demography and seasonal dynamics. In this study, we describe seasonal pattern in the abundance, reproductive parameters, and morphometrics of Norway rat populations in Salvador, Brazil. Rodents were trapped over four seasonal trapping periods (2013-2014 from three valleys. A total of 802 Norway rats were trapped over the course of the study over 7653 trap-nights. Norway rat abundance was high, but there was no significant differences between seasons. The reproductive parameters (e.g. frequency of pregnant and lactating females did not show statistical differences between seasons. Female rats collected in the rainy season were heavier and older than females from the dry season. Salvador rats had a high incidence of pregnancy and birth rate (estimated birth rate of 79 young per year compared to previous studies. The information generated is critical for the understanding of the ecology of Norway rat, the main reservoir of Leptospira in Salvador. However, future studies examining the effect of rodent control programs aimed at reducing populations, and determining rates of recovery, will further clarify our understanding of population dynamics.

  13. Prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren, and climate in west European countries: an ecologic study

    Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Águeda; Busquets-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo A.; López-Silvarrey, Angel; García-Hernández, Gloria; Fuertes, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries.

  14. On application of non—extensive statistical mechanics to studying ecological diversity

    Van Xuan, Le; Lan, Nguyen Tri; Viet, Nguyen Ai

    2016-06-01

    The concept of Tsallis entropy provides an extension of thermodynamics and statistical physics. In the ecology, Tsallis entropy is proposed to be a new class of diversity indices Sq which covers many common diversity indices found in ecological literature. As a new statistical model for the Whittaker plots describing species abundance distribution, the truncated exponential distribution is used to calculate the diversity and evenness indices. The obtained results in new model are graphically compared with those in previous publication in the same field of interests, and shows a good agreement. A further development of a thermodynamic theory of ecological systems that is consistent with entropic approach of statistical physics is motivated.

  15. Study on Network System Construction of Forest Ecological in Huaining New Town

    HUANGQingfeng; WUZemin; WANGJianan; HUANGChenglin; LIBao; QIANNimiao

    2004-01-01

    Urban forest is an important composition and the window and soul of modern cities, which has a close relationship with ecological environment and investing environment. So urban forest has been constructed in China. Huaining County could hold of the historical opportunity and come up with the great blueprint of forest ecological network system construction for the new town. This paper mainly introduces the guiding ideas, principles, goals and overall layouts of the construction in the new town, and hope that it will be a model for other county-level forest ecological network system construction in China.

  16. HSF1 and NF-κB p65 participate in the process of exercise preconditioning attenuating pressure overload-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy

    Xu, Tongyi [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, No. 401 Hospital of PLA, Qingdao (China); Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Ben [Centre of Cardiovascular Surgery, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Region, Guangzhou (China); Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Yang, Fan; Cai, Chengliang; Wang, Guokun [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Han, Qingqi, E-mail: handoctor@gmail.com [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Zou, Liangjian, E-mail: zouliangjiansh@gmail.com [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-05-08

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy, often accompanied by hypertension, aortic stenosis and valvular defects, is typically associated with myocyte remodeling and cardiac dysfunction. Exercise preconditioning (EP) has been proven to enhance the tolerance of the myocardium to cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the effects of EP in pathological cardiac hypertrophy are rarely reported. 10-wk-old male Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 80) were randomly divided into four groups: sham, TAC, EP + sham and EP + TAC. Two EP groups were subjected to 4 weeks of treadmill training, and the EP + TAC and TAC groups were followed by TAC operations. The sham and EP + sham groups underwent the same operation without aortic constriction. Eight weeks after the surgery, we evaluated the effects of EP by echocardiography, morphology, and histology and observed the expressions of the associated proteins. Compared with the respective control groups, hypertrophy-related indicators were significantly increased in the TAC and EP + TAC groups (p < 0.05). However, between the TAC and EP + TAC groups, all of these changes were effectively inhibited by EP treatment (p < 0.05). Furthermore, EP treatment upregulated the expression of HSF1 and HSP70, increased the HSF1 levels in the nuclear fraction, inhibited the expression of the NF-κB p65 subunit, decreased the NF-κB p65 subunit levels in the nuclear fraction, and reduced the IL2 levels in the myocardia of rats. EP could effectively reduce the cardiac hypertrophic responses induced by TAC and may play a protective role by upregulating the expressions of HSF1 and HSP70, activating HSF1 and then inhibiting the expression of NF-κB p65 and nuclear translocation. - Highlights: • EP could effectively reduce the cardiac hypertrophic responses induced by TAC. • EP may play a protective role by upregulating the expressions of HSF1 and HSP70 and then activating HSF1. • EP may play a protective role by inhibiting the expression

  17. HSF1 and NF-κB p65 participate in the process of exercise preconditioning attenuating pressure overload-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy, often accompanied by hypertension, aortic stenosis and valvular defects, is typically associated with myocyte remodeling and cardiac dysfunction. Exercise preconditioning (EP) has been proven to enhance the tolerance of the myocardium to cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the effects of EP in pathological cardiac hypertrophy are rarely reported. 10-wk-old male Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 80) were randomly divided into four groups: sham, TAC, EP + sham and EP + TAC. Two EP groups were subjected to 4 weeks of treadmill training, and the EP + TAC and TAC groups were followed by TAC operations. The sham and EP + sham groups underwent the same operation without aortic constriction. Eight weeks after the surgery, we evaluated the effects of EP by echocardiography, morphology, and histology and observed the expressions of the associated proteins. Compared with the respective control groups, hypertrophy-related indicators were significantly increased in the TAC and EP + TAC groups (p < 0.05). However, between the TAC and EP + TAC groups, all of these changes were effectively inhibited by EP treatment (p < 0.05). Furthermore, EP treatment upregulated the expression of HSF1 and HSP70, increased the HSF1 levels in the nuclear fraction, inhibited the expression of the NF-κB p65 subunit, decreased the NF-κB p65 subunit levels in the nuclear fraction, and reduced the IL2 levels in the myocardia of rats. EP could effectively reduce the cardiac hypertrophic responses induced by TAC and may play a protective role by upregulating the expressions of HSF1 and HSP70, activating HSF1 and then inhibiting the expression of NF-κB p65 and nuclear translocation. - Highlights: • EP could effectively reduce the cardiac hypertrophic responses induced by TAC. • EP may play a protective role by upregulating the expressions of HSF1 and HSP70 and then activating HSF1. • EP may play a protective role by inhibiting the expression

  18. Ecological baseline studies in Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons County of Los Alamos, New Mexico. A two-year study

    Foxx, T.S. [comp.

    1995-11-01

    During the summers of 1993 and 1994, the Biological Resource Evaluations Team (BRET) of the Environmental Protection Group (ESH-8) conducted baseline studies within two canyon systems, Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons. Biological data was collected within each canyon to provide background and baseline information for Ecological Risk models. Baseline studies included establishment of permanent vegetation plots within each canyon along the elevational gradient. Then, in association with the various vegetation types, surveys were conducted for ground dwelling insects, birds, and small mammals. The stream channels associated with the permanent vegetation plots were characterized and aquatic macroinvertebrates collected within the stream monthly throughout a six-month period. The Geographic Position System (GPS) in combination with ARC INFO was used to map the study areas. Considerable data was collected during these surveys and are summarized in individual chapters.

  19. A Study on Forest Species Diversity and Its Ecological Service Function in the Plateau Area of Western Sichuan

    DengYu-Lin; WangYu-kuan; PengPei-hao

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a study on species diversity and its ecological service function in the plateau area in western Sichuan. The results show that species diversity in the plantations on the cutover land has a tendency to increase and that its ecological service function is to be improved with stand age growing. The species diversity in forest communities is also gradually increased on different succession stage till reaching a climax level. But the species diversity in the climax community is slightly decreased before it reaches a relatively constant status. Ecological service function of diversity is gradually strengthened with the progress of succession. In addition, species diversity in a stand in a similar site and at a same age differs among forest types. Species diversity index within a coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest is larger than that within a coniferous forest. Meanwhile, species diversity enriches as the tree density increases.

  20. Cranberry extract standardized for proanthocyanidins promotes the immune response of Caenorhabditis elegans to Vibrio cholerae through the p38 MAPK pathway and HSF-1.

    Jessica Dinh

    Full Text Available Botanicals are rich in bioactive compounds, and some offer numerous beneficial effects to animal and human health when consumed. It is well known that phytochemicals in cranberries have anti-oxidative and antimicrobial activities. Recently, an increasing body of evidence has demonstrated that cranberry phytochemicals may have potential benefits that promote healthy aging. Here, we use Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to show that water-soluble cranberry extract standardized to 4.0% proanthocyanidins (WCESP, a major component of cranberries, can enhance host innate immunity to resist against Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae; wild type C6706 (O1 El Tor biotype infection. Supplementation of WCESP did not significantly alter the intestinal colonization of V. cholerae, but upregulated the expression of C. elegans innate immune genes, such as clec-46, clec-71, fmo-2, pqn-5 and C23G10.1. Additionally, WCESP treatment did not affect the growth of V. cholerae and expression of the major bacterial virulence genes, and only slightly reduced bacterial colonization within C. elegans intestine. These findings indicate that the major components of WCESP, including proanthocyanidins (PACs, may play an important role in enhancing the host innate immunity. Moreover, we engaged C. elegans mutants and identified that the p38 MAPK signaling, insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS, and HSF-1 play pivotal roles in the WCESP-mediated host immune response. Considering the level of conservation between the innate immune pathways of C. elegans and humans, the results of this study suggest that WCESP may also play an immunity-promoting role in higher order organisms.

  1. Ecological studies on the freshwater fishes of the Alligator Rivers region, Northern Territory

    The tropical climate of the Alligator Rivers Region (ARR) has a distinctive wet-dry cycle , resulting in seasonal flows in the creeks and rivers of its catchments. The present study, begun in August 1978, was aimed at developing an ecological monitoring system that would detect any changes to the freshwater fish communities brought about by recent uranium mining and processing in the lowlands of the ARR. The focus of the synecological studies, was a description of spatial and temporal patterns in the community structure of the fish fauna. Interpretation of these patterns was made possible by the collection of detailed environmental data from the study sites. It was found that of the ARR seasonal changes in environmental conditions were so marked that they often obscured the effects of environmental gradients along a watercourse and differing environmental conditions characteristics of different types of waterbody. Hence it may not be entirely satisfactory to define environmental zones in these catchments based on overall environmental conditions through the whole seasonal cycle, because changes in any one such zone between seasons result in very marked changes in the fish communities of habitats in that zone. 34 refs., 22 tabs., 45 figs., 3 maps

  2. Performance of Primary Dental Care Services: An Ecological Study in a Large Brazilian City

    Rita Sibele Souza Esteves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the association between area-level primary dental care performance and area-level demographics, dental treatment need, and health care service indicators. An ecological cross-sectional study was performed in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, in 2010. The 142 primary health care (PHC units were grouped based on the following variables: access to individual dental treatment, frequency of dental emergencies, and frequency of individual preventive procedures. The independent variables analyzed were demographic variables, dental treatment need, and health care service indicators. The data were obtained from the information systems of the Brazilian Ministry of Health and the city of Belo Horizonte. We explored the associations between membership in a specific PHC cluster type and the independent variables using multinomial logistic regression with a significance level of 5%. Variables such as the high/very high vulnerability of population, rate of completed treatment, and rate of referrals of users to secondary care were independently associated with the clusters (P<0.05. The performance of primary dental care services was associated with patient demographics, dental treatment need, and referrals. The results of this study have implications for the planning of public policies.

  3. Ecological study on mangrove forest in East Coast of North Sumatra

    ONRIZAL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological studies on mangrove forest in East Coast of North Sumatra have been carried out with field work in transect method and laboratory analyses. This study would be covered on floristic composition, abrasion, green belt, soil properties, and water quality of mangroves. Land system map and landsat TM imagery (year 1996 coverage as main material in this study were used and overlay to determine training area. Based on vegetation inventory found that 20 mangrove species and by vegetation analyses, we known that Avicennia marina was as dominant tree species of seedling and sapling stage. Tree stage was not found in the area, yet. Environment properties of the mangrove area were suitable for mangrove growth and rehabilitation with the exception of pyrite content in the mangrove soil. Average of mangrove green belt was 25 m with range from 10 to 80 m in KJP (Kajapah land system and 30 m with range 10 to 50 m in PTG (Putting land system. Abrasion rate in the area was very high, i.e. 6 m per year in KJP land system, and 10 m per year in PTG land system.

  4. Associations between the macroeconomic indicators and suicide rates in India: Two ecological studies

    Anto P Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: While western studies have focused on the importance of psychiatric illnesses in the complex pathways leading to suicides, several Indian studies have highlighted the important contributions by economic, social, and cultural factors. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that annual national suicide rates and suicide rates of the different states in India were associated with macroeconomic indices. Materials and Methods: Data from the National crime records bureau, Ministry of finance, labour bureau, Government of India, population commission, and planning commission official portals, World Bank and the United Nations were accessed. We assessed the correlations of annual national and state-wise suicide rates with macroeconomic, health, and other indices using ecological study design for India, and for its different states and union territories. Results: We documented statistically significant associations between the suicide rates and per capita gross domestic product, consumer price index, foreign exchange, trade balance, total health expenditure as well as literacy rates. Conclusions: As recent economic growth in India is associated with increasing suicide rates, macroeconomic policies emphasizing equitable distribution of resources may help curtailing the population suicide rates in India.

  5. ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF CYANOBACTERIA IN SEWAGE POND OF H.E.C INDUSTRIAL AREA, RANCHI INDIA

    Amit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecological study of the sewage stabilization pond of HEC area, Hatia, Ranchi has been taken for the first time in this area. Studies were conducted to determine the occurrence and abundance of cyanobacteria in relation to physico-chemical characteristics of sewage pond. It assumes significance of algae mostly cyanobacteria can be used as bioindicators of water pollution in different water habitat of the area. Increased eutrophication from domestic effluent, sewage promotes the development of algal bloom. This study indicates the maximum occurrence and abundance of Microcystis, Oscillatoria, and phormidium spp. in all sites of the sewage pond. The physico-chemical analysis shows maximum nitrogen up to 35.4 mg l-1, 4.8 mg l-1 phosphate, 147.131 mg l-1 chloride and alkaline nature of water throughout the year favour the growth of cyanophycean members and promote algal bloom formation of Microcystis aeruginosa, O.princeps and O.tenuis in this pond.

  6. An ecological approach to prospective and retrospective timing of long durations: a study involving gamers.

    Simon Tobin

    Full Text Available To date, most studies comparing prospective and retrospective timing have failed to use long durations and tasks with a certain degree of ecological validity. The present study assessed the effect of the timing paradigm on playing video games in a "naturalistic environment" (gaming centers. In addition, as it involved gamers, it provided an opportunity to examine the effect of gaming profile on time estimation. A total of 116 participants were asked to estimate prospectively or retrospectively a video game session lasting 12, 35 or 58 minutes. The results indicate that time is perceived as longer in the prospective paradigm than in the retrospective one, although the variability of estimates is the same. Moreover, the 12-minute session was perceived as longer, proportionally, than the 35- and 58-minute sessions. The study also revealed that the number of hours participants spent playing video games per week was a significant predictor of time estimates. To account for the main findings, the differences between prospective and retrospective timing are discussed in quantitative terms using a proposed theoretical framework, which states that both paradigms use the same cognitive processes, but in different proportions. Finally, the hypothesis that gamers play more because they underestimate time is also discussed.

  7. Correlations between cutaneous malignant melanoma and other cancers: An ecological study in forty European countries

    Pablo Fernandez-Crehuet Serrano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of noncutaneous neoplasms does not seem to increase the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma; however, it seems to be associated with the development of other hematological, brain, breast, uterine, and prostatic neoplasms. An ecological transversal study was conducted to study the geographic association between cutaneous malignant melanoma and 24 localizations of cancer in forty European countries. Methods: Cancer incidence rates were extracted from GLOBOCAN database of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We analyzed the age-adjusted and gender-stratified incidence rates for different localizations of cancer in forty European countries and calculated their correlation using Pearson′s correlation test. Results: In males, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with testicular cancer (r = 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.68-0.89], myeloma (r = 0.68 [95% CI: 0.46-0.81], prostatic carcinoma (r = 0.66 [95% CI: 0.43-0.80], and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL (r = 0.63 [95% CI: 0.39-0.78]. In females, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with breast cancer (r = 0.80 [95% CI: 0.64-0.88], colorectal cancer (r = 0.72 [95% CI: 0.52-0.83], and NHL (r = 0.71 [95% CI: 0.50-0.83]. Conclusions: These correlations call to conduct new studies about the epidemiology of cancer in general and cutaneous malignant melanoma risk factors in particular.

  8. Immortalization of embryonic fibroblasts in heat shock transcription factor 1 knockout mouse%HSF1基因敲除小鼠胚胎成纤维细胞的永生化

    刘梅冬; 张华莉; 龚环宇; 陈广文; 王慷慨; 鄂顺梅; 肖献忠

    2006-01-01

    目的:建立HSF1-/-,HSF1+/+两种基因型小鼠胚胎成纤维永生化细胞系,为HSF1的功能研究提供实验模型.方法:用脂质体介导的基因转染法将pSV3neo质粒导入HSF1-/-,HSF1+/+两种基因型小鼠胚胎成纤维细胞,经G418筛选,抗性克隆扩大培养,建立永生化细胞系;用PCR检测两种细胞株中目的基因的整合,用RT-PCR法鉴定SV40 T基因在转染细胞中的表达;用Western blot检测所建细胞株的诱导型热休克蛋白70的表达情况.结果:有3个细胞克隆已扩大培养稳定传代达6个月,经鉴定SV40 T抗原已整合到两种细胞中且稳定表达, HSF1-/-胚胎成纤维细胞热休克蛋白70的诱导表达消失.结论:成功建立永生化HSF1-/-,HSF1+/+两种基因型小鼠胚胎成纤维细胞.

  9. Defining and measuring ecological specialization

    Devictor, Vincent; Clavel, Joanne; Julliard, Romain; Lavergne, Sébastien; Mouillot, David; Thuiller, Wilfried; Venail, Patrick; Villéger, Sébastien; Mouquet, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    1.  Ecological specialization is one of the main concepts in ecology and conservation. However, this concept has become highly context-dependent and is now obscured by the great variability of existing definitions and methods used to characterize ecological specialization. 2.  In this study, we clarify this concept by reviewing the strengths and limitations of different approaches commonly used to define and measure ecological specialization. We first show that ecological specialization can e...

  10. Terrestrial Ecology Guide.

    Morrison, James W., Ed.; Hall, James A., Ed.

    This collection of study units focuses on the study of the ecology of land habitats. Considered are such topics as map reading, field techniques, forest ecosystem, birds, insects, small mammals, soils, plant ecology, preparation of terrariums, air pollution, photography, and essentials of an environmental studies program. Each unit contains…

  11. Case Study of Marine Ecological Compensation Criteria Based on Environmental Risk

    ZHANG Ji-wei; YANG Zhi-feng; TANG Jun-jian; CHEN Chu-han

    2009-01-01

    This paper forecasted and identified the environmental risks and ecological effect caused by chemical spill by simulating the xylene spill in Xiamen waters. The evaluation objects of ecological damage include four parts: marine ecosystem services, sea water quality, marine biological resources (plankton, benthos, nekton, etc.), and beach habitat. The ecological compensation criterion was confirmed as 1.73 million Yuan per year in the short term and 8.09 million Yuan in the long term. And an ecological compensation mode was suggested to be that if the chemical spill does not occur this year, the compensation will return to the enterprise next year; while if chemical spill occurs, the compensation will not be returned. The encouragement mechanism "returning compensation if no spill" might motivate enterprises to improve the environmental risk management and avoid the risks.

  12. Hydrology Ecology Study Proposed for the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge 1978

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a proposal and brief outline of a hydrology/ecology project to be done at the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. Its objectives are: 1) to examine...

  13. Ecotoxicogenomics to Support Ecological Risk Assessment: A Case Study with Bisphenol A in Fish

    Toxicogenomic approaches are being increasingly applied in the field of ecotoxicology. Given the growing availability of ecotoxicogenomic data, the Agency and the broader scientific community are actively engaged in considering how best to use those data to support ecological ris...

  14. QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN FOR 1991 PILOT STUDY OF ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    The purpose of this quality assurance plan is to detail the methods and procedures to be used in the pilot study of the ecological condition in municipal wastewater constructed wetland treatment systems. t includes specific procedures for assuring that data are of known, high qua...

  15. Are tags from Mars and descriptors from Venus? A study on the ecology of educational resource metadata

    Vuorikari, Riina; Sillaots, Martin; Panzavolta, Silvia; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Vuorikari, R., Sillaots, M., Panzavolta, S. & Koper, R. (2009). Are tags from Mars and descriptors from Venus? A study on the ecology of educational resource metadata. In M. Spaniol, Q. Li, R. Klamma & R. W. H. Lau (Eds.), Proceedings of the 8th International Conference Advances in Web Based Learnin

  16. Hurricane Impacts on Ecological Services and Economic Values of Coastal Urban Forest: A Case Study of Pensacola, Florida

    As urbanized areas continue to grow and green spaces dwindle, the importance of urban forests increases for both ecologically derived health benefits and for their potential to mitigate climate change. This study examined pre- and post- hurricane conditions of Pensacola's urban f...

  17. Studying Behavioral Ecology on High School & College Campuses: A Practical Guide to Measuring Foraging Behavior Using Urban Wildlife

    Baker, Mohammad A. Abu; Emerson, Sara E.; Brown, Joel S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a practical field exercise for ecology and animal behavior classes that can be carried out on campus, using urban wildlife. Students document an animal's feeding behavior to study its interactions with the surrounding environment. In this approach, an animal's feeding behavior is quantified at experimental food patches placed within its…

  18. The analysis of the road’s ecological environment and case study

    Wang Song

    2015-01-01

    The mileages of both urban roads and highways are in the process of rising. Therefore, the problems about road’s ecological environment have been put out. This paper, analysing some basic ecological environmental problems in G Road, District Fang Cheng Gang , Guangxi Province, pointed out that the roads and highways are the products during the development of economy and society, which need to be balanced by factors like natural eco-environment and social eco-environment. At the sa...

  19. Ecological Footprint of Research University Students: A Pilot Case Study in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

    See Tan Ang; Wai Choong Weng; Zen Irina Safitri

    2016-01-01

    Ecological footprint (EF) is potential to be applied in universities to assist building management units to coordinate in order to reduce environmental impact and to achieve sustainable resource consumption from its main activities including teaching-learning, research and operations. As many Malaysian universities declare to become sustainability campus, the adoption of ecological footprint in measuring campus sustainability will provide insight and better understanding about the performance...

  20. Studying Consumers’ Ecological Consciousness – A Comparative Analysis of Romania, Malaysia and Pakistan

    Jamilah Ahmad; Imran Ali; Georgiana Florentina Grigore; Alin Stancu

    2012-01-01

    In the context of an increasing discourse on sustainability and environmental protection, the research on ecological consumer behavior becomes a necessity for companies. The extension in number of multinational companies determines an adaptation of their policies from one country to another. Based on a comparative approach of consumers in Romania, Malaysia and Pakistan, this paper analysis the dimensions of ecological consciousness, and highlights similarities and differences between the coun...

  1. Theory of ecological resilience and their application to soil fauna studies

    Sterzyńska, M.; Nicia, P.; Pižl, Václav; Starý, Josef; Tajovský, Karel

    České Budějovice : Institute of Soil Biology, BC ASCR, 2013. s. 54. ISBN 978-80-86525-23-5. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /12./. 08.04.2013-11.04.2013, České Budějovice] Grant ostatní: National Science Center(PL) 1562/B/p01/2011/40 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ecological resilience * soil fauna Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  2. Ecological dynamics and human welfare: a case study of population, health and nutrition in Zimbabwe

    Wilson, K.B.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis examines the impact of seasonal and inter-annual variations in rainfall on food supply and disease environment, and hence the biological welfare of savannah populations in southern Zimbabwe. Ecological dynamics are thought to determine the impact of rainfall, and this hypothesis is tested through the comparison of populations either side of a major ecological boundary between heavy clay rich and sandy soils. Due to differences in soil-moisture productivity relati...

  3. Robert Park and Ernest Burgess, Urban Ecology Studies, 1925. CSISS Classics

    Brown, Nina

    2002-01-01

    In the 1920s, Park and Burgess developed a distinctive program of urban research at the University of Chicago. In  projects focused on Chicago, they elaborated a theory of urban ecology that drew parallels with processes found in natural ecosystems, leading ultimately to  the division of the urban space into distinctive ecological niches or "natural areas" in which people shared similar social characteristics.

  4. Quantitative evaluation of sustainable development based on ecological footprint method: a case study of Tianjin

    2008-01-01

    Since the concept of sustainable development emerged in the late 1980s, more and more countries and regions have been utilizing sustainable development as their developing strategy. But decades have passed without any effective methods available to quantitatively assess sustainable development, Since the ecological footprint evaluation method initiated in 1992, it has become popular in quantitative assessment of sustainable development because of its convenience, easy-understanding, and reliability. As one of the biggest coastal cities in north China and the economic center of the Bohai Coastal Region, Tianjin's gross domestic product (GDP) was 369.762 billion yuan in 2005, accounting for 2.0% of the whole nation's GDP The paper analyzes Tianjin's development with the ecological footprint method, and the results show that Tianjin's ecological footprint and biocapacity in 2005 were 2. 507gha/cap and 0.276gha/cap respectively. The ecological deficit was 2.230gha/cap. And from 1980 to 2005, Tianjin's ecological deficit per 104 yuan GDP decreased; while per capita ecological deficit has been tending to increase rapidly in recent years. All these results demonstrate that Tianjin is in a state of unsustainable development.

  5. Medico-ecological study and health impact assessment of hydro-electric projects in Malaysia

    The objectives of this studies were to determine i) if there was any potential health risks in terms of spread of vector-borne and other communicable diseases resulting from the changes in the environment due to creation of large bodies of water as consequence of the construction of dams, ii) diseases of public health importance in populations affected by such projects. Nine pre-impoundment studies had been carried out and potential impact of the change in environment on discases and health of the affected populations in each areas was evaluated. Risk of infections to the dam construction workers also assessed. Recommendations on mitigation measures were made for each situation so that adequate provisions could be made to improve the health conditions of these populations especially those who would be resettled as a result of impoundment . Prevention and control measures on transmission of infection, including vector control were proposed. The potential medico-ecological hazards encountered by immigrants and visitors to the area on completion of the hydro project were also envisaged

  6. A study of economic development in Tibet of China based on the ecological economic mode

    Zhao Xiaohong; He Jia; Jiang Li

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the issues on keeping the continuous development of Tibetan economy and the relative stability of its ecosystem. Hence, in order to achieve the object, the study analyzes the status quo of economic development in Tibet and the problems of resource exploitation. It especially discusses frailty of Tibetan eco-environment, and evaluates the contradictions between the traditional economic developing mode and the safety of plateau's ecosystem. It concludes that there is an inevitable clash between the development of Tibetan economy and the safety of plateau's eco-system; this problem cannot be avoided by any decision maker. Therefore, the character of Tibetan eco-environment and the requirement of its economic development strategy determine that ecological economy developing mode is the only choice for Tibet. This paper suggests that it should be compensated by the national government to assure that Tibetan economy can keep a higher developing speed. In accordance with the feature of plateau eco-economy system and demand of Tibetan economic development, this paper also suggests several methods to apply the eco-economy developing strategy of Tibet.

  7. Spatial distribution of psychotic disorders in an urban area of France: an ecological study.

    Pignon, Baptiste; Schürhoff, Franck; Baudin, Grégoire; Ferchiou, Aziz; Richard, Jean-Romain; Saba, Ghassen; Leboyer, Marion; Kirkbride, James B; Szöke, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Previous analyses of neighbourhood variations of non-affective psychotic disorders (NAPD) have focused mainly on incidence. However, prevalence studies provide important insights on factors associated with disease evolution as well as for healthcare resource allocation. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of prevalent NAPD cases in an urban area in France. The number of cases in each neighbourhood was modelled as a function of potential confounders and ecological variables, namely: migrant density, economic deprivation and social fragmentation. This was modelled using statistical models of increasing complexity: frequentist models (using Poisson and negative binomial regressions), and several Bayesian models. For each model, assumptions validity were checked and compared as to how this fitted to the data, in order to test for possible spatial variation in prevalence. Data showed significant overdispersion (invalidating the Poisson regression model) and residual autocorrelation (suggesting the need to use Bayesian models). The best Bayesian model was Leroux's model (i.e. a model with both strong correlation between neighbouring areas and weaker correlation between areas further apart), with economic deprivation as an explanatory variable (OR = 1.13, 95% CI [1.02-1.25]). In comparison with frequentist methods, the Bayesian model showed a better fit. The number of cases showed non-random spatial distribution and was linked to economic deprivation. PMID:27189529

  8. Heterozygote Advantage Probably Maintains Rhesus Factor Blood Group Polymorphism: Ecological Regression Study.

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Rhesus factor polymorphism has been an evolutionary enigma since its discovery in 1939. Carriers of the rarer allele should be eliminated by selection against Rhesus positive children born to Rhesus negative mothers. Here I used an ecologic regression study to test the hypothesis that Rhesus factor polymorphism is stabilized by heterozygote advantage. The study was performed in 65 countries for which the frequencies of RhD phenotypes and specific disease burden data were available. I performed multiple multivariate covariance analysis with five potential confounding variables: GDP, latitude (distance from the equator), humidity, medical care expenditure per capita and frequencies of smokers. The results showed that the burden associated with many diseases correlated with the frequencies of particular Rhesus genotypes in a country and that the direction of the relation was nearly always the opposite for the frequency of Rhesus negative homozygotes and that of Rhesus positive heterozygotes. On the population level, a Rhesus-negativity-associated burden could be compensated for by the heterozygote advantage, but for Rhesus negative subjects this burden represents a serious problem. PMID:26811928

  9. Radon in Drinking Water and Cancer Mortality: An Ecological Study in Japan

    Yoshinaga, Shinji; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Narazaki, Yukinori; Mizuno, Shoichi; Akiba, Suminori

    2008-08-01

    There is limited information on the health effects of radon in drinking water in spite of their potential exposures. We conducted an ecological study in a small town in Japan where the groundwater with high concentrations of radon is supplied as utilities. A total of 607 cancer deaths were ascertained by vital statistics in that town from 1972 to 1997. Standardized mortality ratios on the basis of national rates were 1.01 (95% confidence interval; 0.93-1.09) for all cancers, 1.10 (0.95-1.28) for stomach cancer, 0.88 (0.70-1.10) for lung cancer, and 1.14 (0.87-1.48) for liver cancer. Mortality from liver cancer was significantly higher than that of two surrounding control cities combined, with a relative risk of 1.40 (1.04-1.89) based on Poisson regression analysis. Lack of information on possible confounders including diet, alcohol drinking, smoking and hepatitis virus infection, is the main limitation of the study, which precludes the evaluation of causal associations.

  10. Radon in Drinking Water and Cancer Mortality: An Ecological Study in Japan

    There is limited information on the health effects of radon in drinking water in spite of their potential exposures. We conducted an ecological study in a small town in Japan where the groundwater with high concentrations of radon is supplied as utilities. A total of 607 cancer deaths were ascertained by vital statistics in that town from 1972 to 1997. Standardized mortality ratios on the basis of national rates were 1.01 (95% confidence interval; 0.93-1.09) for all cancers, 1.10 (0.95-1.28) for stomach cancer, 0.88 (0.70-1.10) for lung cancer, and 1.14 (0.87-1.48) for liver cancer. Mortality from liver cancer was significantly higher than that of two surrounding control cities combined, with a relative risk of 1.40 (1.04-1.89) based on Poisson regression analysis. Lack of information on possible confounders including diet, alcohol drinking, smoking and hepatitis virus infection, is the main limitation of the study, which precludes the evaluation of causal associations

  11. The artificial catchment `Chicken Creek' (`Huehnerwasser') as a new research tool for hydrological and ecological studies

    Gerwin, W.; Schaaf, W.; Hüttl, R. F.

    2009-04-01

    The most important framework of many ecological studies are watersheds as landscape units for water and element budgets. However, internal structures of natural catchments are often not well known due to natural heterogeneity and difficult boundary conditions. Important information has to be extrapolated from point measurements or indirect exploration methods. In contrast, artificial watersheds have the advantage of better defined boundaries and internal structures. Both local boundary conditions, e.g. the accordance of the surface and the groundwater catchment or hydrologic parameters like drainage patterns, discharge points and stratification can be designed and precisely documented during site construction. A recently launched German-Swiss Collaborative Research Centre is investigating the 'Chicken Creek' watershed which can be seen as one of the largest artificially created catchments for scientific purposes worldwide. The main hypothesis of the Collaborative Research Centre is that initial structures define and shape the development of an ecosystem as well as its later stages. Against this background the artificial catchment was designed to offer manifold opportunities for hydrological oriented as well as ecological studies of an initial ecosystem. As internal structures are well known and the surface and subsurface boundaries are well defined compared to natural catchments the site offers high potentials for improving hydrological and ecological models. The catchment ‘Chicken Creek' in Lusatia (Germany; 150 km SE from Berlin) has an area of 6 ha. It was constructed as a 2-4 m layer of post-glacial sandy to loamy sediments overlying a 1-2 m layer of Tertiary clay that forms a shallow pan and seals the whole catchment at the base. No further measures of restoration like planting, amelioration or fertilization were carried out to allow natural succession and undisturbed development. At the bottom of the catchment a small lake with a diameter of 70 m and a

  12. Expression and Transcriptional Activity of HSF1 in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma%热休克转录因子1在人肝细胞癌中的表达及转录活性

    滕洪飞; 宋振顺; 李煜环; 范子扬

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察人肝细胞癌组织及对应癌旁组织中热休克转录因子1 (heat shock transcription factor 1,HSF1)表达量及转录活性.方法 用免疫组织化学方法及Western blot方法测定30例人肝细胞癌组织及对应癌旁组织中HSF1的表达量及磷酸化水平,并比较HSF1的表达量及磷酸化水平在肝细胞癌组织及对应癌旁组织中的差异.结果 免疫组织化学法及Western blot结果显示:①人肝细胞癌组织中HSF1的表达量明显高于对应癌旁组织;②人肝细胞癌组织中HSF1的磷酸化水平明显高于对应癌旁组织.结论 HSF1在人肝细胞癌中的表达量及转录活性明显增高.

  13. Influence of atorvastatin on plasma HSP70 and HSF1 in patients with cute coronary syndrome%阿托伐他汀对急性冠脉综合征患者血浆中HSP70、HSF1的影响

    王水侠; 刑坤

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨阿托伐他汀对急性冠脉综合征(ACS)患者血浆中HSP70、HSF1的影响.方法:选取正常者39例,阿托伐他汀治疗组48例,酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)测定样本血浆中HSP70、HSF1表达的变化.结果:(1)给药前,阿托伐他汀治疗组血浆中HSP70、HSF1表达明显高于对照组(P<0.05);(2)给药后,阿托伐他汀治疗组患者血浆中HSP70、HSF1表达较给药前升高明显(P<0.01).结论:阿托伐他汀可通过诱导HSP70表达增多发挥抗ACS作用.

  14. Germination ecology in orchids

    TĚŠITELOVÁ, Tamara

    2009-01-01

    Germination ecology of four Epipactis species (E. albensis, E. atrorubens, E. helleborine, E. purpurata) was studied. Habitat preferences of adult plants were analyzed using phytosociological relevés from the Czech Phytosociological Database. A field experiment was carried out to determine course of germination of Epipactis seeds sown in different habitat types. Relationship between ecological preferences and germination ecology, and spatial aspects of seed dispersal and seedling recruitment ...

  15. Dynamic Analysis of Coupling Relationship between Economic Development and Ecological Environment Based on Entropy Method——A Case Study of Xi an City

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the coupling relationship between economic development and ecological environment. [Method] Firstly, the evaluation index system for the coupling system of economic development and ecological environment in Xi'an City was established, then the dynamic variation of coupling relationship between economic development and ecological environment in Xi'an City from 2001 to 2010 was analyzed by using entropy method, finally some corresponding suggestions were put forward according ...

  16. Air Manganese Levels and Chronic Liver Disease Mortality in North Carolina Counties: An Ecological Study

    John G. Spangler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Manganese is an essential trace element which is toxic in high doses. Over the past several decades, manganese has replaced lead as the anti-knock agent in gasoline, raising concern about air and road-side contamination with this element. In addition, manganese is absorbed by the liver, making specific populations (e.g., pregnant women, infants and children, and patients with liver disease susceptible to its toxic effects. Using data from the US Census Bureau, the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics, and the US Environmental Protection Agency, this ecological study evaluated chronic liver disease mortality rates in North Carolina’s 100 counties. It correlated these rates with county-level demographics as well as on-road and non-road air borne manganese concentrations. Median income by county was inversely associated with chronic liver disease mortality, while the logarithmically transformed airborne concentrations of on-road manganese were positively correlated with county-level chronic liver disease mortality. Because environmental manganese near roads is likely to increase over time, these pilot findings potentially have regulatory implications and argue for further research.

  17. The value of ecologic studies: mercury concentration in ambient air and the risk of autism.

    Blanchard, K Stephen; Palmer, Raymond F; Stein, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    Ecologic studies of the spatial relationship between disease and sources of environmental contamination can help to ascertain the degree of risk to populations from contamination and to inform legislation to ameliorate the risk. Population risks associated with persistent low-level mercury exposure have recently begun to be of concern and current reports implicate environmental mercury as a potential contributor in the etiology of various developmental and neurodegenerative diseases including autism and Alzheimer's disease. In this demonstration of preliminary findings, we demonstrate for Bexar County Texas and Santa Clara County California, the hypothesis that the spatial structure of the occurrence of autism has a positive co-variation with the spatial structure of the distribution of mercury in ambient air. The relative risk of autism is greater in the geographic areas of higher levels of ambient mercury. We find that the higher levels of ambient mercury are geographically associated with point sources of mercury emission, such as coal-fired power plants and cement plants with coal-fired kilns. Although this does not indicate a cause, these results should not be dismissed, but rather seen as a preliminary step for generating a hypothesis for further investigation. PMID:21905454

  18. Utilizing Underwater Three-Dimensional Modeling to Enhance Ecological and Biological Studies of Coral Reefs

    Burns, J. H. R.; Delparte, D.; Gates, R. D.; Takabayashi, M.

    2015-04-01

    The structural complexity of coral reefs profoundly affects the biodiversity, productivity, and overall functionality of reef ecosystems. Conventional survey techniques utilize 2-dimensional metrics that are inadequate for accurately capturing and quantifying the intricate structural complexity of scleractinian corals. A 3-dimensional (3D) approach improves the capacity to accurately measure architectural complexity, topography, rugosity, volume, and other structural characteristics that play a significant role in habitat facilitation and ecosystem processes. This study utilized Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry techniques to create 3D mesh models for several Hawaiian corals that represent distinct morphological phenotypes. The orthophotos and digital elevation models generated from the SfM process were imported into geospatial analysis software in order to quantify several metrics pertaining to 3D complexity that are known to affect ecosystem biodiversity and productivity. The 3D structural properties of the reconstructed coral colonies were statistically analyzed to determine if the each species represents a unique morpho-functional group. The SfM reconstruction techniques described in this paper can be utilized for an array of research purposes to improve our understanding of how changes in coral composition affect habitat structure and ecological processes in coral reef ecosystems.

  19. Diet and mortality from common cancers in Brazil: an ecological study

    Rosely Sichieri

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available A prospective ecological evaluation of mortality from common malignancies with dietary risk factors and alcohol consumption was carried out among 10 state capitals of Brazil. Regression analysis was used to examine the association of dietary intake with mortality rates of the most common cancers among adults age 30 years and older. Age-adjusted cancer mortality rates varied 2.4 to 3.3 fold across the state capitals. A positive relationship was observed between energy intake and colon, lung, and esophageal cancer (p<=0.02 for each. Colon cancer mortality was positively associated with consumption of total fat, eggs, alcohol, mate tea, cereals, and vegetables (p<=0.01. Lung cancer was positively associated with mate and cereal intake (p<0.05. Stomach cancer was associated with consumption of eggs (p=0.04; and negatively associated with consumption of high fiber foods, fruits, and vitamin A and C (p<=0.05. Esophageal cancer was positively associated with fat intake, mate and cereals (p<=0.05 and negatively associated with vitamin A (p=0.02; prostate cancer was negatively associated with vitamin C (p=0.007. Breast cancer was not associated with any of the factors studied. The marked variation in cancer mortality rates in Brazil may be partially related to the high variation in dietary components or other diet associated factors.

  20. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 2 study of the radio-ecological consequences

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    The data compiled and processed within the framework of the French-German Initiative represent the so far most comprehensive collection of electronic data that has ever been put together on the topic of the 'Study of the radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'.The R.E.D.A.C. database system provides a powerful tool for the reconstruction of the dispersion of radionuclides through ecosystems and food chains and for the interpretation and prediction of their long-term behaviour. This allows the development of effective countermeasures to minimise risks to human health and improve the overall environmental situation. R.E.D.A.C. can also be used for the development and verification of realistic radioecology models. As the data were acquired under realistic conditions, the results can be used directly for model calculations in emergencies. This allows concrete planning, e. g. in connection with the securing of waste, its disposal, and the ecological restoration of waste disposal sites. The data also allow a reconstruction of the radioecological situation in the past, an analysis of the current situation, and predictions of future developments of the accident consequences on a large as well as on a small scale. (N.C.)

  1. Non invasive methods for genetic analysis applied to ecological and behavioral studies in Latino-America

    Susana González

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Documenting the presence and abundance of the neotropical mammals is the first step for understanding their population ecology, behavior and genetic dynamics in designing conservation plans. The combination of field research with molecular genetics techniques are new tools that provide valuable biological information avoiding the disturbance in the ecosystems, trying to minimize the human impact in the process to gather biological information. The objective of this paper is to review the available non invasive sampling techniques that have been used in Neotropical mammal studies to apply to determine the presence and abundance, population structure, sex ratio, taxonomic diagnostic using mitochondrial markers, and assessing genetic variability using nuclear markers. There are a wide range of non invasive sampling techniques used to determine the species identification that inhabit an area such as searching for tracks, feces, and carcasses. Other useful equipment is the camera traps that can generate an image bank that can be valuable to assess species presence and abundance by morphology. With recent advances in molecular biology, it is now possible to use the trace amounts of DNA in feces and amplify it to analyze the species diversity in an area, and the genetic variability at intraspecific level. This is particularly helpful in cases of sympatric and cryptic species in which morphology failed to diagnose the taxonomic status of several species of brocket deer of the genus Mazama.

  2. Ecological study of the larger black flour beetle in cotton gin trash.

    Nansen, Christian; James, Jacob; Bowling, David; Parajulee, Megha N; Porter, Patrick

    2008-12-01

    The larger black flour beetle Cynaeus angustus (Leconte) thrives in cotton gin trash piles on the Southern High Plains of Texas and sometimes becomes a nuisance after invading public and private structures. For better understanding of the basic larger black flour beetle ecology in gin trash piles, we conducted a series of laboratory and semirealistic field trials. We showed (1) in naturally infested gin trash piles, that similar trap captures were obtained in three cardinal directions; (2) in a laboratory study, late-instar larvae stayed longer in larval stage in moist soil compared with drier soil; (3) in both horizontal and vertical choice experiments, late instars preferred soil with low moisture content; and (4) specifically larger black flour beetle adults, but most larvae as well, responded negatively to high moisture content in gin trash. The results presented are consistent with reports of larger black flour beetle living in decaying yucca palms in deserts and suggest that maintaining gin trash piles with high moisture content may be an important component in an integrated control strategy. PMID:19161678

  3. Emerging directions in the study of the ecology and evolution of plant-animal mutualistic networks: a review

    Gu, Hao; Goodale, Eben; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The study of mutualistic plant and animal networks is an emerging field of ecological research. We reviewed progress in this field over the past 30 years. While earlier studies mostly focused on network structure, stability, and biodiversity maintenance, recent studies have investigated the conservation implications of mutualistic networks, specifically the influence of invasive species and how networks respond to habitat loss. Current research has also focused on evolutionary questions inclu...

  4. Island Ecology in Bermuda.

    Wulff, Barry L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Reports on an island ecology course offered by Eastern Connecticut State College providing opportunities for students to study the ecology and natural history of organisms found in a variety of subtropical habitats in Bermuda. Explains student selection criteria, trip preparation, evaluation criteria, daily programs, and habitats studied on the…

  5. Towards the use of Structural Loop Analysis to Study System Behaviour of Socio-Ecological Systems.

    Abram, Joseph; Dyke, James

    2016-04-01

    Maintaining socio-ecological systems in desirable states is key to developing a growing economy, alleviating poverty and achieving a sustainable future. While the driving forces of an environmental system are often well known, the dynamics impacting these drivers can be hidden within a tangled structure of causal chains and feedback loops. A lack of understanding of a system's dynamic structure and its influence on a system's behaviour can cause unforeseen side-effects during model scenario testing and policy implementation. Structural Loop analysis of socio-ecological system models identifies dominant feedback structures during times of behavioural shift, allowing the user to monitor key influential drivers during model simulation. This work carries out Loop Eigenvalue Elasticity Analysis (LEEA) on three system dynamic models, exploring tipping points in lake systems undergoing eutrophication. The purpose is to explore the potential benefits and limitations of the technique in the field of socio-ecology. The LEEA technique shows promise for socio-ecological systems which undergo regime shifts or express oscillatory trends, but shows limited usefulness with large models. The results of this work highlight changes in feedback loop dominance, years prior to eutrophic tipping events in lake systems. LEEA could be used as an early warning signal to impending system changes, complementary to other known early warning signals. This approach could improve our understanding during critical times of a system's behaviour, changing how we approach model analysis and the way scenario testing and policy implementation are addressed in socio-ecological system models.

  6. Study on Intercepting Method for Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Ecological Ditches and Pond

    YAO; Jian-ting; DING; Hong-ming; XU; Jie

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to reduce emission load of the farmland runoff by using ecological ditches and pond. [Method] N and P intercepting project construction of the ecological ditches and pond in Zhaiji Village, Xiangcheng District, Suzhou City as research object, by repairing 1 834 m3 of original drainage ditches, newly excavating 6 800 m2 of ecological main ditches and 6 000 m2 of artificial purification ecological pond, etc., runoff emission load in real control area of the project was counted. [Result] Annual net loads of the runoff emission for TN and TP were respectively 2 552.22 and 95.00 kg in 33.3 hm2 of farmland. Annual runoff intercepting loads of TN and TP were respectively 1 225.07 and 50.35 kg in ditches. Annual runoff intercepting loads of TN and TP were respectively 1 327.15 and 44.65 kg in ecological pond. In effluent, TN concentration was 6.32 mg/L and was smaller than 15 mg/L. TP concentration was 0.25 mg/L and was smaller than 0.5 mg/L. They both reached level-one A discharge standard. [Conclusion] The research provided theoretical basis for effective control of the agricultural non-point source pollution in Taihu Lake basin.

  7. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE POLYMERIZATION OF HSF1 AND THE EXPRESSION OF IL-1β、TNF-α mRNA OF MONOCYTES IN FEVER RABBITS%家兔发热过程中单核细胞HSF1聚合与IL-1β、TNF-αmRNA表达的关系

    马中女; 曹宇

    2006-01-01

    目的:探讨热休克因子1(HSF1)参与体温调控的作用及其生物学机制.方法:在复制家兔LPS发热模型基础上,检测在发热过程中单核细胞HSF1的表达与IL-1β、TNF-α mRNA表达之间的关系.结果:注射LPS 0.5μg/kg后家兔体温明显升高,在60 min和180 min时出现两个体温高峰;由LPS引起发热过程中单核细胞TNF-α、IL-1β mRNA表达量分别在80 min和160 min达高峰,400 min以内降至基础水平;单核细胞HSF1三聚体含量在体温上升到一定水平,即从注射LPS后160 min开始逐渐增多.LPS致发热时单核细胞HSF1三聚体含量与单核细胞IL-1β、TNF-αmRNA表达量之间呈现负相关关系;而体温与单核细胞IL-1β mRNA表达量呈现正相关动态变化.结论:在LPS致发热时HSF1可能通过抑制IL-1β、TNF-α等内生性致热原基因的表达而限制体温升高.

  8. Use of Isotopes for Investigating the Behaviour and Ecology of Insect Pests in Some Recent Studies

    Investigations into the ecology, behaviour, dispersal and longevity of insects have always provided challenges to the entomologist. The use of isotopes is an effective tool and the following is a report on some interesting problems solved by their application. Anopheles stephensi is the main vector o f malaria in southern Iran. On P32-labelled mosquitoes, the dispersal, behaviour, digestion of blood meal, maturation of ovaries and length of gonotrophic cycles were successfully worked out. It was found that in about 80% of the cases the mosquito needed two blood meals for the completion of the first cycle. The first cycle itself was completed in 4-5 d depending upon the temperature. Labelled mosquitoes which had emerged overnight were released in an isolated village. The ratio of active mosquitoes to total catch was worked out every day and thus, on the assumption that the natural population remained constant, the mortality rate, which was found to be exponential for the first six days, was worked out. The mating behaviour of the female was also studied by using normal females which had mated once with P32-labelled males. It was found that the female mates more than once and that after mating with an active male, the spermathead became active. Counts of up to twice the background (12 counts/min) were obtained by using males giving about 15 000 counts/min. Studies of the injection of saliva in glucose solution during feeding were also made on P32-labelled mosquitoes. Eurygaster integriceps is a serious pest of wheat in Iran, Pakistan and the Middle East. Using P32 activated wheat plants, the feeding behaviour of the first-instar nymph was investigated. Other foods, radioactively labelled, were also studied and it was found that feeding was essential for the first moult, even if the food consisted of water absorbed in a filter paper. (author)

  9. Ecological studies of small mammals in a nuclear site on Nevada Test Site

    Ecological studies of small vertebrates in nuclear event sites in NTS began in spring 1977 with the establishment of a permanent live-trapping grid in Little Feller II. These study areas are located in Area 18, a relatively homogeneous area vegetatively and topographically. Most of the flora and fauna are typical of the Great Basin desert found in southern Nevada. Dominant vegetation includes Artemesia spp. and to a lesser extent Atriplex. Salsola is an abundant weed in areas that have been mechanically disturbed such as the vicinity of GZ. A 400-station live-trapping grid was established in Little Feller II, April 1977. Sixteen lines of live traps (25 traps per line, each trap 50 feet apart) comprise the 8.4 hectare grid encompassing GZ. Nine trapping periods have been completed to date totaling over 10,000 trap nights. Over 400 small vertebrates have been marked for permanent identification in the grid. Over 60 known residents (animals marked 3 months previously and recaptured in the same vicinity) have been collected and prepared for shipping; however, radioanalytical results were not available to include in this report. Both census and field note observations were used to develop an inventory of the vertebrates found in the study areas. Sufficient data have been generated from Little Feller II to estimate density of rodents. These data and comparative data from Area 5 (Mohave Desert), Area 11 (Transition), and Area 13 (Great Basin) are presented. It was readily apparent that rodents in general were more numerous in Little Feller II. In addition, Dipodomys ordii, a Great Basin species, was an important new addition to the rodent fauna

  10. 热休克因子(HSF1)在乳腺癌中的表达及与预后的关系%Expression of heat shock factor 1 and its relation with prognosis in breast cancer patients

    徐敏; 王树滨; 刘雅洁; 陈亦欣; 郑瑾; 白桦

    2007-01-01

    目的:探讨热休克因子(heat shock factor 1,HSF1)在乳腺癌中的表达,及其在乳腺癌预后中所起的作用.方法:采用免疫组织化学方法检测62例手术切除的乳腺癌组织中HSF1的表达,探讨其与临床病理特征的关系及对预后的影响.结果:HSF,在乳腺癌组织中的阳性表达率为29.0%(18/62).HSF1表达与月经状况存在相关(P=0.004),但与肿瘤大小、淋巴结转移个数以及组织学分级之间均不具相关性.HSF1阴性表达组无病生存期及总生存期均明显优于HSF1阳性表达组(P=0.0057及P=0.0251).Cox回归单因素分析显示淋巴结转移个数、组织学分级、肿瘤大小、HSF1阳性表达及TNM分期与无病生存期及总生存期均明显相关;Cox回归多因素分析表明腋淋巴结转移个数、组织学分级、肿瘤大小与无病生存期及总生存期明显相关,而HSF1阳性表达及TNM分期最终未进入Cox回归模型.结论:HSF1在乳腺癌中有一定程度的表达,且HSF1表达与乳腺癌患者无病生存期及总生存期的缩短有关,有可能成为判断乳腺癌患者预后的指标.

  11. Sudbury soils study : human health and ecological risk assessment : a case study in science, process and perception

    This presentation discussed the public relations and public opinion strategies used as part of a soils study conducted to assess the risk of mining activities in the Sudbury region to human health and the environment. The human health risk assessment (HHRA) study was conducted and administered by a multi-stakeholder technical committee attended by the public. The study was comprised of extensive soil collection and analysis; a review of historical soils data; and extensive human health and ecological risk assessments. Extensive sampling was also conducted on air, dust, and locally-produced foods. A public advisory committee was formed to disseminate scientific information to the community. Scientific data obtained in the study were reviewed by experts in various fields. Results of the study were also peer-reviewed by an independent expert review panel comprised of leading specialists in human health, toxicology, speciation, and risk assessment. The study showed that the identified risks were over-estimated in the interest of protecting human health. It was concluded that the HHRA's findings were generally accepted by the public. tabs., figs

  12. Ecology, ethics, and professional environmental practice: The Yucca Mountain, Nevada, project as a case study

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to develop a geologic repository for disposing of high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this commentary, the ecology program for the DOE's Yucca Mountain Project is discussed from the perspective of state-of-the-art ecosystem analysis, environmental ethics, and standards of professional practice. Specifically at issue is the need by the Yucca Mountain ecology program to adopt an ecosystem approach that encompasses the current strategy based on population biology and community ecology alone. The premise here is that an ecosystem approach is essential for assessing the long-term potential environmental impacts at Yucca Mountain in light of the thermal effects expected to be associated with heat from radioactive decay

  13. The Evolving Ecological Universe: a Study in the Science and Human Implications of a New World Hypothesis

    Goerner, Sally Jo.

    1992-01-01

    This study describes a broad cultural shift and a parallel scientific shift. Scientifically and culturally, Western civilization is moving toward a vision of a living, evolving, ecological universe and away from the Newtonian clockwork-machine universe. In Stephen Pepper's (1946) terms, the shift represents a change in dominant world hypothesis--that is, the dominant metaphor of how the world works. The bulk of the dissertation is a detailed exploration of the scientific shift because science's understanding of how the world works profoundly shapes beliefs in general. The exploration shows how a number of minirevolutions in physics and biology are related and how each supports an evolving ecological vision. The work in these different fields combines to produce a particularly important change in understanding--a vision of evolution as a single overall physical process from molecules to humankind. Ecological science (physics to biology) and the new view of evolution become possible because of a major conceptual shift in physics, the nonlinear revolution. The nonlinear revolution includes three major elements: chaos (modern nonlinear dynamics); self-organization theory (far -from-equilibrium thermodynamics); and the thermodynamics of evolution. Together these elements produce a physical understanding of an evolving, order-producing, universe --that is, a universe that evolves toward higher and higher levels of ordered complexity through interactive ecological dynamics. This very different physical picture of how the world works has important implications for human beliefs in general. A final section of the study explores the ecological shift's implications for humankind. It looks at ecological changes occurring outside the physical sciences (for example, in economics) and at how the radically changed physical sense of how the world works might affect other beliefs. For instance, the new physical view shows a remarkable ability to support and connect many

  14. Radio-ecological study of the Lodeve mining complex (France) 1981-1985

    The radio-ecological study of the Lodeve mining complex (mine + uranium process plant) was carried out between 1981 and 1985. Four aquatic compartments -water, sediments, vegetals, fish- were studied in eight stations selected on the basis of the existence of two liquid wastes. The measurements essentially concerned radium 226 and uranium 238 but also lead 210 (1985), thorium 232, potassium 40 and cesium 137. Spectrometry γ Ge-Li, emanometry and fluorimetry were used. Only a small brook -Rivernoux- an affluent of the Lergue river, shows radium and uranium activity levels higher than those measured upstream of the site; and this for the four compartments. In water, radium is associated with the solved cationic fraction (66%) and with materials in suspension (21%), whereas uranium is essentially associated with the solved anionic fraction (84%); the radium migration potentialities are therefore lesser than that of uranium. Radium distribution in fish is as follows: flesh (5 to 15%), skeleton (12%), viscera (30%) and skin + fins (30%). Radium concentration (or exchange) factors are always higher than those corresponding to uranium. In general, they are more important in non-influenced zones than in influenced zones (Rivernoux); this implies that radium and uranium evacuated by the mining complex are, at least partly, in non bio-available forms. For water/fish exchange a concentration factor of 100 will be considered for radium. On the basis of this value a weekly consumption of 200 g of fried gudgeon gives an annual committed dose equivalent corresponding to 0.86% of the dose authorized for the public (5.10-3 Sv.an-1)

  15. Fecal nitrogen concentration as a nutritional quality indicator for European rabbit ecological studies.

    Esperanza Gil-Jiménez

    Full Text Available Measuring the quality of the nutritional resources available to wild herbivores is critical to understanding trophic regulation processes. However, the direct assessment of dietary nutritional characteristics is usually difficult, which hampers monitoring nutritional constraints in natural populations. The feeding ecology of ruminant herbivores has been often assessed by analyzing fecal nitrogen (FN concentrations, although this method has been less evaluated in other taxa. This study analyzed the suitability of FN as an indicator of ingesta quality in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, which is a keystone lagomorph species in Mediterranean ecosystems and of great conservation interest. Firstly, domestic O. cuniculus were used to evaluate under experimental conditions the accuracy of total FN and the metabolic FN as diet quality indicators of forages with characteristics similar to those available under natural conditions. Secondly, the accuracy of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS to calculate FN was tested using partial least squares regression. Thirdly, a pilot field study was conducted to monitor FN dynamics from wild O. cuniculus in three different habitats during wet and drought periods. A strong association was found between diet type and total FN and metabolic FN (Pseudo-R(2 ≥ 0.89. It was also found that NIRS calibrations were accurate for depicting nitrogen concentrations (R(2 > 0.98 between NIRS and chemical results. Finally, the seasonal FN dynamics measured in the field were consistent with current knowledge on vegetation dynamics and forage limitations in the three habitats. The results support the use of NIRS methods and FN indices as a reliable and affordable approach to monitoring the nutritional quality of rabbit habitats. Potential applications include the assessment of the mechanistic relationships between resource limitations and population abundance, e.g., in relation to natural drought cycles and to habitat

  16. Study of technical and financial pre-feasibility to produce a natural shampoo and ecological

    A study of technical and financial pre-feasibility was described for producing natural shampoo, ecological and to determine attributes desired by people in that shampoo. A survey was performed to study which characteristics have improved the hair condition; and from the results a model was developed with which is backing the formulation of the shampoo. The proposed shampoo has had as functionality provide hair shine, moisturize, reconstruct, provide protection and has reduced the static (is anti-frizz) because has used biodegradable and friendly raw materials to the environment. The color is light green and its aroma-herbal will have a white container with green lid and will be marketed in 500mL presentation. The production process is done in six steps: reception, storage and dosing of raw materials, preparation of the surfactant and liquid phase of shampoo (addition of active natural preservatives, dyes and fragrances), preparation of the stabilizing phase, mixed, pH regulation and quality control, packaging and storage. A semi-continuous production system was suggested to be more economical, flexible and easy to sterilize. The equipments used in the process are: a stirred tank of 205L, a stirred tank of 500L and a Semiautomatic packaging each built in stainless steel with sanitary finish by the company TECNOFAR. The tanks were designed in compliance with the typical dimensions of these teams and were sized in order to supply the first 5 years of production. A publicity campaign and marketing is recommended to fulfill sales target and execute the project of a plant to produce shampoo and natural cosmetics

  17. Metabolic ecology.

    Humphries, Murray M; McCann, Kevin S

    2014-01-01

    Ecological theory that is grounded in metabolic currencies and constraints offers the potential to link ecological outcomes to biophysical processes across multiple scales of organization. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) has emphasized the potential for metabolism to serve as a unified theory of ecology, while focusing primarily on the size and temperature dependence of whole-organism metabolic rates. Generalizing metabolic ecology requires extending beyond prediction and application of standardized metabolic rates to theory focused on how energy moves through ecological systems. A bibliometric and network analysis of recent metabolic ecology literature reveals a research network characterized by major clusters focused on MTE, foraging theory, bioenergetics, trophic status, and generalized patterns and predictions. This generalized research network, which we refer to as metabolic ecology, can be considered to include the scaling, temperature and stoichiometric models forming the core of MTE, as well as bioenergetic equations, foraging theory, life-history allocation models, consumer-resource equations, food web theory and energy-based macroecology models that are frequently employed in ecological literature. We conclude with six points we believe to be important to the advancement and integration of metabolic ecology, including nomination of a second fundamental equation, complementary to the first fundamental equation offered by the MTE. PMID:24028511

  18. No effect of unemployment on intimate partner-related femicide during the financial crisis : a longitudinal ecological study in Spain

    Torrubiano-Domínguez, J.; Vives-Cases, C; San-Sebastián, Miguel; Sanz-Barbero, B; Goicolea, Isabel; C. Álvarez-Dardet

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spain's financial crisis has been characterized by an increase in unemployment. This increase could have produced an increase in deaths of women due to intimate partner-related femicides (IPF). This study aims to determine whether the increase in unemployment among both sexes in different regions in Spain is related to an increase in the rates of IPF during the current financial crisis period. METHODS: An ecological longitudinal study was carried out in Spain's 17 regions. Two stu...

  19. Causes of visual impairment and blindness in children in three ecological regions of Nepal: Nepal Pediatric Ocular Diseases Study

    Adhikari S; Shrestha MK; Adhikari K; Maharjan N; Shrestha UD

    2015-01-01

    Srijana Adhikari,1 Mohan K Shrestha,1 Kamala Adhikari,2 Nhukesh Maharjan,1 Ujjowala D Shrestha1 1Pediatric Ophthalmology unit, Tilganaga Institute of Ophthalmology, Gaushala, Kathmandu, Nepal; 2Private consultant, Kathmandu, Nepal Purpose: To study the causes of blindness and visual impairment in children in three ecologically diverse regions of Nepal.Materials and methods: This is a baseline survey report of a 3-year longitudinal population-based study. One district each from the three eco...

  20. The analysis of the road’s ecological environment and case study

    Wang Song

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The mileages of both urban roads and highways are in the process of rising. Therefore, the problems about road’s ecological environment have been put out. This paper, analysing some basic ecological environmental problems in G Road, District Fang Cheng Gang , Guangxi Province, pointed out that the roads and highways are the products during the development of economy and society, which need to be balanced by factors like natural eco-environment and social eco-environment. At the same time, different questions occur in construction and running phase should be focused and tackled.

  1. Women and environment. A socio-ecological study for women on the reformation of the environment

    This study addresses the following issues: contributions to improve our environment; the impact of pollutants on our health; the pollution of food and water; water quality regulations. Protection of the environment is defined as the sum total of measures that safeguard woman's natural environment and maintain a biological equilibrium. The efficiency of technological solutions to protect the environment is strictly limited by ecological factors. The goal of environmental protection is to ensure the survival of womankind. Just like plants and animals, the human race is part of an ecosystem. Once this system is destroyed, there is nothing technical measures of environmental protection can do to reverse the process. Life on earth depends on the equilibrium between the oxygen produced by chlorophyllous plants and the oxygen consumed by human beings, animals and technological processes. My interviews with young women and children show that women could contribute very much to the melioration of the environment. The majority of women is trying to switch to non-chemically engineered products, which improves the quality of our water. Biological gardening is preferred by a small minority of women only, but many women take the separation of waste very seriously. However, individual actions can do little to solve the problem of pollution caused by road and air traffic. Life in the fast lane condemns us to the use of cars and airplanes. In the foreseeable future, this means more rather than less pollution. With genetic engineering developing at a breathtaking rate, it seems impossible to avoid a large-scale modification of our food and agricultural produce. So far, many Austrian women fail to appreciate the trend towards genetic manipulation. Neither on the farm nor in the food products themselves is it possible to distinguish genetically engineered innovations. However, behind the consumer's back, this revolution of the food industry is pushed through at an ever greater speed

  2. Indoor radon exposure and lung cancer: a review of ecological studies.

    Yoon, Ji Young; Lee, Jung-Dong; Joo, So Won; Kang, Dae Ryong

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has high mortality and incidence rates. The leading causes of lung cancer are smoking and radon exposure. Indeed, the World Health Organization (WHO) has categorized radon as a carcinogenic substance causing lung cancer. Radon is a natural, radioactive substance; it is an inert gas that mainly exists in soil or rock. The gas decays into radioactive particles called radon progeny that can enter the human body through breathing. Upon entering the body, these radioactive elements release α-rays that affect lung tissue, causing lung cancer upon long-term exposure thereto. Epidemiological studies first outlined a high correlation between the incidence rate of lung cancer and exposure to radon progeny among miners in Europe. Thereafter, data and research on radon exposure and lung cancer incidence in homes have continued to accumulate. Many international studies have reported increases in the risk ratio of lung cancer when indoor radon concentrations inside the home are high. Although research into indoor radon concentrations and lung cancer incidence is actively conducted throughout North America and Europe, similar research is lacking in Korea. Recently, however, studies have begun to accumulate and report important data on indoor radon concentrations across the nation. In this study, we aimed to review domestic and foreign research into indoor radon concentrations and to outline correlations between indoor radon concentrations in homes and lung cancer incidence, as reported in ecological studies thereof. Herein, we noted large differences in radon concentrations between and within individual countries. For Korea, we observed tremendous differences in indoor radon concentrations according to region and year of study, even within the same region. In correlation analysis, lung cancer incidence was not found to be higher in areas with high indoor radon concentrations in Korea. Through our review, we identified a need to implement a greater variety of

  3. Participatory scenario planning in place-based social-ecological research: insights and experiences from 23 case studies

    Elisa Oteros-Rozas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Participatory scenario planning (PSP is an increasingly popular tool in place-based environmental research for evaluating alternative futures of social-ecological systems. Although a range of guidelines on PSP methods are available in the scientific and grey literature, there is a need to reflect on existing practices and their appropriate application for different objectives and contexts at the local scale, as well as on their potential perceived outcomes. We contribute to theoretical and empirical frameworks by analyzing how and why researchers assess social-ecological systems using place-based PSP, hence facilitating the appropriate uptake of such scenario tools in the future. We analyzed 23 PSP case studies conducted by the authors in a wide range of social-ecological settings by exploring seven aspects: (1 the context; (2 the original motivations and objectives; (3 the methodological approach; (4 the process; (5 the content of the scenarios; (6 the outputs of the research; and (7 the monitoring and evaluation of the PSP process. This was complemented by a reflection on strengths and weaknesses of using PSP for the place-based social-ecological research. We conclude that the application of PSP, particularly when tailored to shared objectives between local people and researchers, has enriched environmental management and scientific research through building common understanding and fostering learning about future planning of social-ecological systems. However, PSP still requires greater systematic monitoring and evaluation to assess its impact on the promotion of collective action for transitions to sustainability and the adaptation to global environmental change and its challenges.

  4. Factors associated with maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: an ecological study

    Hernández Valentín

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal health is one of the major worldwide health challenges. Currently, the unacceptably high levels of maternal mortality are a common subject in global health and development discussions. Although some countries have made remarkable progress, half of the maternal deaths in the world still take place in Sub-Saharan Africa where little or no progress has been made. There is no single simple, straightforward intervention that will significantly decrease maternal mortality alone; however, there is a consensus on the importance of a strong health system, skilled delivery attendants, and women's rights for maternal health. Our objective was to describe and determine different factors associated with the maternal mortality ratio in Sub-Saharan countries. Methods An ecological multi-group study compared variables between many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa using data collected between 1997 and 2006. The dependent variable was the maternal mortality ratio, and Health care system-related, educational and economic indicators were the independent variables. Information sources included the WHO, World Bank, UNICEF and UNDP. Results Maternal mortality ratio values in Sub-Saharan Africa were demonstrated to be high and vary enormously among countries. A relationship between the maternal mortality ratio and some educational, sanitary and economic factors was observed. There was an inverse and significant correlation of the maternal mortality ratio with prenatal care coverage, births assisted by skilled health personnel, access to an improved water source, adult literacy rate, primary female enrolment rate, education index, the Gross National Income per capita and the per-capita government expenditure on health. Conclusions Education and an effective and efficient health system, especially during pregnancy and delivery, are strongly related to maternal death. Also, macro-economic factors are related and could be influencing the others.

  5. Interference in the tundra predator guild studied using local ecological knowledge.

    Ehrich, Dorothee; Strømeng, Marita A; Killengreen, Siw T

    2016-04-01

    The decline or recolonization of apex predators such as wolves and lynx, often driven by management decisions, and the expansion of smaller generalist predators such as red foxes, can have important ecosystem impacts. The mesopredator release hypothesis proposes that apex predators control medium-sized predator populations through competition and/or intraguild predation. The decline of apex predators thus leads to an increase in mesopredators, possibly with a negative impact on prey populations. Information about the abundance of mammalian tundra predators, wolf (Canis lupus), wolverine (Gulo gulo), lynx (Lynx lynx), red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) was collected from local active outdoors people during semi-structured interviews in 14 low arctic or sub-arctic settlements in western Eurasia. The perceived abundance of red fox decreased with higher wolf abundance and in more arctic areas, but the negative effect of wolves decreased in more arctic and therefore less productive ecosystems. The perceived abundance of arctic fox increased towards the arctic and in areas with colder winters. Although there was a negative correlation between the two fox species, red fox was not included in the model for perceived arctic fox abundance, which received most support. Our results support the mesopredator release hypothesis regarding the expansion of red foxes in subarctic areas and indicate that top-down control by apex predators is weaker in less productive and more arctic ecosystems. We showed that local ecological knowledge is a valuable source of information about large-scale processes, which are difficult to study through direct biological investigations. PMID:26686344

  6. Collective trauma in northern Sri Lanka: a qualitative psychosocial-ecological study

    Somasundaram Daya

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex situations that follow war and natural disasters have a psychosocial impact on not only the individual but also on the family, community and society. Just as the mental health effects on the individual psyche can result in non pathological distress as well as a variety of psychiatric disorders; massive and widespread trauma and loss can impact on family and social processes causing changes at the family, community and societal levels. Method This qualitative, ecological study is a naturalistic, psychosocial ethnography in Northern Sri Lanka, while actively involved in psychosocial and community mental health programmes among the Tamil community. Participatory observation, key informant interviews and focus group discussion with community level relief and rehabilitation workers and government and non-governmental officials were used to gather data. The effects on the community of the chronic, man-made disaster, war, in Northern Sri Lanka were compared with the contexts found before the war and after the tsunami. Results Fundamental changes in the functioning of the family and the community were observed. While the changes after the tsunami were not so prominent, the chronic war situation caused more fundamental social transformations. At the family level, the dynamics of single parent families, lack of trust among members, and changes in significant relationships, and child rearing practices were seen. Communities tended to be more dependent, passive, silent, without leadership, mistrustful, and suspicious. Additional adverse effects included the breakdown in traditional structures, institutions and familiar ways of life, and deterioration in social norms and ethics. A variety of community level interventions were tried. Conclusion Exposure to conflict, war and disaster situations impact on fundamental family and community dynamics resulting in changes at a collective level. Relief, rehabilitation and development

  7. ECOLOGICAL SECURITY EVALUATION OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN KARST MOUNTAINOUS AREA--A Case Study of Du'an Yao Autonomous County in Guangxi

    LIAO Chi-mei; LI Lan; YAN Zhi-qiang; HU Bao-qing

    2004-01-01

    Ecological security is the main task and applied field of present geography, resources and environment sciences and ecology. Ecological security evaluation will efficiently promote ecological security and environmental construction in regional land use. In this thesis, the authors put forward the index system of ecological security evaluation in karst mountainous area on three aspects, the pressure of resources and eco-environment, the quality of resources and eco-environment, and the ability of environmental protection and ecological improvement. Using the evaluation method with single index, based on the case study ofDu'an Yao Autonomous County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, the system of synthetic regionalization of ecological agricultural economy was formed, which includes three regions, south region with basic security and synthetic agricultural development, east region with critical security and agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry balanced development, mid-west and south region with ecological insecurity and compounded agriculture and forestry management. Meanwhile, for these regions, the countermeasures of sustainable agricultural development were pointed out, which provide the basis and example for ecological regulation and control of sustainable agricultural development in counties ofkarst mountainous area.

  8. Ecological Economics

    Martínez Alier, Joan

    2001-01-01

    Ecological economics is a relatively new interdisciplinary field concerned with the relationship between economic systems and the biological and physical world. This article covers the following topics: A discussion of views on whether ecological economics is just a field or approach within economics or a new ÒtransdisciplinaryÓ field in its own right; Origin of the name of the field; Core common principles of ecological economics; Comparison with environmental economics; Applications; Histor...

  9. Tolerance of suicide, religion and suicide rates : an ecological and individual study in 19 Western countries

    Neeleman, J; Halpern, D; Leon, D; Lewis, G

    1997-01-01

    Background. Negative associations between religion and suicide, in individuals and countries, may be mediated by the degree to which suicide is tolerated. Methods. Linear regression was used to examine ecological associations between suicide tolerance, religion and suicide rates in 19 Western countr

  10. Estimated Forest Ecological Water Requirements in the Jinghe Watershed-Theory and Case Study

    He Yongtao; Min Qingwen; Li Wenhua; Li Guicai; Jin Liwei

    2006-01-01

    The ecological water requirement of forests is defined as the water resources used to maintain and improve the natural balance of forest ecosystems,which can be expressed by evapotranspiration of trees during the growing season.The relationship of evapotranspiration and soil moisture of forestland with tree growth showed that,if the soil moisture was above the temporary wilting point or the point of growth retardation,the growth of trees can,respectively,be basically or normally sustained.Therefore,they can be taken as the minimum and the suitable ecological water requirements of the forest.These points can be estimated by introducing the soil factor (Ks) and tree species factor (Kt) to potential evapotranspiration with the Penman formula.With geographic information system (GIS),the ecological water requirement for forests in the Jinghe watershed,western China was estimated.The results revealed that the minimum and suitable ecological water requirements of the forests in the Jinghe watershed were approximately 204×107 and 340×107 m,respectively.

  11. A field study of the socio-ecology of the Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii) in northern Bolivia.

    Pook, A G; Pook, G

    1981-01-01

    A 5-month field study on both the distribution and ecology of Callimico goeldii was carried out in the seasonally dry rain forest of north-western Bolivia. The species was found to be very sparsely distributed (approximately one group per 4 km2) in isolated groups of about 6 animals throughout the study area. Callimico was found to associate a great deal with two species of Saguinus that inhabit the same region in greater densities. It appears to be a habitat specialist, preferring low-lying and damp, but well-drained, bamboo forest and spending nearly all its time within 3 m of ground level, travelling mainly by vertical clinging and leaping. We believe that this ecological specialisation accounts for the species' discontinuous micro-distribution, and that this in turn is related to Callimico's distinctive pattern of social organisation. PMID:6792016

  12. Association between payments from manufacturers of pharmaceuticals to physicians and regional prescribing: cross sectional ecological study

    Agrawal, Shantanu; King, Marissa; Venkatesh, Arjun K; Krumholz, Harlan M; McKee, Douglas; Brown, Douglas; Ross, Joseph S

    2016-01-01

    , or educational materials. As a cross sectional, ecological study, we cannot prove causation between payments to physicians and increased prescribing. Furthermore, our findings should be interpreted only at the regional level. Our study is limited to prescribing by physicians and the two drug classes studied. PMID:27540015

  13. Ecological engineering to control bioclogging: an original field study coupling infiltration and biological measurements

    Gette-bouvarot, Morgane; Mermillod-Blondin, Florian; Lassabatere, Laurent; Lemoine, Damien; Delolme, Cécile; Volatier, Laurence

    2014-05-01

    biomass, bacterial abundances, microbial enzymatic activities, EPS composition, and photosynthetic efficiency) with in situ hydraulic conductivity measurements (falling head method, five measures per enclosure at t0 and tf). Our results showed that some treatments could regulate benthic biofilm growth and improve infiltration rate. For instance, V. viviparus treatment resulted in a decrease in chlorophyll-a, EPS sugar and protein contents and an associated increase of infiltration rate, while it decreased in the control treatment. These results are very promising for the future development of ecological engineering solutions to prevent biological clogging in systems dedicated to infiltration. To our knowledge, this study is the first to highlight such potential role of macro-organisms under field conditions.

  14. Usage of virtual research laboratory "Climate" prototype for Northern Eurasia climatic and ecological studies

    Gordov, Evgeny; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander; Shulgina, Tamara

    2015-04-01

    Reported are some results of Northern Eurasia regional climatic and ecological monitoring and modeling obtained using recently developed prototype of thematic virtual research laboratory (VRL) Climate (http://climate.scert.ru/). The prototype integrates distributed thematic data storage, processing and analysis systems and set of models of complex climatic and environmental processes run on supercomputers. Its specific tools are aimed at high resolution rendering on-going climatic processes occurring in Northern Eurasia and reliable and found prognoses of their dynamics for selected sets of future mankind activity scenario. Currently VRL integrates on the base of geoportal the WRF and «Planet Simulator» models, basic reanalysis, meteorological stations data and support profound statistical analysis of storage and modeled on demand data. In particular, one can run the integrated models, preprocess modeling results data, using dedicated modules for numerical processing perform analysys and visualize obtained results. The prototype can provide specialists involved into multidisciplinary research projects with reliable and practical instruments for integrated research of climate and ecosystems changes on global and regional scales. With its help even a user without programming skills would be able to process and visualize multidimensional observational and model data through unified web-interface using a web-browser. Location, frequency and magnitude of observed in Siberia extremes has been studied using recently added prototype functionality allowing detailed statistical analysis studies of regional climatic extremes. Firstly it was shown that ECMWF ERA Interim Reanalysis data are closest to near surface temperature time series measured at regional meteorological stations. Statistical analysis of ERA Interim daily temperature time series (1979-2012) indicates the asymmetric changes in distribution tails of such extreme indices as warm/cold days/nights. Namely, the

  15. FOREST FIRES AROUND UNITS OF CONSERVATION – A CASE STUDY IN ÁGUAS EMENDADAS ECOLOGICAL STATION, DISTRITO FEDERAL

    Eugênio P. Costa; Nilton C. Fiedler; Marcelo B. Medeiros; Fernando B. Wanderley

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze aspects of fire use on urban areas around Águas Emendadas Ecological Station (ESECAE), in Distrito Federal, and to evaluate the foremost fire occurrences, equipment availability and tools for combatants and beyond decreasing forest fire incidences. The local population in town region around it (considering three kilometers as ray from the station), fire crew members units of conservation and the garrison body of firemen were interviewed in a representative form. Re...

  16. STUDY CONCERNING FOREST ECOLOGIC RECONSTRUCTIUON ON DEGRADED LAND IN RANGE OCOLUL SILVIC “VALEA CIBINULUI”, SALISTE, ROMANIA

    Robert BLAJ

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the stationary conditions, determine solutions to improve degraded land, assessing the cost of ecological restoration work needed in the area of improving degraded lands at Rapa - Copăcel, estimated benefits of the project and its viability. Objectives of the paper: need to introduce in the circuit of productive forest lands within the improvement of the area "La Rapa - Copăcel" danger zone where activation of the phenomena of degradation (erosion , landslides ) predominate...

  17. Family- and Genus-Level 16S rRNA-Targeted Oligonucleotide Probes for Ecological Studies of Methanotrophic Bacteria

    J. Gulledge; Ahmad, A; Steudler, P. A.; Pomerantz, W. J.; Cavanaugh, Colleen Marie

    2001-01-01

    Methanotrophic bacteria play a major role in the global carbon cycle, degrade xenobiotic pollutants, and have the potential for a variety of biotechnological applications. To facilitate ecological studies of these important organisms, we developed a suite of oligonucleotide probes for quantitative analysis of methanotroph-specific 16S rRNA from environmental samples. Two probes target methanotrophs in the family Methylocystaceae (type II methanotrophs) as a group. No oligonucleotide signature...

  18. Oral ingestion of hexavalent chromium through drinking water and cancer mortality in an industrial area of Greece - An ecological study

    Stoltidis Melina; Kouroutou Paraskevi; Christoforidou Eleni; Christophi Costas A; Petralias Athanassios; Linos Athena; Veloudaki Afroditi; Tzala Evangelia; Makris Konstantinos C; Karagas Margaret R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Hexavalent chromium is a known carcinogen when inhaled, but its carcinogenic potential when orally ingested remains controversial. Water contaminated with hexavalent chromium is a worldwide problem, making this a question of significant public health importance. Methods We conducted an ecological mortality study within the Oinofita region of Greece, where water has been contaminated with hexavalent chromium. We calculated gender, age, and period standardized mortality rati...

  19. Studies on the sandfly fauna of Samuel Ecological Station, Porto Velho Municipality, Rondônia State, Brazil

    Alfredo C. R. Azevedo; Sérgio L. Bessa Luz; Maurício L Vilela; Elizabeth F. Rangel

    1993-01-01

    In a study of sandfly species in the Samuel Ecological Station, in Porto Velho, Rondônia State, the following species were identified: Lutzomyia brasiliensis, L. evangelistai, L. gomezi, L. anduzei, L. flaviscutellata, L. richardwardi, L. shawi, L. umbratilis, L. yuilli yuilli, L. dendrophyla, L. puctigeniculata, L. shannoni, L. amazonensis, L. ayrozai, L. carrerai carrerai, L. claustrei, L. davisi and L. lainsoni. L. richardwardi, L. umbratilis and L. c. carrerai were the predominant species...

  20. Field studies of harp seal (Phoca Groenlandica) distribution and feeding ecology in the Barents Sea in september 1990

    Nilssen, Kjell Tormod; Haug, Tore; Potelov, Vladimir

    1991-01-01

    The harp seal Phoca groenlandica is the most abundant seal species in the Barents Sea, and it may be a significant predator on other marine resources in this area. In order to evaluate the ecological role of harp seals, field studies, including both analysis of harp seal stomach contents and concurrent estimates of prey abundance, were carried out in the Barents Sea during August/September 1990. It appeared that, at this time of the year, the harp seals were confined to t...

  1. Are tags from Mars and descriptors from Venus? A study on the ecology of educational resource metadata

    Vuorikari, Riina; Sillaots, Martin; Panzavolta, Silvia; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Vuorikari, R., Sillaots, M., Panzavolta, S. & Koper, R. (2009). Are tags from Mars and descriptors from Venus? A study on the ecology of educational resource metadata. In M. Spaniol, Q. Li, R. Klamma & R. W. H. Lau (Eds.), Proceedings of the 8th International Conference Advances in Web Based Learning - ICWL 2009 (pp. 400-409). August, 19-21, 2009, Aachen, Germany. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5686; Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

  2. An Ecological Study of Food Desert Prevalence and 4th Grade Academic Achievement in New York State School Districts

    Frndak, Seth E.

    2014-01-01

    Background This ecological study examines the relationship between food desert prevalence and academic achievement at the school district level. Design and methods Sample included 232 suburban and urban school districts in New York State. Multiple open-source databases were merged to obtain: 4th grade science, English and math scores, school district demographic composition (NYS Report Card), regional socioeconomic indicators (American Community Survey), school district quality (US Common Cor...

  3. Children's traditional ecological knowledge of wild food resources: a case study in a rural village in Northeast Thailand

    Price Lisa; Setalaphruk Chantita

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Consuming wild foods is part of the food ways of people in many societies, including farming populations throughout the world. Knowledge of non-domesticated food resources is part of traditional and tacit ecological knowledge, and is largely transmitted through socialization within cultural and household contexts. The context of this study, a small village in Northeast Thailand, is one where the community has experienced changes due to the migration of the parental generation, with t...

  4. The quantitative study of marked individuals in ecology, evolution and conservation biology: a foreword to the EURING 2003 Conference

    Senar, J. C.; Dhondt, A. A.; Conroy, M. J.

    2004-01-01

    Few fields in modern ecology have developed as fast as the analysis of marked individuals in the study of wild animal populations (Seber & Schwarz, 2002). This is the topic of EURING Conferences, which from 1986 have been the premier forum for advances in capture-recapture methodology. In this sense, EURING Conferences still maintain the flavour that originally inspired scientific meetings: to disseminate the very last findings, ideas and results on the field. Traditionally, EURING Conference...

  5. Study on Ecological Evaluation and Ecological Red Line of Huma River%呼玛河生态评价与生态红线的研究

    吴晓春; 霍堂斌; 张鸿军; 王天才

    2014-01-01

    The mothod assessmenting river ecosystem system using fish integrity that was used universal in domestic and abroad was analyzed, and the protected gogal of system integrity and biodiversity to evalauate river ecology was proposed. River was divided into the original ecological river, secondary ecological river, Successional ecological river, fragmental ecological river, artificial ecological river and failure ecological river according to the produced problems and results of natural river was stressed by human factors in this paper. The fish as the biological indicator to determine the river ecological evaluation criteria, and considering key habitats of fishes, endangered degree of species, remaining cases of dominant populations. Based on the comprehensive survey report of promoted by the provincial declaration of a national Huma River Nature Reserve and the 2014 actual survey results, Huma River was eventually divided into secondary ecological river type. Its main feature was relatively complete fish population indicator, but in a recession or endangered status, the advantaged fish populations changed, biological diversity has been subjected to stress state in the universality, and key habi-tat river system and spawning grounds was integral, pollution, illegal fishing, dredging and other small projects were major ecological stress factors to Huma River. Under the premise of protecting the integrity of ecosystems, species and ecological diversity, rescue de-lineated Huma River the ecological red line and proposed protection measures.%本文分析了国内外采用鱼类完整性评价河流生态系统的方法,提出确定河流生态评价的系统完整性与生物多样性的保护目标;按自然河流受人为因素胁迫产生的问题与结果,将河流分为原始生态河流、次生生态河流、演替生态河流、片断生态河流、人工生态河流、衰竭生态河道等生态类型。研究提出以鱼类为指示生物,综合鱼类

  6. SOIL BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY

    The term "Soil Biology", the study of organism groups living in soil, (plants, lichens, algae, moss, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, and arthropods), predates "Soil Ecology", the study of interactions between soil organisms as mediated by the soil physical environment. oil ...

  7. Geographical variation in glaucoma prescribing trends in England 2008–2012: an observational ecological study

    Wormald, Richard; Khaw, Peng Tee

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore (1) the national trend in population-adjusted prescription rates for glaucoma and ocular hypertension (OHT) in England and (2) any geographical variation in glaucoma/OHT prescribing trends and its association with established risk factors for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) at the population level. Design Observational ecological study. Setting Primary care in England 2008–2012. Participants All patients who received 1 or more of the 37 778 660 glaucoma/OHT prescription items between 2008 and 2012. Primary and secondary outcome measure methods Glaucoma/OHT prescription statistics for England and its constituent primary care trusts (PCTs) between 2008 and 2012 were divided by annual population estimates to give prescription rates per 100 000 population aged ≥40 years. To examine regional differences, prescription rates and the change in prescription rates between 2008 and 2012 for PCTs were separately entered into multivariable linear regression models with the population proportion aged ≥60 years; the proportion of males; the proportion of West African Diaspora (WAD) ethnicity; PCT funding per capita; Index of Multiple Deprivation 2010 score and its domains. Results Between 2008 and 2012, glaucoma/OHT prescriptions increased from 28 029 to 31 309 items per 100 000 population aged ≥40 years. Between PCTs, nearly a quarter of the variation in prescription rates in 2008 and 2012 could be attributed to age, WAD ethnicity and male gender. The change in prescription rates between 2008 and 2012 was only modestly correlated with age (p=0.003, β=0.234), and income deprivation (p=0.035, β=−0.168). Conclusions Increased population-adjusted glaucoma/OHT prescription rates in the study period were likely due to increased detection of POAG and OHT cases at risk of POAG. Between PCTs, regional variation in overall prescription rates was partly attributable to demographic risk factors for POAG, although the change in

  8. Miscanthus plants used as an alternative biofuel material. The basic studies on ecology and molecular evolution

    Chou, Chang-Hung [Graduate Institute of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, College of Life Sciences, China Medical University, Taichung 404 (China)

    2009-08-15

    Miscanthus Anderss, widely distributed in Asia and Pacific Islands, possesses 20 species. Of which 8 species and 1 variety were recorded in Chinese Mainland; 6 species and 1 variety found in Japan; 5 species and 3 varieties distributed in Taiwan; 3 species documented in the Philippines; and rest of species have been recorded in Jawa, eastern Himalaya, and Sikkim. The plant is a C{sub 4} perennial grass with high productivity of biomass. In the 19th and early 20th centuries in Taiwan, Miscanthus was a very important crop used for forage grass, clothing, and shelter, etc. The relatively high germination, and high yield of biomass made the plant available for people of Taiwan including aboriginal. The taxonomic study of Miscanthus plants was much done by several scientists, and its ecological study has been only taken by the present author since 1972. Chou and his associates paid a great attention to elucidate the mechanism of dominance of Miscanthus vegetation and found that allelopathy plays an important role. In addition, the population biology of Miscanthus taxa by using polyacrylamide gel electrophoreses technique to examine the patterns of peroxidase and esterase among populations (over 100) of Miscanthus in Taiwan were conducted. They also elucidated the phylogenetic relationship among species and varieties in Taiwan. Chou and Ueng proposed an evolutionary trend of Miscanthus species, indicating that the Miscanthus sinensis was assumed to be the origin of Miscanthus Anderss, which evolved to M. sinensis var. formosana, and M. sinensis var. flavidus, and M. sinensis var. transmorrisonensis, and Miscanthus floridulus was thought to be an out group of M. sinensis complex. Moreover, molecular phylogeny was attempted to clarify the population heterogeneity of M. sinensis complex, resulting in a substantial information. It would be available for making hybridization between Miscanthus species and its related species, such as Saccharum (sugar cane) spp. which is a

  9. Age adjustment in ecological studies: using a study on arsenic ingestion and bladder cancer as an example

    Guo How-Ran

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its limitations, ecological study design is widely applied in epidemiology. In most cases, adjustment for age is necessary, but different methods may lead to different conclusions. To compare three methods of age adjustment, a study on the associations between arsenic in drinking water and incidence of bladder cancer in 243 townships in Taiwan was used as an example. Methods A total of 3068 cases of bladder cancer, including 2276 men and 792 women, were identified during a ten-year study period in the study townships. Three methods were applied to analyze the same data set on the ten-year study period. The first (Direct Method applied direct standardization to obtain standardized incidence rate and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis. The second (Indirect Method applied indirect standardization to obtain standardized incidence ratio and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis instead. The third (Variable Method used proportions of residents in different age groups as a part of the independent variables in the multiple regression models. Results All three methods showed a statistically significant positive association between arsenic exposure above 0.64 mg/L and incidence of bladder cancer in men and women, but different results were observed for the other exposure categories. In addition, the risk estimates obtained by different methods for the same exposure category were all different. Conclusions Using an empirical example, the current study confirmed the argument made by other researchers previously that whereas the three different methods of age adjustment may lead to different conclusions, only the third approach can obtain unbiased estimates of the risks. The third method can also generate estimates of the risk associated with each age group, but the other two are unable to evaluate the effects of age directly.

  10. Effects of Urbanization Expansion on Landscape Pattern and Region Ecological Risk in Chinese Coastal City: A Case Study of Yantai City

    Di Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Applied with remote sensing, GIS, and mathematical statistics, the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics of urbanization expansion of Yantai city from 1974 to 2009 was studied. Based on landscape pattern metrics and ecological risk index, the landscape ecological risk from the landscape pattern dynamics was evaluated. The results showed that the area of urban land increased by 189.77 km2 with average expansion area of 5.42 km2 y−1 from 1974 to 2009. The urbanization intensity index during 2004–2009 was 3.92 times of that during 1974–1990. The land use types of urban land and farmland changed greatly. The changes of landscape pattern metrics for land use patterns indicated that the intensity of human activities had strengthened gradually in study period. The landscape ecological risk pattern of Yantai city shaped half-round rings along the coastline. The ecological risk index decreased with increase of the distance to the coastline. The ratio of high ecological risk to subhigh ecological risk zones in 2009 was 2.23 times of that in 1990. The significant linear relationship of urbanization intensity index and regional ecological risk indicated that the anthropological economic activities were decisive factors for sustainable development of costal ecological environment.

  11. The use of echosounders for long-term studies of the overwintering ecology of sprat (Sprattus sprattus)

    Solberg, Ingrid

    2013-06-01

    Upward-facing echosounders, were used to study the overwintering ecology of sprat during four winters in a Norwegian fjord. The echosounders provided continuous data at a temporal resolution of seconds and enabled studies of individual swimming behavior of sprat in addition to population behavior. The long-term coverage of several winters enabled us to study how the sprat responded to different environmental conditions, like ice-free waters versus ice covered waters and hypoxic conditions versus well-oxygenated waters. The studies unveiled that the overwintering strategies of the sprat are flexible, varying in accordance with environmental conditions. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Combined assessment and regulation on ecological land use and water demand of the river system: a case study in Luanhe River, North China

    D. H. Yan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With economic and social development, ecological water and land use of the river system were seriously misappropriated, which resulted in overall degradation of the river systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks of regionalisation on the eco-environmental function of the river systems were preliminarily formulated. According to the river eco-environmental functions, Luanhe River was regionalised into four types of first-class functional areas, i.e., ecological preservation areas, habitat restoration areas, ecological buffer areas and development and utilisation areas. Combined with the main functions of all functional areas, ecological land use of the river system in Luanhe River was assessed and planned. The total area of basic ecological land use was 876.98 km2; that of restrictive ecological land use was 1745.52 km2; that of ecological land use of the river system returned from farmland was 284.25 km2; and that returned from construction land was 17.35 km2. Combined with prototype observation experiments, the average minimum ecological flow of mainstreams in upper and middle reaches of the Luanhe River was 4.896 m3 s−1 with the habitat method. The evaporation and seepage consumption of the river system in Luanhe River and vegetation consumption in riparian zones were about 133 million m3 and 145 million m3 per year, respectively. Downwards from the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system, the mainstream of the Luanhe River was the crucial reach for regulation on instream ecological water use. It was required to speed up ecological land use planning of the river system and strengthen the regulation of ecological water use in important lower reaches of the Luanhe River under the condition of competitive water demand.

  13. The Transition of Cultural Ecology in Beidong District of Guizhou–A Case Study of Tianzhu Community

    Xing; ZHAO; Baoling; DONG; Yingzi; ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    Beidong minorities living together in Qingshui River valley are deeply influenced by Jing and Chu culture. Their ethnic and traditional culture was developed in the process of collision with foreign culture. In the several great social transformations,their cultural ecology was not imbalanced,but evolved and developed. Through the study on local knowledge of cultural ecology including agricultural production,ancestral hall and local- style dwelling house,full- scale drama and Yang Drama,genealogical system,marriage customs,religious belief,sacrificial rites and funeral rites,it is expected to reveal reasons and rules of transition of Beidong ethnic culture,favorable for correctly understanding cultural connotation and promote cultural and tourism development in ethnic minority areas.

  14. Ecological Footprint as a tool for local sustainability: The municipality of Piacenza (Italy) as a case study

    The Ecological Footprint is a synthetic index useful to assess sustainability of anthropic systems. Its operational use, however, has been hampered by some difficulties, especially at a local scale. Being conceived as a measure of the biologically productive area requested to sustain individual consumptions in a human community, it leaves out the impacts associated to economic activities. Accordingly, the index cannot contribute much to define local policies, whose target are economic activities, and only marginally affect citizens' behaviour. Ecological Footprint calculation scheme can be modified to include the depletion of natural capital due to local activities such as industry, agriculture, tertiary sector, transport, waste and water management. We provide here an approach which takes into account these different aspects, while we discuss its application to a municipal area as a case study

  15. Ecological service assessment of human-dominated freshwater ecosystem with a case study in Yangzhou Prefecture,China

    YE Ya-ping; WANG Ru-song; REN Jing-ming; HU Dan; YUAN Shao-jun; WANG Min

    2004-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems provide a host of services to humanity. These services are now rapidly being lost, not least because of the inability of making the impacts measurable. To overcome this obstacle, assessment frameworks for freshwater ecosystem services are needed. A simple water equivalent framework to assess the ecological services provided by freshwater ecosystems was developed in this study. It translated the occupation of freshwater ecosystem services into biologically freshwater volumes and then compares this consumption to the freshwater throughput, that is, the ecological capacity available in this region. In this way, we use the example of Yangzhou Prefecture, to account the main categories of human occupation of water ecosystem services. The result showed that there is a huge gap between the consumption and the supply of freshwater ecosystem services. This must encourage local government to make land-use and water management decisions both economically rational and environmentally sound.

  16. Study on Three-layered Grid Conceptual Prototype Using Ecological Network Computing Environment

    GAO Lei; DING Yong-sheng; REN Li-hong

    2004-01-01

    Next generation grid systems where the emphasis shifts to distributed global collaboration, a service-oriented approach and information layer issues exhibit a strong sense of automation. Requirements for these systems resemble the self-organizing and the healing properties of natural ecosystems. Some key ecological concepts and mechanisms are introduced into the design for the third generation grid computing architectures by inspiration of this resemblance. Also, an Ecological Network-based Computing Environment (ENCE) platform is designed in this paper. Based on the ENCE platform, a grid-computing model of three-layered grid conceptual prototype that embeds the ENCE layers is presented from the viewpoint of implementation. The implementation model should be useful to the design of the third generation grid systems.

  17. [A study on feeding ecology and migration patterns of Dosidicus gigas off Peru using stable isotope analysis].

    Gong, Yi; Chen, Xin-jun; Li, Yun-kai; Han, Meng-jie

    2015-09-01

    As a pelagic cephalopod and one of the main target species of Chinese distant water fishery, jumbo squids (Dosidicus gigas) play a major role in the marine ecosystems of the eastern Pacific. Understanding the feeding ecology and migration patterns of jumbo squids is of importance for better utilizing the resources. The isotopic signatures of gladius, have been proved to be a powerful tool to reveal high resolution and ontogenic variations in individual foraging strategies of squids; which is an archival tissue with no elemental turnover after formation. In this study, the growth equation of gladius proostracum was established based on the age information determined by statolith. Gladius was cut successionally by the growth curve of gladius proostracum, the stable isotopic values of the gladius profiles were determined, and the feeding ecology and migration patterns of jumbo squids during its growth process were investigated. Results showed that the jumbo squids began to migrate after 180 days of postnatal, and their trophic levels tended to decrease throughout the life span. These results demonstrated the feasibility of using continuous sampling hard tissue to study the feeding ecology and habitat transfer of jumbo squids. PMID:26785574

  18. A Study on Tourism Resource Development and Institutional Guarantees for Ecological Security in the Ethnic Areas of Sichuan

    ZHONG Jie; QIN Jianxiong; CAI Xinliang

    2014-01-01

    Following several years of study , we have found that the economically less-developed region of the ethnic minority areas of western Chi-na, namely Sichuan, Yunnan, and Guizhou, is not only an area where rich eco-cultural tourism re-sources are concentrated , but is also an area where the ecological environment is very fragile .Develo-ping local tourism resources has been regarded as an important path of poverty alleviation for the local people.However, excessive exploitation of these resources will directly threaten the local ecological security.Seen from the perspective of the relation-ship between man and nature , in recent years , the development of tourism has had an increasingly more serious impact on the environment in these western ethnic areas-for instance , the numbers of tourists in Jiuzhaigou scenic spot of Sichuan have exceeded its carrying capacity , and has caused soil erosion and water pollution; Lijiang Old Town in Yunnan is facing the problem of over-crowding;and the water in Erhai lake in Dali has been pollu-ted by cruise boats .Seen from the perspective of the relationship between man and society , we find that the protection of culture and environment in western ethnic areas is being threatened by the predatory nature of the development of tourism re-sources-for example , in the ethnic tourism villa-ges of Guizhou , there is a serious problem with the traditional ethnic culture there being vulgarized , faked, and urbanized . This has affected social harmony and stability in the area .Because Sichuan province is located in the upper Yangtze River , the ecological security in its ethnic minority areas is re-lated to the security of the Yangtze valley and even to the whole country .Hence, this article aims to explore the ecological security issues related to the natural ecological environment and the eco-cultural environment during the process of exploiting tourism resources in ethnic minority areas of Sichuan , and to do so from the perspective

  19. Sampling design in large-scale vegetation studies: Do not sacrifice ecological thinking to statistical purism!

    Roleček, J.; Chytrý, M.; Hájek, Michal; Lvončík, S.; Tichý, L.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 42, - (2007), s. 199-208. ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6163303; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0020 Grant ostatní: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB601630504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Ecological methodology * Large-scale vegetation patterns * Macroecology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.133, year: 2007

  20. Subantarctic forest ecology : case study of a conifer-broadleaved stand in Patagonia, Argentina

    Dezzotti, A.

    2000-01-01

    In the temperate rainforests of southern South America, the tree genus Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae) is the dominant in extension and abundance on zonal soils at different latitudes and altitudes, as well as on intrazonal (e.g., wetlands) and azonal soils (e.g., morrenic and fluvioglacial deposits). Although concern on the global role of this biome is currently important, the existing level of ecological knowledge on its functioning is still inadequate to design a sound management to maintain or...

  1. The BAARA (Biological AutomAted RAdiotracking) System: A New Approach in Ecological Field Studies

    Řeřucha, Šimon; Bartonička, T.; Jedlička, Petr; Čížek, Martin; Hlouša, Ondřej; Lučan, R.; Horáček, I.

    -, FEB 25 (2015), e0116785:1-19. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0054; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA AV ČR IAA601110905 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : radiotracking * behavior Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  2. A STUDY OF EVALUATION OF ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF COAL MINING SUBSIDENCE

    何国清; 顾强

    1990-01-01

    The land disturbance and its ecological impacts are the most significant one in the environmental problems which arise from increase of coal mining, processing and utilization. And the environmental impact assessment as one of the most powerful planning tools has been playing a good part in the environment protection in China. This paper, based on EIA experience,diseribes the methods of identification, prediction and analysis of the impacts of mining subsidence, the operational procedures and mitigating measures likely to take.

  3. Xylitol and its effect on oral ecology : clinical studies in children and adolescents

    Lif Holgerson, Pernilla

    2007-01-01

    Xylitol, classified as a natural sugar substitute, has for about 35 years been known as an agent that may act against caries. The mechanism of action; how it inhibits mutans streptococci (MS) and the clinical dose-response relationship are not however fully investigated. The general aim of the investigations was to evaluate the effect of xylitol on oral ecology in children and adolescents. A series of experimental and controlled clinical trials were performed in which samples of saliva and pl...

  4. Comparative studies of ecological niche variation among central and peripheral populations of Mediterranean endemic plants

    Papuga, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean basin is a biodiversity hotspot, characterized by its high plant richness and endemism. It is a place of prime interest to test biogeographical hypotheses, such as the centre-periphery hypothesis. Empirical evidences have brought little support to it as a rule, suggesting complex eco-evolutionary mechanisms shape genetic and demographic characteristics. This thesis proposes a new framework that supports a precise evaluation of species history, geography and ecology to invest...

  5. Handling "immunocompetence" in ecological studies: do we operate with confused terms?

    Vinkler, Michal; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 6 (2011), s. 490-493. ISSN 0908-8857 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0640; GA ČR GA206/08/1281; GA ČR GAP505/10/1871; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : evolutionary ecology * Passer domesticus * immune responses Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.280, year: 2011

  6. Study on the Development of Outdoor Recreation Product Considering the Ecology Aspect in Wana Wisata Curug Cilember (WWCC, Kabupaten Bogor

    Qurie Purnamasari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Recreation development is usually oriented toward on the mass tourism to maximise a number of tourists and rarely put the environmental aspect into consideration.  This created an effect on the sustainability of ecology.  This study’s emphasis is on figuring out an alternative of outdoor recreation product which based on the ecology aspect to support the development of outdoor recreation in the Wana Wisata Curug Cilember (WWCC. This study put the characteristic of tourist and local people into consideration which are describe the product of ecology recreation in order to achieve an ideal product that has not been reached previously and still need more serious effort.  Analysis descriptive with qualitative and quantitative approach is used in this study.  SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats and descriptive statistic are considered for alternative outdoor recreation product while the AHP (Analysis Hierarchy Process has been  used to achieve a priority product for implementation.  The findings suggested a diversification strategy or S-T (Strengths – Threats was chosen to develop the products of recreation in WWCC.  The priority of these products based on the AHP value are as follows: a Water falls (0.2700, b Natural scenery (0.1623, c Camping (0.1405, d Hiking (0.1073, e Theraphy of water fall energy (0.0885,  f Plants viewing (0.0665, g Wildlife viewing (0.0525 and h Outbound (0.0380.   Key words: Outdoor recreation product, ecology, WWCC, Bogor Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  7. An ecological study of stillbirths in Mexico from 2000 to 2013

    Illescas-Zárate, Daniel; Chico-Barba, Gabriela; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine trends in the rate of stillbirths at or after 21 weeks’ gestation in Mexico from 2000 to 2013, identify factors associated with stillbirths and estimate subnational variability in stillbirth rates and the proportion of deaths occurring intrapartum. Methods This population-based, ecological study involved data from a national database on 263 475 stillbirths in 29 Mexican states and maternal sociodemographic factors. Subnational variability in the stillbirth rate in 2012 was investigated and stillbirths in 2013 were categorized as intrapartum or antepartum according to the fetus’ skin condition. Findings The national stillbirth rate declined from 9.2 to 7.2 per 1000 births between 2000 and 2013 (i.e. −1.9% per year). The prevalence of stillbirths varied 3.9-fold between states. Stillbirths were associated, in particular, with: residence in Mexico City (odds ratio, OR: 1.71; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.68–1.73) or central Mexico (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.34–1.38); maternal education of 9 years or less (OR:1.10; 95% CI: 1.08–1.11) or 10 to 12 years (OR: 1.16; 95% CI: 1.14–1.18); mothers younger than 15 years (OR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.55–1.72) or older than 34 years (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.66–1.70); and male fetal sex (OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.19–1.21). Overall, 51% (7348/14 344) of fetal deaths occurred intrapartum. Conclusion In Mexico, the total stillbirth rate declined between 2000 and 2013, however geographical variations were observed. Stillbirths were associated with sociodemographic factors. The proportion of intrapartum stillbirths was relatively high, suggesting that health system performance could be improved, especially at places of delivery. PMID:27147762

  8. Linking Ecological and Perceptual Assessments for Environmental Management: a Coral Reef Case Study

    Elizabeth A. Dinsdale

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrating information from a range of community members in environmental management provides a more complete assessment of the problem and a diversification of management options, but is difficult to achieve. To investigate the relationship between different environmental interpretations, I compared three distinct measures of anchor damage on coral reefs: ecological measures, perceptual meanings, and subjective health judgments. The ecological measures identified an increase in the number of overturned corals and a reduction in coral cover, the perceptual meanings identified a loss of visual quality, and the health judgments identified a reduction in the health of the coral reef sites associated with high levels of anchoring. Combining the perceptual meanings and health judgments identified that the judgment of environmental health was a key feature that both scientific and lay participants used to describe the environment. Some participants in the survey were familiar with the coral reef environment, and others were not. However, they provided consistent judgment of a healthy coral reef, suggesting that these judgments were not linked to present-day experiences. By combining subjective judgments and ecological measures, the point at which the environment is deemed to lose visual quality was identified; for these coral reefs, if the level of damage rose above 10.3% and the cover of branching corals dropped below 17.1%, the reefs were described as unhealthy. Therefore, by combining the information, a management agency can involve the community in identifying when remedial action is required or when management policies are effectively maintaining a healthy ecosystem.

  9. A Study on remote sensing method for drawing up and utilizing ecological and natural map - concentrated on drawing up of Land Cover Classification Map

    Jun, Sung Woo; Chung, Sung Moon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The drawing up of ecological and natural map, which is highly efficient using remote exploration method, was promoted in this study. As the first step of drawing up of ecological and natural map, this study is working on the drawing up of Land Cover using as a base map. Through the detailed and sufficient consideration on GAP analysis of USA, CORINE project of EU, and examples in Korea, it studied and proposed the Land Cover Classification system and method suitable for Korea. It will be helpful to draw up ecological and natural map by providing two strategies and principles for land cover classification. 26 refs., 33 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Exploring the Mechanisms of Ecological Land Change Based on the Spatial Autoregressive Model: A Case Study of the Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone, China

    Hualin Xie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecological land is one of the key resources and conditions for the survival of humans because it can provide ecosystem services and is particularly important to public health and safety. It is extremely valuable for effective ecological management to explore the evolution mechanisms of ecological land. Based on spatial statistical analyses, we explored the spatial disparities and primary potential drivers of ecological land change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone of China. The results demonstrated that the global Moran’s I value is 0.1646 during the 1990 to 2005 time period and indicated significant positive spatial correlation (p < 0.05. The results also imply that the clustering trend of ecological land changes weakened in the study area. Some potential driving forces were identified by applying the spatial autoregressive model in this study. The results demonstrated that the higher economic development level and industrialization rate were the main drivers for the faster change of ecological land in the study area. This study also tested the superiority of the spatial autoregressive model to study the mechanisms of ecological land change by comparing it with the traditional linear regressive model.

  11. Environmental exposure to mineral fibers in New Caledonia: an ecological study

    Baumann, F.; Ambrosi, J.

    2013-05-01

    Inhalation of asbestos and other fibrous minerals causes lung cancer and other malignancies, specifically malignant mesothelioma (MM). MM is an aggressive pleural tumor that presents with a median latency period of 30-40 years from initial fiber exposure. Due to occupational exposure, MM incidence is 4-8 times higher in men as compared to women. In New Caledonia (NC), very high incidences of MM and lung cancer were observed in both men and women, suggesting an environmental origin of exposure. Although nickel mining and the traditional use of tremolite-containing whitewash were suspected causes of MM, numerous MM cases have been observed in areas lacking these risk factors. We carried out an ecological study of MM incidence in NC and identified a study area that included those counties having the highest MM incidences as well as counties lacking MM. We conducted epidemiological and environmental investigations for each of the 100 tribes living within this area. Residential history was assessed for each MM case, and samples of each quarry, road, and whitewash were analyzed to determine the nature of any mineral fibers. We analyzed the environmental determinants of MM, including geology, mineralogy, plant cover, land shape and human activities as well as use of whitewash, by using two univariate and multivariate statistical methods: 1) a logistic regression to compare tribes with and without MM cases and calculate the odds ratios, (OR) 2) the Poisson regression to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRR) for each factor. While most MM cases among Caucasians were observed in men with a mean age of 72, indicating occupational exposure, Melanesians exhibited elevated MM incidence in both men and women at a mean age of 60. A sex ratio close to 1 compounded with the relatively young ages of MM cases confirmed environmental causation within the Melanesian population. We found one significant and two secondary spatial clusters of MM in tribal areas. No temporal cluster was

  12. Comparative Study of Forestry Ecological Construction Financing%林业生态建设融资方式研究

    姚萍; 张晓辛

    2012-01-01

    通过对比3种可用于林业生态建设的融资模式,即银行专项资金贷款、Private Finance Initiative(PFI)融资、CDM林业碳汇融资各自优劣性,试图找出更完善、更适合林业生态工程建设的融资模式。对国家林业生态系统工程建设融资提供有意义的理论探索以及有价值的对策,为林业这种高持续性、发展性、规模性的产业开辟一条新的融资之路。%In the process of forestry ecological construction, financing problems always exist. This paper compares three financing modes which ean be used in the forestry ecological construction,i, e. Bank special loans,Private Finance Initiative (PFI) financing,CDM forestry carbon financing, and analyses their respective advantages and disadvantages,in order to find out the more perfect and more suitable financing mode for forestry ecological construction. Therefore,this study may open up ~ new financing way for this highly continuous, developing and large--scaled forestry industry, so s to provide a meaningful theoretical exploration and valuable countermeasures for national forest ecosystem construction financing.

  13. The importance of neighborhood ecological assets in community dwelling old people aging outcomes: A study in Northern Portugal

    Alice M. Bastos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human development is a bidirectional, person-context relational process, but scarce evidence is available about the relation between the individual variability across the life-span and the neighborhood ecological assets. Therefore, it is important that research focus not only on personal characteristics but on ecological assets as well. This way this study aims to analyze the association between neighborhood ecological assets categorized into 4 dimensions: human, physical or institutional, social or collective activity, accessibility, and the individual functioning. A 3% sample of residents aged 65 years and older in 2 downtown and 3 uptown parishes stratified by age and sex was interviewed at home using a protocol that included the Portuguese version of the Barthel Index in basic activities of daily living (BADL, the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (IADL, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Geriatric Depression Scale-15 items (GDS for evaluating functionality, cognitive performance and depression. The 162 participants were aged on average 75y (sd=7.0, 54% were women and 90% had less than 7 years of education. The majority of participants were independent in BADL (M=90; sd=17.7 and moderately dependent in IADL (M=13, sd=6.0, 20% showed cognitive impairment and a mean score of 8 (sd=2.1 in GDS-15. After controlling for the effect of socio-demographic characteristics, functionality and cognitive performance decreases in persons with worst outdoor mobility. On the other hand depressive symptoms are less common as the number of recreation opportunities, namely associative groups (cultural, educative, professional, increases. These results suggest that aging policies and practices must be ecologically embedded.

  14. Comparative transcriptome profiling analyses during the lag phase uncover YAP1, PDR1, PDR3, RPN4, and HSF1 as key regulatory genes in genomic adaptation to the lignocellulose derived inhibitor HMF for Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Liu Z Lewis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to adapt and in situ detoxify lignocellulose derived inhibitors such as furfural and HMF. The length of lag phase for cell growth in response to the inhibitor challenge has been used to measure tolerance of strain performance. Mechanisms of yeast tolerance at the genome level remain unknown. Using systems biology approach, this study investigated comparative transcriptome profiling, metabolic profiling, cell growth response, and gene regulatory interactions of yeast strains and selective gene deletion mutations in response to HMF challenges during the lag phase of growth. Results We identified 365 candidate genes and found at least 3 significant components involving some of these genes that enable yeast adaptation and tolerance to HMF in yeast. First, functional enzyme coding genes such as ARI1, ADH6, ADH7, and OYE3, as well as gene interactions involved in the biotransformation and inhibitor detoxification were the direct driving force to reduce HMF damages in cells. Expressions of these genes were regulated by YAP1 and its closely related regulons. Second, a large number of PDR genes, mainly regulated by PDR1 and PDR3, were induced during the lag phase and the PDR gene family-centered functions, including specific and multiple functions involving cellular transport such as TPO1, TPO4, RSB1, PDR5, PDR15, YOR1, and SNQ2, promoted cellular adaptation and survival in order to cope with the inhibitor stress. Third, expressed genes involving degradation of damaged proteins and protein modifications such as SHP1 and SSA4, regulated by RPN4, HSF1, and other co-regulators, were necessary for yeast cells to survive and adapt the HMF stress. A deletion mutation strain Δrpn4 was unable to recover the growth in the presence of HMF. Conclusions Complex gene interactions and regulatory networks as well as co-regulations exist in yeast adaptation and tolerance to the lignocellulose derived

  15. Terrestrial animal ecology

    The Animal Ecology project is an integral part of the terrestrial ecology program. For convenience, it is reported separately because of the specialized nature of its techniques. It includes studies to characterize faunal populations taxonomically and ecologically and to estimate density and biomass of important mammal, bird, herpetofauna, and invertebrate populations. Extensive studies of small mammal populations conducted in past years are being summarized for open literature publication. Methodology and techniques developed in the animal ecology program are expected to be vital to studies to be initiated under a newly funded 189 entitled Radioecology of Waste Management Zones. These kinds of supportive studies will be needed to determine dietary habits of important animals inhabiting waste management zones, construction of realistic food chain models, and estimating radioactivity doses to biota

  16. Green Turtle Trophic Ecology

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently conducting a study of green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) trophic ecology in the eastern Pacific. Tissue samples and stable carbon and stable...

  17. Study of the breeding ecology and behaviour of the Svalbard population of light-bellied brent goose Branta bernicla hrota

    Madsen, Jesper; Bregnballe, Thomas; Mehlum, Fridtjof

    1989-01-01

    Nesting ecology and behaviour of the Light-bellied Brent Goose was studied on Lurøya and adjacent islands in the Tusenoyane group, SE Svalbard, from 13 June to 30 July 1987. On Lurøya 38 pairs attempted to nest, and in the whole study area 98 pairs. Estimated median data of laying of first egg was 10 June, and median hatching date 7 July. Mean clutch size in the middle of the incubation period was 4.0 eggs. On Lurtfya nesting success was 25.7%, hatching success 28.6%, and hatchi...

  18. The study of ecological condition on productivity of Tajan River estuary in Mazandaran Province Caspian Sea

    Shapoori, Maryam

    2008-01-01

    This project was done during a one-year period (2006-2007) with the aim of assessing and evaluating the susceptible and vulnerable habitat of Tajan River estuarine region as well as identifying its ecological features. This region consists of Tajan estuarine region as one of the sub-basins of the Caspian Sea basin which covers a surface of 2km2. In this assessment, 6 riverine estuarine and marine stations were chosen in which non-biotic parameters such as temperature, salinity,...

  19. Water quality assessment of aquatic ecosystems using ecological criteria – case study in Bulgaria

    Damyanova, Sonya; Ivanova, Iliana; Ignatova, Nadka

    2014-01-01

    Four aquatic ecosystems (two rivers and two dams) situated in the western part of Bulgaria were investigated over a three years’ period. The River Egulya and Petrohan dam are situated in mountainous regions at about 1000 m altitude, and are not influenced by any anthropogenic sources. Petrohan dam is a site for long-term ecosystem research as a part of Bulgarian long-term ecological research network. The other two systems belong to populated industrial areas. The River Martinovska flows throu...

  20. Mesocosm soil ecological risk assessment tool for GMO 2nd tier studies

    D'Annibale, Alessandra; Maraldo, Kristine; Larsen, Thomas;

    effects in 2nd tier caged experimental systems, cf. the new GMO ERA guidance: EFSA Journal 2010; 8(11):1879. We propose to perform a trophic structure analysis, TSA, and include the trophic structure as an ecological endpoint to gain more direct insight into the change in interactions between species, i...... control. After 5 and 11 weeks, data on populations, plants and soil organic matter decomposition were evaluated. Natural abundances of stable isotopes, 13C and 15N, of animals, soil, plants and added organic matter (crushed maize leaves) were used to describe the soil food web structure....

  1. Bowhead Whale Feeding Ecology Study (BOWFEST): Aerial Survey in Chukchi and Beaufort Seas conducted from 2007-08-23 to 2011-09-16 (NCEI Accession 0131425)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Bowhead Whale Feeding Ecology Study (BOWFEST) was initiated in May 2007 through an Interagency Agreement between the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM)...

  2. Ecological Modernization

    Mol, A.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Globalization provides a thorough understanding of the theoretical underpinnings of globalization as well as the various historical and analytical interpretations. Consisting of over 400 entries, coverage includes key cultural, ecological, economic, geographical, historical, poli

  3. Community Ecology

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  4. BALB/c-HSF1 Knockout小鼠的主要脏器重量、脏器系数及主要血液生化指标的测定%Measurement of Organ Weight, Organ Coefficients and Blood Indices in HSF1 Knockout Mice

    汤百争; 刘惺; 马亚东

    2002-01-01

    目的提供HSF1 Knockout小鼠的脏器重量,脏器系数的生物学特性指标.方法选用成年HSF1 Knockout小鼠50只(雄性21只,雌性29只),分别测定体重和8个主要脏器重量,计算脏器系数,测定其主要血液生化指标,并对雌雄鼠脏器重量,脏器系数进行比较,对血液生化指标进行统计.结果雌雄鼠脾脏系数、肾脏系数差异有显著性(P<0.05),胃系数、脑系数差异有显著性(P<0.01),心脏、肺系数差异不显著(P>0.01).结论应注意HSF1 Knockout小鼠实验时的雌雄鼠胃系数、脑系数的显著性差异;脾脏系数、肾脏系数的明显差异.但可忽视性别对脏器系数的影响.

  5. The ecological economics: An ecological economics

    Ecological Economics arise as a scientific discipline aimed to integrate concepts of economics, ecology, thermodynamics, ethic and other natural and social sciences in order to incorporate a biophysical and integrated perspective of the inter dependences between economies and environment, from a plural conception and a methodology beyond disciplines. Ecological Economics studies the black box of economic processes usually excluded of the traditional economics: thermodynamics and ecology. Although it is relatively a new field of study, it has been strengthening its theoretical framework with scientific basis and analytic principles that lead to its identification as a new discipline that show a whole new paradigm. The scope of this article is to show the conceptual and methodological bases, the main founders, approaches and central debates of this new discipline. This brief introduction is a preamble to the papers of the meeting Ecological Economics: a perspective for Colombia included in this number, that took place on September 22 - 27 of 2007, at the National University of Colombia at Bogota. During tree days national and international experts, professors, researchers, workers of environmental sector and people interested on environmental issues joined together to know the conceptual and methodological achievements reached of this discipline; as well as to analyse and evaluate the environmental problems of the country, from the systemic, interdisciplinary and general perspective that it promotes

  6. Development of a zoning-based environmental-ecological coupled model for lakes: a case study of Baiyangdian Lake in northern China

    Zhao, Y. W.; Xu, M. J.; Xu, F.; Wu, S. R.; Yin, X. A.

    2014-06-01

    Environmental/ecological models are widely used for lake management as they provide a means to understand physical, chemical, and biological processes in highly complex ecosystems. Most research has focused on the development of environmental (water quality) and ecological models, separately. Limited studies were developed to couple the two models, and in these limited coupled models, a lake was regarded as a whole for analysis (i.e. considering the lake to be one well-mixed box), which is appropriate for small-scale lakes but is not sufficient to capture spatial variations within middle-scale or large-scale lakes. In response to this problem, this paper seeks to establish a zoning-based environmental-ecological coupled model for a lake. Hierarchical cluster analysis was adopted to determine the number of zones in a given lake based on hydrological, water quality, and ecological data analysis. The MIKE 21 model was used to construct 2-D hydrodynamics and water quality simulations. STELLA software was used to create a lake ecological model that can simulate the spatial variations of ecological condition based on flow field distribution results generated by MIKE 21. Baiyangdian Lake, the largest freshwater lake in northern China, was adopted as the study case. The results showed that the new model is promising for predicting spatial variations of ecological conditions in response to changes in lake water quantity and quality, and could be useful for lake management.

  7. Microarrays in ecological research: A case study of a cDNA microarray for plant-herbivore interactions

    Gase Klaus

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technology allows researchers to simultaneously monitor changes in the expression ratios (ERs of hundreds of genes and has thereby revolutionized most of biology. Although this technique has the potential of elucidating early stages in an organism's phenotypic response to complex ecological interactions, to date, it has not been fully incorporated into ecological research. This is partially due to a lack of simple procedures of handling and analyzing the expression ratio (ER data produced from microarrays. Results We describe an analysis of the sources of variation in ERs from 73 hybridized cDNA microarrays, each with 234 herbivory-elicited genes from the model ecological expression system, Nicotiana attenuata, using procedures that are commonly used in ecologic research. Each gene is represented by two independently labeled PCR products and each product was arrayed in quadruplicate. We present a robust method of normalizing and analyzing ERs based on arbitrary thresholds and statistical criteria, and characterize a "norm of reaction" of ERs for 6 genes (4 of known function, 2 of unknown with different ERs as determined across all analyzed arrays to provide a biologically-informed alternative to the use of arbitrary expression ratios in determining significance of expression. These gene-specific ERs and their variance (gene CV were used to calculate array-based variances (array CV, which, in turn, were used to study the effects of array age, probe cDNA quantity and quality, and quality of spotted PCR products as estimates of technical variation. Cluster analysis and a Principal Component Analysis (PCA were used to reveal associations among the transcriptional "imprints" of arrays hybridized with cDNA probes derived from mRNA from N. attenuata plants variously elicited and attacked by different herbivore species and from three congeners: N. quadrivalis, N. longiflora and N. clevelandii. Additionally, the PCA

  8. Study on ecological awareness and performance of nursing personnel in dialysis units

    Sofia Zyga

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: When designing new hospital construction or refurbishment can be adopted green practices both in design and in construction and operation. Objective: To explore the ecological awareness and behavior of nursing staff in a dialysis unit. Methods: This survey involved 90 Registered Nurses and Nurses’ aides of General Hospitals in the Capital (Athens and in province of Greece (Region of Peloponnese. These individuals were given an overall anonymous self-completed questionnaire. Results: The most important finding is that 70.8% considered as mandatory an organized effort to protect the environment in their workplace. Nurses think that greater environmental awareness is obtained 37.1% by using guidelines, 23.6% with relative stimulation, and 20.2% with educational lectures, 10.1% using poster and 6.7% in view educational videos. Finally, the correlations of ecological awareness with demographic characteristics of the sample revealed that older nursing staff with more years of working experience knows about environmental management (p-value=0.012. At the same time, gender (p-value=0,030 and educational level of the nursing staff plays an important role in the knowledge of it (p-value=0,044. Conclusions: To control costs and environmental pollution guidelines for saving energy and water and the use of environmentally friendly materials should be implemented. Thus, hospitals can become more competitive by reducing the amount of natural resources used.  Normal 0 false false false EL X-NONE X-NONE

  9. Study on Fishery Ecological Environment and Fish Species Diversity in Yantan Water Area

    Yaoquan; HAN; Anyou; HE; Li; HUANG; Jun; SHI; Dapeng; WANG; Weijun; WU

    2015-01-01

    Through analysis on water quality,planktonic organism,fish resources,and fish species diversity in Yantan water area,this paper evaluated current situation of quality of fishery ecological environment in Yantan water area. The survey recorded all 52365 fishes and 1410. 2kg catches obtained by fishermen in half a year,and more than 98% catches are small fishes. The Shannon-Weiner diversity index of Yantan water area is 0. 162,Wilhm improvement index is 1. 814,DG- Findex is 0. 083,and the index of fish species diversity is far lower than other water areas. The average quantity per unit of phytoplankton is 1. 0134 million ind. / L,and the average quantity per unit of organisms is 1. 1151 mg / L. The average quantity per unit of zooplankton is 459. 6 ind. / L,and the average quantity per unit of organisms is 0. 6422 mg / L. Evaluation results indicate that water quality and planktonic organism in Yantan water area are basically normal,but fish resources are increasingly exhausted,fish resource composition is not reasonable,and fish species diversity is extremely low. From the perspective of biomanipulation,it is required to restore fishery ecological environment of reservoir area through restoring normal composition of aquatic organisms.

  10. Assessment of ecological studies examining the risk of thyroid cancer in children through radiation exposure following the nuclear power plant disaster in Chernobyl

    Epidemiological studies can be divided into studies with an individual database (cohort studies, case control studies) and studies with aggregate data (ecological studies). The former have the advantage that they can make use of methods based on risk models and examine dose-effect curves with due consideration to potential confounders, but the drawback of being expensive. Studies based on aggregate data can take account of large case numbers at comparatively low cost. However, ecological studies are also associated with serious methodological problems, especially when the goal is to find causal links (''ecological bias''). Thus it is well known that variations in a confounding factor (such as smoking in a study on lung cancer through radon) can invalidate the results of studies based on aggregate data. On the other hand, the only studies to have produced quantitative results on the risk of acquiring thyroid cancer through 131I exposure during childhood in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl disaster happen to be based on aggregate data. The purpose of the present paper is to examine problems associated with ecological studies which have already been in the focus of many studies of epidemiological methodology in terms of whether they are relevant to studies investigating connections between thyroid cancer and 131I exposure. It also presents the results of several simulation studies which examine the degree of distortion associated with ecological analyses

  11. 霞湾港生态修复研究%Study on Ecological Restoration of Xiawan

    陈明梅; 姚晔; 李良

    2014-01-01

    Xiawan is located in Qingshuitang industrial region of Zhuzhou City and its industrial pollution causes obvious harm to water ecological environment. Xiawan water pollution is serious, 7 indexes of ammonia nitrogen, suspended solids, COD, BOD, fluoride, total cyanide and TP in water exceed the standard, and the contents of mercury, cadmium, lead, zinc, arsenic, nickel and copper in the port sediment exceed the national soil pollution standards. Xiawan water pollution affects the water quality of Xiang Jiang and endangers the lives and health of residents, also restricts sustainable development of Chang-Zhu-Tan City Group at Xiangjiang River downstream. The governance ideas can be applied such as cutting off the pollution sources of enterprises, cleaning long-term depositing sludge containing heavy metals in Xiawan, developing a scientific and reasonable implement scheme and plan measures and effectively supervising the whole process management by relevant departments of environmental protection. At the same time of physical treatment, takes ecological restoration schemes such as planting artificial vegetation after the dredging solidification landfill, applying ecological restoration design aiming at the plane, cross-sectional and longitudinal river course, establishing wetland protection zone, recovering and reconstructing riparian vegetation, establishing riparian vegetation buffer zone and taking the ecological revetment measures to maximize the recovery of good ecological environment of Xiawan harbor basin.%霞湾港位于湖南省株洲市清水塘工业区,区域内工业污染使其水生态环境受到明显损害。霞湾港中氨氮、悬浮物、化学需氧量、生化需氧量、氟化物、总氰化物及总磷7项指标均超标,且底泥中汞、镉、铅、锌、砷、镍、铜等重金属含量严重超过国家土壤污染标准。霞湾港水污染直接影响到湘江水质,危害居民的生活和健康,也制约了湘江干流下游

  12. Disease Dynamics in Ants: A Critical Review of the Ecological Relevance of Using Generalist Fungi to Study Infections in Insect Societies.

    Loreto, R G; Hughes, D P

    2016-01-01

    It is assumed that social life can lead to the rapid spread of infectious diseases and outbreaks. In ants, disease outbreaks are rare and the expression of collective behaviors is invoked to explain the absence of epidemics in natural populations. Here, we address the ecological approach employed by many studies that have notably focused (89% of the studies) on two genera of generalist fungal parasites (Beauveria and Metarhizium). We ask whether these are the most representative models to study the evolutionary ecology of ant-fungal parasite interactions. To assess this, we critically examine the literature on ants and their interactions with fungal parasites from the past 114years (1900-2014). We discuss how current evolutionary ecology approaches emerged from studies focused on the biological control of pest ants. We also analyzed the ecological relevance of the laboratory protocols used in evolutionary ecology studies employing generalist parasites, as well as the rare natural occurrence of these parasites on ants. After a detailed consideration of all the publications, we suggest that using generalist pathogens such as Beauveria and Metarhizium is not an optimal approach if the goal is to study the evolutionary ecology of disease in ants. We conclude by advocating for approaches that incorporate greater realism. PMID:27131328

  13. A Study of Optimizing Spatial Structure for Urban Under Ecological Approach:A Case of Jiulongpo District in Chongqing

    Min, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Along with the highly speedy urbanization and the industrialization in china, the disordered land utilization has led to land overuse and ecological destruction. However, the city planning and ecosystem proect planning have grown according to rules oneself. the contradictionbetween economic growth and ecological protection is more evident than ever before. The ecological feasible space for urban development was established based on GIS methodology, combining an ecological function regionaliza...

  14. Combining Statistical Tools and Ecological Assessments in the Study of Biodeterioration Patterns of Stone Temples in Angkor (Cambodia).

    Caneva, G; Bartoli, F; Savo, V; Futagami, Y; Strona, G

    2016-01-01

    Biodeterioration is a major problem for the conservation of cultural heritage materials. We provide a new and original approach to analyzing changes in patterns of colonization (Biodeterioration patterns, BPs) by biological agents responsible for the deterioration of outdoor stone materials. Here we analyzed BPs of four Khmer temples in Angkor (Cambodia) exposed to variable environmental conditions, using qualitative ecological assessments and statistical approaches. The statistical analyses supported the findings obtained with the qualitative approach. Both approaches provided additional information not otherwise available using one single method. Our results indicate that studies on biodeterioration can benefit from integrating diverse methods so that conservation efforts might become more precise and effective. PMID:27597658

  15. A STUDY OF THE VALUE SYSTEM OF AUTOMOTIVE SECTOR UNDER THE FOCUS OF THE ECOLOGY OF COMPANIES

    Sérgio Dantas; Marcio Shoiti Kuniyoshi; Martinho Isnardi Ribeiro Almeida

    2015-01-01

    The study presents the results of a survey of a network of auto dealers and their relationship with the players’ member’s value system of an automaker. With a literature review on the ecology of enterprises and value chain system and tried to understand how to give the interactions between members of the same chain. Seeking representation and identify the strength of each level. It was selected for this research an automaker, market leader, in popular new cars. For data collection were develo...

  16. Ecological studies on the diversity of terrestrial poisonous snakes "Proteroglyphous” of Jazan region Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Reptilia: Ophidia

    Mostafa F. Masood

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out in Jazan region. The region of Jazan in being in the South-Western part of Saudi Arabia between longitudes 420 and 43.80 and latitudes 5, 16o and 17o, and is bounded on the south and east of the Republic of Yemen, Asir area in the north and the Red Sea in the west. The results showed that there are four families of poisonous snakes "Proteroglyphous" living in Jazan region. They are: Family Atractaspididae, Elapidae, Viperidae and Hydrophiidae . This work aimed to unveil ecological problems and throw light on diversity of poisonous snakes in Jazan region and the danger of these species to human life. Despite the fact that these snakes may be harmful to human life in some cases, it may also be useful to him in many aspects of life. Since there are no enough studies on the animal species in the region, this study came to identify the diversity of this animal group. There is no doubt that the study of these species and identifying them will provide some solutions that could make this group as an endless source of biodiversity and at the same time, this study provides information on the feasibility of protection of this species in this region. Discussion of ecological and geographical affinities of this taxa and taxonomic keys of different types in order to facilitate the process of identification will be provided

  17. Sub-federal ecological modernization: A case study of Colorado's new energy economy

    Giannakouros, Stratis

    European nations have often employed policies of explicit government intervention as a preferred means of addressing environmental and economic challenges. These policies have ranged from grey industrial policies focused solely on industrial growth, competitiveness and innovation to policies of stronger ecological modernization, which seek to align industrial interests with environmental protection. In recent years these policies have been mobilized to address the threat of climate change and promote environmental innovation. While some US Administrations have similarly recognized the need to address these challenges, the particular historical and political institutional dynamics of the US have meant that explicit government intervention has been eschewed in favor of more indirect strategies when dealing with economic and environmental challenges. This is evident in the rise of sub-federal policies at the level of US states. Supported by federal laboratories and public research, US states have adopted policies that look very much like sub-federal versions of industrial or ecological modernization policy. This thesis uses the Colorado case to highlight the importance of sub-federal institutions in addressing environmental and economic challenges in the US and explore its similarities to, and differences from, European approaches. To achieve this goal it first develops an analytical scheme within which to place policy initiatives on a continuum from grey industrial policy to strong ecological modernization policy by identifying key institutions that are influential in each policy type. This analytical scheme is then applied to the transitional renewable energy policy period from 2004-2012 in the state of Colorado. This period starts with the adoption of a renewable energy portfolio in 2004 and includes the `new energy economy' period from 2007-2010 as well as the years since. Looking at three key turning points this paper interprets the `new energy economy' strategy

  18. [Retrospective seroprevalence study of bovine leptospirosis in Mexico considering the ecological regions].

    Alvarez, Miguel Angel Luna; Moles y Cervantes, Luis Pedro; Rosas, Dolores Gavaldón; Vasquez, Carmen Nava; García, Félix Salazar

    2005-01-01

    The newly published information about the different ecological regions of Mexico was analyzed aimed at knowing the situation of bovine leptospirosis. A bibliographical search was made and the articles were chosen according to the following inclusion criteria: a) diagnosis technique: microscopic agglutination, b) positive criterion titres of 1:100 or higher, c) time period: 1991-2003, d) publications such as thesis, memoirs of congresses, non-scientific journals and journals with arbitrage, e) location by states. The duplicated information was considered as the exclusion criteria. The results of frequency and of serovarieties of leptospirosis were reported by state, considering the different ecological regions. Reference to 17 states is made. The arid and semi-arid region had a frequency of 37.8 % with a range from 31% to 59%, the prevalent serovars were H-89 strain (hardjo genotype hardjoprajitno), hardjo, wolffi and tarassovi. In the dry tropical region, there was a frequency of 45.9 % with a range from 27 to 72 %. The prevailing serovarieties were wolffi, hardjo and tarassovi. In the humid tropical region , the frequency was 63.8 % with a range between 31.7 and 84.6 %. The predominating serovarieties were H-89 strain (hardjo genotype hardjoprajitno), hardjo, wolffi and tarassovi. In the mild climate, the average frequency of leptospirosis was 39.4 % with a range from 22.1 to 54.3 %. The prevailing serovarieties were Palo Alto strain (icterohaemorrhagiae), Sinaloa ACR strain (portlandvere), bratislava, pyrogenes, pomona, and H-89 strain (hardjoprajitno), hardjo, wolffi and tarassovi. It was concluded that the presence of antobodies against L. interrogans is endemic in the different ecological regions of Mexico and that there is an elevated prevalence of serovarieties hardjo, wolffi y tarassovi; although in the temperate region, the Palo Alto strain (icterohaemorrhagiae), the Sinaloa ACR strain (portland vere) and Bratislava are present, too. Apparently, the

  19. Ecological study for refrigerator use, salt, vegetable, and fruit intakes, and gastric cancer.

    Park, Boyoung; Shin, Aesun; Park, Sue K; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Ma, Seung Hyun; Lee, Eun-Ha; Gwack, Jin; Jung, En-Joo; Cho, Lisa Y; Yang, Jae Jeong; Yoo, Keun-Young

    2011-11-01

    We used an ecological approach to determine the correlation between vegetable, fruit and salt intakes, refrigerator use, and gastric cancer mortality in Korean population. Information on fruit and vegetable intakes per capita from the National Health and Nutrition Survey, death certificate data from the National Statistical office, refrigerator per household data from Korean Statistical Information Service, and salt/sodium intake data from a cross-sectional survey were utilized. Correlation coefficients were calculated between vegetable and fruit intakes, refrigerator per household, and gastric cancer mortality and between salt and sodium intakes, and gastric cancer mortality and incidence in the four areas. With 5, 10, and 15 years lag time, refrigerator usage and fruit intake were negatively associated with gastric cancer mortality (p refrigerator use, fruit intake, and gastric cancer mortality and positive associations between salt/sodium intake and gastric cancer mortality and incidence were suggested. PMID:21805052

  20. The sea urchin, a versatile model for eco-toxicity studies and ecological experimental research

    D. Privitera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinoderm early developmental stages represent a good tool for toxicity testing in different fields, ranging from environment to food contamination, and in full respect of the 3Rs objectives (Reduction, Refinement, Replacement of animal experiments, that will lead to the reduction of vertebrate use for toxicity testing. Further, sea urchins are key species in a wide range of marine habitats, as they are able to structure algal community. Experiments and observations aiming at the  characterization of anthropogenic or climate changes effects on their settlement, population structure, feeding behaviour and reproductive condition, may be useful to describe future scenarios regarding the whole marine community. The present paper represents a short review of the possible applications of eco-toxicity bioassays using Paracentrotus lividus gametes and embryos. Further, examples of ecological researches, involving sea urchins, aiming at the definition of future scenarios will be preserved.

  1. Control principles of confounders in ecological comparative studies: standardization and regressive modelss

    Varaksin Anatoly

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The methods of the analysis of research data including the concomitant variables (confounders associated with both the response and the current factor are considered. There are two usual ways to take into account such variables: the first, at the stage of planning the experiment and the second, in analyzing the received data. Despite the equal effectiveness of these approaches, there exists strong reason to restrict the usage of regression method to accounting for confounders by ANCOVA. Authors consider the standardization by stratification as a reliable method to account for the effect of confounding factors as opposed to the widely-implemented application of logistic regression and the covariance analysis. The program for the automation of standardization procedure is proposed, it is available at the site of the Institute of Industrial Ecology.

  2. Application of an integrative hydro-ecological model to study water resources management in the upper and middle parts of the Yellow River basin

    Xianglian LI; Qiong GAO; Tingwu LEI; Xiusheng YANG

    2011-01-01

    This study presents an application of a well-calibrated integrative hydro-ecological model to examine water resources management in the upper and middle parts of the Yellow River basin, an arid and semiarid area in northwestern China. The hydro-ecological model was developed to simulate dynamic and accumulative hydrologic, ecologic, and economic variables at different spatial units. Four water management scenarios based on water use priorities, a business-as-usual scenario, an ecological scenario, an irrigation use efficiency scenario and water use scenario were designed and modeled over the period of 2011-2020 to reflect alternative water management pathways to the future. Water resource conditions were assessed in terms streamfiow, actual evapotranspiration,soil water, groundwater yield, overall water yield, and derived indicator of drought index. Unit crop yield was to assess ecological production, and monetary values of crop productivity and water productivity were used to assess economic output. Scenario analysis results suggested that water stress would continue in the study region under both current water use patterns and ecological scenarios of river flow being fully satisfied. Water use scenarios would result in decreased water availability and ecosystem degradation in the long mn. Improving irrigation use efficiency would be the most efficient approach in securing long-term water and food supply. The simulation results from this study provided useful information for evaluating long-term water resources management strategies, and will contribute to the knowledge of interdisciplinary modeling for water resources management in the study region.

  3. Integrating Water, Actors, and Structure to Study Socio-Hydro-Ecological Systems

    Hale, R. L.; Armstrong, A.; Baker, M. A.; Bedingfield, S.; Betts, D.; Buahin, C. A.; Buchert, M.; Crowl, T.; Dupont, R.; Endter-Wada, J.; Flint, C.; Grant, J.; Hinners, S.; Horns, D.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Jackson-Smith, D.; Jones, A. S.; Licon, C.; Null, S. E.; Odame, A.; Pataki, D. E.; Rosenberg, D. E.; Runburg, M.; Stoker, P.; Strong, C.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization, climate uncertainty, and ecosystem change represent major challenges for managing water resources. Water systems and the forces acting upon them are complex, and there is a need to understand and generically represent the most important system components and linkages. We developed a framework to facilitate understanding of water systems including potential vulnerabilities and opportunities for sustainability. Our goal was to produce an interdisciplinary framework for water resources research to address water issues across scales (e.g., city to region) and domains (e.g., water supply and quality, urban and transitioning landscapes). An interdisciplinary project (iUTAH - innovative Urban Transitions and Aridregion Hydro-sustainability) with a large (N=~100), diverse team having expertise spanning the hydrologic, biological, ecological, engineering, social, planning, and policy sciences motivated the development of this framework. The framework was developed through review of the literature, meetings with individual researchers, and workshops with participants. The Structure-Water-Actor Framework (SWAF) includes three main components: water (quality and quantity), structure (natural, built, and social), and actors (individual and organizational). Key linkages include: 1) ecological and hydrological processes, 2) ecosystem and geomorphic change, 3) planning, design, and policy, 4) perceptions, information, and experience, 5) resource access, and 6) operational water use and management. Our expansive view of structure includes natural, built, and social components, allowing us to examine a broad set of tools and levers for water managers and decision-makers to affect system sustainability and understand system outcomes. We validate the SWAF and illustrate its flexibility to generate insights for three research and management problems: green stormwater infrastructure in an arid environment, regional water supply and demand, and urban river restoration

  4. Occurrence and removal of antibiotics in ecological and conventional wastewater treatment processes: A field study.

    Dong, Huiyu; Yuan, Xiangjuan; Wang, Weidong; Qiang, Zhimin

    2016-08-01

    The occurrence and removal of 19 antibiotics (including four macrolides, eight sulfonamides, three fluoroquinolones, three tetracyclines, and trimethoprim) were investigated in two ecological (constructed wetland (CW) and stabilization pond (SP)) and two conventional wastewater treatment processes (activated sludge (AS) and micro-power biofilm (MP)) in a county of eastern China. All target antibiotics were detected in the influent and effluent samples with detection frequencies of >90%. Clarithromycin, ofloxacin, roxithromycin and erythromycin-H2O were the dominant antibiotics with maximum concentrations reaching up to 6524, 5411, 964 and 957 ng/L, respectively; while the concentrations of tiamulin, sulfamerazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethazine, sulfamethizole and sulfisoxazole were below 10 ng/L. Although the mean effluent concentrations of target antibiotics were obviously lower than the influent ones (except ciprofloxacin), their removals were usually incomplete. Principal component analysis showed that the AS and CW outperformed the MP and SP processes and the AS performed better than the CW process in terms of antibiotics removal. Both the AS and CW processes exhibited higher removal efficiencies in summer than in winter, indicating biological degradation could play an important role in antibiotics removal. Because of the incomplete removal, the total concentration of detected antibiotics increased in the mixing and downstream sections of a local river receiving the effluent from a typical wastewater treatment facility practicing AS process. Nowadays, ecological wastewater treatment processes are being rapidly planned and constructed in rural areas of China; however, the discharge of residual antibiotics to the aquatic environment may highlight a necessity for optimizing or upgrading their design and operation. PMID:27127893

  5. Understanding the biology and ecology of vulnerable plant species: case study with tetratheca juncea occurring over coal leases

    David Mulligan; Sean Bellairs; F.V. Bartier; C.L. Gross; D. Bowen

    2001-06-01

    Tetratheca juncea Smith (Tremandraceae) is a vulnerable species listed under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act (Schedule 2, TSC Act 1995), and in the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.Researchers at the Universities of Queensland, New England and Newcastle established A collaborative research program investigated the reproductive and establishment biology of T juncea. Breeding systems, seed biology and mycorrhizal associations were investigated to determine factors limiting the reproductive output of the species. Native bees necessary for pollination were not detected in 100 hours of observation. The three key ramifications from this study of T. juncea's ecology is that: a pollinator is required for high seed yields; fire is required for germination; and a mycorrhizal partner is required for plant longevity. These findings indicate that translocations of the species cannot be recommended as there is a lack of knowledge about many factors that are critical for the persistence of the species. A fire management plan will need to cater for all obligate ecological requirements. The results of this study have been used to develop a flowchart on the biological procedures that need to be considered when a threatened flora species is found on a site. The results from this study are also considered to be a relevant guide for managing populations of other species of Tetratheca, many of which are also rare or threatened.

  6. Research of land reclamation and ecological restoration in the resource-exhausting city : a case study of Huaibei in China

    Eco-city construction is a strong tool which could move a city from traditional industrial civilization to ecological civilization. The city of Huaibet, located in China, has 50 years of coal mining history, and has been listed as a national resource-exhausting city. The city's sustainable development and ecological restoration is encountering extreme challenges. This study used time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in order to study the situation of evolution and distribution of subsidence in the area in Huaibet. The purpose of the study was to provide strategic recommendations to assist Huaibei city transform from a resource-exhausting city to an eco-city. Specifically, the paper discussed the direction of eco-reconstruction in Huaibei such as rural eco-agriculture; wetland park or suburban park; and mine park. It also presented a time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in Huaibet including the subsidence status of the main city of Huaibet and intensive use of land evaluation and land use measures of the main city of Huaibei. Land reclamation and eco-reconstruction of Huaibet was also examined in the paper. It was concluded that based on land use of all aspects of the evaluation area and city's development plan, an integrated tourism with full use of subsidence land could be developed. 10 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  7. The role of the Yala swamp lakes in conservation of Lake Victoria region haplochromine cichlids: evidence from molecular genetic and trophic ecology studies

    Abila, R.; Salzburger, W; Ndonga, M.F.; Owiti, D.O.; Barluenga, M.

    2006-01-01

    Lake Kanyaboli (Kenya), a satellite lake of Lake Victoria, has been suggested as a potential refugium for haplochromine cichlids that have gone extinct in Lake Victoria. We employed mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite DNA molecular markers as well as feeding ecology studies to re- evaluate the evolutionary and ecological significance of Lake Kanyaboli haplochromines. The mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers revealed high genetic diversity in the endangered Xystichromis phytophagus an...

  8. Social-Ecological Patterns of Soil Heavy Metals Based on a Self-Organizing Map (SOM): A Case Study in Beijing, China

    Binwu Wang; Hong Li; Danfeng Sun

    2014-01-01

    The regional management of trace elements in soils requires understanding the interaction between the natural system and human socio-economic activities. In this study, a social-ecological patterns of heavy metals (SEPHM) approach was proposed to identify the heavy metal concentration patterns and processes in different ecoregions of Beijing (China) based on a self-organizing map (SOM). Potential ecological risk index (RI) values of Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, Cu, As, Cd and Pb were calculated for 1,018...

  9. A Study on Remote Probing Method for Drawing Ecology/Nature Map and the Application (III) - Drawing the Swamp Classification Map around River

    Jeon, Seong Woo; Cho, Jeong Keon; Jeong, Hwi Chol [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The map of ecology/nature in the amended Natural Environment Conservation Act is the necessary data, which is drawn through assessing the national land with ecological factors, to execute the Korea's environmental policy. Such important ecology/nature map should be continuously revised and improved the reliability with adding several new factors. In this point of view, this study has the significance in presenting the improvement scheme of ecology/nature map. 'A Study on Remote Probing Method for Drawing Ecology/Nature Map and the Application' that has been performed for 3 years since 1998 has researched the drawing method of subject maps that could be built in a short time - a land-covering classification map, a vegetation classification map, and a swamp classification map around river - and the promoting principles hereafter. This study also presented the possibility and limit of classification by several satellite image data, so it would be a big help to build the subject map in the Government level. The land-covering classification map, a result of the first year, has been already being built by Ministry of Environment as a national project, and the improvement scheme of the vegetation map that was presented as a result of second year has been used in building the basic ecology/nature map. We hope that the results from this study will be applied as basic data to draw an ecology/nature map and contribute to expanding the understanding on the usefulness of the several ecosystem analysis methods with applying an ecology/nature map and a remote probe. 55 refs., 38 figs., 24 tabs.

  10. Combined assessment and regulation on ecological land use and water demand of the river system: a case study in Luanhe River, North China

    D. H. Yan; Wang, G; Wang, H.; T. L. Qin

    2011-01-01

    With economic and social development, ecological water and land use of the river system were seriously misappropriated, which resulted in overall degradation of the river systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks of regionalisation on the eco-environmental function of the river systems were preliminarily formulated. According to the river eco-environmental functions, Luanhe River was regionalised into four types of first-class functional areas, i.e., ecological preservation...

  11. 林窗生态学研究进展%Advances in Studies of Forest Gap Ecology

    管云云; 费菲; 关庆伟; 陈斌

    2016-01-01

    Forest gap,though an interference at local scale,is an important driving force forest reqeneration nutrient cycling and ecosystem functioning of forests. By thoroughly reviewing the literature of forest gap studies,this paper was intended to advance the knowledge for both scientific research and forest management. Traditionally,forest gap ecology focuses on the formation and characteristics of gaps,and the consequent impacts on above-ground ecological processes( e. g. microclimate and plant community characteristics ) . Nowadays,a growing body of the research shifts sights to the effects of forest gap on under ground ecological processes ( e. g. fine roots and litter decomposition,soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics,soil enzyme activities) and ecophysiological traits of animals and soil microorganism. However,current knowledge of these new spots is limited by the small spatial and temporal research scales. With the purposes of improving stand structures,ecological services function and process of forests,future work should focus more on the effects of forest gap on under ground ecological processes( e. g. fine roots decomposition and rhizosphere effect,distribution,cycling and immobilization of soil carbon and nitrogen) and ecophysiological traits of organisms. Furthermore,future studies should enlarge their research scales,and should also integrate above-and under ground ecological ecosystem,biotic and abiotic factors,as well as micro-and macro-scales.%林窗是森林生态系统中的一种中小尺度干扰,是促进森林更新、养分循环、功能提高的重要推动力。本文阐述林窗生态学的研究进展与展望,以期为今后的林窗理论研究和森林经营实践提供参考。林窗生态学研究集中于林窗的形成、基本特征以及林窗对森林小气候和植物群落特征等地上结构与过程的影响;近年来,林窗对细根与枯落物分解、土壤碳氮动态及酶活性以及对森林动物和土壤微生物

  12. Convergence of ecological footprint and emergy analysis as a sustainability indicator of countries: Peru as case study

    Siche, Raúl; Pereira, Lucas; Agostinho, Feni; Ortega, Enrique

    2010-10-01

    In the last decade, two scientific tools have been extensively used worldwide to measure the human impact on nature: ecological footprint (EF) and emergy analysis (EA). Papers trying to combine the strong points of EF and EA, and obtain more accurate results have appeared in scientific literature, in which Zhao's et al. (2005) [61] approach is an important one. Unfortunately, some weak points of the original methods still remain on the new approaches proposed. The aim of this present work is to discuss some weak points found in Zhao's approach, trying to overcome them through a new approach called emergetic ecological footprint (EEF). The main difference between Zhao's approach and EEF is that the last one accounted for the internal storage of capital natural in the biocapacity calculation. Besides that, soil loss and water for human consume were considered as additional categories in the footprint calculation. After discussing it through comparisons with other approaches, EEF was used to assess Peru as a case study, resulting in a biocapacity of 51.76 gha capita-1 and a footprint of 12.23 gha capita-1, with 2004 data; that resulted in an ecological surplus of 39.53 gha capita-1. The load capacity factor obtained was 4.23, meaning that Peru can support a population 4.23 times bigger considering the life style of 2004. The main limitations of the EEF are: (i) it is impossible to make comparisons between the biocapacity and footprint for each category; (ii) a need for a handbook with emergy intensity factors with good quality. On the other hand, the main positive points are: (i) its easiness of application in global and national scales; (ii) its final indicators account for all the previous energy (or emergy) used to make something; (iii) internal natural capital storage was accounted for in the biocapacity calculation, which can be a valid step towards the evaluation and assess of services provided by nature.

  13. Calculating Pollution Indices by Heavy Metals in Ecological Geochemistry Assessment and a Case Study in Parks of Beijing

    Gong Qingjie; Deng Jun; Xiang Yunchuan; Wang Qingfei; Yang Liqiang

    2008-01-01

    Pollution index is a powerful tool for ecological geochemistry assessment. The commonly used pollution indices by heavy metals in soils and sediments were classified as two types of single index and integrated index in an algorithm point of view. Four single indices of contamination factor (or concentration factor), ecological risk factor, enrichment factor, and index of geo-accumulation were illustrated, and the reference values for calculating single indices were distinguished into background levels and threshold pollution values. Eight integrated indices were divided into two groups. One group is suitable for the normal distribution single indices including the sum, average, weighted average,vector modulus, and Nemerow pollution indices, and the other for log-normal distribution including the product, root of product, and weighted power product pollution indices. Using background levels as reference values, five contamination classes were divided, and the terminologies are suggested for the single and integrated indices to unify the assessment results. Software of EGAPI was developed in a single document interface to calculate the four single and eight integrated indices by heavy metals to assess the quality of soil and sediment ecological geochemistry. Pollution indices by heavy metals of Cu,Pb, and Zn in soils in parks of Beijing were calculated using EGAPI software, and these five contamination classes and terminologies suggested in this study were evaluated and used. Results ofintegrated indices of Cu, Pb, and Zn in soils indicated that the soil qualities are unpolluted as a whole and varied from low polluted to unpolluted status from the center to the outskirts of Beijing City.

  14. Development of virtual research environment for regional climatic and ecological studies and continuous education support

    Gordov, Evgeny; Lykosov, Vasily; Krupchatnikov, Vladimir; Bogomolov, Vasily; Gordova, Yulia; Martynova, Yulia; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander; Shulgina, Tamara

    2014-05-01

    Volumes of environmental data archives are growing immensely due to recent models, high performance computers and sensors development. It makes impossible their comprehensive analysis in conventional manner on workplace using in house computing facilities, data storage and processing software at hands. One of possible answers to this challenge is creation of virtual research environment (VRE), which should provide a researcher with an integrated access to huge data resources, tools and services across disciplines and user communities and enable researchers to process structured and qualitative data in virtual workspaces. VRE should integrate data, network and computing resources providing interdisciplinary climatic research community with opportunity to get profound understanding of ongoing and possible future climatic changes and their consequences. Presented are first steps and plans for development of VRE prototype element aimed at regional climatic and ecological monitoring and modeling as well as at continuous education and training support. Recently developed experimental software and hardware platform aimed at integrated analysis of heterogeneous georeferenced data "Climate" (http://climate.scert.ru/, Gordov et al., 2013; Shulgina et al., 2013; Okladnikov et al., 2013) is used as a VRE element prototype and approach test bench. VRE under development will integrate on the base of geoportal distributed thematic data storage, processing and analysis systems and set of models of complex climatic and environmental processes run on supercomputers. VRE specific tools are aimed at high resolution rendering on-going climatic processes occurring in Northern Eurasia and reliable and found prognoses of their dynamics for selected sets of future mankind activity scenaria. Currently the VRE element is accessible via developed geoportal at the same link (http://climate.scert.ru/) and integrates the WRF and «Planet Simulator» models, basic reanalysis and instrumental

  15. Information Ecology

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes a pedagogical didactical paradigm for teaching student-designers how to deal with context issues. Form/context-relationships are conceptualized as information ecologies and described as behavioral settings using a key concept developed by social psychologist R.A. Baker in the...... 1960ties, and chosen here because it integrates cultural and psychological trajectories in a theory of living settings. The pedagogical-didactical paradigm comprises three distinct information ecologies, named after their intended outcome: the problem-setting, the exploration-setting, and the fit......-setting. It is specified how context issues can be treated within each of these information ecologies. The paper concludes by discussing the outcome of applying this paradigm with respect to the student-designers’ competence as reflective practitioners....

  16. Urban Sound Ecologies

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Within recent years, there has been a renewed focus on sound in urban environments. From sound installations in public space to sound festivals in alternative settings, we find a common interest in sound art relating to the urban environment. Artworks or interventions presented in such contexts...... share the characteristics of site specificity. However, this article will consider the artwork in a broader context by re-examining how sound installations relate to the urban environment. For that purpose, this article brings together ecology terms from acoustic ecology of the sound theories of the...... 1970s while developing them into recent definitions of ecology in urban studies. Finally, we unfold our framing of urban sound ecologies with three case analyses: a sound intervention in Berlin, a symphony for wind instruments in Copenhagen and a video walk in a former railway station in Kassel. The...

  17. Investigations in to Ecological Consequences and Threats from Ethnoecological and Ethnobotanical Practices Across Karakorum Mountain Ranges: A Case Study Berberis

    Tika Khan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphologically inaccessible mighty mountain ranges of Karakoram, Hindukush, Himalaya and Pamir have been mother sanctuaries for several ecologically attuned civilizations. Modern changes underway across ethnoecological and ethnobotanical settings among these mountain traditional communities have drastically depreciated folk wisdom and ecological equilibrium. Ethno-climatic agencies have threatened several species and Berberis pseudumbellata subsp. gilgitica has become critically endangered. Present study was an attempt to discover ethnobotanical insights and exploration of threatening factors affecting Berberis species. Survey (n=373 revealed that communities use Berberis meeting various purposes including medicinal (92.2%; SE±0.057; 0.409 MT/annum-a, firewood (19.3%; SE±37.375; 6.589 MT/a, commercial (2.41%; SE±1.692; 0.048 MT/a, cultural (2.41%, fodder (16.08%; SE±11.474; 8.724 MT/a, fencing (19.03%; SE±6.895; 3.352 MT/a and grazing (100%; SE±1.035. Data was analyzed using Pearson correlational coefficient, student t-test and descriptive statistical tools. Study exhibits highly significant relationship (p< 0.000 among different age groups, ethnomedicinal uses and conservation status of Berberis.

  18. Evaluation of agricultural ecological environment in determining the capable areas: A case study of city of Esfahan, Iran

    Sedigheh Kiani Salmi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nature of different activities in production, agriculture as well as distribution and consumption section, called as expansionist activities, largely influence the ability of the land. Production of consumable material, which is required for increasing population in various areas, and their attractions make it possible to earn more profit and it causes a significant pressure on soil and water resources and can threaten environmental pollution and human food security. A self-interested attitude on land resources has led to run short-term programs without considering the ecological capability of the land. These mentioned problems are, significantly intensified particularly in arid and semi-arid areas with severe limitations of water and soil quality and quantity. Therefore, land allocation based on ecological capability and self-purification indexes, used for land use planning, is an appropriate response to meet the deficiencies noted. This paper studies the agricultural capable lands based on land capability. The proposed study uses GIS software capabilities with application of the environmental ability evaluation model, as a holistic approach, to make sustainable development research in the region. The results indicate that suitable lands for agriculture in the whole area in different classes are widespread and with regards to dependency of more than 90 percent of people to agricultural activities, serious attention of authorities is required for providing the appropriate baseline and avoiding land use change to develop this activity.

  19. Wet Grasslands as a Green Infrastructure for Ecological Sustainability: Wader Conservation in Southern Sweden as a Case Study

    Michael Manton

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosphere Reserves aim at being role models for biodiversity conservation. This study focuses on the unsuccessful conservation of waders (Charadrii on wet grasslands in the Kristianstad Vattenrike Biosphere Reserve (KVBR in southern Sweden. Predation on nests and young has been proposed as one reason contributing to the decline of waders. We explored this hypothesis by comparing two landscapes, one with declining (KVBR and one with stable (Östergötland wader populations on managed wet grasslands in southern Sweden. Specifically, we tested three predictions linked to predation on wader nests and young, namely that (1 the relative abundance of avian predators and waders; (2 the avian predator abundance; and (3 the predation rate on artificial wader nests, should all be higher in declining versus stable populations. All predictions were clearly supported. Nevertheless, predation may not be the ultimate factor causing wader population declines. We discuss the cumulative effects of landscape change linked to increased food resources for predators, reduced wet grassland patch size and quality. Holistic analyses of multiple wet grassland landscapes as social-ecological systems as case studies, including processes such as predation and other factors affecting waders, is a promising avenue towards collaborative learning for wet grasslands as a functional green infrastructure. However, if governance and management approaches can be improved is questionable without considerable investment in both ecological and social systems.

  20. Political ecology

    Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.)

  1. Emerging directions in the study of the ecology and evolution of plant-animal mutualistic networks: a review.

    Gu, Hao; Goodale, Eben; Chen, Jin

    2015-03-18

    The study of mutualistic plant and animal networks is an emerging field of ecological research. We reviewed progress in this field over the past 30 years. While earlier studies mostly focused on network structure, stability, and biodiversity maintenance, recent studies have investigated the conservation implications of mutualistic networks, specifically the influence of invasive species and how networks respond to habitat loss. Current research has also focused on evolutionary questions including phylogenetic signal in networks, impact of networks on the coevolution of interacting partners, and network influences on the evolution of interacting species. We outline some directions for future research, particularly the evolution of specialization in mutualistic networks, and provide concrete recommendations for environmental managers. PMID:25855224

  2. The significance of cephalopod beaks in marine ecology studies: Can we use beaks for DNA analyses and mercury contamination assessment?

    Xavier, José Carlos; Ferreira, Sónia; Tavares, Sílvia; Santos, Nuno; Mieiro, Cláudia Leopoldina; Trathan, Phil N; Lourenço, Sílvia; Martinho, Filipe; Steinke, Dirk; Seco, José; Pereira, Eduarda; Pardal, Miguel; Cherel, Yves

    2016-02-15

    Cephalopod beaks found in the diet of predators have been a major source of scientific information. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of DNA and contaminants analysis (total mercury - T-Hg) in cephalopod beaks in order to assess their applicability as tools in marine ecology studies. We concluded that, when applying DNA techniques to cephalopod beaks from Antarctic squid species, when using flesh attached to those beaks, it was possible to obtain DNA and to successfully identify cephalopod species; DNA was not found on the beaks themselves. This study also showed that it is possible to obtain information on T-Hg concentrations in beaks: the T-Hg concentrations found in the beaks were 6 to 46 times lower than in the flesh of the same cephalopod species. More research on the relationships of mercury concentrations in cephalopod beaks (and other tissues), intra- and inter-specifically, are needed in the future. PMID:26723473

  3. Ecological Catastrophes and Disturbance Relicts: A Case Study from Easter Island

    Wynne, J.

    2014-12-01

    Caves are often considered buffered environments in terms of their ability to sustain near constant microclimatic conditions. However, environments within cave entrances are expected to respond most quickly to changing surface conditions. We cataloged a relict assemblage of at least 10 endemic arthropods likely restricted to caves and occurring primarily within cave entranceways. Of these animals, eight were considered new undescribed species. These endemic arthropods have persisted in Rapa Nui (Easter Island) caves despite a catastrophic ecological shift induced by island-wide deforestation, fire intolerance, and drought, as well as intensive livestock grazing and surface ecosystems dominated by invasive species. We consider these animals to be "disturbance relicts" - species whose distributions are now limited to areas that experienced minimal human disturbance historically. Today, these species represent one-third of the Rapa Nui's known endemic arthropods. Given the island's severely depauperate native fauna, these arthropods should be considered among the highest priority targets for biological conservation. In other regions globally, epigean examples of imperiled disturbance relicts persisting within narrow distributional ranges have been documented. As human activity intensifies, and habitat loss and fragmentation continues worldwide, additional disturbance relicts will be identified. We expect extinction debts, global climate change and interactions with invasive species will challenge the persistence of both hypogean and epigean disturbance relict species.

  4. Myco-ecological studies of natural morel bearing sites in Shivalik hills of Himachal Pradesh, India

    S. K. Singh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven natural morel-bearing sites were investigated during fruiting season of Morchella for their physico-chemical and soil microbiota to determine conditions required for morel fructification. Sandy loam soils with humus and high aeration supported the morel fruiting. Soil temperature between 18-22.7 C, air temperature 23-27 C at low elevations and 18-27 C at high elevations, pH slightly acidic to neutral (6.5 to 7.0 and high electrical conductivity (44.4 to 176.3 µS were recorded during natural occurrence of morel fruiting. Elemental analysis of soil revealed high carbon, nitrogen, calcium, nitrates, sodium and lead with low phosphates, chlorides and potassium below the fruit body in comparison to soil away from the fruit body. Hyphomyces ocraseus, Phoma sp., Blastomyces, Acremoniella, Gliomastix and Cladosporium were invariably found associated with the soil beneath Morchella. Four bacterial species, namely, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus varians, Bacillus sphaericus and Pseudomonas spp., were also isolated from almost all the natural morel bearing sites. These myco-ecological conditions of natural morel bearing sites are of significance in controlled domestication trials.

  5. The role of social and ecological processes in structuring animal populations: a case study from automated tracking of wild birds.

    Farine, Damien R; Firth, Josh A; Aplin, Lucy M; Crates, Ross A; Culina, Antica; Garroway, Colin J; Hinde, Camilla A; Kidd, Lindall R; Milligan, Nicole D; Psorakis, Ioannis; Radersma, Reinder; Verhelst, Brecht; Voelkl, Bernhard; Sheldon, Ben C

    2015-04-01

    Both social and ecological factors influence population process and structure, with resultant consequences for phenotypic selection on individuals. Understanding the scale and relative contribution of these two factors is thus a central aim in evolutionary ecology. In this study, we develop a framework using null models to identify the social and spatial patterns that contribute to phenotypic structure in a wild population of songbirds. We used automated technologies to track 1053 individuals that formed 73 737 groups from which we inferred a social network. Our framework identified that both social and spatial drivers contributed to assortment in the network. In particular, groups had a more even sex ratio than expected and exhibited a consistent age structure that suggested local association preferences, such as preferential attachment or avoidance. By contrast, recent immigrants were spatially partitioned from locally born individuals, suggesting differential dispersal strategies by phenotype. Our results highlight how different scales of social decision-making, ranging from post-natal dispersal settlement to fission-fusion dynamics, can interact to drive phenotypic structure in animal populations. PMID:26064644

  6. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY 1993

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    Construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS) began during FY-1984. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 15 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Through the long-term census taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has been evaluating the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10 CFR 1022).

  7. Landscape and soil regionalization in southern Brazilian Amazon and contiguous areas: methodology and relevance for ecological studies

    Boris Volkoff

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils of a large tropical area with differentiated landscapes cannot be treated uniformly for ecological applications. We intend to develop a framework based on physiography that can be used in regional applications. The study region occupies more than 1.1 million km² and is located at the junction of the savanna region of Central Brazil and the Amazon forest. It includes a portion of the high sedimentary Central Brazil plateau and large areas of mostly peneplained crystalline shield on the border of the wide inner-Amazon low sedimentary plain. A first broad subdivision was made into landscape regions followed by a more detailed subdivision into soil regions. Mapping information was extracted from soil survey maps at scales of 1:250000-1:500000. Soil units were integrated within a homogenized legend using a set of selected attributes such as taxonomic term, the texture of the B horizon and the associated vegetation. For each region, a detailed inventory of the soil units with their area distribution was elaborated. Ten landscape regions and twenty-four soil regions were recognized and delineated. Soil cover of a region is normally characterized by a cluster composed of many soil units. Soil diversity is comparable in the landscape and the soil regions. Composition of the soil cover is quantitatively expressed in terms of area extension of the soil units. Such geographic divisions characterized by grouping soil units and their spatial estimates must be used for regional ecological applications.

  8. Bacterial Ecology

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...

  9. ECOLOGY AFFECTED IN OIL EXPLOITATION

    Wang Mingren; Zeng Dezhang; Zhang Shiquan; Shi Lifeng

    1997-01-01

    @@ Introduction During the Eighth Five-Year Plan period(1991-1995), a study about crude impacts on ecology in oil exploitation was conducted in seven representative onshore oil fields of China. The study discusses crude pollutant's impacts on ecology in terms of its production,movement, transformation and concentration in the ecological system,as well as its toxicity and damage degree on living things , by means of investigation on the spot, test analysis and analogue test.

  10. HSF1/HSP70通路抑制c-Jun氨基末端激酶的活化保护UVA诱导的HaCaT细胞凋亡%Protection of HSF1/HSP70 pathway on UVA-induced HaCaT cells apoptosis via inhibiting the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase

    王晓雯; 王春波; 李丙华; 韩彦弢

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察热休克转录因子1( HSF1)与热休克蛋白70( HSP70)对紫外线A(UVA)诱导HaCaT细胞凋亡的保护作用及其机制.方法 建立8mJ/cm2 UVA辐射损伤HaCaT细胞的病理模型.将细胞随机分为对照组、8mJ/cm2 UVA照射组、HSP70转录抑制剂组(50 μmol/L槲皮素).Honechst 33258荧光染色观察细胞凋亡;蛋白质印迹法检测UVA辐射HaCaT细胞后p-HSF1和HSP70蛋白的经时变化及UVA辐射后孵育6h JNK(c-Jun氨基末端激酶)、p-JNK的蛋白表达;Real-Time PCR检测HSP70 mRNA的表达.结果 UVA辐射后HaCaT细胞内p-HSF1、HSP70蛋白表达量均出现先增加后减少的时间依赖性趋势,其中p-HSF1于lh开始增加,3h达高峰,HSP70于6h达高峰,24h基本恢复原始水平;UVA辐射前预先加入HSP70转录抑制剂槲皮素能显著抑制HSP70 mRNA的表达,增加p-JNK的表达量,同时Honechst 33258荧光染色观察其与UVA辐射组比较凋亡率明显升高.结论 8mJ/cm2 UVA辐射HaCaT细胞在一定时间内可使HSF1活化致HSP70表达增加.HSFl/HSP70通路对UVA诱导的HaCaT细胞凋亡具有保护作用,其机制与HSP70大量表达后抑制JNK的活化有关.%Objective To investigate the protective effect of heat shock factorl ( HSF1) and heat shock protein70 ( HSP70) on ultraviolet A ( UVA ) -induced HaCaT cells apoptosis and its mechanism. Methods The apoptotic HaCaT cell model was induced by UVA irradiation (8mJ/cm ). The cells were randomly divided into three groups, including a control group, a model group (8mJ/cm UVA) and a HSP70 transcription inhibitor group (50 μmol/L quercetin). The morphologic alteration of apoptotic cells was investigated by using Hoechst 33258 fluorescent staining. Western blotting was used to investigate protein expression levels of phosphorylated HSF1 and HSP70 at different time points, as well as c-Jun N-terminal kinase ( JNK ) andphosphorylated JNK were investigated after incubating for 6 hours following UVA irradiation. HSP70 mRNA was

  11. 热休克因子在过氧化氢所致小鼠胚胎成纤维细胞损伤中的作用%Effect of Heat Shock Factor 1 (HSF1) on Hydrogen Peroxide-Mediated Impairment of Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (MEFs)

    刘可; 王浩; 易宇欣; 刘梅冬; 陈广文; 王慷慨; 肖献忠

    2007-01-01

    [目的]探讨热休克因子1(heat shock factor 1,HSF1)对过氧化氢所致小鼠胚胎成纤维细胞(mouse embryonic fibroblasts,MEFs)损伤的影响.[方法]利用HSF1基因敲除(HSF1-/-)小鼠和转基因技术,通过稳定转染SV40大T抗原基因,建立缺失HSF1基因(HSF1-/-纯合子)和含有HSF1基因(HSF1+/+野生型)的永生化MEFs,并采用免疫印迹和基因组DNA PCR技术进行鉴定.向细胞培养基中加入终浓度为0.5 mmol/L的过氧化氢导致细胞损伤,采用甲苯胺兰染色和总蛋白合成能力分析方法来判定致细胞损伤程度(核仁的结构和功能改变).[结果]PCR产物电泳显示在各种基因型MEFs中均含有SV40大T抗原基因,在HSF1-/-MEFs中仅含有替代基因,在HSF1+/+MEFs中仅含HSF1基因,在HSF1-/+MEFs中则含有替代基因和HSF1基因;免疫印迹显示热休克反应(heat shock response,HSR)不能诱导HSF1-/-MEFs中HSP70表达.甲苯胺兰染色和总蛋白合成能力分析显示0.5 mmol/L过氧化氢可引起HSF1+/+MEFs及HSF1-/-MEFs核仁分离及蛋白质合成抑制,与正常对照组相比,P<0.05;HSR能显著抑制过氧化氢所致HSF1+/+MEFs核仁分离及蛋白质合成抑制,与单纯过氧化氢损伤组相比,P<0.05,但HSR对过氧化氢所致HSF1-/-MEFs核仁分离及蛋白质合成抑制没有影响,与单纯过氧化氢损伤组相比,P>0.05.[结论]HSR以一种HSF1依赖方式显著抑制过氧化氢所致细胞核仁结构与功能损伤.

  12. Introduction to Ecological Landscaping: A Holistic Description and Framework to Guide the Study and Management of Urban Landscape Parcels

    Parwinder Grewal; Loren B. Byrne

    2008-01-01

    Urbanized ecosystems and urban human populations are expanding around the world causing many negative environmental effects. A challenge for achieving sustainable urban social-ecological systems is understanding how urbanized landscapes can be designed and managed to minimize negative outcomes. To this end, an interdisciplinary Ecological Landscaping conference was organized to examine the interacting sociocultural and ecological causes and consequences of landscaping practices and products. ...

  13. Improving inferences from short-term ecological studies with Bayesian hierarchical modeling: white-headed woodpeckers in managed forests.

    Linden, Daniel W; Roloff, Gary J

    2015-08-01

    Pilot studies are often used to design short-term research projects and long-term ecological monitoring programs, but data are sometimes discarded when they do not match the eventual survey design. Bayesian hierarchical modeling provides a convenient framework for integrating multiple data sources while explicitly separating sample variation into observation and ecological state processes. Such an approach can better estimate state uncertainty and improve inferences from short-term studies in dynamic systems. We used a dynamic multistate occupancy model to estimate the probabilities of occurrence and nesting for white-headed woodpeckers Picoides albolarvatus in recent harvest units within managed forests of northern California, USA. Our objectives were to examine how occupancy states and state transitions were related to forest management practices, and how the probabilities changed over time. Using Gibbs variable selection, we made inferences using multiple model structures and generated model-averaged estimates. Probabilities of white-headed woodpecker occurrence and nesting were high in 2009 and 2010, and the probability that nesting persisted at a site was positively related to the snag density in harvest units. Prior-year nesting resulted in higher probabilities of subsequent occurrence and nesting. We demonstrate the benefit of forest management practices that increase the density of retained snags in harvest units for providing white-headed woodpecker nesting habitat. While including an additional year of data from our pilot study did not drastically alter management recommendations, it changed the interpretation of the mechanism behind the observed dynamics. Bayesian hierarchical modeling has the potential to maximize the utility of studies based on small sample sizes while fully accounting for measurement error and both estimation and model uncertainty, thereby improving the ability of observational data to inform conservation and management strategies

  14. Children's traditional ecological knowledge of wild food resources: a case study in a rural village in Northeast Thailand

    Price Lisa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consuming wild foods is part of the food ways of people in many societies, including farming populations throughout the world. Knowledge of non-domesticated food resources is part of traditional and tacit ecological knowledge, and is largely transmitted through socialization within cultural and household contexts. The context of this study, a small village in Northeast Thailand, is one where the community has experienced changes due to the migration of the parental generation, with the children being left behind in the village to be raised by their grandparents. A case study approach was used in order to gain holistic in-depth insight into children's traditional ecological knowledge as well as patterns of how children acquire their knowledge regarding wild food resources. Techniques used during field data collection are free-listing conducted with 30 village children and the use of a sub-sample of children for more in-depth research. For the sub-sample part of the study, wild food items consisted of a selection of 20 wild food species consisting of 10 species of plants and 10 species of animals. Semi-structured interviews with photo identification, informal interviews and participatory observation were utilized, and both theoretical and practical knowledge scored. The sub-sample covers eight households with boys and girls aged between 10–12 years old from both migrant families and non-migrant families. The knowledge of children was compared and the transmission process was observed. The result of our study shows that there is no observable difference among children who are being raised by grandparents and those being raised by their parents, as there are different channels of knowledge transmission to be taken into consideration, particularly grandparents and peers. The basic ability (knowledge for naming wild food species remains among village children. However, the practical in-depth knowledge, especially about wild food plants

  15. Integrating satellite and tower phenology: a case-study in real-time ecological forecasting

    Dietze, M.

    2014-12-01

    Phenological transitions have large impacts on ecosystem processes, species interactions, and climate. However, phenology is a critical source of uncertainty in projections of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems and the current generation of ecosystem models are highly variable and biased in their phenology predictions. Most phenological modeling has focused on diagnosing phenological variability and predicting long term responses to climate scenarios. Phenological predictions for the current season, on the other hand, are being made based on long-term means or expert opinion rather than real data. To our knowledge previous research has not applied operational data assimilation approaches to produce operational, real-time forecasts of phenology. We present a phenology forecast data product that is automatically updated every day using current observations and weather forecasts. Specifically we fuse MODIS NDVI and PhenoCam based GCC with a threshold logistic process model at five sites across eastern forests, from North Carolina to New Hampshire. Prior to application, models were calibrated (2000-2012) using a Bayesian state space model. Forecasts for fall 2013, spring 2014, and fall 2014 were then generated on a daily basis using a particle filter. The system successfully tracked seasonal phenology but forecasts showed high uncertainty and sensitivity to alternative model structures. Furthermore, we found that current phenological models in the literature are not formulated in a way that allows for dynamic forecasts. Work remains to be done to extend this work to a fully spatial context. In particular there is a need to determine the spatial range of influence of the tower PhenoCam data and to account for both land cover and random effects. More broadly, this work demonstrates the possibilities for the development of real-time ecological forecasting in other areas.

  16. Analysis of ecological transitions in the Black Sea during the last four decades: A modelling study

    Akoglu, Ekin; Salihoglu, Baris; Oguz, Temel

    2010-05-01

    This work investigates the Black Sea ecosystem and the changes it had undergone in the second half of the 20th century from a fisheries perspective using Ecopath, a widely adopted fisheries model. Different states of the Black Sea ecosystem were modeled using 5 simulation scenarios: Simulation 1, represents the quasi-pristine conditions of the Black Sea ecosystem during early 1960's; Simulation 2, represents the over-enrichment period of the ecosystem during early 1980's before the fisheries collapse and the outburst of alien ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi; Simulation 3, represents the changes in the ecosystem along with the outburst of Mnemiopsis in 1989; Simulation 4, represents the aftermath effects in the components of the Black Sea ecosystem just after the collapse of the fisheries; and Simulation 5, represents the recovery period of the fish stocks in the very beginning of the 1990's. According to the results of the model runs, it was found that the Black Sea ecosystem in its quasi-pristine conditions during early 1960's was top-down controlled. The piscivorous pelagic fish and dolphins exerted predation pressure on small pelagic fish species and suppressed their over-development. Our findings suggest that after the removal of these top predators from the ecosystem due to fishing and whaling, the small pelagic fish species had the opportunity to thrive themselves along with the over-enrichment of the Black Sea and reached high biomass levels in 1980's. Small pelagic fishes prevailed in the Black Sea ecosystem until the highly debated outburst of alien ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. In 1989, the biomass of small pelagic fish species declined drastically and their population did not recover until the very beginning of 1990's due to various ecological and anthropogenic effects put forward by the outcomes of the simulations.

  17. iSAW: Integrating Structure, Actors, and Water to study socio-hydro-ecological systems

    Hale, Rebecca L.; Armstrong, Andrea; Baker, Michelle A.; Bedingfield, Sean; Betts, David; Buahin, Caleb; Buchert, Martin; Crowl, Todd; Dupont, R. Ryan; Ehleringer, James R.; Endter-Wada, Joanna; Flint, Courtney; Grant, Jacqualine; Hinners, Sarah; Horsburgh, Jeffery S.; Jackson-Smith, Douglas; Jones, Amber S.; Licon, Carlos; Null, Sarah E.; Odame, Augustina; Pataki, Diane E.; Rosenberg, David; Runburg, Madlyn; Stoker, Philip; Strong, Courtenay

    2015-03-01

    Urbanization, climate, and ecosystem change represent major challenges for managing water resources. Although water systems are complex, a need exists for a generalized representation of these systems to identify important components and linkages to guide scientific inquiry and aid water management. We developed an integrated Structure-Actor-Water framework (iSAW) to facilitate the understanding of and transitions to sustainable water systems. Our goal was to produce an interdisciplinary framework for water resources research that could address management challenges across scales (e.g., plot to region) and domains (e.g., water supply and quality, transitioning, and urban landscapes). The framework was designed to be generalizable across all human-environment systems, yet with sufficient detail and flexibility to be customized to specific cases. iSAW includes three major components: structure (natural, built, and social), actors (individual and organizational), and water (quality and quantity). Key linkages among these components include: (1) ecological/hydrologic processes, (2) ecosystem/geomorphic feedbacks, (3) planning, design, and policy, (4) perceptions, information, and experience, (5) resource access and risk, and (6) operational water use and management. We illustrate the flexibility and utility of the iSAW framework by applying it to two research and management problems: understanding urban water supply and demand in a changing climate and expanding use of green storm water infrastructure in a semi-arid environment. The applications demonstrate that a generalized conceptual model can identify important components and linkages in complex and diverse water systems and facilitate communication about those systems among researchers from diverse disciplines.

  18. Social-Ecological Guilds: Putting People into Marine Historical Ecology

    Crowder, Larry B.; Lisa M Campbell; Janna M. Shackeroff

    2011-01-01

    Marine historical ecology provides historic insights into past ocean ecosystems that are crucial to effectively confronting the declining health and resilience in marine ecosystems. A more 'peopled' approach to marine historical ecology is necessary, given the heightened emphasis on human dimensions in marine management. This study examined the historical ecology of Hawaiian coral reef ecosystems through oral histories of diverse ocean experts, representing six traditional, local, a...

  19. Development Situations and Countermeasures of Low Carbon Ecological Circular Agriculture:A Case Study of Nantong City

    YANG Chun-he; QIAO Qi-cheng; GU Wei-bing; SUN Jia-feng

    2012-01-01

    Developing the low carbon ecological circular agriculture is an effective approach to realizing low carbon development of agriculture. Through investigation on existing measures and performance of development of low carbon type ecological circular agriculture in Nantong City, we analyzed the potential and problems of Nantong City in developing low carbon type ecological circular agriculture. Finally, with reference to domestic and foreign research achievements and practical experience, we put forward countermeasures for developing low carbon type ecological circular agriculture in Nantong City from building technical system and government guidance.

  20. 企业竞争的生态策略研究%Study on Ecological Strategy of Enterprises' Competition

    许芳

    2005-01-01

    The ecological research of enterprises ' competition is the front line of current research of enterprises' competition strategy. This text applies the competition principle of living creature in ecology to research enterprises' competition problems,explains the ecological characteristics of enterprises' competition, such as non-symmetry, crowded effect, density effect,competition-rejective effect, suitable resources niche and red queen effect etc., deduces the ecological model of enterprises'competition, and further analyzes enterprises' competition strategy: strategy R and strategy K, on the basis of enterprises'practices. Therefore enterprises' competition ecosystem theories have further been deepened and enriched.