WorldWideScience

Sample records for ecological studies hsf

  1. Lessons from the use of genetically modified Drosophila melanogaster in ecological studies: Hsf mutant lines show highly trait-specific performance in field and laboratory thermal assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Loeschcke, Volker; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård

    2009-01-01

    1.  Laboratory studies on genetically modified strains may reveal important information on mechanisms involved in coping with thermal stress. However, to address the evolutionary significance of specific genes or physiological mechanisms, ecologically relevant field tests should also be performed...... that the ecological relevance of specific molecular mechanisms should be tested under a range of conditions both in the laboratory and in the field. Genetically modified lines cannot be assumed to represent the performance of natural populations, especially for field and/or ecologically relevant...... studies.6.  As evident in this study, ideal controls and adequate replication of genetically modified strains can be difficult to obtain. Thus, caution is needed when interpreting results comparing the performance of genetically modified lines with that of control lines...

  2. HSF1, a versatile factor in tumorogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart K. Calderwood

    2012-01-01

    HSF1 is an essential factor in the acute response to proteotoxic stress, in which it causes rapid transcription of heat shock protein (HSP) genes in order to permit survival of cells and restoration of global protein quality. In addition to this property however, HSF1 is chronically activated or overexpressed in a wide range of cancers and is essential for multiple pathways of malignant transformation. Studies in recent years indicate a remarkable pleiotropy in the properties of HSF1 in cance...

  3. Ecological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted on the ecological consequences of geothermal energy, oils, plutonium, uranium, radioactive effluents, and trace elements from coal utilization. Studies included vegetative stabilization, measurement of radiation exposures in rodents, measurement of radon-222 flux from inactive uranium mill tailings piles, chemical quality of effluents, and others

  4. HSF1 overexpression enhances oncolytic effect of replicative adenovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Deng Youwen; Fan Rong; Dai Zhehao; Wang Cheng; Lv Guohua; Lu Guangxiu

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background E1B55kD deleted oncolytic adenovirus was designed to achieve cancer-specific cytotoxicity, but showed limitations in clinical study. To find a method to increase its efficacy, we investigated the correlation between oncolytic effect of such oncolytic adenovirus Adel55 and intracellular heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) activity. Methods In the present study, human breast cancer cell line Bcap37 was stably transfected with constitutively active HSF1 (cHSF1) or HSF1 s...

  5. NEDD4-mediated HSF1 degradation underlies ?-synucleinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunhee; Wang, Bin; Sastry, Namratha; Masliah, Eliezer; Nelson, Peter T; Cai, Huaibin; Liao, Francesca-Fang

    2016-01-15

    Cellular protein homeostasis is achieved by a delicate network of molecular chaperones and various proteolytic processes such as ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) to avoid a build-up of misfolded protein aggregates. The latter is a common denominator of neurodegeneration. Neurons are found to be particularly vulnerable to toxic stress from aggregation-prone proteins such as ?-synuclein. Induction of heat-shock proteins (HSPs), such as through activated heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) via Hsp90 inhibition, is being investigated as a therapeutic option for proteinopathic diseases. HSF1 is a master stress-protective transcription factor which activates genes encoding protein chaperones (e.g. iHsp70) and anti-apoptotic proteins. However, whether and how HSF1 is dysregulated during neurodegeneration has not been studied. Here, we discover aberrant HSF1 degradation by aggregated ?-synuclein (or ?-synuclein-induced proteotoxic stress) in transfected neuroblastoma cells. HSF1 dysregulation via ?-synuclein was confirmed by in vivo assessment of mouse and in situ studies of human specimens with ?-synucleinopathy. We demonstrate that elevated NEDD4 is implicated as the responsible ubiquitin E3 ligase for HSF1 degradation through UPS. Furthermore, pharmacologically induced SIRT1-mediated deacetylation can attenuate aberrant NEDD4-mediated HSF1 degradation. Indeed, we define the acetylation status of the Lys 80 residue located in the DNA-binding domain of HSF1 as a critical factor in modulating HSF1 protein stability in addition to its previously identified role in the transcriptional activity. Together with the finding that preserving HSF1 can alleviate ?-synuclein toxicity, this study strongly suggests that aberrant HSF1 degradation is a key neurodegenerative mechanism underlying ?-synucleinopathy. PMID:26503960

  6. HSF4 promotes G1/S arrest in human lens epithelial cells by stabilizing p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mi; Li, Duanzhuo; Huang, Yuwen; Cui, Xiukun; Liao, Shengjie; Wang, Jiuxiang; Liu, Fei; Li, Chang; Gao, Meng; Chen, Jiaxiang; Tang, Zhaohui; Li, David Wan-Cheng; Liu, Mugen

    2015-08-01

    The differentiation from constantly dividing epithelial cells into secondary fiber cells is a key step during lens development. Failure in this process, which requires cell proliferation inhibition and cell cycle exit, causes cataract formation. HSF4 (Heat Shock Transcription Factor 4) gene mutations may lead to both congenital and senile cataract. However, how HSF4 mutations induce cataract formation remains obscure. In this study, we demonstrate that HSF4 can suppress the proliferation of human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) by promoting G1/S arrest in a p53-dependent manner. In contrast, HSF4 with cataract causative mutations fail to cause cell cycle arrest and have no obvious effect on cell proliferation. We further identify that HSF4 recruits p53 in the nucleus and promotes its transcriptional activity, leading to the expression of its target gene p21 in HLECs. HSF4, but not its cataract-causing mutants, stabilizes p53 protein and inhibits its ubiquitin degradation. Our data reveal that HSF4 may work as a switch between lens epithelial cell proliferation and secondary fiber cell differentiation, a process which mainly depends on p53. Through demonstration of this novel downstream pathway of HSF4, our results help uncover the pathogenic mechanisms caused by HSF4 mutations. PMID:25940838

  7. Ecological Field Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Field studies are an excellent way for students to learn ecological concepts and practice doing science. This article presents an approach for the secondary science classroom that permits students to ask and answer their own questions, a prerequisite for truly experiencing the process of science. Students explore a local natural area and, in…

  8. Role of HSF activation for resistance to heat, cold and high-temperature knock-down

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Muhlig; Overgaard, Johannes; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Holmstrup, Martin; Justesen, Just; Loeschcke, Volker

    2005-01-01

    Regulation of heat shock proteins (Hsps) by the heat shock factor (HSF) and the importance of these proteins for resistance to heat stress is well documented. Less characterized is the importance of Hsps for cold stress resistance although Hsp70 is known to be induced following long-term cold exposure in Drosophila melanogaster. In this study, a temperature-sensitive HSF mutant line was used to investigate the role of HSF activation following heat hardening, rapid cold hardening (RCH) and long-t...

  9. BAG3 affects the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bcl2-associated athoanogene (BAG) 3 is a member of the co-chaperone BAG family. It is induced by stressful stimuli such as heat shock and heavy metals, and it regulates cellular adaptive responses against stressful conditions. In this study, we identified a novel role for BAG3 in regulating the nuclear shuttling of HSF1 during heat stress. The expression level of BAG3 was induced by heat stress in HeLa cells. Interestingly, BAG3 rapidly translocalized to the nucleus upon heat stress. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 under normal and stressed conditions and co-translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress. We also demonstrated that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 via its BAG domain. Over-expression of BAG3 down-regulates the level of nuclear HSF1 by exporting it to the cytoplasm during the recovery period. Depletion of BAG3 using siRNA results in reduced nuclear HSF1 and decreased Hsp70 promoter activity. BAG3 in MEF(hsf1−/−) cells actively translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress suggesting that BAG3 plays a key role in the processing of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress. - Highlights: • The expression level of BAG3 is induced by heat stress. • BAG3 translocates to the nucleus upon heat stress. • BAG3 interacts with HSF1 and co-localizes to the nucleus. • BAG3 is a key regulator for HSF1 nuclear shuttling

  10. Model-based HSF using by target point control function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seongjin; Do, Munhoe; An, Yongbae; Choi, Jaeseung; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu

    2015-03-01

    As the technology node shrinks, ArF Immersion reaches the limitation of wafer patterning, furthermore weak point during the mask processing is generated easily. In order to make strong patterning result, the design house conducts lithography rule checking (LRC). Despite LRC processing, we found the weak point at the verification stage of optical proximity correction (OPC). It is called the hot spot point (HSP). In order to fix the HSP, many studies have been performed. One of the most general hot spot fixing (HSF) methods is that the modification bias which consists of "Line-Resizing" and "Space-Resizing". In addition to the general rule biasing method, resolution enhancement techniques (RET) which includes the inverse lithography technology (ILT) and model based assist feature (MBAF) have been adapted to remove the hot spot and to maximize the process window. If HSP is found during OPC verification stage, various HSF methods can be applied. However, HSF process added on regular OPC procedure makes OPC turn-around time (TAT) increased. In this paper, we introduce a new HSF method that is able to make OPC TAT shorter than the common HSF method. The new HSF method consists of two concepts. The first one is that OPC target point is controlled to fix HSP. Here, the target point should be moved to optimum position at where the edge placement error (EPE) can be 0 at critical points. Many parameters such as a model accuracy or an OPC recipe become the cause of larger EPE. The second one includes controlling of model offset error through target point adjustment. Figure 1 shows the case EPE is not 0. It means that the simulation contour was not targeted well after OPC process. On the other hand, Figure 2 shows the target point is moved -2.5nm by using target point control function. As a result, simulation contour is matched to the original layout. This function can be powerfully adapted to OPC procedure of memory and logic devices.

  11. A novel HSF4 mutation in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant congenital cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Zhang, Qing; Zhou, Lu-xin; Tang, Zhao-hui

    2015-04-01

    This study was aimed to identify the mutation of the whole coding region of shock transcription factor 4 (HSF4) gene in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant congenital cataract (ADCC). All exons of HSF4 were amplified by PCR. Sequence analysis of PCR products was performed. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was conducted to confirm the pathogenic mutation. The results showed that a C to T substitution occurred at nucleotide 331 in patients of this family, leading to the replacement of the amino acid arginine-111 with cysteine in exon 3. RFLP analysis showed that the amino acid change was co-segregated with all affected individuals. It was concluded that the new mutation of c.331C>T in HSF4 DNA may be responsible for the autosomal dominant congenital cataract in this family. PMID:25877371

  12. Regulation of the heat stress response in Arabidopsis by MPK6-targeted phosphorylation of the heat stress factor HsfA2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Evrard

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available So far little is known on the functional role of phosphorylation in the heat stress response of plants. Here we present evidence that heat stress activates the Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK6. In vitro and in vivo evidence is provided that MPK6 specifically targets the major heat stress transcription factor HsfA2. Activation of MPK6 results in complex formation with HsfA2. MPK6 phosphorylates HsfA2 on T249 and changes its intracellular localisation. Protein kinase and phosphatase inhibitor studies indicate that HsfA2 protein stability is regulated in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, but this mechanism is independent of MPK6. Overall, our data show that heat stress-induced targeting of HsfA2 by MPK6 participates in the complex regulatory mechanism how plants respond to heat stress.

  13. Basal behavioral characterization of hsf1 deficient mice and its cellular and behavioral abnormalities underlying chronic unpredictable stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiongzhao; Cheng, Ming; Peng, Min; Xiao, Xianzhong; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhang, Xiuwu

    2008-11-21

    The heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a major transcriptional factor that controls the rapid induction of heat shock proteins in response to various environmental stressors. In this study, we globally investigated the effect of HSF1 deficiency on animal behaviors during postnatal growth, and abnormalities in hippocampal neurons and behavior in response to chronic unpredictable stressors (CUS). Mouse behaviors were measured in several behavioral paradigms, including elevated plus maze, open field, closed field, T-maze continuous alternation task (T-CAT), bridge-walking, and wire suspension tests. The hsf1-null mice exhibited reduction in basal anxiety levels and exploratory behavior, and working memory deficits, but normal motor coordination abilities. Chronic unpredictable stressors significantly increased apoptosis in hippocampal CA3 cells in both the hsf1-null and wild-type (WT) mice in the in situ TUNEL staining and induced more anxiety-like behavior in the hsf1-null mice than WT mice in the plus T-maze paradigm. We conclude that hsf1 gene deficiency results in significant abnormalities in mouse basal behaviors and sensitization to chronic unpredictable stressors. PMID:18601956

  14. Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Khumayni, S.

    2013-01-01

    Ecology is the study of interaction of living organisms in the environment. However the modern meaning of the concept of ecology has a wider meaning than in the early decades of the development of this science. Currently, most often under the mistaken environmental issues are understood, above all, the protection of the environment. In many ways, this shift is due to sense more tangible consequences of human impact on the environment. When you are citing the document, use the following lin...

  15. A Study on Cultivating College Students’ Ecological Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Junhong Tang; Wei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to cultivate modern college students’ ecological consciousness under the background of current deteriorating ecological crisis. The study shows some college students do not realize the harm of the ecological crisis and are not fully aware that it is each person’s duties and responsibilities to relieve even solve the ecological crisis either. The study also conveys most students have realized the importance of ecological consciousness in solving the current ecological...

  16. The ecological study of memory.

    OpenAIRE

    Neisser, U

    1997-01-01

    The study of memory has long been dominated by the structural tradition, and especially by the experimental analysis of mechanisms of information processing. That dominance may soon be brought to an end by the progress of neuroscience, which offers more direct ways of studying the mechanisms in question. At that point functional issues may move to centre stage. Those issues include the act of remembering and its social functions, the skills and presuppositions of the remembered, the interacti...

  17. MARKING INSECTS FOR STUDYING ECOLOGY AND ETHOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different kinds of markers can be used for studying insect ecology and behavior, and each have special strengths, weaknesses, and applications. Various kinds of markers are described, including visual tags (e.g., paint, wires, dyes, pollen, and spores), rubidium, radiotracers, rare earth elements, ...

  18. Studies on ecology of diatoms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patil, J.

    . For this study, 40 cleaned fiberglass panels measuring 15 x 10 x 0.2 cms bolted to fiberglass flats with PVC nuts and bolts and 60 glass-slides measuring 2.5 x 7.5 cms fixed to a wooden frame were deployed at subsurface level at Dona-Paula Bay, Goa, India. Ten... fiberglass panels and 15 glass slides were retrieved every alternate day for a period of four days and were transported to the laboratory in an insulated cool-box containing seawater. For the study, two different types of tools (nylon brush and ceramic...

  19. A SNP in the 3'-UTR of HSF1 in dairy cattle affects binding of target bta-miR-484.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q L; Zhang, Z F; Xia, P; Wang, Y J; Wu, Z Y; Jia, Y H; Chang, S M; Chu, M X

    2015-01-01

    The heat shock transcription factor 1 gene (HSF1) plays a key role in the heat stress response. We previously found a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 3'-untranslated region (g.4693G>T) of HSF1 that was related to thermo tolerance in Chinese Holstein cattle through association analysis. However, it is not known whether other SNPs also affect thermo tolerance.In this study a novel SNP, g.1451G>T, was identified by DNA sequencing and genotyped using creating restriction site-polymerase chain reaction methodology. The g.1451G>T polymorphic site met Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). Association analysis demonstrated that this SNP had no effect on thermo tolerance traits in Holstein cattle. Findings of the study compared to the analysis of g.4693 G>T further indicated that g.4693 G>T may play an important role in thermo tolerance, although the mechanism is not clear. RNA hybrid and Targetscan prediction showed that the minimum free energy hybridization of bta-miR-484 with HSF1 3'-UTR was -31.9 kcal/mol and g.4693 G>T was in the seed sequence of bovine HSF1 that binds to bta-miR-484. Analysis by Luciferase assay indicated that HSF1 expression was directly targeted by bta-miR-484 in HEK 293T cells, and the Rluc/luc ratio of wildtype (GG) was lower than that of the mutant (TT) (P T affects binding of HSF1 to bta-miR-484. PMID:26505425

  20. 40 CFR 159.165 - Toxicological and ecological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under the criteria of 40 CFR 156.62. (b) Ecological studies. The results of a study of the toxicity of a... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Toxicological and ecological studies... Information § 159.165 Toxicological and ecological studies. Adverse effects information must be submitted...

  1. Thermal discharges and ecological studies - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal ecological studies (TES) formulated and funded by BRNS are fine examples of coordinated research program in our country. There were at least eight different research laboratories with various backgrounds involved in these studies with a commitment to study the effect of thermal discharge into water bodies scientifically. BRNS has already underlined the concern of the people living within the vicinity of the power plants on their livelihood which depends on fish catch etc., and the stipulations laid down by statutory bodies for the temperature rise due to thermal discharge to be viewed in a global perspective

  2. Expression of HSF2 decreases in mitosis to enable stress-inducible transcription and cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsing, Alexandra N.; Aspelin, Camilla; Björk, Johanna K.; Bergman, Heidi A.; Himanen, Samu V.; Kallio, Marko J.; Roos-Mattjus, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Unless mitigated, external and physiological stresses are detrimental for cells, especially in mitosis, resulting in chromosomal missegregation, aneuploidy, or apoptosis. Heat shock proteins (Hsps) maintain protein homeostasis and promote cell survival. Hsps are transcriptionally regulated by heat shock factors (HSFs). Of these, HSF1 is the master regulator and HSF2 modulates Hsp expression by interacting with HSF1. Due to global inhibition of transcription in mitosis, including HSF1-mediated expression of Hsps, mitotic cells are highly vulnerable to stress. Here, we show that cells can counteract transcriptional silencing and protect themselves against proteotoxicity in mitosis. We found that the condensed chromatin of HSF2-deficient cells is accessible for HSF1 and RNA polymerase II, allowing stress-inducible Hsp expression. Consequently, HSF2-deficient cells exposed to acute stress display diminished mitotic errors and have a survival advantage. We also show that HSF2 expression declines during mitosis in several but not all human cell lines, which corresponds to the Hsp70 induction and protection against stress-induced mitotic abnormalities and apoptosis. PMID:25202032

  3. The human ecological approach to the study of population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namboodiri, K

    1994-01-01

    Human ecology is a specialization of ecology, tailored to suit the characteristic features of human populations. This essay focuses upon human ecology as set forth by Hawley and Duncan, although other conceptualizations are referred to. The bio-ecological framework is described together with an introduction of the distinction between population ecology and community ecology. Bio-ecology is an important subdiscipline of biology, but its subject has never been as complex as that of human ecology. Human ecologists developed their own theoretical framework distinct from that of bio-ecology. The author briefly outlines the history of human ecology, emphasizing the initial phase of the Chicago School, which focused upon spatial patterns of human phenomena, and the succeeding one, in which a reorientation focused upon the organizational aspects of population dynamics. The author then reviews some of the basic features of human ecology, discusses population ecology and its applications, with reference to the study of populations of households, and outlines the use of graph theory, input-output frameworks, and multilevel modeling to improve the formal and methodological aspects of human ecology. The spatial concern of human ecology is considered and situated in a broader context. PMID:12290834

  4. Study of Teacher Development Based on the Ecological Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Bo; Xiao Qianyin; Xiong Feng

    2014-01-01

    Based on the understanding of the ecology background, the ecological system of Teacher Development (TD) is constructed and the influential factors, such as the natural, social environment, regulatory environment and the physiological and psychological environment, which have an effect on TD, are analyzed in the present study. Besides, with the combination of the ecological characteristics of TD, The sustainable model for TD is proposed. In accordance with the ecological principles of TD and w...

  5. Studies on rhizobial ecology using marker genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Not only traditional approaches such as serology, antibiotic resistance and plasmid profile analysis but also technologies based on molecular biology have been used for strain identification in studies on microbial ecology. Many methods suffer from certain limitations because they are often laborious and time consuming, requiring analysis of individual nodules, and therefore only a restricted amount of data can be collected. Use of marker genes has become popular, especially when they allow visual identification. The Escherichia coli gusA marker gene has proved to be a highly suitable tool for studying plant-microbe interactions. Nodules containing gusA marked rhizobia can be identified simply by their blue colour, which they produce after incubation in a phosphate buffer containing the substrate X-gluc, but marked bacteria can also be detected on plates or in liquid culture. Colorigenic markers have several advantages, since they are easy to use and it is possible to analyse a large sample size. They are suitable for competition studies of Rhizobium, detecting also double occupancy in nodules, and for studies on motility and survival. Marker genes greatly facilitate screening for successful strains in a specific environment and could be used in future for quality control of inoculants. (author). 30 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  6. Populus euphratica HSF binds the promoter of WRKY1 to enhance salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zedan; Yao, Jun; Sun, Jian; Chang, Liwei; Wang, Shaojie; Ding, Mingquan; Qian, Zeyong; Zhang, Huilong; Zhao, Nan; Sa, Gang; Hou, Peichen; Lang, Tao; Wang, Feifei; Zhao, Rui; Shen, Xin; Chen, Shaoliang

    2015-06-01

    Poplar species increase expressions of transcription factors to deal with salt environments. We assessed the salt-induced transcriptional responses of heat-shock transcription factor (HSF) and WRKY1 in Populus euphratica, and their roles in salt tolerance. High NaCl (200mM) induced PeHSF and PeWRKY1 expressions in P. euphratica, with a rapid rise in roots than in leaves. Moreover, the salt-elicited PeHSF reached its peak level 6h earlier than PeWRKY1 in leaves. PeWRKY1 was down-regulated in salinized P. euphratica when PeHSF was silenced by tobacco rattle virus-based gene silencing. Subcellular assays in onion epidermal cells and Arabidopsis protoplasts revealed that PeHSF and PeWRKY1 were restricted to the nucleus. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing PeWRKY1 showed improved salt tolerance in terms of survival rate, root growth, photosynthesis, and ion fluxes. We further isolated an 1182-bp promoter fragment upstream of the translational start of PeWRKY1 from P. euphratica. Promoter sequence analysis revealed that PeWRKY1 harbours four tandem repeats of heat shock element (HSE) in the upstream regulatory region. Yeast one-hybrid assay showed that PeHSF directly binds the cis-acting HSE. To determine whether the HSE cluster was important for salt-induced PeWRKY1 expression, the promoter-reporter construct PeWRKY1-pro::GUS was transferred to tobacco plants. ?-glucuronidase activities increased in root, leaf, and stem tissues under salt stress. Therefore, we conclude that salinity increased PeHSF transcription in P. euphratica, and that PeHSF binds the cis-acting HSE of the PeWRKY1 promoter, thus activating PeWRKY1 expression. PMID:25900569

  7. Molecular mechanism of thermosensory function of human heat shock transcription factor Hsf1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentze, Nikolai; Le Breton, Laura; Wiesner, Jan; Kempf, Georg; Mayer, Matthias P

    2016-01-01

    The heat shock response is a universal homeostatic cell autonomous reaction of organisms to cope with adverse environmental conditions. In mammalian cells, this response is mediated by the heat shock transcription factor Hsf1, which is monomeric in unstressed cells and upon activation trimerizes, and binds to promoters of heat shock genes. To understand the basic principle of Hsf1 activation we analyzed temperature-induced alterations in the conformational dynamics of Hsf1 by hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry. We found a temperature-dependent unfolding of Hsf1 in the regulatory region happening concomitant to tighter packing in the trimerization region. The transition to the active DNA binding-competent state occurred highly cooperative and was concentration dependent. Surprisingly, Hsp90, known to inhibit Hsf1 activation, lowered the midpoint temperature of trimerization and reduced cooperativity of the process thus widening the response window. Based on our data we propose a kinetic model of Hsf1 trimerization. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11576.001 PMID:26785146

  8. Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book turns to the freshment, the teacher, for preparation of ecological topics for lessons, but also to pupils of the secondary stage II, and the main course ecology. The book was knowingly held simple with the restriction to: the ecosystem and its abiotic basic functions, simple articles on population biology, bioceonotic balance ith the questions of niche formation and the life form types coherent with it, of the substance and energy household, the production biology and space-wise and time-wise differentations within an ecological system form the main points. A central role in the volume is given to the illustrations. Their variety is to show and deepen the coherences shown. (orig./HP)

  9. Ecology.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lízal, Lubomír; Tošovská, Eva

    Praha : CERGE-EI, 2001 - (Hanousek, J.; Lízal, L.), s. 107-115 ISBN 80-86286-69-X R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KSK9058117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : Czech Republic * ecology Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/books/pdf_01/VI.pdf

  10. Ecological effects in multi-level studies

    OpenAIRE

    Blakely, T; Woodward, A

    2000-01-01

    Multi-level research that attempts to describe ecological effects in themselves (for example, the effect on individual health from living in deprived communities), while also including individual level effects (for example, the effect of personal socioeconomic disadvantage), is now prominent in research on the socioeconomic determinants of health and disease. Such research often involves the application of advanced statistical multi-level methods. It is hypothesised that such research is at r...

  11. Ginsenoside Rg3 induces FUT4-mediated apoptosis in H. pylori CagA-treated gastric cancer cells by regulating SP1 and HSF1 expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Faisal; Wang, Xiaoqi; Liu, Jiwei; Yan, Qiu

    2016-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) cytotoxin associated antigen A (CagA) plays a significant role in the development of gastric cancer. Ginsenoside Rg3 is a herbal medicine which inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in various cancer cells. Fucosylation plays important roles in cancer biology as increased fucosylation levels of glycoproteins and glycolipids have been reported in many cancers. Fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) is an essential enzyme, catalyzes the synthesis of LewisY oligosaccharides and is regulated by specificity protein 1 (SP1) and heat shock factor protein 1 (HSF1) transcription factors. Herein, we studied the mechanism action of Rg3 apoptosis induction in gastric cancer cells. We treated the gastric cancer cells with CagA followed by Rg3, and analyzed their ability to induce apoptosis by evaluating the role of FUT4 as well as SP1 and HSF1 expressions by Western blot, flow cytometry and ELISA. We found that Rg3 significantly induced apoptosis in CagA treated gastric cancer cells, as evidenced by nuclear staining of 4-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Annexin-V/PI double-labeling. In addition, Rg3 significantly increased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins and triggered the activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and PARP. Moreover, Rg3-induced apoptotic mechanisms indicated that Rg3 inhibited FUT4 expression through SP1 upregulation and HSF1 downregulation. Hence, Rg3 therapy is an effective strategy for gastric cancer treatment. Furthermore SP1 and HSF1 may serve as potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets for gastric cancer. PMID:26427350

  12. Study of tourist motivation to Guangzhou urban ecological parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Wang, Fengtang

    2012-01-01

    Based on the push - pull theory, this article show the empirical studies of tourists' travel motivation to Guangzhou Ecological Park. We identified four push factors and three pull factors which are of the potential features of travel motivation, and on this basis, using analysis of variance to further test the significant differences of push and pull factors in the demographic characteristics of different groups. The conclusion has a certain reference value to the Ecological Park in Guangzhou to attract tourists.

  13. Dog Ecology and Population Studies in Lagos State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Sunday Emmanuel Hambolu; Asabe A. Dzikwi; Jacob K.P Kwaga; Kazeem, Haruna M.; Jarlath U. Umoh; Dupe A Hambolu

    2013-01-01

    Dog population dynamics have a major impact upon the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. As such, understanding domestic dog ecology has been recognized as central to the design of effective rabies control programmes. This study was conducted to determine the dog ecology in Lagos State using compound dog count and street dog count in the three senatorial districts (Lagos West, East and Central) of Lagos State from February, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 546 questionnaires were dis...

  14. Ecology and evolution of invasive plants: what to study next?

    OpenAIRE

    Monty, Arnaud; Brown, Cynthia; Tepolt, Carolyn; Tsutsui, Neil; Vanparijs, Valérie; Atkinson, Sheryl; Mahy, Grégory; Vanderhoeven, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, a growing number of studies have addressed connections between ecological and evolutionary concepts in biologic invasions. These connections may be crucial for understanding the processes underlying invaders’ success. However, the extent to which scientists have worked on the integration of the ecology and evolution of invasive plants is poorly documented, as few attempts have been made to evaluate these efforts in invasion biology research. Such analysis can facilitate rec...

  15. Ecologic studies of rodent reservoirs: their relevance for human health.

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, J. N.; Childs, J E

    1998-01-01

    Within the past few years, the number of "new" human diseases associated with small-mammal reservoirs has increased dramatically, stimulating renewed interest in reservoir ecology research. A consistent, integrative approach to such research allows direct comparisons between studies, contributes to the efficient use of resources and data, and increases investigator safety. We outline steps directed toward understanding vertebrate host ecology as it relates to human disease and illustrate the ...

  16. A Study on College English Ecological Teaching Strategies in China

    OpenAIRE

    Junhong Tang; , Wei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to create ecological college English teaching strategies in non-English speaking countries in view of the increasing importance and popularity of English. The study shows most college students hope they are able to learn English well and they will be very happy if college English teachers can adopt some efficient and suitable teaching strategies. In this paper, the author puts forward college English teaching is a kind of micro-ecosystem in the light of ecology whic...

  17. Ecological impact study methodology for hydrotechnical projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besides the expected benefits, hydrotechnical projects may entail unfavorable effects on the hydrological regime, environment, health and living conditions of the population. Rational water resource management should take into consideration both the favorable and unfavorable effects. This implies the assessment of socio-economic and environmental impacts of the changes of the hydrological regime. The paper proposes a methodology for carrying out impact studies of hydrotechnical projects. The results of the work are presented graphically on the basis of composite programing. A summary of mathematical methods involved in impact study design is also presented. (authors)

  18. Radiological Review Studies On Ismailia Canal Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is a brief review of pr-studies carried out on Ismailia Canal, Egypt, water ecosystem. Ismailia Canal water body is a bicarbonate stream with slight seasonal variations in its water chemical constituents. The canal water pH in all the stream locations are below 8.3 with low suspended matter(SM) content (22-33 mg.l-1). The mineralogical analysis of the canal bottom sediments consist mainly of quartz, smectite and kaolinite minerals. The ?- spectroscopic identification showed traces of naturally occurring radio nuclides (238U, 232Th and 40K). The average activity level of the dry samples ranged from 12 to 89 Bq.Kg-1 for the detected natural radio nuclides. Some parameters affected the sorption behaviour of radio nuclides on suspended matters and bottom sediments; such as solution pH, SM concentration, sediment grain size, carrier concentration and competing ions were studied. The reaction rates were investigated for each radionuclide studied. The distribution of the studied radio nuclides, between the liquid phase and the sediments phase was investigated, for both flowing and static systems. For both flowing and non-flowing (static), the depth penetration of the studied radio nuclides within the bottom sediment layers were found to vary from one radionuclide to the other. The total capacities of bottom sediments and the suspended matter were found to be low. As Ismailia Canal is an important source of water for public domestic uses, irrigation animals and the aquatic species; these situations have led to state that it is not recommended to release any liquid radioactive wastes to this canal. Furthermore, periodical radiometric analysis for the canal water and its components should be carried out.

  19. Effect of democracy on health: ecological study

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Álvaro; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Ruiz, Maria Teresa

    2004-01-01

    Can political regimes be singled out as a factor affecting health? Rating countries by the extent of their freedom is a useful proxy for measuring the effects of democracy on health related variables. Although the influence of democracy in preventing famines has been reported, there have been no empirical studies on the relation between the extent of freedom allowed by political regimes and the effect on a nation’s health. We explored the effect of democracy on life expectancy and...

  20. Aquatic ecological studies around nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioecology occupies a highly important place in the system of natural sciences and interacts with different fields of knowledge on earth's biosphere. Use of nuclear energy for different purposes causes release of radionuclides into the atmosphere. Therefore, knowledge of the distribution pattern of both natural and anthropogenic radionuclides is an essential prerequisite for evaluation and control of public exposures at the site of any nuclear power station. Radioecological studies provide considerable information on the environmental behavior of many nucleotides. In recent times, particular emphasis is being given to research on radionuclide transport and accumulation in living organisms, since critical pathways of transport of the same are food chains and food webs in the environment. Inhalation and ingestion are the most likely routes for internal contamination from radionuclides, wherein, exposure continues until the radioactive material is flushed from the body by natural processes, or when it decays. Several studies on animals have demonstrated that chronic inhalation and oral exposure to certain radionuclides may lead to serious health hazards. Even though innumerable studies have been conducted in medical science on effects of radiation on the human and higher animal systems, little is known about migration of radionuclides across the producers and bioaccumulation at trophic levels in the tropical and subtropical aquatic environment. In order to supplement this research gap, radioecological studies have been initiated at CIFE, Mumbai, with backup support from the Department of Atomic Energy (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre and Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited), in the form of a mega mission mode project on 'Aquatic radioecology'. Presently two existing nuclear power plant sites at Tarapur and Kalpakkam, two proposed at Jaitapur and Jabalpur have been selected for providing first hand information on levels of radionuclides in micro and macro fauna in the marine and freshwater ecosystem in the vicinity of NPP sites. Further the projects aim at elucidating the bio-geochemical transfer mechanisms of radionuclides across the trophic levels of the aquatic environment. (author)

  1. An ecological study on childhood autism

    OpenAIRE

    St-Hilaire Sophie; Ezike Victor O; Stryhn Henrik; Thomas Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background and methods Idiopathic autism, suspected to be caused by exposure of genetically susceptible individuals to unknown environmental triggers, has increased dramatically in the past 25 years. The objectives of our study were to determine, using a linear regression model, whether the county prevalence of autism in the Pacific Northwest of the United States was associated with the source of drinking water for that county and whether this relationship was dependent on the level ...

  2. Science and ecological literacy in undergraduate field studies education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapp, Kim J.

    There is an ever-increasing number of issues that face our world today; from climate change, water and food scarcity, to pollution and resource extraction. Science and ecology play fundamental roles in these problems, and yet the understanding of these fields is limited in our society (Miller, 2002; McBride, Brewer, Berkowitz, and Borrie, 2013). Across the nation students are finishing their undergraduate degrees and are expected to enter the workforce and society with the skills needed to succeed. The deficit of science and ecological literacy in these students has been recognized and a call for reform begun (D'Avanzo, 2003 and NRC, 2009). This mixed-methods study looked at how a field studies course could fill the gap of science and ecological literacy in undergraduates. Using grounded theory, five key themes were data-derived; definitions, systems thinking, human's role in the environment, impetus for change and transference. These themes where then triangulated for validity and reliability through qualitative and quantitative assessments. A sixth theme was also identified, the learning environment. Due to limited data to support this themes' development and reliability it is discussed in Chapter 5 to provide recommendations for further research. Key findings show that this field studies program influenced students' science and ecological literacy through educational theory and practice.

  3. Methodology for Studying the Ecological Quality of Furniture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Oblak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Decisions for environment-friendly production and environmentally acceptable products are becoming a necessity and one of very important objectives of timber companies next to already existing economic criteria. Individual products and their manufacture have different infl uences on the pollution of the environment. Therefore it is necessary to determine the ecological quality of individual products, which means analyzing their ecological suitability during their life cycle. In our research we developed the methodology for establishing the ecological quality of furniture, based on three scientific methods: the method of life cycle analysis, ABC analysis, modified for our case, and the multi-criteria decision-making method. We analyzed the ecological quality of three kitchens of a well-known manufacturer. The results of the research are the basis for developing an optimal business strategy from the viewpoint of determining a production assortment. The used methodology is also suitable for studying other furniture products and for accepting optimal environmentally acceptable decisions in wood companies.

  4. ERK-dependent phosphorylation of HSF1 mediates chemotherapeutic resistance to benzimidazole carbamates in colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, Christina T K; Taylor, Frederick R; Higa, Allan T; McAllister, Harvey A; Jacobs, Aaron T

    2015-07-01

    Drugs containing the benzimidazole carbamate scaffold include anthelmintic and antifungal agents, and they are now also recognized as having potential applications in the treatment of colorectal and other cancers. These agents act by binding to ?-tubulin, and in doing so they disrupt microtubules, arrest cell division, and promote apoptotic cell death in malignant cells. We have evaluated several commercially available benzimidazole carbamates for cytotoxic activity in colorectal cancer cells. In addition to cytotoxicity, we also observe activation of the transcription factor, heat shock factor-1 (HSF1). HSF1 is well known to mediate a cytoprotective response that promotes tumor cell survival and drug resistance. Here, we show that biochemical inhibition with the HSF1 inhibitor KRIBB11 or siRNA-based silencing of HSF1 results in a significant enhancement of drug potency, causing an approximately two-fold decrease in IC50 values of parbendazole and nocodazole. We also define a mechanism for drug-induced HSF1 activation, which results from a phosphorylation event at Ser326 that is dependent on the activation of the extracellular regulated protein kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2) mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Inhibition of the upstream kinase MEK-1/2 with U0126 attenuates the phosphorylation of both ERK-1/2 and HSF1, and significantly enhances drug cytotoxicity. From these data we propose a unique model whereby the ERK-1/2-dependent activation of HSF1 promotes chemotherapeutic resistance to benzimidazole carbamates. Therefore, targeting the ERK-1/2 signaling cascade is a potential strategy for HSF1 inhibition and a means of enhancing the cytotoxicity of these agents. PMID:25811962

  5. Terrestrial ecology. Comprehensive study of the grassland biome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrestrial ecology and grassland biome studies are designed to characterize the biota of the Hanford Reservation, elucidate seasonal dynamics of plant productivity, decomposition and mineral behavior patterns of important plant communities, and, to study the response of these communities to important natural environmental stresses, such as weather, wildfire and man-induced alterations of communities (influenced by grazing cattle and severe mechanical disturbance of the soil, such as affected by plowing or burial of waste materials or construction activities). A detailed account of the important findings of a 5-yr study is currently being prepared by the terrestrial ecology section staff for publication as a contribution to the International Biological Program Grassland Biome project

  6. Effect of exogenous application of ascorbic acid on antioxidant enzyme activities, proline contents, and growth parameters of Saccharum spp. hybrid cv. HSF-240 under salt stress

    OpenAIRE

    EJAZ, Batool; SAJID, Zahoor Ahmad; AFTAB, Faheem

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of exogenous application of ascorbic acid (AA) through different modes on growth and associated biochemical parameters in Saccharum spp. hybrid cv. HSF-240, under salt stress. In a pot experiment, AA was applied through irrigation or foliar-spray at the concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, and 1 mM with or without 100 mM NaCl concentration. Vegetative growth measurements, antioxidant enzyme activities (POD and SOD), and protein and proline conten...

  7. Study on Evaluation of Rural Ecological Environment and Its Influencing Factors in Sichuan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Yingcong Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Rural ecological environment is the basic on human survival, analyze its structure and function is the key to crack the problem of agro-ecological environment. This paper studied the evaluation of rural ecological environment and its influencing factors. The results showed that: the rural ecological environment showed declining trend, the value of its input-output efficiency was low and its regional differences was significant; the quality of economic development affected the rural ecological...

  8. Suppression of heat-induced HSF activation by CDDP in human glioblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The kinetics of the accumulation of inducible 72-kD heat shock protein (hsp72) and the activation of heat shock transcriptional factor (HSF) after hyperthermia and/or CDDP treatment in two human glioblastoma cell lines, A-172 having the wild-type p53 gene and T98G having the mutated p53 gene were evaluated. Methods and Materials: Western blot analysis of hsp72, gel-mobility shift assay of HSF, cell survival, and development of thermotolerance were examined. Results: The prominent suppression of heat-induced hsp72 accumulation by CDDP was seen in A-172 cells, but not in T98G cells. This was due to the p53-dependent inhibition of heat-induced HSF activation by CDDP. The interactive hyperthermic enhancement of CDDP cytotoxicity was observed in A-172 cells, but not in T98G cells. In addition, the heat-induced thermotolerance was suppressed by the presence of CDDP in the pretreatment. Conclusion: Suppression of heat-induced hsp72 accumulation by CDDP contributes to an interactive hyperthermic enhancement of CDDP cytotoxicity in the cells bearing the wild-type p53 gene

  9. Ecological study of algal flora of Neelum river Azad Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First time ecological study of Algal Flora of Neelum River Azad Kashmir was carried out during January 1998 to July 1998. A total of 78 species belonging to 48 genera of 4 Algal groups. Cyanophyceae (16 species 20.5 % belonging to 11 genera), Choloronophycease (23 species 29.5 % belonging to 18 genera), Bacillariophyceae (37 species 47 % belonging to 17 genera), Xanthophyceae (2 species 3 % belonging to 2 genera) and 39 physico - chemical parameters were recorded. (author)

  10. Ecological momentary assessment of adolescent smoking cessation: A feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Gwaltney, Chad J.; Bartolomei, Rachel; Colby, Suzanne M; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2008-01-01

    Attempts to quit smoking by adolescents typically fail, even when aided by psychosocial and pharmacological treatments. Gaining a better understanding of the process of smoking cessation and relapse in this population could lead to improved treatments and increases in cessation rates. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has been used to describe the relapse process among adults, but not among adolescents. This study examined the feasibility of using EMA to examine relapse among adolescent s...

  11. Evolutionary and ecological approaches to the study of personality

    OpenAIRE

    Réale, Denis; Dingemanse, Niels J.; Kazem, Anahita J. N.; Wright, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This introduction to the themed issue on Evolutionary and ecological approaches to the study of personality provides an overview of conceptual, theoretical and methodological progress in research on animal personalities over the last decade, and places the contributions to this volume in context. The issue has three main goals. First, we aimed to bring together theoreticians to contribute to the development of models providing adaptive explanations for animal personality that could guide empi...

  12. Ecological interaction and phylogeny, studying functionality on composed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Claudia P. T.; Fonseca, Carlos Roberto; Corso, Gilberto

    2012-02-01

    We study a class of composed networks that are formed by two tree networks, TP and TA, whose end points touch each other through a bipartite network BPA. We explore this network using a functional approach. We are interested in how much the topology, or the structure, of TX (X=A or P) determines the links of BPA. This composed structure is a useful model in evolutionary biology, where TP and TA are the phylogenetic trees of plants and animals that interact in an ecological community. We make use of ecological networks of dispersion of fruits, which are formed by frugivorous animals and plants with fruits; the animals, usually birds, eat fruits and disperse their seeds. We analyse how the phylogeny of TX determines or is correlated with BPA using a Monte Carlo approach. We use the phylogenetic distance among elements that interact with a given species to construct an index ? that quantifies the influence of TX over BPA. The algorithm is based on the assumption that interaction matrices that follows a phylogeny of TX have a total phylogenetic distance smaller than the average distance of an ensemble of Monte Carlo realisations. We find that the effect of phylogeny of animal species is more pronounced in the ecological matrix than plant phylogeny.

  13. A study of bioindicator selection for long-term ecological

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Gu Han

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It is very useful and important to see the status and change of necessary parts in a short period through selecting and observing the bioindicator continually to forecast and prepare the future. Especially, living things are so closely related to the environment that the indicator between the environment and living things shows close interrelationship. Also, the indicator related to environment provides information about representative or decisive environmental phenomenon and is used to simplify complicated facts. Considering wide range of background and application including various indicators such as the change-, destruction-, pollution-, and restoration of habitats, climate change, and species diversity, the closest category includes “environmental indicator,” “ecological indicator,” and “biodiversity indicator.” The selection and use of bioindicator is complicated and difficult. The necessary conditions for the indicator selection are flexible and greatly depend on the goals of investigation such as the indicator for biological diversity investigation of specific area, the indicator for habitat destruction, the indicator for climate change, and the indicator for polluted area. It should meet many various conditions to select a good indicator. In this study, eleven selection standards are established based on domestic and overseas studies on bioindicator selection: species with clear classification and ecology, species distributed in geographically widespread area, species that show clear habitat characteristics, species that can provide early warning for a change, species that are easy and economically benefited for the investigation, species that have many independent individual groups and that is not greatly affected by the size of individual groups, species that is thought to represent the response of other species, species that represent the ecology change caused by the pressure of human influence, species for which researches on climate change have been done, species that is easy to observe, appears for a long time and forms a group with many individuals, and species that are important socially, economically, and culturally.

  14. The translational study of apathy – an ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flurin Cathomas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Apathy, a quantitative reduction in goal-directed behavior, is a prevalent symptom dimension with a negative impact on functional outcome in various neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and depression. The aim of this review is to show that interview-based assessment of apathy in humans and observation of spontaneous rodent behavior in an ecological setting can serve as an important complementary approach to already existing task-based assessment, to study and understand the neurobiological bases of apathy. We first discuss the paucity of current translational approaches regarding animal equivalents of psychopathological assessment of apathy. We then present the existing evaluation scales for the assessment of apathy in humans and propose five sub-domains of apathy, namely self-care, social interaction, exploration, work/education and recreation. Each of the items in apathy evaluation scales can be assigned to one of these sub-domains. We then show that corresponding, well-validated behavioral readouts exist for rodents and that, indeed, three of the five human apathy sub-domains have a rodent equivalent. In conclusion, the translational ecological study of apathy in humans and mice is possible and will constitute an important approach to increase the understanding of the neurobiological bases of apathy and the development of novel treatments.

  15. Unmanned Aircraft Systems complement biologging in spatial ecology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulero-Pázmány, Margarita; Barasona, Jose Ángel; Acevedo, Pelayo; Vicente, Joaquín; Negro, Juan José

    2015-11-01

    The knowledge about the spatial ecology and distribution of organisms is important for both basic and applied science. Biologging is one of the most popular methods for obtaining information about spatial distribution of animals, but requires capturing the animals and is often limited by costs and data retrieval. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have proven their efficacy for wildlife surveillance and habitat monitoring, but their potential contribution to the prediction of animal distribution patterns and abundance has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this study, we assess the usefulness of UAS overflights to (1) get data to model the distribution of free-ranging cattle for a comparison with results obtained from biologged (GPS-GSM collared) cattle and (2) predict species densities for a comparison with actual density in a protected area. UAS and biologging derived data models provided similar distribution patterns. Predictions from the UAS model overestimated cattle densities, which may be associated with higher aggregated distributions of this species. Overall, while the particular researcher interests and species characteristics will influence the method of choice for each study, we demonstrate here that UAS constitute a noninvasive methodology able to provide accurate spatial data useful for ecological research, wildlife management and rangeland planning. PMID:26640661

  16. Molecular mechanism of polypeptides from Chlamys farreri (PCF)'s anti-apoptotic effect in UVA-exposed HaCaT cells involves HSF1/HSP70, JNK, XO, iNOS and NO/ROS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowen; Jiang, Qixiao; Wang, Wencheng; Su, Li; Han, Yantao; Wang, Chunbo

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the molecular mechanisms of polypeptides from Chlamys farreri (PCF)'s anti-apoptotic effects in ultraviolet A-rays (UVA) exposed HaCaT cells. UVA-induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells was confirmed with Hoechst 33258 fluorescent staining; PCF treatment inhibited UVA-induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells, increased transcriptional activities of heat shock factor protein 1 (HSF1) and the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), whereas inhibited activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), expression of xanthine oxidese (XO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and release of nitric oxide (NO)/reactive oxygen species (ROS). Meanwhile, the HSF1 transcription inhibitor quercetin increased UVA-induced apoptosis, activation of JNK, expression of XO and iNOS and release of NO/ROS. Among the two NO release peaks we found in UVA exposed HaCaT cells, XO inhibitor oxypurinol was found to be able to inhibit NO release at 3h post UVA exposure but not 18h, while iNOS inhibitor S-methylisothiourea sulfate (SMT) was found to inhibit iNOS expression and NO release at 18h but not 3h. PCF's protection against UVA-induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells involves increased transcriptional activity of HSF1, increased expression of HSP70, and the subsequential inhibition of JNK pathway, XO and iNOS expression and ROS/NO release. PMID:24296267

  17. Packaging and distributing ecological data from multisite studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R. J.; Voorhees, L. D.; Field, J. M.; Gentry, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of global change and other regional issues depend on ecological data collected at multiple study areas or sites. An information system model is proposed for compiling diverse data from dispersed sources so that the data are consistent, complete, and readily available. The model includes investigators who collect and analyze field measurements, science teams that synthesize data, a project information system that collates data, a data archive center that distributes data to secondary users, and a master data directory that provides broader searching opportunities. Special attention to format consistency is required, such as units of measure, spatial coordinates, dates, and notation for missing values. Often data may need to be enhanced by estimating missing values, aggregating to common temporal units, or adding other related data such as climatic and soils data. Full documentation, an efficient data distribution mechanism, and an equitable way to acknowledge the original source of data are also required.

  18. HSF-1, HIF-1and HSP90 expression on recombinant Pichia pastoris under fed-batch fermentation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrea B., Zepeda; Carolina A., Figueroa; Dulcineia S.P., Abdalla; Andrea Q., Maranhão; Patricio H., Ulloa; Adalberto, Pessoa Jr.; Jorge G., Farías.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pichia pastoris is a methylotrophic yeast used as an efficient expression system for heterologous protein production as compared to other expression systems. Considering that every cell must respond to environmental changes to survive and differentiate, determination of endogenous protein related to [...] heat stress responses and hypoxia, it would necessary to establish the temperature and methanol concentration conditions for optimal growth. The aim of this study is characterize the culture conditions through the putative biomarkers in different conditions of temperature and methanol concentration. Three yeast cultures were performed: 3X = 3% methanol -10 °C, 4X = 3% methanol -30 °C, and 5X = 1% methanol -10 °C. The expression level of HIF-1?, HSF-1, HSP-70 and HSP-90 biomarkers were measured by Western blot and in situ detection was performed by immunocytochemistry. The western blot results of HIF-1? and HSP-90 did not indicate statistically significant in the culture conditions studied. Respect to biomarkers location, HIF-1? and HSP-90 presented differences between cultures. In conclusion, the results suggest the cultures in a hypoxic condition produce a high density and yeast cells smaller. Beside the high density would not necessary related with a high production of recombinant proteins in modified-genetically P. pastoris.

  19. Ecological Building Design Criteria: A Case Study in Ankara

    OpenAIRE

    GULTEKIN, Arzuhan Burcu; Alparslan, Bengu

    2011-01-01

    Buildings cause environmental impacts through their life cycles. Ecological building design criteria, which appeared to decrease these impacts, aim to make designs sensitive to environmental problems, to protect the ecological balance, and to fulfill the required comfort and health conditions. In the context of this paper, ecological building design criteria were determined in global scale as energy conservation, water conservation, material conservation, and livable design, and applications ...

  20. New methodology for studying the structural ecology of occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Irene; GrØnkjær, Lene

    Microbiological studies of occlusal dental biofilms have hitherto been hampered by inaccessibility to the sampling site and demolition of the original biofilm architecture. The aim of the present study was to explore the spatial distribution of bacterial taxa in vivo at various stages of occusal caries, applying a new methodology involving preparation of embedded hard dental tissue slices for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal microscopy. 11 extracted teeth were included in the study and classified according to their occlusal caries status (active/inactive/sound; cavitated/non-cavitated). The teeth were fixed (paraformaldehyde 3 %), embedded (Technovit 8100), sectioned and decalcified (EDTA 17%, pH 7.0) before FISH was performed using oligonucleotide probes for the most abundant species/genera associated with occlusal caries including Streptococcus and Actinomyces. The findings were related to histological features of lesion penetration. The sites showed distinct differences in the bacterial composition and fluorescence intensity between different ecological niches in occlusal caries. Biofilm observed along the entrance of fissures showed an inner layer of microorganisms organized in palisades often identified as Actinomyces, covered by a more loosely structured bacterial layer consisting of diverse genera, similar to supra-gingival biofilm. Biofilm within the fissure proper seemed less metabolically active, as judged by the low fluorescence signal intensity and the presence of material of non-bacterial origin resembling developmental protein, calculus and/or dead bacteria. Bacterial invasion with penetration into the dentinal tubules was seen only at advanced stages of the caries process with manifest cavity formation. It is concluded that the new methodology represents a valuable supplement to previous methods for the study of microbial ecology in caries by allowing analysis of the structural composition of the undisturbed biofilm in caries lesions in vivo.

  1. Ecological tax reform - an optimal solution?. Critical remarks on the DIW study ''Economic effects of an ecological tax reform''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the latest expertise of the German institute for economic research (DIW) regarding an ecological tax reform, the discussion about a tax system considering the shortage of the ressource environment and a deficiency of demand regarding the ressource work is newly provoked. The focus of this article is a critical dealing with the methodical procedure of the German institute for economic reserarch when analyzing the national economic effect of a concretely formulated ecological tax law scenario. When assessing the overall economic consequences of a tax reform, it is recommended to use an analysis instrument, which is farly more consistent compared to the instruments by DIW, and which is more problem adequate through the increased resort to financial knowledge. Based on the obvious weakness of the DIW study, a more extensive comprehension for an ecological tax reform is pleaded for, standing out for an application of taxes based on division of labour and oriented to the objective. (orig./UA)

  2. Hydrodynamic and Ecological Assessment of Nearshore Restoration: A Modeling Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Along the Pacific Northwest coast, much of the estuarine habitat has been diked over the last century for agricultural land use, residential and commercial development, and transportation corridors. As a result, many of the ecological processes and functions have been disrupted. To protect coastal habitats that are vital to aquatic species, many restoration projects are currently underway to restore the estuarine and coastal ecosystems through dike breaches, setbacks, and removals. Information on physical processes and hydrodynamic conditions are critical for the assessment of the success of restoration actions. Restoration of a 160- acre property at the mouth of the Stillaguamish River in Puget Sound has been proposed. The goal is to restore native tidal habitats and estuary-scale ecological processes by removing the dike. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was developed for the Stillaguamish River estuary to simulate estuarine processes. The model was calibrated to observed tide, current, and salinity data for existing conditions and applied to simulate the hydrodynamic responses to two restoration alternatives. Responses were evaluated at the scale of the restoration footprint. Model data was combined with biophysical data to predict habitat responses at the site. Results showed that the proposed dike removal would result in desired tidal flushing and conditions that would support four habitat types on the restoration footprint. At the estuary scale, restoration would substantially increase the proportion of area flushed with freshwater (< 5 ppt) at flood tide. Potential implications of predicted changes in salinity and flow dynamics are discussed relative to the distribution of tidal marsh habitat.

  3. Soil radioactivity distribution studies for the Nevada Applied Ecology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the inception of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group in 1970, personnel from the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) have contributed to the determination and evaluation of radionuclide inventory and distribution in soils at selected study sites at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) complex and surrounding areas. A brief historical survey of those activities is presented. During the period March 1977 to March 1978, LASL participated in workshops and information meetings, in preparation of nuclear site study protocols for estimation of inventory and distribution of various radionuclides, in evaluation of instrumental data that was collected in order to aid in defining specific nuclear site studies, and in referee activities for analysis of samples for radionuclide content. In that same period, several data sets were evaluated and are presented in this report. They include data relative to the vertical movement of plutonium and americium in desert soil profiles, and data relative to distribution of various isotopes of uranium in the blow-sand mounds at two study sites, one located on NTS and the other at the Tonopah Test Range. A series of recommendations for further studies are made relative to the redistribution of radionuclides in the desert environment of NTS

  4. A cultural study in the poetics of ecological consciousness: prolegomena to the poetry of John Burnside

    OpenAIRE

    Bristow, Tom

    2008-01-01

    This thesis -- originally entitled “Reckoning the Unnamed Fabric”, both a cultural study of the poetics of ecological consciousness and the ecology of poetic consciousness -- investigates the post-Romantic legacy informing John Burnside’s (b. 1955) poetry from The hoop (1988) to The Light Trap (2002) as a case study. The thesis argues that a developing aesthetic form and movement in subject derive from Burnside’s increasing involvement with ecological thought and practice. This move to the ...

  5. Identifying Ecological Red Lines: A Case Study of the Coast in Liaoning Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuansheng Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The global decline in estuarine and coastal ecosystems is affecting critical ecosystem services. The spatial agglomeration of population, industries and resources has led to the emergence of regionally-specific ecological problems. Therefore, identifying “ecological red lines”, based on specific natural and environmental features, could help to differentiate the economic development and ecological protection directions or potentials of different regions in future. The aim of this case study is to define the ecological red line in the coastal zone of Liaoning Province, China, by evaluating the ecological importance and environmental stress in its marine and terrestrial ecosystems. For this purpose, the ecological importance of this area was first classified into four conservation indices (species, wetland, water and coast and islands and assigned values of 5, 3 and 1 for indications of high, moderate and minor importance. In the meantime, environmental stress was also classified into four indices (water environment, salinization, soil erosion and erosion of coasts and islands and assigned values of 5, 3 and 1 for indications of high, moderate and low stress, respectively. Then, based on an overlay analysis and evaluation of the above results, we defined two grades of ecological red line zones. Grade I ecological red line zones contain the areas with critical and diverse ecosystem services, areas of high importance for species conservation and nature reserves, as well as ecologically-vulnerable and sensitive areas. It is important in these areas to maintain the biological diversity and to improve the quality of the ecological environment, which should be strictly protected and explicitly controlled. Grade II ecological red line zones display areas with minimum requirements for maintaining the basic needs of a livable environment and human health, moderate to minor levels of ecological importance and high to moderate levels of environmental stress. To better control and protect such ecological red lines, setting up an ecological inventory through remote sensing satellites and ground-level monitoring and appraising the effectiveness of dynamical protection are highly recommended.

  6. Genetic and ecological studies of animals in Chernobyl and Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in genetic and ecological studies of wild animal populations in Chernobyl and Fukushima have demonstrated significant genetic, physiological, developmental, and fitness effects stemming from exposure to radioactive contaminants. The few genetic studies that have been conducted in Chernobyl generally show elevated rates of genetic damage and mutation rates. All major taxonomic groups investigated (i.e., birds, bees, butterflies, grasshoppers, dragonflies, spiders, mammals) displayed reduced population sizes in highly radioactive parts of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. In Fukushima, population censuses of birds, butterflies, and cicadas suggested that abundances were negatively impacted by exposure to radioactive contaminants, while other groups (e.g., dragonflies, grasshoppers, bees, spiders) showed no significant declines, at least during the first summer following the disaster. Insufficient information exists for groups other than insects and birds to assess effects on life history at this time. The differences observed between Fukushima and Chernobyl may reflect the different times of exposure and the significance of multigenerational mutation accumulation in Chernobyl compared to Fukushima. There was considerable variation among taxa in their apparent sensitivity to radiation and this reflects in part life history, physiology, behavior, and evolutionary history. Interestingly, for birds, population declines in Chernobyl can be predicted by historical mitochondrial DNA base-pair substitution rates that may reflect intrinsic DNA repair ability. PMID:25124815

  7. Ecological study of dietary and smoking links to lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, W. B.

    2000-01-01

    The ecological approach is used to investigate dietary and smoking links to lymphoma. International mortality rate data for 1986 and 1994 by gender and age group are compared with national dietary supply values of various food components for up to 10 years prior to the mortality data as well as per capita cigarette consumption rates 5 and 15 years earlier. The non-fat portion of milk, 3-9 years prior to the 1986 mortality data and 4 years prior to the 1994 data, was found to have the highest association with lymphoma, with r as high as 0.89. The results imply that 70 percent of lymphoma mortality may be related to this dietary component. Cigarette smoking in 1980 was found to have a weaker association with 1994 lymphoma mortality rates, being most important for younger men and statistically insignificant for younger women. The non-fat milk result is consistent with both case-control studies and a Norwegian prospective study, and with the often-observed finding that abnormal calcium metabolism, hypercalciuria, and dysregulated calcitriol production are common in normocalcemic patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). It is hypothesized that excess dietary calcium from milk is a significant risk factor for lymphoma.

  8. Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) conceptual design option study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Melvin; Olson, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Results are given of a study to explore options for the development of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for a future Space Station. In addition, study results will benefit the design of other facilities such as the Life Sciences Research Facility, a ground-based CELSS demonstrator, and will be useful in planning longer range missions such as a lunar base or manned Mars mission. The objectives were to develop weight and cost estimates for one CELSS module selected from a set of preliminary plant growth unit (PGU) design options. Eleven Space Station CELSS module conceptual PGU designs were reviewed, components and subsystems identified and a sensitivity analysis performed. Areas where insufficient data is available were identified and divided into the categories of biological research, engineering research, and technology development. Topics which receive significant attention are lighting systems for the PGU, the use of automation within the CELSS system, and electric power requirements. Other areas examined include plant harvesting and processing, crop mix analysis, air circulation and atmosphere contaminant flow subsystems, thermal control considerations, utility routing including accessibility and maintenance, and nutrient subsystem design.

  9. Distance makes the difference in thermography for ecological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, E; Dangles, O; Pincebourde, S

    2016-02-01

    Surface temperature drives many ecological processes and infrared thermography is widely used by ecologists to measure the thermal heterogeneity of different species' habitats. However, the potential bias in temperature readings caused by distance between the surface to be measured and the camera is still poorly acknowledged. We examined the effect of distance from 0.3 to 80m on a variety of thermal metrics (mean temperature, standard deviation, patch richness and aggregation) under various weather conditions and for different structural complexity of the studied surface types (various surfaces with vegetation). We found that distance is a key modifier of the temperature measured by a thermal infrared camera. A non-linear relationship between distance and mean temperature, standard deviation and patch richness led to a rapid under-estimation of the thermal metrics within the first 20m and then only a slight decrease between 20 and 80m from the object. Solar radiation also enhanced the bias with increasing distance. Therefore, surface temperatures were under-estimated as distance increased and thermal mosaics were homogenized at long distances with a much stronger bias in the warmer than the colder parts of the distributions. The under-estimation of thermal metrics due to distance was explained by atmospheric composition and the pixel size effect. The structural complexity of the surface had little effect on the surface temperature bias. Finally, we provide general guidelines for ecologists to minimize inaccuracies caused by distance from the studied surface in thermography. PMID:26857971

  10. An Ecological Flood Control System in Phoenix Island of Huzhou, China: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuowen Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional flood control systems always have a conflict with natural ones, i.e., rivers in cities are usually straight and smooth, whereas natural ones are according to ecological mechanisms. Social and economic developments in the modern world require a new system combining ecological needs and traditional flood control system. Ecological flood control systems were put forward and defined as flood control systems with full consideration of ecological demands for sustainable development. In such systems, four aspects are promoted: connectivity of water system, landscapes of river and lakes, mobility of water bodies, and safety of flood control. In Phoenix Island, Huzhou, needs for ecological flood controls were analyzed from the four aspects above. The Water system layout was adjusted with the water surface ratio, which is the ratio of water surface area (including rivers, lakes, and other water bodies to the total drainage area, and connectivity as controlling indicators. The designed water levels provided references for landscape plant selection. Mobility of the adjusted water system was analyzed, including flow direction and residence time. On the bases mentioned above, ecological flood control projects were planned with comprehensive consideration of the ecological requirements. The case study indicates that ecological needs can be integrated with flood control to develop ecological flood control systems that do not only prevent floods but also retain the ecological functions of water bodies.

  11. Spatial epidemiology and spatial ecology study of worldwide drug-resistant tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Zhongshang; Li Xiao; Wang Rui; Liu Yanxun; Jiang Shiwen; Liu Yunxia; Wang Lixia; Xue Fuzhong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a major public health problem caused by various factors. It is essential to systematically investigate the epidemiological and, in particular, the ecological factors of DR-TB for its prevention and control. Studies of the ecological factors can provide information on etiology, and assist in the effective prevention and control of disease. So it is of great significance for public health to explore the ecological factors of DR-TB, whic...

  12. An ecological study on suicide and homicide in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hideki Bando

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate correlations between suicide, homicide and socio-demographic variables by an ecological study. Mortality and socio-demographic data were collected from official records of the Ministry of Health and IBGE (2010, aggregated by state (27. The data were analyzed using correlation techniques, factor analysis, principal component analysis with a varimax rotation and multiple linear regression. Suicide age-adjusted rates for the total population, men and women were 5.0, 8.0, and 2.2 per 100,000 inhabitants respectively. The suicide rates ranged from 2.7 in Pará to 9.1 in Rio Grande do Sul. Homicide for the total population, men and women were 27.2, 50.8, and 4.5 per 100,000, respectively. The homicide rates ranged from 13.0 in Santa Catarina to 68.9 in Alagoas. Suicide and homicide were negatively associated, the significance persisted among men. Unemployment was negatively correlated with suicide and positively with homicide. Different socio-demographic variables were found to correlate with suicide and homicide in the regressions. Suicide showed a pattern suggesting that, in Brazil, it is related to high socioeconomic status. Homicide seemed to follow the pattern found in other countries, associated with lower social and economic status.

  13. Backyard Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elser, Monica; Musheno, Birgit; Saltz, Charlene

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Ecology Explorers, the community education component of Arizona State University's Central Arizona Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research project, which offers teacher internship programs that link university researchers, K-12 teachers, and students in studying urban ecology. Explains that student neighborhoods are dynamic ecosystems…

  14. Site-Specific ecological risk assessment. Case-study 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, John

    The decision supporting and integrating assessment tool, TRIAD, is used site-specific on PAH- and heavy metal contaminated sites in Denmark. The various aspects of the TRIAD approach are used on a set of chemistry-, ecotoxicology- and ecology related data collected among others in the EU project “Development of a decision support system for sustainable management of contaminated land by linking bioavailability, ecological risk and ground water pollution of organic pollutants”or in short “LIBERATION”. The presentation includes examples on how to scale and integrate the results from various scientific disciplines.

  15. Site-Specific ecological risk assessment. Case-study 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, John

    “Development of a decision support system for sustainable management of contaminated land by linking bioavailability, ecological risk and ground water pollution of organic pollutants”or in short “LIBERATION”. The presentation includes examples on how to scale and integrate the results from various scientific...

  16. Supercharged Snails for Stream Ecology & Water-Quality Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Arthur J.; Ryon, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Gill-breathing freshwater snails (Family "Pleuroceridae") are ecologically important, abundant in many streams in the United States, and easy to collect and maintain under classroom conditions. These snails can be used in classroom tests to demonstrate effects of pollutants on aquatic organisms. In more advanced classes, students can cage the…

  17. Method for Studying a Human Ecology: An Adaptation of the Grounded Theory Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaslin, Mark L.; Scott, Karen Wilson

    Constructivist grounded theory is focused on discovery through understanding data in a human ecology. The procedures outlined in this paper are designed to guide the beginning theorist through the process of creating a theory grounded in data that is a product of the human ecology under study. These new procedures extend grounded theory, providing…

  18. Study on remote sensing method for drawing up and utilizing ecological and natural map II; concentrated on drawing up a plant ecological classification map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seong Woo; Chung, Hwui Chul [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    Following with the flows of the environmental conservation, Korea has revised the law of natural environmental conservation. In this law, it has suggested to draw up an ecological nature figure for efficient preservation and utilization of a country. To draw up an ecological nature figure, it requires several evaluating factors. Among them, a plant ecological classification is a very important evaluating factor since it can evaluate a habitation area of natural organisms. This study investigated a drawing up method of plant ecological classification using satellite image data. However the limit of satellite image data and the quality of required plant ecological classification are not quite matched but if the satellite image data and the infrared color aerial photograph are mixed, it can be expected to have an excellent quality of plant ecological classification. 85 refs., 86 figs., 45 tabs.

  19. Regulation of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1)/P-glycoprotein gene expression and activity by heat-shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaboa, N E; Galán, A; Troyano, A; de Blas, E; Aller, P

    2000-08-11

    Infection of HeLa cells with adenovirus-carrying HSF1(+) cDNA, which encodes a mutated form of HSF1 with constitutive transactivation capacity, increased multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) mRNA level and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) cell surface content and stimulated rhodamine 123 accumulation and vinblastine efflux activity. On the other hand, infection with adenovirus-carrying HSP70 and HSP27 cDNAs did not increase MDR1/P-gp expression. HSF1 regulates MDR1/P-gp expression at the transcriptional level, since HSF1(+) bound the heat-shock consensus elements (HSEs) in the MDR1 gene promoter and also activated the expression of an MDR1 promoter-driven reporter plasmid (pMDR1(-1202)). In addition, heat-shock increased pMDR1(-1202) promoter activity but not the activity of a similar reporter plasmid with point mutations at specific HSEs, and the heat-induced increase was totally inhibited by co-transfection with an expression plasmid carrying HSF1(-), a dominant negative mutant of HSF1. The stress inducers arsenite, butyrate, and etoposide also increased pMDR1(-1202) promoter activity, but the increase was not inhibited (in the case of butyrate) or was only partially inhibited (in the case of arsenite and etoposide) by HSF1(-). These results demonstrate that HSF1 regulates MDR1 expression, and that the HSEs present in the -315 to -285 region mediate the heat-induced activation of the MDR1 promoter. However, other factors may also participate in MDR1 induction by stressing agents. PMID:10816597

  20. Ecological Niche Transferability Using Invasive Species as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Miguel; Hamilton, Healy

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution modeling is widely applied to predict invasive species distributions and species range shifts under climate change. Accurate predictions depend upon meeting the assumption that ecological niches are conserved, i.e., spatially or temporally transferable. Here we present a multi-taxon comparative analysis of niche conservatism using biological invasion events well documented in natural history museum collections. Our goal is to assess spatial transferability of the climatic...

  1. Ecological and phytochemical studies on the "miswak", salvadora persica l.

    OpenAIRE

    Ma'ayergi, H. A. [??? ?????????

    1984-01-01

    The "Miswak", which is produced from the stolons and branches of Salvadora persica is used as a substitute for ordinary tooth brushes. The use of "Miswak" has been recommended by Islam. It is endowed by several characteristics supporting its use. In view of such facts, the ecology, geographical distribution and the chemical constituents of the plant have been investigated. It has been found that "Miswak" contains mucilage (2.2%) and sterols QS-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol and cholest...

  2. Ecological Studies On The Bottom Fauna Of Lake Manala, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Magdy T. Khalil

    1990-01-01

    An ecological survey has been conducted for the benthic Community in Lake Manzala during May and June, 1985. The diversity and distribution of organisms are largely determined by salinity. Mean abundance of benthic fauna ranged from 1494 to 2820 organisms/m2 for sampling transects. Pisidium and Melaaoides mollusca dominate the low salinity southern regions, while Cerastoctenna, Abra and Alvania species dominate the saline sectors. Two other species of considerable importance in the lake...

  3. Ecological niche transferability using invasive species as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Miguel; Hamilton, Healy

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution modeling is widely applied to predict invasive species distributions and species range shifts under climate change. Accurate predictions depend upon meeting the assumption that ecological niches are conserved, i.e., spatially or temporally transferable. Here we present a multi-taxon comparative analysis of niche conservatism using biological invasion events well documented in natural history museum collections. Our goal is to assess spatial transferability of the climatic niche of a range of noxious terrestrial invasive species using two complementary approaches. First we compare species' native versus invasive ranges in environmental space using two distinct methods, Principal Components Analysis and Mahalanobis distance. Second we compare species' native versus invaded ranges in geographic space as estimated using the species distribution modeling technique Maxent and the comparative index Hellinger's I. We find that species exhibit a range of responses, from almost complete transferability, in which the invaded niches completely overlap with the native niches, to a complete dissociation between native and invaded ranges. Intermediate responses included expansion of dimension attributable to either temperature or precipitation derived variables, as well as niche expansion in multiple dimensions. We conclude that the ecological niche in the native range is generally a poor predictor of invaded range and, by analogy, the ecological niche may be a poor predictor of range shifts under climate change. We suggest that assessing dimensions of niche transferability prior to standard species distribution modeling may improve the understanding of species' dynamics in the invaded range. PMID:25785858

  4. Studies on marine oil spills and their ecological damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Hong; Yin, Yanjie

    2009-09-01

    The sources of marine oil spills are mainly from accidents of marine oil tankers or freighters, marine oil-drilling platforms, marine oil pipelines, marine oilfields, terrestrial pollution, oil-bearing atmosphere, and offshore oil production equipment. It is concluded upon analysis that there are two main reasons for marine oil spills: (I) The motive for huge economic benefits of oil industry owners and oil shipping agents far surpasses their sense of ecological risks. (II) Marine ecological safety has not become the main concern of national security. Oil spills are disasters because humans spare no efforts to get economic benefits from oil. The present paper draws another conclusion that marine ecological damage caused by oil spills can be roughly divided into two categories: damage to marine resource value (direct value) and damage to marine ecosystem service value (indirect value). Marine oil spills cause damage to marine biological, fishery, seawater, tourism and mineral resources to various extents, which contributes to the lower quality and value of marine resources.

  5. Assessing Conifer Ray Parenchyma for Ecological Studies: Pitfalls and Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arx, Georg; Arzac, Alberto; Olano, José M; Fonti, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Ray parenchyma is an essential tissue for tree functioning and survival. This living tissue plays a major role for storage and transport of water, nutrients, and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), thus regulating xylem hydraulics and growth. However, despite the importance of rays for tree carbon and water relations, methodological challenges hamper knowledge about ray intra- and inter-tree variability and its ecological meaning. In this study we provide a methodological toolbox for soundly quantifying spatial and temporal variability of different ray features. Anatomical ray features were surveyed in different cutting planes (cross-sectional, tangential, and radial) using quantitative image analysis on stem-wood micro-sections sampled from 41 mature Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris). The percentage of ray surface (PERPAR), a proxy for ray volume, was compared among cutting planes and between early- and latewood to assess measurement-induced variability. Different tangential ray metrics were correlated to assess their similarities. The accuracy of cross-sectional and tangential measurements for PERPAR estimates as a function of number of samples and the measured wood surface was assessed using bootstrapping statistical technique. Tangential sections offered the best 3D insight of ray integration into the xylem and provided the most accurate estimates of PERPAR, with 10 samples of 4 mm(2) showing an estimate within ±6.0% of the true mean PERPAR (relative 95% confidence interval, CI95), and 20 samples of 4 mm(2) showing a CI95 of ±4.3%. Cross-sections were most efficient for establishment of time series, and facilitated comparisons with other widely used xylem anatomical features. Earlywood had significantly lower PERPAR (5.77 vs. 6.18%) and marginally fewer initiating rays than latewood. In comparison to tangential sections, PERPAR was systematically overestimated (6.50 vs. 4.92%) and required approximately twice the sample area for similar accuracy. Radial cuttings provided the least accurate PERPAR estimates. This evaluation of ray parenchyma in conifers and the presented guidelines regarding data accuracy as a function of measured wood surface and number of samples represent an important methodological reference for ray quantification, which will ultimately improve the understanding of the fundamental role of ray parenchyma tissue for the performance and survival of trees growing in stressed environments. PMID:26635842

  6. Computational Ecology: an emerging ecological science

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Computational ecology is an emerging science to integrate and synthesize computation intensive areas in ecology. It was clearly defined and described in an earlier study. Aims and scope of computational ecology are further refined in present discussion.

  7. The Effect of Inappropriate Calibration: Three Case Studies in Molecular Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Simon Y.W.; Saarma, Urmas; Barnett, Ross; Haile, James; Shapiro, Beth

    2008-01-01

    Time-scales estimated from sequence data play an important role in molecular ecology. They can be used to draw correlations between evolutionary and palaeoclimatic events, to measure the tempo of speciation, and to study the demographic history of an endangered species. In all of these studies, it is paramount to have accurate estimates of time-scales and substitution rates. Molecular ecological studies typically focus on intraspecific data that have evolved on genealogical scales, but often ...

  8. Ecological Drivers of Virus Evolution: Astrovirus as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Ian H; Smith, Gavin J D; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran

    2015-07-01

    Although RNA viruses exhibit a high frequency of host jumps, major differences exist among the different virus families. Astroviruses infect a wide range of hosts, affecting both public health systems and economic production chains. Here we delineate the ecological and adaptive processes that drive the cross-species transmission of astroviruses. We observe that distinct transmission zones determine the prevailing astrovirus host and virus diversity, which in turn suggests that no single host group (e.g., bats) can be the natural reservoir, as illustrated through our phylogenetic analysis. PMID:25948751

  9. Biochemical Study of Mixed Culture Prototype in a Closed Ecological System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischer, R. G.

    1960-01-01

    Since June 1, 1960, the date of initiation of this research project, efforts have been directed toward studying cultural and fermentation patterns and the methodology of pure culture isolation of prototype microorganisms to be employed in closed ecological systems.

  10. STABLE ISOTOPES IN ECOLOGICAL STUDIES: NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN MIXING MODELS (BRAZIL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotopes are increasingly being used as tracers in ecological studies. One application uses isotopic ratios to quantify the proportional contributions of multiple sources to a mixture. Examples include pollution sources for air or water bodies, food sources for animals, ...

  11. STABLE ISOTOPES IN ECOLOGICAL STUDIES: NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN MIXING MODELS (URUGUAY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotopes are increasingly being used as tracers in ecological studies. One application uses isotopic ratios to quantify the proportional contributions of multiple sources to a mixture. Examples include pollution sources for air or water bodies, food sources for animals, ...

  12. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory has completed 10 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site. This progress report examines water quality studies on streams peripheral to the DWPF construction site and examines the effectiveness of ''refuge ponds'' in ameliorating the effects of construction on local amphibians. Individual papers on these topics are indexed separately. 93 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs

  13. Applications of C and N stable isotopes to ecological and environmental studies in seagrass ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Lepoint, Gilles; Dauby, Patrick; Gobert, Sylvie

    2004-01-01

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen are increasingly used in marine ecosystems, for ecological and environmental studies. Here, we examine some applications of stable isotopes as ecological integrators or tracers in seagrass ecosystem studies. We focus on both the use of natural isotope abundance as food web integrators or environmental tracers and on the use of stable isotopes as experimental tools. As ecosystem integrators, stable isotopes have helped to elucidate the general structure o...

  14. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D.E.; Pechmann, J.H.K.; Knox, J.N.; Estes, R.A.; McGregor, J.H.; Bailey, K. (ed.)

    1988-12-01

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory has completed 10 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site. This progress report examines water quality studies on streams peripheral to the DWPF construction site and examines the effectiveness of refuge ponds'' in ameliorating the effects of construction on local amphibians. Individual papers on these topics are indexed separately. 93 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs. (MHB)

  15. Wetlands in the ecological risk assessment process: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saban, L.B. [Roy F. Weston, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In the past few years, the ecological risk assessment (ERA) process as outlined in the EPA document Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment has been successfully used to assess risk to birds, mammals, aquatic organisms, plants, and to a limited extent, reptiles and amphibians, but has only recently been applied to wetlands. Due to the unique role that wetlands play in the environment as sources and sinks for nutrients, sediment retention, high productivity, habitat transition zones, aquifer recharge, high diversity and richness of biota, and aesthetic value, it is important to consider the entire wetland system in the ERA process. Because nearly sixty percent of Superfund sites are located in or near wetlands, a comprehensive approach is proposed to evaluate potential risks to flora and fauna in these wetland environments. Using the delineation and functional assessment techniques developed by wetland scientists, an estuarine wetland in western Washington was evaluated within the scope of ERA`S. The ERA was applied to the wetland using functional assessments as an integral part of the problem formulation phase of the risk assessment process. Applying the ERA process to wetlands enhances the functional assessment process and helps to define critical elements to evaluate within wetland systems. The results of this risk assessment help to define patches within a landscape that are potentially at risk and how to prioritize remedial actions.

  16. A novel HSF4 gene mutation (p.R405X causing autosomal recessive congenital cataracts in a large consanguineous family from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheema Abdul

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary cataracts are most frequently inherited as autosomal dominant traits, but can also be inherited in an autosomal recessive or X-linked fashion. To date, 12 loci for autosomal recessive cataracts have been mapped including a locus on chromosome 16q22 containing the disease-causing gene HSF4 (Genbank accession number NM_001040667. Here, we describe a family from Pakistan with the first nonsense mutation in HSF4 thus expanding the mutational spectrum of this heat shock transcription factor gene. Methods A large consanguineous Pakistani family with autosomal recessive cataracts was collected from Quetta. Genetic linkage analysis was performed for the common known autosomal recessive cataracts loci and linkage to a locus containing HSF4 (OMIM 602438 was found. All exons and adjacent splice sites of the heat shock transcription factor 4 gene (HSF4 were sequenced. A mutation-specific restriction enzyme digest (HphI was performed for all family members and unrelated controls. Results The disease phenotype perfectly co-segregated with markers flanking the known cataract gene HSF4, whereas other autosomal recessive loci were excluded. A maximum two-point LOD score with a Zmax = 5.6 at ? = 0 was obtained for D16S421. Direct sequencing of HSF4 revealed the nucleotide exchange c.1213C > T in this family predicting an arginine to stop codon exchange (p.R405X. Conclusion We identified the first nonsense mutation (p.R405X in exon 11 of HSF4 in a large consanguineous Pakistani family with autosomal recessive cataract.

  17. Assessing Landscape Ecological Risk in a Mining City: A Case Study in Liaoyuan City, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Peng; Minli Zong; Yi'na Hu; Yanxu Liu; Jiansheng Wu

    2015-01-01

    Landscape ecological risk assessment can effectively identify key elements for landscape sustainability, which directly improves human wellbeing. However, previous research has tended to apply risk probability, measured by overlaying landscape metrics to evaluate risk, generally lacking a quantitative assessment of loss and uncertainty of risk. This study, taking Liaoyuan City as a case area, explores landscape ecological risk assessment associated with mining cities, based on probability of ...

  18. Ecological speciation in the tropics: insights from comparative genetic studies in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheregaray, Luciano B; Cooke, Georgina M; Chao, Ning L; Landguth, Erin L

    2014-01-01

    Evolution creates and sustains biodiversity via adaptive changes in ecologically relevant traits. Ecologically mediated selection contributes to genetic divergence both in the presence or absence of geographic isolation between populations, and is considered an important driver of speciation. Indeed, the genetics of ecological speciation is becoming increasingly studied across a variety of taxa and environments. In this paper we review the literature of ecological speciation in the tropics. We report on low research productivity in tropical ecosystems and discuss reasons accounting for the rarity of studies. We argue for research programs that simultaneously address biogeographical and taxonomic questions in the tropics, while effectively assessing relationships between reproductive isolation and ecological divergence. To contribute toward this goal, we propose a new framework for ecological speciation that integrates information from phylogenetics, phylogeography, population genomics, and simulations in evolutionary landscape genetics (ELG). We introduce components of the framework, describe ELG simulations (a largely unexplored approach in ecological speciation), and discuss design and experimental feasibility within the context of tropical research. We then use published genetic datasets from populations of five codistributed Amazonian fish species to assess the performance of the framework in studies of tropical speciation. We suggest that these approaches can assist in distinguishing the relative contribution of natural selection from biogeographic history in the origin of biodiversity, even in complex ecosystems such as Amazonia. We also discuss on how to assess ecological speciation using ELG simulations that include selection. These integrative frameworks have considerable potential to enhance conservation management in biodiversity rich ecosystems and to complement historical biogeographic and evolutionary studies of tropical biotas. PMID:25653668

  19. Environmental and behavioural determinants of geographic variation in coronary heart disease in England: an ecological study

    OpenAIRE

    Scarborough, Peter D.; Goldacre, Michael; Rayner, Mike; Allender, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Coronary heart disease rates show substantial geographic variation in England, which could be due to environmental variables (e.g. climate, air quality) or behavioural risk factors for coronary heart disease within populations. Previous work investigating this geographic variation has either used ecological analysis (i.e. areas as units of observation) or individual-level analysis. Ecological studies have been unable to account adequately for differences in behavioural risk factors within pop...

  20. Toward a Network Perspective of the Study of Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R. J. McAllister

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Formal models used to study the resilience of social-ecological systems have not explicitly included important structural characteristics of this type of system. In this paper, we propose a network perspective for social-ecological systems that enables us to better focus on the structure of interactions between identifiable components of the system. This network perspective might be useful for developing formal models and comparing case studies of social-ecological systems. Based on an analysis of the case studies in this special issue, we identify three types of social-ecological networks: (1 ecosystems that are connected by people through flows of information or materials, (2 ecosystem networks that are disconnected and fragmented by the actions of people, and (3 artificial ecological networks created by people, such as irrigation systems. Each of these three archytypal social-ecological networks faces different problems that influence its resilience as it responds to the addition or removal of connections that affect its coordination or the diffusion of system attributes such as information or disease.

  1. Study on the Capability Construction of Wetland Community Ecological Tourism Participation– The Case of Luoshijiang Wetland in Dali

    OpenAIRE

    Mingqiang Lu; Ning Wang

    2015-01-01

    Wetland ecological tourism is a sustainable traveling form. Community participation is an important part of the development of wetland ecological tourism, while high-quality ecological tourism participation requires certain quality and professional skills among wetland farmers. The study chooses Luoshijiang Wetland Community as the example and elaborates on the contents of wetland community’s ability of ecological tourism, periodical arrangements, organization and implementation and so on bas...

  2. Study of Panjin wetlands along Bohai coast (II): Ecological water requirement of Shuangtaizi estuarine wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tieliang; Zhou, Linfei; Zhao, Bo; Yang, Peiqi

    2009-06-01

    Shuangtaizi estuarine wetland along the Bohai Sea coast, the biggest bulrush wetland in the world, has been listed in ‘The Record of Important International Wetland Conservation District’. Taking the year of 2 000 as an example, the minimum, the most suitable and the maximum ecological water requirement of Shuangtaizi estuarine wetland are calculated in this paper based on both ecological theory and Geological Information System technology. In addition, the remote sensing technique is adopted in the data acquisition process. Moreover, the total water requirement and the unit area water requirement for different wetland types are obtained. The result is very important for water resources planning, ecological conservation and regional agriculture structure adjustment in Shuangtaizi. Meanwhile, this study can serve as a useful example for calculating the ecological water requirement in other similar estuarine wetlands.

  3. Project CHOICE: #100. A Career Unit for Grades 3 and 4. Ecology Workers. (Agriculture and Ecological Studies Occupations Career Cluster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    This teaching unit, Ecology Workers, is one in a series of career guides developed by Project CHOICE (Children Have Options in Career Education) to provide the classroom teacher with a source of career-related activities linking third and fourth grade elementary classroom experiences with the world of work. Part of the Agriculture and Ecological…

  4. Ecological risk assessment guidance for preparation of remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentecost, E.D.; Vinikour, W.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial assessment investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfired Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), an RI/FS work plan win have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping the process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites. An overview analysis of early ecological risk assessment methods (i.e., in the 1980s) at Superfund sites was conducted by the EPA (1989a). That review provided a perspective of attention given to ecological issues in some of the first RI/FS studies. By itself, that reference is of somewhat limited value; it does, however, establish a basis for comparison of past practices in ecological risk with current, more refined methods.

  5. Ecological risk assessment guidance for preparation of remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial assessment investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfired Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), an RI/FS work plan win have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping the process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites. An overview analysis of early ecological risk assessment methods (i.e., in the 1980s) at Superfund sites was conducted by the EPA (1989a). That review provided a perspective of attention given to ecological issues in some of the first RI/FS studies. By itself, that reference is of somewhat limited value; it does, however, establish a basis for comparison of past practices in ecological risk with current, more refined methods

  6. Ecological study of the effects of nuclear power plants on benthic macroplant microcosms in subtropical and tropical estuaries. Annual progress report, 1974--1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: the dynamic ecology of Thalassia and studies of the Thalassia community; basic ecology of Thalassia growth and reproduction; red macroalgal ecology; green macroalgal ecology; transplantation of Thalassia; succession in a previously damaged Thalassia community at Turkey Point; and thermal ecology of the Thalassia community of Card Sound and Turkey Point. (U.S.)

  7. Case study of ecological risk assessment at an Alaska airport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ecological risk assessment was conducted for 10 sites at a remote location that has unique biological resources. Chemicals of concern included petroleum, metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, and dioxins and furans. Risks to 23 species of mammals and birds were evaluated by using toxicity reference values and a hazard quotient approach analogous to the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) approach for evaluating noncarcinogenic human health effects. Risks to fish and aquatic invertebrates were evaluated using risk-based concentrations for water analogous to the USEPA's water quality criteria. Risks to plants were evaluated using risk-based concentrations for soil. Toxicity reference values and risk-based concentrations were developed by applying uncertainty factors to the highest quality toxicity data available in the literature. Intake rates for wildlife were obtained from the USEPA's wildlife exposure factors handbook, or were estimated using allometric equations. The sizes of wildlife home ranges were compared with the size of each site to determine species- and site-specific exposure frequencies. Indicator chemicals were selected to represent the chemical and toxicological characteristics of petroleum fractions. The species most often at risk were found to be fish and aquatic invertebrates, as well as small-bodied, ground-dwelling or ground-feeding wildlife

  8. Ecological studies on the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) on the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigel, R.A.; Brandt, L.A.; Knight, J.L.; Novak, S.S.

    1986-06-01

    The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is the largest vertebrate of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), reaching a maximum length of 3.7 meters (12 feet) and weighing up to 175 kg (385 pounds). Currently, populations in coastal South Carolina are considered Threatened, whereas populations in inland areas (such as the SRP) are still Endangered. Because of their legal status and economic and ecological importance, it is important to determine the environmental impacts of SRP operations on the local alligator population. The major objectives under the Endangered Species Program of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) were as follows: (1) document and compare the present status and distribution of alligators on the SRP to previous surveys, in order to determine long-term changes in population abundance; (2) establish baseline population and ecological parameters of the Steel Creek population so that the ecological effects of L-Reactor operations can be determined, and (3) conduct ecological research on the immediate impacts of thermal effluents on American alligators. Gladden et al., (1985) summarized data on previous population surveys, temporal changes in the Par Pond population, preliminary results of the Steel Creek surveys and Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) research on the effects of thermal effluents. This report summarizes the current status of the SRP population, presents data on the abundance, movement patterns and activity cycles of the Steel Creek population, and presents additional data on the effect of cooling water releases on alligator ecology and behavior.

  9. Ecological optimization and performance study of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of finite time thermodynamics is used to determine the ecological function of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat engine cycles. The ecological function is defined as the power output minus power loss (irreversibility), which is the ambient temperature times, the entropy generation rate. The ecological function is maximized with respect to cycle temperature ratio and the expressions for the corresponding power output and thermal efficiency are derived at the optimal operating conditions. The effect of different operating parameters, the effectiveness on the hot, cold and the regenerative side heat exchangers, the cycle temperature ratio, heat capacitance ratio and the internal irreversibility parameter on the maximum ecological function are studied. It is found that the effect of regenerator effectiveness is more than the hot and cold side heat exchangers and the effect of the effectiveness on cold side heat exchanger is more than the effectiveness on the hot side heat exchanger on the maximum ecological function. It is also found that the effect of internal irreversibility parameter is more than the other parameters not only on the maximum ecological function but also on the corresponding power output and the thermal efficiency

  10. LANDSCAPE ECOLOGICAL METHOD TO STUDY AGRICULTURAL VEGETATION: SOME EXAMPLES FROM THE PO VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. GIGLIO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation is the most important landscape component, as regards to its ability to catch solar energy and to transform it, but also to shape the landscape, to structure the space, to create the fit environment for different animal species, to contribute to the maintenance of a correct metastability level for the landscape, etc. It is a biological system which acts under the constraints of the principles of the System Theory and owns the same properties of any other living system: so, it is a complex adaptive, hierarchical, dynamic, dissipative, self-organizing, self-transcendent, autocatalytic, self-maintaining system and follows the non-equilibrium thermodynamic. Its ecological state can be investigated through the comparison between “gathered data” (pathology and “normal data” (physiology for analogous types of vegetation. The Biological Integrated School of Landscape Ecology provides an integrated methodology to define ecological threshold limits of the different Agricultural Landscape types and applies to agricultural vegetation the specific part of the new methodology already tested to studying forests (the Landscape Biological Survey of Vegetation. Ecological quality, better and worst parameters, biological territorial capacity of vegetated corridors, agricultural field, poplar groves, orchards and woody remnant patches are investigated. Some examples from diverse agricultural landscapes of the Po Valley will be discussed. KEY WORDS: agricultural landscape, vegetation, landscape ecology, landscape health, Biological Integrated Landscape Ecology, Landscape Biological Survey of vegetation.

  11. Assessment of the U.S. outer continental shelf environmental studies program. 2. Ecology. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1986, the Minerals Management Service (MMS) requested that the National Research Council (NRC) evaluate the adequacy and applicability of studies conducted in the Environmental Studies Program (ESP), review the general state of knowledge in the appropriate disciplines, and recommend future studies. Under the auspices of the NRC Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, the Committee to Review the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program was formed to conduct the assignment. Three panels-dealing with ecology, physical oceanography, and socioeconomics--were established to review specific aspects of the assessment. The Ecology Panel investigated the main questions of ecological relevance to OCS oil and gas activities and ecological aspects of the ESP. The panel was divided into three working groups: on marine birds, mammals, turtles, and endangered species; on benthic processes; and on fisheries and ecosystems. The panel conducted workshops on each of those topics, focused on the progress of the ESP in assessing the environmental impacts of OCS oil and gas activities, evaluated shortcomings of the ESP, and identified future information needs. The report, the second in a series, presents the findings and recommendations of the Ecology Panel

  12. Why does not ecological wine sell in the restaurants? : A case study on Chilean ecological wine on the Swedish market

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Katja

    2011-01-01

    The last five years has seen a large increase in the sales of ecological wines in the Swedish retail stores. This trend has not yet reached the restaurants, where the consumers do not choose an ecological alternative in the same amount as in the stores. The Chilean ecological wines were 2010, in top five bestsellers among the organic wines. With their good quality and low price they should be able to reach a larger market share in the restaurants as well. The purpose of this paper is to exami...

  13. Ecology of Urban Bees: A Review of Current Knowledge and Directions for Future Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon W. Frankie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban bee ecology is an emerging field that holds promise for advancing knowledge of bee community dynamics and promoting bee conservation. Published studies of bee communities in urban and suburban habitats are fewer than those documenting bees in agricultural and wildland settings. As land lost to urbanization is predicted to increase in coming years the necessity of studying urban bee populations is growing. We reviewed 59 publications on urban bee ecology with the following goals, to assess current knowledge, to highlight areas in need of further research, and to suggest applications of study findings to bee conservation. Identified trends in urban areas included the following, negative correlation between bee species richness and urban development, increase in abundance of cavity-nesters in urban habitats, and scarcity of floral specialists. Future directions for studying urban bee ecology include incorporation of landscape-scale assessments, conducting manipulative experiments and actively designing urban bee habitats.

  14. Ecological forecasting under climatic data uncertainty: a case study in phenological modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forecasting ecological responses to climate change represents a challenge to the ecological community because models are often site-specific and climate data are lacking at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. We use a case study approach to demonstrate uncertainties in ecological predictions related to the driving climatic input data. We use observational records, derived observational datasets (e.g. interpolated observations from local weather stations and gridded data products) and output from general circulation models (GCM) in conjunction with site based phenology models to estimate the first flowering date (FFD) for three woody flowering species. Using derived observations over the modern time period, we find that cold biases and temperature trends lead to biased FFD simulations for all three species. Observational datasets resolved at the daily time step result in better FFD predictions compared to simulations using monthly resolution. Simulations using output from an ensemble of GCM and regional climate models over modern and future time periods have large intra-ensemble spreads and tend to underestimate observed FFD trends for the modern period. These results indicate that certain forcing datasets may be missing key features needed to generate accurate hindcasts at the local scale (e.g. trends, temporal resolution), and that standard modeling techniques (e.g. downscaling, ensemble mean, etc) may not necessarily improve the prediction of the ecological response. Studies attempting to simulate local ecological processes under modern and future climate forcing therefore need to quantify and propagate the climate data uncertainties in their simulations.

  15. Studying stress responses in the post-genomic era: its ecological and evolutionary role

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jesper G Sørensen; Volker Loeschcke

    2007-04-01

    Most investigations on the effects of and responses to stress exposures have been performed on a limited number of model organisms in the laboratory. Here much progress has been made in terms of identifying and describing beneficial and detrimental effects of stress, responses to stress and the mechanisms behind stress tolerance. However, to gain further understanding of which genes are involved in stress resistance and how the responses are regulated from an ecological and evolutionary perspective there is a need to combine studies on multiple levels of biological organization from DNA to phenotypes. Furthermore, we emphasize the importance of studying ecologically relevant traits and natural or semi-natural conditions to verify whether the results obtained are representative of the ecological and evolutionary processes in the field. Here, we will review what we currently know about thermal adaptation and the role of different stress responses to thermal challenges in insects, particularly Drosophila. Furthermore, we address some key questions that require future attention.

  16. Ecological optimization and parametric study of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This communication presents the ecological optimization and parametric study of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat pump cycles, in which the external irreversibility is due to finite temperature difference between working fluid and external reservoirs while the internal irreversibilities are due to regenerative heat loss and other entropy generations within the cycle. The ecological function is defined as the heating load minus the irreversibility (power loss) which is ambient temperature times the entropy generation. The ecological function is optimized with respect to working fluid temperatures, and the expressions for various parameters at the optimal operating condition are obtained. The effects of different operating parameters on the performance of these cycles have been studied. It is found that the effect of internal irreversibility parameter is more pronounced than the other parameters on the performance of these cycles. (author)

  17. Ecological studies of small vertebrates in Pu-contaminated study areas of NTS and TTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological studies of vertebrates in plutonium-contaminated areas of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were initiated in March 1972, and have continued to date. In September 1973, standard census methods were also employed to derive a qualitative and quantitative inventory of vertebrate biota of four Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) study areas of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). A checklist of vertebrates of NAEG study areas of NTS and TTR is presented. Data are presented on vertebrate composition, relative abundance, and seasonal status in the study areas. Concentrations of 239Pu and 241Am were determined in pelt or skin, GI tract, and carcass of 13 lizards and 16 mammals resident on Clean Slate 2, TTR, and Area 11, NTS. A total of 71 animals were collected for radioanalysis. However, the data were not available at the time this report was written. Pu tissue burdens were highest in lizards from Area 11 GZ. Maximum values obtained in nCi/g ash were 30.9, 42.2, and 0.43 for the pelt, GI tract, and carcass, respectively. Maximum 239Pu values in tissues of small rodents from Area 11 (not from GZ) were 11.4, 6.49, and 0.20 nCi/g ash for pelt, GI tract, and carcass, respectively. Pu/Am ratios were relatively consistent in tissue samples of lizards and small mammals from Area 11 (approximately 6:1, Pu/Am). Pu/Am ratios were not consistent in vertebrates of Clean Slate 2, TTR, and appeared to be lower in carcass (28:1, Pu/Am in mammals) than GI tract (9:1, Pu/Am in mammals). Although this trend was more conspicuous in mammals, it was also evident in reptiles. (auth)

  18. Air pollution and case fatality of SARS in the People's Republic of China: an ecologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shun-Zhang

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS has claimed 349 lives with 5,327 probable cases reported in mainland China since November 2002. SARS case fatality has varied across geographical areas, which might be partially explained by air pollution level. Methods Publicly accessible data on SARS morbidity and mortality were utilized in the data analysis. Air pollution was evaluated by air pollution index (API derived from the concentrations of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and ground-level ozone. Ecologic analysis was conducted to explore the association and correlation between air pollution and SARS case fatality via model fitting. Partially ecologic studies were performed to assess the effects of long-term and short-term exposures on the risk of dying from SARS. Results Ecologic analysis conducted among 5 regions with 100 or more SARS cases showed that case fatality rate increased with the increment of API (case fatality = - 0.063 + 0.001 * API. Partially ecologic study based on short-term exposure demonstrated that SARS patients from regions with moderate APIs had an 84% increased risk of dying from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs (RR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.41–2.40. Similarly, SARS patients from regions with high APIs were twice as likely to die from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs. (RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.31–3.65. Partially ecologic analysis based on long-term exposure to ambient air pollution showed the similar association. Conclusion Our studies demonstrated a positive association between air pollution and SARS case fatality in Chinese population by utilizing publicly accessible data on SARS statistics and air pollution indices. Although ecologic fallacy and uncontrolled confounding effect might have biased the results, the possibility of a detrimental effect of air pollution on the prognosis of SARS patients deserves further investigation.

  19. A holistic approach to studying social-ecological systems and its application to southern Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hanspach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Global change presents risks and opportunities for social-ecological systems worldwide. Key challenges for sustainability science are to identify plausible future changes in social-ecological systems and find ways to reach socially and environmentally desirable conditions. In this context, regional-scale studies are important, but to date, many such studies have focused on a narrow set of issues or applied a narrow set of tools. Here, we present a holistic approach to work through the complexity posed by cross-scale interactions, spatial heterogeneity, and multiple uncertainties facing regional social-ecological systems. Our approach is spatially explicit and involves assessments of social conditions and natural capital bundles, social-ecological system dynamics, and current development trends. The resulting understanding is used in combination with scenario planning to map how current development trends might be amplified or dampened in the future. We illustrate this approach via a detailed case study in southern Transylvania, Romania, one of Europe's most significant biocultural refugia. Our goal was to understand current social-ecological dynamics and assess risks and opportunities for sustainable development. Our findings show that historical events have strongly shaped current conditions and current development trends in southern Transylvania. Moreover, although external drivers (including EU policies set the general direction of regional development trajectories, local factors, including education, leadership, and the presence of bridging organizations, can enhance or counteract their effects. Our holistic approach was useful for generating an in-depth understanding of a regional social-ecological system and could be transferred to other parts of the world.

  20. On the use of fungicides in ecological seed burial studies

    OpenAIRE

    Mitschunas, Nadine; Filser, Juliane; Wagner, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Evidence for effects of saprophytic fungi on buried seed demography is usually obtained from studies involving the simultaneous burial of fungicide-treated seeds and of untreated seeds. However, any potential influence of fungicide treatment on seed dormancy levels is generally ignored in these studies. Also, some studies assume that a combination of several fungicidal compounds provides better protection against a broader range of fungi, ignoring chemical interactions that may potentially oc...

  1. ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF RESTORATED TRADITIONAL SETTLEMENTS: A CASE STUDY IN KALEİÇİ (ANTALYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer MUTLU DANACI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical fabrics of the cities reflect the cultural backgrounds of the societies. For centuries in historical urban settlements formed via experiences the most appropriate structure type to the climatic conditions and the region, has been produced. With the industrial revolution, to be able to have more comfortable places in the settlement, fossil fuel based energy consumption began to be generally preferred. As a result, the ecological balance in the nature has begun to deteriorate in an irrevocable way. To find a solution for the situation, in ecological architecture and planning issues various ecological structure criteria is defined. Accordingly, buildings appropriate to the local and climatic characteristics are meant to be constructed besides the use of renewable energy sources and minimizing energy consumption. When historical city fabrics are analyzed in the ecological context, one can observe that these include sustainable structure characteristics. In order for the buildings to be renewed and restored in accordance with their original structures, great care should be given in terms of financial resource, manpower, material and control.Antalya Kaleiçi which was chosen as the working area was analyzed in terms of settlement structure, building form and structure cover, place organization, material choice, renewable, clean energy usage and water saving and usage and it was determined to have ecological, sustainable settlement characteristics. Traditional architecture samples which have been built by the people after trial and error for centuries and with the solutions appropriate to the climatic and environmental conditions are highly appropriate to the ecological design criteria as structures and settlements peculiar to the district. However the mistakes in the restoration of the buildings used for touristic aims after 1970s, adding of new necessary functions to the buildings, not taking care of the original structure and materials show that historical urban fabric of the city is faced with the danger of losing its ecological feature.In this study, Antalya-Kaleiçi historical urban settlement which was built in the context of the ecological design criteria and which has conventional houses that achieved to reach our day has been discussed. When houses with historical fabric which are experiencing a function shift to ensure sustainability in today's conditions are analyzed in terms of ecological design criteria, we will mention the sustainability of the criteria obtained in terms of availability and the problems faced with the restoration.

  2. Incorporating ecological risk assessment into remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), and RI/FS work plan will have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites.

  3. Incorporating ecological risk assessment into remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), and RI/FS work plan will have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites

  4. Assessing Land Ecological Security Based on BP Neural Network: a Case Study of Hangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyuan You

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing stress on the land ecology, the land eco-security suffers damage. In this paper, the BP neural network and PSR framework were adopted to establish the model for assessment of land eco-security, and an empirical study of assessing land eco-security in Hangzhou was done. The results show that the city center district is at serious land eco-security risk; Xiaoshan district and Yuhang district are at high land eco-security risk; and others counties (cities are at low risk or intermediate risk. In Hangzhou, although some measures are adopted to control the risk of land eco-security, the economic growth still has negative impact on the land ecology. The rapid industrialization and urbanization increase the risk of land eco-security. Therefore the policy constitutors should do something to strengthen the land ecology protection.

  5. Ecological studies in the NRDA process: Some guidelines for what is necessary and what is not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological resources are usually the primary focus of a natural resource damage assessment (NRDA). The NRDA should emphasize ecological studies on resources that sustained substantial injuries resulting in significant reduction of services and loss of use, and thus in substantial damages. Further, assessment costs should be ''reasonable.'' Congress, in passing the laws providing for NRDAs, did not intend that every conceivable injury to every biological resource be documented; this is economically and scientifically unreasonable. Congress did however intend that the NRDA process should be objective, based on sound science, and focused on restoration of the injured resources and services. Appropriate ecological studies should focus on the dominant sensitive habitats, major recreational species, threatened, endangered and otherwise ''sensitive'' species, and ecologically ''key'' species. However, many NRDAs have been and are being conducted in an adversarial atmosphere where the threat of litigation, not cooperation, prevails. This results in additional studies of insignificant, extremely speculative, and/or highly improbable injuries that objective, experienced ecologists would agree will not have ecological significance and should not result in damages. These studies waste time and money for all parties involved. They erode the credibility of the scientists involved as well as the credibility of the whole NRDA process. Examples of both necessary and unnecessary studies will be drawn from several oil spills including Exxon Valdez, Exxon Bayway Pipeline Leak, and Shell Martinez Manufacturing complex

  6. Mental practice in music memorization - an ecological-empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardi, Nicolò F.; Schories, Alexander; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; COLOMBO, BARBARA; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2009-01-01

    Mental Practice (MP) refers to a complex network of strategies for improving musical performance without physically performing at the instrument. The present study represents an attempt to describe cross-individual differences in the use of different MP strategies, allowing direct predictions on which strategies are more likely to be effective. Sixteen pianists were studied while memorizing piano pieces. Each subject memorized two pieces of comparable length and difficulty, one by MP and the ...

  7. Immune microbiological studies during medical and ecological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials testifying to the necessity and prospects of immunological studies by monitoring the health state of the population residing in radiationally and chemically residing in radiationally and chemically contaminated regions are presented. The above studies make it possible to evaluate the immune state of individual persons as well as of the population at large. It is advisable to use not only immunological but also microbiological methods, which make it possible to specify the state of general nonspecific antiinfection resistivity. 33 refs

  8. Ecological bases for the forestry of the natural forest, Case study of the Catival (Prioretum copaiferae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first development is presented for Colombia of the ecological bases for the forestry by means of the case study of the Catival consortium (prioretum copaiferae); recapturing the results of the investigations carried out for more of 16 years for the National Corporation of Investigation and Forestall Development-CONIF and the company Pizano adding the achievements of other investigations

  9. Joint Action in Didactics and Classroom Ecology: Comparing Theories Using a Case Study in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amade-Escot, Chantal; Venturini, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the respective contribution of two theoretical approaches to teaching and learning: the classroom ecology (CE) framework from Anglo-American research and the joint action in didactics (JAD) framework, which is part of French "didactique" research. This theoretical comparison is grounded in data from a case study in a…

  10. Revitalizing Traditional Ecological Knowledge: A Study in an Alpine Rural Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Elena; Geneletti, Davide; Ciolli, Marco

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to contribute to the debate on the value and the role of ecological knowledge in modern conservation strategies, with reference to the results of a case study conducted in the community of Montagne, located within a World Heritage site in the Italian Alps. This community is a paradigmatic example of the multiple transformations experienced by cultural landscapes in Alpine areas under the influence of global change. This study seeks to understand whether ecological knowledge is still in place in the community, and what the relationship is between the knowledge transmission and land use and social changes that have occurred in recent decades. To that end, the community is described by identifying the key variables (social, institutional, and ecological) that have historically shaped the landscape and the future priorities of the residents. Forest expansion, the most significant change in land use in the last 60 years, is analyzed using aerial photos; changes in biodiversity-related knowledge in the community are quantified by analyzing the inter-generational differences in plant species recognition. Results are discussed in the context of the current situation of the Montagne community, and the recommendation is made that policies and actions to promote traditional ecological knowledge protection or recovery in Europe be viewed as an important part of the recovery of community sovereignty and vitality. Lastly, concrete actions that can be implemented in our case study are proposed.

  11. STABLE ISOTOPES IN ECOLOGICAL STUDIES: EXPANDING THE SCOPE OF MIXING MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotopes are increasingly being used as tracers in ecological studies. One common application uses isotopic ratios to quantify the proportional contributions of multiple sources to a mixture. Examples include pollution sources for air or water bodies, food sources for an...

  12. Daily Emotional Dynamics in Depressed Youth: A Cell Phone Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Jennifer S.; Forbes, Erika E.; Whalen, Diana J.; Jakubcak, Jennifer L.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Ryan, Neal D.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    This study used a new cell phone ecological momentary assessment approach to investigate daily emotional dynamics in 47 youths with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 32 no-psychopathology controls (CON) (ages 7-17 years). Information about emotional experience in the natural environment was obtained using answer-only cell phones, while MDD…

  13. [Quantitative study on ecological suitability of Chinese herbal medicine based on GIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Caixiang; Suo, Fengmei; Zhou, Yingqun; Wang, Lizhi; Xiang, Li; Dong, Liang; Jia, Guanglin; Sun, Chengzhong; Chen, Shilin

    2011-02-01

    The quality of Chinese herbal medicine is closely related to its producing region. In order to apply mathematical models to do a quantitative study on the suitability of Chinese herbal medicine, it is necessary to study on the ecological factors and the interpolation of climatic data, which influence the Chinese herbal medicine growth. The paper firstly studied the judgment standard of ecological index from the points of ecology and statistics, and how to calculate the optimum range values and the weight of each ecological factor. Secondly, meteorological element data is essential data in analyzing the suitable region of Chinese herbal medicine, and the spatial distribution of meteorological elements is closely related to terrain environment, so, in order to make the results close to true value by the greatest degree. The paper adopted multiple linear regression interpolation method which based on DEM. The paper distinguished the factor system of suitable region and interpolation on the point of datumization, and made a study on it about some key issues. PMID:21585048

  14. Research Plan for Study of Biological and Ecological Effects of the Solar Power Satellite Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, B. D.

    1978-01-01

    A programmatic research plan for a three year study is presented to generate knowledge on effects of the continuous wave 2.45 GHz microwave power transmission that the Solar Power Satellite might have on biological and ecological elements, within and around the rectenna receiving site.

  15. Undertaking an Ecological Approach to Advance Game-Based Learning: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mamta; Foster, Aroutis

    2014-01-01

    Systematic incorporation of digital games in schools is largely unexplored. This case study explored the ecological conditions necessary for implementing a game-based learning course by examining the interaction between three domains (the innovator, the innovation, and the context). From January-April 2012, one in-service teacher learned and…

  16. Ecological studies on the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) on the Savannah River Plant. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigel, R.A.; Brandt, L.A.; Knight, J.L.; Novak, S.S.

    1986-06-01

    The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is the largest vertebrate of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), reaching a maximum length of 3.7 meters (12 feet) and weighing up to 175 kg (385 pounds). Currently, populations in coastal South Carolina are considered Threatened, whereas populations in inland areas (such as the SRP) are still Endangered. Because of their legal status and economic and ecological importance, it is important to determine the environmental impacts of SRP operations on the local alligator population. The major objectives under the Endangered Species Program of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) were as follows: (1) document and compare the present status and distribution of alligators on the SRP to previous surveys, in order to determine long-term changes in population abundance; (2) establish baseline population and ecological parameters of the Steel Creek population so that the ecological effects of L-Reactor operations can be determined, and (3) conduct ecological research on the immediate impacts of thermal effluents on American alligators. Gladden et al., (1985) summarized data on previous population surveys, temporal changes in the Par Pond population, preliminary results of the Steel Creek surveys and Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) research on the effects of thermal effluents. This report summarizes the current status of the SRP population, presents data on the abundance, movement patterns and activity cycles of the Steel Creek population, and presents additional data on the effect of cooling water releases on alligator ecology and behavior.

  17. An Experimental Ecological Study of a Garden Compost Heap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curds, Tracy

    1985-01-01

    A quantitative study of the fauna of a garden compost heap shows it to be similar to that of organisms found in soil and leaf litter. Materials, methods, and results are discussed and extensive tables of fauna lists, wet/dry masses, and statistical analyses are presented. (Author/DH)

  18. Study of Chemical and Radioactive/Ecological Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical and radioecological standartization of rivers and natural waters of several regions of Georgia (Aspindza, Akhaltsikhe, Adygheni) have been studied. It was shown that the composition of nitrates, radionuclides and heavy metals in the rivers and natural waters is within the norm. This can be explained by the fact that in the waters of Georgia the processes of self-cleaning proceed very actively. (author)

  19. Ecological study of some parasitic helminths of aquatic organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Geets, A.; P. Van Damme; Hamerlynck, O.

    2004-01-01

    Except for Monogenea, most other helminth parasites (Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda and Acanthocephala) of aquatic organisms have a rather complex life cycle, which includes one or more intermediate hosts. Studies have been carried out on the elucidation of helminth life cycles and on parasite-host relationships. Knowledge of the feeding behaviour of the host is a very useful starting-point for elucidation of the life cycles of its' parasites. Asymphylodora demeli, a trematode of two sympatric go...

  20. Ecological study of peat landforms in Canada and Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Paul H.

    1989-01-01

    Over 20 percent of the land surface of Canada and Alaska is covered by peatlands, which may be defined as any waterlogged ecosystem with a minimum thickness of 20 cm of organic matter in the soil. Past investigations have demonstrated the value of aerial photographs in identifying the major vegetation types and analyzing the biotic and hydrogeologic processes that control the development of these peatlands. In the present study, LANDSAT TM imagery was used in conjunction with field studies to determine the utility of this satellite sensor for detecting these important processes. Although the vegetation landforms within these major peat basins are visible on aerial photographs, LANDSAT TM imagery provides essential new evidence for their analysis. Spectral data from the LANDSAT TM system provides: (1) synoptic views of the patterns across large portions of these peat basins, indicating important physiographic controls on peatland development, (2) more sensitive detection of the major vegetation types, allowing rapid quantitative estimates to be made of their distribution and aerial extent, (3) discrimination of bog areas with potentially rapid or slow rates of peat accumulation, (4) identification of discharge zones for groundwater, which apparently represents the most important source of alkalinity in these peat basins, and (5) detection of flow patterns in water tracks that appear nearly uniform on standard aerial photographs.

  1. Simulation of Regionally Ecological Land Based on a Cellular Automation Model: A Case Study of Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiubin Li; Chih-Chun Kung; Yanting Zhang; Hualin Xie

    2012-01-01

    Ecological land is like the “liver” of a city and is very useful to public health. Ecological land change is a spatially dynamic non-linear process under the interaction between natural and anthropogenic factors at different scales. In this study, by setting up natural development scenario, object orientation scenario and ecosystem priority scenario, a Cellular Automation (CA) model has been established to simulate the evolution pattern of ecological land in Beijing in the year 2020. Under th...

  2. Ecological studies in the middle reach of Chesapeake Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passage of estuarine water and phytoplankton through the cooling system of the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plant in the summer months of 1977-1981 resulted in frequent reductions of phytoplankton densities particularly during periods when flagellated taxa dominated total cell numbers. Entrainment-induced reductions in chlorophyll were observed on only four occasions, however. Phytoplankton productivity as oxygen evolution or 14C-uptake was even more susceptible to the effects of passing through the cooling system. Inhibition of productivitiy was observed during periods dominated by flagellated cells and generally occurred with ambient water temperature ? 250C. Results from track autoradiography employed in 1981 indicated that carbon fixation in the commonly observed flagellate Cryptomonas acuta was significantly depressed during July, August and September. In contrast, the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum and the diatoms Cyclotella caspia and Thalassionema nitzschioides were not affected by entrainment. Although entrainment affects Cryptomonas and flagellate-dominated assemblages in the summer there are no detectable effects of power plant operations on cell densities or productivity in flagellate-dominated waters in the vicinity of the power plant. Transitory exposure of estuarine zooplankton to the elevated temperatures of CCNPP entrainment and discharge plumes was generally non-lethal. In the species selected for study the survival rate after entrainment was 65 to 100%. The effects of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen levels upon entrained organisms were also analyzed. (orig.)

  3. Effects of ionizing radiations on reticulated polymers associated to nuclear wastes. The HSF-SIMS technique contribution; Effets des radiations ionisantes sur les polymeres reticules associes aux dechets nucleaires. Apport de la technique HSF-SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debre, O. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire

    1997-06-30

    Among the materials used for confinement of nuclear wastes of low and medium level activity the epoxyde resins are known as matrices which preserve well their properties in an ionizing environment. This work is dedicated to the investigation of the modifications occurring in molecular structure of these materials as well as of the ion exchange resins they incorporate, irradiated in different conditions. The first part deals with the analysis of a commercial reticulated epoxyde resin submitted to a 2 MGy integral dose gamma irradiation under two different dose rate (51 and 900 Gy/h), and under two different environments (air and water). The results obtained with the techniques providing structure information (time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HSF-SIMS) and FT-IR spectrometry) confirm those obtained by techniques sensible to macroscopic properties of material (DMA, DSC), taking into account that no noticeable irradiation effect can be made evident inside the material. On the other hand, an irradiation carried out in air results in a superficial oxidation, due probably to the action of the air radiolysis products. The preliminary results of an ion irradiation followed by an in-situ HSF-SIMS analysis pointed out to a basic difference between the energy amount transferred by gamma photons and fast ions; the last ones being able to induce scissions of the nearby liaisons in the material. The second part of this work is concerned with the ion exchange resins of the type PS-DVB saturated in water and non-active ions, simulating real wastes, irradiated in the same conditions as the epoxyde resins. In contrast to the results on the last one, it appears that the irradiation of these materials results primarily in scissions of the functional groups on which the ions are attached. In addition to this finding it appears that the role of water as carrying outward the attached ions appears to be fundamental 175 refs.

  4. Studying the complexity of change: toward an analytical framework for understanding deliberate social-ecological transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele-Lee Moore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Faced with numerous seemingly intractable social and environmental challenges, many scholars and practitioners are increasingly interested in understanding how to actively engage and transform the existing systems holding such problems in place. Although a variety of analytical models have emerged in recent years, most emphasize either the social or ecological elements of such transformations rather than their coupled nature. To address this, first we have presented a definition of the core elements of a social-ecological system (SES that could potentially be altered in a transformation. Second, we drew on insights about transformation from three branches of literature focused on radical change, i.e., social movements, socio-technical transitions, and social innovation, and gave consideration to the similarities and differences with the current studies by resilience scholars. Drawing on these findings, we have proposed a framework that outlines the process and phases of transformative change in an SES. Future research will be able to utilize the framework as a tool for analyzing the alteration of social-ecological feedbacks, identifying critical barriers and leverage points and assessing the outcome of social-ecological transformations.

  5. Theories of practice - new inspiration for ecological economic studies on consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics behind ever-increasing consumption have long been a core issue of ecological economics. Studies on this topic have traditionally drawn not only on insights from economics, but also from such disciplines as sociology, anthropology and psychology. In recent years, a practice theory approach has emerged in sociological consumption studies, as part of a general wave of renewed interest in practice theory emanating from a desire to move beyond such dominant dualisms as the structure-acto...

  6. An Ecological Approach to Prospective and Retrospective Timing of Long Durations: A Study Involving Gamers

    OpenAIRE

    Tobin, Simon; Bisson, Nicolas; Grondin, Simon

    2010-01-01

    To date, most studies comparing prospective and retrospective timing have failed to use long durations and tasks with a certain degree of ecological validity. The present study assessed the effect of the timing paradigm on playing video games in a “naturalistic environment” (gaming centers). In addition, as it involved gamers, it provided an opportunity to examine the effect of gaming profile on time estimation. A total of 116 participants were asked to estimate prospectively or retrospective...

  7. Spatial variation in lake benthic macroinvertebrate ecological assessment: a synthesis of European case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandin, Leif Leonard; Solimini, Angelo G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes eight case studies that were analysed as part of the research theme ``lake benthic macroinvertebrates'' forming part of the EU-funded WISER project ``Water bodies in Europe: Integrative Systems to assess Ecological status and Recovery''. The relationships between lake benthic macroinvertebrate community composition and natural and human induced environmental variables (eutrophication, catchment land-use, and hydromorphological pressures) were studied. This was done in diffe...

  8. Theories of practice - new inspiration for ecological economic studies on consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RØpke, Inge

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics behind ever-increasing consumption have long been a core issue of ecological economics. Studies on this topic have traditionally drawn not only on insights from economics, but also from such disciplines as sociology, anthropology and psychology. In recent years, a practice theory approach has emerged in sociological consumption studies, as part of a general wave of renewed interest in practice theory emanating from a desire to move beyond such dominant dualisms as the structure-actor opposition in sociology. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the practice theory approach in relation to studies of everyday life, domestic practices and consumption, and to argue that this approach can be fruitful for ecological economics and other fields interested in the environmental aspects of consumption. The paper emphasizes the immense challenge involved in promoting sustainable consumption, and the need for collective efforts supported by research into the co-evolution of domestic practices, systems ofprovision, supply chains and production.

  9. Theories of practice - new inspiration for ecological economic studies on consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics behind ever-increasing consumption have long been a core issue of ecological economics. Studies on this topic have traditionally drawn not only on insights from economics, but also from such disciplines as sociology, anthropology and psychology. In recent years, a practice theory...... relation to studies of everyday life, domestic practices and consumption, and to argue that this approach can be fruitful for ecological economics and other fields interested in the environmental aspects of consumption. The paper emphasizes the immense challenge involved in promoting sustainable...... approach has emerged in sociological consumption studies, as part of a general wave of renewed interest in practice theory emanating from a desire to move beyond such dominant dualisms as the structure-actor opposition in sociology. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the practice theory approach in...

  10. Effects of ionizing radiations on reticulated polymers associated to nuclear wastes. The HSF-SIMS technique contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the materials used for confinement of nuclear wastes of low and medium level activity the epoxyde resins are known as matrices which preserve well their properties in an ionizing environment. This work is dedicated to the investigation of the modifications occurring in molecular structure of these materials as well as of the ion exchange resins they incorporate, irradiated in different conditions. The first part deals with the analysis of a commercial reticulated epoxyde resin submitted to a 2 MGy integral dose gamma irradiation under two different dose rate (51 and 900 Gy/h), and under two different environments (air and water). The results obtained with the techniques providing structure information (time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HSF-SIMS) and FT-IR spectrometry) confirm those obtained by techniques sensible to macroscopic properties of material (DMA, DSC), taking into account that no noticeable irradiation effect can be made evident inside the material. On the other hand, an irradiation carried out in air results in a superficial oxidation, due probably to the action of the air radiolysis products. The preliminary results of an ion irradiation followed by an in-situ HSF-SIMS analysis pointed out to a basic difference between the energy amount transferred by gamma photons and fast ions; the last ones being able to induce scissions of the nearby liaisons in the material. The second part of this work is concerned with the ion exchange resins of the type PS-DVB saturated in water and non-active ions, simulating real wastes, irradiated in the same conditions as the epoxyde resins. In contrast to the results on the last one, it appears that the irradiation of these materials results primarily in scissions of the functional groups on which the ions are attached. In addition to this finding it appears that the role of water as carrying outward the attached ions appears to be fundamental

  11. Assessing ecological land use and water demand of river systems: a case study in Luanhe River, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, D. H.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Qin, T. L.

    2012-08-01

    Economic and social development has greatly increased ecological water demand and modified land use of river systems worldwide, causing overall degradation of many of these systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks for regionalization on the eco-environmental function of river systems are formulated and applied to the Luanhe River system. Based on its eco-environmental functions, this river can be regionalized into four types of first-class functional areas: ecological preservation areas, habitat restoration areas, ecological buffer areas and development and utilization areas. Considering the overall eco-environmental functions, we assessed the ecological land use of the Luanhe River system. The total area of basic ecological land use is 876.98 km2; the restrictive ecological land use is 1745.52 km2; ecological land use of the river system returned from farmland is 284.25 km2; and that returned from construction land is 17.35 km2. The average minimum ecological flow of mainstreams in upper and middle reaches of the Luanhe River is 4.896 m3 s-1 based on the habitat method. And the recommended minimum and suitable annual ecological water demand of channels in the lower reaches are 391 million m3 and 819.5 million m3, respectively. The evaporation and seepage consumption and vegetation consumption in riparian zones of the Luanhe River system are approximately 132.6 million m3 and 145.3 million m3 per year, respectively. Our results suggest that is crucial to regulate the instream ecological water use of the Luanhe River's mainstream starting from the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system. We recommend accelerating ecological land-use planning and strengthening the regulation of ecological water use on this river system focusing on important lower reaches under the condition of competitive water demand.

  12. Role of green structure and ecological services: a case study of bahawalpur city, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cities can make broader contribution to achieve the goals of sustainable development as they are considered major consumers of resources and ecological services. Ecological services provide a range of benefits at local, regional and global levels. Terrestrial ecosystem has different components in urban environment that provides ecological services to its inhabitants. Cities not only benefit from the internal urban ecosystem but also depend upon other ecosystems beyond the city limit. Green structure is an important component in terms of making city more sustainable and habitable. Green structure in urban environment means green infrastructure that is planned and supports sustainable that is planned and supports sustainable urban development. From planning perspective, spatial structure of green space provides a basis for sustainable urban development. In sustainable perspective, green structure more than the sum of green spaces. It is considered as spatial network of open spaces, public and private gardens and parks, sports fields, allotment gardens, woodlands and recreational grounds. Therefore, it is considered as a significant part of built-up environment and major source of ecological services. To structure urban areas of sustainable development, it is necessary to develop a proportion between grey and green cities. Keeping in view, research has been conducted to investigate spatial network of green structure in planned areas of Bahawalpur City of Pakistan. This study analyzes the ecological services generated from the investigated green structures, and helped develop an approach of inter-relation between green environment and urban society. Moreover, strategies for better land-use planning in green and sustainable perspective have been proposed. (author)

  13. Exploring Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems Through Comparative Studies and Theory Development: Introduction to the Special Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann P. Kinzig

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of Ecology and Society on exploring resilience in social-ecological systems draws together insights from comparisons of 15 case studies conducted during two Resilience Alliance workshops in 2003 and 2004. As such, it represents our current understanding of resilience theory and the issues encountered in our attempts to apply it.

  14. Site study plan for ecology, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ecology Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of studies which include surveys for endangered, threatened, and candidate species; vegetation characterization, including mapping and cover typing, plant succession, wetlands description, and preexisting stresses; and wildlife community characterization, including availability and quality of habitats and descriptions of mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, and invertebrate populations. The plan for each study describes the need for the study, study design, data management and use, schedule and personnel requirements, and quality assurance. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document (SRP-RD). 83 refs., 3 tabs

  15. Managers' summary - ecological studies of the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range, 1992-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, F.J.; Schoenecker, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    Ecological Studies of the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range, 1992-1997 provides a synthesis of key findings of landscape-scale, interdisciplinary studies of the effects of wild horses and native ungulates on a rugged, mountain ecosystem. This is perhaps the most comprehensive study of a wild horse herd conducted. This was a complex study and one involving a truly interagency approach. Six agencies either provided input to research priority setting, funding, or both. The agencies included the Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, U.S. Geological Survey, Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Wyoming Game and Fish Department, and U.S. Forest Service. The major research direction and effort came from the U.S. Geological Survey and Natural Resources Ecology Lab, Colorado State University with Montana State University and the University of Kentucky also participating. Ungulate monitoring was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Bureau of Land Management, Billings Field Office and the Montana Fish and Wildlife Parks, with funding by Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area. Many other individuals and groups were involved and deserve credit. The report printing was made possible with funds from the Bureau of Land Management, Wild Horse and Burro Program, Washington Office. This report was prepared by the Information Management Project, Midcontinent Ecological Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey.

  16. Study of Evaluation Characterisitics of Ecological Infrastructure and Countermeasure in Pivot Cities of Three Gorges Reservoir Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological infrastructure is involved with ecological security and health of cities.At present there are so many studies about it. However, quantitative study is muchindetermination and imperfection. In this paper in order to ravel out this problem, the evaluation indexes system are established on the basis of air system, greenbelt system and water system from the conception and connotation of ecological infrastructure. They do not only consult inside and outside of Chinese ecological cities and garden cities but also consult with internal and international related index standard. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and the method of comprehensive index evaluation are applied to establish the evaluation model. Then it studies the quality and evolvement characteristics of ecolocal infrastructure in the case of main town of Chongqing, Yichang, Fulin, Wanzhou——the four pivot cities of Three Gorges Reservoir Region from 2002 to 2005. Finally, the paper draws a conclusion by qulitative and quantitative analysis showing that the quality of ecological infrastructure of four cities is in rise. At present, the quality of ecological infrastructure of Yichang and Fulin remains with better grade; Wanzhou and the main town of Chongqin belongs to common grade. The integrated quality conditins of ecological infrstructure of these four cities follow the sequence (from high to low : Yichang> Fulin> Wanzhou> main town of Chongqing. The quality of ecological infrastructure of four cities is known through evaluation analysis, which has provided a scientific basis for the cities Three Gorges Reseveoir Region in programming.

  17. Comparative morphological, anatomical, ecological and chemical studies on endemic Satureja parnassica subsp. sipylea from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Satil, F.; G. TÜMEN; Akçelik, A.; Baser, K.H.C.

    2002-01-01

    Satureja. parnassica Heldr.et Sart. subsp. sipylea P.H. Davis is a subspecies endemic to Turkey. The anatomical, morphological, ecological and chemical features of S. parnassica subsp. sipylea have been investigated. Plant samples were collected from different regions in Turkey. The morphological features of various organs of the plant such as leaf and flower are described in detail. In anatomical studies, transverse sections of the plant stem and leaf have been examined and supported by i...

  18. STUDY CONCERNING FOREST ECOLOGIC RECONSTRUCTIUON ON DEGRADED LAND IN RANGE OCOLUL SILVIC “VALEA CIBINULUI”, SALISTE, ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Robert BLAJ

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the stationary conditions, determine solutions to improve degraded land, assessing the cost of ecological restoration work needed in the area of improving degraded lands at Rapa - Cop?cel, estimated benefits of the project and its viability. Objectives of the paper: need to introduce in the circuit of productive forest lands within the improvement of the area "La Rapa - Cop?cel" danger zone where activation of the phenomena of degradation (erosion , landslides ) predominate...

  19. Mesocosm soil ecological risk assessment tool for GMO 2nd tier studies

    OpenAIRE

    D'Annibale, Alessandra; Maraldo, Kristine; Larsen, Thomas; Strandberg, Beate; Cortet, Jérôme; Vincze, Éva; Audisio, Paolo Aldo; Krogh, Paul Henning

    2011-01-01

    Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) of GMO is basically identical to ERA of chemical substances, when it comes to assessing specific effects of the GMO plant material on the soil ecosystem. The tiered approach always includes the option of studying more complex but still realistic ecosystem level effects in 2nd tier caged experimental systems, cf. the new GMO ERA guidance: EFSA Journal 2010; 8(11):1879. We propose to perform a trophic structure analysis, TSA, and include the trophic structure as...

  20. An ecological time-series study of heat-related mortality in three European cities

    OpenAIRE

    Russo Antonio; Rognoni Magda; Bisanti Luigi; Kovats R Sari; Hajat Shakoor; Ishigami Ai; Paldy Anna

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Europe has experienced warmer summers in the past two decades and there is a need to describe the determinants of heat-related mortality to better inform public health activities during hot weather. We investigated the effect of high temperatures on daily mortality in three cities in Europe (Budapest, London, and Milan), using a standard approach. Methods An ecological time-series study of daily mortality was conducted in three cities using Poisson generalized linear model...

  1. Sweetened Drink and Snacking Cues in Adolescents: A Study Using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Jerry L. Grenard; Stacy, Alan W.; SHIFFMAN, SAUL; Baraldi, Amanda N.; MacKinnon, David P.; Lockhart, Ginger; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Boyle, Sarah; Beleva, Yuliyana; Koprowski, Carol; Ames, Susan L.; Reynolds, Kim D

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify physical, social, and intrapersonal cues that were associated with the consumption of sweetened beverages and sweet and salty snacks among adolescents from lower SES neighborhoods. Students were recruited from high schools with a minimum level of 25% free or reduced cost lunches. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, participants (N=158) were trained to answer brief questionnaires on handheld PDA devices: (a) each time they ate or drank, (b) when p...

  2. Formalizing agro-ecological knowledge for future-oriented land use studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Hengsdijk, H.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : agro-ecological engineering, land use system, modeling, uncertainty, temporal variability, Costa Rica, West Africa.Identification and ex-ante assessment of alternative land use systems is increasingly important to develop systems that are able to fulfill multiple and possibly conflicting needs of mankind.This study contributes to the development of a formalized approach to identify and engineer future-oriented land use systems at the field level enabling the systematic exploration ...

  3. A guide to studying the socio-ecological transition in european agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    González de Molina, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows the potential of the Social Metabolism approach to study the industrialization of the agriculture. It provides information about the physical functioning of agrarian systems over time and their spatial differences. It also sheds light on how the industrialisation of agriculture occurred; in other words, how the Socio-Ecological Transition (SET) took place in agriculture. The paper begins defining the characteristic features of the Organic Agrarian Metabolism (OAM), the starti...

  4. Metabolomics and Natural-Products Strategies to Study Chemical Ecology in Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, Arthur S.; Clendinen, Chaevien S.; Ajredini, Ramadan; Beecher, Chris; Ponce, Francesca V.; Stupp, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    This review provides an overview of two complementary approaches to identify biologically active compounds for studies in chemical ecology. The first is activity-guided fractionation and the second is metabolomics, particularly focusing on a new liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry-based method called isotopic ratio outlier analysis. To illustrate examples using these approaches, we review recent experiments using Caenorhabditis elegans and related free-living nematodes. PMID:26141866

  5. Identifying Distinct Quitting Trajectories after an Unassisted Smoking Cessation Attempt: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Monica S.; Znoj, Hansjörg; Brodbeck, Jeannette

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed at identifying distinct quitting trajectories over 29 days after an unassisted smoking ces- sation attempt by ecological momentary assessment (EMA). In order to validate these trajectories we tested if they predict smoking frequency up to six months later. Methods: EMA via mobile phones was used to collect real time data on smoking (yes/no) after an unassisted quit attempt over 29 days. Smoking frequency one, three and six months after the quit attempt was assesse...

  6. Eye-Size Variability in Deep-Sea Lanternfishes (Myctophidae): An Ecological and Phylogenetic Study

    OpenAIRE

    de Busserolles, Fanny; Fitzpatrick, John L.; Paxton, John R.; Marshall, N Justin; Collin, Shaun P

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common visual adaptations seen in the mesopelagic zone (200–1000 m), where the amount of light diminishes exponentially with depth and where bioluminescent organisms predominate, is the enlargement of the eye and pupil area. However, it remains unclear how eye size is influenced by depth, other environmental conditions and phylogeny. In this study, we determine the factors influencing variability in eye size and assess whether this variability is explained by ecological differ...

  7. Molecular Studies on the Ecology of Listeria monocytogenes in the Smoked Fish Processing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, Dawn M.; McCamey, Meghan A.; Gall, Kenneth L.; Scarlett, Janet M.; Boor, Kathryn J.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2001-01-01

    We have applied molecular approaches, including PCR-based detection strategies and DNA fingerprinting methods, to study the ecology of Listeria monocytogenes in food processing environments. A total of 531 samples, including raw fish, fish during the cold-smoking process, finished product, and environmental samples, were collected from three smoked fish processing facilities during five visits to each facility. A total of 95 (17.9%) of the samples tested positive for L. monocytogenes using a ...

  8. Daily Emotional Dynamics in Depressed Youth: A Cell-Phone Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Jennifer S; Erika E. Forbes; Whalen, Diana J.; Jakubcak, Jennifer L.; Thompson, Wesley K.; RYAN, NEAL D.; Axelson, David A; Birmaher, Boris; DAHL, RONALD E.

    2010-01-01

    This study utilized a new cellular phone ecological momentary assessment approach to investigate daily emotional dynamics in 47 youth with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 32 no psychopathology controls (CON), ages 7 – 17. Information about emotional experience in the natural environment was obtained using answer-only cellular phones while MDD youth received an 8 week course of cognitive behavioral therapy and/or psychopharmacological treatment. Compared to CON youth, MDD youth reported mo...

  9. Studies on the sandfly fauna of Samuel Ecological Station, Porto Velho Municipality, Rondônia State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo C. R. de Azevedo; Sérgio L. Bessa Luz; Maurício L Vilela; Rangel, Elizabeth F.

    1993-01-01

    In a study of sandfly species in the Samuel Ecological Station, in Porto Velho, Rondônia State, the following species were identified: Lutzomyia brasiliensis, L. evangelistai, L. gomezi, L. anduzei, L. flaviscutellata, L. richardwardi, L. shawi, L. umbratilis, L. yuilli yuilli, L. dendrophyla, L. puctigeniculata, L. shannoni, L. amazonensis, L. ayrozai, L. carrerai carrerai, L. claustrei, L. davisi and L. lainsoni. L. richardwardi, L. umbratilis and L. c. carrerai were the predominant species...

  10. Ecological studies on the freshwater fishes of the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tropical climate of the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory has a distinctive Wet-Dry cycle resulting in seasonal flows in the creeks and rivers of its catchments. The present study, begun during August 1978, aimed at developing an ecological monitoring system that would detect changes in freshwater fish communities brought about by recent uranium mining and processing in the lowlands of the region

  11. Correlates of environmental factors and human plague: an ecological study in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Hau V; Dang, Dat T; Tran Minh, Nguyen N; Nguyen, Nguyen D.; Nguyen, Tuan V.

    2009-01-01

    Background Human plague caused by Yersinia pestis remains a public health threat in endemic countries, because the disease is associated with increased risk of mortality and severe economic and social consequences. During the past 10 years, outbreaks of plague have occasionally occurred in Vietnam's Central Highlands region. The present study sought to describe and analyse the occurrence of plague and its association with ecological factors.

  12. Diabetes mortality and environmental heavy metals in North Carolina counties: An ecological study

    OpenAIRE

    Spangler, John G.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Arsenic, beryllium, cadmium and nickel have been associated with the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in populations exposed to these elements. However, diabetes mortality has not been evaluated. This ecological study correlated airborne concentrations of these metals with diabetes mortality in North Carolina counties. Methods: County level data were extracted from the 2000 US Census, the 1999 US Environmental Protection Agency National Air Toxins Assessment, and 2001-2005 diabet...

  13. Inferential consequences of modeling rather than measuring snow accumulation in studies of animal ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Faul C.; Klaver, Robert W.; Brennan, Angela; Creel, Scott; Beckmann, Jon P.; Higgs, Megan D.; Scurlock, Brandon M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. It is increasingly common for studies of animal ecology to use model-based predictions of environmental variables as explanatory or predictor variables, even though model prediction uncertainty is typically unknown. To demonstrate the potential for misleading inferences when model predictions with error are used in place of direct measurements, we compared snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow depth as predicted by the Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS) to field measurements of SWE and snow depth. We examined locations on elk (Cervus canadensis) winter ranges in western Wyoming, because modeled data such as SNODAS output are often used for inferences on elk ecology. Overall, SNODAS predictions tended to overestimate field measurements, prediction uncertainty was high, and the difference between SNODAS predictions and field measurements was greater in snow shadows for both snow variables compared to non-snow shadow areas. We used a simple simulation of snow effects on the probability of an elk being killed by a predator to show that, if SNODAS prediction uncertainty was ignored, we might have mistakenly concluded that SWE was not an important factor in where elk were killed in predatory attacks during the winter. In this simulation, we were interested in the effects of snow at finer scales (2) than the resolution of SNODAS. If bias were to decrease when SNODAS predictions are averaged over coarser scales, SNODAS would be applicable to population-level ecology studies. In our study, however, averaging predictions over moderate to broad spatial scales (9–2200 km2) did not reduce the differences between SNODAS predictions and field measurements. This study highlights the need to carefully evaluate two issues when using model output as an explanatory variable in subsequent analysis: (1) the model’s resolution relative to the scale of the ecological question of interest and (2) the implications of prediction uncertainty on inferences when using model predictions as explanatory or predictor variables.

  14. Conservation and restoration of raised bogs : geological, hydrological and ecological studies

    OpenAIRE

    Schouten, M.G.C.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on detailed studies in Raheenmoor Bog and Clara Bog, both in County Offaly, that were performed between 1989 and 2001. Containing a wealth of information on the two sites, including regional geology, regional hydrology, bog hydrology, and vegetation ecology, with much attention to hydrochemistry, this book includes an extra chapter on `soaks', areas of mesotrophic or minerotrophic vegetation, occurring on otherwise ombrotrophic bog, which are usually associated with internal drainage ...

  15. An exploration of the socio-ecological antecedents of youth resilience : a visual study / Elaine Snyman

    OpenAIRE

    Snyman, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and understand the social-ecological resources which encouraged resilient Basotho youth in the rural areas of the Thabo Mofutsanyana district of the Free State province towards positive adjustment in the face of poverty and underdevelopment. Positive adjustment, or resilience, is the focus of the International Community-University Research Alliance (ICURA) and International Development Research Centre (IDRC) funded project, called Pathways to Resilien...

  16. Ecological stability of landscape - ecological infrastructure - ecological management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Field Workshop 'Ecological Stability of Landscape - Ecological Infrastructure - Ecological Management' was held within a State Environmental Programme financed by the Federal Committee for the Environment. The objectives of the workshop were to present Czech and Slovak approaches to the ecological stability of the landscape by means of examples of some case studies in the field, and to exchange ideas, theoretical knowledge and practical experience on implementing the concept of ecological infrastructure in landscape management. Out of 19 papers contained in the proceedings, 3 items were inputted to the INIS system. (Z.S.)

  17. An ecological study of Bithynia snails, the first intermediate host of Opisthorchis viverrini in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Chen; Ho, Richard Cheng Yong; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Namsanor, Jutamas; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

    2015-01-01

    Infection with the food-borne trematodiasis, liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, is a major public health concern in Southeast Asia. While epidemiology and parasitic incidence in humans are well studied, ecological information on the O. viverrini intermediate hosts remains limited. This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the distribution and abundance of the first intermediate host, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos snails. Water quality and snails were sampled in 31 sites in Muang District, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand from June 2012 to January 2013 to characterize the B.s. goniomphalos snail habitats. Species relative abundance and Shannon's diversity and evenness indices were employed to describe snail compositions and diversities across different habitat types. Statistical analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which the water quality variables and species interactions account for the relative abundance of B.s. goniomphalos snails. The results showed that the freshwater habitats of ponds, streams and rice paddies possessed significantly different abiotic water qualities, with water temperature and pH showing distinct statistical differences (PFilopaludina martensi martensi snails (r=-0.46, P<0.05), underscoring the possible influence of species interaction on B.s. goniomphalos snail population. Field work observations revealed that rice planting seasons and irrigation could regulate snail population dynamics at rice paddy habitats. This study provides new ecological insights into the factors affecting Bithynia snail distribution and abundance. It bridges the knowledge gap in O. viverrini disease ecology and highlights the potential effect of anthropogenic irrigation practices on B.s. goniomphalos snail ecology. PMID:24561073

  18. A Study of Optimizing Spatial Structure for Urban Under Ecological Approach:A Case of Jiulongpo District in Chongqing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIN Jie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Along with the highly speedy urbanization and the industrialization in china, the disordered land utilization has led to land overuse and ecological destruction. However, the city planning and ecosystem proect planning have grown according to rules oneself. the contradictionbetween economic growth and ecological protection is more evident than ever before. The ecological feasible space for urban development was established based on GIS methodology, combining an ecological function regionalization approach and a economic development feasibility analysis technique. Accordingly, urban spatial structure could be divided into four types, consisting of forbidden construction zone, restricted construction zone, preferential construction zone and primary construction zone. The integrated method for a case study on Jiulongpo district, Chongqing showed that the areas of these four categories of Jiulongpo accounted of 15.54%,24.14%,12.95%and 47.37% respectively. Demonstrational analysis shows that the essence of urban planning founding on ecological priority benefits to natural reconstruction and reservation; the spatial layout based on the ecology analysis safeuards the healthily and sustainable development of city ecosystem.The methodology was valuable for reducing ecological risks and environmental impacts of urban master plan, and thus was relevant for promoting the national campaign of strategic environmental assessment. The study was guide to city planning and ecological protection planning.

  19. Using Remote Sensing Techniques For Monitoring Ecological Changes In Lakes: Case Study Of Lake Naivasha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BenjaminGhansaha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to use remote sensing in studying lake ecology lies in the capability of satellite sensors to measure the spectral reflectance of constituents in water bodies. This reflectance can be used to determine the concentration of the constituents of the water column through mathematical relationships. This work identified a simple linear equation for estimating suspended matter in Lake Naivasha with reflectance in Landsat7 ETM+ image. A R² = 0.94, n = 6 for suspended matter was obtained. Archive of Landsat imagery was used to produce maps of suspended matter concentrations in the lake. The suspended matter concentrations at five different locations in the lake over 30 year’s period were then estimated. It was therefore concluded that the ecological changes Lake Naivasha is experiencing is the result of the high water abstraction and the effect of climate change.

  20. Mesocosm soil ecological risk assessment tool for GMO 2nd tier studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Annibale, Alessandra; Maraldo, Kristine; Larsen, Thomas; Strandberg, Beate; Cortet, Jérôme; Vincze, Éva; Audisio, Paolo Aldo; Krogh, Paul Henning

    Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) of GMO is basically identical to ERA of chemical substances, when it comes to assessing specific effects of the GMO plant material on the soil ecosystem. The tiered approach always includes the option of studying more complex but still realistic ecosystem level...... effects in 2nd tier caged experimental systems, cf. the new GMO ERA guidance: EFSA Journal 2010; 8(11):1879. We propose to perform a trophic structure analysis, TSA, and include the trophic structure as an ecological endpoint to gain more direct insight into the change in interactions between species, i.......e. the food-web structure, instead of relying only on the indirect evidence from population abundances. The approach was applied for effect assessment in the agro-ecosystem where we combined factors of elevated CO2, viz. global climate change, and GMO plant effects. A multi-species (Collembola, Acari and...

  1. HSF1 and NF-κB p65 participate in the process of exercise preconditioning attenuating pressure overload-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tongyi [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, No. 401 Hospital of PLA, Qingdao (China); Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Ben [Centre of Cardiovascular Surgery, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Region, Guangzhou (China); Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Yang, Fan; Cai, Chengliang; Wang, Guokun [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Han, Qingqi, E-mail: handoctor@gmail.com [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Zou, Liangjian, E-mail: zouliangjiansh@gmail.com [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-05-08

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy, often accompanied by hypertension, aortic stenosis and valvular defects, is typically associated with myocyte remodeling and cardiac dysfunction. Exercise preconditioning (EP) has been proven to enhance the tolerance of the myocardium to cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the effects of EP in pathological cardiac hypertrophy are rarely reported. 10-wk-old male Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 80) were randomly divided into four groups: sham, TAC, EP + sham and EP + TAC. Two EP groups were subjected to 4 weeks of treadmill training, and the EP + TAC and TAC groups were followed by TAC operations. The sham and EP + sham groups underwent the same operation without aortic constriction. Eight weeks after the surgery, we evaluated the effects of EP by echocardiography, morphology, and histology and observed the expressions of the associated proteins. Compared with the respective control groups, hypertrophy-related indicators were significantly increased in the TAC and EP + TAC groups (p < 0.05). However, between the TAC and EP + TAC groups, all of these changes were effectively inhibited by EP treatment (p < 0.05). Furthermore, EP treatment upregulated the expression of HSF1 and HSP70, increased the HSF1 levels in the nuclear fraction, inhibited the expression of the NF-κB p65 subunit, decreased the NF-κB p65 subunit levels in the nuclear fraction, and reduced the IL2 levels in the myocardia of rats. EP could effectively reduce the cardiac hypertrophic responses induced by TAC and may play a protective role by upregulating the expressions of HSF1 and HSP70, activating HSF1 and then inhibiting the expression of NF-κB p65 and nuclear translocation. - Highlights: • EP could effectively reduce the cardiac hypertrophic responses induced by TAC. • EP may play a protective role by upregulating the expressions of HSF1 and HSP70 and then activating HSF1. • EP may play a protective role by inhibiting the expression of NF-κB p65 and nuclear translocation.

  2. HSF1 and NF-κB p65 participate in the process of exercise preconditioning attenuating pressure overload-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy, often accompanied by hypertension, aortic stenosis and valvular defects, is typically associated with myocyte remodeling and cardiac dysfunction. Exercise preconditioning (EP) has been proven to enhance the tolerance of the myocardium to cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the effects of EP in pathological cardiac hypertrophy are rarely reported. 10-wk-old male Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 80) were randomly divided into four groups: sham, TAC, EP + sham and EP + TAC. Two EP groups were subjected to 4 weeks of treadmill training, and the EP + TAC and TAC groups were followed by TAC operations. The sham and EP + sham groups underwent the same operation without aortic constriction. Eight weeks after the surgery, we evaluated the effects of EP by echocardiography, morphology, and histology and observed the expressions of the associated proteins. Compared with the respective control groups, hypertrophy-related indicators were significantly increased in the TAC and EP + TAC groups (p < 0.05). However, between the TAC and EP + TAC groups, all of these changes were effectively inhibited by EP treatment (p < 0.05). Furthermore, EP treatment upregulated the expression of HSF1 and HSP70, increased the HSF1 levels in the nuclear fraction, inhibited the expression of the NF-κB p65 subunit, decreased the NF-κB p65 subunit levels in the nuclear fraction, and reduced the IL2 levels in the myocardia of rats. EP could effectively reduce the cardiac hypertrophic responses induced by TAC and may play a protective role by upregulating the expressions of HSF1 and HSP70, activating HSF1 and then inhibiting the expression of NF-κB p65 and nuclear translocation. - Highlights: • EP could effectively reduce the cardiac hypertrophic responses induced by TAC. • EP may play a protective role by upregulating the expressions of HSF1 and HSP70 and then activating HSF1. • EP may play a protective role by inhibiting the expression of NF-κB p65 and nuclear translocation

  3. Assessing the regional ecological security: methodology and a case study for the western Jilin Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Xue, Linfu; Wang, Xikui

    2008-10-01

    Ecological security can be investigated in both broad sense and narrow sense. Because of the wide area and regional discrepancy in influencing factors and ecological background, the investigation on regional environment hasn't been done systematically. Assessment on regional security in fragile region is important content of sustainable development. The western Jilin Province lines in the semi-arid agro-pastoral interweaving belt (APIB),within which agriculture and animal husbandry interplay or frequently alternate with each other. Study on the regional ecological security of this region offer the scientific support for protecting the regional environment and sustainability. This article set up the Pressure-State-Response model according to the interaction between human and environmental system, and assessed the ecological safety degree in the western part of Jilin Province in year 2000, using compound model and Grid method based on GIS and RS. The Ecological Security Index (ESI) was calculated by multilayer synthesis with liner weighting function method, which divided the area into the following five different conditions: highly damaged, moderately damaged, early stages of damage, relative safely, and safety, regarding change of environmental key point as the threshold value that varied under the stress of human activity. The results show that eco-environment in study area is at medial level. The early stage of damage and relative safely level occupies the largest area proportion accounting for 68.61%. Furthermore, the condition in the eastern part is better than that of the western part and the most serious degradation is found in the middle part of the study area. When talking about the ten counties in the region, highly damaged area accounts for a very small percentage. The county that has the widest area of relatively secured area is Qian'an, and that of the smallest is Da'an. The areas of highly damaged area in Tongyu, Zhenlai and Da'an have exceeded 10% and they become the region requiring urgent treatment. Regarding average security condition, sequence of the regions from the best to the worest is as follows: Qian'an, Qianguo, Zhenglai, Songyuan City, Changling, Baicheng City, Fuyu, Taonan, Da'an and Tongyu. In this study we also analysis the relationship between ESI and landuse change from 1980 to 2000 in order to find an improving method from landscape. The studying shows that decreasing of grassland is most import factor influencing the condition of the western Jilin province.

  4. Bridging the theoretical divide in Holocene landscape studies: social and ecological approaches to ancient Oaxacan landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Arthur A.; Goman, Michelle

    2012-11-01

    In this article we discuss two theoretical approaches to landscape studies in archaeology: the ecological and social/symbolic. We suggest that an integrated approach can provide a more effective means through which archaeologists and earth scientists can model the complex interplay between people and the environment. Our perspective views peoples' engagements with the landscape as simultaneously ecological and social, material and symbolic. To illustrate this synthetic approach we discuss our research from the highland and lowland regions of the Mexican state of Oaxaca using archaeological, ethnographic, ethnohistorical, paleoecological, and geomorphological data. In highland Oaxaca we examine the ways in which political and religious principles were embedded in the landscape as well as the social, symbolic, and material dimensions of anthropogenic landscape change during the Formative period. For the coastal lowlands, we discuss the social and ecological implications of the transition to sedentism and the effects of anthropogenic landscape change during the Formative period. We also examine the interplay between politics and land use during the Classic and Postclassic periods.

  5. 'Ecological embeddedness' and Its Public Health Implications: Findings From an Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Marina; Townsend, Mardie

    2015-06-01

    Western culture over the last two centuries has become significantly ecologically 'dis-embedded', with nature increasingly reduced to resources for human use. The consequence is global environmental degradation, including accelerating climate change. Much recent research supports associations between nature contact and human health and well-being, and between feelings of nature-connectedness and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours. The oft-cited Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (WHO, Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, 1986) emphasises human-environment inextricability; however public health discourse and response has not fully engaged with this recognition. This qualitative study explored the attitudes, motivations, and experiences-including formative influences-of six individuals whose behaviour was congruent with recognition of human-nature interconnectedness; such individuals may be understood as ecologically embedded. Key aspects of participants' experience, identified through grounded theory thematic analysis, were (i) connecting with nature (especially in childhood); (ii) seeing the threat and taking it personally; (iii) the nature of reality; (iv) dedicated beyond the ego-oriented self; and (v) sustaining the eco-centric self. The findings highlight the necessity for cross-sectoral advocacy at all levels of government policy development focused on recognition of human-environment connectedness, especially bridging health, planning and education policies affecting children. Only thus will both population health and ecological health on which population health depends be possible. PMID:25352183

  6. Ancient DNA from marine mammals : studying long-lived species over ecological and evolutionary timescales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Hofreiter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Marine mammals have long generation times and broad, difficult to sample distributions, which makes inferring evolutionary and demographic changes using field studies of extant populations challenging. However, molecular analyses from sub-fossil or historical materials of marine mammals such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an oppor- tunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have focused on detecting changes in genetic diversity following periods of exploitation and environmental change. To date, these studies have shown that even small sample sizes can provide useful information on historical genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also been used in investigations of changes in distribution and range of marine mammal species; we review these studies and discuss the limitations of such ‘presence only’ studies. Combining aDNA data with stable isotopes can provide further insights into changes in ecology and we review past studies and suggest future potential applications. We also discuss studies recon- structing inter- and intra-specific phylogenies from aDNA sequences and discuss how aDNA sequences could be used to estimate mutation rates. Finally, we highlight some of the problems of aDNA studies on marine mammals, such as obtaining sufficient sample sizes and calibrating for the marine reservoir effect when radiocarbon-dating such wide-ranging species.

  7. Study on the Development of Outdoor Recreation Product Considering the Ecology Aspect in Wana Wisata Curug Cilember (WWCC), Kabupaten Bogor)

    OpenAIRE

    Qurie Purnamasari; Andry Indrawan; E.K.S Harini Muntasib

    2012-01-01

    Recreation development is usually oriented toward on the mass tourism to maximise a number of tourists and rarely put the environmental aspect into consideration.  This created an effect on the sustainability of ecology.  This study’s emphasis is on figuring out an alternative of outdoor recreation product which based on the ecology aspect to support the development of outdoor recreation in the Wana Wisata Curug Cilember (WWCC). This study put the characteristic of tourist and local people i...

  8. Spatial epidemiology and spatial ecology study of worldwide drug-resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhongshang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB is a major public health problem caused by various factors. It is essential to systematically investigate the epidemiological and, in particular, the ecological factors of DR-TB for its prevention and control. Studies of the ecological factors can provide information on etiology, and assist in the effective prevention and control of disease. So it is of great significance for public health to explore the ecological factors of DR-TB, which can provide guidance for formulating regional prevention and control strategies. Methods Anti-TB drug resistance data were obtained from the World Health Organization/International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (WHO/UNION Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance, and data on ecological factors were collected to explore the ecological factors for DR-TB. Partial least square path modeling (PLS-PM, in combination with ordinary least squares (OLS regression, as well as geographically weighted regression (GWR, were used to build a global and local spatial regression model between the latent synthetic DR-TB factor ("DR-TB" and latent synthetic risk factors. Results OLS regression and PLS-PM indicated a significant globally linear spatial association between "DR-TB" and its latent synthetic risk factors. However, the GWR model showed marked spatial variability across the study regions. The "TB Epidemic", "Health Service" and "DOTS (directly-observed treatment strategy Effect" factors were all positively related to "DR-TB" in most regions of the world, while "Health Expenditure" and "Temperature" factors were negatively related in most areas of the world, and the "Humidity" factor had a negative influence on "DR-TB" in all regions of the world. Conclusions In summary, the influences of the latent synthetic risk factors on DR-TB presented spatial variability. We should formulate regional DR-TB monitoring planning and prevention and control strategies, based on the spatial characteristics of the latent synthetic risk factors and spatial variability of the local relationship between DR-TB and latent synthetic risk factors.

  9. Association Between Air Temperature and Cancer Death Rates in Florida: An Ecological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, John

    2015-01-01

    Proponents of global warming predict adverse events due to a slight warming of the planet in the last 100 years. This ecological study tests one of the possible arguments that might support the global warming theory – that it may increase cancer death rates. Thus, average daily air temperature is compared to cancer death rates at the county level in a U.S. state, while controlling for variables of smoking, race, and land elevation. The study revealed that lower cancer death rates were associa...

  10. Trajectories of legitimate peripheral participation: Ethnographic case studies of learning ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Gervase Michael Reynolds

    1999-09-01

    Current reform documents in education call for elementary and high school students to engage in "authentic" scientific practices. In the past several years a number of authors have suggested that science education research and curriculum development could benefit from insights gained by research in the social studies of science that documents and theorizes science as it is actually done. Yet, although practices of laboratory science are well understood and provide a foundation from which educational practices could be drawn, little is known about the practices of the science disciplines which deal with field research and how people are enculturated into those practices. This dissertation is constituted by a series of research papers on different (although inter-related) topics, in which I examine the enculturation into the practices of field ecology and the world-view that is associated with that enculturation. To better understand the practices of field ecology and how they develop, I conducted several projects: (i) a video ethnography of a second-year university ecology class and observations on research experiences undergraduates experience; (ii) ethnographic research with ecologists conducting field research; (iii) observations of graduate student and professional ecologists as they participated in conferences, engaged in interaction in their laboratory and social settings, and presented/discussed their findings in various settings; (iv) interviews with graduate student and professional ecologists discussing their field research experiences; (v) videotaped interviews with practicing researchers and under/graduate science and non-science students as they interpreted various ecology-related inscriptions; (vi) an analysis of the inscriptions and textual information present in the various texts (textbooks and journals) used to teach students about ecology; and, (vii) observations of elementary school students engaged in practices congruent with those of field ecologists. Collectively, these studies suggest that the way in which undergraduate students are taught about disciplines such as ecology which involve field research---generally lectures and structured laboratory research investigations---does not well prepare them to enact the practices common to research in the discipline such as designing and conducting research projects, summarizing and interpreting data in graphs, and making scientific knowledge claims. In addition, the formal texts (textbooks, lectures, and journal articles) used to enculturate students into disciplinary concerns and practices develop in students a reductionist, anthropocentric view of nature as opposed to the holisitic view which ecology ostensibly represents. Story-telling within the community was revealed as an important mechanism by which field research methods, almost unmentioned in the formal texts of the discipline, are learned and the community of ecologists established and maintained. These findings have implications for how we prepare student teachers to teach science, for merely encouraging them to take undergraduate science courses will develop attitudes about nature and approaches to teaching which are perhaps undesirable. On the basis of the study reported, I conclude that both teacher education and science curricula would be best served by engaging participants (either student teachers or public school students) in long-term research projects whose conclusions they can present and defend to peers and instructors in their education program. This would need to be coupled with a critically reflective component which encouraged these participants to examine the assumptions and implicit judgements made in the conduct of their work. By engaging in such a process students will learn about scientific practices and concepts as well as about the socially-mediated nature of scientific communities and knowledge.

  11. AFSC/NMML: Bowhead Whale Feeding Ecology Study (BOWFEST): Aerial Survey in Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, 2007-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Bowhead Whale Feeding Ecology Study (BOWFEST) was initiated in May 2007 through an Interagency Agreement between the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM)...

  12. Progress Report: Integrated Ecological Studies at Lisbon Bottom Unit, Big Muddy Fish and Wildlife Refuge, Fiscal Year 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has been carrying out integrated ecological studies at the Lisbon Bottom Unit of the Big Muddy Fish and Wildlife Refuge since 1996. This...

  13. Immunology in wild nonmodel rodents: an ecological context for studies of health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J A

    2015-05-01

    Transcriptomic methods are set to revolutionize the study of the immune system in naturally occurring nonmodel organisms. With this in mind, the present article focuses on ways in which the use of 'nonmodel' rodents (not the familiar laboratory species) can advance studies into the classical, but ever relevant, epidemiologic triad of immune defence, infectious disease and environment. For example, naturally occurring rodents are an interesting system in which to study the environmental stimuli that drive the development and homeostasis of the immune system and, by extension, to identify where these stimuli are altered in anthropogenic environments leading to the formation of immunopathological phenotypes. Measurement of immune expression may help define individual heterogeneity in infectious disease susceptibility and transmission and facilitate our understanding of infection dynamics and risk in the natural environment; furthermore, it may provide a means of surveillance that can filter individuals carrying previously unknown acute infections of potential ecological or zoonotic importance. Finally, the study of immunology in wild animals may reveal interactions within the immune system and between immunity and other organismal traits that are not observable under restricted laboratory conditions. Potentiating much of this is the possibility of combining gene expression profiles with analytical tools derived from ecology and systems biology to reverse engineer interaction networks between immune responses, other organismal traits and the environment (including symbiont exposures), revealing regulatory architecture. Such holistic studies promise to link ecology, epidemiology and immunology in natural systems in a unified approach that can illuminate important problems relevant to human health and animal welfare and production. PMID:25689683

  14. Insights into population ecology from long-term studies of red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Padilla, Jesus; Redpath, Steve M; Zeineddine, Mohammed; Mougeot, François

    2014-01-01

    Long-term studies have been the backbone of population ecology. The red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus is one species that has contributed widely to this field since the 1950s. This paper reviews the trajectory and profound impact that these studies have had. Red grouse research has combined long-term studies of marked individuals with demographic studies over wide geographical areas and replicated individual- and population-level manipulations. A main focus has been on understanding the causes of population cycles in red grouse, and in particular the relative importance of intrinsic (behaviour) and extrinsic (climate, food limitation and parasite) mechanisms. Separate studies conducted in different regions initially proposed either the nematode parasite Trichostrongylus tenuis or changes in male aggressiveness in autumn as drivers of population cycles. More recent experiments suggest that parasites are not a necessary cause for cycles and have highlighted that behavioural and parasite-mediated mechanisms are interrelated. Long-term experiments show that parasites and aggressiveness interact. Two outstanding questions remain to be tested experimentally. First, what intrinsic mechanism causes temporal variation in patterns of male aggressiveness? The current favoured mechanism is related to patterns of kin structuring although there are alternative hypotheses. Second, how do the dual, interacting mechanisms, affect population dynamics? Red grouse studies have had an important impact on the field of population ecology, in particular through highlighting: (1) the impact of parasites on populations; (2) the role of intrinsic mechanisms in cyclic dynamics and (3) the need to consider multiple, interacting mechanisms. PMID:23800249

  15. Using stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon to study seabird ecology: applications in the Mediterranean seabird community

    OpenAIRE

    Forero, Manuela G.; Hobson, Keith A.

    2003-01-01

    [EN] The application of the stable isotope technique to ecological studies is becoming increasingly widespread. In the case of seabirds, stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon have been mainly used as dietary tracers. This approach relieson the fact that food web isotopic signatures are reflected in the tissues of the consumer. In addition to the study of trophic ecology, stable isotopes have been used to track the movement of seabirds across isotopic gradients, as individuals moving between ...

  16. A Multicountry Ecological Study of Cancer Incidence Rates in 2008 with Respect to Various Risk-Modifying Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, William B.

    2013-01-01

    Observational and ecological studies are generally used to determine the presence of effect of cancer risk-modifying factors. Researchers generally agree that environmental factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, poor diet, lack of physical activity, and low serum 25-hdyroxyvitamin D levels are important cancer risk factors. This ecological study used age-adjusted incidence rates for 21 cancers for 157 countries (87 with high-quality data) in 2008 with respect to dietary supply and oth...

  17. Possibilities of the Integration of the Method of the Ecologically Oriented Independent Scientific Research in the Study Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizans, Jurijs; Vanags, Janis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse possibilities of the integration of the method of the ecologically oriented independent scientific research in the study process. In order to achieve the set aim, the following scientific research methods were used: analysis of the conceptual guidelines for the development of environmentally oriented entrepreneurship, interpretation of the experts' evaluation of the ecologically oriented management, analysis of the results of the students' ecologically oriented independent scientific research, as well as monographic and logically constructive methods. The results of the study give an opportunity to make conclusions and to develop conceptual recommendations on how to introduce future economics and business professionals with the theoretical and practical aspects of ecologically oriented management during the study process.

  18. An Ecological Flood Control System in Phoenix Island of Huzhou, China: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuowen Wang; Jun Liu; Cheng Gao

    2013-01-01

    Traditional flood control systems always have a conflict with natural ones, i.e., rivers in cities are usually straight and smooth, whereas natural ones are according to ecological mechanisms. Social and economic developments in the modern world require a new system combining ecological needs and traditional flood control system. Ecological flood control systems were put forward and defined as flood control systems with full consideration of ecological demands for sustainable development. In ...

  19. A Study on Community Participation Mode into Luoshijiang Wetland Ecological Tourism in Dali

    OpenAIRE

    Mingqiang Lu; Ning Wang

    2015-01-01

    Community participation is of great importance to the development of wetland ecological tourism. It is also a significant indicator that evaluates the sound development of ecological tourism. The research conducts an investigation into and analysis on the community participation into Luoshijiang wetland ecological tourism, based on which the paper provides the community participation mode into Luoshijiang wetland ecological tourism as well as the specific guarantee system. The research is of ...

  20. Students' exposure and career aspirations in ecology: A study using semi-structured interviews to gain knowledge of public school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Heather C.

    Ecology as a field is dominated by white males, McCarter (2003) has noted that women and minorities are underrepresented in the discipline of ecology across the United States. The contribution of this research is to assess and quantify, in a scientific manner, students' exposure, and career aspirations towards ecology; 226 student responses were coded from semi-structured interviews. The main objectives of this study, using student interviews, were the following: (1) assess the importance of exposure to ecology and ecological related topics to: gender, ethnicity, region, grades in science, grades in non-science, grade level, and interest in ecology career. (2) determine if early exposure to ecology (i.e. gained in high school) and ecological related topics is related to an increased interest of students continuing in an ecologically related field and (3) assess if high school students who have been involved in more outdoor related activities such as camping, hiking, hunting, and/or fishing, will be more likely to be interested in an ecological career. Overall, the results indicated that students interviewed for this study generally responded in a positive manner, and were generally interested in ecology. Some students were even interested in pursuing a career in ecology. The study revealed significant differences in the exposure of ecology between school locations, girls and boys, and whites and non-whites. The results of this research and avenues for future research are discussed.

  1. Ecological agriculture in South-India : an agro-economic comparison and study of transition

    OpenAIRE

    Jager, A; Van der Werf, E.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes two research programmes carried out on ecological agriculture in South-India. Experiences of twelve farmers in transition towards ecological agriculture are described and analysed. The comparative performance of seven farmer pairs, consisting of one ecological and one conventional reference farm, is analysed in relation to agronomic and economic performance

  2. Simulation of Regionally Ecological Land Based on a Cellular Automation Model: A Case Study of Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiubin Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ecological land is like the “liver” of a city and is very useful to public health. Ecological land change is a spatially dynamic non-linear process under the interaction between natural and anthropogenic factors at different scales. In this study, by setting up natural development scenario, object orientation scenario and ecosystem priority scenario, a Cellular Automation (CA model has been established to simulate the evolution pattern of ecological land in Beijing in the year 2020. Under the natural development scenario, most of ecological land will be replaced by construction land and crop land. But under the scenarios of object orientation and ecosystem priority, the ecological land area will increase, especially under the scenario of ecosystem priority. When considering the factors such as total area of ecological land, loss of key ecological land and spatial patterns of land use, the scenarios from priority to inferiority are ecosystem priority, object orientation and natural development, so future land management policies in Beijing should be focused on conversion of cropland to forest, wetland protection and prohibition of exploitation of natural protection zones, water source areas and forest parks to maintain the safety of the regional ecosystem.

  3. Ecological studies of bison in the Greater Yellowstone Area: Development and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogan, Peter J.; Mack, John A.; Brewster, Wayne G.; Olexa, Edward M.; Clark, Wendy E.

    2001-01-01

    Bison (Bison bison) of the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) are perhaps best known to the scientific community from the classic study of Meagher (1973) that reviewed their ecological status and management from the time of establishment of Yellowstone National Park in 1872 through the last National Park Service (NPS) removals of bison within the park in 1966. Since cessation of herd reductions in the park, bison numbers within Yellowstone increased (Dobson and Meagher 1996), as did range use (Meagher 1989b), including increased frequency and magnitude of movements beyond the park boundaries in winter (Meagher 1989a; Pac and Frey 1991; Cheville et al. 1998).

  4. Correlation between pesticide use in agriculture and adverse birth outcomes in Brazil: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Marília Teixeira; Braga, Cynthia; Cabral-Filho, José Eulálio; Augusto, Lia Giraldo da Silva; Figueiroa, José Natal; Souza, Ariani Impieri

    2010-06-01

    This ecological study analyzed the association between pesticide use and prematurity, low weight and congenital abnormality at birth, infant death by congenital abnormality, and fetal death in Brazil in 2001. Simple linear regression analysis has determined a positive association between pesticide use and prematurity, low birth weight, and congenital abnormality. The association between pesticide use and low birth weight (p = 0.045) and, congenital abnormality (p = 0.004) and infant death rate by congenital abnormality (p = 0.039) remained after the adjustment made by the proportion of pregnant women with a low number of prenatal care visits. PMID:20473603

  5. STUDIES CONCERNING THE ECOLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF SOIL IN ORDER TO ENSURE A SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIANA RADULESCU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aim to determine the effectiveness of the proposed ecological reconstruction method by using the perennial grasses (e.g. Festuca rubra, Poa Pratensis, Lolium perenne, and Medicago sativa and dolomite (DEL-CA-MAG as a soil amendment for a degraded soil (i.e. Valea Voievozilor area, Dambovita County, Romania, in order to improvements the quality indicators of analyzed soil. The physicochemical indicators of soil (e.g. pH, conductivity, salinity, TDS, redox potential, turbidity, humidity, carbonate, nitrate and nitrite concentration were determined.

  6. Administrative Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  7. . Ecological conceptual models: a framework and case study on ecosystem management for South Florida sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, J.H.; Harwell, M.A.; Cropper, W., Jr.; Harwell, C. C.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Davis, S.; Ogden, J.C.; Lirman, D.

    2001-01-01

    The Everglades and South Florida ecosystems are the focus of national and international attention because of their current degraded and threatened state. Ecological risk assessment, sustainability and ecosystem and adaptive management principles and processes are being used nationally as a decision and policy framework for a variety of types of ecological assessments. The intent of this study is to demonstrate the application of these paradigms and principles at a regional scale. The effects-directed assessment approach used in this study consists of a retrospective, eco-epidemiological phase to determine the causes for the current conditions and a prospective predictive risk-based assessment using scenario analysis to evaluate future options. Embedded in these assessment phases is a process that begins with the identification of goals and societal preferences which are used to develop an integrated suite of risk-based and policy relevant conceptual models. Conceptual models are used to illustrate the linkages among management (societal) actions, environmental stressors, and societal/ecological effects, and provide the basis for developing and testing causal hypotheses. These models, developed for a variety of landscape units and their drivers, stressors, and endpoints, are used to formulate hypotheses to explain the current conditions. They are also used as the basis for structuring management scenarios and analyses to project the temporal and spatial magnitude of risk reduction and system recovery. Within the context of recovery, the conceptual models are used in the initial development of performance criteria for those stressors that are determined to be most important in shaping the landscape, and to guide the use of numerical models used to develop quantitative performance criteria in the scenario analysis. The results will be discussed within an ecosystem and adaptive management framework that provides the foundation for decision making.

  8. Detecting the ecological effects of environmental impacts: A case study of kelp forest invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeter, S.C.; Dixon, J.D. (Ecometrics, Carlsbad, CA (United States) Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Kastendiek, J. (James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States) Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Smith, R.O. (Science Explorations, Carlsbad, CA (United States) Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Bence, J.R. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States))

    1993-05-01

    Detecting the environmental impacts of human activities on natural communities is a central problem in applied ecology. One must separate human perturbations, usually unique events, from considerable natural temporal variability in most populations. These problems can be successfully addressed with the Before-After/Control-Impact (BACI) sampling design, in which Impact and Control sites are sampled contemporaneously and repeatedly in periods Before and After the human perturbation. In this case, the ecological effects of the cooling water discharge from a coastal nuclear power plant in southern California was examined. The results suggest some general lessons applicable in many ecological contexts. In systems where plants and animals are long-lived and recruit sporadically, the rates of change in density are often so low that sampling more than a few times per year will introduce serial correlations in the data. As a result, for studies of few years duration, few samples will be taken. A small sample size means that the tests of the underlying assumptions underlying, e.g., independence and additivity, will have low power. This injects uncertainty into the conclusions. Small sample size also means detecting any but very large effects will be low. In our study, sampling periods of 2-3 yr both Before and After the impact were not long enough to detect a halving or doubling of populations. We concluded that there were significant environmental impacts because: (1) the effect size was generally very large ([approx] -75%); (2) there was a consistent pattern among species; (3) there were two Impact sites, and effects were larger at the site nearest the discharge; (4) the observed effects accorded with physical changes that could be linked with the source of impact; and (5) a number of alternative mechanisms, unrelated to the source of impact, were examined and rejected. 37 figs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. Good Ecological Status : Advancing the Ecology of Law

    OpenAIRE

    Josefsson, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    For a meaningful discussion of the effectiveness of ecological objectives and ecological quality standards, their terms and purposes must be examined and clarified. This study explores the terms and content of ecological quality objectives and ecological quality standards, based on the Water Framework Directive’s legal conceptualization of ‘ecological status’. This exploration is accomplished by analysing and describing the Water Framework Directive’s ‘ecological status’ aspect from a legal-e...

  10. The role of social and ecological processes in structuring animal populations: a case study from automated tracking of wild birds

    OpenAIRE

    Farine, Damien R.; Firth, Josh A.; Aplin, Lucy M.; Crates, Ross A.; Culina, Antica; Garroway, Colin J.; Hinde, Camilla A.; Kidd, Lindall R.; Milligan, Nicole D.; Psorakis, Ioannis; Radersma, Reinder,; Verhelst, Brecht; Voelkl, Bernhard; Sheldon, Ben C.

    2015-01-01

    Both social and ecological factors influence population process and structure, with resultant consequences for phenotypic selection on individuals. Understanding the scale and relative contribution of these two factors is thus a central aim in evolutionary ecology. In this study, we develop a framework using null models to identify the social and spatial patterns that contribute to phenotypic structure in a wild population of songbirds. We used automated technologies to track 1053 individuals...

  11. Ecological and Social Evaluation of Coastal Tourism Destination Development: A Case Study of Balekambang, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchman Hakim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is an important sector in developing countries to support economic growth, and coastal areas are famous destinations in tourism. The plan and design for Balekambang coastal area as a tourism destination in East Java, Indonesia has been formulated and published. However, it seems lack ecological and social perspectives. This study examines coral reefs structure as one of the ecological parameter and tourist perspectives as social parameter for destination development evaluation. Twenty belt-transects were established along Balekambang coastline, and then divided into three sections, the east, the centre and the west sections. Every belt-transect was 200m in length and consists of 15 plots 1 x 2m. The tourist perspectives to Balekambang were determined using questionnaire among 234 respondents. Based on the Morisita similarity index, the coral reef of east section consists of 2 zones, the centre consists of 5 zones and west section consists of 4 zones. The Shannon diversity index (H’ among zones at every location was ranged. The diversity index of the east section ranged from 2.07 to 2.72, the central section ranged from 1.32 to 4.20, and the west section ranged from 3.13 to 4.20. Zones that were close to the coastline had lowest diversity indices than zones that located far from the coastline. Mostly, tourists stated that Balekambang was interesting, but the object of tourism should be added. Respondent knew there were forest surrounding Balekambang, and it has the possibility to develop as tourism destination. These findings argue that the forest conversion to cottage area that planned by the local government in the west section should be reviewed. It seems forest in the west section should be developed as a forest park to meet tourist needs and redistribute tourist concentration in the coastline. Keywords: Ecological and social evaluation, coastal, tourism, sustainable development, East Java.

  12. Ecological relevance of biomarkers in monitoring studies of macro-invertebrates and fish in Mediterranean rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Nicole; Porte, Cinta; Fernandes, Denise; Barata, Carlos; Padrós, Francesc; Carrassón, Maite; Monroy, Mario; Cano-Rocabayera, Oriol; de Sostoa, Adolfo; Piña, Benjamín; Maceda-Veiga, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean rivers are probably one of the most singular and endangered ecosystems worldwide due to the presence of many endemic species and a long history of anthropogenic impacts. Besides a conservation value per se, biodiversity is related to the services that ecosystems provide to society and the ability of these to cope with stressors, including climate change. Using macro-invertebrates and fish as sentinel organisms, this overview presents a synthesis of the state of the art in the application of biomarkers (stress and enzymatic responses, endocrine disruptors, trophic tracers, energy and bile metabolites, genotoxic indicators, histopathological and behavioural alterations, and genetic and cutting edge omic markers) to determine the causes and effects of anthropogenic stressors on the biodiversity of European Mediterranean rivers. We also discuss how a careful selection of sentinel species according to their ecological traits and the food-web structure of Mediterranean rivers could increase the ecological relevance of biomarker responses. Further, we provide suggestions to better harmonise ecological realism with experimental design in biomarker studies, including statistical analyses, which may also deliver a more comprehensible message to managers and policy makers. By keeping on the safe side the health status of populations of multiple-species in a community, we advocate to increase the resilience of fluvial ecosystems to face present and forecasted stressors. In conclusion, this review provides evidence that multi-biomarker approaches detect early signs of impairment in populations, and supports their incorporation in the standardised procedures of the Water Frame Work Directive to better appraise the status of European water bodies. PMID:26148426

  13. Introduction to Ecological Landscaping: A Holistic Description and Framework to Guide the Study and Management of Urban Landscape Parcels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parwinder Grewal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Urbanized ecosystems and urban human populations are expanding around the world causing many negative environmental effects. A challenge for achieving sustainable urban social-ecological systems is understanding how urbanized landscapes can be designed and managed to minimize negative outcomes. To this end, an interdisciplinary Ecological Landscaping conference was organized to examine the interacting sociocultural and ecological causes and consequences of landscaping practices and products. This special issue of Cities and the Environment contains a diverse set of articles arising from that conference. In this introductory paper, we describe the meaning of ecological landscaping and a new conceptual framework that helps organize the topic’s complex issues. The essence of ecological landscaping is a holistic systems-thinking perspective for understanding the interrelationships among physical-ecological and sociocultural variables that give rise to the patterns and processes of biodiversity, abiotic conditions, and ecosystem processes within and among individually-managed urban landscape parcels. This perspective suggests that 1 variables not considered part of traditional landscaping and 2 the effects of landscaping within an individual parcel on variables outside of it must both be considered when making design and management decisions about a parcel. To illustrate how these points help create a more holistic, ecological approach to landscaping, a traditional ecosystem model is used to create a framework for discussing how sociocultural and physical-ecological inputs to a landscape parcel affect its characteristics and outputs. As exemplified by papers in this issue, an integrated sociocultural-ecological approach to the study of urban landscaping practices and products is needed to 1 understand why and how humans design and mange urban landscape parcels, 2 describe how the combined characteristics and outputs of many parcels give rise to the emergent ecosystem properties of urbanized areas, and 3 develop effective educational programs that catalyze adoption of sustainable landscaping choices and practices. The paper concludes with a discussion of challenges for the future of ecological landscaping research and practice, and a list of preliminary guidelines for ecological landscaping. We hope that this special issue will increase understanding, visibility, and research about the value of an ecological approach to urban landscaping.

  14. Assessing ecological land use and water demand of river systems: a case study in Luanhe River, North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Yan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic and social development has greatly increased ecological water demand and modified land use of river systems worldwide, causing overall degradation of many of these systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks for regionalization on the eco-environmental function of river systems are formulated and applied to the Luanhe River system. Based on its eco-environmental functions, this river can be regionalized into four types of first-class functional areas: ecological preservation areas, habitat restoration areas, ecological buffer areas and development and utilization areas. Considering the overall eco-environmental functions, we assessed the ecological land use of the Luanhe River system. The total area of basic ecological land use is 876.98 km2; the restrictive ecological land use is 1745.52 km2; ecological land use of the river system returned from farmland is 284.25 km2; and that returned from construction land is 17.35 km2. The average minimum ecological flow of mainstreams in upper and middle reaches of the Luanhe River is 4.896 m3 s?1 based on the habitat method. And the recommended minimum and suitable annual ecological water demand of channels in the lower reaches are 391 million m3 and 819.5 million m3, respectively. The evaporation and seepage consumption and vegetation consumption in riparian zones of the Luanhe River system are approximately 132.6 million m3 and 145.3 million m3 per year, respectively. Our results suggest that is crucial to regulate the instream ecological water use of the Luanhe River's mainstream starting from the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system. We recommend accelerating ecological land-use planning and strengthening the regulation of ecological water use on this river system focusing on important lower reaches under the condition of competitive water demand.

  15. Attitudes, Opinions and Behavior of Managers on Application of Ecological Marketing in their Business - Testing Hypotheses - Case Study:Brasov County

    OpenAIRE

    M. Funaru

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results of a quantitative research which studies the attitudes, opinions and behavior of managers of companies in Brasov on application of ecological marketing in their business. The research method used is a sample survey based. Research objectives are considering to determine the extent to which managers know and apply ecological marketing, reasons for which the ecological marketing application is a long-term strategy, views on the opportunity to apply ecological mar...

  16. Assessment of Regional Sustainability Based on Modified Ecological Footprint: A Case Study of Suzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haizhen; Li, Aimei; Ye, Tian

    2010-11-01

    Ecological Footprint (EF) is an effective method to measure quantitatively sustainable development. However original EF analysis of sustainability at the regional scale provides easily misinterpreted information, which could not reflect truly the pressure of the regional population on the local ecosystem due to the regional import and export. A regional ecosystem could support the local population consumption entirely depending on import, while shift the ecological pressure to other regions and the local ecosystems is thus well preserved. To assess sustainability of a region exactly, two concepts of the consumptive EF and productive EF were put forward. As we acknowledged that original EF only measures human demand for biological goods and services, and does not capture other aspects of social or economic sustainability. Therefore, to assess comprehensively regional sustainability, we attempted to combine several social indicators including unit GDP (Gross Domestic Product) EF, integrated development satisfaction, comprehensive pressure index with the indicator of EF. Also the application to a municipal was discussed. The time series of EF of study area were accounted and the sustainable development status were assessed from 1993 to 2002. Based on the result of EF analysis and the realities of study area, the feasibility of amendments proposed were assessed. Results showed that the amendments proposed were reasonable and feasible, and the resized model could better evaluate the sustainability of a region.

  17. How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATEMEH BAZDID VAHDATI¹,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran. Biodiversitas 15: 31-38. Species diversity is one of the most important indices for evaluating the stability and productivity of forest ecosystems. The aim of this research was to recognize ecological species groups and to determine the relationship between environmental variables and the distribution of ecological species groups. For this purpose, 25 400-m2 relevés were sampled using the Braun-Blanquet method. Vegetation was classified using modified Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN and resulted in three ecological species groups. Different species diversity indices were applied to quantify diversity of these species groups. ANOVA and Duncan’s tests indicated that all species and environmental variables except altitude changed significantly across the species groups. The results also showed that the group located in the northern aspect and on low slopes had the highest diversity indices compared with groups located in dry aspects and on high slopes. In reality, abundant precipitation (northern aspect ( and soil enrichment (low slopes are principal factors that provide suitable conditions for plant growth and species diversity. Thus, the study of diversity changes in ecological species groups can result in an ecologically precise perspective for managing forest ecosystems.

  18. How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATEMEH BAZDID VAHDATI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bazdid Vahdati F, Saeidi Mehrvarz Sh, Naqinezhad A, Gholizadeh H. 2014. How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran. Biodiversitas 15: 29-36. Species diversity is one of the most important indices for evaluating the stability and productivity of forest ecosystems. The aim of this research was to recognize ecological species groups and to determine the relationship between environmental variables and the distribution of ecological species groups. For this purpose, 25 400-m2 relevés were sampled using the Braun-Blanquet method. Vegetation was classified using modified Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN and resulted in three ecological species groups. Different species diversity indices were applied to quantify diversity of these species groups. ANOVA and Duncan’s tests indicated that all species and environmental variables except altitude changed significantly across the species groups. The results also showed that the group located in the northern aspect and on low slopes had the highest diversity indices compared with groups located in dry aspects and on high slopes. In reality, abundant precipitation (northern aspect ( and soil enrichment (low slopes are principal factors that provide suitable conditions for plant growth and species diversity. Thus, the study of diversity changes in ecological species groups can result in an ecologically precise perspective for managing forest ecosystems.

  19. Importance of thermal ecological studies in environment management around nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In thermal power plants, only about 30% of the heat energy generated is converted to electricity. Remaining heat is released to the environment either to atmosphere or to the nearest water body. During the operation of plants, it is essential to ensure that the release of heated effluent does not lead to any harmful consequences to eco system. Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) has stipulated stringent regulation with respect to temperature of the heated effluent that can be released to the environment. All power plants under DAE are strictly following this stipulation. As a pro-active step, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) carried out a comprehensive environmental impact assessment studies at Kalpakkam (coastal) site and at Kaiga (inland) site. The studies at Kalpakkam were coordinated by Water and Steam Chemistry Laboratory, Kalpakkam and the studies at Kaiga site was coordinated by Environmental Survey Laboratory, Kaiga. In addition to temperature mapping at the mixing zone, a detailed analysis of influence of heated effluent on water quality, primary productivity, benthic eco system, bio geochemical cycle, fish composition and diversity were carried out by different specialist groups under a coordinated BRNS project. The comprehensive thermal ecological studies clearly indicated that release of heated effluents does not lead to any significant impact on the overall ecosystem of the respective water body at Kalpakkam and Kaiga sites. Data generated in these studies are very useful in the designing suitable out fall system so that ecology of the aquatic body is not disturbed. This paper presents the highlights of the importance of such studies and salient features of the studies. (author)

  20. Gambling, games of skill and human ecology: a pilot study by a multidimensional analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Luca; Giuliani, Alessandro; Gizzi, Alessio; Tartaglia, Francesco; Tambone, Vittoradolfo

    2015-01-01

    The present pilot study aims at analyzing the human activity of playing in the light of an indicator of human ecology (HE). We highlighted the four essential anthropological dimensions (FEAD), starting from the analysis of questionnaires administered to actual gamers. The coherence between theoretical construct and observational data is a remarkable proof-of-concept of the possibility of establishing an experimentally motivated link between a philosophical construct (coming from Huizinga's Homo ludens definition) and actual gamers' motivation pattern. The starting hypothesis is that the activity of playing becomes ecological (and thus not harmful) when it achieves the harmony between the FEAD, thus realizing HE; conversely, it becomes at risk of creating some form of addiction, when destroying FEAD balance. We analyzed the data by means of variable clustering (oblique principal components) so to experimentally verify the existence of the hypothesized dimensions. The subsequent projection of statistical units (gamers) on the orthogonal space spanned by principal components allowed us to generate a meaningful, albeit preliminary, clusterization of gamer profiles. PMID:26783225

  1. Assessing Ecological Water Quality with Macroinvertebrates and Fish: A Case Study from a Small Mediterranean River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheimonopoulou, Maria Th.; Bobori, Dimitra C.; Theocharopoulos, Ioannis; Lazaridou, Maria

    2011-02-01

    Biological elements, such as benthic macroinvertebrates and fish, have been used in assessing the ecological quality of rivers according to the requirements of the Water Framework Directive. However, the concurrent use of multiple organism groups provides a broader perspective for such evaluations, since each biological element may respond differently to certain environmental variables. In the present study, we assessed the ecological quality of a Greek river (RM4 type), during autumn 2003 and spring 2004 at 10 sites, with benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. Hydromorphological and physicochemical parameters, habitat structure, and riparian vegetation were also considered. Pollution sensitive macroinvertebrate taxa were more abundant at headwaters, which had good/excellent water quality according to the Hellenic Evaluation System (HES). The main river reaches possessed moderate water quality, while downstream sites were mainly characterised as having bad or poor water quality, dominated by pollution-tolerant macroinvertebrate taxa. Macroinvertebrates related strongly to local stressors as chemical degradation (ordination analysis CCA) and riparian quality impairment (bivariate analysis) while fish did not. Fish were absent from the severely impacted lower river reaches. Furthermore, external pathological signs were observed in fish caught at certain sites. A combined use of both macroinvertebrates and fish in biomonitoring programs is proposed for providing a safer assessment of local and regional habitat impairment.

  2. Incorporating methane into ecological footprint analysis. A case study of Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) accounting is important to global ecological footprint analysis. However methane (CH4), with a global warming potential (GWP) 25 times that of CO2, should not be neglected as an environmental indicator for informed environmental management. While this is a significant component, the CH4 associated with imported embodied energy should also be included in national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories. This study proposes an initial method for incorporating methane into ecological footprint analyses and hopes to inform future debate on its inclusion. In order to account for differences in methane intensities from exporting countries, methane intensities for OECD countries were calculated using emission and energy consumption estimates taken directly from National Inventory Reports (NIR), published in conjunction with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). For other countries the methane intensities were estimated using energy balances published by the International Energy Association (IEA) and IPCC default emission factors. In order to estimate embodied organic methane, material imports and exports were translated into units (such as live animals) capable of conversion into methane emissions. A significant increase in Ireland's footprint results from the inclusion of the GWP of methane is included within the footprint calculation. (author)

  3. Mesocosm soil ecological risk assessment tool for GMO 2nd tier studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Annibale, Alessandra; Maraldo, Kristine

    Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) of GMO is basically identical to ERA of chemical substances, when it comes to assessing specific effects of the GMO plant material on the soil ecosystem. The tiered approach always includes the option of studying more complex but still realistic ecosystem level effects in 2nd tier caged experimental systems, cf. the new GMO ERA guidance: EFSA Journal 2010; 8(11):1879. We propose to perform a trophic structure analysis, TSA, and include the trophic structure as an ecological endpoint to gain more direct insight into the change in interactions between species, i.e. the food-web structure, instead of relying only on the indirect evidence from population abundances. The approach was applied for effect assessment in the agro-ecosystem where we combined factors of elevated CO2, viz. global climate change, and GMO plant effects. A multi-species (Collembola, Acari and Enchytraeidae) mesocosm factorial experiment was set up in a greenhouse at ambient CO2 and 450 ppm CO2 with a GM barley variety and conventional varieties. The GM barley differed concerning the composition of amino acids in the grain (antisense C-hordein line). The fungicide carbendazim acted as a positive control. After 5 and 11 weeks, data on populations, plants and soil organic matter decomposition were evaluated. Natural abundances of stable isotopes, 13C and 15N, of animals, soil, plants and added organic matter (crushed maize leaves) were used to describe the soil food web structure.

  4. Gambling, games of skill and human ecology: a pilot study by a multidimensional analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Valera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present pilot study aims at analyzing the human activity of playing in the light of an indicator of human ecology (HE. We highlighted the four essential anthropological dimensions (FEAD, starting from the analysis of questionnaires administered to actual gamers. The coherence between theoretical construct and observational data is a remarkable proof-of-concept of the possibility of establishing an experimentally motivated link between a philosophical construct (coming from Huizinga's Homo ludens definition and actual gamers' motivation pattern. The starting hypothesis is that the activity of playing becomes ecological (and thus not harmful when it achieves the harmony between the FEAD, thus realizing HE; conversely, it becomes at risk of creating some form of addiction, when destroying FEAD balance. We analyzed the data by means of variable clustering (oblique principal components so to experimentally verify the existence of the hypothesized dimensions. The subsequent projection of statistical units (gamers on the orthogonal space spanned by principal components allowed us to generate a meaningful, albeit preliminary, clusterization of gamer profiles.

  5. Ecological Study on Vegetation of Abu Tartur Plateau, the New Valley, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Abu Ziada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the ecology of the vegetation inhabiting Abu Tartur plateau, a part of the rainless region extending between Kharga and Dakhla oases in Western desert of Egypt including recognition of the plant communities. There were six community types dominated by: Astragalus vogelii, Bassia muricata, Morettia philaeana, Alhagi graecorum, Farsetia aegyptia and Schouwia purpurea. For each community the vegetation analysis and habitat conditions are given. A total 56 plant species belonging to 23 families were identified from the six communities. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae were the predominant families. The majority of the species were of Irano-Turanian (24%, Saharo-Sidian (19% and Saharo-Arabian (17% distribution. Therophytes and chamaephytes had the highest contribution to the life forms spectra. Soil moisture is the main environmental factor governing the pattern of plant growth. It is affected by depth of underground water, depth of surface deposits and soil texture. These findings may lead to a better understanding of the vegetation of the different habitats found in Abu Tartur area which was not described before in other ecological work.

  6. Species delimitation in fungal endophyte diversity studies and its implications in ecological and biogeographic inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazis, Romina; Rehner, Stephen; Chaverri, Priscila

    2011-07-01

    The estimation of species diversity in fungal endophyte communities is based either on species counts or on the assignment of operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Consequently, the application of different species recognition criteria affects not only diversity estimates but also the ecological hypotheses that arise from those observations. The main objective of the study was to examine how the choice and number of genetic markers and species delimitation criteria influence biodiversity estimates. Here, we compare approaches to defining species boundaries in three dominant species complexes of tropical endophytes, specially Colletotrichum gloeosporioides agg., Pestalotiopsis microspora agg. and Trichoderma harzianum agg., from two Amazonian trees: Hevea brasiliensis and H. guianensis. Molecular tools were used to describe and compare the diversity of the different assemblages. Multilocus phylogenetic analyses [gpd, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and tef1] and modern techniques for phylogenetic species delimitation were overlaid with ecological data to recognize putative species or OTUs. The results demonstrate that ITS alone generally underestimates the number of species predicted by other nuclear loci. These results question the use of ITS and arbitrary divergence thresholds for species delimitation. PMID:21557783

  7. The integration of GPS, vegetation mapping and GIS in ecological and behavioural studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Mark Rutter

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Global Positioning System (GPS satellite navigation receivers are increasingly being used in ecological and behavioural studies to track the movements of animals in relation to the environments in which they live and forage. Concurrent recording of the animal's foraging behaviour (e.g. from jaw movement recording allows foraging locations to be determined. By combining the animal GPS movement and foraging data with habitat and vegetation maps using a Geographical Information System (GIS it is possible to relate animal movement and foraging location to landscape and habitat features and vegetation types. This powerful approach is opening up new opportunities to study the spatial aspects of animal behaviour, especially foraging behaviour, with far greater precision and objectivity than before. Advances in GPS technology now mean that sub-metre precision systems can be used to track animals, extending the range of application of this technology from landscape and habitat scale to paddock and patch scale studies. As well as allowing ecological hypotheses to be empirically tested at the patch scale, the improvements in precision are also leading to the approach being increasing extended from large scale ecological studies to smaller (paddock scale agricultural studies. The use of sub-metre systems brings both new scientific opportunities and new technological challenges. For example, fitting all of the animals in a group with sub-metre precision GPS receivers allows their relative inter-individual distances to be precisely calculated, and their relative orientations can be derived from data from a digital compass fitted to each receiver. These data, analyzed using GIS, could give new insights into the social behaviour of animals. However, the improvements in precision with which the animals are being tracked also needs equivalent improvements in the precision with which habitat and vegetation are mapped. This needs some degree of automation, as vegetation mapping at a fine spatial scale using the traditional manual approach is far too time consuming. This paper explores these issues, discussing new applications as well as approaches to overcoming some of the associated problems.

  8. The integration of GPS, vegetation mapping and GIS in ecological and behavioural studies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Steven Mark, Rutter.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite navigation receivers are increasingly being used in ecological and behavioural studies to track the movements of animals in relation to the environments in which they live and forage. Concurrent recording of the animal's foraging behaviour (e.g. from jaw mov [...] ement recording) allows foraging locations to be determined. By combining the animal GPS movement and foraging data with habitat and vegetation maps using a Geographical Information System (GIS) it is possible to relate animal movement and foraging location to landscape and habitat features and vegetation types. This powerful approach is opening up new opportunities to study the spatial aspects of animal behaviour, especially foraging behaviour, with far greater precision and objectivity than before. Advances in GPS technology now mean that sub-metre precision systems can be used to track animals, extending the range of application of this technology from landscape and habitat scale to paddock and patch scale studies. As well as allowing ecological hypotheses to be empirically tested at the patch scale, the improvements in precision are also leading to the approach being increasing extended from large scale ecological studies to smaller (paddock) scale agricultural studies. The use of sub-metre systems brings both new scientific opportunities and new technological challenges. For example, fitting all of the animals in a group with sub-metre precision GPS receivers allows their relative inter-individual distances to be precisely calculated, and their relative orientations can be derived from data from a digital compass fitted to each receiver. These data, analyzed using GIS, could give new insights into the social behaviour of animals. However, the improvements in precision with which the animals are being tracked also needs equivalent improvements in the precision with which habitat and vegetation are mapped. This needs some degree of automation, as vegetation mapping at a fine spatial scale using the traditional manual approach is far too time consuming. This paper explores these issues, discussing new applications as well as approaches to overcoming some of the associated problems.

  9. Biodiversity and productivity of Rana Patap Sagar lake a thermo-ecological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana Pratap Sagar (RPS) in Rajasthan, is a man made fresh water reservoir and is balancing between Gandhi Sagar on upstream and Jawahar sagar on its down stream. On its eastern bank there exists Rawatbhata Site, comprising of multi -nuclear facilities. There are four PHWR units of Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) which are in operations, two are under construction and another two are under advanced stage of planning. In addition to nuclear power plants the Site also houses a Heavy Water Plant and other allied facilities such as cobalt facility and waste management facilities. RAPS draws water from RPS lake through a 300 m long conduit pipe located at lake bottom about 20 m below the surface. Duly treated low level radioactive liquid effluents from RAPS facilities are injected to the warmed condenser outlet and then allowed to discharge to RPS in a controlled manner. The warm water is likely to remain at the surface and get mixed with lake water and cooled due to dilutions, evaporation from lake surface and wind currents. The heat release to the RPS lake through condenser outlet may effect the microbiological and water quality parameters, planktonic biodiversity, fish productivity etc. and thus it is imperative to conduct the thermal ecological study to assess the extent of maturation of the water body to identify its present trophic status in terms of eutrophication. This presentation gives the details of thermal ecological studies carried out at Rana Pratap Sagar lake during 2002-2004 under DAE-BRNS project.. The study includes monitoring of several water quality parameters, biological and bacterial parameters and data on thermal stratification in respect of RPS reservoir. The data so obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. The probabilistic and possibilistic approaches have been applied to evaluate ecological risk. The study reveals that there is no adverse effect on RPS water quality owing to receive the warmed effluents from RAPS. Furthermore, it shows that RPS water is nearly homogeneous and shows weak thermocline and chemocline patterns. Based on monitoring data, the reservoir can be assigned mild eutrophic status. (author)

  10. Giving Back: Collaborations with Others in Ecological Studies on the Nevada National Security Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott A. Wade (NFO); Kathryn S. Knapp (NFO); Cathy A. Wills (NSTec)

    2013-02-24

    Formerly named the Nevada Test Site, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) was the historical site for nuclear weapons testing from the 1950s to the early 1990s. The site was renamed in 2010 to reflect the diversity of nuclear, energy, and homeland security activities now conducted at the site. Biological and ecological programs and research have been conducted on the site for decades to address the impacts of radiation and to take advantage of the relatively undisturbed and isolated lands for gathering basic information on the occurrence and distribution of native plants and animals. Currently, the Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) oversees the radiological biota monitoring and ecological compliance programs on the NNSS. The top priority of these programs are compliance with federal and state regulations. They focus on performing radiological dose assessments for the public who reside near the NNSS and for populations of plants and animals on the NNSS and in protecting important species and habitat from direct impacts of mission activities. The NNSS serves as an invaluable outdoor laboratory. The geographic and ecological diversity of the site offers researchers many opportunities to study human influences on ecosystems. NNSA/NSO has pursued collaborations with outside agencies and organizations to be able to conduct programs and studies that enhance radiological biota monitoring and ecosystem preservation when budgets are restrictive, as well as to provide valuable scientific information to the human health and natural resource communities at large. NNSA/NSO is using one current collaborative study to better assess the potential dose to the off-site public from the ingestion of game animals, the most realistic pathway for off-site public exposure at this time from radionuclide contamination on the NNSS. A second collaborative study is furthering desert tortoise conservation measures onsite. It is the goal of NNSA/NSO to continue to develop such collaborations in the sharing of resources, such as personnel, equipment, expertise, and NNSS land access, with outside entities to meet mutually beneficial goals cost effectively.

  11. Giving Back: Collaborations with Others in Ecological Studies on the Nevada National Security Site - 13058

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formerly named the Nevada Test Site, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) was the historical site for nuclear weapons testing from the 1950's to the early 1990's. The site was renamed in 2010 to reflect the diversity of nuclear, energy, and homeland security activities now conducted at the site. Biological and ecological programs and research have been conducted on the site for decades to address the impacts of radiation and to take advantage of the relatively undisturbed and isolated lands for gathering basic information on the occurrence and distribution of native plants and animals. Currently, the Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) oversees the radiological biota monitoring and ecological compliance programs on the NNSS. The top priority of these programs are compliance with federal and state regulations. They focus on performing radiological dose assessments for the public who reside near the NNSS and for populations of plants and animals on the NNSS and in protecting important species and habitat from direct impacts of mission activities. The NNSS serves as an invaluable outdoor laboratory. The geographic and ecological diversity of the site offers researchers many opportunities to study human influences on ecosystems. NNSA/NSO has pursued collaborations with outside agencies and organizations to be able to conduct programs and studies that enhance radiological biota monitoring and ecosystem preservation when budgets are restrictive, as well as to provide valuable scientific information to the human health and natural resource communities at large. NNSA/NSO is using one current collaborative study to better assess the potential dose to the off-site public from the ingestion of game animals, the most realistic pathway for off-site public exposure at this time from radionuclide contamination on the NNSS. A second collaborative study is furthering desert tortoise conservation measures onsite. It is the goal of NNSA/NSO to continue to develop such collaborations in the sharing of resources, such as personnel, equipment, expertise, and NNSS land access, with outside entities to meet mutually beneficial goals cost effectively. (authors)

  12. Studies on Feeding Ecology of Sailfin Molly (Poecilia latipinna Dwelling in Wadi Haneefah Stream, Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hmoud Fares Alkahem

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding ecology of sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna, an introduced fish species, was studied. Food items recovered from the stomach of fishes exclusively indicated that it is a herbivorous fish. And according to data obtained there is not much difference in the type of food consumed by the fishes of different size groups. Frequency of occurrence of different food items in the diet of fishes of various sizes was high. The value of vacuity index also showed variation throughout the study period. The diet overlap index was high which shows the sharing of food items among the fishes of different size groups. The diet breadth index also showed variations among the fishes of various sizes and in different seasons.

  13. Distribution of Brazilian dermatologists according to geographic location, population and HDI of municipalities: an ecological study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliano Vilaverde, Schmitt; Hélio Amante, Miot.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the geographic distribution of dermatologists in Brazilian municipalities in relation to the population, regions of the country and human development index. We conducted an ecological study based on data from the 2010 census, the 2010 human development index, and the records [...] of the Brazilian Society of Dermatology. 5565 municipalities and 6718 dermatologists were surveyed. Only 504 (9.1%) municipalities had dermatologists, and accounted for 56.2% of the Brazilian population. The smallest population size and lowest HDI rate that best discriminated municipalities that did not have dermatologists were found to be 28,000 and 0.71, respectively. The average population density of dermatologists in cities was 1/23.000 inhabitants, and variations were independently associated with the HDI, the population of the municipalities and the region of the country.

  14. Terrestrial ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main effort of the Terrestrial Ecology Division has been redirected to a comprehensive study of the Espiritu Santo Drainage Basin located in northeastern Puerto Rico. The general objective are to provide baseline ecological data for future environmental assessment studies at the local and regional levels, and to provide through an ecosystem approach data for the development of management alternatives for the wise utilization of energy, water, and land resources. The interrelationships among climate, vegetation, soils, and man, and their combined influence upon the hydrologic cycle will be described and evaluated. Environmental management involves planning and decision making, and both require an adequate data base. At present, little is known about the interworkings of a complete, integrated system such as a drainage basin. A literature survey of the main research areas confirmed that, although many individual ecologically oriented studies have been carried out in a tropical environment, few if any provide the data base required for environmental management. In view of rapidly changing socio-economic conditions and natural resources limitations, management urgently requires data from these systems: physical (climatological), biological, and cultural. This integrated drainage basin study has been designed to provide such data. The scope of this program covers the hydrologic cycle as it is affected by the interactions of the physical, biological, and cultural systems

  15. Long-term ecological research in the Czech Republic - case study with a 3-year project.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínková, E.; Straškrábová, Viera

    2001-01-01

    Ro?. 20, ?. 2 (2001), s. 50-56. ISSN 1335-342X. [Long-Term Ecological Research Current State and Perspectives in the Central and Eastern Europe ILTER Regional Workshop /3./. Nitra, 23.05.2000-25.05.2000] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/98/0727 Keywords : long-term ecological research * acidification * eutrophication Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.192, year: 2001

  16. Humanity, Forest Ecology, and the Future in a British Columbia Valley:A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan Martineau

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important and challenging issues facing humanity in the 21st century is the increasingly complex human-ecology interface. This article suggests the potential that integral mediation and integral ecology hold in addressing this interface. It distinguishes two categories of ecological challenges, removed and local tangible ones, and indicates that they require adapting methodologies to address them. Using a local tangible challenge—a 35-year old conflict over land use issues in ...

  17. Study on the Shortage and Reconstruction of Chinese Ecological Tax System

    OpenAIRE

    Min Niu; Liangliang He; Jie Jiang,

    2009-01-01

    Guiding by the view of science-based development, the ecological tax system which also possesses the benefits of encouragement and financing capital should be gradually established, so the material benefits can stimulate and drive that the social pollution costs are translated into production costs and market price, and the policy and law objectives to control ecological pollution and improve ecological quality can be realized. According to the requirements of sustainable development, China p...

  18. Marine ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on marine ecology included marine pollution; distribution patterns of Pu and Am in the marine waters, sediments, and organisms of Bikini Atoll and the influence of physical, chemical, and biological factors on their movements through marine biogeochemical systems; transfer and dispersion of organic pollutants from an oil refinery through coastal waters; transfer of particulate pollutants, including sediments dispersed during construction of offshore power plants; and raft culture of the mangrove oysters

  19. A novel method for identifying settings for well-motivated ecologic studies of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Andreas; Kowall, Bernd; Rusner, Carsten; Trabert, Britton; Bray, Freddie; Schüz, Joachim; McGlynn, Katherine A; Kuss, Oliver

    2016-04-15

    A low within-country variability and a large between-country variability in cancer incidence may indicate that ecologic factors are involved in the etiology of the disease. The aim of this study is to explore the within- and between-country variability of cancer incidence to motivate high-quality ecologic studies. We extracted age-standardized incidence rate estimates (world standard population) from 135 regions for the ten most frequent invasive cancers in Europe for non-Hispanic white populations from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Volume X. We fitted weighted multilevel Poisson regression models with random country effects for each cancer and sex. We estimated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). A high ICC indicates a low within- and a high between-country variability of rates. The two cancer sites with the highest ICC among men were prostate cancer (0.96, 95% CI: 0.92-0.99) and skin melanoma (0.78, 0.64-0.93). Among women, high ICCs were observed for lung cancer (0.84, 0.73-0.95) and breast cancer (0.80, 0.69-0.91). The two most prominent sex differences for ICC occurred for cancers of the head and neck (men: 0.70, 0.55-0.85, women: 0.19, 0.08-0.30) and breast cancer (men: 0.04, 0.01-0.07, women: 0.80, 0.69-0.91). ICCs were relatively low for pancreatic cancer (men: 0.23, 0.10-0.35; women: 0.13, 0.04-0.21) and leukemia (men: 0.12, 0.04-0.21; women: 0.08, 0.02-0.14). For cancers with high ICC for which systematic factors of the health care system, screening and diagnostic activities are not plausible explanations for between-country variations in incidence, cross-country sex-specific ecologic studies may be especially promising. PMID:26595447

  20. The need for an ecological approach within the study and comprehension of cognitive processes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alfredo Oscar, López Alonso; Ricardo, Minervino.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos cognitivos organizan y transforman inferencialmente la información sensorio-perceptiva del medio. La base de dichos procesos es ecológica. Se entiende como ecológica toda relación entre un organismo viviente y su medio para alcanzar los balances entre su medio interno y externo. Esas re [...] laciones permiten explicar las funciones preservadoras de la vida. La representación mental es una función preservadora de la vida. Cada especie desarrolla (como requisito de superviviencia) su propia representación holográfica del medio ambiente, pero esta representación adquiere la máxima complejidad cognitiva en la especie humana. Si un desbalance se perpetúa, lleva a la muerte del organismo y a la extinción de la especie. En esto reside la importancia del enfoque ecológico y la profundización del mismo. La explicación de los procesos cognitivos ha avanzado a través de un esquema ecológico tipo abajo/arriba, bottom-up, más que a través de esquemas formales - proposicionales de tipo teoricista arriba / abajo o top-down. Abstract in english Cognitive processes are information, meaning, structure organization and transformation processes, most of which are inferential. Then, an important question about cognitive processes is: What is their deepest basis? Where, when, how and at what level do they originate? Here, it is proposed that the [...] original and deepest basis of cognitive processes is essentially ecological and sustained on the permanent unity and relationship between the living organism and its environment. We understand as ecological the undecomposable union between a living organism and its environment, as well as every kind of immediate and stepwise relationship between them. The relationships between a living organism and its environment is held everyday and continuously in order to get its life-preserving resources and to adopt their adequate, best or most successful actions and reactions over the environment, as well as to reach its necessary internal and external balances with and within it. In these terms, the elementary perception and categorization are seen as basic cognitive processes originated in that permanent and whole ecological relationship. This way, representation systems and information processes as developed by each species are seen as basic preservation functions (life-preservation functions) in the teleonomic sense given by Pittendrigh (1958) and later used by Lorenz (1986) within his ethological approach. These arguments support the idea that any species, whatever simpler or complex it may be, whenever it is endowed of minimal sensors (elementary sensory perceptive receptors) for light (sight), odor (olfaction), sound (hearing), taste and tactile stimuli, etc., can form and must have a minimal representation of its immediate surroundings; and so that those living organisms can then count on or have at their own's disposal a minimal mental representation of the immediate and customary environment in which they live and survive along all their lifetime. Otherwise these living organisms will soon and easily die, and its species will be exposed to be extinguished soon too. So, all these argumentations are required and provided in order to analyze and explain the origin of cognitive processes within an ecological bottom-up direction. The main approaches adopted to sustain this ecological view originate in Gibson's (1979) studies on direct perception, in Rosch's (1978) approaches to natural and prototypical categorization of concept-formation, and, finally, it is also found in different attempts by Schank and Abelson (1977) and other authors to describe, for example, the formation of semantic primitives, or of schemata and scripts on alternative and ever changing areas of commonplace social experience and representations. One cue is to easily differentiate between the role and definition between defined attributes and characteristic or prototypical attributes when referring to concepts and their schemes or networks of relationships. There may be many ot

  1. Extraction of high-quality host DNA from feces and regurgitated seeds: a useful tool for vertebrate ecological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA MARRERO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA extraction methods for genotyping non-invasive samples have led to great advances in molecular research for ecological studies, and have been particularly useful for analyzing threatened species. However, scarce amounts of fragmented DNA and the presence of Taq polymerase inhibitors in non-invasive samples are potential problems for subsequent PCR amplifications. In this study we describe a novel technique for extracting DNA from alimentary tract cells found on external surfaces of feces and regurgitated seeds. The presence of contaminants and inhibitors is minimized and samples are preserved intact for use in other ecological research (e.g. trophic studies. The amplification efficiency and purity of the extracted DNA from feces were significantly higher than in commonly used extraction procedures. Moreover, DNA of two bird species was identified from seeds expelled by regurgitation. Therefore, this method may be suitable for future ecological studies of birds, and other vertebrate groups.

  2. Radio-ecological studies on the river Lippe (1982-1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1982 and 1983 the Laboratory for Radio-ecology of water bodies of the Federal Institute for Fishery performed radio-ecological studies on the river Lippe, on the Datteln-Hamm-Canal and on one section of the Rhine near the city of Wesel in order to enable expert examination of the population's exposure to radiation originating from effluents of the planned Hamm Nuclear Power Plant (HNP). The present-day distribution of artificial and natural radionuclides in water, fish, seston, sediment and in drill cores from the Lippe and the pastures lying within the flood area was examined using radio-chemical methods and the nuclear-radiation measurement technique. The contents of the stable elements of antimony, nickel, cobalt, zinc, manganese, iron, silver and phosphorus in water and fish were determined to obtain some suggestions concerning the behaviour of radionuclides which are expected in the waste water of the HNP but which cannot be found in the environment at present. Concerning uptake and incorporation of radioactive nuclides in the bodies of fish from the Lippe and the Rhine section studied, mean concentration factors could be calculated from the measured values for the state of equilibrium. One single-time emission with the cooling water of the Westfalen nuclear power plant was examined using the inactive tracer of Dysprosium in order to study the behaviour of the emission cloud when running off with the river water. With this examination, complete cross-mixing at 800 m downstream from the cooling-water re-entry building was found at a Lippe downstream flow rate of 22 cbm/s which corresponds to its annual mean. The down-stream flow graph could be described by a dispersion graph showing a marked trailing effect. The cloud-fail values which were higher compared with those of the graph, could possibly be explained by recirculation obtaining with cooling water influx. (orig.)

  3. Testing low cost OEM CO2 sensors for outdoor ecological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, C. M.; Risk, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    IR (Infrared) gas sensors are used extensively in CO2 research but price and power requirement often limits low-cost distributed sensing. In the past three years, sensors have been introduced to the industrial market at prices as low as $100 US for air-handling and automotive application. These inexpensive sensors are small in size, and have low power demand making them potentially ideal for low-cost distributed deployments. However, the sensors are only tested and calibrated for indoor use and for industrial standards and may not show their true potential for outdoor ecological studies. This poster summarizes the results of a sensor inter-comparison test, to document functionality, response time, electrical noise, precision, and accuracy, under varying moistures and temperatures broadly representative of a wide range of outdoor settings. The three selected sensors were placed in a closed loop system with a valving system using a LiCor Li-7000 as reference, controlled by a CR1000 datalogger that controlled CO2 and moisture concentrations content within the cell on the basis of LiCor readings. To achieve different temperatures, the tests were repeated at room temperature, inside a freezer (-18°C) and incubator (40°C). The tests involved repeatedly stepping the sensors from 2000 ppm CO2 to 400 ppm CO2 in 200 ppm or 400 ppm increments, at various moisture contents, and under the various temperature regimes. Vaisala 222 and 343 sensors were also part of the test group as comparators, as both are used widely in ecological research. The OEM sensors displayed good linearity, fast response time, and results comparable to Vaisala probes. In most cases the sensors performed beyond our expectations with notably less electrical noise than the Vaisala sensors and excellent power thriftiness. Some sensors showed better response to extreme moisture and temperature conditions. Provided that suitable protective embodiments were built around them, and that they are deployed in an environment suiting their tolerance limits, most of the tested sensors would be suitable as low-cost alternatives to sensors currently being sold for outdoor ecological studies.

  4. Radio-ecological studies on the air-soil-vine-wine food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report summarizes the results of the first three years (1983-85) of the radio-ecological studies on wine which were performed on eight sites from major German wine-growing regions involving red and white wine varieties typical of their region. The radionuclides of tritium, carbon 14, strontium 90, cesium 137, radium 226 and sodium 40 were examined for their contents and presence in the food chain of air-soil-vine-wine in order to determine the pollution situation in grapes and wine and to gain information on their behaviour in the food chain. A number of soil parameters important for nutrient uptake were determined to describe the site. (orig./MG)

  5. Environmental mercury release, special education rates, and autism disorder: an ecological study of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Raymond F; Blanchard, Steven; Stein, Zachary; Mandell, David; Miller, Claudia

    2006-06-01

    The association between environmentally released mercury, special education and autism rates in Texas was investigated using data from the Texas Education Department and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. A Poisson regression analysis adjusted for school district population size, economic and demographic factors was used. There was a significant increase in the rates of special education students and autism rates associated with increases in environmentally released mercury. On average, for each 1,000 lb of environmentally released mercury, there was a 43% increase in the rate of special education services and a 61% increase in the rate of autism. The association between environmentally released mercury and special education rates were fully mediated by increased autism rates. This ecological study suggests the need for further research regarding the association between environmentally released mercury and developmental disorders such as autism. These results have implications for policy planning and cost analysis. PMID:16338635

  6. Ecological consequences of biological invasions: three invertebrate case studies in the north-eastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotta, Jonne; Kotta, Ilmar; Simm, Mart; Lankov, Ain; Lauringson, Velda; Põllumäe, Arno; Ojaveer, Henn

    2006-05-01

    Population dynamics and ecological impacts of the cirriped Balanus improvisus, the polychaete Marenzelleria neglecta and the cladoceran Cercopagis pengoi were investigated in the north-eastern Baltic Sea. After an increase during the first decade of invasion, the density of M. neglecta and C. pengoi declined afterwards. The studied abiotic environmental variables did not explain the interannual variability in the seasonal cycles of M. neglecta and C. pengoi indicating that the species are at their initial phase of invasion. The population dynamics of B. improvisus was best described by water temperature. B. improvisus promoted the growth of the green alga Enteromorpha intestinalis. M. neglecta enhanced the content of sediment chlorophyll a and reduced growth and survival of the polychaete Hediste diversicolor and growth of the amphipod Monoporeia affinis. Concurrent with the invasion of C. pengoi the abundance of small-sized cladocerans declined, especially above the thermocline. C. pengoi had become an important food for nine-spined stickleback, bleak, herring and smelt.

  7. Occurrence of severe dengue in Rio de Janeiro: an ecological study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gerusa, Gibson; Reinaldo, Souza-Santos; Alexandre San, Pedro; Nildimar Alves, Honório; Marilia, Sá Carvalho.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the incidence of severe dengue during the 2008 epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and socioeconomic indicators, as well as indicators of health [...] service availability and previous circulation of the dengue virus serotype-3 (DENV-3). Methods In this ecological study, the units of analysis were the districts of Rio de Janeiro. The data were incorporated into generalized linear models, and the incidence of severe dengue in each district was the outcome variable. Results The districts with more cases of dengue fever in the 2001 epidemic and a higher percentage of residents who declared their skin color or race as black had higher incidence rates of severe dengue in the 2008 epidemic [incidence rate ratio (IRR)= 1.21; 95% confidence interval (95%CI)= 1.05-1.40 and IRR= 1.34; 95%CI= 1.16-1.54, respectively]. In contrast, the districts with Family Health Strategy (FHS) clinics were more likely to have lower incidence rates of severe dengue in the 2008 epidemic (IRR= 0.81; 95%CI= 0.70-0.93). Conclusions At the ecological level, our findings suggest the persistence of health inequalities in this region of Brazil that are possibly due to greater social vulnerability among the self-declared black population. Additionally, the protective effect of FHS clinics may be due to the ease of access to other levels of care in the health system or to a reduced vulnerability to dengue transmission that is afforded by local practices to promote health.

  8. Occurrence of severe dengue in Rio de Janeiro: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa Gibson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the incidence of severe dengue during the 2008 epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and socioeconomic indicators, as well as indicators of health service availability and previous circulation of the dengue virus serotype-3 (DENV-3. Methods In this ecological study, the units of analysis were the districts of Rio de Janeiro. The data were incorporated into generalized linear models, and the incidence of severe dengue in each district was the outcome variable. Results The districts with more cases of dengue fever in the 2001 epidemic and a higher percentage of residents who declared their skin color or race as black had higher incidence rates of severe dengue in the 2008 epidemic [incidence rate ratio (IRR= 1.21; 95% confidence interval (95%CI= 1.05-1.40 and IRR= 1.34; 95%CI= 1.16-1.54, respectively]. In contrast, the districts with Family Health Strategy (FHS clinics were more likely to have lower incidence rates of severe dengue in the 2008 epidemic (IRR= 0.81; 95%CI= 0.70-0.93. Conclusions At the ecological level, our findings suggest the persistence of health inequalities in this region of Brazil that are possibly due to greater social vulnerability among the self-declared black population. Additionally, the protective effect of FHS clinics may be due to the ease of access to other levels of care in the health system or to a reduced vulnerability to dengue transmission that is afforded by local practices to promote health.

  9. GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND ECOLOGY CASE STUDY – ?ARCU MOUNTAINS (SOUTHERN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Török – Oance

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of geographic information systems (GIS for environmental managment and resource planning has increased in recent years. Current ecological theory, in particular ecosystem theoy, is characteriyed by a new better understanding of ecosystem patterns and dynamics. This paper describes some of the basic application methods using GIS in connection with ecological factors constrained by relief in ?arcu Mountains, Southern Carpathians.

  10. Study on the Industrial Ecological Compensation in Inter-basin Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Yachen Liu

    2010-01-01

    Aiming at the inter-basin pollution of water sources, the meaning, the content, and the system of the industrial ecological compensation are proposed in this article and the corresponding inter-basin industrial ecological compensation institution is suggested to be established.

  11. Writing to Learn Ecology: A Study of Three Populations of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgopal, Meena M.; Wallace, Alison M.; Dahlberg, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Being an ecologically literate citizen involves making decisions that are based on ecological knowledge and accepting responsibility for personal actions. Using writing-to-learn activities in college science courses, we asked students to consider personal dilemmas that they or others might have in response to how human choices can impact coastal…

  12. Data Explorations in Ecology: Salt Pollution as a Case Study for Teaching Data Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Cornelia; Berkowitz, Alan R.; Alvarado, Angelita

    2012-01-01

    Does working with first- and second-hand ecological data improve students' knowledge of ecological ideas, motivation and engagement in science, data exploration, and citizenship skills (students' ability to make informed decisions)? We have been exploring this question with high school science teachers in New York State for the past year using a…

  13. Using large-scale climate indices in climate change ecology studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Mads Cedergreen; Post, Eric

    Ecological responses, El Niño 3.4, Long-term climate variability, North Atlantic Oscillation, North Pacific Oscillation, Teleconnection patterns......Ecological responses, El Niño 3.4, Long-term climate variability, North Atlantic Oscillation, North Pacific Oscillation, Teleconnection patterns...

  14. Study on the Industrial Ecological Compensation in Inter-basin Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yachen Liu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the inter-basin pollution of water sources, the meaning, the content, and the system of the industrial ecological compensation are proposed in this article and the corresponding inter-basin industrial ecological compensation institution is suggested to be established.

  15. Studies on Sustainable Development of Ecological Sports Tourism Resources and Its Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Pengfei Zhu

    2009-01-01

    Through the analysis of ecological sports tourism resources and its characteristics, we investigated the key ecological sports tourism resources from the angle of regional planning, industrialization programming, design and so on in the present paper and put forward novel countermeasure for sustainable development.

  16. A Case Study: Using Authentic Scientific Data for Teaching and Learning of Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyner, Yael

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a culminating assignment for students enrolled in a human ecology course in a Masters in Science Education program. The goal of this assignment was for students to use published scientific data to link daily life, human impact, and sustainability to ecological function. This activity required students to consider the…

  17. Morphological, hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological changes and challenges in river restoration - the Thur River case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, M.; Luster, J.; Linde, N.; Perona, P.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Barry, D. A.; Hollender, J.; Cirpka, O. A.; Schneider, P.; Vogt, T.; Radny, D.; Durisch-Kaiser, E.

    2014-06-01

    River restoration can enhance river dynamics, environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity, but the underlying processes governing the dynamic changes need to be understood to ensure that restoration projects meet their goals, and adverse effects are prevented. In particular, we need to comprehend how hydromorphological variability quantitatively relates to ecosystem functioning and services, biodiversity as well as ground- and surface water quality in restored river corridors. This involves (i) physical processes and structural properties, determining erosion and sedimentation, as well as solute and heat transport behavior in surface water and within the subsurface; (ii) biogeochemical processes and characteristics, including the turnover of nutrients and natural water constituents; and (iii) ecological processes and indicators related to biodiversity and ecological functioning. All these aspects are interlinked, requiring an interdisciplinary investigation approach. Here, we present an overview of the recently completed RECORD (REstored CORridor Dynamics) project in which we combined physical, chemical, and biological observations with modeling at a restored river corridor of the perialpine Thur River in Switzerland. Our results show that river restoration, beyond inducing morphologic changes that reshape the river bed and banks, triggered complex spatial patterns of bank infiltration, and affected habitat type, biotic communities and biogeochemical processes. We adopted an interdisciplinary approach of monitoring the continuing changes due to restoration measures to address the following questions: How stable is the morphological variability established by restoration? Does morphological variability guarantee an improvement in biodiversity? How does morphological variability affect biogeochemical transformations in the river corridor? What are some potential adverse effects of river restoration? How is river restoration influenced by catchment-scale hydraulics and which feedbacks exist on the large scale? Beyond summarizing the major results of individual studies within the project, we show that these overarching questions could only be addressed in an interdisciplinary framework.

  18. Study on O2-supplying characteristics of Azolla in Controlled Ecological Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Deng, Sufang; Yang, Youquang; Huang, Yibing; Liu, Zhongzhu

    Azolla has high growth and propagation rate, strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability and rich nutrient value. It is able to be used as salad-type vegetable, and can also be cultured on wet bed in multi-layer condition. Hence, it possesses a potential functioning as providing O2, fresh vegetable and absorbing CO2 for Controlled Ecological Life Support System in space. In this study, we try to make clear the O2-providing characteristics of Azolla in controlled close chamber under manned condition in order to lay a foundation for Azolla as a biological component in the next ground simulated experiment and space application. A closed test cham-ber of Controlled Ecological Life Support System and Azolla wet-culturing devices were built to measure the changes of atmospheric O2-CO2 concentration inside chamber under "Azolla-fish -men" coexisting condition. The results showed that, the amount of O2 consumption is 80.49 83.07 ml/h per kilogram fish, the amount of CO2 emissions is 70.49 73.56 ml/(kg • h); O2 consumption of trial volunteers is 19.71 L/h, the volume of respiration release CO2 18.90 L/h .Artificial light intensity of Azolla wet culture under 70009000 Lx, people respiration and Azolla photosynthesis complemented each other, the atmospheric O2-CO2 concentration inside chamber maintained equilibration. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations in close chamber have obvious effects on enhancing Azolla net photosynthesis efficiency. This shows that Azolla has strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability, which equilibrates the O2-CO2 concentration inside chamber in favor of human survival, and then verifies the prospect of Azolla in space application.

  19. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechmann, J.H.K.; Scott, D.E.; McGregor, J.H.; Estes, R.A.; Chazal, A.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was built on the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the mid-1980's. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 12 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Research conducted by the SREL has focused primarily on four questions related to these wetlands: (1) Prior to construction, what fauna and flora were present at the DWPF site and at similar, yet undisturbed, alternative sites (2) By comparing the Carolina bay at the DWPF site (Sun Bay) with an undisturbed control Carolina bay (Rainbow Bay), what effect is construction having on the organisms that inhabited the DWPF site (3) By comparing control streams with streams on the periphery of the DWPF site, what effect is construction having on the peripheral streams (4) How effective have efforts been to lessen the impacts of construction, both with respect to erosion control measures and the construction of refuge ponds'' as alternative breeding sites for amphibians that formerly bred at Sun Bay Through the long-term census-taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has begun to evaluate the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. Similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive Orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10CFR1022).

  20. Emotional Reactivity and Regulation in Anxious and Nonanxious Youth: A Cell-Phone Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Patricia Z.; Forbes, Erika E.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Ryan, Neal D.; Siegle, Greg J.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Silk, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reviews have highlighted anxious youths' affective disturbances, specifically, elevated negative emotions and reliance on ineffective emotion regulation strategies. However, no study has examined anxious youth's emotional reactivity and regulation in real-world contexts. Methods: This study utilized an ecological momentary assessment…

  1. Conceptualizing and Estimating Process Speed in Studies Employing Ecological Momentary Assessment Designs: A Multilevel Variance Decomposition Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyko, Mariya P.; Ram, Nilam

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have been making use of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and other study designs that sample feelings and behaviors in real time and in naturalistic settings to study temporal dynamics and contextual factors of a wide variety of psychological, physiological, and behavioral processes. As EMA designs become more widespread,…

  2. Attitudes, Opinions and Behavior of Managers on Application of Ecological Marketing in their Business - Testing Hypotheses - Case Study:Brasov County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funaru, M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of a quantitative research which studies the attitudes, opinions and behavior of managers of companies in Brasov on application of ecological marketing in their business. The research method used is a sample survey based. Research objectives are considering to determine the extent to which managers know and apply ecological marketing, reasons for which the ecological marketing application is a long-term strategy, views on the opportunity to apply ecological marketing etc. Conclusions drawn from testing of hypotheses of research show that, generally, managers of local firms consider ecological marketing as a long-term strategy of the company. The percentage of managers that applied ecological marketing in companies does not exceed 60%. A relatively small percentage of respondents believes that the application of ecological marketing within firms is a necessity, a social responsibility that can bring long-term benefits to companies.

  3. Linking stroke mortality with air pollution, income, and greenness in northwest Florida: an ecological geographical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao K Ranga

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively few studies have examined the association between air pollution and stroke mortality. Inconsistent and inclusive results from existing studies on air pollution and stroke justify the need to continue to investigate the linkage between stroke and air pollution. No studies have been done to investigate the association between stroke and greenness. The objective of this study was to examine if there is association of stroke with air pollution, income and greenness in northwest Florida. Results Our study used an ecological geographical approach and dasymetric mapping technique. We adopted a Bayesian hierarchical model with a convolution prior considering five census tract specific covariates. A 95% credible set which defines an interval having a 0.95 posterior probability of containing the parameter for each covariate was calculated from Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations. The 95% credible sets are (-0.286, -0.097 for household income, (0.034, 0.144 for traffic air pollution effect, (0.419, 1.495 for emission density of monitored point source polluters, (0.413, 1.522 for simple point density of point source polluters without emission data, and (-0.289,-0.031 for greenness. Household income and greenness show negative effects (the posterior densities primarily cover negative values. Air pollution covariates have positive effects (the 95% credible sets cover positive values. Conclusion High risk of stroke mortality was found in areas with low income level, high air pollution level, and low level of exposure to green space.

  4. The Relationship between the Learning Ecology System and Students’ Engagement: A Case Study in Selangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amla Mohd Salleh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available School engagement is a relatively new concept in education. However, studies have demonstrated that the concept is useful in predicting students’ academic achievement. The present study was conducted to examine Malaysian students’ school engagement status and to understand the factors that influenced their engagement. The survey method was used to collect data with a questionnaire measuring the level of students’ engagement in three psychological domains (cognitive, affective, and behavior. The influential factors were measured by learning about the ecological factors affecting the students’ academic engagement, including their teachers’ teaching practice and the support they received from teachers, peers, and parents. A total of 311 (male and female participants between the ages of 12 -16 years from form one, form two, form three, and form four in a school in Selangor were selected using a random sampling procedure. Data was analyzed using descriptive and correlational analyses. The results showed that male and female students exhibit significantly different levels of engagement. Female students have a higher level of engagement than males. Teachers’ teaching practices and the support students received from peers, parents, and teachers were positively correlated with students’ engagement level. Although the results of the study support the findings of previous studies, further studies are suggested to verify the present findings. Implications for schools and parenting practices are also discussed.

  5. Ecological baseline studies in Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons County of Los Alamos, New Mexico. A two-year study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxx, T.S. [comp.

    1995-11-01

    During the summers of 1993 and 1994, the Biological Resource Evaluations Team (BRET) of the Environmental Protection Group (ESH-8) conducted baseline studies within two canyon systems, Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons. Biological data was collected within each canyon to provide background and baseline information for Ecological Risk models. Baseline studies included establishment of permanent vegetation plots within each canyon along the elevational gradient. Then, in association with the various vegetation types, surveys were conducted for ground dwelling insects, birds, and small mammals. The stream channels associated with the permanent vegetation plots were characterized and aquatic macroinvertebrates collected within the stream monthly throughout a six-month period. The Geographic Position System (GPS) in combination with ARC INFO was used to map the study areas. Considerable data was collected during these surveys and are summarized in individual chapters.

  6. Ecological Studies on Al-Khadoud Spring, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Al-Kahtani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Al-Khadoud spring is one of the most important water resources in Al-Hassa Governorate, Saudi Arabia. However, much of its biotic information is still unknown. This study presented preliminary ecological information of this aquatic body. Regarding to macrophytes, a total of eight species were observed along the study sites. These species include two submerged aquatic plants (Potamogeton pectinatus L. and Ceratophyllum demersum L.. The common distributed species are Phragmites australis (Cav. Trimex Steud and Cyperus rotundus (L.. On the other hand, a total of 20 algal genera were recorded with 7 genera of Chlorophyceae, 8 of Bacillariophyceae, 4 of Cyanophyceae and one of Euglenophyceae. The common phytoplankton occurred in all three investigated sites were Chlorella vulgaris, Mougeotia sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Actinastrum sp. Regarding to the biotic fauna, different forms of unicellular zooplankton such as Paramecium and Amoeba were recorded. Invertebrates such as freshwater insects and some freshwater snails were documented in the study sites including Melanodies tuberculata, Melanopsis praemorsa and Lymnaea auricularia. As regard to vertebrates, one species of fish, Aphanius dispar, dominate the spring basin and its extended channels.

  7. Associations Between the Macroeconomic Indicators and Suicide Rates in India: Two Ecological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Anto P.; Senthilkumar, P.; Gayathri, K.; Shyamsundar, G.; Jacob, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: While western studies have focused on the importance of psychiatric illnesses in the complex pathways leading to suicides, several Indian studies have highlighted the important contributions by economic, social, and cultural factors. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that annual national suicide rates and suicide rates of the different states in India were associated with macroeconomic indices. Materials and Methods: Data from the National crime records bureau, Ministry of finance, labour bureau, Government of India, population commission, and planning commission official portals, World Bank and the United Nations were accessed. We assessed the correlations of annual national and state-wise suicide rates with macroeconomic, health, and other indices using ecological study design for India, and for its different states and union territories. Results: We documented statistically significant associations between the suicide rates and per capita gross domestic product, consumer price index, foreign exchange, trade balance, total health expenditure as well as literacy rates. Conclusions: As recent economic growth in India is associated with increasing suicide rates, macroeconomic policies emphasizing equitable distribution of resources may help curtailing the population suicide rates in India.

  8. Opportunities for industrial ecological parks in Canada: Case study, Sarnia-Lambton industrial complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venta, G. J. [Venta, Glaser and Associates, Oakville, ON (Canada); Nisbet, M. [Jan Consultants (Canada)

    1997-03-01

    Industrial ecology, based on recycling of wastes and emissions, is a concept which is gaining popularity as a sustainable development strategy. District energy, along with cogeneration and energy-from-waste, are important aspects of the eco-industrial park concept. Similarly, many companies could cooperate in reducing waste management costs by reassessing industrial processes to recycle many liquid and solid waste streams. These are the concepts that form the basis of this Environment Canada study to assess the potential for the Sarnia-Lambton industrial complex. This work then is designed to document successful cases, examples of potential synergies in a mature industrialized region. The study was also expected to identify key factors for success, as well as economic, regulatory and institutional barriers to the establishment of new eco-industrial networks. Results of seven major studies done in the Sarnia-Lambton region indicate that many air and waste management issues can be dealt with using pollution prevention and recycling strategies. Requirements for success were identified as awareness of environmental issues, visible economic incentives, the need for project champions, and community acceptance. Technology was not considered to be an impediment. Unfortunately the same is not true of institutional and regulatory barriers as these are frequently believed to be detrimental to successful eco-industrial networks. The absence of community acceptance in some instances also proved to be a strong disincentive to proceed with eco-industrial network projects. 22 refs., figs.

  9. Baseline aquatic ecology: a case study of Dahanu thermal power station in west coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseline ecological studies of three creeks surrounded to a 500 MW coal based thermal power station that has been installed at Dahanu in west coast of India have been studied. Water samples were collected in summer, post-monsoon and winter seasons from surface, middle and bottom of the water columns at left and right banks and centre of the creeks, during high tide and low tide, and also during day and night for characterization of physico-chemical (temperature, transparency, pH, salinity, dissolved solids, suspended solids, alkalinity, nutrients etc. including heavy metals), microbiological and biological (phytoplankton, primary productivity, zooplankton, meiobenthos and nekton, viz. macrobenthos, fish, prawn, molluscs etc.) parameters. Studies revealed that abiotic features of the creeks were comparable to other similar type of ecosystems in India. Besides detritus, the ecosystem comprised of five trophic levels, viz. producer and consumers 1 through 4. While computing biomass of each trophic level, semialternating pattern of pyramids were obtained. Meiobenthos, comprising of 25 parent of the total biomass of fauna, had a significant role in the ecosystem. Index of biotic integrity, incorporating 25 attributes, was employed to evaluate the impact of predicted rise (2.3 degC) of ambient water temperature on creek biota. Evaluation revealed a marginal positive impact of the project on the ecosystem. (author)

  10. Ecological studies on the freshwater fishes of the Alligator Rivers region, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tropical climate of the Alligator Rivers Region (ARR) has a distinctive wet-dry cycle , resulting in seasonal flows in the creeks and rivers of its catchments. The present study, begun in August 1978, was aimed at developing an ecological monitoring system that would detect any changes to the freshwater fish communities brought about by recent uranium mining and processing in the lowlands of the ARR. The focus of the synecological studies, was a description of spatial and temporal patterns in the community structure of the fish fauna. Interpretation of these patterns was made possible by the collection of detailed environmental data from the study sites. It was found that of the ARR seasonal changes in environmental conditions were so marked that they often obscured the effects of environmental gradients along a watercourse and differing environmental conditions characteristics of different types of waterbody. Hence it may not be entirely satisfactory to define environmental zones in these catchments based on overall environmental conditions through the whole seasonal cycle, because changes in any one such zone between seasons result in very marked changes in the fish communities of habitats in that zone. 34 refs., 22 tabs., 45 figs., 3 maps

  11. Bladder cancer mortality and private well use in New England: An ecological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, J.D.; Baris, D.; Cantor, K.P.; Colt, J.; Robinson, G.R., Jr.; Lubin, J.H.; Karagas, M.; Hoover, R.N.; Fraumeni, J.F., Jr.; Silverman, D.T.

    2006-01-01

    Study objective: To investigate the possible relation between bladder cancer mortality among white men and women and private water use in New England, USA, where rates have been persistently raised and use of private water supplies (wells) common. Design: Ecological study relating age adjusted cancer mortality rates for white men and women during 1985-1999 and proportion of persons using private water supplies in 1970. After regressing mortality rates on population density, Pearson correlation coefficients were computed between residual rates and the proportion of the population using private water supplies, using the state economic area as the unit of calculation. Calculations were conducted within each of 10 US regions. Setting: The 504 state economic areas of the contiguous United States. Participants: Mortality analysis of 11 cancer sites, with the focus on bladder cancer. Main results: After adjusting for the effect of population density, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between residual bladder cancer mortality rates and private water supply use among both men and women in New England (men, r=0.42; women, r=0.48) and New York/New Jersey (men, r=0.49; women, r=0.62). Conclusions: Use of well water from private sources, or a close correlate, may be an explanatory variable for the excess bladder cancer mortality in New England. Analytical studies are underway to clarify the relation between suspected water contaminants, particularly arsenic, and raised bladder cancer rates in northern New England.

  12. Frontiers of torenia research: innovative ornamental traits and study of ecological interaction networks through genetic engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Advances in research in the past few years on the ornamental plant torenia (Torenia spps.) have made it notable as a model plant on the frontier of genetic engineering aimed at studying ornamental characteristics and pest control in horticultural ecosystems. The remarkable advantage of torenia over other ornamental plant species is the availability of an easy and high-efficiency transformation system for it. Unfortunately, most of the current torenia research is still not very widespread, because this species has not become prominent as an alternative to other successful model plants such as Arabidopsis, snapdragon and petunia. However, nowadays, a more global view using not only a few selected models but also several additional species are required for creating innovative ornamental traits and studying horticultural ecosystems. We therefore introduce and discuss recent research on torenia, the family Scrophulariaceae, for secondary metabolite bioengineering, in which global insights into horticulture, agriculture and ecology have been advanced. Floral traits, in torenia particularly floral color, have been extensively studied by manipulating the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways in flower organs. Plant aroma, including volatile terpenoids, has also been genetically modulated in order to understand the complicated nature of multi-trophic interactions that affect the behavior of predators and pollinators in the ecosystem. Torenia would accordingly be of great use for investigating both the variation in ornamental plants and the infochemical-mediated interactions with arthropods. PMID:23803155

  13. Associations between the macroeconomic indicators and suicide rates in India: Two ecological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anto P Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: While western studies have focused on the importance of psychiatric illnesses in the complex pathways leading to suicides, several Indian studies have highlighted the important contributions by economic, social, and cultural factors. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that annual national suicide rates and suicide rates of the different states in India were associated with macroeconomic indices. Materials and Methods: Data from the National crime records bureau, Ministry of finance, labour bureau, Government of India, population commission, and planning commission official portals, World Bank and the United Nations were accessed. We assessed the correlations of annual national and state-wise suicide rates with macroeconomic, health, and other indices using ecological study design for India, and for its different states and union territories. Results: We documented statistically significant associations between the suicide rates and per capita gross domestic product, consumer price index, foreign exchange, trade balance, total health expenditure as well as literacy rates. Conclusions: As recent economic growth in India is associated with increasing suicide rates, macroeconomic policies emphasizing equitable distribution of resources may help curtailing the population suicide rates in India.

  14. A GIS APPLICATION AND RESOURCE TOOL FOR USE ON STUDIES OF THE LAKE TEXOMA ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigations are underway at Lake Texoma to develop tools and information needed to evaluate the transport and attenuation of contaminants and stressors in a lake ecosystem, and link them to observable ecological effects. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), ...

  15. Ecotoxicogenomics to Support Ecological Risk Assessment: A Case Study with Bisphenol A in Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicogenomic approaches are being increasingly applied in the field of ecotoxicology. Given the growing availability of ecotoxicogenomic data, the Agency and the broader scientific community are actively engaged in considering how best to use those data to support ecological ris...

  16. QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN FOR 1991 PILOT STUDY OF ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this quality assurance plan is to detail the methods and procedures to be used in the pilot study of the ecological condition in municipal wastewater constructed wetland treatment systems. t includes specific procedures for assuring that data are of known, high qua...

  17. A Case Study of Blended Teaching and Learning in a New Zealand Secondary School, Using an Ecological Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaka, Pinelopi

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a case study that investigated how blended teaching and learning was implemented in a New Zealand secondary school. An ecological perspective was taken to clarify the complexity of blended teaching and learning implementation by researching the roles of students, teachers, school leaders and other educational…

  18. The Ecological Footprint as an Educational Tool for Sustainability: A Case Study Analysis in an Israeli Public High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Dan; Vigoda-Gadot, Eran; Haim, Abraham; Kissinger, Meidad

    2012-01-01

    Education is widely acknowledged to be a means for advancing environmental sustainability. Many schools have recently introduced the idea of sustainability into their educational agenda and curriculum. This study uses an innovative method of communicating the principle of sustainability, the "Ecological Footprint" Analysis, which illustrates the…

  19. The Association between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement in Texas State House Legislative Districts: An Ecologic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janak, Jud C.; Gabriel, Kelley P.; Oluyomi, Abiodun O.; Peréz, Adriana; Kohl, Harold W.; Kelder, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The association of physical fitness with cognitive function in children and adolescents is unclear. The purpose of this ecological study was to describe the association between academic achievement, body mass index (BMI), and cardiovascular fitness (CVF) in a large sample of elementary, middle, and high school students in Texas.…

  20. Factors associated with inter-municipality differences in dental caries experience among Danish adolescents. An ecological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Christiansen, M E C; Qvist, V; Ismail, A

    2009-01-01

    Ekstrand KR, Christiansen MEC, Qvist V, Ismail A. Factors associated with inter-municipality differences in dental caries experience among Danish adolescents. An ecological study. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2009; 00: 000-000. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/SAbstract - Background: Caries on...

  1. Switching on and Switching off in Mathematics: An Ecological Study of Future Intent and Disengagement among Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Anderson, Judy; Bobis, Janette; Way, Jennifer; Vellar, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Prompted by international concerns about school and postschool participation in mathematics, the authors of the present study sought to investigate factors predicting "switching on" and "switching off" in mathematics, operationalized through measures of future intent and disengagement, respectively. They drew from Bronfenbrenner's ecological model…

  2. The Effect of Recycling Education on High School Students' Conceptual Understanding about Ecology: A Study on Matter Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugulu, Ilker; Yorek, Nurettin; Baslar, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze and determine whether a developed recycling education program would lead to a positive change in the conceptual understanding of ecological concepts associated with matter cycles by high school students. The research was conducted on 68 high school 10th grade students (47 female and 21 male students). The…

  3. Revisiting the Affect Regulation Model of Binge Eating: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2011-01-01

    The affect regulation model of binge eating, which posits that patients binge eat to reduce negative affect (NA), has received support from cross-sectional and laboratory-based studies. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves momentary ratings and repeated assessments over time and is ideally suited to identify temporal antecedents and…

  4. Hurricane Impacts on Ecological Services and Economic Values of Coastal Urban Forest: A Case Study of Pensacola, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    As urbanized areas continue to grow and green spaces dwindle, the importance of urban forests increases for both ecologically derived health benefits and for their potential to mitigate climate change. This study examined pre- and post- hurricane conditions of Pensacola's urban f...

  5. Studying Behavioral Ecology on High School & College Campuses: A Practical Guide to Measuring Foraging Behavior Using Urban Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Mohammad A. Abu; Emerson, Sara E.; Brown, Joel S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a practical field exercise for ecology and animal behavior classes that can be carried out on campus, using urban wildlife. Students document an animal's feeding behavior to study its interactions with the surrounding environment. In this approach, an animal's feeding behavior is quantified at experimental food patches placed within its…

  6. Mapping green infrastructure based on ecosystem services and ecological networks. A Pan-European case study

    OpenAIRE

    LIQUETE GARCIA MARIA DEL CAMINO; KLEESCHULTE Stefan; DIGE Gorm; MAES JOACHIM; Grizzetti, Bruna; Olah, Branislav; ZULIAN GRAZIA

    2014-01-01

    Identifying, promoting and preserving a strategically planned green infrastructure (GI) network can provide ecological, economic and social benefits. It has also become a priority for the planning and decision-making process in sectors such as conservation, (land) resource efficiency, agriculture, forestry or urban development. In this paper we propose a methodology that can be used to identify and map GI elements at landscape level based on the notions of ecological connectivity, multi-fu...

  7. Effects Of Urban Parks On Urban Ecology: A Case Study On The City Of Eskisehir

    OpenAIRE

    TUNA, Aysun

    2015-01-01

    Fast population increase, dense housing and defective urban planning, which are the main environmental problems, cause destruction of urban ecologic balance. Urban open green area systems have substantial functions such as balancing defective relationship between humans and nature and improvement of urban living conditions. Parks are components of open green area system having vital contributions for the habitability of cities, protection of ecological environment, urban aesthetics, education...

  8. A Study on the Coupling Rules between Ecological Environment and Urban Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Tong Yang; Tao Zeng

    2009-01-01

    The relation between city and ecological environment forms in the coupling process of urban systems and environmental factors, in which there is a definite rule. Urban competitiveness embodies the evolvement and development of the city, using the dissipative structure principle and mathematical analysis, this paper probes into the coupling rule between urban competitiveness and ecological environment. It is indicated that the amicability degree of human environmental behavior determines the s...

  9. Terrestrial Ecology Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, James W., Ed.; Hall, James A., Ed.

    This collection of study units focuses on the study of the ecology of land habitats. Considered are such topics as map reading, field techniques, forest ecosystem, birds, insects, small mammals, soils, plant ecology, preparation of terrariums, air pollution, photography, and essentials of an environmental studies program. Each unit contains…

  10. Studies of the ecology of insects sterilized artificially (gamma radiation), 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental results of artificially sterilized insects studied with gamma rays from 1968 to 1977 are reviewed and summarized from a statistical and population ecological point of view. The discussion is based on experimental results of callosobruchus chinensis, spodoptera litura and dacus dorsalis. A model of population fluctuations was constructed theoretically by experimental results concerning the effect of insecticides, heats or gamma rays upon oviposition, sex ratio and survival rate during growing period of insects. The theoretical population fluctuation brought about by insecticides or heats became wide, the population density was high and remarkable peak appeared frequently in succeeding generations. On the other hand, that induced by gamma rays was narrow and the population density maintained a low level during several generations. Such a theoretical fluctuation was demonstrated by experiments dealt with the experimental population of callosobruchus chinensis. Sexual competitiveness between sterilized males and normal ones in the mixed population was discussed theoretically. The relationship between log (S/N) and hatchability of egg laid ought to show a straight line. The difference between the theoretical log (S/N)-hatchability regression equation and the experimental one was examined. Growth of population containing some sterile males was studied by means of theoretical calculation of population numbers from generation to generation. The rate of increase of the strilized populations was found to be remarkably smaller than that of normal ones. (Iwakiri, K.)

  11. Medico-ecological study and health impact assessment of hydro-electric projects in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this studies were to determine i) if there was any potential health risks in terms of spread of vector-borne and other communicable diseases resulting from the changes in the environment due to creation of large bodies of water as consequence of the construction of dams, ii) diseases of public health importance in populations affected by such projects. Nine pre-impoundment studies had been carried out and potential impact of the change in environment on discases and health of the affected populations in each areas was evaluated. Risk of infections to the dam construction workers also assessed. Recommendations on mitigation measures were made for each situation so that adequate provisions could be made to improve the health conditions of these populations especially those who would be resettled as a result of impoundment . Prevention and control measures on transmission of infection, including vector control were proposed. The potential medico-ecological hazards encountered by immigrants and visitors to the area on completion of the hydro project were also envisaged

  12. Heterozygote Advantage Probably Maintains Rhesus Factor Blood Group Polymorphism: Ecological Regression Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Rhesus factor polymorphism has been an evolutionary enigma since its discovery in 1939. Carriers of the rarer allele should be eliminated by selection against Rhesus positive children born to Rhesus negative mothers. Here I used an ecologic regression study to test the hypothesis that Rhesus factor polymorphism is stabilized by heterozygote advantage. The study was performed in 65 countries for which the frequencies of RhD phenotypes and specific disease burden data were available. I performed multiple multivariate covariance analysis with five potential confounding variables: GDP, latitude (distance from the equator), humidity, medical care expenditure per capita and frequencies of smokers. The results showed that the burden associated with many diseases correlated with the frequencies of particular Rhesus genotypes in a country and that the direction of the relation was nearly always the opposite for the frequency of Rhesus negative homozygotes and that of Rhesus positive heterozygotes. On the population level, a Rhesus-negativity-associated burden could be compensated for by the heterozygote advantage, but for Rhesus negative subjects this burden represents a serious problem. PMID:26811928

  13. Radon in Drinking Water and Cancer Mortality: An Ecological Study in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is limited information on the health effects of radon in drinking water in spite of their potential exposures. We conducted an ecological study in a small town in Japan where the groundwater with high concentrations of radon is supplied as utilities. A total of 607 cancer deaths were ascertained by vital statistics in that town from 1972 to 1997. Standardized mortality ratios on the basis of national rates were 1.01 (95% confidence interval; 0.93-1.09) for all cancers, 1.10 (0.95-1.28) for stomach cancer, 0.88 (0.70-1.10) for lung cancer, and 1.14 (0.87-1.48) for liver cancer. Mortality from liver cancer was significantly higher than that of two surrounding control cities combined, with a relative risk of 1.40 (1.04-1.89) based on Poisson regression analysis. Lack of information on possible confounders including diet, alcohol drinking, smoking and hepatitis virus infection, is the main limitation of the study, which precludes the evaluation of causal associations

  14. Radon in Drinking Water and Cancer Mortality: An Ecological Study in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Shinji; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Narazaki, Yukinori; Mizuno, Shoichi; Akiba, Suminori

    2008-08-01

    There is limited information on the health effects of radon in drinking water in spite of their potential exposures. We conducted an ecological study in a small town in Japan where the groundwater with high concentrations of radon is supplied as utilities. A total of 607 cancer deaths were ascertained by vital statistics in that town from 1972 to 1997. Standardized mortality ratios on the basis of national rates were 1.01 (95% confidence interval; 0.93-1.09) for all cancers, 1.10 (0.95-1.28) for stomach cancer, 0.88 (0.70-1.10) for lung cancer, and 1.14 (0.87-1.48) for liver cancer. Mortality from liver cancer was significantly higher than that of two surrounding control cities combined, with a relative risk of 1.40 (1.04-1.89) based on Poisson regression analysis. Lack of information on possible confounders including diet, alcohol drinking, smoking and hepatitis virus infection, is the main limitation of the study, which precludes the evaluation of causal associations.

  15. Chemical mixtures and environmental effects: a pilot study to assess ecological exposure and effects in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Bradley, Paul M.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Mills, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and management of the risks of exposure to complex chemical mixtures in streams are priorities for human and environmental health organizations around the world. The current lack of information on the composition and variability of environmental mixtures and a limited understanding of their combined effects are fundamental obstacles to timely identification and prevention of adverse human and ecological effects of exposure. This report describes the design of a field-based study of the composition and biological activity of chemical mixtures in U.S. stream waters affected by a wide range of human activities and contaminant sources. The study is a collaborative effort by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Scientists sampled 38 streams spanning 24 States and Puerto Rico. Thirty-four of the sites were located in watersheds impacted by multiple contaminant sources, including industrial and municipal wastewater discharges, crop and animal agricultural runoff, urban runoff, and other point and nonpoint contaminant sources. The remaining four sites were minimally development reference watersheds. All samples underwent comprehensive chemical and biological characterization, including sensitive and specific direct analysis for over 700 dissolved organic and inorganic chemicals and field parameters, identification of unknown contaminants (environmental diagnostics), and a variety of bioassays to evaluate biological activity and toxicity.

  16. The construction of students' knowledge of ecological concepts through the use of structured controversy compared to individual study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilby, Jerry Paul

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of structured controversy on learning and using ten targeted ecological concepts. Structured controversy, from the cooperative learning model, is a debate-styled instructional strategy used to enhance cognitive processing of concepts by challenging opposite ecological viewpoints. Forty-eight students in a college environmental science course were placed in heterogeneous groups of four by ACT score, gender, and the first exam score. The groups of four were randomly assigned to the treatment group or the individual study (control) group. In a pre- and post-treatment written assessment, the students individually generated a series of propositional statements that they used to support a decision about the use of pesticides. Change in the quality (correct, incorrect, and vague) of propositions was compared between the structured controversy and individual study groups. No significant differences were observed for targeted ecological concepts. However, the control group showed a significant decrease in the number of correct non-target (social, economics, etc.) propositions and an increase in number of incorrect non-target propositions based on pre- to post-treatment data and between control and experimental groups. Although not significant, the structured controversy group maintained the quality of both the ecological and social related concepts. This change in the social-related topics in a science course was an unexpected, but positive, outcome.

  17. Ecological study of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in soil: growth ability, conidia production and molecular detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richini-Pereira Virgínia

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ecology is not completely understood, although several pieces of evidence point to the soil as its most probable habitat. The present study aimed to investigate the fungal growth, conidia production and molecular pathogen detection in different soil conditions. Methods Soils samples of clayey, sandy and medium textures were collected from ground surface and the interior of armadillo burrows in a hyperendemic area of Paracoccidioidomycosis. P. brasiliensis was inoculated in soil with controlled humidity and in culture medium containing soil extracts. The molecular detection was carried out by Nested PCR, using panfungal and species specific primers from the ITS-5.8S rDNA region. Results The soil texture does not affect fungus development and the growth is more abundant on/in soil saturated with water. Some soil samples inhibited the development of P. brasiliensis, especially those that contain high values of Exchangeable Aluminum (H+Al in their composition. Some isolates produced a large number of conidia, mainly in soil-extract agar medium. The molecular detection was positive only in samples collected from armadillo burrows, both in sandy and clayey soil. Conclusion P. brasiliensis may grow and produce the infectious conidia in sandy and clayey soil, containing high water content, mainly in wild animal burrows, but without high values of H+Al.

  18. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 2 study of the radio-ecological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data compiled and processed within the framework of the French-German Initiative represent the so far most comprehensive collection of electronic data that has ever been put together on the topic of the 'Study of the radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'.The R.E.D.A.C. database system provides a powerful tool for the reconstruction of the dispersion of radionuclides through ecosystems and food chains and for the interpretation and prediction of their long-term behaviour. This allows the development of effective countermeasures to minimise risks to human health and improve the overall environmental situation. R.E.D.A.C. can also be used for the development and verification of realistic radioecology models. As the data were acquired under realistic conditions, the results can be used directly for model calculations in emergencies. This allows concrete planning, e. g. in connection with the securing of waste, its disposal, and the ecological restoration of waste disposal sites. The data also allow a reconstruction of the radioecological situation in the past, an analysis of the current situation, and predictions of future developments of the accident consequences on a large as well as on a small scale. (N.C.)

  19. Non invasive methods for genetic analysis applied to ecological and behavioral studies in Latino-America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana González

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Documenting the presence and abundance of the neotropical mammals is the first step for understanding their population ecology, behavior and genetic dynamics in designing conservation plans. The combination of field research with molecular genetics techniques are new tools that provide valuable biological information avoiding the disturbance in the ecosystems, trying to minimize the human impact in the process to gather biological information. The objective of this paper is to review the available non invasive sampling techniques that have been used in Neotropical mammal studies to apply to determine the presence and abundance, population structure, sex ratio, taxonomic diagnostic using mitochondrial markers, and assessing genetic variability using nuclear markers. There are a wide range of non invasive sampling techniques used to determine the species identification that inhabit an area such as searching for tracks, feces, and carcasses. Other useful equipment is the camera traps that can generate an image bank that can be valuable to assess species presence and abundance by morphology. With recent advances in molecular biology, it is now possible to use the trace amounts of DNA in feces and amplify it to analyze the species diversity in an area, and the genetic variability at intraspecific level. This is particularly helpful in cases of sympatric and cryptic species in which morphology failed to diagnose the taxonomic status of several species of brocket deer of the genus Mazama.

  20. [Behavior ecological study on copulation and oviposition of Apis cerana cerana Fab].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Linsheng; Meng, Xiangjin; Wu, Chengwu

    2003-11-01

    The behavior ecology of copulation and oviposition of Apis cerana cerana Fab. was studied. The results showed that temperature influence on the cell-covered time of Apis cerana cerana queen and drone induced the remarkable difference in their newborn weight and mature time (P drone fly frequency for discerning cell was 1.23-1.31 and 1.08-1.13, and duration was 0.12-0.13 h and 0.16-0.20 h. Their copulation fly frequency was 1.10-1.12 and 1.10-1.05, and duration was 0.22-0.23 h and 0.18-0.23 h. The most suitable temperature for copulation was 20-28 degrees C. The number of semen in side--oviduct of the queen in each copulation fly was 3.37 x 10(6)-4.15 x 10(6), and in natural copulation, semen number in spermathecal sac was 3.55 x 10(6)-3.62 x 10(6). There was a direct relationship between queen newborn weight and ovulation number. The annual effect of climate and flower fertility on the queen's ovulation number was obvious. PMID:14997654

  1. Air Manganese Levels and Chronic Liver Disease Mortality in North Carolina Counties: An Ecological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Spangler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Manganese is an essential trace element which is toxic in high doses. Over the past several decades, manganese has replaced lead as the anti-knock agent in gasoline, raising concern about air and road-side contamination with this element. In addition, manganese is absorbed by the liver, making specific populations (e.g., pregnant women, infants and children, and patients with liver disease susceptible to its toxic effects. Using data from the US Census Bureau, the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics, and the US Environmental Protection Agency, this ecological study evaluated chronic liver disease mortality rates in North Carolina’s 100 counties. It correlated these rates with county-level demographics as well as on-road and non-road air borne manganese concentrations. Median income by county was inversely associated with chronic liver disease mortality, while the logarithmically transformed airborne concentrations of on-road manganese were positively correlated with county-level chronic liver disease mortality. Because environmental manganese near roads is likely to increase over time, these pilot findings potentially have regulatory implications and argue for further research.

  2. Applying ecological criteria to marine reserve design: A case study from the California Channel Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airame, S.; Dugan, J.E.; Lafferty, K.D.; Leslie, H.; McArdle, D.A.; Warner, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Using ecological criteria as a theoretical framework, we describe the steps involved in designing a network of marine reserves for conservation and fisheries management. Although we describe the case study of the Channel Islands, the approach to marine reserve design may be effective in other regions where traditional management alone does not sustain marine resources. A group of agencies, organizations, and individuals established clear goals for marine reserves in the Channel Islands, including conservation of ecosystem biodiversity, sustainable fisheries, economic viability, natural and cultural heritage, and education. Given the constraints of risk management, experimental design, monitoring, and enforcement, scientists recommended at least one, but no more than four, reserves in each biogeographic region. In general, the percentage of an area to be included in a reserve network depends on the goals. In the Channel Islands, after consideration of both conservation goals and the risk from human threats and natural catastrophes, scientists recommended reserving an area of 30-50% of all representative habitats in each biogeographic region. For most species of concern, except pinnipeds and seabirds, information about distributions, dispersal, and population growth was limited. As an alternative to species distribution information, suitable habitats for species of concern were used to locate potential reserve sites. We used a simulated annealing algorithm to identify potential reserve network scenarios that would represent all habitats within the smallest area possible. The analysis produced an array of potential reserve network scenarios that all met the established goals.

  3. Spatial modeling using mixed models: an ecologic study of visceral leishmaniasis in Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werneck Guilherme L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Most ecologic studies use geographical areas as units of observation. Because data from areas close to one another tend to be more alike than those from distant areas, estimation of effect size and confidence intervals should consider spatial autocorrelation of measurements. In this report we demonstrate a method for modeling spatial autocorrelation within a mixed model framework, using data on environmental and socioeconomic determinants of the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in the city of Teresina, Piauí, Brazil. A model with a spherical covariance structure indicated significant spatial autocorrelation in the data and yielded a better fit than one assuming independent observations. While both models showed a positive association between VL incidence and residence in a favela (slum or in areas with green vegetation, values for the fixed effects and standard errors differed substantially between the models. Exploration of the data's spatial correlation structure through the semivariogram should precede the use of these models. Our findings support the hypothesis of spatial dependence of VL rates and indicate that it might be useful to model spatial correlation in order to obtain more accurate point and standard error estimates.

  4. Ecological, morphological, and histological studies on Blaps polycresta (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as biomonitors of cadmium soil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Wafaa; El-Samad, Lamia M; Mokhamer, El-Hassan; El-Touhamy, Aya; Shonouda, Mourad

    2015-09-01

    Soil pollution in Egypt became far more serious than before due to either the heavy usage of different toxic pesticides or aerosol deposition of industrial pollutants. The present mentioned ground beetle, Blaps polycresta Tschinkel 1975 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), showed ecological, morphological, and histological alterations in adult insects as biomonitors. Two cultivated sites (reference and polluted) were chosen for sampling the insects. The results indicated a significant increase in soil cadmium concentration of the polluted site leading to sex-specific difference in cadmium accumulation in gonads and alimentary canal of insects that being higher in males than females. The cadmium pollution leads significantly to a decrease in population density, a reduction in body weight, an increase in mortality rate, and an increase in sex ratio of the insects. The results also revealed a striking decrease in body length of the polluted insects with a marked increase in the percentage of deformed gonads and alimentary canal of both sexes. Some histopathological alterations were also recorded in testis, ovary, and midgut of the polluted insects. Our results confirmed that beetles are a good bioindicator for soil pollution, and the different studied parameters could be easily employed as sensitive monitors for cadmium soil pollution. PMID:25963070

  5. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 2 study of the radio-ecological consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    The data compiled and processed within the framework of the French-German Initiative represent the so far most comprehensive collection of electronic data that has ever been put together on the topic of the 'Study of the radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'.The R.E.D.A.C. database system provides a powerful tool for the reconstruction of the dispersion of radionuclides through ecosystems and food chains and for the interpretation and prediction of their long-term behaviour. This allows the development of effective countermeasures to minimise risks to human health and improve the overall environmental situation. R.E.D.A.C. can also be used for the development and verification of realistic radioecology models. As the data were acquired under realistic conditions, the results can be used directly for model calculations in emergencies. This allows concrete planning, e. g. in connection with the securing of waste, its disposal, and the ecological restoration of waste disposal sites. The data also allow a reconstruction of the radioecological situation in the past, an analysis of the current situation, and predictions of future developments of the accident consequences on a large as well as on a small scale. (N.C.)

  6. Utilizing Underwater Three-Dimensional Modeling to Enhance Ecological and Biological Studies of Coral Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J. H. R.; Delparte, D.; Gates, R. D.; Takabayashi, M.

    2015-04-01

    The structural complexity of coral reefs profoundly affects the biodiversity, productivity, and overall functionality of reef ecosystems. Conventional survey techniques utilize 2-dimensional metrics that are inadequate for accurately capturing and quantifying the intricate structural complexity of scleractinian corals. A 3-dimensional (3D) approach improves the capacity to accurately measure architectural complexity, topography, rugosity, volume, and other structural characteristics that play a significant role in habitat facilitation and ecosystem processes. This study utilized Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry techniques to create 3D mesh models for several Hawaiian corals that represent distinct morphological phenotypes. The orthophotos and digital elevation models generated from the SfM process were imported into geospatial analysis software in order to quantify several metrics pertaining to 3D complexity that are known to affect ecosystem biodiversity and productivity. The 3D structural properties of the reconstructed coral colonies were statistically analyzed to determine if the each species represents a unique morpho-functional group. The SfM reconstruction techniques described in this paper can be utilized for an array of research purposes to improve our understanding of how changes in coral composition affect habitat structure and ecological processes in coral reef ecosystems.

  7. Ecological study of pine forest clearings along the French Atlantic sand dunes: Perspectives of restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemauviel, Servane; Roze, Françoise

    2000-05-01

    The 18th century afforestation campaign carried out in western France to fix sand dunes has left only a small surface of non-forested dunes. As dune plantations have only a small conservation value, it would be of great interest to restore grey dunes. But, for the moment, there is no proof that pine felling would lead to grey dunes. So, a study has been carried out on pine forest clearings along the French Atlantic shoreline. Floral and ecological data were carried out and analysed with two statistical tools, CA (canonical analysis) and CCA (canonical correspondence analysis). The clearings appear very different from one bank of the Gironde river to the other. South of the river, the clearing vegetation develops on acid soils and possess some thermophilous species. North of the river, the clearings are composed mostly of species growing best on calcareous soils. Apart from geographical variations, clearings showed two patterns of response: development of closed thickets and tall heathlands; or an open vegetation similar to growing heathlands and grasslands. The cover, the height, the floral richness per strata as well as pedological characteristics are the parameters which explain the best floristic composition of pine clearings. The vigour of pine forests and the degree of exposure to coastal influences determine whether close or open vegetation develops. Where there is an open vegetation, restoration of grey dunes may be possible. In the other case, alternative solutions, such as the restoration of dune woodlands or dune heath, may provide best conservation values.

  8. Is Intensive Measurement of Body Image Reactive? A Two-Study Evaluation Using Ecological Momentary Assessment Suggests Not

    OpenAIRE

    Heron, Kristin E.; Smyth, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    Intensive assessment methods (e.g., Ecological Momentary Assessment [EMA]) are increasingly used to capture body image experiences in daily life. One concern with EMA is multiple assessments may increase reactivity to internal or external cues, potentially biasing measurement. Reactivity to EMA was evaluated in two studies (Study 1: N = 63 female undergraduates, Study 2: N = 131 women with high body dissatisfaction/disordered eating). Participants completed five daily surveys on handheld comp...

  9. Morphologically Cryptic Amphipod Species Are "Ecological Clones" at Regional but Not at Local Scale: A Case Study of Four Niphargus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fišer, Žiga; Altermatt, Florian; Zakšek, Valerija; Knapi?, Tea; Fišer, Cene

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that morphologically cryptic species may be ecologically more different than would be predicted from their morphological similarity and phylogenetic relatedness. However, in biodiversity research it often remains unclear whether cryptic species should be treated as ecologically equivalent, or whether detected differences have ecological significance. In this study, we assessed the ecological equivalence of four morphologically cryptic species of the amphipod genus Niphargus. All species live in a small, isolated area on the Istrian Peninsula in the NW Balkans. The distributional ranges of the species are partially overlapping and all species are living in springs. We reconstructed their ecological niches using morphological traits related to feeding, bioclimatic niche envelope and species' preference for epi-hypogean habitats. The ecological meaning of differences in niches was evaluated using distributional data and co-occurrence frequencies. We show that the species comprise two pairs of sister species. All species differ from each other and the degree of differentiation is not related to phylogenetic relatedness. Moreover, low co-occurrence frequencies in sympatric zones imply present or past interspecific competition. This pattern suggests that species are not differentiated enough to reduce interspecific competition, nor ecologically equivalent to co-exist via neutral dynamics. We tentatively conclude that the question of ecological equivalence relates to the scale of the study: at a fine scale, species' differences may influence dynamics in a local community, whereas at the regional level these species likely play roughly similar ecological roles. PMID:26226375

  10. Ecological studies of small mammals in a nuclear site on Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological studies of small vertebrates in nuclear event sites in NTS began in spring 1977 with the establishment of a permanent live-trapping grid in Little Feller II. These study areas are located in Area 18, a relatively homogeneous area vegetatively and topographically. Most of the flora and fauna are typical of the Great Basin desert found in southern Nevada. Dominant vegetation includes Artemesia spp. and to a lesser extent Atriplex. Salsola is an abundant weed in areas that have been mechanically disturbed such as the vicinity of GZ. A 400-station live-trapping grid was established in Little Feller II, April 1977. Sixteen lines of live traps (25 traps per line, each trap 50 feet apart) comprise the 8.4 hectare grid encompassing GZ. Nine trapping periods have been completed to date totaling over 10,000 trap nights. Over 400 small vertebrates have been marked for permanent identification in the grid. Over 60 known residents (animals marked 3 months previously and recaptured in the same vicinity) have been collected and prepared for shipping; however, radioanalytical results were not available to include in this report. Both census and field note observations were used to develop an inventory of the vertebrates found in the study areas. Sufficient data have been generated from Little Feller II to estimate density of rodents. These data and comparative data from Area 5 (Mohave Desert), Area 11 (Transition), and Area 13 (Great Basin) are presented. It was readily apparent that rodents in general were more numerous in Little Feller II. In addition, Dipodomys ordii, a Great Basin species, was an important new addition to the rodent fauna

  11. Use of Isotopes for Investigating the Behaviour and Ecology of Insect Pests in Some Recent Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations into the ecology, behaviour, dispersal and longevity of insects have always provided challenges to the entomologist. The use of isotopes is an effective tool and the following is a report on some interesting problems solved by their application. Anopheles stephensi is the main vector o f malaria in southern Iran. On P32-labelled mosquitoes, the dispersal, behaviour, digestion of blood meal, maturation of ovaries and length of gonotrophic cycles were successfully worked out. It was found that in about 80% of the cases the mosquito needed two blood meals for the completion of the first cycle. The first cycle itself was completed in 4-5 d depending upon the temperature. Labelled mosquitoes which had emerged overnight were released in an isolated village. The ratio of active mosquitoes to total catch was worked out every day and thus, on the assumption that the natural population remained constant, the mortality rate, which was found to be exponential for the first six days, was worked out. The mating behaviour of the female was also studied by using normal females which had mated once with P32-labelled males. It was found that the female mates more than once and that after mating with an active male, the spermathead became active. Counts of up to twice the background (12 counts/min) were obtained by using males giving about 15 000 counts/min. Studies of the injection of saliva in glucose solution during feeding were also made on P32-labelled mosquitoes. Eurygaster integriceps is a serious pest of wheat in Iran, Pakistan and the Middle East. Using P32 activated wheat plants, the feeding behaviour of the first-instar nymph was investigated. Other foods, radioactively labelled, were also studied and it was found that feeding was essential for the first moult, even if the food consisted of water absorbed in a filter paper. (author)

  12. [Demography and human ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazareth, J M

    1993-01-01

    At the end of the 19th century the German biologist Ernest Haekel was the first scientist to use the term ecology, which was defined as the study of relationships of organisms or groups of organisms with the environment and indicated the interdependence of the living world, including plants, animals, and humans. This concept also indicates a continuous process of adaptation of organisms to their external environment. The basic concepts of scientific ecology, which developed at the end of the 19th century, can be attributed to Darwin: the relationships between living beings and the notion of the process of adaptation to their environment. The term human ecology appeared in the early 1920s. Human ecology embodies fundamental ideas: biotype, habitat, community, biocenosis, ecosystem, biomass, interchange and equilibrium, and circulation of energy. The accumulated knowledge about human ecology is broken down using the criteria of topography (ecology of humid forests, deserts, lakes, etc.); followed by the appearance of species; and the variants of classical division: auto ecology (influence of external factors on living beings) and sinecology (the study of groups of associated organisms, i.e., natural, animal, and vegetation communities). The species are considered on the basis of equality or sinecology (all of them have the same interests), while in human ecology a species is determined by its relation to a reference group--autoecology or anthropocentric ecology. In 1911, J. Thompson bridged the gap between biological knowledge and social sciences; in 1921, H. Barrows identified human ecology as a component of geography; in 1925, L. Bernard presented the classification of ecosystems; and in 1936, Ezra Park published his work, Human Ecology, followed in 1945 by the emergence of the Chicago school. Demography and human ecology are intimately connected because population is the result of natural and migratory movements, therefore the two sciences require a methodology that integrates the dynamics of biocultural interactions. PMID:12179860

  13. Sudbury soils study : human health and ecological risk assessment : a case study in science, process and perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation discussed the public relations and public opinion strategies used as part of a soils study conducted to assess the risk of mining activities in the Sudbury region to human health and the environment. The human health risk assessment (HHRA) study was conducted and administered by a multi-stakeholder technical committee attended by the public. The study was comprised of extensive soil collection and analysis; a review of historical soils data; and extensive human health and ecological risk assessments. Extensive sampling was also conducted on air, dust, and locally-produced foods. A public advisory committee was formed to disseminate scientific information to the community. Scientific data obtained in the study were reviewed by experts in various fields. Results of the study were also peer-reviewed by an independent expert review panel comprised of leading specialists in human health, toxicology, speciation, and risk assessment. The study showed that the identified risks were over-estimated in the interest of protecting human health. It was concluded that the HHRA's findings were generally accepted by the public. tabs., figs

  14. Periodical Ecological Study of Deliya Lake of Visnagar. At. Visnagar. Ta.Visnagar, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.V.JOSHI , DR. R.S.PATEL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Visnagar city is located in north Gujarat (72 30 n and 73 30 n 23 0 e and 23 35 e. Visnagar taluka is popularly known as ‘Shikshan Nagari’ and also known as Copper city. The climate of visnagar is tropical arid to marginal semi-arid. It is strongly periodic and seasonal. There are many fresh water bodies are situated at and arou Deliya lake is natural fresh water body having 19 hector area & circular in shape. It is located between latitude230 41’ 60’’N longitude720 32’ 60’’ E. it is oldest lake of visnagar. It is also known as hanuman temple talav. Constructed before 10’th century.nd Visnagar taluka. The present study deals with the physico-chemical status of deliya lake. This water bodies has dense growth of algae and planktons in its. Physico-chemical status of lakes belongs to Visnagar Taluka were studied in year 2011. The physico- chemical parameters show pH, Dissolve Oxygen, totol dissolved Solid, E.C., Chloride, Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Calcium, Calcium Hardness, Magnesium, Magnesium Hardness, Fluoride, Nitrate, COD, BOD, etc and water is essential for living organisms especially like flora and fauna observed through various field trips. Showing abundance of analytic species and spirulina species with many other members of chlorophyceae. Euglenophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and cyanophyceae, microbiological analysis shows positive results for E.Coli, Vibro sp. and many other pathogenic. An isolated area of the lake is totally infested with eicchornia Spe. The migratory and local bird like plegadis falcinellus, Ardea parpurea, Egretta intermediate. Ardeola grayli, Dendrocygna, jaranica (and many more have been observed. If the sewage and other waste are diverted to some appropriate area other than the lake water quality and ecology of the pond can be restored and will be used in drinking and agriculture by the people.

  15. Radio-ecological study of the Lodeve mining complex (France) 1981-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radio-ecological study of the Lodeve mining complex (mine + uranium process plant) was carried out between 1981 and 1985. Four aquatic compartments -water, sediments, vegetals, fish- were studied in eight stations selected on the basis of the existence of two liquid wastes. The measurements essentially concerned radium 226 and uranium 238 but also lead 210 (1985), thorium 232, potassium 40 and cesium 137. Spectrometry ? Ge-Li, emanometry and fluorimetry were used. Only a small brook -Rivernoux- an affluent of the Lergue river, shows radium and uranium activity levels higher than those measured upstream of the site; and this for the four compartments. In water, radium is associated with the solved cationic fraction (66%) and with materials in suspension (21%), whereas uranium is essentially associated with the solved anionic fraction (84%); the radium migration potentialities are therefore lesser than that of uranium. Radium distribution in fish is as follows: flesh (5 to 15%), skeleton (12%), viscera (30%) and skin + fins (30%). Radium concentration (or exchange) factors are always higher than those corresponding to uranium. In general, they are more important in non-influenced zones than in influenced zones (Rivernoux); this implies that radium and uranium evacuated by the mining complex are, at least partly, in non bio-available forms. For water/fish exchange a concentration factor of 100 will be considered for radium. On the basis of this value a weekly consumption of 200 g of fried gudgeon gives an annual committed dose equivalent corresponding to 0.86% of the dose authorized for the public (5.10-3 Sv.an-1)

  16. Study of technical and financial pre-feasibility to produce a natural shampoo and ecological

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of technical and financial pre-feasibility was described for producing natural shampoo, ecological and to determine attributes desired by people in that shampoo. A survey was performed to study which characteristics have improved the hair condition; and from the results a model was developed with which is backing the formulation of the shampoo. The proposed shampoo has had as functionality provide hair shine, moisturize, reconstruct, provide protection and has reduced the static (is anti-frizz) because has used biodegradable and friendly raw materials to the environment. The color is light green and its aroma-herbal will have a white container with green lid and will be marketed in 500mL presentation. The production process is done in six steps: reception, storage and dosing of raw materials, preparation of the surfactant and liquid phase of shampoo (addition of active natural preservatives, dyes and fragrances), preparation of the stabilizing phase, mixed, pH regulation and quality control, packaging and storage. A semi-continuous production system was suggested to be more economical, flexible and easy to sterilize. The equipments used in the process are: a stirred tank of 205L, a stirred tank of 500L and a Semiautomatic packaging each built in stainless steel with sanitary finish by the company TECNOFAR. The tanks were designed in compliance with the typical dimensions of these teams and were sized in order to supply the first 5 years of production. A publicity campaign and marketing is recommended to fulfill sales target and execute the project of a plant to produce shampoo and natural cosmetics

  17. Fecal Nitrogen Concentration as a Nutritional Quality Indicator for European Rabbit Ecological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Jiménez, Esperanza; Villamuelas, Miriam; Serrano, Emmanuel; Delibes, Miguel; Fernández, Néstor

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the quality of the nutritional resources available to wild herbivores is critical to understanding trophic regulation processes. However, the direct assessment of dietary nutritional characteristics is usually difficult, which hampers monitoring nutritional constraints in natural populations. The feeding ecology of ruminant herbivores has been often assessed by analyzing fecal nitrogen (FN) concentrations, although this method has been less evaluated in other taxa. This study analyzed the suitability of FN as an indicator of ingesta quality in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), which is a keystone lagomorph species in Mediterranean ecosystems and of great conservation interest. Firstly, domestic O. cuniculus were used to evaluate under experimental conditions the accuracy of total FN and the metabolic FN as diet quality indicators of forages with characteristics similar to those available under natural conditions. Secondly, the accuracy of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) to calculate FN was tested using partial least squares regression. Thirdly, a pilot field study was conducted to monitor FN dynamics from wild O. cuniculus in three different habitats during wet and drought periods. A strong association was found between diet type and total FN and metabolic FN (Pseudo-R2 ? 0.89). It was also found that NIRS calibrations were accurate for depicting nitrogen concentrations (R2 > 0.98 between NIRS and chemical results). Finally, the seasonal FN dynamics measured in the field were consistent with current knowledge on vegetation dynamics and forage limitations in the three habitats. The results support the use of NIRS methods and FN indices as a reliable and affordable approach to monitoring the nutritional quality of rabbit habitats. Potential applications include the assessment of the mechanistic relationships between resource limitations and population abundance, e.g., in relation to natural drought cycles and to habitat interventions aimed at reinforcing rabbit populations. PMID:25893872

  18. Studies on Biology and Ecology of the Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diamondback moths, Plutella xylostella L. were reared with cabbage leaves under field condition at Khao Khor Highland Agricultural Research Station (16-47 degree celsius, 22-96% R.H.). The average duration of the egg, larval (1st and 2nd instar, 3rd instar and 4th instar), pupal and male and female adult stages were 3.21± 0.30, 5.57 ± 0.60, 3.16 ± 1.07, 3.43+0.97, 3.88 ± 1.59, 17.72 ± 2.74 and 16.16 ± 3.93 days respectively. Female laid eggs at 1 day old and the highest number of eggs were counted in the 2nd day of the oviposition period. The number of eggs laid per female averaged 109+77.60 eggs, ranging from 17 to 248 eggs. The life cycle from egg to adult stage was 13-31 days. The population parameters were the cohort generation time (Tc)=23.45 days, the net reproductive rate (Ro)=25 and the finite rate of increase (?)=1.15 time per day respectively. Studies on reproductive system of this insect showed that the developed testes were found in the 4th instar larva while developed ovaries were found after emergence. Male mated many times (average 3.33 times) while almost female mated only once (92%). The ecological life table of this insect was studied in the cabbage field at the Khao Khor Highland Agricultural Research Station. The eggs hatch was 55.89% and the highest mortality occurred in the 1st and 2nd instar larval period (64.37%). The disease and parasites caused the high mortality in the 4th larval and pupal period (49.64 and 46.38%)

  19. Vegetation Dynamics Depending on Ecological Particularities of Bozanta Mare (Maramures County-Romania) Tailing Pound. Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Marian; Leonard M. Cozmuta; Camelia Varga; Anca M. Cozmuta; Eugen Nour

    2009-01-01

    The present study follows an ecological demarch of reintegration in the scenary through revegetation of an anthropic ground, consisting in a waste pond formed from the flotation activity of non-ferrous ores. Problem statement: To support the formation of a compact vegetal layer, having an anti-errosion and a restoration role, a preliminary study was required regarding the spontaneous settlement of different vegetal species. We have followed the specific floristic composition and the biodivers...

  20. Revisiting the Affect Regulation Model of Binge Eating: A Meta-Analysis of Studies using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2011-01-01

    The affect regulation model of binge eating, which posits that patients binge eat to reduce negative affect (NA), has received support from cross-sectional and laboratory-based studies. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves momentary ratings and repeated assessments over time and is ideally suited to identify temporal antecedents and consequences of binge eating. This meta-analytic review includes EMA studies of affect and binge eating. Electronic database and manual searches produce...

  1. Middle and High School Students’ Exposure to Alcohol- and Smoking-Related Media: A Pilot Study Using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Scharf, Deborah M.; Martino, Steven C.; Setodji, Claude M; Staplefoote, B. Lynette; Shadel, William G.

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to assess the feasibility of using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to measure adolescents’ exposure to alcohol and smoking-related media. A sample of 20 middle and high school students completed a two-week EMA protocol in which they monitored exposures to alcohol and smoking-related media. Results showed that adolescents were highly compliant with the study protocol. A total of 255 exposures to alcohol (67%) and smoking (33%) were captured, representing an a...

  2. Study of the ecology of fresh sausages and characterization of lactic acid bacteria populations by molecular methods

    OpenAIRE

    COCOLIN, Luca Simone; Rantsiou, Kalliopi

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a polyphasic approach was used to study the ecology of fresh sausages and to characterize populations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The microbial profile of fresh sausages was monitored from the production day to the 10th day of storage at 4°C. Samples were collected on days 0, 3, 6, and 10, and culture-dependent and -independent methods of detection and identification were applied. Traditional plating and isolation of LAB strains, which were subsequently identifie...

  3. Costa Rican coffee and bananas : A social-ecological study of management practices and their effects on the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sanderson Bellamy, Angelina

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates the variability in management practices on coffee and banana farms in an attempt to identify practices that reduce the environmental impact of export crop production. Different banana production systems are studied to determine their level of environmental impact. Insect sampling and bird surveys are used to assess the level of ecological quality on banana farms and their surrounding environments. The first two studies are based on interview methods and focus more on ...

  4. Metabolic ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Murray M; McCann, Kevin S

    2014-01-01

    Ecological theory that is grounded in metabolic currencies and constraints offers the potential to link ecological outcomes to biophysical processes across multiple scales of organization. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) has emphasized the potential for metabolism to serve as a unified theory of ecology, while focusing primarily on the size and temperature dependence of whole-organism metabolic rates. Generalizing metabolic ecology requires extending beyond prediction and application of standardized metabolic rates to theory focused on how energy moves through ecological systems. A bibliometric and network analysis of recent metabolic ecology literature reveals a research network characterized by major clusters focused on MTE, foraging theory, bioenergetics, trophic status, and generalized patterns and predictions. This generalized research network, which we refer to as metabolic ecology, can be considered to include the scaling, temperature and stoichiometric models forming the core of MTE, as well as bioenergetic equations, foraging theory, life-history allocation models, consumer-resource equations, food web theory and energy-based macroecology models that are frequently employed in ecological literature. We conclude with six points we believe to be important to the advancement and integration of metabolic ecology, including nomination of a second fundamental equation, complementary to the first fundamental equation offered by the MTE. PMID:24028511

  5. ECOLOGICAL AND ENZYMATHICAL STUDY UPON SOIL RESOURCES FROM FOREST ECOSYSTEMS IN MIDDLE PRUT RIVER COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geanina Bireescu

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Rezultatele experimentale prezentate în lucrarea de fa?? fac parte dintr-un studiu ecologic multidisciplinar desf??urat în cadrul Programului Na?ional de Cercetare BIOSTAR în ecosisteme forestiere naturale ?i antropizate din Lunca Prutului (Prisecani Ia?i. Diagnoza ecologic? a solului eviden?iaz? un poten?ial trofic ridicat care nu-i utilizat la optim în sezonul estival foarte secetos. Studiul poten?ialului enzimatic ne prezint? valori mijlocii, ceva mai ridicate în p?duri naturale.

  6. Women and environment. A socio-ecological study for women on the reformation of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study addresses the following issues: contributions to improve our environment; the impact of pollutants on our health; the pollution of food and water; water quality regulations. Protection of the environment is defined as the sum total of measures that safeguard woman's natural environment and maintain a biological equilibrium. The efficiency of technological solutions to protect the environment is strictly limited by ecological factors. The goal of environmental protection is to ensure the survival of womankind. Just like plants and animals, the human race is part of an ecosystem. Once this system is destroyed, there is nothing technical measures of environmental protection can do to reverse the process. Life on earth depends on the equilibrium between the oxygen produced by chlorophyllous plants and the oxygen consumed by human beings, animals and technological processes. My interviews with young women and children show that women could contribute very much to the melioration of the environment. The majority of women is trying to switch to non-chemically engineered products, which improves the quality of our water. Biological gardening is preferred by a small minority of women only, but many women take the separation of waste very seriously. However, individual actions can do little to solve the problem of pollution caused by road and air traffic. Life in the fast lane condemns us to the use of cars and airplanes. In the foreseeable future, this means more rather than less pollution. With genetic engineering developing at a breathtaking rate, it seems impossible to avoid a large-scale modification of our food and agricultural produce. So far, many Austrian women fail to appreciate the trend towards genetic manipulation. Neither on the farm nor in the food products themselves is it possible to distinguish genetically engineered innovations. However, behind the consumer's back, this revolution of the food industry is pushed through at an ever greater speed. Because a majority of the population rejects such foodstuffs outright. Nevertheless, genetically engineered food products have already found their way into Austrian groceries stores, and this development is set to gather pace in years to come. This study gives priority to the question whether women can improve the environment. As I have mentioned before, women can indeed contribute to an improvement of the environment. However, only big ecological organizations can return nature to its pristine state, but any such efforts are currently foiled by the greed for profit of large corporations. As a conclusion of this study, it is fair to say that women can contribute to the reformation of the environment, for instance by reducing the toxic discharge into rivers and lakes, by separating waste and promoting recycled products, and by relying on biological products to promote a healthier lifestyle. The substitution of fossil fuels with electric power or natural gas for heating purposes clearly improves the quality of the air in one's own private environment. Green belts in residential areas and plants in the house are sources of oxygen that protect the respiratory system against damaging environmental influences. The survey also showed that women do not know enough about a healthy lifestyle, but they are eager to learn more about this issue. Several statements revealed interesting experiences. If women are increasingly interested in a healthy environment and turn to biologically farmed natural products, the soil will be able to regenerate, and this would clearly benefit the environment. (author)

  7. Study on heavy metals and ecological risk assessment from Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia sections of the Yellow River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Jun; Liu, Ying

    2013-12-01

    The Yellow River is the most important resource of water supply in northern China. The purpose of this work are to investigate the concentrations and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, the concentrations of eight heavy metals including As, Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn in filtered water and suspended particles from 12 sampling sites of Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia sections of the Yellow River of China were studied by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) and high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS) in this paper. The results implied that all heavy metals in filtered water were lower than the limit standards for drinking water except for Cr (56.9 approximately 71. 5 microg L-1 ). Water quality parameters such as total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and pH were also determined and the contents were low along the river except for TN at S1 (2.48) and S9 (2.38), which exceeded the maximum permitted concentration of Class V for the protection of surface water. In suspended particles, the concentrations of Hg, Cd, Pb and Zn were much higher than those in the background value of soil from local section. Cluster analysis (CA) indicated that same sources for Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn and Pb could be stainless steel and petrochemical industrial activities, while As, Cd and Hg derived from agrochemicals, fertilizers, mining, fuel and coal combustion, respectively. Ecological risk assessment was undertaken using risk index (RI) for sampling sites and ecological risk factor (Er) for heavy metals. Eleven suspension samples existed considerable ecological risk (300.6< RI< 508. 6), while S1 was moderate ecological risk (RI, 299.3). According to Er, Hg had considerable or high ecological risk in Inner Mongolia section, while very high ecological risk for Cd at S11 (396.0), S9 (384. 0) and S5 (373. 3), respectively, implied a high pollution in these sampling sites. The results could provide reliable experimental data and theoretical basis for the relevant departments. PMID:24611380

  8. Analysing ecological data

    CERN Document Server

    Zuur, Alain; Smith, Graham M

    2007-01-01

    This book provides a practical introduction to analyzing ecological data using real data sets. It features 17 case studies covering topics ranging from terrestrial ecology to marine biology and can be used as a template for a reader's own data analysis..

  9. Complex adaptive systems ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2003-01-01

    In the following, I will analyze two articles called Complex Adaptive Systems EcologyI & II (Molin & Molin, 1997 & 2000). The CASE-articles are some of the more quirkyarticles that have come out of the Molecular Microbial Ecology Group - a groupwhere I am currently making observational studies...

  10. Children's Ecology Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussenhop, Martha

    Selected for this listing of children's books are fiction and non-fiction books which add to an understanding of ecology, broadly considered here as the study of the interrelationships of organisms to each other and their environment. General ecology, natural resources, man and his environment, evolution and adaptation, appreciation, survival,…

  11. Molecular studies on the ecology of Listeria monocytogenes in the smoked fish processing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, D M; McCamey, M A; Gall, K L; Scarlett, J M; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M

    2001-01-01

    We have applied molecular approaches, including PCR-based detection strategies and DNA fingerprinting methods, to study the ecology of Listeria monocytogenes in food processing environments. A total of 531 samples, including raw fish, fish during the cold-smoking process, finished product, and environmental samples, were collected from three smoked fish processing facilities during five visits to each facility. A total of 95 (17.9%) of the samples tested positive for L. monocytogenes using a commercial PCR system (BAX for Screening/Listeria monocytogenes), including 57 (27.7%) environmental samples (n = 206), 8 (7.8%) raw material samples (n = 102), 23 (18.1%) samples from fish in various stages of processing(n = 127), and 7 (7.3%) finished product samples (n = 96). L. monocytogenes was isolated from 85 samples (16.0%) using culture methods. Used in conjunction with a 48-h enrichment in Listeria Enrichment Broth, the PCR system had a sensitivity of 91.8% and a specificity of 96.2%. To track the origin and spread of L. monocytogenes, isolates were fingerprinted by automated ribotyping. Fifteen different ribotypes were identified among 85 isolates tested. Ribotyping data established possible contamination patterns, implicating raw materials and the processing environment as potential sources of finished product contamination. Analysis of the distribution of ribotypes revealed that each processing facility had a unique contamination pattern and that specific ribotypes persisted in the environments of two facilities over time (P food processing environments. This information can be used to develop practical recommendations for improved control of this important food-borne pathogen in the food industry. PMID:11133446

  12. Collective trauma in northern Sri Lanka: a qualitative psychosocial-ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somasundaram Daya

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex situations that follow war and natural disasters have a psychosocial impact on not only the individual but also on the family, community and society. Just as the mental health effects on the individual psyche can result in non pathological distress as well as a variety of psychiatric disorders; massive and widespread trauma and loss can impact on family and social processes causing changes at the family, community and societal levels. Method This qualitative, ecological study is a naturalistic, psychosocial ethnography in Northern Sri Lanka, while actively involved in psychosocial and community mental health programmes among the Tamil community. Participatory observation, key informant interviews and focus group discussion with community level relief and rehabilitation workers and government and non-governmental officials were used to gather data. The effects on the community of the chronic, man-made disaster, war, in Northern Sri Lanka were compared with the contexts found before the war and after the tsunami. Results Fundamental changes in the functioning of the family and the community were observed. While the changes after the tsunami were not so prominent, the chronic war situation caused more fundamental social transformations. At the family level, the dynamics of single parent families, lack of trust among members, and changes in significant relationships, and child rearing practices were seen. Communities tended to be more dependent, passive, silent, without leadership, mistrustful, and suspicious. Additional adverse effects included the breakdown in traditional structures, institutions and familiar ways of life, and deterioration in social norms and ethics. A variety of community level interventions were tried. Conclusion Exposure to conflict, war and disaster situations impact on fundamental family and community dynamics resulting in changes at a collective level. Relief, rehabilitation and development programmes to be effective will need to address the problem of collective trauma, particularly using integrated multi-level approaches.

  13. The Social Ecological Challenges of Rural Victim Advocacy: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Shelly A.; Johnson, Melencia; Miller, Michelle Hughes

    2012-01-01

    This article re-centers an ecological model traditionally used to understand the experiences of interpersonal violence victims around the perceptions and experiences of victim advocates. We suggest that the development of such a model might shed light on rural-urban differences in the accessibility and availability of support services in rural…

  14. Study on Ecological Balance of Chinese Higher Education in Popularization Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Gao, Hong-liang

    2009-01-01

    Since the beginning of Chinese higher education expansion in 1999, higher education in terms of scale, speed and structure has been rapid development and beyond the bearing capacity of its ecological balance, input and output of the unbalanced phenomenon between higher education and social environment, the unbalanced phenomenon also appear in…

  15. Using the Urban Environment to Engage Youths in Urban Ecology Field Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael; Lord, Charles; Strauss, Eric; Rosca, Camelia; Langford, Heather; Chavez, Dawn; Deni, Leah

    2006-01-01

    Recent science education reform proponents explicitly put forward the idea that all students, regardless of culture, gender, race, or socioeconomic status, are capable of understanding and doing science. To address this need, the authors have developed and implemented a field-based urban ecology science program to engage traditionally…

  16. Urban Environmental Education: Leveraging Technology and Ecology to Engage Students in Studying the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael; Vaughn, Meredith Houle; Strauss, Eric; Cotter, Lindsey

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the outcomes of the first year of an intensive, urban ecology focused, summer program for urban high school youth. Students in our program conduct scientific investigations of their urban ecosystems while exploring potential career options in science and technology fields. In conducting their investigations, the students…

  17. Ecological Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Alier, Joan

    1994-01-01

    Ecological economics is a recently developed field, which sees the economy as a subsystem of a larger finite global ecosystem. Ecological economists question the sustainability of the economy because of its environmental impacts and its material and energy requirements, and also because of the growth of population. Attempts at assigning money values to environmental services and losses, and attempts at correcting macroeconomic accounting, are part of ecological economics, but its main thrust ...

  18. An ecological study of food desert prevalence and 4th grade academic achievement in New York State school districts

    OpenAIRE

    Seth E. Frndak

    2014-01-01

    Background This ecological study examines the relationship between food desert prevalence and academic achievement at the school district level. Design and methods Sample included 232 suburban and urban school districts in New York State. Multiple open-source databases were merged to obtain: 4th grade science, English and math scores, school district demographic composition (NYS Report Card), regional socioeconomic indicators (American Community Survey), school district quality (US Common Cor...

  19. Health consequences of Chernobyl disaster in Europe in general and in Norway in particular. Literature review and ecological study.

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorov, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Health costs of Chernobyl disaster are still not clear.Main goal of this paper therefore is to investigate health consequences of Chernobyl disaster in Europe (outside the former Soviet Union) as a whole and in Norway in particular as one of the second high contaminated areas after those in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. To do that literature review and ecological study with the Incidence rate ratios analysis are conducted. As a result hypothesis about increased...

  20. Pregnancy outcomes and outdoor air pollution: an ecological study in districts of the Czech Republic 1986-8

    OpenAIRE

    Bobak, M.; Leon, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Outdoor air pollution has consistently been shown to predict mortality. The finding that this association is stronger in infants than in children or adults raises the question whether air pollution could also be related to pregnancy outcomes--such as birthweight and stillbirth. The association between outdoor air pollution and stillbirths and low birthweight in the Czech Republic, where air pollution was high, was examined. METHODS: An ecological study was conducted, with ro...

  1. The quantitative study of marked individuals in ecology, evolution and conservation biology: a foreword to the EURING 2003 Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Senar, J C; Dhondt, A.A.; Conroy, M. J.

    2004-01-01

    Few fields in modern ecology have developed as fast as the analysis of marked individuals in the study of wild animal populations (Seber & Schwarz, 2002). This is the topic of EURING Conferences, which from 1986 have been the premier forum for advances in capture-recapture methodology. In this sense, EURING Conferences still maintain the flavour that originally inspired scientific meetings: to disseminate the very last findings, ideas and results on the field. Traditionally, EURING Conference...

  2. Developing an Internet- and Mobile-Based System to Measure Cigarette Use Among Pacific Islanders: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pike, James Russell; Xie, Bin; Tan, Nasya; Sabado-Liwag, Melanie Dee; Orne, Annette; Toilolo, Tupou; Cen, Steven; May, Vanessa; Lee, Cevadne; Pang, Victor Kaiwi; Rainer, Michelle A; Vaivao, Dorothy Etimani S; Lepule, Jonathan Tana; Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Palmer, Paula Healani

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent prevalence data indicates that Pacific Islanders living in the United States have disproportionately high smoking rates when compared to the general populace. However, little is known about the factors contributing to tobacco use in this at-risk population. Moreover, few studies have attempted to determine these factors utilizing technology-based assessment techniques. Objective The objective was to develop a customized Internet-based Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) sy...

  3. Usage of virtual research laboratory "Climate" prototype for Northern Eurasia climatic and ecological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, Evgeny; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander; Shulgina, Tamara

    2015-04-01

    Reported are some results of Northern Eurasia regional climatic and ecological monitoring and modeling obtained using recently developed prototype of thematic virtual research laboratory (VRL) Climate (http://climate.scert.ru/). The prototype integrates distributed thematic data storage, processing and analysis systems and set of models of complex climatic and environmental processes run on supercomputers. Its specific tools are aimed at high resolution rendering on-going climatic processes occurring in Northern Eurasia and reliable and found prognoses of their dynamics for selected sets of future mankind activity scenario. Currently VRL integrates on the base of geoportal the WRF and «Planet Simulator» models, basic reanalysis, meteorological stations data and support profound statistical analysis of storage and modeled on demand data. In particular, one can run the integrated models, preprocess modeling results data, using dedicated modules for numerical processing perform analysys and visualize obtained results. The prototype can provide specialists involved into multidisciplinary research projects with reliable and practical instruments for integrated research of climate and ecosystems changes on global and regional scales. With its help even a user without programming skills would be able to process and visualize multidimensional observational and model data through unified web-interface using a web-browser. Location, frequency and magnitude of observed in Siberia extremes has been studied using recently added prototype functionality allowing detailed statistical analysis studies of regional climatic extremes. Firstly it was shown that ECMWF ERA Interim Reanalysis data are closest to near surface temperature time series measured at regional meteorological stations. Statistical analysis of ERA Interim daily temperature time series (1979-2012) indicates the asymmetric changes in distribution tails of such extreme indices as warm/cold days/nights. Namely, the warming during winter cold nights is stronger than during warm nights, especially over the north of Siberia. Increases in minimum temperatures are more significant than in maximum temperatures. Warming determined at the high latitudes of the region is achieved mostly due to winter temperature changes. South area of Siberia has slightly cooling during winter and summer. In course of calculations carrying out the prototype automatically generates the archive of calculated fields of extreme temperatures anomalies ready for subsequent multidisciplinary studies of regional climate change impacts. The fields with detailed high spatial and temporal resolution climatic information also can be used by regional decision-makers for adaptation and mitigation measures elaboration. This work is partially supported by the basic research project VIII.80.2.1, and RFBR grants 13-05-12034 and 14-05-00502.

  4. The Growing Trend of Moderate Preterm Births: An Ecological Study in One Region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Emiliana Cristina; Falavina, Larissa Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is a serious public health problem, as it is linked to high rates of neonatal and child morbidity and mortality, with Brazil listed among the countries with the ten highest numbers of premature births. Nonetheless, knowledge is scarce regarding prematurity and associated factors in mid-sized cities. The objective of this study was to analyze the trend of preterm births and associated factors in a municipality located in the state of Paraná, Brazil. Methods This was an ecological time series study of births recorded into the Live Birth Information System for residents of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil, between 2000 and 2013. The polynomial regression model was used for trend analysis of preterm birth, characteristics of the mother, gestation and delivery, and newborn. The association with preterm birth was analyzed using odds ratio (OR). Results A total of 61,634 live births were analyzed, of which 5,632 were preterm births. Prematurity increased from 7.9% in 2000 to 11.2% in 2013 –an average increase of 0.54% per year (r2 = 0.93)–with a growing share of moderate preterm births (32 to Apgar score below 7 at 1 (OR = 4.07; CI = 3.55–4.67) and 5 minutes (OR = 10.88; CI = 7.71–15.36), low birth weight (OR = 38.75; CI = 33.72–44.55) and congenital malformations (OR = 3.18; CI = 2.14–4.74) were associated with preterm birth. A growing trend was observed for multiple pregnancies, with an average annual increase of 0.32% (r2 = 0.90), as well as for C-section birth (2.38% yearly increase). Of all newborn characteristics, Apgar score below 7 at 5 minutes (-0.19% per year) and low birth weight (-1.43%) decreased, whereas congenital malformations rose (0.20% per year). Conclusions Efforts are required to prevent premature delivery, particularly during the moderate period, as well as greater care during the prenatal period towards expectant mothers bearing multiple pregnancies, birth defects, in addition to reducing C-section birth as it may be linked to preterm birth. PMID:26529097

  5. Concern about passive smoking and tobacco control policies in European countries: An ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemsen Marc C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the magnitude of the global tobacco epidemic, the World Health Organisation developed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC, an international legally binding treaty to control tobacco use. Adoption and implementation of specific tobacco control measures within FCTC is an outcome of a political process, where social norms and public opinion play important roles. The objective of our study was to examine how a country’s level of tobacco control is associated with smoking prevalence, two markers of denormalisation of smoking (social disapproval of smoking and concern about passive smoking, and societal support for tobacco control. Methods An ecological study was conducted, using data from two sources. The first source was the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS from 2011, which quantifies the implementation of tobacco control policies in European Union (EU countries. Data on smoking prevalence, societal disapproval of smoking, concern about passive smoking, and societal support for policy measures were taken from the Eurobarometer survey of 2009. Data from Eurobarometer surveys were aggregated to country level. Data from the 27 European Union member states were used. Results Smoking prevalence rates in 2009 were negatively associated with a country’s TCS 2011 score, although not statistically significant (r = ?.25; p = .21. Experience of societal disapproval was positively associated with higher TCS scores, though not significantly (r = .14; p = .48. The same was true for societal support for tobacco control (r = .27; p = .18. The TCS score in 2011 was significantly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .42; p =.03. Support for tobacco control measures was also strongly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .52, p = .006. Conclusions Smokers in countries with a higher TCS score were more concerned about whether their smoke harms others. Further, support for tobacco control measures is higher in countries that have more of these concerned smokers. Concerns about passive smoking seem central in the implementation of tobacco control measures, stressing the importance of continuing to educate the public about the harm from passive smoking.

  6. Miscanthus plants used as an alternative biofuel material. The basic studies on ecology and molecular evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chang-Hung [Graduate Institute of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, College of Life Sciences, China Medical University, Taichung 404 (China)

    2009-08-15

    Miscanthus Anderss, widely distributed in Asia and Pacific Islands, possesses 20 species. Of which 8 species and 1 variety were recorded in Chinese Mainland; 6 species and 1 variety found in Japan; 5 species and 3 varieties distributed in Taiwan; 3 species documented in the Philippines; and rest of species have been recorded in Jawa, eastern Himalaya, and Sikkim. The plant is a C{sub 4} perennial grass with high productivity of biomass. In the 19th and early 20th centuries in Taiwan, Miscanthus was a very important crop used for forage grass, clothing, and shelter, etc. The relatively high germination, and high yield of biomass made the plant available for people of Taiwan including aboriginal. The taxonomic study of Miscanthus plants was much done by several scientists, and its ecological study has been only taken by the present author since 1972. Chou and his associates paid a great attention to elucidate the mechanism of dominance of Miscanthus vegetation and found that allelopathy plays an important role. In addition, the population biology of Miscanthus taxa by using polyacrylamide gel electrophoreses technique to examine the patterns of peroxidase and esterase among populations (over 100) of Miscanthus in Taiwan were conducted. They also elucidated the phylogenetic relationship among species and varieties in Taiwan. Chou and Ueng proposed an evolutionary trend of Miscanthus species, indicating that the Miscanthus sinensis was assumed to be the origin of Miscanthus Anderss, which evolved to M. sinensis var. formosana, and M. sinensis var. flavidus, and M. sinensis var. transmorrisonensis, and Miscanthus floridulus was thought to be an out group of M. sinensis complex. Moreover, molecular phylogeny was attempted to clarify the population heterogeneity of M. sinensis complex, resulting in a substantial information. It would be available for making hybridization between Miscanthus species and its related species, such as Saccharum (sugar cane) spp. which is a high energy resource plant. European scientists already brought Asian Miscanthus species and bred a new hybrid called Miscanthus x giganteus, which is now being used as a biofuel material in Europe and would be widely used in the world in the near future if fundamental questions, such as fiber transformation to alcohol or other breeding techniques, are answered. (author)

  7. The ecology of the planktonic diatom Cyclotella and its implications for global environmental change studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saros, J E; Anderson, N J

    2015-05-01

    The fossil record of diatoms in lake sediments can be used to assess the effects of climate variability on lake ecosystems if ecological relationships between diatom community structure and environmental parameters are well understood. Cyclotella sensu lato taxa are a key group of diatoms that are frequently dominant members of phytoplankton communities in low- to moderate-productivity lakes. Their relative abundances have fluctuated significantly in palaeolimnological records spanning over a century in arctic, alpine, boreal and temperate lakes. This suggests that these species are sensitive to environmental change and may serve as early indicators of ecosystem effects of global change. Yet patterns of change in Cyclotella species are not synchronous or unidirectional across, or even within, regions, raising the question of how to interpret these widespread changes in diatom community structure. We suggest that the path forward in resolving seemingly disparate records is to identify clearly the autecology of Cyclotella species, notably the role of nutrients, dissolved organic carbon and light, coupled with better consideration of both the mechanisms controlling lake thermal stratification processes and the resulting effects of changing lake thermal regimes on light and nutrients. Here we begin by reviewing the literature on the resource requirements of common Cyclotella taxa, illustrating that many studies reveal the importance of light, nitrogen, phosphorus, and interactions among these resources in controlling relative abundances. We then discuss how these resource requirements can be linked to shifts in limnological processes driven by environmental change, including climate-driven change in lakewater temperature, thermal stratification and nutrient loading, as well as acidification-driven shifts in nutrients and water clarity. We examine three case studies, each involving two lakes from the same region that have disparate trends in the relative abundances of the same species, and illustrate how the mechanisms by which these species abundances are changing can be deciphered. Ultimately, changes in resource availability and water clarity are key factors leading to shifts in Cyclotella abundances. Tighter integration of the autecology of this important group of diatoms with environmental change and subsequent alterations in limnological processes will improve interpretations of palaeolimnological records, and clarify the drivers of seemingly disparate patterns in fossil records showing widespread and rapid changes across the northern hemisphere. PMID:24917134

  8. Age adjustment in ecological studies: using a study on arsenic ingestion and bladder cancer as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo How-Ran

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its limitations, ecological study design is widely applied in epidemiology. In most cases, adjustment for age is necessary, but different methods may lead to different conclusions. To compare three methods of age adjustment, a study on the associations between arsenic in drinking water and incidence of bladder cancer in 243 townships in Taiwan was used as an example. Methods A total of 3068 cases of bladder cancer, including 2276 men and 792 women, were identified during a ten-year study period in the study townships. Three methods were applied to analyze the same data set on the ten-year study period. The first (Direct Method applied direct standardization to obtain standardized incidence rate and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis. The second (Indirect Method applied indirect standardization to obtain standardized incidence ratio and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis instead. The third (Variable Method used proportions of residents in different age groups as a part of the independent variables in the multiple regression models. Results All three methods showed a statistically significant positive association between arsenic exposure above 0.64 mg/L and incidence of bladder cancer in men and women, but different results were observed for the other exposure categories. In addition, the risk estimates obtained by different methods for the same exposure category were all different. Conclusions Using an empirical example, the current study confirmed the argument made by other researchers previously that whereas the three different methods of age adjustment may lead to different conclusions, only the third approach can obtain unbiased estimates of the risks. The third method can also generate estimates of the risk associated with each age group, but the other two are unable to evaluate the effects of age directly.

  9. Combined assessment and regulation on ecological land use and water demand of the river system: a case study in Luanhe River, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, D. H.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Qin, T. L.

    2011-10-01

    With economic and social development, ecological water and land use of the river system were seriously misappropriated, which resulted in overall degradation of the river systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks of regionalisation on the eco-environmental function of the river systems were preliminarily formulated. According to the river eco-environmental functions, Luanhe River was regionalised into four types of first-class functional areas, i.e., ecological preservation areas, habitat restoration areas, ecological buffer areas and development and utilisation areas. Combined with the main functions of all functional areas, ecological land use of the river system in Luanhe River was assessed and planned. The total area of basic ecological land use was 876.98 km2; that of restrictive ecological land use was 1745.52 km2; that of ecological land use of the river system returned from farmland was 284.25 km2; and that returned from construction land was 17.35 km2. Combined with prototype observation experiments, the average minimum ecological flow of mainstreams in upper and middle reaches of the Luanhe River was 4.896 m3 s-1 with the habitat method. The evaporation and seepage consumption of the river system in Luanhe River and vegetation consumption in riparian zones were about 133 million m3 and 145 million m3 per year, respectively. Downwards from the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system, the mainstream of the Luanhe River was the crucial reach for regulation on instream ecological water use. It was required to speed up ecological land use planning of the river system and strengthen the regulation of ecological water use in important lower reaches of the Luanhe River under the condition of competitive water demand.

  10. The use of echosounders for long-term studies of the overwintering ecology of sprat (Sprattus sprattus)

    KAUST Repository

    Solberg, Ingrid

    2013-06-01

    Upward-facing echosounders, were used to study the overwintering ecology of sprat during four winters in a Norwegian fjord. The echosounders provided continuous data at a temporal resolution of seconds and enabled studies of individual swimming behavior of sprat in addition to population behavior. The long-term coverage of several winters enabled us to study how the sprat responded to different environmental conditions, like ice-free waters versus ice covered waters and hypoxic conditions versus well-oxygenated waters. The studies unveiled that the overwintering strategies of the sprat are flexible, varying in accordance with environmental conditions. © 2013 IEEE.

  11. Ecological Footprint as a tool for local sustainability: The municipality of Piacenza (Italy) as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ecological Footprint is a synthetic index useful to assess sustainability of anthropic systems. Its operational use, however, has been hampered by some difficulties, especially at a local scale. Being conceived as a measure of the biologically productive area requested to sustain individual consumptions in a human community, it leaves out the impacts associated to economic activities. Accordingly, the index cannot contribute much to define local policies, whose target are economic activities, and only marginally affect citizens' behaviour. Ecological Footprint calculation scheme can be modified to include the depletion of natural capital due to local activities such as industry, agriculture, tertiary sector, transport, waste and water management. We provide here an approach which takes into account these different aspects, while we discuss its application to a municipal area as a case study

  12. Aquatic Ecology Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Population studies included stock-progeny models of use in impact analyses; density-dependent function for fishing mortality; and the effect of growth curve and sampling regime on various methods for estimating aquatic insect production; a computer simulation. Studies on ecological effects included radiological and chemical effects. Ecological transport studies were conducted on transport of radionuclides and trace elements. Other activities included environmental monitoring of aquatic ecosystems, conferences, and marine studies

  13. Model development in freshwater ecology with a case study using evolutionary computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kyun Kim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecological modeling faces some unique problems in dealing with complex environment-organism relationships,making it one of the toughest domains that might be encountered by a modeler. Newer technologies and ecosystemmodeling paradigms have recently been proposed, all as part of a broader effort to reduce the uncertainty in modelsarising from qualitative and quantitative imperfections in the ecological data. In this paper, evolutionary computationmodeling approaches are introduced and proposed as useful modeling tools for ecosystems. The results of our casestudy support the applicability of an algal predictive model constructed via genetic programming. In conclusion, wepropose that evolutionary computation may constitute a powerful tool for the modeling of highly complex objects, suchas river ecosystems.

  14. The DAE-BRNS initiative on thermal ecological studies relevance and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial development has its costs and benefits and electric power generation is no exception. The costs include not only the financial burden but also the ecological impact on the environment and the appreciation of such costs is, slowly but surely, increasing globally. In several industrial processes involving generation or consumption of power, naturally occurring water bodies serve as heat sinks. Electric power production can lead to rise in temperatures in two distinct ways, namely (i) a direct heated water discharge, of (ii) indirect global warming through CO2 and other green house gases (GHGs). The dissipation of heat through the plant cooling water systems is the only heated effluents can effect the growth, development and distribution of flora and fauna in the surroundings, and if so to what extent, is an important issue of discussion at this meeting. DAE has taken an initiative to investigate the thermal ecology in the environment around an existing coastal (Kalpakkam) and inland (Kaiga) nuclear power plant

  15. The BAARA (Biological AutomAted RAdiotracking) System: A New Approach in Ecological Field Studies.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    ?e?ucha, Šimon; Bartoni?ka, T.; Jedli?ka, Petr; ?ížek, Martin; Hlouša, Ond?ej; Lu?an, R.; Horá?ek, I.

    -, FEB 25 (2015), e0116785:1-19. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0054; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA AV ?R IAA601110905 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : radiotracking * behavior Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  16. Studies on the Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution of Palms (Arecaceae) with Focus on the Americas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.

    -scale palm distributions, reflected in phylogenetic turnover among regional assemblages. A novel analytical framework was developed to separate the effects of phylogenetic niche conservatism and secular dispersal limitation. (iii) Local palm communities in the Americas were investigated in detail, beginning...... diversity and distributions were found to depend on both current ecological processes and the dynamics of speciation, extinction, niche evolution, and secular migration in response to past environmental change....

  17. Study on the Collaborative Innovation Oriented SDN Enterprise Ecological Collaboration Model

    OpenAIRE

    Li Chen; Fuyuan Xu

    2011-01-01

    By comparing the similarities between SDN (Supply and Demand Network with multifunctional and opening characteristics for enterprise) and natural ecosystem, the ecological characteristics of SDN enterprise are summarized in this article. The relationship among biological species groups in the natural ecosystem is used to describe the relationships of SDN enterprise in the collaborative innovation, and the collaborative innovation model among SDN enterprises based on the biology is generalized...

  18. Subantarctic forest ecology : case study of a conifer-broadleaved stand in Patagonia, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Dezzotti, A.

    2000-01-01

    In the temperate rainforests of southern South America, the tree genus Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae) is the dominant in extension and abundance on zonal soils at different latitudes and altitudes, as well as on intrazonal (e.g., wetlands) and azonal soils (e.g., morrenic and fluvioglacial deposits). Although concern on the global role of this biome is currently important, the existing level of ecological knowledge on its functioning is still inadequate to design a sound management to maintain or...

  19. Sampling design in large-scale vegetation studies: Do not sacrifice ecological thinking to statistical purism!.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Role?ek, J.; Chytrý, M.; Hájek, Michal; Lvon?ík, S.; Tichý, L.

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 42, - (2007), s. 199-208. ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA6163303; GA ?R(CZ) GA206/05/0020 Grant ostatní: GA AV ?R(CZ) KJB601630504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Ecological methodology * Large-scale vegetation patterns * Macroecology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.133, year: 2007

  20. Xylitol and its effect on oral ecology : clinical studies in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Lif Holgerson, Pernilla

    2007-01-01

    Xylitol, classified as a natural sugar substitute, has for about 35 years been known as an agent that may act against caries. The mechanism of action; how it inhibits mutans streptococci (MS) and the clinical dose-response relationship are not however fully investigated. The general aim of the investigations was to evaluate the effect of xylitol on oral ecology in children and adolescents. A series of experimental and controlled clinical trials were performed in which samples of saliva and pl...

  1. An ecological study of the KSC Turning Basin and adjacent waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, T. A.; Lasater, J. A.; Clark, K. B.; Kalajian, E. H.

    1974-01-01

    The conditions existing in the waters and bottoms of the Turning Basin, the borrow pit near Pad 39A, and the Barge Canal connecting them were investigated to determine the ecological significance of the chemical, biological, and microbiological parameters. The water quality, biological, microbiological findings are discussed. It is recommended that future dredging activities be limited in depth, and that fill materials should not be removed down to the clay strata.

  2. The Evolutionary Ecology of Cooperation & Conflict: A case study of Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of large-scale cooperation in humans presents one of the most crucial evolutionary puzzles yet to be solved. Two theoretical frameworks - inclusive fitness and cultural group selection – have been proposed to explain this evolutionary dilemma. Inclusive fitness theory expects individuals to behave according to an individual fitness maximising strategy, which varies with individual and ecological parameters. Cultural group selection proposes that inter-group competition permits t...

  3. Water quality assessment of aquatic ecosystems using ecological criteria – case study in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Damyanova, Sonya; Ivanova, Iliana; Ignatova, Nadka

    2014-01-01

    Four aquatic ecosystems (two rivers and two dams) situated in the western part of Bulgaria were investigated over a three years’ period. The River Egulya and Petrohan dam are situated in mountainous regions at about 1000 m altitude, and are not influenced by any anthropogenic sources. Petrohan dam is a site for long-term ecosystem research as a part of Bulgarian long-term ecological research network. The other two systems belong to populated industrial areas. The River Martinovska flows throu...

  4. Study on the Development of Outdoor Recreation Product Considering the Ecology Aspect in Wana Wisata Curug Cilember (WWCC, Kabupaten Bogor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurie Purnamasari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Recreation development is usually oriented toward on the mass tourism to maximise a number of tourists and rarely put the environmental aspect into consideration.  This created an effect on the sustainability of ecology.  This study’s emphasis is on figuring out an alternative of outdoor recreation product which based on the ecology aspect to support the development of outdoor recreation in the Wana Wisata Curug Cilember (WWCC. This study put the characteristic of tourist and local people into consideration which are describe the product of ecology recreation in order to achieve an ideal product that has not been reached previously and still need more serious effort.  Analysis descriptive with qualitative and quantitative approach is used in this study.  SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats and descriptive statistic are considered for alternative outdoor recreation product while the AHP (Analysis Hierarchy Process has been  used to achieve a priority product for implementation.  The findings suggested a diversification strategy or S-T (Strengths – Threats was chosen to develop the products of recreation in WWCC.  The priority of these products based on the AHP value are as follows: a Water falls (0.2700, b Natural scenery (0.1623, c Camping (0.1405, d Hiking (0.1073, e Theraphy of water fall energy (0.0885,  f Plants viewing (0.0665, g Wildlife viewing (0.0525 and h Outbound (0.0380.   Key words: Outdoor recreation product, ecology, WWCC, Bogor Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  5. Linking Ecological and Perceptual Assessments for Environmental Management: a Coral Reef Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Dinsdale

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrating information from a range of community members in environmental management provides a more complete assessment of the problem and a diversification of management options, but is difficult to achieve. To investigate the relationship between different environmental interpretations, I compared three distinct measures of anchor damage on coral reefs: ecological measures, perceptual meanings, and subjective health judgments. The ecological measures identified an increase in the number of overturned corals and a reduction in coral cover, the perceptual meanings identified a loss of visual quality, and the health judgments identified a reduction in the health of the coral reef sites associated with high levels of anchoring. Combining the perceptual meanings and health judgments identified that the judgment of environmental health was a key feature that both scientific and lay participants used to describe the environment. Some participants in the survey were familiar with the coral reef environment, and others were not. However, they provided consistent judgment of a healthy coral reef, suggesting that these judgments were not linked to present-day experiences. By combining subjective judgments and ecological measures, the point at which the environment is deemed to lose visual quality was identified; for these coral reefs, if the level of damage rose above 10.3% and the cover of branching corals dropped below 17.1%, the reefs were described as unhealthy. Therefore, by combining the information, a management agency can involve the community in identifying when remedial action is required or when management policies are effectively maintaining a healthy ecosystem.

  6. STUDY CONCERNING FOREST ECOLOGIC RECONSTRUCTIUON ON DEGRADED LAND IN RANGE OCOLUL SILVIC “VALEA CIBINULUI”, SALISTE, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert BLAJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the stationary conditions, determine solutions to improve degraded land, assessing the cost of ecological restoration work needed in the area of improving degraded lands at Rapa - Cop?cel, estimated benefits of the project and its viability. Objectives of the paper: need to introduce in the circuit of productive forest lands within the improvement of the area "La Rapa - Cop?cel" danger zone where activation of the phenomena of degradation (erosion , landslides predominate. Out of 102.33 ha as area for improvement, the effective area of 101.6 ha is forested, representing a difference of 0.73 ha, 1.2 m wide strip that is to be the place for hedges. Viability of the project results from the ratio calculated benefit/cost = 2.3 which justifies the need and opportunity for investment. Opportunity project results in immediate and potential beneficial effects of the a forestation namely stabilization by stopping land erosion and landslides with positive influences on human settlements, infrastructure and communication lines, reducing the intensity of land degradation processes and the gradual improvement their production capacity as the direct effect of forest cultures, the role of forests in improving the main factors of environmental water, air, climate, reducing extreme values of climatic factors (temperature, evapotranspiration, wind speed, humidity and air purification by the ozoning phyithoncide releasing the destructive effect of microbes; regulating rainfall, ensuring constant and permanent water flow, reducing the effects of drought and floods, improving stationary conditions for the maintenance and development of herbaceous vegetation and forest. It specifies the role and sanogene functions of the forest – ambient of the forest, an constructive and necessary factor for the ecosystems and human health, and its other roles: aesthetic role "attribute of all forests" - contemplating a sylvan landscape with positive effects on the psyche (lights, shadows, colors, contrasts, echo, thus improving the appearance of the landscape area surrounding Loamnes; diversifying and increasing social functions, conservation of biodiversity, creating a favorable climate for wildlife, creating database, nectarous economic effects are related to obtaining wood in a wood shortage area.

  7. An ecological time-series study of heat-related mortality in three European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Europe has experienced warmer summers in the past two decades and there is a need to describe the determinants of heat-related mortality to better inform public health activities during hot weather. We investigated the effect of high temperatures on daily mortality in three cities in Europe (Budapest, London, and Milan, using a standard approach. Methods An ecological time-series study of daily mortality was conducted in three cities using Poisson generalized linear models allowing for over-dispersion. Secular trends in mortality and seasonal confounding factors were controlled for using cubic smoothing splines of time. Heat exposure was modelled using average values of the temperature measure on the same day as death (lag 0 and the day before (lag 1. The heat effect was quantified assuming a linear increase in risk above a cut-point for each city. Socio-economic status indicators and census data were linked with mortality data for stratified analyses. Results The risk of heat-related death increased with age, and females had a greater risk than males in age groups ?65 years in London and Milan. The relative risks of mortality (per °C above the heat cut-point by gender and age were: (i Male 1.10 (95%CI: 1.07–1.12 and Female 1.07 (1.05–1.10 for 75–84 years, (ii M 1.10 (1.06–1.14 and F 1.08 (1.06–1.11 for ?85 years in Budapest (?24°C; (i M 1.03 (1.01–1.04 and F 1.07 (1.05–1.09, (ii M 1.05 (1.03–1.07 and F 1.08 (1.07–1.10 in London (?20°C; and (i M 1.08 (1.03–1.14 and F 1.20 (1.15–1.26, (ii M 1.18 (1.11–1.26 and F 1.19 (1.15–1.24 in Milan (?26°C. Mortality from external causes increases at higher temperatures as well as that from respiratory and cardiovascular disease. There was no clear evidence of effect modification by socio-economic status in either Budapest or London, but there was a seemingly higher risk for affluent non-elderly adults in Milan. Conclusion We found broadly consistent determinants (age, gender, and cause of death of heat related mortality in three European cities using a standard approach. Our results are consistent with previous evidence for individual determinants, and also confirm the lack of a strong socio-economic gradient in heat health effects currently in Europe.

  8. Urban Sound Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    share the characteristics of site specificity. However, this article will consider the artwork in a broader context by re-examining how sound installations relate to the urban environment. For that purpose, this article brings together ecology terms from acoustic ecology of the sound theories of the...... 1970s while developing them into recent definitions of ecology in urban studies. Finally, we unfold our framing of urban sound ecologies with three case analyses: a sound intervention in Berlin, a symphony for wind instruments in Copenhagen and a video walk in a former railway station in Kassel. The...... article concludes that the ways in which recent sound installations work with urban ecologies vary. While two of the examples blend into the urban environment, the other transfers the concert format and its mode of listening to urban space. Last, and in accordance with recent soundscape research, we point...

  9. Exploring the Mechanisms of Ecological Land Change Based on the Spatial Autoregressive Model: A Case Study of the Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Xie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecological land is one of the key resources and conditions for the survival of humans because it can provide ecosystem services and is particularly important to public health and safety. It is extremely valuable for effective ecological management to explore the evolution mechanisms of ecological land. Based on spatial statistical analyses, we explored the spatial disparities and primary potential drivers of ecological land change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone of China. The results demonstrated that the global Moran’s I value is 0.1646 during the 1990 to 2005 time period and indicated signi?cant positive spatial correlation (p < 0.05. The results also imply that the clustering trend of ecological land changes weakened in the study area. Some potential driving forces were identified by applying the spatial autoregressive model in this study. The results demonstrated that the higher economic development level and industrialization rate were the main drivers for the faster change of ecological land in the study area. This study also tested the superiority of the spatial autoregressive model to study the mechanisms of ecological land change by comparing it with the traditional linear regressive model.

  10. Ecological Multilayer Networks: A New Frontier for Network Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Pilosof, Shai; Kéfi, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Networks provide a powerful approach to address myriad phenomena across ecology. Ecological systems are inherently 'multilayered'. For instance, species interact with one another in different ways and those interactions vary spatiotemporally. However, ecological networks are typically studied as ordinary (i.e., monolayer) networks. 'Multilayer networks' are currently at the forefront of network science, but ecological multilayer network studies have been sporadic and have not taken advantage of rapidly developing theory. Here we present the latest concepts and tools of multilayer network theory and discuss their application to ecology. This novel framework for the study of ecological multilayer networks encourages ecologists to move beyond monolayer network studies and facilitates ways for doing so. It thereby paves the way for novel, exciting research directions in network ecology.

  11. Environmental exposure to mineral fibers in New Caledonia: an ecological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, F.; Ambrosi, J.

    2013-05-01

    Inhalation of asbestos and other fibrous minerals causes lung cancer and other malignancies, specifically malignant mesothelioma (MM). MM is an aggressive pleural tumor that presents with a median latency period of 30-40 years from initial fiber exposure. Due to occupational exposure, MM incidence is 4-8 times higher in men as compared to women. In New Caledonia (NC), very high incidences of MM and lung cancer were observed in both men and women, suggesting an environmental origin of exposure. Although nickel mining and the traditional use of tremolite-containing whitewash were suspected causes of MM, numerous MM cases have been observed in areas lacking these risk factors. We carried out an ecological study of MM incidence in NC and identified a study area that included those counties having the highest MM incidences as well as counties lacking MM. We conducted epidemiological and environmental investigations for each of the 100 tribes living within this area. Residential history was assessed for each MM case, and samples of each quarry, road, and whitewash were analyzed to determine the nature of any mineral fibers. We analyzed the environmental determinants of MM, including geology, mineralogy, plant cover, land shape and human activities as well as use of whitewash, by using two univariate and multivariate statistical methods: 1) a logistic regression to compare tribes with and without MM cases and calculate the odds ratios, (OR) 2) the Poisson regression to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRR) for each factor. While most MM cases among Caucasians were observed in men with a mean age of 72, indicating occupational exposure, Melanesians exhibited elevated MM incidence in both men and women at a mean age of 60. A sex ratio close to 1 compounded with the relatively young ages of MM cases confirmed environmental causation within the Melanesian population. We found one significant and two secondary spatial clusters of MM in tribal areas. No temporal cluster was observed. We identified several natural sources of mineral fibers in the study area, including clay-like white soils containing tremolite-actinolite, fibrous antigorite deposits, and veins of chrysotile in peridotite massifs, in addition to multiple serpentinite quarries predominantly containing antigorite. Statistical analyses revealed that the use of serpentinite to pave roads was the greatest risk factor for MM (OR=495.0, 95%CI:46.2-4679.7; multivariate IRR=13.0, 95%CI:10.2-16.6). Other MM risk factors in order of importance were the presence of antigorite, proximity to serpentinite quarries, proximity to peridotite massifs, and presence of chrysotile. Dense vegetation and land slope were protective factors. Whitewash use was not related to MM incidence. Many natural fibrous minerals are not commercially used as asbestos and are therefore not regulated. However, our study demonstrated that non-regulated antigorite fibers are related to cancer, and that soils containing these minerals pose an environmental risk to the population when the fibers are released into the air by weathering or by human activities. Regulation of additional fibrous minerals is therefore suggested.

  12. Future ecological studies of Brazilian headwater streams under global-changes Estudos ecológicos futuros em riachos de cabeceira na perspectiva de mudanças globais

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Callisto; Adriano Sanches Melo; Darcilio Fernandes Baptista; José Francisco Gonçalves Junior; Manuel Augusto Simões Graça; Fernanda Gaudio Augusto

    2012-01-01

    This paper results from discussions triggered during the "Stream Ecology Symposium" that took place at the XIII Congress of the Brazilian Society of Limnology in September of 2011 in Natal, Brazil. Based on our experiences, we have raised several questions regarding ecological studies of headwater streams facing threats under global-changes and proposed numerous subjects to be addressed in future studies in Brazil. These studies deal with the necessity of knowing species biology and the elabo...

  13. Respuesta celular de línea de hepatoma humano (HepG2) al estrés hipotérmico con recuperación: Inducción de la expresión de Hsp60, Hsp70, y Hsf1 / Human hepatoma cell line (Hep G2) cellular response to hypothermic stress with recovery: Induction of Hsp70, Hsp60 and Hsf1 expression

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alegna, Rada; Elizabeth, Merentes; Marianela, Rodríguez; Guillermo, Anselmi; Mirian, Strauss.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizó la respuesta celular de células HepG2 expuestas a hipotermia con posterior recuperación. Los hallazgos ultraestructurales en células sometidas a estrés hipotérmico incluyeron mitocondrias edematizadas, núcleos picnóticos, vacuolas y reorganización nucleolar en forma de ani [...] llo. Tales cambios están relacionados con diferencias significativas en la inducción de la expresión de Hsp60, Hsp70 inducible y Hsf 1 monomérico en todas las muestras tratadas, pero no de Hsc70. La respuesta celular a la hipotermia puede ser relacionada con la inducción sinergística de las Hsp Abstract in english The cell response of human HepG2 cells exposed to hypothermia with rewarming was analyzed. Ultrastructural findings in hypothermic stressed cells showed swollen mitochondria, dispersed chromatin, vacuoles and ring-shape nucleolar reorganization. These changes were coupled with significative differen [...] ces in the induction of Hsp60, inducible Hsp70 and monomeric Hsf1 in all treated samples, but not in Hsc 70 expression. Cellular response to hypothermia could be associated with the synergistic induction of Hsp expression

  14. Terrestrial animal ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Animal Ecology project is an integral part of the terrestrial ecology program. For convenience, it is reported separately because of the specialized nature of its techniques. It includes studies to characterize faunal populations taxonomically and ecologically and to estimate density and biomass of important mammal, bird, herpetofauna, and invertebrate populations. Extensive studies of small mammal populations conducted in past years are being summarized for open literature publication. Methodology and techniques developed in the animal ecology program are expected to be vital to studies to be initiated under a newly funded 189 entitled Radioecology of Waste Management Zones. These kinds of supportive studies will be needed to determine dietary habits of important animals inhabiting waste management zones, construction of realistic food chain models, and estimating radioactivity doses to biota

  15. Green Turtle Trophic Ecology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently conducting a study of green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) trophic ecology in the eastern Pacific. Tissue samples and stable carbon and stable...

  16. Testing Metabolic Theory of Ecology on the local scale: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Dany?ow, Alexia; Ulrich, Werner; Ilieva-Makulec, Krassimira; Olejniczak, Izabella; Hajdamowicz, Izabela; Sta?ska, Marzena; Uvarov, Alexei

    2013-01-01

    Data on the density and the body mass of a single community of soil fauna were collected and metabolic rates were calculated from the literature data to test some predictions of the metabolic theory of ecology on the local scale. Part of the results are in accordance with the theory: power functions were found between the metabolic rate and the body mass, and between the density and the body mass. These two relationships have opposite exponents inducing that total population energy use is ind...

  17. Heavy metal pollution and potential ecological risks in rivers: a case study from southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protano, Carmela; Zinnà, Loredana; Giampaoli, Saverio; Romano Spica, Vincenzo; Chiavarini, Salvatore; Vitali, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    We monitored heavy metal (As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) concentrations in surface water, sediments, and oligochaetes in four major rivers in Calabria (southern Italy) over the course of 1 year. As, Cd, and Pb showed accumulation factors of 10(3)-10(5) for water to sediment and 1-10 for sediment to oligochaetes. Hg showed a water to sediment accumulation factor of 10-100. Finally, Hg concentrations exceeded the Italian quality standard for freshwater in all of the rivers, and As concentrations in sediments exceeded the respective Canadian standard. However, the application of an ecological risk assessment method indicated low risks for all monitored rivers. PMID:24217626

  18. Activation of a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) breadboard facility - Wheat growth studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, William M.

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) will include subsystems for biomass production, food processing, and waste management in space. This paper discusses the CELSS Breadboard program, which is a research project for integration and evaluation of concepts and techniques of the CELSS facility, with special attention given to the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). The design of the BPC and of its subsystems for nutrient delivery, atmospheric control, and computer control are discussed together with the subsystem control and monitoring parameter requirements. Results from preliminary wheat-growth tests in the BPC are included.

  19. Agronomic and ecological studies on potato production in Southwest China. Seed and crop management.

    OpenAIRE

    He, W

    1997-01-01

    Potato is an important crop in sub-tropical Southwest China, where it is double-cropped in diverse ecological systems. Yields are higher at higher elevation. Spring crops show higher yields but lower light use efficiencies than autumn crops, especially at higher altitudes. The gaps between the actual and potential yields are mainly due to insufficient utilization of radiation and low light use efficiency of the actual crops.Earlier planting in spring increased yield at 500 m asl. At 1200 m as...

  20. Summarizing history of the Nevada Applied Ecology Groups' environmental studies of transuranics and other radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents historical summaries of the research programs at the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG). NAEG was formed in 1970 as an outgrowth of the formation of the Office of Effects Evaluation and an anticipation by NV management of what was to become the National Environmental Policy Act. The objectives of the NAEG programs were: (1) delineate locations of contamination; (2) determine concentrations in ecosystem components; (3) quantify rates of movement among ecosystem components; and (4) evaluate potential dose from plutonium and other radionuclides

  1. Bowhead Whale Feeding Ecology Study (BOWFEST): Aerial Survey in Chukchi and Beaufort Seas conducted from 2007-08-23 to 2011-09-16 (NCEI Accession 0131425)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Bowhead Whale Feeding Ecology Study (BOWFEST) was initiated in May 2007 through an Interagency Agreement between the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM)...

  2. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  3. Development of a zoning-based environmental-ecological coupled model for lakes: a case study of Baiyangdian Lake in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y. W.; Xu, M. J.; Xu, F.; Wu, S. R.; Yin, X. A.

    2014-06-01

    Environmental/ecological models are widely used for lake management as they provide a means to understand physical, chemical, and biological processes in highly complex ecosystems. Most research has focused on the development of environmental (water quality) and ecological models, separately. Limited studies were developed to couple the two models, and in these limited coupled models, a lake was regarded as a whole for analysis (i.e. considering the lake to be one well-mixed box), which is appropriate for small-scale lakes but is not sufficient to capture spatial variations within middle-scale or large-scale lakes. In response to this problem, this paper seeks to establish a zoning-based environmental-ecological coupled model for a lake. Hierarchical cluster analysis was adopted to determine the number of zones in a given lake based on hydrological, water quality, and ecological data analysis. The MIKE 21 model was used to construct 2-D hydrodynamics and water quality simulations. STELLA software was used to create a lake ecological model that can simulate the spatial variations of ecological condition based on flow field distribution results generated by MIKE 21. Baiyangdian Lake, the largest freshwater lake in northern China, was adopted as the study case. The results showed that the new model is promising for predicting spatial variations of ecological conditions in response to changes in lake water quantity and quality, and could be useful for lake management.

  4. Development of a zoning-based environmental-ecological-coupled model for lakes: a case study of Baiyangdian Lake in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y. W.; Xu, M. J.; Xu, F.; Wu, S. R.; Yin, X. A.

    2014-02-01

    Environmental/ecological models are widely used for lake management as they provide a means to understand physical, chemical and biological processes in highly complex ecosystems. Most research focused on the development of environmental (water quality) and ecological models, separately. Limited studies were developed to couple the two models, and in these limited coupled models a lake was regarded as a whole for analysis (i.e., considering the lake to be one well-mixed box), which was appropriate for small-scale lakes and was not sufficient to capture spatial variations within middle-scale or large-scale lakes. In response to this problem, this paper seeks to establish a zoning-based environmental-ecological-coupled model for a lake. The hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was adopted to determine the number of zones for a lake based on the analysis of hydrological, water quality and ecological data. MIKE21 model was used to construct two-dimensional hydrodynamics and water quality simulations. STELLA software was used to create a lake ecological model which can simulate the spatial variations of ecological condition based on flow field distribution results generated by MIKE21. The Baiyangdian Lake, the largest freshwater lake in Northern China, was adopted as the study case. The results showed that the new model was promising to predict the spatial variation trends of ecological condition in response to the changes of water quantity and water quality for lakes, and could provide a great convenience for lake management.

  5. Microarrays in ecological research: A case study of a cDNA microarray for plant-herbivore interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gase Klaus

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technology allows researchers to simultaneously monitor changes in the expression ratios (ERs of hundreds of genes and has thereby revolutionized most of biology. Although this technique has the potential of elucidating early stages in an organism's phenotypic response to complex ecological interactions, to date, it has not been fully incorporated into ecological research. This is partially due to a lack of simple procedures of handling and analyzing the expression ratio (ER data produced from microarrays. Results We describe an analysis of the sources of variation in ERs from 73 hybridized cDNA microarrays, each with 234 herbivory-elicited genes from the model ecological expression system, Nicotiana attenuata, using procedures that are commonly used in ecologic research. Each gene is represented by two independently labeled PCR products and each product was arrayed in quadruplicate. We present a robust method of normalizing and analyzing ERs based on arbitrary thresholds and statistical criteria, and characterize a "norm of reaction" of ERs for 6 genes (4 of known function, 2 of unknown with different ERs as determined across all analyzed arrays to provide a biologically-informed alternative to the use of arbitrary expression ratios in determining significance of expression. These gene-specific ERs and their variance (gene CV were used to calculate array-based variances (array CV, which, in turn, were used to study the effects of array age, probe cDNA quantity and quality, and quality of spotted PCR products as estimates of technical variation. Cluster analysis and a Principal Component Analysis (PCA were used to reveal associations among the transcriptional "imprints" of arrays hybridized with cDNA probes derived from mRNA from N. attenuata plants variously elicited and attacked by different herbivore species and from three congeners: N. quadrivalis, N. longiflora and N. clevelandii. Additionally, the PCA revealed the contribution of individual gene ERs to the associations among arrays. Conclusions While the costs of 'boutique' array fabrication are rapidly declining, familiar methods for the analysis of the data they create are still missing. The case history illustrated here demonstrates the ease with which this powerful technology can be adapted to ecological research.

  6. The Electronically Steerable Flash Lidar: A NASA Facility Instrument for Ecological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramond, T.; Weimer, C. S.; Lefsky, M. A.; Duong, H.

    2011-12-01

    The Electronically Steerable Flash Lidar (ESFL) is a lidar concept created at Ball Aerospace and developed in conjunction with NASA. It represents a new paradigm for airborne or spaceborne lidar remote sensing. Instead of the mechanical scanning common to airborne lidars, or the fixed beam approach found in spaceborne lidars, ESFL allows the number and position of transmitted beams to vary shot-to-shot. This is done using an acousto-optic beam deflector that splits a single laser beam into N output beams, where N and the position of beam N on the ground can be reconfigured in real time electronically. This transmitter concept is coupled with a Flash Focal Plane Array (FFPA), a pixilated detector where every pixel delivers a time-resolved intensity waveform, thus allowing lidar imaging. The ESFL enables several jumps in capability for remote sensing of ecosystems. Multiple spatial scales can be probed simultaneously or within the same flight transect because beam spacings can be varied in real time. This means contiguous beams can be applied to regions where smaller scale variability needs to be probed, and in areas where maximum across-track coverage is needed, those beams are spread out. Furthermore, each beam can be projected onto multiple pixels, allowing one to collect a waveform over multiple length scales simultaneously. The electronic interface with the AOBD means that the transmitted pattern can respond to any of a multitude of inputs. The ESFL can interface with another forward-looking sensor, such as a hyperspectral instrument or another lidar or a digital camera. The data from that second sensor could be used to direct the ESFL observation toward, for example, an area with a specific spectral signature, or an area free from clouds. The ESFL concept was designed with a path to space in mind, but an airborne version has been built and tested on aircraft. The work continues under a NASA Airborne Instrument Technology Transition (AITT) grant designed to improve the reliability of the instrument. The AITT work will culminate in the ESFL becoming a NASA facility instrument, so that time on ESFL can be proposed through NASA. This allows public access to ESFL and ideally a long-term stream of data to the ecological community. The overall flexibility of the transmitter pattern and ability to alter it to respond to a changing scene makes the ESFL well-suited for many applications such as forest science, but also to track rivers for hydrological studies. This poster will discuss recent analysis of ESFL data in forests to prove its applicability to estimate canopy height in airborne systems. Furthermore, we will discuss improvements to the ESFL that are underway as part of the AITT to improve data throughput, allow for higher altitude operation, and increase overall reliability of the instrument.

  7. Development of virtual research environment for regional climatic and ecological studies and continuous education support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, Evgeny; Lykosov, Vasily; Krupchatnikov, Vladimir; Bogomolov, Vasily; Gordova, Yulia; Martynova, Yulia; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander; Shulgina, Tamara

    2014-05-01

    Volumes of environmental data archives are growing immensely due to recent models, high performance computers and sensors development. It makes impossible their comprehensive analysis in conventional manner on workplace using in house computing facilities, data storage and processing software at hands. One of possible answers to this challenge is creation of virtual research environment (VRE), which should provide a researcher with an integrated access to huge data resources, tools and services across disciplines and user communities and enable researchers to process structured and qualitative data in virtual workspaces. VRE should integrate data, network and computing resources providing interdisciplinary climatic research community with opportunity to get profound understanding of ongoing and possible future climatic changes and their consequences. Presented are first steps and plans for development of VRE prototype element aimed at regional climatic and ecological monitoring and modeling as well as at continuous education and training support. Recently developed experimental software and hardware platform aimed at integrated analysis of heterogeneous georeferenced data "Climate" (http://climate.scert.ru/, Gordov et al., 2013; Shulgina et al., 2013; Okladnikov et al., 2013) is used as a VRE element prototype and approach test bench. VRE under development will integrate on the base of geoportal distributed thematic data storage, processing and analysis systems and set of models of complex climatic and environmental processes run on supercomputers. VRE specific tools are aimed at high resolution rendering on-going climatic processes occurring in Northern Eurasia and reliable and found prognoses of their dynamics for selected sets of future mankind activity scenaria. Currently the VRE element is accessible via developed geoportal at the same link (http://climate.scert.ru/) and integrates the WRF and «Planet Simulator» models, basic reanalysis and instrumental measurements data and support profound statistical analysis of storaged and modeled on demand data. In particular, one can run the integrated models, preprocess modeling results data, using dedicated modules for numerical processing perform analysys and visualize obtained results. New functionality recently has been added to the statistical analysis tools set aimed at detailed studies of climatic extremes occurring in Northern Asia. The VRE element is also supporting thematic educational courses for students and post-graduate students of the Tomsk State University. In particular, it allow students to perform on-line thematic laboratory work cycles on the basics of analysis of current and potential future regional climate change using Siberia territory as an example (Gordova et al, 2013). We plan to expand the integrated models set and add comprehensive surface and Arctic Ocean description. Developed VRE element "Climate" provides specialists involved into multidisciplinary research projects with reliable and practical instruments for integrated research of climate and ecosystems changes on global and regional scales. With its help even a user without programming skills can process and visualize multidimensional observational and model data through unified web-interface using a common graphical web-browser. This work is partially supported by SB RAS project VIII.80.2.1, RFBR grant 13-05-12034, grant 14-05-00502, and integrated project SB RAS 131. References 1. Gordov E.P., Lykosov V.N., Krupchatnikov V.N., Okladnikov I.G., Titov A.G., Shulgina T.M. Computationaland information technologies for monitoring and modeling of climate changes and their consequences. Novosibirsk: Nauka, Siberian branch, 2013. - 195 p. (in Russian) 2. T.M. Shulgina, E.P. Gordov, I.G. Okladnikov, A.G., Titov, E.Yu. Genina, N.P. Gorbatenko, I.V. Kuzhevskaya,A.S. Akhmetshina. Software complex for a regional climate change analysis. // Vestnik NGU. Series: Information technologies. 2013. Vol. 11. Issue 1. P. 124-131. (in Russian) 3. I.G. Okladnikov, A.G. Titov, T.M. Shulgina,

  8. The ecological economics: An ecological economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological Economics arise as a scientific discipline aimed to integrate concepts of economics, ecology, thermodynamics, ethic and other natural and social sciences in order to incorporate a biophysical and integrated perspective of the inter dependences between economies and environment, from a plural conception and a methodology beyond disciplines. Ecological Economics studies the black box of economic processes usually excluded of the traditional economics: thermodynamics and ecology. Although it is relatively a new field of study, it has been strengthening its theoretical framework with scientific basis and analytic principles that lead to its identification as a new discipline that show a whole new paradigm. The scope of this article is to show the conceptual and methodological bases, the main founders, approaches and central debates of this new discipline. This brief introduction is a preamble to the papers of the meeting Ecological Economics: a perspective for Colombia included in this number, that took place on September 22 - 27 of 2007, at the National University of Colombia at Bogota. During tree days national and international experts, professors, researchers, workers of environmental sector and people interested on environmental issues joined together to know the conceptual and methodological achievements reached of this discipline; as well as to analyse and evaluate the environmental problems of the country, from the systemic, interdisciplinary and general perspective that it promotes

  9. Study on ecological awareness and performance of nursing personnel in dialysis units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Zyga

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: When designing new hospital construction or refurbishment can be adopted green practices both in design and in construction and operation. Objective: To explore the ecological awareness and behavior of nursing staff in a dialysis unit. Methods: This survey involved 90 Registered Nurses and Nurses’ aides of General Hospitals in the Capital (Athens and in province of Greece (Region of Peloponnese. These individuals were given an overall anonymous self-completed questionnaire. Results: The most important finding is that 70.8% considered as mandatory an organized effort to protect the environment in their workplace. Nurses think that greater environmental awareness is obtained 37.1% by using guidelines, 23.6% with relative stimulation, and 20.2% with educational lectures, 10.1% using poster and 6.7% in view educational videos. Finally, the correlations of ecological awareness with demographic characteristics of the sample revealed that older nursing staff with more years of working experience knows about environmental management (p-value=0.012. At the same time, gender (p-value=0,030 and educational level of the nursing staff plays an important role in the knowledge of it (p-value=0,044. Conclusions: To control costs and environmental pollution guidelines for saving energy and water and the use of environmentally friendly materials should be implemented. Thus, hospitals can become more competitive by reducing the amount of natural resources used.  Normal 0 false false false EL X-NONE X-NONE

  10. Assessment of ecological studies examining the risk of thyroid cancer in children through radiation exposure following the nuclear power plant disaster in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological studies can be divided into studies with an individual database (cohort studies, case control studies) and studies with aggregate data (ecological studies). The former have the advantage that they can make use of methods based on risk models and examine dose-effect curves with due consideration to potential confounders, but the drawback of being expensive. Studies based on aggregate data can take account of large case numbers at comparatively low cost. However, ecological studies are also associated with serious methodological problems, especially when the goal is to find causal links (''ecological bias''). Thus it is well known that variations in a confounding factor (such as smoking in a study on lung cancer through radon) can invalidate the results of studies based on aggregate data. On the other hand, the only studies to have produced quantitative results on the risk of acquiring thyroid cancer through 131I exposure during childhood in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl disaster happen to be based on aggregate data. The purpose of the present paper is to examine problems associated with ecological studies which have already been in the focus of many studies of epidemiological methodology in terms of whether they are relevant to studies investigating connections between thyroid cancer and 131I exposure. It also presents the results of several simulation studies which examine the degree of distortion associated with ecological analyses

  11. A multicountry ecological study of cancer incidence rates in 2008 with respect to various risk-modifying factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, William B

    2014-01-01

    Observational and ecological studies are generally used to determine the presence of effect of cancer risk-modifying factors. Researchers generally agree that environmental factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, poor diet, lack of physical activity, and low serum 25-hdyroxyvitamin D levels are important cancer risk factors. This ecological study used age-adjusted incidence rates for 21 cancers for 157 countries (87 with high-quality data) in 2008 with respect to dietary supply and other factors, including per capita gross domestic product, life expectancy, lung cancer incidence rate (an index for smoking), and latitude (an index for solar ultraviolet-B doses). The factors found to correlate strongly with multiple types of cancer were lung cancer (direct correlation with 12 types of cancer), energy derived from animal products (direct correlation with 12 types of cancer, inverse with two), latitude (direct correlation with six types, inverse correlation with three), and per capita gross national product (five types). Life expectancy and sweeteners directly correlated with three cancers, animal fat with two, and alcohol with one. Consumption of animal products correlated with cancer incidence with a lag time of 15-25 years. Types of cancer which correlated strongly with animal product consumption, tended to correlate weakly with latitude; this occurred for 11 cancers for the entire set of countries. Regression results were somewhat different for the 87 high-quality country data set and the 157-country set. Single-country ecological studies have inversely correlated nearly all of these cancers with solar ultraviolet-B doses. These results can provide guidance for prevention of cancer. PMID:24379012

  12. A Multicountry Ecological Study of Cancer Incidence Rates in 2008 with Respect to Various Risk-Modifying Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Grant

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Observational and ecological studies are generally used to determine the presence of effect of cancer risk-modifying factors. Researchers generally agree that environmental factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, poor diet, lack of physical activity, and low serum 25-hdyroxyvitamin D levels are important cancer risk factors. This ecological study used age-adjusted incidence rates for 21 cancers for 157 countries (87 with high-quality data in 2008 with respect to dietary supply and other factors, including per capita gross domestic product, life expectancy, lung cancer incidence rate (an index for smoking, and latitude (an index for solar ultraviolet-B doses. The factors found to correlate strongly with multiple types of cancer were lung cancer (direct correlation with 12 types of cancer, energy derived from animal products (direct correlation with 12 types of cancer, inverse with two, latitude (direct correlation with six types, inverse correlation with three, and per capita gross national product (five types. Life expectancy and sweeteners directly correlated with three cancers, animal fat with two, and alcohol with one. Consumption of animal products correlated with cancer incidence with a lag time of 15–25 years. Types of cancer which correlated strongly with animal product consumption, tended to correlate weakly with latitude; this occurred for 11 cancers for the entire set of countries. Regression results were somewhat different for the 87 high-quality country data set and the 157-country set. Single-country ecological studies have inversely correlated nearly all of these cancers with solar ultraviolet-B doses. These results can provide guidance for prevention of cancer.

  13. Ecological effects on streams from forest fertilization; literature review and conceptual framework for future study in the western Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.W.

    2002-01-01

    Fertilization of forests with urea-nitrogen has been studied numerous times for its effects on water quality. Stream nitrogen concentrations following fertilization are typically elevated during winter, including peaks in the tens-of-thousands of parts per billion range, with summer concentrations often returning to background or near-background levels. Despite these increases, water-quality criteria for nitrogen have rarely been exceeded. However, such criteria are targeted at fish toxicity or human health and are not relevant to concentrations that could cause ecological disturbances.

  14. Economic-Ecological Values of Non-Tidal Swamp Ecosystem: Case Study in Tapin District, Kalimantan, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdani Hamdani; Imam Hanafi; Anwar Fitrianto; Lutfhi Fatah Arsyad; Budi Setiawan

    2013-01-01

    This article would like to describe the economic and ecological benefits, as well as analyzing the total economic value of non-tidal swamps. Non-tidal swamps in the District Tapin are interested to be studied because of the use of non-tidal swamp in this area for people, especially ethnic Banjar since over a hundred years ago. But since 2011 the South Kalimantan local government has set a palm oil plantation development plans (Elaeis guineensis) on the area. Assessment has been conducted with...

  15. Ecological studies on the diversity of terrestrial poisonous snakes "Proteroglyphous” of Jazan region Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Reptilia: Ophidia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa F. Masood

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out in Jazan region. The region of Jazan in being in the South-Western part of Saudi Arabia between longitudes 420 and 43.80 and latitudes 5, 16o and 17o, and is bounded on the south and east of the Republic of Yemen, Asir area in the north and the Red Sea in the west. The results showed that there are four families of poisonous snakes "Proteroglyphous" living in Jazan region. They are: Family Atractaspididae, Elapidae, Viperidae and Hydrophiidae . This work aimed to unveil ecological problems and throw light on diversity of poisonous snakes in Jazan region and the danger of these species to human life. Despite the fact that these snakes may be harmful to human life in some cases, it may also be useful to him in many aspects of life. Since there are no enough studies on the animal species in the region, this study came to identify the diversity of this animal group. There is no doubt that the study of these species and identifying them will provide some solutions that could make this group as an endless source of biodiversity and at the same time, this study provides information on the feasibility of protection of this species in this region. Discussion of ecological and geographical affinities of this taxa and taxonomic keys of different types in order to facilitate the process of identification will be provided

  16. [Retrospective seroprevalence study of bovine leptospirosis in Mexico considering the ecological regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Miguel Angel Luna; Moles y Cervantes, Luis Pedro; Rosas, Dolores Gavaldón; Vasquez, Carmen Nava; García, Félix Salazar

    2005-01-01

    The newly published information about the different ecological regions of Mexico was analyzed aimed at knowing the situation of bovine leptospirosis. A bibliographical search was made and the articles were chosen according to the following inclusion criteria: a) diagnosis technique: microscopic agglutination, b) positive criterion titres of 1:100 or higher, c) time period: 1991-2003, d) publications such as thesis, memoirs of congresses, non-scientific journals and journals with arbitrage, e) location by states. The duplicated information was considered as the exclusion criteria. The results of frequency and of serovarieties of leptospirosis were reported by state, considering the different ecological regions. Reference to 17 states is made. The arid and semi-arid region had a frequency of 37.8 % with a range from 31% to 59%, the prevalent serovars were H-89 strain (hardjo genotype hardjoprajitno), hardjo, wolffi and tarassovi. In the dry tropical region, there was a frequency of 45.9 % with a range from 27 to 72 %. The prevailing serovarieties were wolffi, hardjo and tarassovi. In the humid tropical region , the frequency was 63.8 % with a range between 31.7 and 84.6 %. The predominating serovarieties were H-89 strain (hardjo genotype hardjoprajitno), hardjo, wolffi and tarassovi. In the mild climate, the average frequency of leptospirosis was 39.4 % with a range from 22.1 to 54.3 %. The prevailing serovarieties were Palo Alto strain (icterohaemorrhagiae), Sinaloa ACR strain (portlandvere), bratislava, pyrogenes, pomona, and H-89 strain (hardjoprajitno), hardjo, wolffi and tarassovi. It was concluded that the presence of antobodies against L. interrogans is endemic in the different ecological regions of Mexico and that there is an elevated prevalence of serovarieties hardjo, wolffi y tarassovi; although in the temperate region, the Palo Alto strain (icterohaemorrhagiae), the Sinaloa ACR strain (portland vere) and Bratislava are present, too. Apparently, the climate influences on the frequency of presentation of the serovarieties. This is the first analysis of bovine leptospirosis by regions made in Mexico. PMID:17966472

  17. Predicting performance for ecological restoration: A case study using Spartina altemiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, S.E.; Grace, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    The success of population-based ecological restoration relies on the growth and reproductive performance of selected donor materials, whether consisting of whole plants or seed. Accurately predicting performance requires an understanding of a variety of underlying processes, particularly gene flow and selection, which can be measured, at least in part, using surrogates such as neutral marker genetic distances and simple latitudinal effects. Here we apply a structural equation modeling approach to understanding and predicting performance in a widespread salt marsh grass, Spartina alterniflora, commonly used for ecological restoration throughout its native range in North America. We collected source materials from throughout this range, consisting of eight clones each from 23 populations, for transplantation to a common garden site in coastal Louisiana and monitored their performance. We modeled performance as a latent process described by multiple indicator variables (e.g., clone diameter, stem number) and estimated direct and indirect influences of geographic and genetic distances on performance. Genetic distances were determined by comparison of neutral molecular markers with those from a local population at the common garden site. Geographic distance metrics included dispersal distance (the minimum distance over water between donor and experimental sites) and latitude. Model results indicate direct effects of genetic distance and latitude on performance variation among the donor sites. Standardized effect strengths indicate that performance was roughly twice as sensitive to variation in genetic distance as to latitudinal variation. Dispersal distance had an indirect influence on performance through effects on genetic distance, indicating a typical pattern of genetic isolation by distance. Latitude also had an indirect effect on genetic distance through its linear relationship with dispersal distance. Three performance indicators had significant loadings on performance alone (mean clone diameter, mean number of stems, mean number of inflorescences), while the performance indicators mean stem height and mean stem width were also influenced by latitude. We suggest that dispersal distance and latitude should provide an adequate means of predicting performance in future S. alterniflora restorations and propose a maximum sampling distance of 300 km (holding latitude constant) to avoid the sampling of inappropriate ecotypes. ?? 2010 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. Lake Restoration in Terms of Ecological Resilience: a Numerical Study of Biomanipulations under Bistable Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiminori Itoh

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An abstract version of the comprehensive aquatic simulation model (CASM is found to exhibit bistability under intermediate loading of nutrient input, supporting the alternative-stable-states theory and field observations for shallow lakes. Our simulations of biomanipulations under the bistable conditions reveal that a reduction in the abundance of zooplanktivorous fish cannot switch the system from a turbid to a clear state. Rather, a direct reduction of phytoplankton and detritus was found to be most effective to make this switch in the present model. These results imply that multiple manipulations may be effective for practical restorations of lakes. We discuss the present results of biomanipulations in terms of ecological resilience in multivariable systems or natural systems.

  19. The sea urchin, a versatile model for eco-toxicity studies and ecological experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Privitera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinoderm early developmental stages represent a good tool for toxicity testing in different fields, ranging from environment to food contamination, and in full respect of the 3Rs objectives (Reduction, Refinement, Replacement of animal experiments, that will lead to the reduction of vertebrate use for toxicity testing. Further, sea urchins are key species in a wide range of marine habitats, as they are able to structure algal community. Experiments and observations aiming at the  characterization of anthropogenic or climate changes effects on their settlement, population structure, feeding behaviour and reproductive condition, may be useful to describe future scenarios regarding the whole marine community. The present paper represents a short review of the possible applications of eco-toxicity bioassays using Paracentrotus lividus gametes and embryos. Further, examples of ecological researches, involving sea urchins, aiming at the definition of future scenarios will be preserved.

  20. Integrating Water, Actors, and Structure to Study Socio-Hydro-Ecological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. L.; Armstrong, A.; Baker, M. A.; Bedingfield, S.; Betts, D.; Buahin, C. A.; Buchert, M.; Crowl, T.; Dupont, R.; Endter-Wada, J.; Flint, C.; Grant, J.; Hinners, S.; Horns, D.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Jackson-Smith, D.; Jones, A. S.; Licon, C.; Null, S. E.; Odame, A.; Pataki, D. E.; Rosenberg, D. E.; Runburg, M.; Stoker, P.; Strong, C.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization, climate uncertainty, and ecosystem change represent major challenges for managing water resources. Water systems and the forces acting upon them are complex, and there is a need to understand and generically represent the most important system components and linkages. We developed a framework to facilitate understanding of water systems including potential vulnerabilities and opportunities for sustainability. Our goal was to produce an interdisciplinary framework for water resources research to address water issues across scales (e.g., city to region) and domains (e.g., water supply and quality, urban and transitioning landscapes). An interdisciplinary project (iUTAH - innovative Urban Transitions and Aridregion Hydro-sustainability) with a large (N=~100), diverse team having expertise spanning the hydrologic, biological, ecological, engineering, social, planning, and policy sciences motivated the development of this framework. The framework was developed through review of the literature, meetings with individual researchers, and workshops with participants. The Structure-Water-Actor Framework (SWAF) includes three main components: water (quality and quantity), structure (natural, built, and social), and actors (individual and organizational). Key linkages include: 1) ecological and hydrological processes, 2) ecosystem and geomorphic change, 3) planning, design, and policy, 4) perceptions, information, and experience, 5) resource access, and 6) operational water use and management. Our expansive view of structure includes natural, built, and social components, allowing us to examine a broad set of tools and levers for water managers and decision-makers to affect system sustainability and understand system outcomes. We validate the SWAF and illustrate its flexibility to generate insights for three research and management problems: green stormwater infrastructure in an arid environment, regional water supply and demand, and urban river restoration. These applications show that the framework can help identify key components and linkages across diverse water systems.

  1. Research of land reclamation and ecological restoration in the resource-exhausting city : a case study of Huaibei in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eco-city construction is a strong tool which could move a city from traditional industrial civilization to ecological civilization. The city of Huaibet, located in China, has 50 years of coal mining history, and has been listed as a national resource-exhausting city. The city's sustainable development and ecological restoration is encountering extreme challenges. This study used time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in order to study the situation of evolution and distribution of subsidence in the area in Huaibet. The purpose of the study was to provide strategic recommendations to assist Huaibei city transform from a resource-exhausting city to an eco-city. Specifically, the paper discussed the direction of eco-reconstruction in Huaibei such as rural eco-agriculture; wetland park or suburban park; and mine park. It also presented a time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in Huaibet including the subsidence status of the main city of Huaibet and intensive use of land evaluation and land use measures of the main city of Huaibei. Land reclamation and eco-reconstruction of Huaibet was also examined in the paper. It was concluded that based on land use of all aspects of the evaluation area and city's development plan, an integrated tourism with full use of subsidence land could be developed. 10 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  2. Development of a zoning-based environmental-ecological-coupled model for lakes: a case study of Baiyangdian Lake in North China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y. W.; M.J. Xu; Xu, F.; Wu, S.R.; X. A. Yin

    2014-01-01

    Environmental/ecological models are widely used for lake management as they provide a means to understand physical, chemical and biological processes in highly complex ecosystems. Most research focused on the development of environmental (water quality) and ecological models, separately. Limited studies were developed to couple the two models, and in these limited coupled models a lake was regarded as a whole for analysis (i.e., considering the lake to be one well-mixed box)...

  3. A socio-ecological perspective of access to and acceptability of HIV/AIDS treatment and care services: a qualitative case study research

    OpenAIRE

    Yakob, Bereket; Ncama, Busisiwe Purity

    2016-01-01

    Background Access to healthcare is an essential element of health development and a fundamental human right. While access to and acceptability of healthcare are complex concepts that interact with different socio-ecological factors (individual, community, institutional and policy), it is not known how these factors affect HIV care. This study investigated the impact of socio-ecological factors on access to and acceptability of HIV/AIDS treatment and care services (HATCS) in Wolaita Zone of Et...

  4. Linking concepts in the ecology and evolution of invasive plants: network analysis shows what has been most studied and identifies knowledge gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Brown,Cynthia S.; Tepolt, Carolyn K; Tsutsui, Neil D.; Vanparys, Valérie; Atkinson, Sheryl; Mahy, Grégory; Monty, Arnaud

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, a growing number of studies have addressed connections between ecological and evolutionary concepts in biologic invasions. These connections may be crucial for understanding the processes underlying invaders’ success. However, the extent to which scientists have worked on the integration of the ecology and evolution of invasive plants is poorly documented, as few attempts have been made to evaluate these efforts in invasion biology research. Such analysis can facilitate rec...

  5. Benefits of studies of overwintering birds for understanding resident bird ecology and promoting development of conservation capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latta, Steven C; Faaborg, John

    2009-04-01

    Funding of ecological research and monitoring of Neotropical migratory birds on their overwintering grounds has benefited both migratory and permanent-resident species. Using examples from our work in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic, we demonstrate that ecological research of overwintering migrants often provides information about the ecology and demography of little-known tropical resident birds. Critically important long-term monitoring in Puerto Rico with a focus on winter residents has provided information on the relationships between annual rainfall and fluctuations in resident bird populations and survival rates. It also has alerted local biologists to declines in resident bird populations, including a decline apparently driven by the entry of a brood parasite. But migrant-focused research may also have had an underappreciated effect on the development of conservation capacity and conservation efforts in host countries. Investments in research on Neotropical migrants overwintering on Hispaniola have resulted in a huge increase in field training of students and wildlife professionals, promoted conservation awareness at local and national levels, played an important role in the growth and professionalization of key environmental organizations, spawned a growing ecotourism industry for bird-watching, and driven national park management planning and conservation efforts for all bird species. We encourage funding organizations and agencies to consider the broader impacts of funding migratory-bird research and monitoring efforts, and we encourage researchers in the tropics to use protocols that provide the most information about all the birds that use the study areas involved and to be aware of important opportunities that they may have to build capacity in host countries. PMID:19016823

  6. Investigations in to Ecological Consequences and Threats from Ethnoecological and Ethnobotanical Practices Across Karakorum Mountain Ranges: A Case Study Berberis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika Khan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphologically inaccessible mighty mountain ranges of Karakoram, Hindukush, Himalaya and Pamir have been mother sanctuaries for several ecologically attuned civilizations. Modern changes underway across ethnoecological and ethnobotanical settings among these mountain traditional communities have drastically depreciated folk wisdom and ecological equilibrium. Ethno-climatic agencies have threatened several species and Berberis pseudumbellata subsp. gilgitica has become critically endangered. Present study was an attempt to discover ethnobotanical insights and exploration of threatening factors affecting Berberis species. Survey (n=373 revealed that communities use Berberis meeting various purposes including medicinal (92.2%; SE±0.057; 0.409 MT/annum-a, firewood (19.3%; SE±37.375; 6.589 MT/a, commercial (2.41%; SE±1.692; 0.048 MT/a, cultural (2.41%, fodder (16.08%; SE±11.474; 8.724 MT/a, fencing (19.03%; SE±6.895; 3.352 MT/a and grazing (100%; SE±1.035. Data was analyzed using Pearson correlational coefficient, student t-test and descriptive statistical tools. Study exhibits highly significant relationship (p< 0.000 among different age groups, ethnomedicinal uses and conservation status of Berberis.

  7. Information Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes a pedagogical didactical paradigm for teaching student-designers how to deal with context issues. Form/context-relationships are conceptualized as information ecologies and described as behavioral settings using a key concept developed by social psychologist R.A. Baker in the...... 1960ties, and chosen here because it integrates cultural and psychological trajectories in a theory of living settings. The pedagogical-didactical paradigm comprises three distinct information ecologies, named after their intended outcome: the problem-setting, the exploration-setting, and the fit......-setting. It is specified how context issues can be treated within each of these information ecologies. The paper concludes by discussing the outcome of applying this paradigm with respect to the student-designers’ competence as reflective practitioners....

  8. Mitonuclear Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Geoffrey E

    2015-08-01

    Eukaryotes were born of a chimeric union between two prokaryotes--the progenitors of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Early in eukaryote evolution, most mitochondrial genes were lost or transferred to the nucleus, but a core set of genes that code exclusively for products associated with the electron transport system remained in the mitochondrion. The products of these mitochondrial genes work in intimate association with the products of nuclear genes to enable oxidative phosphorylation and core energy production. The need for coadaptation, the challenge of cotransmission, and the possibility of genomic conflict between mitochondrial and nuclear genes have profound consequences for the ecology and evolution of eukaryotic life. An emerging interdisciplinary field that I call "mitonuclear ecology" is reassessing core concepts in evolutionary ecology including sexual reproduction, two sexes, sexual selection, adaptation, and speciation in light of the interactions of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. PMID:25931514

  9. Nest box design for the study of diurnal raptors and owls is still an overlooked point in ecological, evolutionary and conservation studies: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Lambrechts, Marcel M.; Wiebe, K.L.; Sunde, P.; Solonen, T.; Sergio, Fabrizio; Roulin, A.; Møller, A.P.; López, Bernat C; Fargallo, Juan A.; Exo, K.M.; Dell'Omo, G; Costantini, D.; Charter, M.; Butler, M.W.; Bortolotti, Gary R.

    2012-01-01

    The use of artificial nest boxes has led to significant progress in bird conservation and in our understanding of the functional and evolutionary ecology of free-ranging birds that exploit cavities for roosting and reproduction. Nest boxes and their improved accessibility have made it easier to perform comparative and experimental field investigations. However, concerns about the generality and applicability of scientific studies involving birds breeding in nest boxes have been raised because...

  10. Political ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.)

  11. [Assessment and early warning of land ecological security in rapidly urbanizing coastal area: A case study of Caofeidian new district, Hebei, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Chen, Ying; Wang, Shu-tao; Men, Ming-xin; Xu, Hao

    2015-08-01

    Assessment and early warning of land ecological security (LES) in rapidly urbanizing coastal area is an important issue to ensure sustainable land use and effective maintenance of land ecological security. In this study, an index system for the land ecological security of Caofeidian new district was established based on the Pressure-State-Response (P-S-R) model. Initial assessment units of 1 km x 1 km created with the remote sensing data and GIS methods were spatially interpolated to a fine pixel size of 30 m x 30 m, which were combined with the early warning method (using classification tree method) to evaluate the land ecological security of Caofeidian in 2005 and 2013. The early warning level was classed into four categories: security with degradation potential, sub-security with slow degradation, sub-security with rapid degradation, and insecurity. Result indicated that, from 2005 to 2013, the average LES of Caofeidian dropped from 0.55 to 0.52, indicating a degradation of land ecological security from medium security level to medium-low security level. The areas at the levels of insecurity with rapid degradation were mainly located in the rapid urbanization areas, illustrating that rapid expansion of urban construction land was the key factor to the deterioration of the regional land ecological security. Industrial District, Shilihai town and Nanpu saltern, in which the lands at the levels of insecurity and sub-security with rapid degradation or slow degradation accounted for 58.3%, 98.9% and 81.2% of their respective districts, were at the stage of high early warning. Thus, land ecological security regulation for these districts should be strengthened in near future. The study could provide a reference for land use planning and ecological protection of Caofeidian new district. PMID:26685609

  12. Ecological Studies in the Coastal Waters of Kalpakkam, Southeast Coast of India, in the Vicinity of a Nuclear Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological monitoring of the coastal waters at Kalpakkam, which presently harbour various nuclear facilities, has been in progress for the last four years to create a benchmark dataset on water quality, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fisheries, sedentary organisms and molluscan species diversity. Results indicated a significant impact of monsoonal rain and backwaters on the coastal water quality. About 325 phytoplankton, 140 zooplankton, 350 fish, 130 molluscs and 100 species of sedentary organisms have been catalogued. Two fish species, which are native to Indonesia, were recorded for the first time in Indian coastal water. The study indicated that the coastal water is rich in biodiversity. Similarly, results of studies on costal sediment characteristics indicated the influence of monsoonal rain and backwater discharge. Overall, the study indicated little impact of nuclear activity on coastal water biodiversity and water quality. (author)

  13. Actual directions in study of ecological consequences of a highly toxic 1,1-dimethylhydrazine-based rocket fuel spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulat Kenessov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents a review of the actual directions in study of ecological consequences of highly toxic 1,1-dimethylhydrazine-based rocket fuel spills. Recent results on study of processes of transformation of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, identification of its main metabolites and development of analytical methods for their determination are generalized. Modern analytical methods of determination of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine and its transformation products in environmental samples are characterized. It is shown that in recent years, through the use of most modern methods of physical chemical analysis and sample preparation, works in this direction made significant progress and contributed to the development of studies in adjacent areas. A character of distribution of transformation products in soils of fall places of first stages of rocket-carriers is described and the available methods for their remediation are characterized.

  14. The evolutionary ecology of host-specificity: experimental studies with Strongyloides ratti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmill, A W; Viney, M E; Read, A F

    2000-04-01

    Factors constraining the evolution of host-specificity were investigated using a gastrointestinal parasitic nematode, Strongyloides ratti. S. ratti is a natural parasite of rats which can also reproduce, with decreased success, in laboratory mice. Observed host-specificity arose from lower establishment, reduced per capita fecundity and more rapid expulsion of parasites from mice relative to rats. Variation in the efficacy of thymus-dependent immunity between host species (rats and mice) was insufficient to explain the majority of the observed differences in parasite establishment and reproductive success. The role of natural selection in determining host-specificity was addressed using experimental selection followed by reciprocal fitness assays in both host species. Experimental selection failed to modify the host-specificity of S. ratti to any measurable degree, suggesting either a lack of genetic variation for this trait or the involvement of as yet unidentified factors underlying the differences in S. ratti fitness in rats and mice respectively. These results are discussed in relation to competing theoretical models of ecological specialization, host immunology and previous attempts to experimentally alter the host-specificity of parasitic nematodes. PMID:10811285

  15. ANALYSIS OF WASTE WATER FROM ECOLOGICAL CAR WASH – A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIANA RADULESCU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Wastewaters resulted from different stages of washing process from ecological car wash were investigated for its physicochemical parameters and several heavy metals contents. For this purpose 75 samples were collected and analyzed by conductometric, potentiometric techniques and by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry during of November 2010. The results showed that the amount of zinc, copper, cadmium and lead elements in wastewater samples were higher than the Maximum Admitted Level (MAL values for investigated heavy metals, according to the Order 161/2006, after washing different cars in one week (from Monday to Friday at 14,00. The increase of Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn concentrations is visible (average weekly collections and these were higher especially on rainy days when cars came with a load more visible than in the days with good weather. In according with the Order 161/2006, regarding pH tolerance limit, the mean pH values for all collected samples were between 6.00 and 9.00. The temperature ranged between 14.10 - 17.10°C with an average value of 14.91±1.61°C. The highest values for conductivity, turbidity and TDS was found for samples Sp2, Sp5, Sp8, Sp11 and Sp14, before entrance in the first separator.

  16. Ecological responses of natural and planted forests to thinning in southeastern Korea: a chronosequence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Chan Cho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of forest thinning on community level properties have not been understood yet in Korea. We investigated regenerationpatterns and trajectories after a disturbance by applying a chronosequence approach. Light availability, litter andwoody debris cover, and species composition were determined for twenty 50 m line-transect samples representing a disturbanceduration gradient (within 11 years. Environmental factors such as light availability and coverage of woody debrisand litter changed abruptly after thinning and then returned to the pre-disturbance state. Although species richnesswas gained at shrub and ground layer in a limited way in both forests, cover of various functional types revealed diversityin their responses. Notably, Alnus firma stands exhibited a larger increment of cover in woody plants. Ordination analysisrevealed different regeneration trajectories between natural and planted stands. Based on ordination analysis, rehabilitatedstands showed movement to alternative states compared with natural ones, reflecting lower resilience to perturbation(i.e., lower stability. Our results suggest that community resilience to artificial thinning depends on properties ofthe dominant species. But to get more explanatory ecological information, longer-term static observations are required.

  17. The cultural and ecological impacts of aboriginal tourism: a case study on Taiwan's Tao tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tzu-Ming; Lu, Dau-Jye

    2014-01-01

    We show that tourism activities severely impact the ecology of Orchid Island, its natural resources, and the culture of the Tao tribe. For example, highway widening, in response to the increased traffic volumes caused by tourism, required many Pandanus trees to be cut and removed, which has placed the coconut crabs in danger of extinction. To promote eco-tourism, observation trips to observe Elegant Scops owls and Birdwing butterflies have taken place, which has affected the breeding of these two protected species. The Elegant Scops owls- and Birdwing butterflies-related tourism activities also break the "evil spirits" taboo of the Tao people and have caused the disappearance of the specifications for using traditional natural resources, causing natural ecosystems to face the threat of excessive use. In addition to promoting and advocating aboriginal tourism of the Tao people on Orchid Island, the Taiwanese government should help the Tao people to develop a management model that combines traditional regulations and tourism activities. PMID:25089246

  18. Myco-ecological studies of natural morel bearing sites in Shivalik hills of Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Singh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven natural morel-bearing sites were investigated during fruiting season of Morchella for their physico-chemical and soil microbiota to determine conditions required for morel fructification. Sandy loam soils with humus and high aeration supported the morel fruiting. Soil temperature between 18-22.7 C, air temperature 23-27 C at low elevations and 18-27 C at high elevations, pH slightly acidic to neutral (6.5 to 7.0 and high electrical conductivity (44.4 to 176.3 µS were recorded during natural occurrence of morel fruiting. Elemental analysis of soil revealed high carbon, nitrogen, calcium, nitrates, sodium and lead with low phosphates, chlorides and potassium below the fruit body in comparison to soil away from the fruit body. Hyphomyces ocraseus, Phoma sp., Blastomyces, Acremoniella, Gliomastix and Cladosporium were invariably found associated with the soil beneath Morchella. Four bacterial species, namely, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus varians, Bacillus sphaericus and Pseudomonas spp., were also isolated from almost all the natural morel bearing sites. These myco-ecological conditions of natural morel bearing sites are of significance in controlled domestication trials.

  19. Ecological Catastrophes and Disturbance Relicts: A Case Study from Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, J.

    2014-12-01

    Caves are often considered buffered environments in terms of their ability to sustain near constant microclimatic conditions. However, environments within cave entrances are expected to respond most quickly to changing surface conditions. We cataloged a relict assemblage of at least 10 endemic arthropods likely restricted to caves and occurring primarily within cave entranceways. Of these animals, eight were considered new undescribed species. These endemic arthropods have persisted in Rapa Nui (Easter Island) caves despite a catastrophic ecological shift induced by island-wide deforestation, fire intolerance, and drought, as well as intensive livestock grazing and surface ecosystems dominated by invasive species. We consider these animals to be "disturbance relicts" - species whose distributions are now limited to areas that experienced minimal human disturbance historically. Today, these species represent one-third of the Rapa Nui's known endemic arthropods. Given the island's severely depauperate native fauna, these arthropods should be considered among the highest priority targets for biological conservation. In other regions globally, epigean examples of imperiled disturbance relicts persisting within narrow distributional ranges have been documented. As human activity intensifies, and habitat loss and fragmentation continues worldwide, additional disturbance relicts will be identified. We expect extinction debts, global climate change and interactions with invasive species will challenge the persistence of both hypogean and epigean disturbance relict species.

  20. Ontogenetic diet shifts and their incidence on ecological processes: a case study using two morphologically similar stoneflies (Plecoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céréghino, Régis

    2006-07-01

    Most ecological studies consider conspecific individuals as ecologically equivalent, assuming that inter-instar variation is weak and has a limited influence on functional processes. To test this assumption, we investigated the life history and trophic basis of production in two predatory stoneflies, Perlodes microcephalus and Isoperla acicularis, in a mountain stream. The variety of prey types increased with predator size. However, larvae started their development with a strictly phytophagous diet (3 months), then ingested both vegetal material and animal prey (2-3 months). Finally, larvae were strictly carnivorous when head width reached 1.1 mm. Young (herbivorous) I. acicularis larvae occurred from June to August. Young P. microcephalus larvae hatched in October, and were herbivorous until December, when I. acicularis larvae were omnivorous. Competition for animal prey was likely to occur in the spring, but P. microcephalus grew faster and emerged earlier. The cohort productions were mostly based on carnivory (78.7-90.7%), because most production occurred in later instars. Ontogenetic diet shifts could play a role in the structuring of species assemblages by adjusting species' requirements to the temporal dynamics of environmental conditions, including food availability and biotic interactions. However, their incidence on global processes is quantitatively limited, large individuals having the greatest impacts on the way energy flows.

  1. Landscape and soil regionalization in southern Brazilian Amazon and contiguous areas: methodology and relevance for ecological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Volkoff

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils of a large tropical area with differentiated landscapes cannot be treated uniformly for ecological applications. We intend to develop a framework based on physiography that can be used in regional applications. The study region occupies more than 1.1 million km² and is located at the junction of the savanna region of Central Brazil and the Amazon forest. It includes a portion of the high sedimentary Central Brazil plateau and large areas of mostly peneplained crystalline shield on the border of the wide inner-Amazon low sedimentary plain. A first broad subdivision was made into landscape regions followed by a more detailed subdivision into soil regions. Mapping information was extracted from soil survey maps at scales of 1:250000-1:500000. Soil units were integrated within a homogenized legend using a set of selected attributes such as taxonomic term, the texture of the B horizon and the associated vegetation. For each region, a detailed inventory of the soil units with their area distribution was elaborated. Ten landscape regions and twenty-four soil regions were recognized and delineated. Soil cover of a region is normally characterized by a cluster composed of many soil units. Soil diversity is comparable in the landscape and the soil regions. Composition of the soil cover is quantitatively expressed in terms of area extension of the soil units. Such geographic divisions characterized by grouping soil units and their spatial estimates must be used for regional ecological applications.

  2. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    Construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS) began during FY-1984. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 15 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Through the long-term census taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has been evaluating the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10 CFR 1022).

  3. [System construction of early warning for ecological security at cultural and natural heritage mixed sites and its application: a case study of Wuyishan Scenery District].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Wei-Bin; He, Dong-Jin; Qin, De-Hua; Ji, Zhi-Rong; Wu, Li-Yun; Yu, Jian-An; Chen, Bing-Rong; Tan, Yong

    2014-05-01

    This paper proposed a new concept of ecological security for protection by a comprehensive analysis of the contents and standards of world heritage sites. A frame concept model named "Pressure-State-Control" for early warning of ecological security at world heritage mixed sites was constructed and evaluation indicators of this frame were also selected. Wuyishan Scenery District was chosen for a case study, which has been severely disturbed by natural and artificial factors. Based on the frame model of "Pressure-State-Control" and by employing extension analysis, the matter-element model was established to assess the ecological security status of this cultural and natural world heritage mixed site. The results showed that the accuracy of ecological security early warning reached 84%. Early warning rank was I level (no alert status) in 1997 and 2009, but that in 2009 had a higher possibility to convert into II level. Likewise, the early-warning indices of sensitive ranks were different between 1997 and 2009. Population density, population growth rate, area index for tea garden, cultivated land owned per capita, level of drought, and investment for ecological and environmental construction were the main limiting factors to hinder the development of ecological security from 2009 to future. In general, the status of Wuyishan Scenery District ecological security was relatively good and considered as no alert level, while risk conditions also existed in terms of a few early-warning indicators. We still need to pay more attention to serious alert indicators and adopt effective prevention and control measures to maintain a good ecological security status of this heritage site. PMID:25129949

  4. The novel combination of dual mTOR inhibitor AZD2014 and pan-PIM inhibitor AZD1208 inhibits growth in acute myeloid leukemia via HSF pathway suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Masako; Benito, Juliana; Yamamoto, Shinichi; Kaur, Surinder; Arslan, Dirim; Ramirez, Santiago; Jacamo, Rodrigo; Platanias, Leonidas; Matsushita, Hiromichi; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Kazuno, Saiko; Kojima, Kensuke; Tabe, Yoko; Konopleva, Marina

    2015-11-10

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is a critical pathway in the biology of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Proviral integration site for moloney murine leukemia virus (PIM) serine/threonine kinase signaling takes part in various pathways exerting tumorigenic properties. We hypothesized that the combination of a PIM kinase inhibitor with an mTOR inhibitor might have complementary growth-inhibitory effects against AML. The simultaneous inhibition of the PIM kinase by pan-PIM inhibitor AZD1208 and of mTOR by selective mTORC1/2 dual inhibitor AZD2014 exerted anticancer properties in AML cell lines and in cells derived from primary AML samples with or without supportive stromal cell co-culture, leading to suppressed proliferation and increased apoptosis. The combination of AZD1208 and AZD2014 rapidly activated AMPK?, a negative regulator of translation machinery through mTORC1/2 signaling in AML cells; profoundly inhibited AKT and 4EBP1 activation; and suppressed polysome formation. Inhibition of both mTOR and PIM counteracted induction of heat-shock family proteins, uncovering the master negative regulation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), the dominant transcription factor controlling cellular stress responses. The novel combination of the dual mTOR inhibitor and pan-PIM inhibitor synergistically inhibited AML growth by effectively reducing protein synthesis through heat shock factor pathway suppression. PMID:26473447

  5. Causes of visual impairment and blindness in children in three ecological regions of Nepal: Nepal Pediatric Ocular Diseases Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhikari S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Srijana Adhikari,1 Mohan K Shrestha,1 Kamala Adhikari,2 Nhukesh Maharjan,1 Ujjowala D Shrestha1 1Pediatric Ophthalmology unit, Tilganaga Institute of Ophthalmology, Gaushala, Kathmandu, Nepal; 2Private consultant, Kathmandu, Nepal Purpose: To study the causes of blindness and visual impairment in children in three ecologically diverse regions of Nepal.Materials and methods: This is a baseline survey report of a 3-year longitudinal population-based study. One district each from the three ecological regions – Terai, Hills, and Mountains – was selected for the study. Village Development Committees from each district were selected by random sampling. Three community health workers were given training on vision screening and identification of abnormal ocular conditions in children. Health workers who examined children and collected data using pretested questionnaire performed house-to-house surveys. Children with abnormal vision or ocular conditions were referred to and examined by pediatric ophthalmologists.Results: A total of 10,950 children aged 0–10 years, 5,403 from Terai, 3,204 from Hills, and 2,343 from Mountains, were enrolled in the study. Of them, 681 (6.2% were nonresponders. The ratio of boys to girls was 1.03:1. Prevalence of blindness was 0.068% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02%–0.12% and visual impairment was 0.097% (95% CI 0.04%–0.15%. Blindness was relatively more prevalent in Terai region (0.08%, 95% CI 0.02%–0.13%. The most common cause of blindness was amblyopia (42.9% followed by congenital cataract. Corneal opacity (39% was the most common cause of unilateral blindness.Conclusion: More than two-thirds of the causes that lead to blindness and visual impairment were potentially preventable. Further, nutritional and genetic studies are needed to determine the factors associated with ocular morbidity and blindness in these regions. Keywords: vision screening, ocular morbidity, childhood, Nepal, pediatric

  6. Causes of visual impairment and blindness in children in three ecological regions of Nepal: Nepal Pediatric Ocular Diseases Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Srijana; Shrestha, Mohan K; Adhikari, Kamala; Maharjan, Nhukesh; Shrestha, Ujjowala D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To study the causes of blindness and visual impairment in children in three ecologically diverse regions of Nepal. Materials and methods This is a baseline survey report of a 3-year longitudinal population-based study. One district each from the three ecological regions – Terai, Hills, and Mountains – was selected for the study. Village Development Committees from each district were selected by random sampling. Three community health workers were given training on vision screening and identification of abnormal ocular conditions in children. Health workers who examined children and collected data using pretested questionnaire performed house-to-house surveys. Children with abnormal vision or ocular conditions were referred to and examined by pediatric ophthalmologists. Results A total of 10,950 children aged 0–10 years, 5,403 from Terai, 3,204 from Hills, and 2,343 from Mountains, were enrolled in the study. Of them, 681 (6.2%) were nonresponders. The ratio of boys to girls was 1.03:1. Prevalence of blindness was 0.068% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02%–0.12%) and visual impairment was 0.097% (95% CI 0.04%–0.15%). Blindness was relatively more prevalent in Terai region (0.08%, 95% CI 0.02%–0.13%). The most common cause of blindness was amblyopia (42.9%) followed by congenital cataract. Corneal opacity (39%) was the most common cause of unilateral blindness. Conclusion More than two-thirds of the causes that lead to blindness and visual impairment were potentially preventable. Further, nutritional and genetic studies are needed to determine the factors associated with ocular morbidity and blindness in these regions. PMID:26347452

  7. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Keelah E. G.; Sng, Oliver; NEUBERG, STEVEN L.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological features shape people’s goals, strategies, and behaviors. Our research suggests that social perceivers possess a lay understanding of ecology’s influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Moreover, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, Americans’ stereotypes about racial groups may actually reflect their stereotypes about these groups’ presumed home ecologies. In a series of studies, we demonstrate that (i) individuals possess ecology-dri...

  8. Association of rule of law and health outcomes: an ecological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon-Rondon, Angela Maria; Attaran, Amir; Botero, Juan Carlos; Ruiz-Sternberg, Angela Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore whether the rule of law is a foundational determinant of health that underlies other socioeconomic, political and cultural factors that have been associated with health outcomes. Setting Global project. Participants Data set of 96 countries, comprising 91% of the global population. Primary and secondary outcome measures The following health indicators, infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, life expectancy, and cardiovascular disease and diabetes mortality rate, were included to explore their association with the rule of law. We used a novel Rule of Law Index, gathered from survey sources, in a cross-sectional and ecological design. The Index is based on eight subindices: (1) Constraints on Government Powers; (2) Absence of Corruption; (3) Order and Security; (4) Fundamental Rights; (5) Open Government; (6) Regulatory Enforcement, (7) Civil Justice; and (8) Criminal Justice. Results The rule of law showed an independent association with infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, life expectancy, and cardiovascular disease and diabetes mortality rate, after adjusting for the countries’ level of per capita income, their expenditures in health, their level of political and civil freedom, their Gini measure of inequality and women's status (p<0.05). Rule of law remained significant in all the multivariate models, and the following adjustment for potential confounders remained robust for at least one or more of the health outcomes across all eight subindices of the rule of law. Findings show that the higher the country's level of adherence to the rule of law, the better the health of the population. Conclusions It is necessary to start considering the country's adherence to the rule of law as a foundational determinant of health. Health advocates should consider the improvement of rule of law as a tool to improve population health. Conversely, lack of progress in rule of law may constitute a structural barrier to health improvement. PMID:26515684

  9. iSAW: Integrating Structure, Actors, and Water to study socio-hydro-ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Rebecca L.; Armstrong, Andrea; Baker, Michelle A.; Bedingfield, Sean; Betts, David; Buahin, Caleb; Buchert, Martin; Crowl, Todd; Dupont, R. Ryan; Ehleringer, James R.; Endter-Wada, Joanna; Flint, Courtney; Grant, Jacqualine; Hinners, Sarah; Horsburgh, Jeffery S.; Jackson-Smith, Douglas; Jones, Amber S.; Licon, Carlos; Null, Sarah E.; Odame, Augustina; Pataki, Diane E.; Rosenberg, David; Runburg, Madlyn; Stoker, Philip; Strong, Courtenay

    2015-03-01

    Urbanization, climate, and ecosystem change represent major challenges for managing water resources. Although water systems are complex, a need exists for a generalized representation of these systems to identify important components and linkages to guide scientific inquiry and aid water management. We developed an integrated Structure-Actor-Water framework (iSAW) to facilitate the understanding of and transitions to sustainable water systems. Our goal was to produce an interdisciplinary framework for water resources research that could address management challenges across scales (e.g., plot to region) and domains (e.g., water supply and quality, transitioning, and urban landscapes). The framework was designed to be generalizable across all human-environment systems, yet with sufficient detail and flexibility to be customized to specific cases. iSAW includes three major components: structure (natural, built, and social), actors (individual and organizational), and water (quality and quantity). Key linkages among these components include: (1) ecological/hydrologic processes, (2) ecosystem/geomorphic feedbacks, (3) planning, design, and policy, (4) perceptions, information, and experience, (5) resource access and risk, and (6) operational water use and management. We illustrate the flexibility and utility of the iSAW framework by applying it to two research and management problems: understanding urban water supply and demand in a changing climate and expanding use of green storm water infrastructure in a semi-arid environment. The applications demonstrate that a generalized conceptual model can identify important components and linkages in complex and diverse water systems and facilitate communication about those systems among researchers from diverse disciplines.

  10. Social-Ecological Guilds: Putting People into Marine Historical Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Crowder, Larry B.; Lisa M CAMPBELL; Janna M. Shackeroff

    2011-01-01

    Marine historical ecology provides historic insights into past ocean ecosystems that are crucial to effectively confronting the declining health and resilience in marine ecosystems. A more 'peopled' approach to marine historical ecology is necessary, given the heightened emphasis on human dimensions in marine management. This study examined the historical ecology of Hawaiian coral reef ecosystems through oral histories of diverse ocean experts, representing six traditional, local, a...

  11. Radioisotopes in Studies on the Ecology of Tick Vectors of Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of mass rearing of radioisotope-tagged immature ticks by collecting the progeny of engorged females of three species inoculated with carbon-14 glucose or glycine prior to oviposition. The incorporation of radiochemicals internally into ticks reduces the chance of loss of the radioactive label when moulting occurs, or under natural conditions. Most treated ticks laid eggs. The amount of radioactivity in the progeny could be controlled by controlling the size of the dose administered to the parent ticks. However, differences in radioactivity in the progeny of treated ticks in relation to the day of oviposition were noted. This activity declined progressively through the ninth day. Differences were also noted in relation to the radiochemical used. Most of the carbon-14 glycine (79.0%]o) received by the engorged females remained in the parents, whereas most of the carbon-14 glucose (77.5 %) received was transferred to the progeny. Hatching of eggs labelled by this method was less than in untreated oviposits. Radiosensitivity in the eggs was also noted and was related to the size of the dose administered to the parent tick. No hatching occurred when the average radioactivity of the labelled eggs exceeded 637 counts/min per egg over background. Nevertheless, many highly radioactive eggs hatched, and larvae with counts as high as 510 counts/min per larva over background were observed. The biological characteristics of the tagged larvae were apparently unaffected by incorporation of radiochemicals into these individuals. The proportion of marked larvae which attached to hosts was similar to the proportion of unmarked larvae which attached. The duration of survival of fasting, radioisotope-tagged larvae, under laboratory conditions, was similar to the period of survival of nonradioactive larvae. No apparent loss in radioactivity in fasting larvae held for up to 70 days under laboratory conditions was detected. This demonstration of the feasibility of mass rearing and long-term survival of radioisotope-tagged immature ticks suggests that it is now possible to apply this radioecological technique to obtain important new knowledge, on the ecology of tick vectors of disease. (author)

  12. Ecological performance and possible origin of a ubiquitous but under-studied gastropod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Mad S.; Wernberg, Thomas; Tuya, Fernando; Silliman, Brian R.

    2010-05-01

    Invasions by non-indigenous species (NIS) have been suggested to alter local, regional and global biota on unprecedented scales. To manage NIS, it is pivotal to identify whether a species is introduced or native, but even today the geographical origin of thousands of species worldwide remain uncertain. Most of these 'cryptogenic species' are inconspicuous and rare, but in a few instances, they can also be abundant and conspicuous species, with large impacts on community structure. The identification of cryptogenic species, and summarizing information on their most likely origin, is an important task in invasion biology, and can highlight the need for research and management. Here, we document that the gastropod Batillaria australis in the Swan River estuary (Perth, Western Australia) is a conspicuous species of uncertain origin. A literature review combined with new survey data revealed that all evidence point to a recent human-mediated transfer; for example, it is absent from the fossil record, was first collected in 1954, has a low parasite diversity, has increased its population size dramatically in recent times, is separated by >3000 km from conspecifics, has no long-distance dispersal mechanisms, and existing ocean currents run against a natural range extension. Surprisingly, despite political and scientific focus on NIS hardly any ecological data have been published on this species from Western Australia. We show that B. australis is highly abundant in both seagrass beds (424 ± 29 ind m -2) and on unvegetated sand flats (92 ± 22 ind m -2) being orders of magnitudes more abundant than any native gastropod in the Swan River. Experiments showed that high resistance to predation and environmental stress potentially explains its success. From our survey data, we calculated that >3.6 billion invasive snails today occupy the Swan River. This large snail populations support other organisms; for example, almost 1 billion macroalgae are found attached to living B. australis and >100 million hermit crabs occupy its empty shells. Given Battilaria's high abundance, wide distribution, large size, persistent shells that support other organisms and bioturbating behavior, it seems inescapable that this potential invader has impacted the ecosystem functioning of the Swan River. We argue that the search for abundant species of uncertain origin should continue, and that these species generally should be treated with the same interest as high status invaders to mitigate impacts in already invaded systems and to avoid secondary spread into neighboring ecosystems.

  13. Studies on the Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution of Palms (Arecaceae) with Focus on the Americas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.

    2011-01-01

    Palmefamilien (Arecaceae) bruges i stigende grad som model gruppe til at undersøge tropiske økosystemers evolution og økologi. Denne afhandling spænder over adskillige emner indenfor palmers synøkologi (community ecology), makroøkologi, biogeografi og fylogeni, med fokus på forbindelser mellem økologiske og evolutionære processer. (i) Ud fra litteraturen opsummeres hvordan de faktorer, der påvirker palmers udbredel-sesområder, artssammensætning, og artsrigdom, varierer som funktion af undersøgel-sernes rumlig skala. Forskellige aspekter af abiotisk miljø, biotiske interaktioner og spredning har tydeligvis varierende indflydelse på forskellig rumlig og tidslig skala. Historiske (inkl. evolutionære) faktorer har stor betydning. (ii) Stor-skala rumlige mønstre i palmers artsrigdom og fylogenetisk udskiftning (turnover) er undersøgt for hele Amerika. Sammenhængen mellem miljø og artsrigdom varierer rumligt: korrelatio-nen mellem vand og artsrigdom aftager med afstand fra ækvator, mens korrelationen mellem energi og artsrigdom tiltager. Dette antyder, at de forskellige afgørende faktorer påvirker hinanden på en kompleks måde. Undersøgelser af fylogenetisk udskiftning i regionale palmesamfund viser, at evolutionshistorien påvirker palmers udbredelse signi-fikant på kontinental skala. En ny metode beskrives til at skelne mellem effekterne af fylogenetisk niche-konservatisme og spredningsbegrænsning i evolutionær tid. (iii) Lokale palmesamfund i Amerika er undersøgt, i første omgang ved at opsummere information om deres diversitet og vækstform-sammensætning fra litteraturen. Palme-samfund fra det vestlige Amazonas er desuden undersøgt ved brug af nyindsamlede data. Habitatforskelle er stærkt afgørende for artsrigdom, vækstform-sammensætning og fylogenetisk struktur i palmesamfund. Artsrigdom afhænger også af klimatisk og biogeografisk historie, som også påvirker den fylogenetiske struktur af palmesamfund i det vestlige Amazonas. (iv) Diversificeringen af palme undertribus Bactridinae, som er endemisk for Amerika, blev undersøgt ved brug af nukleart DNA og kloroplast-DNA. Resultatet er en højt opløst og solidt understøttet fylogeni, der delvist modsiger tidligere klassifikationer og fylogenetiske hypoteser baseret på morfologisk information. Denne gruppes diversificering er tilsyneladende præget af Andesbjergenes dannelse og mulig¬vis klimaforandringer i Kænozoikum. Alt i alt, nuværende mønstre i palmers diversitet og udbredelse er tydeligvis påvirket af både nuværende økologiske processer og evolu-tionær dynamik (artsdannelse, uddøen, niche evolution, migration) som følge af for-tidige miljøforandringer og spredningsdynamik over evolutionær tid.

  14. Effects of economic crises on population health outcomes in Latin America, 1981–2010: an ecological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Callum; Gilbert, Barnabas James; Zeltner, Thomas; Watkins, Johnathan; Atun, Rifat; Maruthappu, Mahiben

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The relative health effects of changes in unemployment, inflation and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita on population health have not been assessed. We aimed to determine the effect of changes in these economic measures on mortality metrics across Latin America. Design Ecological study. Setting Latin America (21 countries), 1981–2010. Outcome measures Uses multivariate regression analysis to assess the effects of changes in unemployment, inflation and GDP per capita on 5 mortality indicators across 21 countries in Latin America, 1981–2010. Country-specific differences in healthcare infrastructure, population structure and population size were controlled for. Results Between 1981 and 2010, a 1% rise in unemployment was associated with statistically significant deteriorations (peconomics, policymakers should prioritise amelioration of unemployment if population health outcomes are to be optimised. PMID:26739715

  15. Genomics and marine microbial ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    [EN] Genomics has brought about a revolution in all fields of biology. Before the development of microbial ecology in the 1970s, microbes were not even considered in marine ecological studies. Today we know that half of the total primary production of the planet must be credited to microorganisms. This and other discoveries have changed dramatically the perspective and the focus of marine microbial ecology. The application of genomics-based approaches has provided new challenges and has allow...

  16. Ecological macroeconomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    of the economy could go hand in hand with increased employment. These ideas were not reflected much in actual policies, and – despite some green elements – the subsequent economic upturn was driven first of all by consumption, and in several affluent countries, fueled by credit expansion. The current...... contributed to discussions on how to reconcile environmental and social concerns. Based on this broad variety of pieces in a jigsaw puzzle, a new ecological macroeconomics is emerging, but the contours are still vague. This chapter seeks to outline some of this topography and to add a few pieces of its own by...... highlighting the need to shift resources from consumption to investment and describing the role of consumer-citizens in such a change. The chapter starts by identifying the problems and challenges for an ecological macroeconomics. The next section outlines some of the shortcomings of traditional macroeconomics...

  17. An improved high-throughput method for p-nitrophenol based enzyme assays to aid soil ecology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penso, J. A.; Moore-Kucera, J.; Acosta-Martinez, V.

    2014-12-01

    The activities of soil enzymes, influence critical ecological processes including decomposition, and transformation of organic matter, biogeochemical cycling and applications for industry, medicine, and energy. The p-nitrophenol (pNP)-based methods are widely used in agronomic and ecological studies but an adequate high-throughput, microplate method has yet to be adopted. The overall goal of this study is to further refine current pNP microplate methods to reduce the high variability and low sensitivity previously reported. Specific objectives were to: 1) determine the correct ratio of soil:water to ensure similar quantities of soil are compared regardless of texture; 2) reduce variability between replicates by removing soil particles from wells using filters embedded within microplate wells; 3) identify the influence of homogenization timing on enzyme activity; and 3) compare results to the traditional bench scale method. b-glucosidase activity was determined in sandy loam and clay loam soils with four homogenization times (2, 3, 4, and 5 minutes) with filtered microplates. Soil textural class significantly affected the actual quantity of soil pipetted into microplate wells, which supports the necessity to quantify actual soil used and adjust soil:water ratios. Results from the microplate method were significantly correlated with those of the bench scale results with an average r2 of 0.98 and an average slope of 1.37. The filtered plates removed the variability otherwise imparted by soil particles in the non-filtered technique with an average coefficient of variation of 7.3% (range was 2-24%). Slope increased with increasing homogenization with no significant difference between the 2 and 3 minute tests and the 4 and 5 minute tests. Results from additional tests will be discussed that evaluate a larger variety of soils under different management and environmental conditions.

  18. Industrial ecology.

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, C K

    1992-01-01

    Industrial ecology addresses issues that will impact future production, use, and disposal technologies; proper use of the concept should reduce significantly the resources devoted to potential remediation in the future. This cradle-to-reincarnation production philosophy includes industrial processes that are environmentally sound and products that are environmentally safe during use and economically recyclable after use without adverse impact on the environment or on the net cost to society. ...

  19. Developing Ecological Footprint Scenarios on University Campuses: A Case Study of the University of Toronto at Mississauga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Tenley M.; Dalton, Chelsea; Loo, Jennifer; Benakoun, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The ecological footprint represents a simple way to assess the amount of materials consumed and waste produced by a given entity. The approach has been applied to countries, towns, households, and more recently university campuses. One of the challenges of using the ecological footprint at a university is the difficulty of determining how…

  20. Art, Ecology and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witzke, Anne Sophie

    2013-01-01

    The discourse of ecology and sustainability has gained critical traction in recent years. But how are these concepts framed within the space, language and idea of the exhibition? This panel discussion, moderated by Steven Lam and conducted by email in July 2012, sought to unpack the claims and...... limits of the ecological, looking specifically at various international case studies, within the practice of curatorial and exhibition studies. The discussion begins with a reflection on ‘DON'T/PANIC’ in Durban and ‘Rethink – Contemporary Art and Climate Change’ in Copenhagen, exhibitions that were...

  1. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Keelah E G; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L

    2016-01-12

    Why do race stereotypes take the forms they do? Life history theory posits that features of the ecology shape individuals' behavior. Harsh and unpredictable ("desperate") ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable ("hopeful") ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. We suggest that individuals possess a lay understanding of ecology's influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Importantly, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, we propose that Americans' stereotypes about racial groups actually reflect stereotypes about these groups' presumed home ecologies. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. Studies 2-4 rule out alternative explanations for those findings. Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person's race (but not ecology), individuals' inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals' inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. However, when provided with information about both the race and ecology of others, individuals' inferences reflect the targets' ecology rather than their race: black and white targets from desperate ecologies are stereotyped as equally fast life history strategists, whereas black and white targets from hopeful ecologies are stereotyped as equally slow life history strategists. These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one's ecology influences behavior. PMID:26712013

  2. Missing ecology: integrating ecological perspectives with the social-ecological system framework

    OpenAIRE

    Graham Epstein; Jessica M. Vogt; Sarah K Mincey; Michael Cox; Burney Fischer

    2013-01-01

    The social-ecological systems framework was designed to provide a common research tool for interdisciplinary investigations of social-ecological systems. However, its origin in institutional studies of the commons belies its interdisciplinary ambitions and highlights its relatively limited attention to ecology and natural scientific knowledge. This paper considers the biophysical components of the framework and its epistemological foundations as it relates to the incorporation of knowledge fr...

  3. Ecology in Urban Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Letitia K.; Ryan, Michael

    In this course guide to the teaching of urban ecology, six learning activities on the following topics are outlined: (1) city location and growth; (2) an in-depth study of New Orleans; (3) city shape and structure; (4) size and spacing of cities; (5) cities with special functions; (6) local community study. Educational objectives for each activity…

  4. Ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was built on the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the mid-1980's. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 14 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Research conducted by the SREL has focused primarily on four questions related to these wetlands: (1) Prior to construction, what fauna and flora were present at the DWPF site and at similar, yet undisturbed, alternative sites? (2) By comparing the Carolina bay at the DWPF site (Sun Bay) with an undisturbed control Carolina bay (Rainbow Bay), what effect is construction having on the organisms that inhabited the DWPF site? (3) By comparing control streams with streams on the periphery of the DWPF site, what effect is construction having on the peripheral streams? (4) How effective have efforts been to lessen the impacts of construction, both with respect to erosion control measures and the construction of ''refuge ponds'' as alternative breeding sites for amphibians that formerly bred at Sun Bay? Through the long-term census-taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has begun to evaluate the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. Similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive Orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10 CFR 1022)

  5. Human and ecological risk assessment of a crop protection chemical: a case study with the azole fungicide epoxiconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Janice E; Greim, Helmut; Kendall, Ronald J; Segner, Helmut; Sharpe, Richard M; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2014-02-01

    Conventional risk assessments for crop protection chemicals compare the potential for causing toxicity (hazard identification) to anticipated exposure. New regulatory approaches have been proposed that would exclude exposure assessment and just focus on hazard identification based on endocrine disruption. This review comprises a critical analysis of hazard, focusing on the relative sensitivity of endocrine and non-endocrine endpoints, using a class of crop protection chemicals, the azole fungicides. These were selected because they are widely used on important crops (e.g. grains) and thereby can contact target and non-target plants and enter the food chain of humans and wildlife. Inhibition of lanosterol 14?-demethylase (CYP51) mediates the antifungal effect. Inhibition of other CYPs, such as aromatase (CYP19), can lead to numerous toxicological effects, which are also evident from high dose human exposures to therapeutic azoles. Because of its widespread use and substantial database, epoxiconazole was selected as a representative azole fungicide. Our critical analysis concluded that anticipated human exposure to epoxiconazole would yield a margin of safety of at least three orders of magnitude for reproductive effects observed in laboratory rodent studies that are postulated to be endocrine-driven (i.e. fetal resorptions). The most sensitive ecological species is the aquatic plant Lemna (duckweed), for which the margin of safety is less protective than for human health. For humans and wildlife, endocrine disruption is not the most sensitive endpoint. It is concluded that conventional risk assessment, considering anticipated exposure levels, will be protective of both human and ecological health. Although the toxic mechanisms of other azole compounds may be similar, large differences in potency will require a case-by-case risk assessment. PMID:24274332

  6. Estimates of meteorological variability in association with dengue cases in a coastal city in northern Vietnam: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Thanh Xuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue fever (DF is a vector-borne disease that is sensitive to weather and climate variability. To date, however, this relationship in coastal northern Vietnam has not been well documented. Objectives: This paper aims to examine the associations between meteorological variables and dengue incidence in Haiphong, Vietnam, over the period 2008–2012. Methods: Monthly data on dengue incidence from all commune health stations and hospitals of Haiphong (with a total population of ~1.8 million were obtained in accordance with the WHO's recommendations over a 5-year period (2008–2012. Temperature, rainfall, and humidity were recorded as monthly averages by local meteorological stations. The association between ecologic weather variables and dengue cases was assessed using a Poisson regression model. The estimation of regression parameters was based on the method of maximum likelihood using the R program package. Results: From 2008 through 2012, 507 cases of dengue were reported. The risk of dengue was increased by sevenfold during the September–December period compared with other months over the period 2008–2012. DF cases in Haiphong were correlated with rainfall and humidity. In the multivariable Poisson regression model, an increased risk of dengue was independently associated with months with a higher amount of rainfall (RR=1.06; 95% CI 1.00–1.13 per 50 mm increase and higher humidity (RR=1.05; 95% CI 1.02–1.08 per 1% increase. Conclusion: These data suggest that rainfall and relative humidity could be used as ecological indicators of dengue risk in Haiphong. Intensified surveillance and disease control during periods with high rainfall and humidity are recommended. This study may provide baseline information for identifying potential long-term effects and adaptation needs of global climate change on dengue in the coming decades.

  7. The power of genetic monitoring for studying demography, ecology and genetics of a reintroduced brown bear population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Barba, M; Waits, L P; Garton, E O; Genovesi, P; Randi, E; Mustoni, A; Groff, C

    2010-09-01

    Genetic monitoring has rarely been used for wildlife translocations despite the potential benefits this approach offers, compared to traditional field-based methods. We applied genetic monitoring to the reintroduced brown bear population in northern Italy. From 2002 to 2008, 2781 hair and faecal samples collected noninvasively plus 12 samples obtained from captured or dead bears were used to follow the demographic and geographical expansion and changes in genetic composition. Individual genotypes were used to reconstruct the wild pedigree and revealed that the population increased rapidly, from nine founders to >27 individuals in 2008 (lambda=1.17-1.19). Spatial mapping of bear samples indicated that most bears were distributed in the region surrounding the translocation site; however, individual bears were found up to 163 km away. Genetic diversity in the population was high, with expected heterozygosity of 0.74-0.79 and allelic richness of 4.55-5.41. However, multi-year genetic monitoring data showed that mortality rates were elevated, immigration did not occur, one dominant male sired all cubs born from 2002 to 2005, genetic diversity declined, relatedness increased, inbreeding occurred, and the effective population size was extremely small (Ne=3.03, ecological method). The comprehensive information collected through genetic monitoring is critical for implementing future conservation plans for the brown bear population in the Italian Alps. This study provides a model for other reintroduction programmes by demonstrating how genetic monitoring can be implemented to uncover aspects of the demography, ecology and genetics of small and reintroduced populations that will advance our understanding of the processes influencing their viability, evolution, and successful restoration. PMID:20735733

  8. Linking stroke mortality with air pollution, income, and greenness in northwest Florida: an ecological geographical study

    OpenAIRE

    Rao K Ranga; Liebens Johan; Hu Zhiyong

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Relatively few studies have examined the association between air pollution and stroke mortality. Inconsistent and inclusive results from existing studies on air pollution and stroke justify the need to continue to investigate the linkage between stroke and air pollution. No studies have been done to investigate the association between stroke and greenness. The objective of this study was to examine if there is association of stroke with air pollution, income and greenness ...

  9. Urban sound ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Krogh Groth

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Within recent years, there has been a renewed focus on sound in urban environments. From sound installations in public space to sound festivals in alternative settings, we find a common interest in sound art relating to the urban environment. Artworks or interventions presented in such contexts share the characteristics of site specificity. However, this article will consider the artwork in a broader context by re-examining how sound installations relate to the urban environment. For that purpose, this article brings together ecology terms from acoustic ecology of the sound theories of the 1970s while developing them into recent definitions of ecology in urban studies. Finally, we unfold our framing of urban sound ecologies with three case analyses: a sound intervention in Berlin, a symphony for wind instruments in Copenhagen and a video walk in a former railway station in Kassel. The article concludes that the ways in which recent sound installations work with urban ecologies vary. While two of the examples blend into the urban environment, the other transfers the concert format and its mode of listening to urban space. Last, and in accordance with recent soundscape research, we point to how artists working with new information and media technologies create inventive ways of inserting sound and image into urban environments.

  10. Editorial: Pedagogical Media Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee M. Meister

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available From educational gaming through portable e-readers to cell phones, media are interpenetrating educational spaces and activities. Accordingly, understanding media in environmental or ecological terms has become increasingly important for education internationally. In North America, for example, the centenary of McLuhan’s birth has focused attention on approaches to media – whether oral, textual, electronic or digital– as a kind of environment in which education takes place. In parts of Europe, the so-called mediatic turn – following on the linguistic and iconic turns – has similarly emphasized the role of media as a condition for the possibility of educational activities and programs. With a few exceptions1 the papers in this special issue were first presented at the conference «Educational Media Ecologies: International Perspectives» which took place at the University of Paderborn, Germany, on March 27–28, 2012.2 The event was an interdisciplinary and transatlantic endeavor to bring together a wide range of perspectives on various issues relevant to educational media ecologies,3 and on related debates on mediation, medialization, mediatization, and mediality.4 The purpose of this volume, like the conference, is to foster and deepen international dialogue in the area of educational media. Areas of research and scholarship relevant to this dialogue include educational media, media literacy, educational philosophy, and media and cultural studies. The contributions, described below, put conceptual issues as well as social practices and applications at the center of the debate. Klaus Rummler opens the issue by clarifying the concept of ecology itself. Referencing a range of work over the past 50 years, Rummler describes how ecological models have been cast in sociological, semiotic, cultural, mediatic and other terms, and he explains the implications of these various perspectives for the study of educational contexts. Rummler also briefly introduces the reader to the triangular model used by Bachmair, Pachler and Cook in this issue (and in other publications to analyse the socio-cultural and cognitive possibilities opened up by various mobile media. Sandra Aßmann and Bardo Herzig discuss three theoretical approaches – a network perspective, systems theory and semiotics – in order to conceptualize and analyze learning with media in a range of formal and informal settings. They use the example of «friending» someone via Facebook, a context in which the formal and informal often intersect in unexpected ways. In this way, Aßmann and Herzig demonstrate the manifest complexities of communication analysis and pragmatics in these relatively new networked, mediated contexts. Judith Seipold provides an extensive overview of the burgeoning literature on the use and potential of mobile technologies in learning and educational ecologies. The research perspectives or frameworks covered by Seipold include critical, ethical, resource-centered, learning process-centered as well as ecological frames of reference. In her coverage of the last of these, not only does Seipold help to reframe the theme of this special issue as a whole, she also provides an excellent segue to the ecologically oriented analysis of «mobile learning» that follows. Ben Bachmair and Norbert Pachler’s contribution, «A Cultural Ecological Frame for Mobility and Learning», reflects the work of the London Mobile Learning Group, examining mobile resources and affordances from the ecological perspectives of Gibson, Postman and the seminal German media-pedagogue, Dieter Baacke. Using the structuration theory of Anthony Giddens, Bachmair, Norbert and Cook elaborate the aforementioned triangular model for understanding both the agency and the cultural and structural constraints offered by mobile technologies. In «Building as Interface: Sustainable Educational Ecologies», Suzanne de Castell, Milena Droumeva and Jen Jenson connect learning and media ecologies with the material, global and ecological challenges that have become a par

  11. Effects of the radioprotector WR-1065 on aspects of DNA metabolism and cell cycle progression in CHO AA8 and human HSF4 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioprotector WR-1065 (2-[(aminopropyl) amino]ethanethiol) is known to protect mammalian cells from the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of radiation exposure, but the exact mechanisms involved in this protection are not fully known. The effect of WR-1065 on a variety of cellular processes in two cell lines was examined to determine how it may provide protection. Incubation of Chinese hamster ovary AA8 cells in 4 mM WR-1065 did not significantly affect the DNA synthetic rate. Autoradiographic analysis of heavily labeled nuclei of AA8 cells showed no significant difference in the size of the S phase population of WR-1065 treated versus control cells for up to 3 h. An examination of the effect of WR-1065 on repair synthesis, as measured by unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in cells exposed to 15 Gy of gamma-rays, showed no difference between treated and sham treated cells for up to 2 h exposure time. A significant reduction in the amount of UDS was seen in cells treated with the protector for 2.5 and 3h. WR-1065 concentrations ranging from 0.5 mM to 4 mM were not cytotoxic to normal human skin fibroblast cells (HSF4) for exposure to 137Cs gamma-rays resulted in a protection factor of 3.5, almost twice that observed for AA8 cells with 4 mM Wr-1065. Growth of AA8 cells in either alpha-minimal essential medium or McCoy's 5 a medium did not affect the alteration in cell cycle progression observed. These data suggest that perturbations in cell cycle progression, rather than direct effects on the rate of DNA synthesis, could play a role in the increased survival and reduced mutation frequencies observed in the presence of WR-1065 by allowing more time for the repair of DNA damage prior to division

  12. Application of the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean to Phytoplankton Ecology Studies in Monterey Bay, CA, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a demonstrator for technologies for the next generation of ocean color sensors, the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO provides enhanced spatial and spectral resolution that is required to understand optically complex aquatic environments. In this study we apply HICO, along with satellite remote sensing and in situ observations, to studies of phytoplankton ecology in a dynamic coastal upwelling environment—Monterey Bay, CA, USA. From a spring 2011 study, we examine HICO-detected spatial patterns in phytoplankton optical properties along an environmental gradient defined by upwelling flow patterns and along a temporal gradient of upwelling intensification. From a fall 2011 study, we use HICO’s enhanced spatial and spectral resolution to distinguish a small-scale “red tide” bloom, and we examine bloom expansion and its supporting processes using other remote sensing and in situ data. From a spectacular HICO image of the Monterey Bay region acquired during fall of 2012, we present a suite of algorithm results for characterization of phytoplankton, and we examine the strengths, limitations, and distinctions of each algorithm in the context of the enhanced spatial and spectral resolution.

  13. Ecological impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative problems in accomplishing ecological impact assessment with particular reference to defining population effects are discussed with some comments on the two approaches most commonly used, e.g., the experimental and simulation models. Some alternatives are suggested because both methods will probably fail to detect real population effects mostly due to poor understanding of ecosystems or because of the limitations inherent in field census methods. Most judgments of ecological impact are not quantitatively defensible but are qualitative, subjective, or political in nature. An examination of aggregates of data from various nuclear power plant sites may be one way to obtain enough replication to judge ecological impact. Thus, currently available data from such studies as well as appropriate demographic, vegetation, census, and bibliographic material could offer an interesting challenge to computer professionals if such an undertaking were contemplated. Present research programs at PNL and computer involvement are described. Future possibilities and directions are discussed. (U.S.)

  14. Between Design and Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Mona Chor

    current understanding, both theoretical and practical, of the design and dynamical changes in low resource requiring, colourful forb vegetation. Through literature and an experimental field study, this thesis contributes to new perspectives on the possibilities for and limitations of creating and managing...... such vegetation, based on concepts and theories in plant community ecology. If these communities are based on local forbs there is a continuum in anthropogenic intervention from designed and intensively maintained to semi-natural herbaceous vegetation. Results from a large field experiment show that......, forb vegetation will become colonised by grasses and eventually woody species. This thesis adds useful basic knowledge in plant community ecology and species-specific growth, which are relevant to research and planning in landscape architecture and ecology....

  15. Industrial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, C K

    1992-02-01

    Industrial ecology addresses issues that will impact future production, use, and disposal technologies; proper use of the concept should reduce significantly the resources devoted to potential remediation in the future. This cradle-to-reincarnation production philosophy includes industrial processes that are environmentally sound and products that are environmentally safe during use and economically recyclable after use without adverse impact on the environment or on the net cost to society. This will require an industry-university-government round table to set the strategy and agenda for progress. PMID:11607254

  16. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...... very dilute solutions of organic matter and their potential growth rates are very high. Bacteria do not have a cytoskeleton and they are covered by a rigid cells wall. Therefore they can only take up dissolved low-molecular-weight compounds from their surroundings; when bacteria exploit polymeric...

  17. Graphic Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook Weld Muller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes strategic approaches to graphic representation associated with critical environmental engagement and that build from the idea of works of architecture as stitches in the ecological fabric of the city. It focuses on the building up of partial or fragmented graphics in order to describe inclusive, open-ended possibilities for making architecture that marry rich experience and responsive performance. An aphoristic approach to crafting drawings involves complex layering, conscious absence and the embracing of tension. A self-critical attitude toward the generation of imagery characterized by the notion of ‘loose precision’ may lead to more transformative and environmentally responsive architectures.

  18. Vegetation Dynamics Depending on Ecological Particularities of Bozanta Mare (Maramures County-Romania Tailing Pound. Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Marian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study follows an ecological demarch of reintegration in the scenary through revegetation of an anthropic ground, consisting in a waste pond formed from the flotation activity of non-ferrous ores. Problem statement: To support the formation of a compact vegetal layer, having an anti-errosion and a restoration role, a preliminary study was required regarding the spontaneous settlement of different vegetal species. We have followed the specific floristic composition and the biodiversity on the waste pond, the manner of association of plant species, and the possible interractions with other species from the biocenosis (microorganisms and fungi. We have also studied the pace at which vegetal species settle, as well as the reciprocal influence, from the point of view of vegetation, with the neighbouring area, since the desideratum is the settlement of a vegetation similar to the natural one. Approach: The aim of the research is to draw a list of the vegetal taxa installed on the pond, as well as to detect some succession stages or some possible vegetal associations. We have established the share of different species in the vegetal layer on the waste pond through an analysis of the ecological preferences, of the geographical origin of plant species, of the cariological and bioform profile. All this was done to compare the possible vegetal associations which settle on such anthropic grounds with the neighbouring vegetation. The approach used was the classical one in fitosociology, recommended by the Central European Fitosociological School adapted to the pedo-climatic conditions in Romania. Results: Over 50 species of plants and fungi spontaniously settled have been listed, and we have followed their association as well as their distribution, compared to the microclimatical conditions of the waste pond. In this way,we have distinguished species with a large potential of revegetating highly polluted with heavy metals waste ponds and sites. Conclusions/Recommendations: Starting from this study, we may establish a formula of sustaining the vegetation and using the interractions among species in order to stimulate the settlement of a dense vegetation which might ensure anti-errosion protection and landscape integration.

  19. Development of a concept for a long-term ecological monitoring system on the river Rhine. Phase 1: bibliographic study. Annex 2. Summary of results and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliographic study describes the ecological changes to which the ecosystem Rhine river/floodplain has been exposed from its historical state, free of anthropogenic impacts, to its present state, marked by strong anthropogenic impacts. By classifying these changes it is possible to define reference states of the river which should become the basis for the restoration of certain conditions of the ecosystem river/floodplain and to discuss related targets and actions. A comparison of historical and present states of the ecosystem allows proposals to be derived for measuring parameters for a future ecological monitoring programme for the river Rhine. Finally, gaps in knowledge are revealed, which at present hinder the ecological monitoring of the river, its shores and floodplains. Annex II is a summary of major findings and conclusions, which are discussed in the context of objectives and actions of the Rhine restoration programme. (orig.)

  20. Compositional Data Analysis (CoDA) as a tool to study the (paleo)ecology of coccolithophores from coastal-neritic settings off central Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Catarina; Cachão, Mário; Pawlowsky-Glahn, Vera; Oliveira, Anabela; Rodrigues, Aurora

    2015-04-01

    Whereas using the species percentages is the standard analytical procedure used to infer species ecological preferences, independently of taphonomical effects, the closure problem associated with closed number systems and subsequent inconsistency of determining percentages may lead to spurious correlations, biased statistical analysis and misleading interpretations. To avoid these problems, we applied Compositional Data Analysis (CoDA) to investigate the (paleo)ecological preferences and spatial distribution of coccolith assemblages preserved in seafloor sediments, using as a case-study the central Portuguese submarine canyons and adjacent shelf-slope areas. Results from using the isometric log-ratio (ilr) approach from CoDA are compared with results from using classical analytical methods, and further discussed. While providing scale invariance and subcompositional coherence, CoDA is revealed to be a consistent statistical tool to infer the (paleo)ecological preferences of coccolithophores, corroborating earlier work based on from percentage determinations. Results of this study clearly confirmed the coastal-neritic distribution of coccoliths from Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Helicosphaera carteri and Coronosphaera mediterranea, whereas coccoliths from Calcidiscus leptoporus, Umbilicosphaera sibogae, Umbellosphaera irregularis and Rhabdosphaera spp. more typically occur offshore. Differences between canyons and adjacent shelf and slope areas were also confirmed, namely the (a) greater importance of the coastal-neritic assemblage possibly resulting from local and persistent nutrient pumping in these areas, and (b) stronger mixing of coccoliths from coastal and oceanic species in upper canyon reaches, resulting from the focused coastward advection of more oceanic water masses along their axes. Unlike the results from both ilr-coordinates and the percentage approaches, both coccolith concentrations and fluxes showed that spatial trends in which the species ecological inter-relationships appear to be masked by taphonomical phenomena, especially towards the coast and in the canyons, suggesting the two latter approaches are not suitable to perform (paleo)ecological inferences in more dynamic coastal-neritic settings. Our study suggests that the (paleo)ecological signal preserved in the studied sediment samples is persistent enough to be revealed by both CoDA and percentages. Yet, given that CoDA provides the only statistical solution to coherently draw (paleo)ecological interpretations from compositional data, our recommendation is that CoDA should always be used to test and validate any ecological signals obtained from percentage distributions.

  1. Studies of obtaining and stability in aqueous medium of new complex compounds of Ti(IV) and Zr(IV) used in ecological leather tanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crudu, Marian; Sibiescu, Doina; Rosca, Ioan; Sutiman, Daniel; Vizitiu, Mihaela

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the study of obtaining new coordination compounds of Ti(IV) and Zr(IV) using as ligand: D,L-?-iso-butyric acid, is presented. Also, the stability of these compounds in aqueous medium is studied. The studies of obtaining and of stability of the new compounds were accomplished in aqueous solutions using methods characteristic for coordination compounds: conductance and pH measurements. The combination ratios and the stability were determined with methods characteristic for studies in solutions. From experimental data resulted that the combination ratio of central metallic atoms with the ligand derived from D,L-?-iso-butyric acid was 1:2. From experimental data resulted that in strong acid and strong basic mediums, the coordination compounds could not be obtained. The optimal stability of the studied compounds is limited between 3-6, pH - values. This fact is in accordance with the conditions of using these compounds in ecological leather tanning. Of great importance is that these compounds were used with very good results in tanning processes of different types of leather. This fact evidenced that the ecological alternative of tanning is better than non-ecological tanning using chrome compounds. The importance of this paper consists in obtaining new coordination compounds that can be used in ecological leather tanning.

  2. Summaries of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioecology and Ecology Program's waste management related studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research summaries briefly describe studies concerning the activities of small mammals on and in waste disposal sites, revegetation of waste disposal sites, and contamination of wildlife by radionuclides and the spread of radionuclides by wildlife

  3. Olive oil, diet and colorectal cancer: an ecological study and a hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Stoneham, M; Goldacre, M; Seagroatt, V.; Gill, L

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES—Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common cancer in many western countries and is probably caused in part by dietary factors. Southern European countries have lower incidence rates of CRC than many other western countries. It was postulated that, because olive oil is thought to influence bile salt secretion patterns in rats, it may influence the occurrence of CRC. The purpose of this study was to compare national levels of dietary factors, with particular reference to olive oil, wi...

  4. Landscape ecological, phytosociological and geobotanical study of eumediterranean in west of Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazal, Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    The Eu-Mediterranean vegetation in Syria is widespread over a large geographical area, occupying an altitudinal zone mainly from 300 to 900 m asl., but can be also found outside this range. The study area is located to the west of the longitude 37° E, where this vegetation dominates. A complete field surveying of the landscape for all regions in the study area was carried out. The environmental variables of the landscape (climate, soil, geology, land use, flora and vegetation) were ana...

  5. Ecological subsidies: a conceptual framework for integrating ecosystem and exposure studies in linked aquatic-terrestrial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecology and ecotoxicology share common goals - tracing and quantifying material flux in the environment. Bridging these disciplines is challenging because their practitioners have slightly different methods, terminologies and objectives. For example, ecologists strive to identify...

  6. Ecological Monitoring at Long-Term Study Sites in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Initial Projects in 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We established two longterm ecological monitoring sites in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in 1996 and three more will be established between 1997 and 1999. The...

  7. The Role of Empowerment in Youth Development: A Study of Sociopolitical Control as Mediator of Ecological Systems' Influence on Developmental Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christens, Brian D.; Peterson, N. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Empowerment has become an influential concept and theoretical framework for social policy and practice. Still, relatively little is known about the roles that empowerment plays in the ecology of human development, particularly among young people. This article reports results of a study of psychological empowerment among young people, using data…

  8. An Ecological Study of Community-Level Correlates of Suicide Mortality Rates in the Flemish Region of Belgium, 1996-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooghe, Marc; Vanhoutte, Bram

    2011-01-01

    An ecological study of age-standardized suicide rates in Belgian communities (1996-2005) was conducted using spatial regression techniques. Community characteristics were significantly related to suicide rates. There was mixed support for the social integration perspective: single person households were associated with higher suicide rates, while…

  9. GUS and GFP transformation of the biocontrol strain Clonostachys rosea IK726 and the use of these marker genes in ecological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, M.; Knudsen, I.M.B.; Jensen, B.; Thrane, Ulf; Janvier, C.; Jensen, D.F.

    2002-01-01

    Marker genes were introduced in the biocontrol strain Clonostachys rosea IK726 (IBT 9371) as a tool for monitoring the strain in ecological studies. The beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and a gene encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) were, in separate experiments, integrated into the...

  10. Learning about Environmental Issues in Engineering Programmes: A Case Study of First-Year Civil Engineering Students' Contextualisation of an Ecology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    Describes how first-year civil engineering students interpreted the content and structure of an ecology course. Students' learning processes were analysed from an intentional perspective, i.e. a perspective that takes into account the students' educational aims and conceptions of the study situation. Interviews were carried out with six civil…

  11. Lunar base Controlled Ecological Life Support System (LCELSS): Preliminary conceptual design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a conceptual design for a self-sufficient LCELSS. The mission need is for a CELSS with a capacity to supply the life support needs for a nominal crew of 30, and a capability for accommodating a range of crew sizes from 4 to 100 people. The work performed in this study was nominally divided into two parts. In the first part, relevant literature was assembled and reviewed. This review identified LCELSS performance requirements and the constraints and advantages confronting the design. It also collected information on the environment of the lunar surface and identified candidate technologies for the life support subsystems and the systems with which the LCELSS interfaced. Information on the operation and performance of these technologies was collected, along with concepts of how they might be incorporated into the LCELSS conceptual design. The data collected on these technologies was stored for incorporation into the study database. Also during part one, the study database structure was formulated and implemented, and an overall systems engineering methodology was developed for carrying out the study.

  12. Study on the Model Building for the Influence of the Water Environment on Urban Tourism Ecological Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Zu-yong; SHen Ju-qin; Sun Fu-hua

    2013-01-01

    This article first define the concept of the urban water environment and city tourism environment capacity and points out that the urban tourism environment capacity including urban tourism ecological capacity, urban tourism spatial capacity, urban tourism economy capacity and city tourism mental capacity, on the basis of which, the tourist ecological capacity of the influence factors were analyzed. And from the water environment of tourist’s capital input ...

  13. Ecological thresholds as a basis for defining management triggers for National Park Service vital signs: case studies for dryland ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Matthew A.; Miller, Mark E.; Belote, R. Travis; Garman, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Threshold concepts are used in research and management of ecological systems to describe and interpret abrupt and persistent reorganization of ecosystem properties (Walker and Meyers, 2004; Groffman and others, 2006). Abrupt change, referred to as a threshold crossing, and the progression of reorganization can be triggered by one or more interactive disturbances such as land-use activities and climatic events (Paine and others, 1998). Threshold crossings occur when feedback mechanisms that typically absorb forces of change are replaced with those that promote development of alternative equilibria or states (Suding and others, 2004; Walker and Meyers, 2004; Briske and others, 2008). The alternative states that emerge from a threshold crossing vary and often exhibit reduced ecological integrity and value in terms of management goals relative to the original or reference system. Alternative stable states with some limited residual properties of the original system may develop along the progression after a crossing; an eventual outcome may be the complete loss of pre-threshold properties of the original ecosystem. Reverting to the more desirable reference state through ecological restoration becomes increasingly difficult and expensive along the progression gradient and may eventually become impossible. Ecological threshold concepts have been applied as a heuristic framework and to aid in the management of rangelands (Bestelmeyer, 2006; Briske and others, 2006, 2008), aquatic (Scheffer and others, 1993; Rapport and Whitford 1999), riparian (Stringham and others, 2001; Scott and others, 2005), and forested ecosystems (Allen and others, 2002; Digiovinazzo and others, 2010). These concepts are also topical in ecological restoration (Hobbs and Norton 1996; Whisenant 1999; Suding and others, 2004; King and Hobbs, 2006) and ecosystem sustainability (Herrick, 2000; Chapin and others, 1996; Davenport and others, 1998). Achieving conservation management goals requires the protection of resources within the range of desired conditions (Cook and others, 2010). The goal of conservation management for natural resources in the U.S. National Park System is to maintain native species and habitat unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations. Achieving this goal requires, in part, early detection of system change and timely implementation of remediation. The recent National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring program (NPS I&M) was established to provide early warning of declining ecosystem conditions relative to a desired native or reference system (Fancy and others, 2009). To be an effective tool for resource protection, monitoring must be designed to alert managers of impending thresholds so that preventive actions can be taken. This requires an understanding of the ecosystem attributes and processes associated with threshold-type behavior; how these attributes and processes become degraded; and how risks of degradation vary among ecosystems and in relation to environmental factors such as soil properties, climatic conditions, and exposure to stressors. In general, the utility of the threshold concept for long-term monitoring depends on the ability of scientists and managers to detect, predict, and prevent the occurrence of threshold crossings associated with persistent, undesirable shifts among ecosystem states (Briske and others, 2006). Because of the scientific challenges associated with understanding these factors, the application of threshold concepts to monitoring designs has been very limited to date (Groffman and others, 2006). As a case in point, the monitoring efforts across the 32 NPS I&M networks were largely designed with the knowledge that they would not be used to their full potential until the development of a systematic method for understanding threshold dynamics and methods for estimating key attributes of threshold crossings. This report describes and demonstrates a generalized approach that we implemented to formalize understanding and estimating of threshold dynamics for terrestrial dryland ecosystems in national parks of the Colorado Plateau. We provide a structured approach to identify and describe degradation processes associated with threshold behavior and to estimate indicator levels that characterize the point at which a threshold crossing has occurred or is imminent (tipping points) or points where investigative or preventive management action should be triggered (assessment points). We illustrate this method for several case studies in national parks included in the Northern and Southern Colorado Plateau NPS I&M networks, where historical livestock grazing, climatic change, and invasive species are key agents of change. The approaches developed in these case studies are intended to enhance the design, effectiveness, and management-relevance of monitoring efforts in support of conservation management in dryland systems. They specifically enhance National Park Service (NPS) capacity for protecting park resources on the Colorado Plateau but have applicability to monitoring and conservation management of dryland ecosystems worldwide.

  14. Ecological transition towards a sustainable energy system. Case studies on biogas production and use in Germany and Peru. Study of the European Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy system - defined as the production, distribution and consumption of energy - plays an important role in sustainability because it is interlinked with economic development, environmental protection and also, in developing countries, with the basic need for a food supply. The energy system has to be studied in relation to the urgent global problems, such as increasing pollution, growing world population, deforestation, exploitation of nonrenewable resources etc. The study, therefore, has the following objectives: - Identification of basic needs by the definition of physical, economic and social indicators for sustainable development. - Definition of the energy system, in terms of processes from energy production to energy use, including actors and networks. -Identification of the main problem areas in industrialized and developing countries relating to the energy system, of necessary improvements and of activities which are essential for the fulfillment of basic needs. - Definition and description of the conventional energy system with its process chains and actors and of an ecological energy system. - Identification of technical and socioeconomic impacts of these systems and their relations to the sustainability indicators. - Analysis of barriers and promotion of measures for the ecological transi tion (actors, R and D, technology transfer, information, motivation, consultation, training, subsidies, and other policy implications). (orig./SR)

  15. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Insect ecology studies and insect pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reviews the activities of the Pest Control Research Group in Indonesia. Pests under study are the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), the rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis), the sugar cane borer (Chilo auricilius), bean flies (Agromyza spp.), tobacco insects (Heliothis armigera and Spodoptera litura) and cotton insects, especially the pink bollworm

  16. Ecological and Physiological Studies of Gymnodinium catenatum in the Mexican Pacific: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine J. Band-Schmidt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This review presents a detailed analysis of the state of knowledge of studies done in Mexico related to the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum, a paralytic toxin producer. This species was first reported in the Gulf of California in 1939; since then most studies in Mexico have focused on local blooms and seasonal variations. G. catenatum is most abundant during March and April, usually associated with water temperatures between 18 and 25 ºC and an increase in nutrients. In vitro studies of G. catenatum strains from different bays along the Pacific coast of Mexico show that this species can grow in wide ranges of salinities, temperatures, and N:P ratios. Latitudinal differences are observed in the toxicity and toxin profile, but the presence of dcSTX, dcGTX2-3, C1, and C2 are usual components. A common characteristic of the toxin profile found in shellfish, when G. catenatum is present in the coastal environment, is the detection of dcGTX2-3, dcSTX, C1, and C2. Few bioassay studies have reported effects in mollusks and lethal effects in mice, and shrimp; however no adverse effects have been observed in the copepod Acartia clausi. Interestingly, genetic sequencing of D1-D2 LSU rDNA revealed that it differs only in one base pair, compared with strains from other regions.

  17. Ecological and Motivational Determinants of Activation: Studying Compared to Sports and Watching TV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delespaul, Philippe A. E. G.; Reis, Harry T.; DeVries, Marten W.

    2004-01-01

    How can we enhance activation? Studying should be a challenging, yet rewarding activity for students who intend to graduate. The Flow theory (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990, 1997) predicts that differential levels of perceived challenge and skill (flow) are related to optimized mental states and increased activation. However, the influence of concurrent…

  18. The Fragility of Ecological Pedagogy: Elementary Social Studies Standards and Possibilities of New Materialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonu, Debbie; Snaza, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The greatest challenge facing the field of environmentalism includes ontological questions over the human subject and its desensitization from landscapes of experience. In this article the authors draw from field experiences in New York City elementary schools (such as observations of teachers, NYS Scope and Sequence Standards for Social Studies

  19. DAE, BRNS co-ordinated research project (CRP) on the thermal ecological studies (TES) - a perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present studies underscored the value of long term base line data on temperature and other physico-chemical parameters of natural water bodies as an essential pre-requisite for sitting power plants, planning industrial discharges into natural water bodies, ensuring minimal impacts on fauna and flora

  20. Model based approach to Study the Impact of Biofuels on the Sustainability of an Ecological System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance and complexity of sustainability has been well recognized and a formal study of sustainability based on system theory approaches is imperative as many of the relationships between various components of the ecosystem could be nonlinear, intertwined and non intuitive...

  1. A study of marine zoo-benthos of OM attouyour (systematic, ecology and radioactivity)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study introduces a survey of marine zoo-Benthos found in the littoral zone of Om Attouyour. Measuring natural and artificial radioactivity. Likewise, artificial radionuclides levels and Hg, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu concentrations were low or within the range measured for similar samples in other coasts of the Mediterranean. (author)

  2. An Ecological Study on the Introduction of the Banded Sculpin Into a Coal Flyash Impacted Stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrico, B.A.; Ryon, M.G.

    1996-02-01

    A number of banded sculpins [Cottus carolinae (Gill)] were obtained from a population in a reference stream, marked with subcutaneous acrylic paint injections, and introduced into McCoy Branch, a small second-order stream located on the Oak Ridge Reservation in eastern Tennessee, which was inhabited by only a few banded sculpins prior to the study. McCoy Branch had received deposits of coal ash slurry for a prolonged period, however, there were some indications of recovery in the macroinvertebrate community due to improvements in water quality. Stream habitat characteristics and water chemistry parameters were monitored in McCoy Branch and a reference stream for a three-year period. Feeding patterns and reproductive activities of the banded sculpins were also monitored during the study. Sculpin population parameters including density, condition factor, and young-of-year (YOY) abundance and survival were studied. The results of the study show that the introduced fish have survived and appear to be in good condition. The sculpins have maintained a density of approximately 0.12 fish per square meter of stream, a figure similar to that found in other headwater streams located in the region. Colonization rates and sculpin densities in McCoy Branch were lower than expected, perhaps due to physical habitat degradation and reduced macroinvertebrate abundance. Evidence of sculpin reproduction in McCoy Branch was seen in the presence of gravid female sculpins (1994 and 1995) and YOY fish (1993 through 1995 year classes). This study indicates that McCoy Branch continues to recover from past perturbations to the point where it can now support a viable population of banded sculpins.

  3. An Ecological Study on the Introduction of the Banded Sculpin Into a Coal Flyash Impacted Stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of banded sculpins [Cottus carolinae (Gill)] were obtained from a population in a reference stream, marked with subcutaneous acrylic paint injections, and introduced into McCoy Branch, a small second-order stream located on the Oak Ridge Reservation in eastern Tennessee, which was inhabited by only a few banded sculpins prior to the study. McCoy Branch had received deposits of coal ash slurry for a prolonged period, however, there were some indications of recovery in the macroinvertebrate community due to improvements in water quality. Stream habitat characteristics and water chemistry parameters were monitored in McCoy Branch and a reference stream for a three-year period. Feeding patterns and reproductive activities of the banded sculpins were also monitored during the study. Sculpin population parameters including density, condition factor, and young-of-year (YOY) abundance and survival were studied. The results of the study show that the introduced fish have survived and appear to be in good condition. The sculpins have maintained a density of approximately 0.12 fish per square meter of stream, a figure similar to that found in other headwater streams located in the region. Colonization rates and sculpin densities in McCoy Branch were lower than expected, perhaps due to physical habitat degradation and reduced macroinvertebrate abundance. Evidence of sculpin reproduction in McCoy Branch was seen in the presence of gravid female sculpins (1994 and 1995) and YOY fish (1993 through 1995 year classes). This study indicates that McCoy Branch continues to recover from past perturbations to the point where it can now support a viable population of banded sculpins

  4. Rodent sperm analysis in field-based ecological risk assessment: pilot study at Ravenna army ammunition plant, Ravenna, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodent sperm analysis is a visable method for use in field studies of risk at contaminated sites. - Ecological risk assessment (ERA) guidance recommends that field-truthing efforts proceed when modeled hazard quotients (HQs) suggest that toxicological effects are occurring to site receptors. To date, no field methods have been proposed by the regulatory community that can lead to definitive determinations of acceptable or unacceptable risk for birds and mammals, the two terrestrial classes of receptors that are commonly assessed using the HQ method. This paper describes rodent sperm analysis (RSA) as a viable method to be applied in the field at sites with historical contamination. RSA is capable of detecting biological differences that bear on reproduction, a highly regarded toxicological endpoint of concern in USEPA Superfund-type ERAs. The results of RSA's first application at a study site are reported and discussed. The paper also provides the rationale for RSA's efficacy in the context of Superfund and other environmental cleanup programs, where limited time and money are available to determine and evaluate the field condition

  5. Suicídio e trabalho em metrópoles brasileiras: um estudo ecológico / Suicide and work in Brazilian metropolises: an ecological study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roger Flores, Ceccon; Stela Nazareth, Meneghel; Juliana Petri, Tavares; Liana, Lautert.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi relacionar a mortalidade por suicídio com indicadores de saúde e trabalho em seis metrópoles brasileiras: Porto Alegre, Recife, Salvador, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo. Estudo ecológico, cujo desfecho é o coeficiente de mortalidade por suicídio na série histó [...] rica de 2002 a 2010, e as variáveis independentes são os indicadores de atividade laboral e de sofrimento mental. Realizou-se associação estatística por meio do teste de Correlação de Pearson e as variáveis associadas ao suicídio (p Abstract in english The scope of this study was to correlate suicide mortality with health indicators and work in six Brazilian metropolises: Porto Alegre, Recife, Salvador, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. It was an ecological study, the outcome of which is the death rate from suicide in the historical se [...] ries from 2002 to 2010, and the independent variables are the indicators of occupational activity and mental suffering. Statistical association using the Pearson Correlation test was conducted and the variables associated with suicide (p

  6. Location and description of transects for ecological studies in floodplain forests of the lower Suwannee River, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, L.J.; Light, H.M.; Darst, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    Twelve transects were established in floodplain forests along the lower Suwannee River, Florida, as the principal data collection sites for a comprehensive study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Suwannee River Water Management District from 1996 to 2001. Data collected along the 12 transects included hydrologic conditions, land-surface elevations, soils, and vegetation of floodplain forests in relation to river flow. Transect locations are marked in the field with permanent markers at approximately 30 meter intervals. Detailed descriptions of the 12 transects and their locations are provided so that they can be used for future ecological studies. Descriptions of the transects include contact information necessary for access to the property on which the transects are located, maps showing transect locations and routes from the nearest city or major road, small scale maps of each transect showing marker locations, latitude and longitude of each marker, compass bearings of each transect line and graphs showing land-surface elevations of the transect with marker locations.

  7. Physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake and the built environment: ecological and epidemiological studies among youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990’s, there has been increasing scientific interest in investigating place effects on dietary and exercise behaviors. The two overall aims of this dissertation are designed to investigate at an area level and at an individual level, how food and physical activity resources are spatially distributed by socioeconomic indicators, and whether these associations can be observed between aspects of the built environment and: a) fruit and vegetable intake, and b) vigorous physical activity in individuals. Specifically, this involves operationalization of geographical measures of exposure within neighborhood environments, with development and validation of data used to describe characteristics of exercise and dietary resources. The concept of deprivation amplification is also investigated, which suggests that individual or household deprivation is further enhanced or comprised by the lack of resources in the neighborhood, and could manifest itself in poor health behaviors. This concept is first studied at the neighborhood level, by examining the socioeconomic patterning of food and exercise resources. Next, at the individual level, I examine the combined effects of socioeconomic status and the built environment, and report on how these associations affect individual dietary and exercise behavior. Data drawn for the individually-based analyses stem from the Danish contribution to the Health Behavior in School-aged Children Study (HBSC), an international, cross-sectional population-based study investigating the health and health behaviors of 11-to-15-year old school children. Outcome measures for these studies were infrequent less than daily intake of fruit and vegetables (Paper II) and frequent vigorous physical activity of one hour or more per day (Paper IV). The individual dataset was appended with a validated and cross-referenced objected database built for these studies and contained location information about supermarkets, fast food outlets, and various exercise-supportive resources (public open space, sports facilities, street connectivity, and total length of cycling and walking paths). The neighborhood-based analyses uses validated and cross-referenced objective data about food and physical activity resources in each of the 400 neighborhoods in Copenhagen and combines them with area-level socioeconomic and demographic data derived from The National Statistics Bank of Denmark. Outcome measures for these studies were also defined as the number of supermarkets and fast food outlets in each neighborhood (Paper I) and high exposure (top 25%) to resources supportive of physical activity. Study findings are expressed as either relative risk (RR) or odds ratios (OR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI). In general, study findings indicate no clear socioeconomic patterning of food or physical activity resources by examining neighborhood units alone. For example, there was no association between areal income and supermarket exposure in Copenhagen, while low income areas were more likely to be exposed to fewer fast food outlets than high-income neighborhoods (RR = 0.66; CI: 0.46-0.97). Areas with a high proportion of residents lacking a high school diploma had greater exposure to physical activity resources such as, public open space (OR = 1.90; CI: 1.15-3.15), cycling and walking paths (OR = 3.46; CI: 1.86-6.42) and one or more sports facilities (OR = 2.05; CI: 1.36-3.10) than the referent. Areas with high proportions of children were less likely to have exposure to connected streets (OR = 0.51; 0.31-0.83) than areas with low proportions of children. Results from individual-level studies generally show that while socioeconomic status remains an important individual predictor for diet and exercise behavior, the exposure to resources in the neighborhood environment may differentially affect children according to social class background. Children from low social class backgrounds attending schools with low exposure to supermarkets had the greatest odds of infrequent vegetable (OR = 1.50; CI: 1.03-2.20) and fruit (OR = 1.43

  8. Application of species sensitivity distribution in aquatic probabilistic ecological risk assessment of cypermethrin: a case study in an urban stream in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huizhen; You, Jing

    2015-03-01

    A tiered ecological risk assessment was applied to quantitatively refine the overall probabilistic risk of cypermethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, to aquatic organisms. These results were then validated through the bioassays using field water from an urban stream, Chebei Creek in Guangzhou, South China. Seventeen water samples were collected along Chebei Creek for evaluation. In total, 71% of the field waters were acutely toxic to Hyallela azteca and 24% of the waters caused 100% mortality. Toxic unit evaluation suggested that cypermethrin was one of the main contributors to toxicity. The tiered ecological risk assessment approach (deterministic quotient method and probabilistic methods, including joint probability curve and Monte Carlo Simulation) suggested that cypermethrin posed significant threats to aquatic ecology in this stream. The overall probabilistic risk of cypermethrin to aquatic species in Chebei Creek reached 66% when acute-to-chronic ratios were set at 125. An exceedance probability of cypermethrin in Chebei Creek that affected H. azteca as modeled using the joint probability curve method was 88%, suggesting that most sites were at risk due to cypermethrin exposure. This value was similar to the results obtained from acute toxicity tests (71% of field water samples were acutely toxic to H. azteca), indicating the effectiveness of the tiered approach to assess risk of cypermethrin in urban waterways. To the authors' knowledge, the present study is the first to provide a focused probabilistic evaluation of ecological risk for cypermethrin in a complex urban waterway environment. Despite uncertainties existing in the ecological risk assessment procedure, this approach provides a comprehensive assessment of ecological risk of cypermethrin, and subsequently, a foundation for further risk diagnosis and management in urban waterways. PMID:25545801

  9. Environmental evaluation of societal industrial ecology - Case studies of its implementation in the Swedish transport and building sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, L.

    2001-08-01

    This thesis is a study of how to environmentally evaluate the Swedish concept 'kretsloppsanpassning', here termed Societal Industrial Ecology (SIE). The thesis is based on three case studies of its implementation in the transport and building sectors. The aim of the thesis is to study to what extent the implementation of SIE in the transport and building sectors leads to changes in material and energy flows and their management. The environmental management (solely in the transport sector) was studied in order to check implemented measures against the governmental goal definitions and validate the measures' inclusion and scope in the SIE concept. In order to environmentally analyse and discuss the changes in environmental management regarding material and energy flows, the industrial metabolism perspective was used. Then, measures were analysed as to how environmental evaluation could be applied and what the possible result would be. Finally, the implications of environmental evaluation for environmental management were discussed. The implementation of SIE in the transport and building sectors has generally lead to that the main part of measures are implemented on material outflows. However, the monitoring of material flows was mainly found on the inflow side. This means that the measures taken were not audited and the quantified information concerning material inflows seem not to influence planning of measures. implemented and planned SIE measures sometimes take place in a wider context than the internal organisation and thereby affect other actors in society. Compared with traditional environmental measuring, this makes other demands on how to environmentally evaluated these measures. Especially, wider system boundaries are a prerequisite to address and evaluate SIE measures. Environmental. evaluation in a systems approach would not result in a precise answer, even if the system studied were less complex than an industrial system. There are a lot of parameters affecting the final outcome, such as system boundaries, study objects, limitations, interpretation of the result and more, everyone contingent upon values.

  10. Landscape-ecological division of the Upper Gorenjska region

    OpenAIRE

    Andreja Ferreira

    2006-01-01

    The landscape-ecological methodological approach is due to its holistic approach most suitable for the study of relations between separate landscape-ecological units and their impacts on land-use and human activities.The Upper Gorenjska region was divided into 5 landscape-ecological types and 19 landscape-ecological units. Landscape-ecological types and landscape-ecological units showed a high inner differentiation of the studied area, which is not clearly detected in the existing territorial...

  11. Physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake and the built environment: ecological and epidemiological studies among youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida

    distributed by socioeconomic indicators, and whether these associations can be observed between aspects of the built environment and: a) fruit and vegetable intake, and b) vigorous physical activity in individuals. Specifically, this involves operationalization of geographical measures of exposure within...... neighborhood environments, with development and validation of data used to describe characteristics of exercise and dietary resources. The concept of deprivation amplification is also investigated, which suggests that individual or household deprivation is further enhanced or comprised by the lack of resources...... built environment, and report on how these associations affect individual dietary and exercise behavior. Data drawn for the individually-based analyses stem from the Danish contribution to the Health Behavior in School-aged Children Study (HBSC), an international, cross-sectional population-based study...

  12. Experimental study of the ecological impact of hot water/high pressure cleaning on rocky shores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of high pressure/hot water washing for cleaning oiled rocky shores was determined. The study also highlighted the level of tolerance towards high pressure/hot water of different intertidal biota and proposed some operational recommendations for using this technique in regards with the biota sensitivity range. The study showed that pressure, higher than 170 g/m2 on the substratum, had the most detrimental effects on intertidal biota. Temperatures between 25 and 53 degrees C had only minor effects. The most sensitive taxa were the foliaceous lichens and the barnacles. Crustose lichens and algae were found to be tolerant to both pressure and temperature. Seaweeds protected the underneath epifauna. 12 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  13. Violence as a public health problem: An ecological study of 169 countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Achim; Gray, Ron; Fazel, Seena

    2014-01-01

    Individual level risk factors for violence have been widely studied, but little is known about country-level determinants, particularly in low and middle-income countries. We hypothesized that income inequality, through its detrimental effects on social cohesion, would be related to an increase in violence worldwide, and in low and middle-income countries in particular. We examined country-level associations of violence with socio-economic and health-related factors, using crime statistics fr...

  14. Chemo-ecological studies on plant indicators for low level air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of low level air pollution on Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) have been studied in the surrounding area of two thermoelectric power stations newly constructed in a rural area, Fukui Prefecture, on the Japan Sea side of central Honshu, Japan. The degree of visual injury in Japanese Cedar, scored with six different categories, was examined in 1974 and 1977 respectively, covering the entire study area. A more complete monitoring has been conducted at eight permanent sites in Awara-cho since 1974. A dendrochronological study was also carried out to evaluate the effects of air pollution on the increment growth of Japanese Cedars. There were clear correlations between the distance from the power station and tree decline. Severe damage was observed, in general, within a 7 km radius from the power station. The localized injury of Japanese Cedar, along the flood plain of the two rivers, was also demonstrated. A rapid increase of injury was noted until through the late 1970's. The growth inhibition, during this period, was also revealed by tree ring analysis. Some recovery of tree vigor and increment growth was observed after the introduction of pollution control systems at the power station. Consistent relationships were demonstrated between the index of increment growth, i.e., standardized ring index, and the levels of SO2 and NO2. Scarcely any correlation was observed between pH of rain water and the standardized ring index. Decreased levels of foliar tannin were observed in the Japanese Cedars growing in the polluted areas. The inhibition of the shikimate pathway, by air pollution, was suggested by biochemical studies. Increased predation damage was observed in the foliage of Japanese Cedars with low tannin levels. The predisposed effects of air pollution were discussed with special reference to the inhibition of the shikimate pathway. (author)

  15. Turbulence, larval fish ecology and fisheries recruitment : a review of field studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Fish recruitment varies widely between years but much of this variability cannot be explained by most models of fish population dynamics. In this review, I examine the role of environmental variability on fish recruitment, and ill particular how turbulence affects feeding and growth of larval fish, and recruitment in entire populations. One of the main findings is that field studies show contrasting effects of turbulence on feeding, growth and mortality rates in nature and on recruitment. Coinci...

  16. Ecological study of socio-economic indicators and prevalence of asthma in schoolchildren in urban Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Genser Bernd; Barreto Mauricio; Pujades-Rodriguez Mar; da Cunha Sérgio; Rodrigues Laura C.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background There is evidence of higher prevalence of asthma in populations of lower socio-economic status in affluent societies, and the prevalence of asthma is also very high in some Latin American countries, where societies are characterized by a marked inequality in wealth. This study aimed to examine the relationship between estimates of asthma prevalence based on surveys conducted in children in Brazilian cities and health and socioeconomic indicators measured at the population ...

  17. The Growing Trend of Moderate Preterm Births: An Ecological Study in One Region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Rosana Rosseto; Melo, Emiliana Cristina; Falavina, Larissa Pereira; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas

    2015-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is a serious public health problem, as it is linked to high rates of neonatal and child morbidity and mortality, with Brazil listed among the countries with the ten highest numbers of premature births. Nonetheless, knowledge is scarce regarding prematurity and associated factors in mid-sized cities. The objective of this study was to analyze the trend of preterm births and associated factors in a municipality located in the state of Paraná, Brazil. Methods This was an...

  18. Concern about passive smoking and tobacco control policies in European countries: An ecological study

    OpenAIRE

    Willemsen Marc C; Kiselinova Maja; Nagelhout Gera E; Joossens Luk; Knibbe Ronald A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Because of the magnitude of the global tobacco epidemic, the World Health Organisation developed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), an international legally binding treaty to control tobacco use. Adoption and implementation of specific tobacco control measures within FCTC is an outcome of a political process, where social norms and public opinion play important roles. The objective of our study was to examine how a country’s level of tobacco control is ass...

  19. Ecological studies on fish farms of el-fayoum depression (egypt)

    OpenAIRE

    Konsowa, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out at the fish farms of El-Fayioum province during 2003 farming season. They extend along the eastern bank of Lake Qarun. These farms derive its water and drainage wastes into Diar El-Berka Drain. pH values at the chosen farms ranged between 7.43 and 8.91 and its values are certainly optimum for fish culture. Salinity levels at fish farms adjacent to Lake Qarun (Goda 2, 9.5‰) are generally much higher than the other fishing ponds due to seepage from the lake water. The...

  20. Vegetation ecology meets ecosystem science: Permanent grasslands as a functional biogeography case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violle, Cyrille; Choler, Philippe; Borgy, Benjamin; Garnier, Eric; Amiaud, Bernard; Debarros, Guilhem; Diquelou, Sylvain; Gachet, Sophie; Jolivet, Claudy; Kattge, Jens; Lavorel, Sandra; Lemauviel-Lavenant, Servane; Loranger, Jessy; Mikolajczak, Alexis; Munoz, François; Olivier, Jean; Viovy, Nicolas

    2015-11-15

    The effect of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning has been widely acknowledged, and the importance of the functional roles of species, as well as their diversity, in the control of ecosystem processes has been emphasised recently. However, bridging biodiversity and ecosystem science to address issues at a biogeographic scale is still in its infancy. Bridging this gap is the primary goal of the emerging field of functional biogeography. While the rise of Big Data has catalysed functional biogeography studies in recent years, comprehensive evidence remains scarce. Here, we present the rationale and the first results of a country-wide initiative focused on the C3 permanent grasslands. We aimed to collate, integrate and process large databases of vegetation relevés, plant traits and environmental layers to provide a country-wide assessment of ecosystem properties and services which can be used to improve regional models of climate and land use changes. We outline the theoretical background, data availability, and ecoinformatics challenges associated with the approach and its feasibility. We provide a case study of upscaling of leaf dry matter content averaged at ecosystem level and country-wide predictions of forage digestibility. Our framework sets milestones for further hypothesis testing in functional biogeography and earth system modelling. PMID:25908020