WorldWideScience
1

Lessons from the use of genetically modified Drosophila melanogaster in ecological studies: Hsf mutant lines show highly trait-specific performance in field and laboratory thermal assays  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

1.  Laboratory studies on genetically modified strains may reveal important information on mechanisms involved in coping with thermal stress. However, to address the evolutionary significance of specific genes or physiological mechanisms, ecologically relevant field tests should also be performed. 2.  We have tested the importance of inducible heat shock proteins (Hsps) under different thermal conditions using two heat shock factor (Hsf) mutant lines (either able (Hsf+) or unable (Hsf0) to mount a heat stress response) and an outbred laboratory adapted wild-type line of Drosophila melanogaster under both laboratory and field conditions.3.  In the field, there was a tendency towards better performance of Hsf+ flies relative to Hsf0 flies, but as compared with wild-type the performance of both mutant lines was very low.4.  In the laboratory tests, Hsf+ flies had higher heat knock-down resistance relative to Hsf0 flies but in other assays on heat, cold and desiccation resistance there was either no difference between the two mutant lines or the Hsf0 line had higher performance. Also, the superiority of the wild-type flies under field conditions was trait specific.5.  The results emphasize that the ecological relevance of specific molecular mechanisms should be tested under a range of conditions both in the laboratory and in the field. Genetically modified lines cannot be assumed to represent the performance of natural populations, especially for field and/or ecologically relevant studies.6.  As evident in this study, ideal controls and adequate replication of genetically modified strains can be difficult to obtain. Thus, caution is needed when interpreting results comparing the performance of genetically modified lines with that of control lines

SØrensen, Jesper Givskov; Loeschcke, Volker

2009-01-01

2

HSF1 in Translation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The master regulator of the classical cytoprotective "heat shock" response, heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), is increasingly implicated in cancer pathogenesis, but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. A recent study connects increased protein translation to activation of HSF1 in malignant cells and demonstrates the therapeutic benefit of targeting this link. PMID:23948296

de Billy, Emmanuel; Clarke, Paul A; Workman, Paul

2013-08-12

3

Hsf4 counteracts Hsf1 transcription activities and increases lens epithelial cell survival in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interplay between Hsf4 and Hsf1 plays an important role in the regulation of lens homeostasis. However, the mechanism of the intermolecular association involved is still unclear. In this paper, we find that reconstitution of Hsf4b into Hsf4(-/-) lens epithelial (mLEC/Hsf4(-/-)) cells can simultaneously downregulate Hsp70 expression and upregulate the expression of small heat shock proteins Hsp25 and ?B-crystallin at both RNA and protein levels. ChIP assay results indicate Hsf4b, which binds to the promoters of Hsp90?, Hsp70.3, Hsp25 and ?B-crystallin but not Hsp70.1, can inhibit Hsf1 binding to Hsp70.3 promoter and the heat shock mediated Hsp70 promoter activity by reducing Hsf1 protein expression. Hsf4b N-terminal hydrophobic region can interact with Hsf1 N-terminal hydrophobic region. Their interaction impairs Hsf1's intramolecular interaction between the N- and C-terminal hydrophobic regions, leading to Hsf1's cytosolic retention and protein degradation. Both lysosome inhibitors (chloroquine, pepstatin A plus E64d) and proteasome inhibitor MG132 can inhibit Hsf4-mediated Hsf1 protein degradation, but MG132 can induce Hsf1 activation as well. Upregulation of Hsf4b can significantly inhibit cisplatin and staurosporine induced lens epithelial cell apoptosis through direct upregulation of Hsp25 and ?B-crystallin expression. Taken together, our results imply that upregulation of Hsf4b modulates the expression pattern of heat shock proteins in lens tissue by either directly binding to their promoters or promoting Hsf1 protein degradation. Moreover, upregulation of Hsf4b protects lens cell survival by upregulating anti-apoptotic pathways. These studies reveal a novel regulatory mechanism between Hsf1 and Hsf4b in modulating lens epithelial cell homeostasis. PMID:25601714

Cui, Xiukun; Xie, Pan Pan; Jia, Pan Pan; Lou, Qiang; Dun, Guoqing; Li, Shulian; Liu, Guangchao; Zhang, Jun; Dong, Zheng; Ma, Yuanfang; Hu, Yanzhong

2015-03-01

4

Hsf-1 and POB1 Induce Drug Sensitivity and Apoptosis by Inhibiting Ralbp1*  

OpenAIRE

Hsf-1 (heat shock factor-1) is a transcription factor that is known to regulate cellular heat shock response through its binding with the multispecific transporter protein, Ralbp1. Results of present studies demonstrate that Hsf-1 causes specific and saturable inhibition of the transport activity of Ralbp1 and that the combination of Hsf-1 and POB1 causes nearly complete inhibition through specific bindings with Ralbp1. Augmentation of cellular levels of Hsf-1 and POB1...

Singhal, Sharad S.; Yadav, Sushma; Drake, Kenneth; Singhal, Jyotsana; Awasthi, Sanjay

2008-01-01

5

Methodology and Results of the Near-Earth Object (NEO) Human Space Flight (HSF) Accessible Targets Study (NHATS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) have been identified by the current administration as potential destinations for human explorers during the mid-2020s. While the close proximity of these objects' orbits to Earth's orbit creates a risk of highly damaging or catastrophic impacts, it also makes some of these objects particularly accessible to spacecraft departing Earth, and this presents unique opportunities for solar system science and humanity's first ventures beyond cislunar space. Planning such ambitious missions first requires the selection of potentially accessible targets from the growing population of nearly 7,800 NEAs. To accomplish this, NASA is conducting the Near-Earth Object (NEO) Human Space Flight (HSF) Accessible Targets Study (NHATS). Phase I of the NHATS was executed during September of 2010, and Phase II was completed by early March of 2011. The study is ongoing because previously undetected NEAs are being discovered constantly, which has motivated an effort to automate the analysis algorithms in order to provide continuous monitoring of NEA accessibility. The NHATS analysis process consists of a trajectory filter and a minimum maximum estimated size criterion. The trajectory filter employs the method of embedded trajectory grids to compute all possible ballistic round-trip mission trajectories to every NEA in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Small-Body Database (SBDB) and stores all solutions that satisfy the trajectory filter criteria. An NEA must offer at least one qualifying trajectory solution to pass the trajectory filter. The Phase II NHATS filter criteria were purposely chosen to be highly inclusive, requiring Earth departure date between January 1st, 2015 and December 31st, 2040, total round-trip flight time = 8 days, Earth departure C(sub 3) energy = 30 m. This corresponds to an absolute magnitude H = 30 m. The distributions of osculating heliocentric orbital semi-major axis (a), eccentricity (e), and inclination (i), for those 590 NEAs are shown. Note that the semi-latus rectum used is equal to alpha (1-e(exp 2)). To further our understanding of round-trip trajectory accessibility dynamics, it is instructive to examine the distribution of the NHATS-Qualifying NEAs according to orbit classification. NEAs are grouped into four orbit families: Atiras (aphelion 0.983 AU, alpha 1.0 AU), and Amors (1.017 < perihelion < 1.3 AU). Of the 765 NEAhich satisfied the NHATS trajectory criteria, none are

Barbee, Brent; Mink, Ronald; Adamo, Daniel

2011-01-01

6

An autoregulatory loop controlling Arabidopsis HsfA2 expression: role of heat shock-induced alternative splicing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat shock transcription factorA2 (HsfA2) is a key regulator in response to heat stress in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and its heat shock (HS)-induced transcription regulation has been extensively studied. Recently, alternative splicing, a critical posttranscriptional event, has been shown to regulate HS-inducible expression of HsfA2; however, the molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate a new heat stress-induced splice variant, HsfA2-III, is involved in the self-regulation of HsfA2 transcription in Arabidopsis. HsfA2-III is generated through a cryptic 5' splice site in the intron, which is activated by severe heat (42°C-45°C). We confirmed that HsfA2-III encodes a small truncated HsfA2 isoform (S-HsfA2) by an immunoblot assay with anti-S-HsfA2 antiserum. S-HsfA2 has an extra leucine-rich motif next to its carboxyl-terminal truncated DNA-binding domain. The biological significance of S-HsfA2 was further demonstrated by its nuclear localization and heat shock element (HSE)-binding ability. In yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), the leucine-rich motif can inhibit the transcriptional activation activity of S-HsfA2, while it appears not to be required for the truncated DNA-binding domain-mediated binding ability of S-HsfA2-HSE. Further results reveal that S-HsfA2 could bind to the TATA box-proximal clusters of HSE in the HsfA2 promoter to activate its own transcription. This S-HsfA2-modulated HsfA2 transcription is not mediated through homodimer or heterodimer formation with HsfA1d or HsfA1e, which are known transcriptional activators of HsfA2. Altogether, our findings provide new insights into how HS posttranscriptionally regulates HsfA2 expression. Severe HS-induced alternative splicing also occurs in four other HS-inducible Arabidopsis Hsf genes, suggesting that it is a common feature among Arabidopsis Hsfs. PMID:23503691

Liu, Jinjie; Sun, Na; Liu, Meng; Liu, Jiancheng; Du, Bojing; Wang, Xinjing; Qi, Xiaoting

2013-05-01

7

High levels of nuclear heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1) are associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1) is the master transcriptional regulator of the cellular response to heat and a wide variety of other stressors. We previously reported that HSF1 promotes the survival and proliferation of malignant cells. At this time, however, the clinical and prognostic significance of HSF1 in cancer is unknown. To address this issue breast cancer samples from 1,841 participants in the Nurses' Health Study were scored for levels of nuclear HSF1. Associations of HSF1 status with clinical parameters and survival outcomes were investigated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard models. The associations were further delineated by Kaplan-Meier analysis using publicly available mRNA expression data. Our results show that nuclear HSF1 levels were elevated in ?80% of in situ and invasive breast carcinomas. In invasive carcinomas, HSF1 expression was associated with high histologic grade, larger tumor size, and nodal involvement at diagnosis (P HSF1 levels were found to be independently associated with increased mortality (hazards ratio: 1.62; 95% confidence interval: 1.21-2.17; P HSF1 mRNA levels were also associated with an increase in ER-positive breast cancer-specific mortality. We conclude that increased HSF1 is associated with reduced breast cancer survival. The findings indicate that HSF1 should be evaluated prospectively as an independent prognostic indicator in ER-positive breast cancer. HSF1 may ultimately be a useful therapeutic target in cancer. PMID:22042860

Santagata, Sandro; Hu, Rong; Lin, Nancy U; Mendillo, Marc L; Collins, Laura C; Hankinson, Susan E; Schnitt, Stuart J; Whitesell, Luke; Tamimi, Rulla M; Lindquist, Susan; Ince, Tan A

2011-11-01

8

HSF1 down-regulates XAF1 through transcriptional regulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies have indicated the role of HSF1 (heat-shock transcription factor 1) in repressing the transcription of some nonheat shock genes. XAF1 (XIAP-associated factor 1) was an inhibitor of apoptosis-interacting protein with the effect of antagonizing the cytoprotective role of XIAP. XAF1 expression was lower in gastrointestinal cancers than in normal tissues with the mechanism unclear. Here we showed that gastrointestinal cancer tissues expressed higher levels of HSF1 than matched normal tissues. The expression of XAF1 and HSF1 was negatively correlated in gastrointestinal cancer cell lines. Stress stimuli, including heat, hypo-osmolarity, and H2O2, significantly suppressed the expression of XAF1, whereas the alteration of HSF1 expression negatively correlated with XAF1 expression. We cloned varying lengths of the 5'-flanking region of the XAF1 gene into luciferase reporter vectors, and we evaluated their promoter activities. A transcription silencer was found between the -592- and -1414-nucleotide region that was rich in nGAAn/nT-TCn elements (where n indicates G, A, T, or C). A high affinity and functional HSF1-binding element within the -862/-821-nucleotide region was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Inactivation of this "heat-shock element" by either site-directed mutation or an HSF1 inhibitor, pifithrin-alpha, restored the promoter activity of the silencer structure. Moreover, pretreatment with antioxidants suppressed HSF1 binding activity and increased the transcriptional activity and expression of XAF1. These findings suggested that endogenous stress pressure in cancer cells sustained the high level expression of HSF1 and subsequently suppressed XAF1 expression, implicating the synergized effect of two anti-apoptotic protein families, HSP and inhibitors of apoptosis, in cytoprotection under stress circumstances. PMID:16303760

Wang, Jide; He, Hua; Yu, Lifen; Xia, Harry Hua-Xiang; Lin, Marie C M; Gu, Qing; Li, Ming; Zou, Bing; An, Xiaomeng; Jiang, Bo; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Wong, Benjamin C Y

2006-02-01

9

Function of Hsf1 in SV40 T?antigen?transformed HEK293T cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), a main regulator of the heat shock response in eukaryotes, increases cell survival in numerous pathophysiological conditions. The aim of the present study was to o bserve the function of defective HSF1 expression in HEK293T cells. shRNA of human HSF1 was constructed into the retroviral vector pLTHR generating pLTHR?shRNA?HSF1. The shRNA was transiently transfected into HEK293T cells to silence the expression of the HSF1 gene. Cell colony formation, MTT and cell cycle assays were used to analyze the SV40 T?antigen (Ag)?transformed cell proliferation rate. Immunoblotting was used to study the protein expression of HSF1, SV40 T?Ag, p53, p21, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), Hsp70 and Hsp25. The results revealed that a deficiency in HSF1 expression inhibited cellular growth. Defective HSF1 upregulated the protein expression of p53, retinoblastoma protein (Rb) and SV40 T?Ag, and reduced the association between SV40 T?Ag and p53/Rb, which resulted in growth inhibition of SV40 T?Ag?transformed cells. In conclusion, HSF1 is involved in the regulation of SV40 T?Ag?induced cell growth and modulates the expression of p53 and Rb proteins. PMID:25310819

Jiang, Qiying; Zhang, Zhi; Hu, Yanzhong; Ma, Yuanfang

2014-12-01

10

Identification of inhibitors of HSF1 functional activity by high-content target-based screening.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer cells are known to experience a high level of stress and may require constant repair for survival and proliferation. Recent studies showed that inhibition of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), the key regulator for the stress-activated transcription of heat shock protein (HSP), can reduce the tumorigenic potential of cancer cells. Such a "nononcogene addiction" phenomenon makes HSF1 an attractive cancer drug target. Here, the authors report an image-based high-content screening (HCS) assay for HSF1 functional inhibitors. A heat shock-based methodology was used to stimulate the stress response followed by quantitative measurement of HSF1/HSP70 granules for compound-induced inhibitory effects. The authors discovered a small molecule from a compound library that inhibits HSF1 granule formation substantially in heat-shocked HeLa cells with IC(50) at 80 nM. Electorphoretic mobility shift of HSF1 by this compound suggested significant inhibition of HSF1 phosphorylation, accompanied by reduced expression levels of HSP70 and HSP90 after heat induction. Importantly, HeLa cells stably transfected with HSF1 shRNA were more resistant to the compound treatment under lethal temperature than cells containing HSF1, further validating an HSF1-dependent mechanism of action. The HCS assay the authors developed was robust with a Z' factor of 0.65 in a 384-well plate format, providing a valuable method for identifying small-molecule functional inhibitors of HSF1 for potential cancer treatment. PMID:19820069

Au, Qingyan; Zhang, Yingjia; Barber, Jack R; Ng, Shi Chung; Zhang, Bin

2009-12-01

11

Identification of Hsf1 as a novel androgen receptor-regulated gene in mouse Sertoli cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Androgen signaling plays a crucial role in spermatogenesis, yet few downstream targets for this signaling pathway have been identified. In the current study, we found that the expression of heat-shock transcription factor 1 (Hsf1) was increased in the testes of Sertoli cell-selective androgen receptor knockout (S-AR(-/y) ) mice compared with wild-type mice by quantitative real-time PCR, and the expression of HSF1 in the S-AR(-/y) Sertoli cells was significantly increased, based on immunofluorescence analysis. In vitro cell-culture studies showed that testosterone repressed the expression of Hsf1 in TM4 cells, a mouse Sertoli cell line. Moreover, a luciferase assay, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that testosterone repressed Hsf1 expression by facilitating the binding of androgen receptor to the Hsf1 promoter. Our experiments also demonstrated that testosterone-mediated inhibition of Hsf1 transcription down-regulated the expression of heat-shock proteins HSP105 and HSP60. Taken together, these results reveal that Hsf1 is a novel target of androgen receptor in mouse Sertoli cells, and testosterone and its receptor regulate the process of spermatogenesis partially by inhibiting Hsf1 expression. PMID:24599545

Yang, Lihua; Wang, Yadong; Zhang, Qiang; Lai, Yongqing; Li, Cailing; Zhang, Qiaoxia; Huang, Weiren; Duan, Yonggang; Jiang, Zhimao; Li, Xianxin; Cai, Zhiming; Mou, Lisha; Gui, Yaoting

2014-06-01

12

Akt phosphorylates and activates HSF-1 independent of heat shock, leading to Slug overexpression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an essential step for tumor progression, although the mechanisms driving EMT are still not fully understood. In an effort to investigate these mechanisms, we observed that heregulin (HRG)-mediated activation of HER2, or HER2 overexpression, resulted in EMT, which is accompanied with increased expression of a known EMT regulator Slug, but not TWIST or Snail. We then investigated how HER2 induced Slug expression and found, for the first time, that there are four consensus HSF sequence-binding elements (HSEs), the binding sites for heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1), located in the Slug promoter. HSF-1 bound to and transactivated the Slug promoter independent of heat shock, leading to Slug expression in breast cancer cells. Mutation of the putative HSEs ablated Slug transcriptional activation induced by HRG or HSF-1 overexpression. Knockdown of HSF-1 expression by siRNA reduced Slug expression and HRG-induced EMT. The positive association between HSF-1 and Slug was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining of a cohort of 100 invasive breast carcinoma specimens. While investigating how HER2 activated HSF-1 independent of heat shock, we observed that HER2 activation resulted in concurrent phosphorylation of Akt and HSF-1. We then observed, also for the first time, that Akt directly interacted with HSF-1 and phosphorylated HSF-1 at S326. Inhibition of Akt using siRNA, dominant-negative Akt mutant, or small molecule inhibitors prevented HRG-induced HSF-1 activation and Slug expression. Conversely, constitutively active Akt induced HSF-1 phosphorylation and Slug expression. HSF-1 knockdown reduced the ability of Akt to induce Slug expression, indicating an essential role that HSF-1 plays in Akt-induced Slug upregulation. Altogether, our study uncovered the existence of a novel Akt-HSF-1 signaling axis that leads to Slug upregulation and EMT, and potentially contributes to progression of HER2-positive breast cancer. PMID:24469056

Carpenter, R L; Paw, I; Dewhirst, M W; Lo, H-W

2015-01-29

13

DAPK-HSF1 interaction as a positive-feedback mechanism stimulating TNF-induced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is a serine-threonine kinase with tumor suppressor function. Previously, we demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) induced DAPK-mediated apoptosis in colorectal cancer. However, the protein-protein interaction network associated with TNF-DAPK signaling still remains unclear. We identified HSF1 as a new DAPK phosphorylation target in response to low concentrations of TNF and verified a physical interaction between DAPK and HSF1 both in vitro and in vivo. We show that HSF1 binds to the DAPK promoter. Transient overexpression of HSF1 protein led to an increase in DAPK mRNA level and consequently to an increase in the amount of apoptosis. By contrast, treatment with a DAPK-specific inhibitor as well as DAPK knockdown abolished the phosphorylation of HSF1 at Ser230 (pHSF1(Ser230)). Furthermore, translational studies demonstrated a positive correlation between DAPK and pHSF1(Ser230) protein expression in human colorectal carcinoma tissues. Taken together, our data define a novel link between DAPK and HSF1 and highlight a positive-feedback loop in DAPK regulation under mild inflammatory stress conditions in colorectal tumors. For the first time, we show that under TNF the pro-survival HSF1 protein can be redirected to a pro-apoptotic program. PMID:25380824

Benderska, Natalya; Ivanovska, Jelena; Rau, Tilman T; Schulze-Luehrmann, Jan; Mohan, Suma; Chakilam, Saritha; Gandesiri, Muktheshwar; Ziesché, Elisabeth; Fischer, Thomas; Söder, Stephan; Agaimy, Abbas; Distel, Luitpold; Sticht, Heinrich; Mahadevan, Vijayalakshmi; Schneider-Stock, Regine

2014-12-15

14

Protonation Behavior of Histidine during HSF1 Activation by Physiological Acidification.  

Science.gov (United States)

The expression of eukaryotic molecular chaperones (heat shock proteins, HSPs) is triggered in response to a wide range of environmental stresses, including: heat shock, hydrogen peroxide, heavy metal, low-pH, or virus infection. Biochemical and genetic studies have clearly shown the fundamental roles of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) in stress-inducible HSP gene expression, resistance to stress-induced cell death, carcinogenesis, and other biological phenomena. Previous studies show that acidic pH changes within the physiological range directly activate the HSF1 function in vitro. However, the detailed mechanism is unclear. Though computational pKa-predications of the amino acid side-chain, acidic-pH induced protonation of a histidine residue was found to be most-likely involved in this process. The histidine 83 (His83) residue, which could be protonated by mild decrease in pH, causes mild acidic-induced HSF1 activation (including in-vitro trimerization, DNA binding, in-vivo nuclear accumulation, and HSPs expression). His83, which is located in the loop region of the HSF1 DNA binding domain, was suggested to enhance the intermolecular force with Arginine 79, which helps HSF1 form a DNA-binding competent. Therefore, low-pH-induced activation of HSF1 by the protonation of histidine can help us better to understand the HSF1 mechanism and develop more therapeutic applications (particularly in cancer therapy). J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 977-984, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25560907

Lu, Ming; Park, Jang-Su

2015-06-01

15

Novel isoforms of heat shock transcription factor 1, HSF1?? and HSF1??, regulate chaperone protein gene transcription.  

Science.gov (United States)

The heat shock response, resulting in the production of heat shock proteins or molecular chaperones, is triggered by elevated temperature and a variety of other stressors. Its master regulator is heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1). Heat shock factors generally exist in multiple isoforms. The two known isoforms of HSF1 differ in the inclusion (HSF1?) or exclusion (HSF1?) of exon 11. Although there are some data concerning the differential expression patterns and transcriptional activities of HSF2 isoforms during development, little is known about the distinct properties of the HSF1 isoforms. Here we present evidence for two novel HSF1 isoforms termed HSF1?? and HSF1??, and we show that the HSF1 isoform ratio differentially regulates heat shock protein gene transcription. Hsf1? isoforms are expressed in various mouse tissues and are translated into protein. Furthermore, after heat shock, HSF1? isoforms are exported from the nucleus more rapidly or degraded more quickly than HSF1? or HSF1?. We also show that each individual HSF1 isoform is sufficient to induce the heat shock response and that expression of combinations of HSF1 isoforms, in particular HSF1? and HSF1?, results in a synergistic enhancement of the transcriptional response. In addition, HSF1? isoforms potentially suppress the synergistic effect of HSF1? and HSF1? co-expression. Collectively, our observations suggest that the expression of HSF1 isoforms in a specific ratio provides an additional layer in the regulation of heat shock protein gene transcription. PMID:24855652

Neueder, Andreas; Achilli, Francesca; Moussaoui, Saliha; Bates, Gillian P

2014-07-18

16

New candidate genes for heat resistance in Drosophila melanogaster are regulated by HSF  

OpenAIRE

The cellular heat stress response is well studied in Drosophila in respect to the role of heat shock proteins (Hsp). Hsps are molecular chaperones, highly expressed during and after exposure to numerous stress types. Hsps are all regulated by a common transcription factor, the heat shock factor (HSF), and it is known that HSF is controlling other, so far uncharacterised, heat-responsive genes. In this study, we investigate whether novel candidate genes for heat resistance, identified by micro...

Jensen, Louise Toft; Nielsen, Morten Muhlig; Loeschcke, Volker

2008-01-01

17

Cloning and sequence analysis of hsf, an outer membrane protein gene of Pasteurella multocida serotype B:2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to clone, sequence and analyze the hsf, an outer membrane protein gene of Pasteurella multocida serotype B:2 Materials and Methods: hsf gene was amplified from genomic DNA of P. multocida. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR product was cloned in pET-32a vector and was characterized. hsf gene was sequenced, analyzed and phylogenetic tree was constructed taking sequences of other strains. Results: Amplicon size was found to be 785 bp. Recombinant got characterized through colony PCR and restriction enzyme analysis. Conclusion: hsf gene of P. multocida serotype B is similar to serotype A, but different from serotype D. Further work is needed to evaluate role of Hsf protein in protection studies and to study the antigenic properties of this recombinant protein as a candidate for vaccine.

A. Priyadarshini

2014-12-01

18

HSF1 as a mitotic regulator: phosphorylation of HSF1 by Plk1 is essential for mitotic progression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previously, heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) had been reported to induce genomic instability and aneuploidy by interaction with Cdc20. Here, we have further examined the functions of HSF1 in the regulation of mitosis. A null mutant or knockdown of HSF1 caused defective mitotic progression. By monitoring chromosomes in living cells, we determined that HSF1 was localized to the centrosome in mitosis and especially to the spindle poles in metaphase. HSF1 was phosphorylated by Plk1 at Ser(216) of the DSGXXS motif during the timing of mitosis and a phospho-defective mutant form of HSF1 inhibited mitotic progression. Phosphorylated HSF1 during spindle pole localization underwent ubiquitin degradation through the SCF(beta-TrCP) pathway. However, binding of HSF1 with Cdc20 stabilized the phosphorylation of HSF1. Moreover, SCF(beta-TrCP)-mediated degradation only occurred when phosphorylated HSF1 was released from Cdc20. HSF1 phosphorylation at Ser(216) occurred in the early mitotic period with simultaneous binding of Cdc20. The interaction of HSF1 with SCF(beta-TrCP) was followed and then the interaction of APC/Cdc20 was subsequently observed. From these findings, it was shown that Plk1 phosphorylates HSF1 in early mitosis and that the binding of phosphorylated HSF1 with Cdc20 and ubiquitin degradation by SCF(beta-TrCP) regulates mitotic progression. PMID:18794143

Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kim, Eun-Ho; Lee, Jae Seon; Jeoung, Dooil; Bae, Sangwoo; Kwon, Seung Hae; Lee, Yun-Sil

2008-09-15

19

Heat Shock Factor 1 (HSF1) Controls Chemoresistance and Autophagy through Transcriptional Regulation of Autophagy-related Protein 7 (ATG7)*  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), a master regulator of heat shock responses, plays an important role in tumorigenesis. In this study we demonstrated that HSF1 is required for chemotherapeutic agent-induced cytoprotective autophagy through transcriptional up-regulation of autophagy-related gene ATG7. Interestingly, this is independent of the HSF1 heat shock response function. Treatment of cancer cells with the FDA-approved chemotherapeutic agent carboplatin induced autophagy and growth inhibition, which were significantly increased upon knockdown of HSF1. Mechanistic studies revealed that HSF1 regulates autophagy by directly binding to ATG7 promoter and transcriptionally up-regulating its expression. Significantly, breast cancer patient sample study revealed that a higher ATG7 expression level is associated with poor patient survival. This novel finding was further confirmed by analysis of two independent patient databases, demonstrating a prognostic value of ATG7. Furthermore, a strong positive correlation was observed between levels of HSF1 and ATG7 in triple-negative breast cancer patient samples, thus validating our in vitro findings. This is the first study identifying a critical role for HSF1 in controlling cytoprotective autophagy through regulation of ATG7, which is distinct from the HSF1 function in the heat shock response. This is also the first study demonstrating a prognostic value of ATG7 in breast cancer patients. These findings strongly argue that combining chemotherapeutic agents with autophagy inhibition by repressing HSF1/ATG7 axis represents a promising strategy for future cancer treatment. PMID:23386620

Desai, Shruti; Liu, Zixing; Yao, Jun; Patel, Nishant; Chen, Jieqing; Wu, Yun; Ahn, Erin Eun-Young; Fodstad, Oystein; Tan, Ming

2013-01-01

20

Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) controls chemoresistance and autophagy through transcriptional regulation of autophagy-related protein 7 (ATG7).  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), a master regulator of heat shock responses, plays an important role in tumorigenesis. In this study we demonstrated that HSF1 is required for chemotherapeutic agent-induced cytoprotective autophagy through transcriptional up-regulation of autophagy-related gene ATG7. Interestingly, this is independent of the HSF1 heat shock response function. Treatment of cancer cells with the FDA-approved chemotherapeutic agent carboplatin induced autophagy and growth inhibition, which were significantly increased upon knockdown of HSF1. Mechanistic studies revealed that HSF1 regulates autophagy by directly binding to ATG7 promoter and transcriptionally up-regulating its expression. Significantly, breast cancer patient sample study revealed that a higher ATG7 expression level is associated with poor patient survival. This novel finding was further confirmed by analysis of two independent patient databases, demonstrating a prognostic value of ATG7. Furthermore, a strong positive correlation was observed between levels of HSF1 and ATG7 in triple-negative breast cancer patient samples, thus validating our in vitro findings. This is the first study identifying a critical role for HSF1 in controlling cytoprotective autophagy through regulation of ATG7, which is distinct from the HSF1 function in the heat shock response. This is also the first study demonstrating a prognostic value of ATG7 in breast cancer patients. These findings strongly argue that combining chemotherapeutic agents with autophagy inhibition by repressing HSF1/ATG7 axis represents a promising strategy for future cancer treatment. PMID:23386620

Desai, Shruti; Liu, Zixing; Yao, Jun; Patel, Nishant; Chen, Jieqing; Wu, Yun; Ahn, Erin Eun-Young; Fodstad, Oystein; Tan, Ming

2013-03-29

21

The DNA-binding properties of two heat shock factors, HSF1 and HSF3, are induced in the avian erythroblast cell line HD6.  

OpenAIRE

Avian cells express three heat shock transcription factor (HSF) genes corresponding to a novel factor, HSF3, and homologs of mouse and human HSF1 and HSF2. Analysis of the biochemical and cell biological properties of these HSFs reveals that HSF3 has properties in common with both HSF1 and HSF2 and yet has features which are distinct from both. HSF3 is constitutively expressed in the erythroblast cell line HD6, the lymphoblast cell line MSB, and embryo fibroblasts, and yet its DNA-binding act...

Nakai, A.; Kawazoe, Y.; Tanabe, M.; Nagata, K.; Morimoto, R. I.

1995-01-01

22

Stress-induced transcription of regulator of G protein signaling 2 (RGS2) by heat shock transcription factor HSF1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Expression of the RGS2 gene modulates RGS2 activity toward G protein-coupled signaling in diverse cellular processes. In this study, RGS2 transcription was induced in HeLa and rat aorta smooth muscle cells by exposure to febrile temperatures or proteotoxic stress. The promoter region of RGS2 contained a binding sequence of HSF1, which is an activator of the heat shock protein gene, and was inducibly bound by stress-activated HSF1. A single nucleotide change identified in the RGS2 promoter of hypertensive patients abolished HSF1-regulated expression of RGS2, suggesting that activated HSF1 is involved in blood pressure regulation via modulation of RGS2 expression. PMID:23587726

Ota, Azumi; Sawai, Maki; Sakurai, Hiroshi

2013-07-01

23

Regulation of the heat stress response in Arabidopsis by MPK6-targeted phosphorylation of the heat stress factor HsfA2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available So far little is known on the functional role of phosphorylation in the heat stress response of plants. Here we present evidence that heat stress activates the Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK6. In vitro and in vivo evidence is provided that MPK6 specifically targets the major heat stress transcription factor HsfA2. Activation of MPK6 results in complex formation with HsfA2. MPK6 phosphorylates HsfA2 on T249 and changes its intracellular localisation. Protein kinase and phosphatase inhibitor studies indicate that HsfA2 protein stability is regulated in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, but this mechanism is independent of MPK6. Overall, our data show that heat stress-induced targeting of HsfA2 by MPK6 participates in the complex regulatory mechanism how plants respond to heat stress.

Alexandre Evrard

2013-04-01

24

TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that regulates a suite of heat stress protection genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) including previously unknown Hsf targets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat stress is a significant environmental factor adversely affecting crop yield. Crop adaptation to high-temperature environments requires transcriptional reprogramming of a suite of genes involved in heat stress protection. This study investigated the role of TaHsfA6f, a member of the A6 subclass of heat shock transcription factors, in the regulation of heat stress protection genes in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat), a poorly understood phenomenon in this crop species. Expression analysis showed that TaHsfA6f was expressed constitutively in green organs but was markedly up-regulated during heat stress. Overexpression of TaHsfA6f in transgenic wheat using a drought-inducible promoter resulted in up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and a number of other heat stress protection genes that included some previously unknown Hsf target genes such as Golgi anti-apoptotic protein (GAAP) and the large isoform of Rubisco activase. Transgenic wheat plants overexpressing TaHsfA6f showed improved thermotolerance. Transactivation assays showed that TaHsfA6f activated the expression of reporter genes driven by the promoters of several HSP genes (TaHSP16.8, TaHSP17, TaHSP17.3, and TaHSP90.1-A1) as well as TaGAAP and TaRof1 (a co-chaperone) under non-stress conditions. DNA binding analysis revealed the presence of high-affinity TaHsfA6f-binding heat shock element-like motifs in the promoters of these six genes. Promoter truncation and mutagenesis analyses identified TaHsfA6f-binding elements that were responsible for transactivation of TaHSP90.1-A1 and TaGAAP by TaHsfA6f. These data suggest that TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that directly regulates TaHSP, TaGAAP, and TaRof1 genes in wheat and its gene regulatory network has a positive impact on thermotolerance. PMID:25428996

Xue, Gang-Ping; Drenth, Janneke; McIntyre, C Lynne

2015-02-01

25

Poly-glutamine expanded huntingtin dramatically alters the genome wide binding of HSF1.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Huntington's disease (HD), polyglutamine expansions in the huntingtin (Htt) protein cause subtle changes in cellular functions that, over-time, lead to neurodegeneration and death. Studies have indicated that activation of the heat shock response can reduce many of the effects of mutant Htt in disease models, suggesting that the heat shock response is impaired in the disease. To understand the basis for this impairment, we have used genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) to examine the effects of mutant Htt on the master regulator of the heat shock response, HSF1. We find that, under normal conditions, HSF1 function is highly similar in cells carrying either wild-type or mutant Htt. However, polyQ-expanded Htt severely blunts the HSF1-mediated stress response. Surprisingly, we find that the HSF1 targets most affected upon stress are not directly associated with proteostasis, but with cytoskeletal binding, focal adhesion and GTPase activity. Our data raise the intriguing hypothesis that the accumulated damage from life-long impairment in these stress responses may contribute significantly to the etiology of Huntington's disease. PMID:23293686

Riva, Laura; Koeva, Martina; Yildirim, Ferah; Pirhaji, Leila; Dinesh, Deepika; Mazor, Tali; Duennwald, Martin L; Fraenkel, Ernest

2012-01-01

26

HSF1 transcriptional activity mediates alcohol induction of Vamp2 expression and GABA release  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many central synapses are highly sensitive to alcohol, and it is now accepted that short-term alterations in synaptic function may lead to longer term changes in circuit function. The regulation of postsynaptic receptors by alcohol has been well studied, but the mechanisms underlying the effects of alcohol on the presynaptic terminal are relatively unexplored. To identify a pathway by which alcohol regulates neurotransmitter release, we recently investigated the mechanism by which ethanol induces the Vamp2 gene, but not Vamp1, in mouse primary cortical cultures. These two genes encode isoforms of synaptobrevin, a vesicular soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE protein required for synaptic vesicle fusion. We found that alcohol activates the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1 to induce Vamp2 gene expression, while Vamp1 mRNA levels remain unaffected. As the Vamp2 gene encodes a SNARE protein, we then investigated whether ethanol exposure and HSF1 transcriptional activity alter neurotransmitter release using electrophysiology. We found that alcohol increased the frequency of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA-mediated miniature IPSCs via HSF1, but had no effect on mEPSCs. Overall, these data indicate that alcohol induces HSF1 transcriptional activity to trigger a specific coordinated adaptation in GABAergic presynaptic terminals. This mechanism could explain some of the changes in synaptic function that occur soon after alcohol exposure, and may underlie some of the more enduring effects of chronic alcohol intake on local circuit function.

FlorenceP.Varodayan

2013-12-01

27

Downregulation of Chloroplast RPS1 Negatively Modulates Nuclear Heat-Responsive Expression of HsfA2 and Its Target Genes in Arabidopsis  

OpenAIRE

Heat stress commonly leads to inhibition of photosynthesis in higher plants. The transcriptional induction of heat stress-responsive genes represents the first line of inducible defense against imbalances in cellular homeostasis. Although heat stress transcription factor HsfA2 and its downstream target genes are well studied, the regulatory mechanisms by which HsfA2 is activated in response to heat stress remain elusive. Here, we show that chloroplast ribosomal protein S1 (RPS1) is a heat-res...

Yu, Hai-dong; Yang, Xiao-fei; Chen, Si-ting; Wang, Yu-ting; Li, Ji-kai; Shen, Qi; Liu, Xun-liang; Guo, Fang-qing

2012-01-01

28

Over-expression of OsHsfA7 enhanced salt and drought tolerance in transgenic rice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Heat shock proteins play an important role in plant stresstolerance and are mainly regulated by heat shock transcriptionfactors (Hsfs. In this study, we generated transgenic riceover-expressing OsHsfA7 and carried out morphologicalobservation and stress tolerance assays. Transgenic plantsexhibited less, shorter lateral roots and root hair. Under salttreatment, over-expressing OsHsfA7 rice showed alleviativeappearance of damage symptoms and higher survival rate, leafelectrical conductivity and malondialdehyde content of transgenicplants were lower than those of wild type plants. Meanwhile,transgenic rice seedlings restored normal growth but wild typeplants could not be rescued after drought and re-wateringtreatment. These findings indicate that over-expression ofOsHsfA7 gene can increase tolerance to salt and drought stressesin rice seedlings. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(1: 31-36

Ai-Ling Liu

2013-01-01

29

Molecular cloning and expression of a human heat shock factor, HSF1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Human cells respond to heat stress by inducing the binding of a preexisting transcriptional activator (heat shock factor, HSF) to DNA. The authors isolated recombinant DNA clones for a human cDNA fragment. The human HSF1 probe was produced by the PCR with primers deduced from conserved amino acids in the Drosophila and yeast HSF sequences. The human HSF1 mRNA is constitutively expressed in HeLa cells under nonshock conditions and encodes a protein with four conserved leucine zipper motifs. Like its counterpart in Drosophila, human HSF1 produced in Escherichia coli in the absence of heat shock is active as a DNA binding transcription factor, suggesting that the intrinsic activity of HSF is under negative control in human cells. Surprisingly, an independently isolated human HSF clone, HSF2, is related to but significantly different from HSF.

Rabindran, S.K.; Giorgi, G.; Clos, J.; Wu, C. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States))

1991-08-15

30

Heat Shock Response and Protein Degradation: Regulation of HSF2 by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway  

OpenAIRE

Mammalian cells coexpress a family of heat shock factors (HSFs) whose activities are regulated by diverse stress conditions to coordinate the inducible expression of heat shock genes. Distinct from HSF1, which is expressed ubiquitously and activated by heat shock and other stresses that result in the appearance of nonnative proteins, the stress signal for HSF2 has not been identified. HSF2 activity has been associated with development and differentiation, and the activation properties of HSF2...

Mathew, Anu; Mathur, Sameer K.; Morimoto, Richard I.

1998-01-01

31

Hsf1 activation inhibits rapamycin resistance and TOR signaling in yeast revealed by combined proteomic and genetic analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

TOR kinases integrate environmental and nutritional signals to regulate cell growth in eukaryotic organisms. Here, we describe results from a study combining quantitative proteomics and comparative expression analysis in the budding yeast, S. cerevisiae, to gain insights into TOR function and regulation. We profiled protein abundance changes under conditions of TOR inhibition by rapamycin treatment, and compared this data to existing expression information for corresponding gene products measured under a variety of conditions in yeast. Among proteins showing abundance changes upon rapamycin treatment, almost 90% of them demonstrated homodirectional (i.e., in similar direction) transcriptomic changes under conditions of heat/oxidative stress. Because the known downstream responses regulated by Tor1/2 did not fully explain the extent of overlap between these two conditions, we tested for novel connections between the major regulators of heat/oxidative stress response and the TOR pathway. Specifically, we hypothesized that activation of regulator(s) of heat/oxidative stress responses phenocopied TOR inhibition and sought to identify these putative TOR inhibitor(s). Among the stress regulators tested, we found that cells (hsf1-R206S, F256S and ssa1-3 ssa2-2) constitutively activated for heat shock transcription factor 1, Hsf1, inhibited rapamycin resistance. Further analysis of the hsf1-R206S, F256S allele revealed that these cells also displayed multiple phenotypes consistent with reduced TOR signaling. Among the multiple Hsf1 targets elevated in hsf1-R206S, F256S cells, deletion of PIR3 and YRO2 suppressed the TOR-regulated phenotypes. In contrast to our observations in cells activated for Hsf1, constitutive activation of other regulators of heat/oxidative stress responses, such as Msn2/4 and Hyr1, did not inhibit TOR signaling. Thus, we propose that activated Hsf1 inhibits rapamycin resistance and TOR signaling via elevated expression of specific target genes in S. cerevisiae. Additionally, these results highlight the value of comparative expression analyses between large-scale proteomic and transcriptomic datasets to reveal new regulatory connections. PMID:18270585

Bandhakavi, Sricharan; Xie, Hongwei; O'Callaghan, Brennon; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Kim, Do-Hyung; Griffin, Timothy J

2008-01-01

32

Use of Hsf1-/- mice reveals an essential role for HSF1 to protect lung against cadmium-induced injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cadmium (Cd) is known to activate heat shock (HS) response, which is characterized by overexpression of heat shock proteins (Hsps) under the control of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). The potential protection provided by the HS response, induced by increasing the body temperature of animals before Cd exposure or by Cd itself, against pathophysiological changes occurring after Cd intranasal instillation (1 to 100 ?g/mouse) was examined. HSF1-deficient mice were used to evaluate the role of this factor in lung protection. Cd instillation caused dose- and time-dependent changes in the respiratory pattern measured by plethysmography (Penh), and significant increases in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity as well as macrophage and neutrophil counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. HS preconditioning induced Hsp overexpression and reduced the Penh (-30 %), LDH (-25%), and neutrophil (-55 %) responses to subsequent administration of the highest Cd doses (50 and 100 ?g) in wild-type mice. HSF1 deficiency abolished the HS response and its protective effect. In the absence of preconditioning, Hsf1-/- mice exhibited higher values of Penh (+70 %) and LDH activity (+42 %) compared with wild-type animals when exposed to the lowest Cd doses. Higher macrophage (+80%) and neutrophil counts (+115 %) were recorded whatever the dose. Western blot analyses indicated that lung protection might be related to the kinetics of HSF1-dependent Hsp70 expression. Altogether, our data desp70 expression. Altogether, our data demonstrate that HS response elicited both by prior HS and by Cd itself moderates pulmonary injuries due to Cd instillation, and that HSF1 is a major mediator in this protection

33

Cell-type-dependent access of HSF1 and HSF4 to ?B-crystallin promoter during heat shock  

OpenAIRE

Epithelial cells and fibroblasts both express heat shock transcription factors, HSF1 and HSF4, yet they respond to heat shock differentially. For example, while HSP70 is induced in both cell types, the small heat shock protein, ?B-crystallin gene (CRYAB) that contains a canonical heat shock promoter, is only induced in fibroblasts. A canonical heat shock promoter contains three or more inverted repeats of the pentanucleotide 5?-nGAAn-3? that make the heat shock element. It is known that,...

Jing, Zhe; Gangalum, Rajendra K.; Lee, Josh Z.; Mock, Dennis; Bhat, Suraj P.

2012-01-01

34

HSF1 transcriptional activity is modulated by IER5 and PP2A/B55.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is the master transcriptional regulator of chaperone genes. HSF1 regulates the expression of the immediate-early response gene IER5, which encodes a protein that has roles in the stress response and cell proliferation. Here, we have shown that IER5 interacts with protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and its B55 regulatory subunits. Expression of IER5 and B55 in cells leads to HSF1 dephosphorylation and activation of HSF1 target genes. The B55 subunits directly bind to HSF1. These results suggest that IER5 functions as a positive feedback regulator of HSF1 and that this process involves PP2A/B55 and HSF1 dephosphorylation. PMID:25816751

Ishikawa, Yukio; Kawabata, Shotaro; Sakurai, Hiroshi

2015-04-28

35

Ecology  

OpenAIRE

Ecology is the study of interaction of living organisms in the environment. However the modern meaning of the concept of ecology has a wider meaning than in the early decades of the development of this science. Currently, most often under the mistaken environmental issues are understood, above all, the protection of the environment. In many ways, this shift is due to sense more tangible consequences of human impact on the environment. When you are citing the document, use the following lin...

Khumayni, S.

2013-01-01

36

Regulation of HSF1 function in the heat stress response: implications in aging and disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

To dampen proteotoxic stresses and maintain protein homeostasis, organisms possess a stress-responsive molecular machinery that detects and neutralizes protein damage. A prominent feature of stressed cells is the increased synthesis of heat shock proteins (Hsps) that aid in the refolding of misfolded peptides and restrain protein aggregation. Transcriptional activation of the heat shock response is orchestrated by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), which rapidly translocates to hsp genes and induces their expression. Although the role of HSF1 in protecting cells and organisms against severe stress insults is well established, many aspects of how HSF1 senses qualitatively and quantitatively different forms of stresses have remained poorly understood. Moreover, recent discoveries that HSF1 controls life span have prompted new ways of thinking about an old transcription factor. Here, we review the established role of HSF1 in counteracting cell stress and prospect the role of HSF1 as a regulator of disease states and aging. PMID:21417720

Anckar, Julius; Sistonen, Lea

2011-01-01

37

Disruption of the HSF3 gene results in the severe reduction of heat shock gene expression and loss of thermotolerance.  

OpenAIRE

The vertebrate genome encodes a family of heat shock factors (HSFs 1-4) of which the DNA-binding and transcriptional activities of HSF1 and HSF3 are activated upon heat shock. HSF1 has the properties of a classical HSF and exhibits rapid activation of DNA-binding and transcriptional activity upon exposure to conditions of heat shock and other stresses, whereas HSF3 typically is activated at higher temperatures and with distinct delayed kinetics. To address the role of HSF3 in the heat shock r...

Tanabe, M.; Kawazoe, Y.; Takeda, S.; Morimoto, R. I.; Nagata, K.; Nakai, A.

1998-01-01

38

hsf1 (+) extends chronological lifespan through Ecl1 family genes in fission yeast.  

Science.gov (United States)

The heat shock factor (HSF), a protein evolutionarily conserved from yeasts to human, regulates the expression of a set of proteins called heat shock proteins (HSPs), many of which function as molecular chaperones. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the HSF binds to the 5' upstream region of YGR146C and activates its transcription. YGR146C encodes a functional homolog of ecl1 (+), ecl2 (+), and ecl3 (+) of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. At present, these Ecl1 family genes, which are extenders of chronological lifespan, have been identified only in fungi groups. Based on ChIP analysis, we identified that Hsf1 binds to the upstream DNA region of ecl2 (+) after heat shock in S. pombe. In Caenorhabditis elegans, heat shock factor HSF-1 is known to regulate aging and required for the elongation of longevity by dietary restriction. We found that heat shock factor Hsf1 extends chronological lifespan of S. pombe when overexpressed. Moreover, we show that the extension of chronological lifespan by the overproduction of Hsf1 mainly depends on ecl2 (+) among Ecl1 family genes. From these results, we suggest that HSF is a conserved regulator of lifespan, at least in yeast and nematode, and Ecl1 family genes such as YGR146C and ecl2 (+) are the direct targets of Hsf1 and mediate lifespan extension by Hsf1. PMID:21072667

Ohtsuka, Hokuto; Azuma, Kenko; Murakami, Hiroshi; Aiba, Hirofumi

2011-01-01

39

Loss of tumor suppressor NF1 activates HSF1 to promote carcinogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intrinsic stress response pathways are frequently mobilized within tumor cells. The mediators of these adaptive mechanisms and how they contribute to carcinogenesis remain poorly understood. A striking example is heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), master transcriptional regulator of the heat shock response. Surprisingly, we found that loss of the tumor suppressor gene neurofibromatosis type 1 (Nf1) increased HSF1 levels and triggered its activation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. As a consequence, Nf1-/- cells acquired tolerance to proteotoxic stress. This activation of HSF1 depended on dysregulated MAPK signaling. HSF1, in turn, supported MAPK signaling. In mice, Hsf1 deficiency impeded NF1-associated carcinogenesis by attenuating oncogenic RAS/MAPK signaling. In cell lines from human malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) driven by NF1 loss, HSF1 was overexpressed and activated, which was required for tumor cell viability. In surgical resections of human MPNSTs, HSF1 was overexpressed, translocated to the nucleus, and phosphorylated. These findings reveal a surprising biological consequence of NF1 deficiency: activation of HSF1 and ensuing addiction to this master regulator of the heat shock response. The loss of NF1 function engages an evolutionarily conserved cellular survival mechanism that ultimately impairs survival of the whole organism by facilitating carcinogenesis. PMID:22945628

Dai, Chengkai; Santagata, Sandro; Tang, Zijian; Shi, Jiayuan; Cao, Junxia; Kwon, Hyoungtae; Bronson, Roderick T; Whitesell, Luke; Lindquist, Susan

2012-10-01

40

HSF1 functions as a transcription regulator for Dp71 expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is one of the most important transcriptional molecules in the heat shock process; however, HSF1 can also regulate the expression of other proteins. Dystrophin Dp71 is one of the most widely expressed isoforms of the dystrophin gene family. In our experiments, we showed for the first time that HSF1 can function as a transcriptional factor for endogenous Dp71 expression in vivo and in vitro. We demonstrated that the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of Dp71 were significantly reduced in HSF1-knockout mice compared with wild-type mice in brain, lung, liver, spleen, and kidney. Overexpression of HSF1 significantly enhanced the mRNA and protein expression of Dp71 in HeLa cells. Inhibiting the expression of HSF1 in HeLa cells significantly reduced the expression of Dp71. By use of the EMSA technique, the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, and the luciferase reporter system, we demonstrated that HSF1 can directly bind the HSE in the Dp71 promoter region. We concluded from our data that HSF1 functions as a transcriptional regulator of Dp71 expression. PMID:25430510

Tan, Jin; Tan, Sichuang; Zheng, Hexin; Liu, Meidong; Chen, Guangwen; Zhang, Huali; Wang, Kangkai; Tan, Sipin; Zhou, Jiang; Xiao, Xian-Zhong

2015-03-01

41

Expression of HSF2 decreases in mitosis to enable stress-inducible transcription and cell survival.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unless mitigated, external and physiological stresses are detrimental for cells, especially in mitosis, resulting in chromosomal missegregation, aneuploidy, or apoptosis. Heat shock proteins (Hsps) maintain protein homeostasis and promote cell survival. Hsps are transcriptionally regulated by heat shock factors (HSFs). Of these, HSF1 is the master regulator and HSF2 modulates Hsp expression by interacting with HSF1. Due to global inhibition of transcription in mitosis, including HSF1-mediated expression of Hsps, mitotic cells are highly vulnerable to stress. Here, we show that cells can counteract transcriptional silencing and protect themselves against proteotoxicity in mitosis. We found that the condensed chromatin of HSF2-deficient cells is accessible for HSF1 and RNA polymerase II, allowing stress-inducible Hsp expression. Consequently, HSF2-deficient cells exposed to acute stress display diminished mitotic errors and have a survival advantage. We also show that HSF2 expression declines during mitosis in several but not all human cell lines, which corresponds to the Hsp70 induction and protection against stress-induced mitotic abnormalities and apoptosis. PMID:25202032

Elsing, Alexandra N; Aspelin, Camilla; Björk, Johanna K; Bergman, Heidi A; Himanen, Samu V; Kallio, Marko J; Roos-Mattjus, Pia; Sistonen, Lea

2014-09-15

42

Thermal discharges and ecological studies - an overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermal ecological studies (TES) formulated and funded by BRNS are fine examples of coordinated research program in our country. There were at least eight different research laboratories with various backgrounds involved in these studies with a commitment to study the effect of thermal discharge into water bodies scientifically. BRNS has already underlined the concern of the people living within the vicinity of the power plants on their livelihood which depends on fish catch etc., and the stipulations laid down by statutory bodies for the temperature rise due to thermal discharge to be viewed in a global perspective

43

[Parallelism and paradoxes on viability and the life span of two loss-of-function mutations: heat shock protein transcriptional regulator hsf(1) and l(2)gl tumor suppressor in D. melanogaster].  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we analyzed how a dosage decrease in mono- and diheterozygotes on both lethal alleles of the lgl-gene and hsfheat shock regulator influences viability and life span at optimal and high temperature 29 degrees C conditions. We found that hsf(1) (1 dosage of active hsf-factor) heterozygote animals had significantly increased viability (up to 30-39%) in case of its development from egg to imago under the stress of 29 degrees C. However, this stress-protective effect of a decreased dosage of HSF1 was suppressed in diheterozygotes, while the dosage of tumor suppressor lgl was simultaneously decreased. Under stress temperature conditions, a decrease in dosage of one of the alleles also increased the average life span and delayed aging, especially in the case of maternal inheritance of each of the loss-of-function mutations. In diheterozygotes the average life span had intermediate meanings. However, in diheterozygote males under stress conditions the positive longevity effect of hsf was suppressed in the presence of the lgl-mutation. Paradoxically, that decrease of expression of each of the studied vital genes provided a positive effect on both viability and life span under stress conditions. However, a simultaneous dosage decrease of two loss-of-function alleles in diheterozygotes resulted in disbalanced effects on the organism level. The received data indicate interaction between HSF1 and LGL gene products during ontogenesis and stress-defending processes. PMID:22567869

Va?sman, N Ia; Evgen'ev, M B; Golubovski?, M D

2012-01-01

44

Study on the Construction of the Internet Ecological Concept  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the quickly development of Information Technology, the Internet has produced unprecedented influences to the human society, and the new existence space and environment for human being have been formed. Aiming at the serious social problems existing in the development of the Internet, “the Internet ecological crisis”, this article utilizes the theories such as ecology, environment management and harmonious society to primarily study the new approach to lead the healthy development of network by establishing network ecology, puts forward the network development principles such as harmonic network construction, network technology ecologization and network behavior ecologization based on the concept of network ecological concept, and expatiate on the important meanings of the network ecological concept to the healthy and harmonious development of network.

Yongqing Bai

2009-02-01

45

Connecicut River ecological study: a synopsis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper recounts some salient features of an extensive study of the thermal effects of the Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company's electric generating plant on biota of the lower Connecticut River. The work includes a description of the plume, an examination of the anadromous shad population, a discussion of the affected ichthvofauna and entrainment, and an account of alterations in benthic fauna. This study has several distinctive attributes, among them that it was begun before the Water Quality Act (1965) and that it had a long-term before-and-after character, beginning in 1965 before the plant began operating and continuing during operation (1968-1973). Ecological alterations observed to date appear to be well within the limits of acceptability, and in large measure, wrought by mechanical rather than thermal factors

46

Transcription factors Hsf1 and Nrf2 engage in crosstalk for cytoprotection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transcription factors heat shock factor (Hsf)1 and nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor (Nrf)2 are critical for adaptation and survival. Each is maintained at low basal levels, but is robustly activated by various stimuli, including cysteine-reactive small molecules (inducers). Although each is regulated by distinct mechanisms, it is emerging that these transcription factors engage in crosstalk by sharing overlapping transcriptional targets, such as heat shock protein (HSP)70, p62, and activating transcription factor (ATF)3, and in certain cases, compensating for each other. Critically, activation of Hsf1 or Nrf2 affects the cellular redox balance by promoting the reduced state. Conversely, deletion of Hsf1 or Nrf2 is associated with oxidative stress and impaired mitochondrial function. Transient activation of Hsf1 and Nrf2 is cytoprotective, but their persistent upregulation may be detrimental, causing cardiomyopathy or accelerating carcinogenesis, and should be considered when designing strategies for disease prevention and treatment. PMID:25465722

Dayalan Naidu, Sharadha; Kostov, Rumen V; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T

2015-01-01

47

Formation of nuclear HSF1 granules varies depending on stress stimuli  

OpenAIRE

In concert with the stress-induced activation of human heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), the factor becomes inducibly phosphorylated and accumulates into nuclear granules. To date, these processes are not fully understood. Here, we show that although stress caused by the proteasome inhibitors MG132 and clasto-lactacystine ?-lactone induces the expression of Hsp70, the formation of HSF1 granules is affected differently in comparison to heat shock. Furthermore, proteasome inhibition increases serine...

Holmberg, Carina I.; Illman, Sara A.; Kallio, Marko; Mikhailov, Andrey; Sistonen, Lea

2000-01-01

48

HSF1 drives a transcriptional program distinct from heat shock to support highly malignant human cancers  

OpenAIRE

Heat-Shock Factor 1 (HSF1), master regulator of the heat-shock response, facilitates malignant transformation, cancer cell survival and proliferation in model systems. The common assumption is that these effects are mediated through regulation of heat-shock protein (HSP) expression. However, the transcriptional network that HSF1 coordinates directly in malignancy and its relationship to the heat-shock response have never been defined. By comparing cells with high and low malignant potential a...

Mendillo, Marc L.; Santagata, Sandro; Koeva, Martina; Bell, George W.; Hu, Rong; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Fraenkel, Ernest; Ince, Tan A.; Whitesell, Luke; Lindquist, Susan

2012-01-01

49

The heat shock transcription factor PsHSF1 of Phytophthora sojae is required for oxidative stress tolerance and detoxifying the plant oxidative burst.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the interaction between plant and microbial pathogens, reactive oxygen species (ROS) rapidly accumulate upon pathogen recognition at the infection site and play a central role in plant defence. However, the mechanisms that plant pathogens use to counteract ROS are still poorly understood especially in oomycetes, filamentous organisms that evolved independently from fungi. ROS detoxification depends on transcription factors (TFs) that are highly conserved in fungi but much less conserved in oomycetes. In this study, we identified the TF PsHSF1 that acts as a modulator of the oxidative stress response in the soybean stem and root rot pathogen Phytophthora sojae. We found that PsHSF1 is critical for pathogenicity in P.?sojae by detoxifying the plant oxidative burst. ROS produced in plant defence can be detoxified by extracellular peroxidases and laccases which might be regulated by PsHSF1. Our study extends the understanding of ROS detoxification mechanism mediated by a heat shock TF in oomycetes. PMID:25156425

Sheng, Yuting; Wang, Yonglin; Meijer, Harold J G; Yang, Xinyu; Hua, Chenlei; Ye, Wenwu; Tao, Kai; Liu, Xiaoyun; Govers, Francine; Wang, Yuanchao

2015-04-01

50

Immunolocalization of anti-hsf1 to the acetabular glands of infectious schistosomes suggests a non-transcriptional function for this transcriptional activator.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schistosomiasis is a chronically debilitating disease caused by parasitic worms of the genus Schistosoma, and it is a global problem affecting over 240 million people. Little is known about the regulatory proteins and mechanisms that control schistosome host invasion, gene expression, and development. Schistosome larvae, cercariae, are transiently free-swimming organisms and infectious to man. Cercariae penetrate human host skin directly using proteases that degrade skin connective tissue. These proteases are secreted from anucleate acetabular glands that contain many proteins, including heat shock proteins. Heat shock transcription factors are strongly conserved activators that play crucial roles in the maintenance of cell homeostasis by transcriptionally regulating heat shock protein expression. In this study, we clone and characterize the schistosome Heat shock factor 1 gene (SmHSF1). We verify its ability to activate transcription using a modified yeast one-hybrid system, and we show that it can bind to the heat shock binding element (HSE) consensus DNA sequence. Our quantitative RT-PCR analysis shows that SmHSF1 is expressed throughout several life-cycle stages from sporocyst to adult worm. Interestingly, using immunohistochemistry, a polyclonal antibody raised against an Hsf1-peptide demonstrates a novel localization for this conserved, stress-modulating activator. Our analysis suggests that schistosome Heat shock factor 1 may be localized to the acetabular glands of infective cercariae. PMID:25078989

Ishida, Kenji; Varrecchia, Melissa; Knudsen, Giselle M; Jolly, Emmitt R

2014-07-01

51

Immunolocalization of Anti-Hsf1 to the Acetabular Glands of Infectious Schistosomes Suggests a Non-Transcriptional Function for This Transcriptional Activator  

Science.gov (United States)

Schistosomiasis is a chronically debilitating disease caused by parasitic worms of the genus Schistosoma, and it is a global problem affecting over 240 million people. Little is known about the regulatory proteins and mechanisms that control schistosome host invasion, gene expression, and development. Schistosome larvae, cercariae, are transiently free-swimming organisms and infectious to man. Cercariae penetrate human host skin directly using proteases that degrade skin connective tissue. These proteases are secreted from anucleate acetabular glands that contain many proteins, including heat shock proteins. Heat shock transcription factors are strongly conserved activators that play crucial roles in the maintenance of cell homeostasis by transcriptionally regulating heat shock protein expression. In this study, we clone and characterize the schistosome Heat shock factor 1 gene (SmHSF1). We verify its ability to activate transcription using a modified yeast one-hybrid system, and we show that it can bind to the heat shock binding element (HSE) consensus DNA sequence. Our quantitative RT-PCR analysis shows that SmHSF1 is expressed throughout several life-cycle stages from sporocyst to adult worm. Interestingly, using immunohistochemistry, a polyclonal antibody raised against an Hsf1-peptide demonstrates a novel localization for this conserved, stress-modulating activator. Our analysis suggests that schistosome Heat shock factor 1 may be localized to the acetabular glands of infective cercariae. PMID:25078989

Knudsen, Giselle M.; Jolly, Emmitt R.

2014-01-01

52

The proto-oncogene JUN is a target of the heat shock transcription factor HSF1.  

Science.gov (United States)

The transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) participates in many aspects of cell physiology, such as cellular proliferation, transformation, and death. AP-1 is a dimeric complex that primarily contains Jun and Fos family members. Here, we report that JUN is a target of heat shock transcription factor HSF1. HSF1 is the master regulator of genes encoding molecular chaperones, and is involved in cellular processes such as the stress response, cell differentiation, aging and carcinogenesis. In HeLa cells, JUN transcription was rapidly induced by heat treatment. We found that HSF1 bound to the JUN promoter and was necessary for its efficient response to heat shock. In heat-shocked cells, c-Jun-mediated gene expression was induced slowly following accumulation of c-Jun protein. Forced expression of active HSF1 in cells resulted in an increase in c-Jun expression and activation of c-Jun target genes. These results show that HSF1 regulates JUN expression, thereby modulating AP-1 activity. PMID:24127737

Sawai, Maki; Ishikawa, Yukio; Ota, Azumi; Sakurai, Hiroshi

2013-12-01

53

HSF1 drives a transcriptional program distinct from heat shock to support highly malignant human cancers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat-Shock Factor 1 (HSF1), master regulator of the heat-shock response, facilitates malignant transformation, cancer cell survival, and proliferation in model systems. The common assumption is that these effects are mediated through regulation of heat-shock protein (HSP) expression. However, the transcriptional network that HSF1 coordinates directly in malignancy and its relationship to the heat-shock response have never been defined. By comparing cells with high and low malignant potential alongside their nontransformed counterparts, we identify an HSF1-regulated transcriptional program specific to highly malignant cells and distinct from heat shock. Cancer-specific genes in this program support oncogenic processes: cell-cycle regulation, signaling, metabolism, adhesion and translation. HSP genes are integral to this program, however, many are uniquely regulated in malignancy. This HSF1 cancer program is active in breast, colon and lung tumors isolated directly from human patients and is strongly associated with metastasis and death. Thus, HSF1 rewires the transcriptome in tumorigenesis, with prognostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:22863008

Mendillo, Marc L; Santagata, Sandro; Koeva, Martina; Bell, George W; Hu, Rong; Tamimi, Rulla M; Fraenkel, Ernest; Ince, Tan A; Whitesell, Luke; Lindquist, Susan

2012-08-01

54

An ecological study of Paragonimus in Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

An ecologic study on Paragonimus in Malaysia was attempted from May to September 1967. Seven streams located in various directions and distances from Kuala Lumpur were surveyed for the study of intermediate hosts, snail and crab. One Malayan village and one aborigine village where infected crabs were found, and two tuberculosis hospitals in K.L. were surveyed for the study of human population. Intradermal tests along with sputum or stool examination to detect human infection by Paragonimus were employed. Wild animals, only a few, were shot in the vicinity of the aborigine village and several domestic cats from the Malayan village were bought. These animals were autopsied and examined for adult Paragonimus. Among five species of crab collected from the study areas, only two species, Potamon jahorenes and Parathelphusa maculata were found to be infected with Paragonimus. P. maculata seemed to be better crab host for the Paragonimus because this species had higher infection rate and metacercarial density than the other in the very same area. Three out of seven streams had infected crabs and the infection rate as well as the infection intensity varied from one stream to another. Only avilable snail in the streams was identified as Brotia costula. The infection rate of the snail was very low, six snails out of 11,898, which is about the same rate reported from other countries. Infected snail, however, had thousands of rediae uncountable containing about twelve microcercocercariae in each redia, sufficient enough to maintain the life cycle of the parasite even with only a few infected snail, the amplifier. This is the first confirmed report on the snail host of Paragonimus from Malaysia where the existence of Paragonimus had been reported in 1923. The first trial to study human population by means of intradermal test, sputum and/or stool examinations in Malaysia showed no evidence of human infection of Paragonimus. The number of animals, wild and domestic, examined for natural infection was too small to draw any statement. These examined animals were all negative for adult Paragonimus. Even though more extensive studies on wild animals and human population may be necessary for the definite conclusion, the facts that infected crabs from jungle stream where human contacts are extreamely rare, and also highly infected crabs from the area where none of humans or domestic animals were infected, strongly suggest the life cycle of Paragonimus in this area may be maintained by wild animal hosts rather than by human host. The morphology of all stages of the parasite, the pattern of penetrating glands, flame cells and excretroy bladder of cercaria, lancet shaped single cuticular spines and 6 branched ovary of adult worm obtained from experimentally infected cat, and the shape of egg including all measurements agree well with the characteristics of Paragonimus westermani. PMID:12902783

Kim, Joung Soon

1978-06-01

55

A Direct Regulatory Interaction between Chaperonin TRiC and Stress-Responsive Transcription Factor HSF1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1 is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that protects cells from protein-misfolding-induced stress and apoptosis. The mechanisms by which cytosolic protein misfolding leads to HSF1 activation have not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that HSF1 is directly regulated by TRiC/CCT, a central ATP-dependent chaperonin complex that folds cytosolic proteins. A small-molecule activator of HSF1, HSF1A, protects cells from stress-induced apoptosis, binds TRiC subunits in vivo and in vitro, and inhibits TRiC activity without perturbation of ATP hydrolysis. Genetic inactivation or depletion of the TRiC complex results in human HSF1 activation, and HSF1A inhibits the direct interaction between purified TRiC and HSF1 in vitro. These results demonstrate a direct regulatory interaction between the cytosolic chaperone machine and a critical transcription factor that protects cells from proteotoxicity, providing a mechanistic basis for signaling perturbations in protein folding to a stress-protective transcription factor.

Daniel W. Neef

2014-11-01

56

Ecologic studies of rodent reservoirs: their relevance for human health.  

OpenAIRE

Within the past few years, the number of "new" human diseases associated with small-mammal reservoirs has increased dramatically, stimulating renewed interest in reservoir ecology research. A consistent, integrative approach to such research allows direct comparisons between studies, contributes to the efficient use of resources and data, and increases investigator safety. We outline steps directed toward understanding vertebrate host ecology as it relates to human disease and illustrate the ...

Mills, J. N.; Childs, J. E.

1998-01-01

57

Study on the Construction of the Internet Ecological Concept  

OpenAIRE

With the quickly development of Information Technology, the Internet has produced unprecedented influences to the human society, and the new existence space and environment for human being have been formed. Aiming at the serious social problems existing in the development of the Internet, “the Internet ecological crisis”, this article utilizes the theories such as ecology, environment management and harmonious society to primarily study the new approach to lead the healthy development of ...

Yongqing Bai

2009-01-01

58

Ecology and evolution of invasive plants: what to study next?  

OpenAIRE

In recent decades, a growing number of studies have addressed connections between ecological and evolutionary concepts in biologic invasions. These connections may be crucial for understanding the processes underlying invaders’ success. However, the extent to which scientists have worked on the integration of the ecology and evolution of invasive plants is poorly documented, as few attempts have been made to evaluate these efforts in invasion biology research. Such analysis can facilitate r...

Monty, Arnaud; Brown, Cynthia; Tepolt, Carolyn; Tsutsui, Neil; Vanparijs, Vale?rie; Atkinson, Sheryl; Mahy, Gre?gory; Vanderhoeven, Sonia

2010-01-01

59

MEK Guards Proteome Stability and Inhibits Tumor-Suppressive Amyloidogenesis via HSF1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Signaling through RAS/MAP kinase pathway is central to biology. ERK has long been perceived as the only substrate for MEK. Here, we report that HSF1, the master regulator of the proteotoxic stress response, is a new MEK substrate. Beyond mediating cell-environment interactions, the MEK-HSF1 regulation impacts malignancy. In tumor cells, MEK blockade inactivates HSF1 and thereby provokes proteomic chaos, presented as protein destabilization, aggregation, and, strikingly, amyloidogenesis. Unlike their non-transformed counterparts, tumor cells are particularly susceptible to proteomic perturbation and amyloid induction. Amyloidogenesis is tumor suppressive, reducing in vivo melanoma growth and contributing to the potent anti-neoplastic effects of proteotoxic stressors. Our findings unveil a key biological function of the oncogenic RAS-MEK signaling in guarding proteostasis and suppressing amyloidogenesis. Thus, proteomic instability is an intrinsic feature of malignant state, and disrupting the fragile tumor proteostasis to promote amyloidogenesis may be a feasible therapeutic strategy. PMID:25679764

Tang, Zijian; Dai, Siyuan; He, Yishu; Doty, Rosalinda A; Shultz, Leonard D; Sampson, Stephen Byers; Dai, Chengkai

2015-02-12

60

A Study on College English Ecological Teaching Strategies in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to create ecological college English teaching strategies in non-English speaking countries in view of the increasing importance and popularity of English. The study shows most college students hope they are able to learn English well and they will be very happy if college English teachers can adopt some efficient and suitable teaching strategies. In this paper, the author puts forward college English teaching is a kind of micro-ecosystem in the light of ecology which has got such ecological characteristics as adaptability, openness and sustainability. In order to create suitable ecological college English teaching environments, the college English teaching are supposed to insist on 5C principles, that is, cooperation, competition, consideration, creativeness and continuity which are on the basis of such ecological principles as “Symbiotic Effect”, “Niche”, “Laws Limiting Factor”, “Law of Tolerance”, “the Most Appropriate Principle”, “Flowerpots Effect”. The efficiency and practicality of college English teaching in non-English speaking countries are able to be obtained by using ecological college English teaching strategies discussed in the paper.

Junhong Tang

2013-08-01

61

Ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book turns to the freshment, the teacher, for preparation of ecological topics for lessons, but also to pupils of the secondary stage II, and the main course ecology. The book was knowingly held simple with the restriction to: the ecosystem and its abiotic basic functions, simple articles on population biology, bioceonotic balance ith the questions of niche formation and the life form types coherent with it, of the substance and energy household, the production biology and space-wise and time-wise differentations within an ecological system form the main points. A central role in the volume is given to the illustrations. Their variety is to show and deepen the coherences shown. (orig./HP)

62

The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib is a potent inducer of zinc finger AN1-type domain 2a gene expression: role of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1)-heat shock factor 2 (HSF2) heterocomplexes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The zinc finger AN1-type domain 2a gene, also known as arsenite-inducible RNA-associated protein (AIRAP), was recently identified as a novel human canonical heat shock gene strictly controlled by heat shock factor (HSF) 1. Little is known about AIRAP gene regulation in human cells. Here we report that bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor with anticancer and antiangiogenic properties used in the clinic for treatment of multiple myeloma, is a potent inducer of AIRAP expression in human cells. Using endothelial cells as a model, we unraveled the molecular mechanism regulating AIRAP expression during proteasome inhibition. Bortezomib induces AIRAP expression at the transcriptional level early after treatment, concomitantly with polyubiquitinated protein accumulation and HSF activation. AIRAP protein is detected at high levels for at least 48 h after bortezomib exposure, together with the accumulation of HSF2, a factor implicated in differentiation and development regulation. Different from heat-mediated induction, in bortezomib-treated cells, HSF1 and HSF2 interact directly, forming HSF1-HSF2 heterotrimeric complexes recruited to a specific heat shock element in the AIRAP promoter. Interestingly, whereas HSF1 has been confirmed to be critical for AIRAP gene transcription, HSF2 was found to negatively regulate AIRAP expression after bortezomib treatment, further emphasizing an important modulatory role of this transcription factor under stress conditions. AIRAP function is still not defined. However, the fact that AIRAP is expressed abundantly in primary human cells at bortezomib concentrations comparable with plasma levels in treated patients suggests that AIRAP may participate in the regulatory network controlling proteotoxic stress during bortezomib treatment. PMID:24619424

Rossi, Antonio; Riccio, Anna; Coccia, Marta; Trotta, Edoardo; La Frazia, Simone; Santoro, M Gabriella

2014-05-01

63

Ecology.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Praha : CERGE-EI, 2001 - (Hanousek, J.; Lízal, L.), s. 107-115 ISBN 80-86286-69-X R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KSK9058117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : Czech Republic * ecology Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/books/pdf_01/VI.pdf

Lízal, Lubomír; Tošovská, Eva

64

CoREST represses the heat shock response mediated by HSF1.  

Science.gov (United States)

The stress response in cells involves a rapid and transient transcriptional activation of stress genes. It has been shown that Hsp70 limits its own transcriptional activation functioning as a corepressor of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) during the attenuation of the stress response. Here we show that the transcriptional corepressor CoREST interacts with Hsp70. Through this interaction, CoREST represses both HSF1-dependent and heat shock-dependent transcriptional activation of the hsp70 promoter. In cells expressing short hairpin RNAs directed against CoREST, Hsp70 cannot repress HSF1-dependent transcription. A reduction of CoREST levels also provoked a significant increase of Hsp70 protein levels and an increase of HSF1-dependent transactivation of hsp70 promoter. Via chromatin immunoprecipitation assays we show that CoREST is bound to the hsp70 gene promoter under basal conditions and that its binding increases during heat shock response. In conclusion, we demonstrated that CoREST is a key regulator of the heat shock stress response. PMID:18657505

Gómez, Andrea V; Galleguillos, Danny; Maass, Juan Cristóbal; Battaglioli, Elena; Kukuljan, Manuel; Andrés, María Estela

2008-07-25

65

The reprogramming of tumor stroma by HSF1 is a potent enabler of malignancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stromal cells within the tumor microenvironment are essential for tumor progression and metastasis. Surprisingly little is known about the factors that drive the transcriptional reprogramming of stromal cells within tumors. We report that the transcriptional regulator heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is frequently activated in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), where it is a potent enabler of malignancy. HSF1 drives a transcriptional program in CAFs that complements, yet is completely different from, the program it drives in adjacent cancer cells. This CAF program is uniquely structured to support malignancy in a non-cell-autonomous way. Two central stromal signaling molecules-TGF-? and SDF1-play a critical role. In early-stage breast and lung cancer, high stromal HSF1 activation is strongly associated with poor patient outcome. Thus, tumors co-opt the ancient survival functions of HSF1 to orchestrate malignancy in both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous ways, with far-reaching therapeutic implications. PMID:25083868

Scherz-Shouval, Ruth; Santagata, Sandro; Mendillo, Marc L; Sholl, Lynette M; Ben-Aharon, Irit; Beck, Andrew H; Dias-Santagata, Dora; Koeva, Martina; Stemmer, Salomon M; Whitesell, Luke; Lindquist, Susan

2014-07-31

66

A Novel Integrated Ecological Model for the study of Sustainability  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, there has been a growing interest among various sections of the society in the study of sustainability. Recently, a generalized mathematical model depicting a combined economic-ecological-social system has been proposed to help in the formal study of sustainabili...

67

HsfB2b-mediated repression of PRR7 directs abiotic stress responses of the circadian clock.  

Science.gov (United States)

The circadian clock perceives environmental signals to reset to local time, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here we present data revealing that a member of the heat shock factor (Hsf) family is involved in the input pathway to the plant circadian clock. Using the yeast one-hybrid approach, we isolated several Hsfs, including Heat Shock Factor B2b (HsfB2b), a transcriptional repressor that binds the promoter of Pseudo Response Regulator 7 (PRR7) at a conserved binding site. The constitutive expression of HsfB2b leads to severely reduced levels of the PRR7 transcript and late flowering and elongated hypocotyls. HsfB2b function is important during heat and salt stress because HsfB2b overexpression sustains circadian rhythms, and the hsfB2b mutant has a short circadian period under these conditions. HsfB2b is also involved in the regulation of hypocotyl growth under warm, short days. Our findings highlight the role of the circadian clock as an integrator of ambient abiotic stress signals important for the growth and fitness of plants. PMID:25352668

Kolmos, Elsebeth; Chow, Brenda Y; Pruneda-Paz, Jose L; Kay, Steve A

2014-11-11

68

HsfB2b-mediated repression of PRR7 directs abiotic stress responses of the circadian clock  

Science.gov (United States)

The circadian clock perceives environmental signals to reset to local time, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here we present data revealing that a member of the heat shock factor (Hsf) family is involved in the input pathway to the plant circadian clock. Using the yeast one-hybrid approach, we isolated several Hsfs, including HEAT SHOCK FACTOR B2b (HsfB2b), a transcriptional repressor that binds the promoter of PSEUDO RESPONSE REGULATOR 7 (PRR7) at a conserved binding site. The constitutive expression of HsfB2b leads to severely reduced levels of the PRR7 transcript and late flowering and elongated hypocotyls. HsfB2b function is important during heat and salt stress because HsfB2b overexpression sustains circadian rhythms, and the hsfB2b mutant has a short circadian period under these conditions. HsfB2b is also involved in the regulation of hypocotyl growth under warm, short days. Our findings highlight the role of the circadian clock as an integrator of ambient abiotic stress signals important for the growth and fitness of plants. PMID:25352668

Kolmos, Elsebeth; Chow, Brenda Y.; Pruneda-Paz, Jose L.; Kay, Steve A.

2014-01-01

69

Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) in Studies of Substance Use  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is particularly suitable for studying substance use, because use is episodic and thought to be related to mood and context. This article reviews EMA methods in substance use research, focusing on tobacco and alcohol use and relapse, where EMA has been most applied. Common EMA designs combine event-based…

Shiffman, Saul

2009-01-01

70

An ambitious plan to study America's ecology begins in earnest  

Science.gov (United States)

A 30-year plan to study America's ecology is about to beginhttp://www.economist.com/node/21560838National Ecological Observatory Networkhttp://www.neoninc.org/Introduction to Ecologyhttp://www.cnr.uidaho.edu/ecologyinteractive/lectures.htmEcoregions of the Continental United Stateshttp://www.epa.gov/wed/pages/ecoregions/level_iii_iv.htmBiocomplexity Resourceshttp://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/biocomplexity/ecology.htmlThe Art of Seeing Thingshttp://storyoftheweek.loa.org/2012/07/the-art-of-seeing-things.htmlAmbitious projects are the hallmark of a great society, and the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is one such undertaking. The focus of NEON is a grand plan to study America's ecology over the next 30 years by establishing field research sites at 60 different locations across the United States. The project is under the direction of Dr. David Schimel, and he and his colleagues are working on setting up 15,000 sensors to collect over 500 types of data, including temperature, air pressure, wind speed and direction, and humidity. Perhaps the most important aspect of this vast project is that these sensors will take the same measurements in the same way in every place. The NEON researchers have divided the United States into 20 different "domains," each of which is dominated by a certain type of ecosystem. The sensors in each of the locations will indicate how efficiently different ecosystems use nutrients and water and so on. One of the first projects began last week when two NEON researchers began to look at the impact of the High Park fire in Colorado. The project certainly falls within the realm of "big data," as when NEON is fully operational it will generate 200 terabytes of data a year. The first link will take interested parties to an article from last week's Economist about the NEON project. The second link will whisk users away to the NEON homepage. Here visitors can learn about the projects long-term plans, along with more about the research agenda. The third link will take users to course materials from the University of Idaho that provide an introduction to the field of ecology. The fourth link leads to an interactive map of the ecoregions of the United States as articulated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The fifth link leads to a collection of resources on ecology for college instructors, including a searchable ecology bibliography. Finally, the last link leads to a beautiful essay titled "The Art of Seeing Things" by the naturalist John Burroughs.

Grinnell, Max

2012-08-31

71

Insights from yeast into whether the rapamycin inhibition of heat shock transcription factor (Hsf1) can prevent the Hsf1 activation that results from treatment with an Hsp90 inhibitor  

Science.gov (United States)

In human cells TORC1 mTOR (target of rapamycin) protein kinase complex renders heat shock transcription factor 1 (Hsf1) competent for stress activation. In such cells, as well as in yeast, the selective TORC1 inhibitor rapamycin blocks this activation in contrast to Hsp90 inhibitors which potently activate Hsf1. Potentially therefore rapamycin could prevent the Hsf1 activation that frequently compromises the efficiency of Hsp90 inhibitor cancer drugs. Little synergy was found between the effects of rapamycin and the Hsp90 inhibitor radicicol on yeast growth. However certain rapamycin resistance mutations sensitised yeast to Hsp90 inhibitor treatment and an Hsp90 mutation that overactivates Hsf1 sensitised cells to rapamycin. Rapamycin inhibition of the yeast Hsf1 was abolished by this Hsp90 mutation, as well as with the loss of Ppt1, the Hsp90-interacting protein phosphatase that is the ortholog of mammalian PP5. Unexpectedly Hsf1 activation was found to have a requirement for the rapamycin binding immunophilin FKBP12 even in the absence of rapamycin, while TORC1 “bypass” strains revealed that the rapamycin inhibition of yeast Hsf1 is not exerted through two of the major downstream targets of TORC1, the protein phosphatase regulator Tap42 and the protein kinase Sch9 – the latter the ortholog of human S6 protein kinase 1. Significance: A problem with most of the Hsp90 inhibitor drugs now in cancer clinic trials is that they potently activate Hsf1. This leads to an induction of heat shock proteins, many of which have a “pro-survival” role in that they help to protect cells from apopotosis. As the activation of Hsf1 requires TORC1, inhibitors of mTOR kinase could potentially block this activation of Hsf1 and be of value when used in combination drug therapies with Hsp90 inhibitors. However many of the mechanistic details of the TORC1 regulation of Hsf1, as well as the interplay between cellular resistances to rapamycin and to Hsp90 inhibitors, still remain to be resolved. PMID:24970820

Millson, Stefan H.; Piper, Peter W.

2014-01-01

72

Terrestrial ecology. Comprehensive study of the grassland biome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Terrestrial ecology and grassland biome studies are designed to characterize the biota of the Hanford Reservation, elucidate seasonal dynamics of plant productivity, decomposition and mineral behavior patterns of important plant communities, and, to study the response of these communities to important natural environmental stresses, such as weather, wildfire and man-induced alterations of communities (influenced by grazing cattle and severe mechanical disturbance of the soil, such as affected by plowing or burial of waste materials or construction activities). A detailed account of the important findings of a 5-yr study is currently being prepared by the terrestrial ecology section staff for publication as a contribution to the International Biological Program Grassland Biome project

73

Tight coordination of protein translation and HSF1 activation supports the anabolic malignant state.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ribosome is centrally situated to sense metabolic states, but whether its activity, in turn, coherently rewires transcriptional responses is unknown. Here, through integrated chemical-genetic analyses, we found that a dominant transcriptional effect of blocking protein translation in cancer cells was inactivation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), a multifaceted transcriptional regulator of the heat-shock response and many other cellular processes essential for anabolic metabolism, cellular proliferation, and tumorigenesis. These analyses linked translational flux to the regulation of HSF1 transcriptional activity and to the modulation of energy metabolism. Targeting this link with translation initiation inhibitors such as rocaglates deprived cancer cells of their energy and chaperone armamentarium and selectively impaired the proliferation of both malignant and premalignant cells with early-stage oncogenic lesions. PMID:23869022

Santagata, Sandro; Mendillo, Marc L; Tang, Yun-chi; Subramanian, Aravind; Perley, Casey C; Roche, Stéphane P; Wong, Bang; Narayan, Rajiv; Kwon, Hyoungtae; Koeva, Martina; Amon, Angelika; Golub, Todd R; Porco, John A; Whitesell, Luke; Lindquist, Susan

2013-07-19

74

Aquatic ecological studies around nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioecology occupies a highly important place in the system of natural sciences and interacts with different fields of knowledge on earth's biosphere. Use of nuclear energy for different purposes causes release of radionuclides into the atmosphere. Therefore, knowledge of the distribution pattern of both natural and anthropogenic radionuclides is an essential prerequisite for evaluation and control of public exposures at the site of any nuclear power station. Radioecological studies provide considerable information on the environmental behavior of many nucleotides. In recent times, particular emphasis is being given to research on radionuclide transport and accumulation in living organisms, since critical pathways of transport of the same are food chains and food webs in the environment. Inhalation and ingestion are the most likely routes for internal contamination from radionuclides, wherein, exposure continues until the radioactive material is flushed from the body by natural processes, or when it decays. Several studies on animals have demonstrated that chronic inhalation and oral exposure to certain radionuclides may lead to serious health hazards. Even though innumerable studies have been conducted in medical science on effects of radiation on the human and higher animal systems, little is known about migration of radionuclides across the producers and bioaccumulation at trophic levels in the tropical and subtropical aquatic environment. In order to supplement tatic environment. In order to supplement this research gap, radioecological studies have been initiated at CIFE, Mumbai, with backup support from the Department of Atomic Energy (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre and Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited), in the form of a mega mission mode project on 'Aquatic radioecology'. Presently two existing nuclear power plant sites at Tarapur and Kalpakkam, two proposed at Jaitapur and Jabalpur have been selected for providing first hand information on levels of radionuclides in micro and macro fauna in the marine and freshwater ecosystem in the vicinity of NPP sites. Further the projects aim at elucidating the bio-geochemical transfer mechanisms of radionuclides across the trophic levels of the aquatic environment. (author)

75

Induction of Heat Shock Proteins by Hyperthermia and Noise Overstimulation in Hsf1?/? Mice  

OpenAIRE

Diverse cellular and environmental stresses can activate the heat shock response, an evolutionarily conserved mechanism to protect proteins from denaturation. Stressors activate heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1), which binds to heat shock elements in the genes for heat shock proteins, leading to rapid induction of these important molecular chaperones. Both heat and noise stress are known to activate the heat shock response in the cochlea and protect it from subsequent noise trauma. How...

Gong, Tzy-wen; Fairfield, Damon A.; Fullarton, Lynne; Dolan, David F.; Altschuler, Richard A.; Kohrman, David C.; Lomax, Margaret I.

2011-01-01

76

Evolutionary and ecological approaches to the study of personality  

OpenAIRE

This introduction to the themed issue on Evolutionary and ecological approaches to the study of personality provides an overview of conceptual, theoretical and methodological progress in research on animal personalities over the last decade, and places the contributions to this volume in context. The issue has three main goals. First, we aimed to bring together theoreticians to contribute to the development of models providing adaptive explanations for animal personality that could guide empi...

Re?ale, Denis; Dingemanse, Niels J.; Kazem, Anahita J. N.; Wright, Jonathan

2010-01-01

77

Suppression of heat-induced HSF activation by CDDP in human glioblastoma cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The kinetics of the accumulation of inducible 72-kD heat shock protein (hsp72) and the activation of heat shock transcriptional factor (HSF) after hyperthermia and/or CDDP treatment in two human glioblastoma cell lines, A-172 having the wild-type p53 gene and T98G having the mutated p53 gene were evaluated. Methods and Materials: Western blot analysis of hsp72, gel-mobility shift assay of HSF, cell survival, and development of thermotolerance were examined. Results: The prominent suppression of heat-induced hsp72 accumulation by CDDP was seen in A-172 cells, but not in T98G cells. This was due to the p53-dependent inhibition of heat-induced HSF activation by CDDP. The interactive hyperthermic enhancement of CDDP cytotoxicity was observed in A-172 cells, but not in T98G cells. In addition, the heat-induced thermotolerance was suppressed by the presence of CDDP in the pretreatment. Conclusion: Suppression of heat-induced hsp72 accumulation by CDDP contributes to an interactive hyperthermic enhancement of CDDP cytotoxicity in the cells bearing the wild-type p53 gene

78

Ecological investigations: vegetation studies, preliminary findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the vegetation studies conducted on the research site is to produce a descriptive data base that can be applied to determinations of carrying capacity of the site and surrounding area. Additional information obtained about parameters that influence vegetation growth and maintenance of soil nutrients, and moisture and temperature regimes help define dynamic relationships that must be understood to effect successful revegetation and habitat rehabilitation. The descriptive vegetation baseline also provides a point of departure for design of future monitoring programs, and predictive models and strategies to be used in dealing with impact mitigation; in turn, monitoring programs and predictive modeling form the bases for making distinctions between natural trends and man-induced perturbations.

Olgeirson, E.R.; Martin, R.B.

1978-09-01

79

HSF1-mediated oxidative stress response to menadione in Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377Y3 by using proteomic approach  

OpenAIRE

The hat shock transcription factor HSF1 inthe yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulates a wide range of genes and functions in diverse cellular reactions. To investigate the physiological response of HSF1 inthe presence of menadione (MD) in S. cerevisiae KNU 5377Y3, wild-type (k3wt) and isogenic hsf1 mutant (k3h1) cells were introduced. HSF1 was induced when k3wt cells were exposed to the superoxide-generating agent MD and k3h1 cells were hypersensitive to MD. Under MD stress, k3h1 cells down-...

Il-Sup Kim; Hyun Kim; Young-Saeng Kim; Ingnyol Jin; Ho-Sung Yoon

2013-01-01

80

Heat shock improves Sca-1+ stem cell survival and directs ischemic cardiomyocytes toward a prosurvival phenotype via exosomal transfer: a critical role for HSF1/miR-34a/HSP70 pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stem cell-based therapy is a promising intervention for ischemic heart diseases. However, the functional integrity of stem cells is impaired in an ischemic environment. Here, we report a novel finding that heat shock significantly improves Sca-1(+) stem cell survival in an ischemic environment by the regulation of the triangle: heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), HSF1/miR-34a, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Initially we prove that HSP70 is the key chaperone-mediating cytoprotective effect of heat shock in Sca-1(+) cells and then we establish miR-34a as a direct repressor of HSP70. We found that miR-34a was downregulated in heat shocked Sca-11 stem cells (HSSca-11 cells) [corrected]. Intriguingly, we demonstrate that the downregulation of miR-34a is attributed to HSF1-mediated epigenetic repression through histone H3 Lys27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) on miR-34a promoter. Moreover, we show that heat shock induces exosomal transfer of HSF1 from Sca-1(+) cells, which directs ischemic cardiomyocytes toward a prosurvival phenotype by epigenetic repression of miR-34a. In addition, our in vivo study demonstrates that transplantation of (HS) Sca-1(+) cells significantly reduces apoptosis, attenuates fibrosis, and improves global heart functions in ischemic myocardium. Hence, our study provides not only novel insights into the effects of heat shock on stem cell survival and paracrine behavior but also may have therapeutic values for stem cell therapy in ischemic heart diseases. PMID:24123326

Feng, Yuliang; Huang, Wei; Meng, Wei; Jegga, Anil G; Wang, Yigang; Cai, Wenfeng; Kim, Ha Won; Pasha, Zeeshan; Wen, Zhili; Rao, Fang; Modi, Rohan M; Yu, Xiyong; Ashraf, Muhammad

2014-02-01

81

Ecological interaction and phylogeny, studying functionality on composed networks  

Science.gov (United States)

We study a class of composed networks that are formed by two tree networks, TP and TA, whose end points touch each other through a bipartite network BPA. We explore this network using a functional approach. We are interested in how much the topology, or the structure, of TX (X=A or P) determines the links of BPA. This composed structure is a useful model in evolutionary biology, where TP and TA are the phylogenetic trees of plants and animals that interact in an ecological community. We make use of ecological networks of dispersion of fruits, which are formed by frugivorous animals and plants with fruits; the animals, usually birds, eat fruits and disperse their seeds. We analyse how the phylogeny of TX determines or is correlated with BPA using a Monte Carlo approach. We use the phylogenetic distance among elements that interact with a given species to construct an index ? that quantifies the influence of TX over BPA. The algorithm is based on the assumption that interaction matrices that follows a phylogeny of TX have a total phylogenetic distance smaller than the average distance of an ensemble of Monte Carlo realisations. We find that the effect of phylogeny of animal species is more pronounced in the ecological matrix than plant phylogeny.

Cruz, Claudia P. T.; Fonseca, Carlos Roberto; Corso, Gilberto

2012-02-01

82

HSF1-dependent upregulation of Hsp70 by sulfhydryl-reactive inducers of the KEAP1/NRF2/ARE pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

The KEAP1/NRF2/ARE pathway and the heat shock response are inducible cytoprotective systems regulated by transcription factors NRF2 and HSF1, respectively. We report that structurally distinct small molecule NRF2 activators, all of which react with sulfhydryl groups but differ in potency by 15,000-fold, upregulate Hsp70, a prototypic HSF1-dependent gene. Hsp70 upregulation requires HSF1 but is NRF2 independent. We further demonstrate that a sulfoxythiocarbamate inducer conjugates to the negative regulator of HSF1, Hsp90. The differential concentration dependence of the two responses suggests that activation of NRF2 precedes that of HSF1: the KEAP1/NRF2/ARE pathway is at the forefront of cellular defense, protecting against instant danger; the heat shock response closely follows to resolve subsequent potentially devastating damage, saving the proteome. This uncovered duality undoubtedly contributes to the cytoprotective effects of such molecules in models of carcinogenesis, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegeneration. PMID:22118669

Zhang, Ying; Ahn, Young-Hoon; Benjamin, Ivor J; Honda, Tadashi; Hicks, Ronald J; Calabrese, Vittorio; Cole, Philip A; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T

2011-11-23

83

HSF1-mediated oxidative stress response to menadione in Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377Y3 by using proteomic approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hat shock transcription factor HSF1 inthe yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulates a wide range of genes and functions in diverse cellular reactions. To investigate the physiological response of HSF1 inthe presence of menadione (MD in S. cerevisiae KNU 5377Y3, wild-type (k3wt and isogenic hsf1 mutant (k3h1 cells were introduced. HSF1 was induced when k3wt cells were exposed to the superoxide-generating agent MD and k3h1 cells were hypersensitive to MD. Under MD stress, k3h1 cells down-regulated the expression of metabolic enzymes (Hxk, Fba1, Pgk1, Eno2, and Adh1, antioxidant enzymes (Trx2 and porin, and molecular chaperones and their cofactors (Hsp104, Ssb1, Hsp60, Hsp42, Hsp26, Hsp12, Cpr1, and Sti1. In addition, k3h1 cells increased cellular hydroperoxide levels and protein carbonylation under MD stress as compared to k3wt cells. However, there was a moderate difference in the wild-type (b3wt and mutant (b3h1 cells derived from S. cerevisiae S288Cunder the same conditions. Thus, these results show that HSF1 is an important component of the stress response system, acting as an activator of cell rescue genes in S. cerevisiae KNU5377Y3, and its expression protects the cells from MD-induced oxidative damage by maintaining redox homeostasis and proteostasis in the presence of MD.

Il-Sup Kim

2013-01-01

84

Study of nuclear ecology problems with nuclear track methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a review of the application of radiography track method for determination composition, concentration, behaviour and spatial distribution of ecologically dangerous isotopes in soil, air, plants and various materials using their natural or induced radioactivity. The nondestructive methods of determination of activity, dimensions, forms, spatial distribution and migration of 'hot' particles are considered. With the aim to study the influence of the radioactive isotopes on human lung cancer we present a method of determination of their activity and spatial distribution in the thin slices of lung tissue using alpha -particle and neutron radiography

85

A study of bioindicator selection for long-term ecological  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is very useful and important to see the status and change of necessary parts in a short period through selecting and observing the bioindicator continually to forecast and prepare the future. Especially, living things are so closely related to the environment that the indicator between the environment and living things shows close interrelationship. Also, the indicator related to environment provides information about representative or decisive environmental phenomenon and is used to simplify complicated facts. Considering wide range of background and application including various indicators such as the change-, destruction-, pollution-, and restoration of habitats, climate change, and species diversity, the closest category includes “environmental indicator,” “ecological indicator,” and “biodiversity indicator.” The selection and use of bioindicator is complicated and difficult. The necessary conditions for the indicator selection are flexible and greatly depend on the goals of investigation such as the indicator for biological diversity investigation of specific area, the indicator for habitat destruction, the indicator for climate change, and the indicator for polluted area. It should meet many various conditions to select a good indicator. In this study, eleven selection standards are established based on domestic and overseas studies on bioindicator selection: species with clear classification and ecology, species distributed in geographically widespread area, species that show clear habitat characteristics, species that can provide early warning for a change, species that are easy and economically benefited for the investigation, species that have many independent individual groups and that is not greatly affected by the size of individual groups, species that is thought to represent the response of other species, species that represent the ecology change caused by the pressure of human influence, species for which researches on climate change have been done, species that is easy to observe, appears for a long time and forms a group with many individuals, and species that are important socially, economically, and culturally.

Yong-Gu Han

2015-03-01

86

Study on the Change of Landscape and Ecology of Sitou Forestland by Using Remotely Sensed and Ecological Investigation Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to natural disasters and anthropogenic disturbances in recent years, the landscape in Central Taiwan suffered certain kind of changes. In particular, landslides caused by earthquake and heavy rainfall, improper use and development in slope land enlarge and speed up the change of forest landscape. Few studies were focused on the interactions and relationships between change of ecosystem and landscape in Taiwan after natural disturbances in recent years. In this study, a pioneering research is accomplished by using Landscape Indices (LI) derived from FORMOSAT II Satellite imagery and GIS spatial coverage to describe the possible pattern of change between landscape and ecology. Located at the mountainous area in central Taiwan, ranging from 800 to 1,800 meter and comprising 2,349 hectares in size, Sitou Tract of the National Taiwan University Experimental Forest is selected as the study site. Four satellite images through 2004 to 2007 are used to compute LI, and analyzed with ecological investigation collected from five ground sites. The preliminary result shows that by using remotely sensed data and ground investigation, it is feasible to monitor and assess the relationship between change of landscape and ecology in forests. It indicates that the recovery and restoration of vegetation after the human and natural disturbances highly correlates with the value of NDVI (Normalized Differential Vegetation Index), the composition and diversity of birds and insects are highly correlated with the diversity of patches. The values of SHDI (Shannon Diversity Index), SIDI (Simpson Diversity Index), SHEI (Shannon Evenness Index) and SIEI (Simpson Evenness Index) show that the diversity of landscape is growing while the evenness of landscape remains stable between 2004 and 2007. The ecological investigation in 2006 and 2007 indicated that the species and relative abundance is decreasing. The proof for the obvious relationship between the change of ecology and landscape metrics is yet to be verified by subsequent ecological investigations. Keywords: landscape, ecology, Landscape Indices (LI), satellite imagery, Geographic Information System (GIS)

Wei, Chiang; Lee, Chin-Ling; Liao, Huan-Chang; Tien, Pei-Ling; Huang, Yi-Ru; Tseng, Yu-San; Lai, Jing Rong; Shen, Chieh-Wen

87

Plotting partial correlation and regression in ecological studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multiple regression, the General linear model (GLM and the Generalized linear model (GLZ are widely used in ecology. The widespread use of graphs that include fitted regression lines to document patterns in simple linear regression can be easily extended to these multivariate techniques in plots that show the partial relationship of the dependent variable with each independent variable. However, the latter procedure is not nearly as widely used in ecological studies. In fact, a brief review of the recent ecological literature showed that in ca. 20% of the papers the results of multiple regression are displayed by plotting the dependent variable against the raw values of the independent variable. This latter procedure may be misleading because the value of the partial slope may change in magnitude and even in sign relative to the slope obtained in simple least-squares regression. Plots of partial relationships should be used in these situations. Using numerical simulations and real data we show how displaying plots of partial relationships may also be useful for: 1 visualizing the true scatter of points around the partial regression line, and 2 identifying influential observations and non-linear patterns more efficiently than using plots of residuals vs. fitted values. With the aim to help in the assessment of data quality, we show how partial residual plots (residuals from overall model + predicted values from the explanatory variable vs. the explanatory variable should only be used in restricted situations, and how partial regression plots (residuals of Y on the remaining explanatory variables vs. residuals of the target explanatory variable on the remaining explanatory variables should be the ones displayed in publications because they accurately reflect the scatter of partial correlations. Similarly, these partial plots can be applied to visualize the effect of continuous variables in GLM and GLZ for normal distributions and identity link functions.

J. Moya-Laraño

2008-06-01

88

HSF-1, HIF-1 and HSP90 expression on recombinant Pichia pastoris under fed-batch fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pichia pastoris is a methylotrophic yeast used as an efficient expression system for heterologous protein production as compared to other expression systems. Considering that every cell must respond to environmental changes to survive and differentiate, determination of endogenous protein related to heat stress responses and hypoxia, it would necessary to establish the temperature and methanol concentration conditions for optimal growth. The aim of this study is characterize the culture conditions through the putative biomarkers in different conditions of temperature and methanol concentration. Three yeast cultures were performed: 3X = 3% methanol -10 °C, 4X = 3% methanol -30 °C, and 5X = 1% methanol -10 °C. The expression level of HIF-1?, HSF-1, HSP-70 and HSP-90 biomarkers were measured by Western blot and in situ detection was performed by immunocytochemistry. The western blot results of HIF-1? and HSP-90 did not indicate statistically significant in the culture conditions studied. Respect to biomarkers location, HIF-1? and HSP-90 presented differences between cultures. In conclusion, the results suggest the cultures in a hypoxic condition produce a high density and yeast cells smaller. Beside the high density would not necessary related with a high production of recombinant proteins in modified-genetically P. pastoris. PMID:25242931

Zepeda, Andrea B; Figueroa, Carolina A; Abdalla, Dulcineia S P; Maranhão, Andrea Q; Ulloa, Patricio H; Pessoa, Adalberto; Farías, Jorge G

2014-01-01

89

HSF-1, HIF-1and HSP90 expression on recombinant Pichia pastoris under fed-batch fermentation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Pichia pastoris is a methylotrophic yeast used as an efficient expression system for heterologous protein production as compared to other expression systems. Considering that every cell must respond to environmental changes to survive and differentiate, determination of endogenous protein related to [...] heat stress responses and hypoxia, it would necessary to establish the temperature and methanol concentration conditions for optimal growth. The aim of this study is characterize the culture conditions through the putative biomarkers in different conditions of temperature and methanol concentration. Three yeast cultures were performed: 3X = 3% methanol -10 °C, 4X = 3% methanol -30 °C, and 5X = 1% methanol -10 °C. The expression level of HIF-1?, HSF-1, HSP-70 and HSP-90 biomarkers were measured by Western blot and in situ detection was performed by immunocytochemistry. The western blot results of HIF-1? and HSP-90 did not indicate statistically significant in the culture conditions studied. Respect to biomarkers location, HIF-1? and HSP-90 presented differences between cultures. In conclusion, the results suggest the cultures in a hypoxic condition produce a high density and yeast cells smaller. Beside the high density would not necessary related with a high production of recombinant proteins in modified-genetically P. pastoris.

Andrea B., Zepeda; Carolina A., Figueroa; Dulcineia S.P., Abdalla; Andrea Q., Maranhão; Patricio H., Ulloa; Adalberto, Pessoa Jr.; Jorge G., Farías.

2014-06-01

90

A Critical Review of Some Ecological Studies on Scientific Journals  

Science.gov (United States)

There have been hot discussions about the number and the rate of growth of scientific journals. The purpose of this review is intended to provide a critical assessment of those ecological studies on scientific journals. In 1961, Price presented his famous graph curve, and noted that rate of growth of journals had been fairly consisted at 5 per cent annum for nearly 300 years. But Price's graph curve has some primary error, and the author suggest to examine carefully his study. There is another problem that the loose definition of scientific journals is used. The author try to give a clear definition on the term ‘scientific journals’, and try to reestimate historically the growth rate in numbers of current scientific journals, referring several reliable studies previously conducted. The Author's estimation is about 1.85 per cent a year from the last of 18 century.

Yamazaki, Shigeaki

91

HsfB2b-mediated repression of PRR7 directs abiotic stress responses of the circadian clock  

OpenAIRE

The daily environmental changes in light and dark set the pace of the circadian clock, which at the molecular level is composed of transcription-based feedback loops. It is well known that temperature fluctuations affect the circadian clock, but the molecules involved remain largely undefined. We found that the heat shock transcription factor HsfB2b works in the repression of the morning clock gene PRR7. We tested the properties of the circadian clock, and growth behavior, in the hsfB2b mutan...

Kolmos, Elsebeth; Chow, Brenda Y.; Pruneda-paz, Jose L.; Kay, Steve A.

2014-01-01

92

New methodology for studying the structural ecology of occlusal caries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Microbiological studies of occlusal dental biofilms have hitherto been hampered by inaccessibility to the sampling site and demolition of the original biofilm architecture. The aim of the present study was to explore the spatial distribution of bacterial taxa in vivo at various stages of occusal caries, applying a new methodology involving preparation of embedded hard dental tissue slices for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal microscopy. 11 extracted teeth were included in the study and classified according to their occlusal caries status (active/inactive/sound; cavitated/non-cavitated). The teeth were fixed (paraformaldehyde 3 %), embedded (Technovit 8100), sectioned and decalcified (EDTA 17%, pH 7.0) before FISH was performed using oligonucleotide probes for the most abundant species/genera associated with occlusal caries including Streptococcus and Actinomyces. The findings were related to histological features of lesion penetration. The sites showed distinct differences in the bacterial composition and fluorescence intensity between different ecological niches in occlusal caries. Biofilm observed along the entrance of fissures showed an inner layer of microorganisms organized in palisades often identified as Actinomyces, covered by a more loosely structured bacterial layer consisting of diverse genera, similar to supra-gingival biofilm. Biofilm within the fissure proper seemed less metabolically active, as judged by the low fluorescence signal intensity and the presence of material of non-bacterial origin resembling developmental protein, calculus and/or dead bacteria. Bacterial invasion with penetration into the dentinal tubules was seen only at advanced stages of the caries process with manifest cavity formation. It is concluded that the new methodology represents a valuable supplement to previous methods for the study of microbial ecology in caries by allowing analysis of the structural composition of the undisturbed biofilm in caries lesions in vivo.

Dige, Irene; GrØnkjær, Lene

93

Evaluation of evapotranspiration in small on-site HSF constructed wetlands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experimental results on evapotranspiration (ET), relevant to small on-site facilities are presented, derived from one-year controlled experiments in five pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow (HSF) constructed wetlands (CW) used as lysimeters. The CW units operated in Northern Greece. They were rectangular tanks made of steel, with dimensions 3m long, 0.75m wide and 1m deep. Three different porous media were used, i.e., medium gravel, fine gravel and cobbles. Two plants were used, namely common reed (R, Phragmites australis) and cattails (C, Typha latifolia). One unit was unplanted. ET was estimated based on the water budget method. Conclusions were drawn on its relation to season and vegetation density. Furthermore, Pearson correlation coefficient analysis identified the main factors affecting wetland plant ET. Seven well-known ET empirical methods were applied to estimate ET using the measured meteorological and wetland data. ET estimated by the empirical methods were multiplied with appropriate correction coefficients to match measured ET, providing this way appropriate plant coefficient (K(c)) values, and equations for predicting HSF CW evapotranspiration. The suitability of these methods for the particular constructed wetland type is discussed through comparison with the measured data. The Blaney-Criddle method was found as best. Furthermore, stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was used with the measured ET and meteorological data to produce simple empirical equations to predict ET rates according to meteorological factors, plant and substrate material. PMID:22416871

Papaevangelou, Vassiliki A; Gikas, Georgios D; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

2012-01-01

94

Ecological tax reform - an optimal solution?. Critical remarks on the DIW study ''Economic effects of an ecological tax reform''  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Through the latest expertise of the German institute for economic research (DIW) regarding an ecological tax reform, the discussion about a tax system considering the shortage of the ressource environment and a deficiency of demand regarding the ressource work is newly provoked. The focus of this article is a critical dealing with the methodical procedure of the German institute for economic reserarch when analyzing the national economic effect of a concretely formulated ecological tax law scenario. When assessing the overall economic consequences of a tax reform, it is recommended to use an analysis instrument, which is farly more consistent compared to the instruments by DIW, and which is more problem adequate through the increased resort to financial knowledge. Based on the obvious weakness of the DIW study, a more extensive comprehension for an ecological tax reform is pleaded for, standing out for an application of taxes based on division of labour and oriented to the objective. (orig./UA)

95

Lab experiments for the study of social-ecological systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Governance of social-ecological systems is a major policy problem of the contemporary era. Field studies of fisheries, forests, and pastoral and water resources have identified many variables that influence the outcomes of governance efforts. We introduce an experimental environment that involves spatial and temporal resource dynamics in order to capture these two critical variables identified in field research. Previous behavioral experiments of commons dilemmas have found that people are willing to engage in costly punishment, frequently generating increases in gross benefits, contrary to game-theoretical predictions based on a static pay-off function. Results in our experimental environment find that costly punishment is again used but lacks a gross positive effect on resource harvesting unless combined with communication. These findings illustrate the importance of careful generalization from the laboratory to the world of policy. PMID:20431012

Janssen, Marco A; Holahan, Robert; Lee, Allen; Ostrom, Elinor

2010-04-30

96

An Ecological Flood Control System in Phoenix Island of Huzhou, China: A Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional flood control systems always have a conflict with natural ones, i.e., rivers in cities are usually straight and smooth, whereas natural ones are according to ecological mechanisms. Social and economic developments in the modern world require a new system combining ecological needs and traditional flood control system. Ecological flood control systems were put forward and defined as flood control systems with full consideration of ecological demands for sustainable development. In such systems, four aspects are promoted: connectivity of water system, landscapes of river and lakes, mobility of water bodies, and safety of flood control. In Phoenix Island, Huzhou, needs for ecological flood controls were analyzed from the four aspects above. The Water system layout was adjusted with the water surface ratio, which is the ratio of water surface area (including rivers, lakes, and other water bodies to the total drainage area, and connectivity as controlling indicators. The designed water levels provided references for landscape plant selection. Mobility of the adjusted water system was analyzed, including flow direction and residence time. On the bases mentioned above, ecological flood control projects were planned with comprehensive consideration of the ecological requirements. The case study indicates that ecological needs can be integrated with flood control to develop ecological flood control systems that do not only prevent floods but also retain the ecological functions of water bodies.

Zhuowen Wang

2013-09-01

97

Spatial epidemiology and spatial ecology study of worldwide drug-resistant tuberculosis  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a major public health problem caused by various factors. It is essential to systematically investigate the epidemiological and, in particular, the ecological factors of DR-TB for its prevention and control. Studies of the ecological factors can provide information on etiology, and assist in the effective prevention and control of disease. So it is of great significance for public health to explore the ecological factors of DR-TB, whic...

Yuan Zhongshang; Li Xiao; Wang Rui; Liu Yanxun; Jiang Shiwen; Liu Yunxia; Wang Lixia; Xue Fuzhong

2011-01-01

98

Hydrodynamic and Ecological Assessment of Nearshore Restoration: A Modeling Study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Along the Pacific Northwest coast, much of the estuarine habitat has been diked over the last century for agricultural land use, residential and commercial development, and transportation corridors. As a result, many of the ecological processes and functions have been disrupted. To protect coastal habitats that are vital to aquatic species, many restoration projects are currently underway to restore the estuarine and coastal ecosystems through dike breaches, setbacks, and removals. Information on physical processes and hydrodynamic conditions are critical for the assessment of the success of restoration actions. Restoration of a 160- acre property at the mouth of the Stillaguamish River in Puget Sound has been proposed. The goal is to restore native tidal habitats and estuary-scale ecological processes by removing the dike. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was developed for the Stillaguamish River estuary to simulate estuarine processes. The model was calibrated to observed tide, current, and salinity data for existing conditions and applied to simulate the hydrodynamic responses to two restoration alternatives. Responses were evaluated at the scale of the restoration footprint. Model data was combined with biophysical data to predict habitat responses at the site. Results showed that the proposed dike removal would result in desired tidal flushing and conditions that would support four habitat types on the restoration footprint. At the estuary sce restoration footprint. At the estuary scale, restoration would substantially increase the proportion of area flushed with freshwater (< 5 ppt) at flood tide. Potential implications of predicted changes in salinity and flow dynamics are discussed relative to the distribution of tidal marsh habitat.

99

Dual regulation of SPI1/PU.1 transcription factor by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) during macrophage differentiation of monocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

In addition to their cytoprotective role in stressful conditions, heat shock proteins (HSPs) are involved in specific differentiation pathways, for example, we have identified a role for HSP90 in macrophage differentiation of human peripheral blood monocytes that are exposed to macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Here, we show that deletion of the main transcription factor involved in heat shock gene regulation, heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), affects M-CSF-driven differentiation of mouse bone marrow cells. HSF1 transiently accumulates in the nucleus of human monocytes undergoing macrophage differentiation, including M-CSF-treated peripheral blood monocytes and phorbol ester-treated THP1 cells. We demonstrate that HSF1 has a dual effect on SPI1/PU.1, a transcription factor essential for macrophage differentiation and whose deregulation can lead to the development of leukemias and lymphomas. Firstly, HSF1 regulates SPI1/PU.1 gene expression through its binding to a heat shock element within the intron 2 of this gene. Furthermore, downregulation or inhibition of HSF1 impaired both SPI1/PU.1-targeted gene transcription and macrophage differentiation. Secondly, HSF1 induces the expression of HSP70 that interacts with SPI1/PU.1 to protect the transcription factor from proteasomal degradation. Taken together, HSF1 appears as a fine-tuning regulator of SPI1/PU.1 expression at the transcriptional and post-translational levels during macrophage differentiation of monocytes. PMID:24504023

Jego, G; Lanneau, D; De Thonel, A; Berthenet, K; Hazoumé, A; Droin, N; Hamman, A; Girodon, F; Bellaye, P-S; Wettstein, G; Jacquel, A; Duplomb, L; Le Mouël, A; Papanayotou, C; Christians, E; Bonniaud, P; Lallemand-Mezger, V; Solary, E; Garrido, C

2014-08-01

100

Regulation of the heat stress response in Arabidopsis by MPK6-targeted phosphorylation of the heat stress factor HsfA2  

OpenAIRE

So far little is known on the functional role of phosphorylation in the heat stress response of plants. Here we present evidence that heat stress activates the Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK6. In vitro and in vivo evidence is provided that MPK6 specifically targets the major heat stress transcription factor HsfA2. Activation of MPK6 results in complex formation with HsfA2. MPK6 phosphorylates HsfA2 on T249 and changes its intracellular localisation. Protein kinase and phosph...

Alexandre Evrard; Mukesh Kumar,; David Lecourieux; Jessica Lucks; Pascal von Koskull-Döring; Heribert Hirt

2013-01-01

101

Ecological study of dietary and smoking links to lymphoma  

Science.gov (United States)

The ecological approach is used to investigate dietary and smoking links to lymphoma. International mortality rate data for 1986 and 1994 by gender and age group are compared with national dietary supply values of various food components for up to 10 years prior to the mortality data as well as per capita cigarette consumption rates 5 and 15 years earlier. The non-fat portion of milk, 3-9 years prior to the 1986 mortality data and 4 years prior to the 1994 data, was found to have the highest association with lymphoma, with r as high as 0.89. The results imply that 70 percent of lymphoma mortality may be related to this dietary component. Cigarette smoking in 1980 was found to have a weaker association with 1994 lymphoma mortality rates, being most important for younger men and statistically insignificant for younger women. The non-fat milk result is consistent with both case-control studies and a Norwegian prospective study, and with the often-observed finding that abnormal calcium metabolism, hypercalciuria, and dysregulated calcitriol production are common in normocalcemic patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). It is hypothesized that excess dietary calcium from milk is a significant risk factor for lymphoma.

Grant, W. B.

2000-01-01

102

Genetic and ecological studies of animals in Chernobyl and Fukushima.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in genetic and ecological studies of wild animal populations in Chernobyl and Fukushima have demonstrated significant genetic, physiological, developmental, and fitness effects stemming from exposure to radioactive contaminants. The few genetic studies that have been conducted in Chernobyl generally show elevated rates of genetic damage and mutation rates. All major taxonomic groups investigated (i.e., birds, bees, butterflies, grasshoppers, dragonflies, spiders, mammals) displayed reduced population sizes in highly radioactive parts of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. In Fukushima, population censuses of birds, butterflies, and cicadas suggested that abundances were negatively impacted by exposure to radioactive contaminants, while other groups (e.g., dragonflies, grasshoppers, bees, spiders) showed no significant declines, at least during the first summer following the disaster. Insufficient information exists for groups other than insects and birds to assess effects on life history at this time. The differences observed between Fukushima and Chernobyl may reflect the different times of exposure and the significance of multigenerational mutation accumulation in Chernobyl compared to Fukushima. There was considerable variation among taxa in their apparent sensitivity to radiation and this reflects in part life history, physiology, behavior, and evolutionary history. Interestingly, for birds, population declines in Chernobyl can be predicted by historical mitochondrial DNA base-pair substitution rates that may reflect intrinsic DNA repair ability. PMID:25124815

Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

2014-01-01

103

Method for Studying a Human Ecology: An Adaptation of the Grounded Theory Tradition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Constructivist grounded theory is focused on discovery through understanding data in a human ecology. The procedures outlined in this paper are designed to guide the beginning theorist through the process of creating a theory grounded in data that is a product of the human ecology under study. These new procedures extend grounded theory, providing…

McCaslin, Mark L.; Scott, Karen Wilson

104

Temporal and Spatial Melanoma Trends in Austria: An Ecological Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Annual solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR is mostly determined by latitude and altitude. Over the last decades, increasing UVR ground levels have been observed. Exposure to UVR is associated with a life-time risk to develop melanoma, a malign skin cancer. Thus, we hypothesized that melanoma incidence in Austria is associated with altitude of place of living and time of diagnosis. We investigated this hypothesis in an ecological study by district and year for Austrian melanoma incidence (1990–2010 and mortality (1970–2011 data. As expected, incidence rates increased with altitude (about 2% per 10 m and year (about 2%. Additionally, melanoma incidence rates were about 50% higher in urban than in rural districts. In contrast, mortality rates decreased with altitude (for males: 0.4% per 10 m, for women: 0.7% per 10 m, respectively. The observed discrepancy between incidence and mortality data could partly be explained by melanoma diagnosis at earlier tumor stage in districts with higher altitude. Possible reasons for this finding include higher awareness of patients, better diagnostic performance of medical professionals working at higher altitudes, or slower tumor growth due to protective effects of sun light-associated vitamin D synthesis.

Daniela Haluza

2014-01-01

105

An ecologic study of dietary links to prostate cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: The etiology of prostate cancer has not been fully resolved in the scientific and medical literature, although the non-fat portion of milk and calcium are emerging as leading dietary risk factors, with lycopene (found in tomatoes) and vitamin D apparently being risk reduction factors. METHODS: The ecologic (multi-country statistical) approach is used to study dietary links to prostate cancer. Mortality data from 1986 for various age groups in 41 countries are compared with national consumer macronutrient supply values for 1983 and tomato supply values for 1985. RESULTS: For 28 countries with more than five Kcal/day of tomatoes in the consumer supply, a linear combination of non-fat milk (risk factor) and tomatoes (risk reduction factor) was found to have the highest statistical association with prostate cancer mortality rates for men over the age of 35, with the Pearson regression coefficient (R2) for those aged 65-74 years = 0.67 and p prostate cancer mortality rates (R2 = 0.73, p prostate cancer, likely due to the calcium, and tomatoes to reduce the risk of prostate cancer, most likely due to lycopene.

Grant, W. B.

1999-01-01

106

Integrating Humans into Ecology: Opportunities and Challenges for Studying Urban Ecosystems  

Science.gov (United States)

This peer-reviewed resource from BioScience is about the effects of urbanization on ecosystems. Our central paradigm for urban ecology is that cities are emergent phenomena of local-scale, dynamic interactions among socioeconomic and biophysical forces. These complex interactions give rise to a distinctive ecology and to distinctive ecological forcing functions. Separately, both the natural and the social sciences have adopted complex system theory to study emergent phenomena, but attempts to integrate the natural and social sciences to understand human-dominated systems remain reductionist--these disciplines generally study humans and ecological processes as separate phenomena. Here we argue that if the natural and social sciences remain within their separate domains, they cannot explain how human-dominated ecosystems emerge from interactions between humans and ecological processes. We propose an integrated framework to test formal hypotheses about how human-dominated ecosystems evolve from those interactions.

MARINA ALBERTI, JOHN M. MARZLUFF, ERIC SHULENBERGER, GORDON BRADLEY, CLARE RYAN, and CRAIG ZUMBRUNNEN (; )

2003-12-01

107

Study on remote sensing method for drawing up and utilizing ecological and natural map II; concentrated on drawing up a plant ecological classification map  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following with the flows of the environmental conservation, Korea has revised the law of natural environmental conservation. In this law, it has suggested to draw up an ecological nature figure for efficient preservation and utilization of a country. To draw up an ecological nature figure, it requires several evaluating factors. Among them, a plant ecological classification is a very important evaluating factor since it can evaluate a habitation area of natural organisms. This study investigated a drawing up method of plant ecological classification using satellite image data. However the limit of satellite image data and the quality of required plant ecological classification are not quite matched but if the satellite image data and the infrared color aerial photograph are mixed, it can be expected to have an excellent quality of plant ecological classification. 85 refs., 86 figs., 45 tabs.

Jeon, Seong Woo; Chung, Hwui Chul [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

1999-12-01

108

Geographic-based ecological correlation studies using supplemental case-control data.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well known that the ecological study design suffers from a variety of biases that render the interpretation of its results difficult. Despite its limitations, however, the ecological study design is still widely used in a range of disciplines. The only solution to the ecological inference problem is to supplement the aggregate data with individual-level data and, to this end, Haneuse and Wakefield (Biometrics 2007; 63:128-136) recently proposed a hybrid study design in which an ecological study is supplemented with a sample of case-control data. The latter provides the basis for the control of bias, while the former may provide efficiency gains. Building on that work, we illustrate the use of the hybrid design in the context of a geographical correlation study of lung cancer mortality from the state of Ohio. Focusing on epidemiological applications, we initially provide an overview of the use of ecological studies in scientific research, highlighting the breadth of current application as well as advantages and drawbacks of the design. We consider the interplay between the two sources of information in the design: ecological and case-control, and then provide details on a Bayesian spatial random effects model in the setting of the hybrid design. Issues of specification are addressed, as well as sensitivity to modeling assumptions. Further, an interesting feature of these data is that they provide an example of how the proposed design may be used to resolve the ecological fallacy. PMID:17624917

Haneuse, S; Wakefield, J

2008-03-15

109

HER2/ErbB2 activates HSF1 and thereby controls HSP90 clients including MIF in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) in breast cancer strongly correlates with aggressive tumors and poor prognosis. Recently, a positive correlation between HER2 and MIF (macrophage migration inhibitory factor, a tumor-promoting protein and heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) client) protein levels was shown in cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanistic link remained unknown. Here we show that overexpressed HER2 constitutively activates heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1), the master transcriptional regulator of the inducible proteotoxic stress response of heat-shock chaperones, including HSP90, and a crucial factor in initiation and maintenance of the malignant state. Inhibiting HER2 pharmacologically by Lapatinib (a dual HER2/epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor) or CP724.714 (a specific HER2 inhibitor), or by knockdown via siRNA leads to inhibition of phosphoactivated Ser326 HSF1, and subsequently blocks the activity of the HSP90 chaperone machinery in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer lines. Consequently, HSP90 clients, including MIF, AKT, mutant p53 and HSF1 itself, become destabilized, which in turn inhibits tumor proliferation. Mechanistically, HER2 signals via the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT- mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) axis to induce activated pSer326 HSF1. Heat-shock stress experiments confirm this functional link between HER2 and HSF1, as HER2 (and PI3K) inhibition attenuate the HSF1-mediated heat-shock response. Importantly, we confirmed this axis in vivo. In the mouse model of HER2-driven breast cancer, ErbB2 inhibition by Lapatinib strongly suppresses tumor progression, and this is associated with inactivation of the HSF1 pathway. Moreover, ErbB2-overexpressing cancer cells derived from a primary mouse ErbB2 tumor also show HSF1 inactivation and HSP90 client destabilization in response to ErbB2 inhibition. Furthermore, in HER2-positive human breast cancers HER2 levels strongly correlate with pSer326 HSF1 activity. Our results show for the first time that HER2/ErbB2 overexpression controls HSF1 activity, with subsequent stabilization of numerous tumor-promoting HSP90 clients such as MIF, AKT and HSF1 itself, thereby causing a robust promotion in tumor growth in HER2-positive breast cancer. PMID:24384723

Schulz, R; Streller, F; Scheel, A H; Rüschoff, J; Reinert, M-C; Dobbelstein, M; Marchenko, N D; Moll, U M

2014-01-01

110

Hsp90 Orchestrates Transcriptional Regulation by Hsf1 and Cell Wall Remodelling by MAPK Signalling during Thermal Adaptation in a Pathogenic Yeast  

OpenAIRE

Thermal adaptation is essential in all organisms. In yeasts, the heat shock response is commanded by the heat shock transcription factor Hsf1. Here we have integrated unbiased genetic screens with directed molecular dissection to demonstrate that multiple signalling cascades contribute to thermal adaptation in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. We show that the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) interacts with and down-regulates Hsf1 thereby modulating short term thermal ad...

Leach, Michelle D.; Budge, Susan; Walker, Louise; Munro, Carol; Cowen, Leah E.; Brown, Alistair J. P.

2012-01-01

111

Heat-shock transcription factor HSF1 has a critical role in human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-induced cellular transformation and tumorigenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The heat-shock transcription factor HSF1 was recently shown to have a key role in the development of tumors associated with activation of Ras or inactivation of p53. Here, we show that HSF1 is required for the cell transformation and tumorigenesis induced by the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) oncogene responsible for aggressive breast tumors. Upon expression of HER2, untransformed human mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells underwent neoplastic transformation, formed foci in culture and tumors in nude mouse xenografts. However, expression of HER2 in MCF-10A cells with knockdown of HSF1 did not cause either foci formation or tumor growth in xenografts. The antitumorigenic effect of downregulation of HSF1 was associated with HER2-induced accumulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and decrease in the mitotic regulator survivin, which resulted in growth inhibition and cell senescence. In fact, either knockout of p21 or overexpression of survivin alleviated these effects of HSF1 knockdown. The proliferation of certain human HER2-positive breast cancer lines also requires HSF1, as its knockdown led to upregulation of p21 and/or decrease in survivin, precipitating growth arrest. Similar effects were observed with a small-molecular-weight inhibitor of the heat-shock response NZ28. The effects of HSF1 knockdown on the growth arrest and senescence of HER2-expressing cells were associated with downregulation of heat-shock protein (Hsp)72 and Hsp27. Therefore, HSF1 is critical for proliferation of HER2-expressing cells, most likely because it maintains the levels of HSPs, which in turn control regulators of senescence p21 and survivin. PMID:20622894

Meng, L; Gabai, V L; Sherman, M Y

2010-09-16

112

Heat shock instructs hESCs to exit from the self-renewal program through negative regulation of OCT4 by SAPK/JNK and HSF1 pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental factors affect self-renewal of stem cells by modulating the components of self-renewal networks. Heat shock, an environmental factor, induces heat shock factors (HSFs), which up-regulate stress response-related genes. However, the link of heat shock to self-renewal of stem cells has not been elucidated yet. Here, we present the direct link of heat shock to a core stem cell regulator, OCT4, in the self-renewal network through SAPK/JNK and HSF1 pathway. We first showed that heat shock initiated differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Gene expression analysis revealed that heat shock increased the expression of many genes involved in cellular processes related to differentiation of stem cells. We then examined the effects of HSFs induced by heat shock on core self-renewal factors. Among HSFs, heat shock induced mainly HSF1 in hESCs. The HSF1 repressed the expression of OCT4, leading to the differentiation of hESCs and the above differentiation-related gene expression change. We further examined the effects of the upstream MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinases of HSF1 on the repression of OCT4 expression by HSF1. Among the MAP kinases, SAPK/JNK controlled predominantly the repression of the OCT4 expression by HSF1. The direct link of heat shock to the core self-renewal regulator through SAPK/JNK and HSF1 provides a fundamental basis for understanding the effect of heat and other stresses involving activation of HSF1 on the self-renewal program and further controlling differentiation of hESCs in a broad spectrum of stem cell applications using these stresses. PMID:24090933

Byun, Kyunghee; Kim, Taek-Kyun; Oh, Jeehyun; Bayarsaikhan, Enkhjargal; Kim, Daesik; Lee, Min Young; Pack, Chan-Gi; Hwang, Daehee; Lee, Bonghee

2013-11-01

113

The Effect of Inappropriate Calibration: Three Case Studies in Molecular Ecology  

OpenAIRE

Time-scales estimated from sequence data play an important role in molecular ecology. They can be used to draw correlations between evolutionary and palaeoclimatic events, to measure the tempo of speciation, and to study the demographic history of an endangered species. In all of these studies, it is paramount to have accurate estimates of time-scales and substitution rates. Molecular ecological studies typically focus on intraspecific data that have evolved on genealogical scales, but often ...

Ho, Simon Y. W.; Saarma, Urmas; Barnett, Ross; Haile, James; Shapiro, Beth

2008-01-01

114

Investigating ecological speciation in non-model organisms : a case study on killer whale ecotypes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Studies of ecological speciation tend to focus on a few model biological systems. In contrast, few studies on non-model organisms have been able to infer ecological speciation as the underlying mechanism of evolutionary divergence. Questions: What are the pitfalls in studying ecological speciation in non-model organisms that lead to this bias? What alternative approaches might redress the balance? Organism: Genetically differentiated types of the killer whale (Orcinus orca) exhibiting differences in prey preference, habitat use, morphology, and behaviour. Methods: Review of the literature on killer whale evolutionary ecology in search of any difficulty in demonstrating causal links between variation in phenotype, ecology, and reproductive isolation in this non-model organism. Results: At present, we do not have enough evidence to conclude that adaptive phenotype traits linked to ecological variation underlie reproductive isolation between sympatric killer whale types. Perhaps ecological speciation has occurred, but it is hard to prove. We will probably face this outcome whenever we wish to address non-model organisms – species in which it is not easy to apply experimental approaches and comparative studies among multiple taxon pairs. We need new genomic approaches that identify genes under selection and then link alleles to phenotypic differences and reproductive isolation.

Foote, Andrew David

2012-01-01

115

Site-Specific ecological risk assessment. Case-study 2  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The decision supporting and integrating assessment tool, TRIAD, is used site-specific on PAH- and heavy metal contaminated sites in Denmark. The various aspects of the TRIAD approach are used on a set of chemistry-, ecotoxicology- and ecology related data collected among others in the EU project “Development of a decision support system for sustainable management of contaminated land by linking bioavailability, ecological risk and ground water pollution of organic pollutants”or in short “LIBERATION”. The presentation includes examples on how to scale and integrate the results from various scientific disciplines.

Jensen, John

116

Ecological responses to contamination: a meta-analysis of experimental marine studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identifying general response patterns to contamination in the environment is critical for reliable assessments of ecosystem health. However, it is not often clear if there are biases in the information used to understand general effects of contamination. To investigate this we conducted a review of 314 studies that experimentally manipulated contaminants and measured the effects on marine invertebrate taxa. The majority of studies investigated the effects of metals (54%) on individual taxa (mainly bivalves, amphipods, copepods). Ecologically relevant responses to contamination were measured in only 22% of the studies. A meta-analysis using studies that measured ecological responses to copper illustrated a general negative effect of copper and highlighted the bias towards field or laboratory experiments that measure community or individual-level responses. There is a need for diversification of studies that investigate the ecological effects of contamination as an important advancement in ecotoxicology and ecological research and environmentally relevant risk assessments. PMID:25247875

O'Brien, Allyson L; Keough, Michael J

2014-12-01

117

FUNCTIONAL FOODS: AWARENESS AND ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY (A STUDY ON YOUNG EDUCATED WOMEN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Functional foods are food imparting specific health-enhancing and disease-curing benefits beyond basic nutritional needs. To reach at a level of sustainable ecology, it is important to establish a balance between production and consumption processes which could be achieved by an increased demand, commercial viability and continuous supply for these foods. Thus our study aimed at, not only to study functional foods and their ecological sustainability but also to seek awareness of our subject about these foods. Women if informed would propagate their knowledge in the society by ‘word of mouth’ and influence it to accept these foods and maintain balanced food ecology.

Zeba Sarmad* Saba Khan and Mohammed Ali Khan

2015-01-01

118

Strengthening Industrial Ecology’s Links with Business Studies: Insights and Potential Contributions from the Innovation and Business Models Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The declining availability of natural resources and the environmental impacts of continued extraction of primary resources for production activities have forced greater focus on waste streams and recycling activities. Industrial ecology as a field of practice and theory has been closely related to sustainability issues, yet despite the development of much theory and specific tools and methodologies, the link between natural, industrial and economic systems is not convincing. Not only that, the need for delivering sustainable production and consumption practices is increasing, which is demanding new solutions to existing problems, particularly around the degree of novelty. The interaction of industrial ecology with business studies and industrial investment decision-making remains under-developed, and this is likely impacting on the adoption of more sustainable and resource-efficient practices. As such, this paper uses a constructive approach and explores how two areas of the literature can support the development of the industrial ecology field into strategic business practice: firstly, the innovation literature, particularly the emerging work on open innovation and sustainable innovation as a model to understand radical innovation processes and the creation and maintenance of networked systems of firms; secondly, the closely related area of business model (BM innovation, specifically the emerging typologies of sustainable BMs and how these typologies can be developed and used as a route to positioning recycling activities at the strategic management level of the firm.

Samantha Sharpe

2014-03-01

119

STABLE ISOTOPES IN ECOLOGICAL STUDIES: NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN MIXING MODELS (BRAZIL)  

Science.gov (United States)

Stable isotopes are increasingly being used as tracers in ecological studies. One application uses isotopic ratios to quantify the proportional contributions of multiple sources to a mixture. Examples include pollution sources for air or water bodies, food sources for animals, ...

120

Supercharged Snails for Stream Ecology & Water-Quality Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Gill-breathing freshwater snails (Family "Pleuroceridae") are ecologically important, abundant in many streams in the United States, and easy to collect and maintain under classroom conditions. These snails can be used in classroom tests to demonstrate effects of pollutants on aquatic organisms. In more advanced classes, students can cage the…

Stewart, Arthur J.; Ryon, Michael G.

2003-01-01

121

Application of photonuclear methods of analysis in biology, medicine, ecological studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Examples of application of photonuclear methods of analysis (PhMA) of the substance composition in biology, medicine, ecology are considered. The methods for determining the element composition of soft and bone tissues, blood, urine are developed. The results of studying the limits of determination of different elements are presented. In ecological investigations PhMA is applied for studying the composition of atmospheric aerosols, industrial sewage, canalization wastes, pollution of soil, plants, animals with toxic elements

122

Ecology of Urban Bees: A Review of Current Knowledge and Directions for Future Study  

OpenAIRE

Urban bee ecology is an emerging field that holds promise for advancing knowledge of bee community dynamics and promoting bee conservation. Published studies of bee communities in urban and suburban habitats are fewer than those documenting bees in agricultural and wildland settings. As land lost to urbanization is predicted to increase in coming years the necessity of studying urban bee populations is growing. We reviewed 59 publications on urban bee ecology with the following goals, to asse...

Frankie, Gordon W.; Hernandez, Jennifer L.; Thorp, Robbin W.

2009-01-01

123

Beyond Urban Legends: An Emerging Framework of Urban Ecology, as Illustrated by the Baltimore Ecosystem Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The emerging discipline of urban ecology is shifting focus from ecological processes embedded within cities to integrative studies of large urban areas as biophysical-social complexes. Yet this discipline lacks a theory. Results from the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, part of the Long Term Ecological Research Network, expose new assumptions and test existing assumptions about urban ecosystems. The findings suggest a broader range of structural and functional relationships than is often assumed for urban ecological systems. We address the relationships between social status and awareness of environmental problems, and between race and environmental hazard. We present patterns of species diversity, riparian function, and stream nitrate loading. In addition, we probe the suitability of land-use models, the diversity of soils, and the potential for urban carbon sequestration. Finally, we illustrate lags between social patterns and vegetation, the biogeochemistry of lawns, ecosystem nutrient retention, and social-biophysical feedbacks. These results suggest a framework for a theory of urban ecosystems.

Steward T. A. Pickett (Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies; )

2008-02-01

124

Ecological Niche Transferability Using Invasive Species as a Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Species distribution modeling is widely applied to predict invasive species distributions and species range shifts under climate change. Accurate predictions depend upon meeting the assumption that ecological niches are conserved, i.e., spatially or temporally transferable. Here we present a multi-taxon comparative analysis of niche conservatism using biological invasion events well documented in natural history museum collections. Our goal is to assess spatial transferability of the climatic niche of a range of noxious terrestrial invasive species using two complementary approaches. First we compare species’ native versus invasive ranges in environmental space using two distinct methods, Principal Components Analysis and Mahalanobis distance. Second we compare species’ native versus invaded ranges in geographic space as estimated using the species distribution modeling technique Maxent and the comparative index Hellinger’s I. We find that species exhibit a range of responses, from almost complete transferability, in which the invaded niches completely overlap with the native niches, to a complete dissociation between native and invaded ranges. Intermediate responses included expansion of dimension attributable to either temperature or precipitation derived variables, as well as niche expansion in multiple dimensions. We conclude that the ecological niche in the native range is generally a poor predictor of invaded range and, by analogy, the ecological niche may be a poor predictor of range shifts under climate change. We suggest that assessing dimensions of niche transferability prior to standard species distribution modeling may improve the understanding of species’ dynamics in the invaded range. PMID:25785858

Fernández, Miguel; Hamilton, Healy

2015-01-01

125

Studies on marine oil spills and their ecological damage  

Science.gov (United States)

The sources of marine oil spills are mainly from accidents of marine oil tankers or freighters, marine oil-drilling platforms, marine oil pipelines, marine oilfields, terrestrial pollution, oil-bearing atmosphere, and offshore oil production equipment. It is concluded upon analysis that there are two main reasons for marine oil spills: (I) The motive for huge economic benefits of oil industry owners and oil shipping agents far surpasses their sense of ecological risks. (II) Marine ecological safety has not become the main concern of national security. Oil spills are disasters because humans spare no efforts to get economic benefits from oil. The present paper draws another conclusion that marine ecological damage caused by oil spills can be roughly divided into two categories: damage to marine resource value (direct value) and damage to marine ecosystem service value (indirect value). Marine oil spills cause damage to marine biological, fishery, seawater, tourism and mineral resources to various extents, which contributes to the lower quality and value of marine resources.

Mei, Hong; Yin, Yanjie

2009-09-01

126

Environmental and behavioural determinants of geographic variation in coronary heart disease in England: an ecological study  

OpenAIRE

Coronary heart disease rates show substantial geographic variation in England, which could be due to environmental variables (e.g. climate, air quality) or behavioural risk factors for coronary heart disease within populations. Previous work investigating this geographic variation has either used ecological analysis (i.e. areas as units of observation) or individual-level analysis. Ecological studies have been unable to account adequately for differences in behavioural risk factors within pop...

Scarborough, Peter D.; Goldacre, Michael; Rayner, Mike; Allender, Steven

2009-01-01

127

A novel HSF4 gene mutation (p.R405X causing autosomal recessive congenital cataracts in a large consanguineous family from Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary cataracts are most frequently inherited as autosomal dominant traits, but can also be inherited in an autosomal recessive or X-linked fashion. To date, 12 loci for autosomal recessive cataracts have been mapped including a locus on chromosome 16q22 containing the disease-causing gene HSF4 (Genbank accession number NM_001040667. Here, we describe a family from Pakistan with the first nonsense mutation in HSF4 thus expanding the mutational spectrum of this heat shock transcription factor gene. Methods A large consanguineous Pakistani family with autosomal recessive cataracts was collected from Quetta. Genetic linkage analysis was performed for the common known autosomal recessive cataracts loci and linkage to a locus containing HSF4 (OMIM 602438 was found. All exons and adjacent splice sites of the heat shock transcription factor 4 gene (HSF4 were sequenced. A mutation-specific restriction enzyme digest (HphI was performed for all family members and unrelated controls. Results The disease phenotype perfectly co-segregated with markers flanking the known cataract gene HSF4, whereas other autosomal recessive loci were excluded. A maximum two-point LOD score with a Zmax = 5.6 at ? = 0 was obtained for D16S421. Direct sequencing of HSF4 revealed the nucleotide exchange c.1213C > T in this family predicting an arginine to stop codon exchange (p.R405X. Conclusion We identified the first nonsense mutation (p.R405X in exon 11 of HSF4 in a large consanguineous Pakistani family with autosomal recessive cataract.

Cheema Abdul

2008-11-01

128

Ecological risk assessment guidance for preparation of remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial assessment investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfired Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), an RI/FS work plan win have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping the process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites. An overview analysis of early ecological risk assessment methods (i.e., in the 1980s) at Superfund sites was conducted by the EPA (1989a). That review provided a perspective of attention given to ecological issues in some of the first RI/FS studies. By itself, that reference is of somewhat limited value; it does, however, establish a basis for comparison of past practices in ecological risk with current, more refined methods

129

Ecological risk assessment guidance for preparation of remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial assessment investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfired Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), an RI/FS work plan win have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping the process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites. An overview analysis of early ecological risk assessment methods (i.e., in the 1980s) at Superfund sites was conducted by the EPA (1989a). That review provided a perspective of attention given to ecological issues in some of the first RI/FS studies. By itself, that reference is of somewhat limited value; it does, however, establish a basis for comparison of past practices in ecological risk with current, more refined methods.

Pentecost, E.D.; Vinikour, W.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-08-01

130

Study on the Capability Construction of Wetland Community Ecological Tourism Participation– The Case of Luoshijiang Wetland in Dali  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wetland ecological tourism is a sustainable traveling form. Community participation is an important part of the development of wetland ecological tourism, while high-quality ecological tourism participation requires certain quality and professional skills among wetland farmers. The study chooses Luoshijiang Wetland Community as the example and elaborates on the contents of wetland community’s ability of ecological tourism, periodical arrangements, organization and implementation and so on based on the current situation of the community. Besides, the study is of great importance to enable villagers to take part in the development of tourism smoothly in the wetland community, realize farmers’ active maintenance of the wetland’s ecological environment, inheritance and development of the wetland community’s internal culture, and promote the double sustainability of wetland’s ecological environmental protection and ecological tourism.

Mingqiang Lu

2015-02-01

131

Political Cultural Ecology and the Study of Regions in Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper shows why Cultural Ecology, understood as a method to explore the relationships between the environment and cultural processes, has deeply influenced a whole generation of Mexican anthropologists as a result of the teachings of Ángel Palerm and Eric Wolf. The practical application of Steward’s theories to the processes of Mexican regional formation, linked to the use of hydraulic technologies as part of both adaptative cultural strategies and the political control of water in the process of food production, shows that Cultural Ecology, understood as cultural management of natural environments, as it happens with Economy, is designed and politically manipulated in the context of deeply unequal societies with unadaptative consequences.

El artículo muestra por qué la ecología cultural, entendida como un método para indagar en las relaciones entre el medio ambiente y los procesos culturales ha arraigado en una generación de antropólogos mexicanos como consecuencia del magisterio de Ángel Palerm y Eric Wolf. La aplicación práctica de las teorías de Steward a los procesos de formación regional mexicana vinculados a usos políticos de tecnologías hidráulicas como parte, tanto de estrategias culturales de adaptación como de control político del agua en el proceso de producción de alimentos, ha puesto de manifiesto que la ecología cultural, entendida como manejo cultural de entornos naturales, al igual que la economía, es diseñada y manejada políticamente en el contexto de sociedades profundamente desiguales con consecuencias maladaptantes.

Fábregas Puig, Andrés

2009-06-01

132

Ecological optimization and performance study of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat engines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concept of finite time thermodynamics is used to determine the ecological function of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat engine cycles. The ecological function is defined as the power output minus power loss (irreversibility), which is the ambient temperature times, the entropy generation rate. The ecological function is maximized with respect to cycle temperature ratio and the expressions for the corresponding power output and thermal efficiency are derived at the optimal operating conditions. The effect of different operating parameters, the effectiveness on the hot, cold and the regenerative side heat exchangers, the cycle temperature ratio, heat capacitance ratio and the internal irreversibility parameter on the maximum ecological function are studied. It is found that the effect of regenerator effectiveness is more than the hot and cold side heat exchangers and the effect of the effectiveness on cold side heat exchanger is more than the effectiveness on the hot side heat exchanger on the maximum ecological function. It is also found that the effect of internal irreversibility parameter is more than the other parameters not only on the maximum ecological function but also on the corresponding power output and the thermal efficiency

133

Ecological studies on the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) on the Savannah River Plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is the largest vertebrate of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), reaching a maximum length of 3.7 meters (12 feet) and weighing up to 175 kg (385 pounds). Currently, populations in coastal South Carolina are considered Threatened, whereas populations in inland areas (such as the SRP) are still Endangered. Because of their legal status and economic and ecological importance, it is important to determine the environmental impacts of SRP operations on the local alligator population. The major objectives under the Endangered Species Program of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) were as follows: (1) document and compare the present status and distribution of alligators on the SRP to previous surveys, in order to determine long-term changes in population abundance; (2) establish baseline population and ecological parameters of the Steel Creek population so that the ecological effects of L-Reactor operations can be determined, and (3) conduct ecological research on the immediate impacts of thermal effluents on American alligators. Gladden et al., (1985) summarized data on previous population surveys, temporal changes in the Par Pond population, preliminary results of the Steel Creek surveys and Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) research on the effects of thermal effluents. This report summarizes the current status of the SRP population, presents data on the abundance, movement patterns and activity cycles of the Steel Creek population, and presents additional data on the effect of cooling water releases on alligator ecology and behavior.

Seigel, R.A.; Brandt, L.A.; Knight, J.L.; Novak, S.S.

1986-06-01

134

Use of residence time models in ecological studies of transuranics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses the applicability of different types of ecological models. An explanation of the various concepts and the basis for residence time models and how they are correlated is presented. Mean residence time and pseudo residence time are terms useful for more complicated systems. The term chromatography defines a conceptual model, but the processes involved are limited to diffusion, dispersion, convection, adsorption and desorption. The most sophisticated type of models are the simulation models. Regression equations are used to calculate the transfer between pools of simulation models. However, simulation models consider processes in great detail and processes are described by appropriate equations. Lack of useful parameter values in the main limitation for applying such models. Their main value is in promoting understanding of radioecological processes and in identifying missing information. (author)

135

The analysis of plant growth in ecological and evolutionary studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant growth rate is often assumed to be an ecologically important life history trait. However, conventional plant growth analysis, while providing a useful accounting of rates of weight gain and its components, is ill-suited for testing relationships between growth and fitness, particularly in natural populations. Two new approaches that are suitable for testing such relationships have evolved over the past several years. The first - the population biology of plant parts, or 'modular demography' - permits non-destructive measures of growth rate in natural field populations. When modular demography is performed using matrix population models, controls over growth rate can be examined, as well as consequences of growth variation for reproduction. The second - demographic growth analysis - provides growth parameters analogous to those of conventional growth analysis, but can be performed in natural field populations. Demographic growth analysis allows measures of individual growth-rate variation, which, in turn, can be related to plant performance. PMID:21232366

McGraw, J B; Garbutt, K

1990-08-01

136

Ecological forecasting under climatic data uncertainty: a case study in phenological modeling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forecasting ecological responses to climate change represents a challenge to the ecological community because models are often site-specific and climate data are lacking at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. We use a case study approach to demonstrate uncertainties in ecological predictions related to the driving climatic input data. We use observational records, derived observational datasets (e.g. interpolated observations from local weather stations and gridded data products) and output from general circulation models (GCM) in conjunction with site based phenology models to estimate the first flowering date (FFD) for three woody flowering species. Using derived observations over the modern time period, we find that cold biases and temperature trends lead to biased FFD simulations for all three species. Observational datasets resolved at the daily time step result in better FFD predictions compared to simulations using monthly resolution. Simulations using output from an ensemble of GCM and regional climate models over modern and future time periods have large intra-ensemble spreads and tend to underestimate observed FFD trends for the modern period. These results indicate that certain forcing datasets may be missing key features needed to generate accurate hindcasts at the local scale (e.g. trends, temporal resolution), and that standard modeling techniques (e.g. downscaling, ensemble mean, etc) may not necessarily improve the prediction of the ecologicaly improve the prediction of the ecological response. Studies attempting to simulate local ecological processes under modern and future climate forcing therefore need to quantify and propagate the climate data uncertainties in their simulations.

137

Ecological forecasting under climatic data uncertainty: a case study in phenological modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Forecasting ecological responses to climate change represents a challenge to the ecological community because models are often site-specific and climate data are lacking at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. We use a case study approach to demonstrate uncertainties in ecological predictions related to the driving climatic input data. We use observational records, derived observational datasets (e.g. interpolated observations from local weather stations and gridded data products) and output from general circulation models (GCM) in conjunction with site based phenology models to estimate the first flowering date (FFD) for three woody flowering species. Using derived observations over the modern time period, we find that cold biases and temperature trends lead to biased FFD simulations for all three species. Observational datasets resolved at the daily time step result in better FFD predictions compared to simulations using monthly resolution. Simulations using output from an ensemble of GCM and regional climate models over modern and future time periods have large intra-ensemble spreads and tend to underestimate observed FFD trends for the modern period. These results indicate that certain forcing datasets may be missing key features needed to generate accurate hindcasts at the local scale (e.g. trends, temporal resolution), and that standard modeling techniques (e.g. downscaling, ensemble mean, etc) may not necessarily improve the prediction of the ecological response. Studies attempting to simulate local ecological processes under modern and future climate forcing therefore need to quantify and propagate the climate data uncertainties in their simulations.

Cook, Benjamin I [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025 (United States); Terando, Adam [Biodiversity and Spatial Information Center, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7617 (United States); Steiner, Allison, E-mail: bc9z@ldeo.columbia.edu, E-mail: ajterand@ncsu.edu, E-mail: alsteiner@umich.edu [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States)

2010-10-15

138

Ecological optimization and parametric study of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat pumps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This communication presents the ecological optimization and parametric study of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat pump cycles, in which the external irreversibility is due to finite temperature difference between working fluid and external reservoirs while the internal irreversibilities are due to regenerative heat loss and other entropy generations within the cycle. The ecological function is defined as the heating load minus the irreversibility (power loss) which is ambient temperature times the entropy generation. The ecological function is optimized with respect to working fluid temperatures, and the expressions for various parameters at the optimal operating condition are obtained. The effects of different operating parameters on the performance of these cycles have been studied. It is found that the effect of internal irreversibility parameter is more pronounced than the other parameters on the performance of these cycles. (author)

139

Estimating survival rates in ecological studies with small unbalanced sample sizes: an alternative Bayesian point estimator  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasingly, the survival rates in experimental ecology are presented using odds ratios or log response ratios, but the use of ratio metrics has a problem when all the individuals have either died or survived in only one replicate. In the empirical ecological literature, the problem often has been ignored or circumvented by different, more or less ad hoc approaches. Here, it is argued that the best summary statistic for communicating ecological results of frequency data in studies with small unbalanced samples may be the mean of the posterior distribution of the survival rate. The developed approach may be particularly useful when effect size indexes, such as odds ratios, are needed to compare frequency data between treatments, sites or studies.

Christian Damgaard

2011-12-01

140

Heat shock protein hsp70 accelerates the recovery of heat-shocked mammalian cells through its modulation of heat shock transcription factor HSF1.  

OpenAIRE

The role of mammalian 70-kDa heat shock protein (hsp70) in regulating cellular response to heat shock was examined by using three closely related rat cells: control Rat-1 cells, thermotolerant Rat-1 (TT Rat-1) cells, and heat-resistant M21 cells, a derivative of Rat-1 cells that constitutively overexpress human hsp70. In all these cells, after a prescribed heat shock, the level of the phosphorylated form of heat shock transcription factor HSF1 and that of HSF1 capable of binding to its cognit...

Kim, D.; Ouyang, H.; Li, G. C.

1995-01-01

141

The Skn7 Response Regulator of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Interacts with Hsf1 In Vivo and Is Required for the Induction of Heat Shock Genes by Oxidative Stress  

OpenAIRE

The Skn7 response regulator has previously been shown to play a role in the induction of stress-responsive genes in yeast, e.g., in the induction of the thioredoxin gene in response to hydrogen peroxide. The yeast Heat Shock Factor, Hsf1, is central to the induction of another set of stress-inducible genes, namely the heat shock genes. These two regulatory trans-activators, Hsf1 and Skn7, share certain structural homologies, particularly in their DNA-binding domains and the presence of adjace...

Raitt, Desmond C.; Johnson, Anthony L.; Erkine, Alexander M.; Makino, Kozo; Morgan, Brian; Gross, David S.; Johnston, Leland H.

2000-01-01

142

Ecological studies on the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) on the Savannah River Plant. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study: Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is the largest vertebrate of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), reaching a maximum length of 3.7 meters (12 feet) and weighing up to 175 kg (385 pounds). Currently, populations in coastal South Carolina are considered Threatened, whereas populations in inland areas (such as the SRP) are still Endangered. Because of their legal status and economic and ecological importance, it is important to determine the environmental impacts of SRP operations on the local alligator population. The major objectives under the Endangered Species Program of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) were as follows: (1) document and compare the present status and distribution of alligators on the SRP to previous surveys, in order to determine long-term changes in population abundance; (2) establish baseline population and ecological parameters of the Steel Creek population so that the ecological effects of L-Reactor operations can be determined, and (3) conduct ecological research on the immediate impacts of thermal effluents on American alligators. Gladden et al., (1985) summarized data on previous population surveys, temporal changes in the Par Pond population, preliminary results of the Steel Creek surveys and Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) research on the effects of thermal effluents. This report summarizes the current status of the SRP population, presents data on the abundance, movement patterns and activity cycles of the Steel Creek population, and presents additional data on the effect of cooling water releases on alligator ecology and behavior.

Seigel, R.A.; Brandt, L.A.; Knight, J.L.; Novak, S.S.

1986-06-01

143

Case study of ecological risk assessment at an Alaska airport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ecological risk assessment was conducted for 10 sites at a remote location that has unique biological resources. Chemicals of concern included petroleum, metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, and dioxins and furans. Risks to 23 species of mammals and birds were evaluated by using toxicity reference values and a hazard quotient approach analogous to the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) approach for evaluating noncarcinogenic human health effects. Risks to fish and aquatic invertebrates were evaluated using risk-based concentrations for water analogous to the USEPA's water quality criteria. Risks to plants were evaluated using risk-based concentrations for soil. Toxicity reference values and risk-based concentrations were developed by applying uncertainty factors to the highest quality toxicity data available in the literature. Intake rates for wildlife were obtained from the USEPA's wildlife exposure factors handbook, or were estimated using allometric equations. The sizes of wildlife home ranges were compared with the size of each site to determine species- and site-specific exposure frequencies. Indicator chemicals were selected to represent the chemical and toxicological characteristics of petroleum fractions. The species most often at risk were found to be fish and aquatic invertebrates, as well as small-bodied, ground-dwelling or ground-feeding wildlife

144

Air pollution and case fatality of SARS in the People's Republic of China: an ecologic study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS has claimed 349 lives with 5,327 probable cases reported in mainland China since November 2002. SARS case fatality has varied across geographical areas, which might be partially explained by air pollution level. Methods Publicly accessible data on SARS morbidity and mortality were utilized in the data analysis. Air pollution was evaluated by air pollution index (API derived from the concentrations of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and ground-level ozone. Ecologic analysis was conducted to explore the association and correlation between air pollution and SARS case fatality via model fitting. Partially ecologic studies were performed to assess the effects of long-term and short-term exposures on the risk of dying from SARS. Results Ecologic analysis conducted among 5 regions with 100 or more SARS cases showed that case fatality rate increased with the increment of API (case fatality = - 0.063 + 0.001 * API. Partially ecologic study based on short-term exposure demonstrated that SARS patients from regions with moderate APIs had an 84% increased risk of dying from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs (RR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.41–2.40. Similarly, SARS patients from regions with high APIs were twice as likely to die from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs. (RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.31–3.65. Partially ecologic analysis based on long-term exposure to ambient air pollution showed the similar association. Conclusion Our studies demonstrated a positive association between air pollution and SARS case fatality in Chinese population by utilizing publicly accessible data on SARS statistics and air pollution indices. Although ecologic fallacy and uncontrolled confounding effect might have biased the results, the possibility of a detrimental effect of air pollution on the prognosis of SARS patients deserves further investigation.

Yu Shun-Zhang

2003-11-01

145

Incorporating ecological risk assessment into remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), and RI/FS work plan will have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites.

1994-06-01

146

Assessing Land Ecological Security Based on BP Neural Network: a Case Study of Hangzhou, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the increasing stress on the land ecology, the land eco-security suffers damage. In this paper, the BP neural network and PSR framework were adopted to establish the model for assessment of land eco-security, and an empirical study of assessing land eco-security in Hangzhou was done. The results show that the city center district is at serious land eco-security risk; Xiaoshan district and Yuhang district are at high land eco-security risk; and others counties (cities are at low risk or intermediate risk. In Hangzhou, although some measures are adopted to control the risk of land eco-security, the economic growth still has negative impact on the land ecology. The rapid industrialization and urbanization increase the risk of land eco-security. Therefore the policy constitutors should do something to strengthen the land ecology protection.

Heyuan You

2013-06-01

147

ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF RESTORATED TRADITIONAL SETTLEMENTS: A CASE STUDY IN KALE?Ç? (ANTALYA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Historical fabrics of the cities reflect the cultural backgrounds of the societies. For centuries in historical urban settlements formed via experiences the most appropriate structure type to the climatic conditions and the region, has been produced. With the industrial revolution, to be able to have more comfortable places in the settlement, fossil fuel based energy consumption began to be generally preferred. As a result, the ecological balance in the nature has begun to deteriorate in an irrevocable way. To find a solution for the situation, in ecological architecture and planning issues various ecological structure criteria is defined. Accordingly, buildings appropriate to the local and climatic characteristics are meant to be constructed besides the use of renewable energy sources and minimizing energy consumption. When historical city fabrics are analyzed in the ecological context, one can observe that these include sustainable structure characteristics. In order for the buildings to be renewed and restored in accordance with their original structures, great care should be given in terms of financial resource, manpower, material and control.Antalya Kaleiçi which was chosen as the working area was analyzed in terms of settlement structure, building form and structure cover, place organization, material choice, renewable, clean energy usage and water saving and usage and it was determined to have ecological, sustainable settlement characteristics. Traditional architecture samples which have been built by the people after trial and error for centuries and with the solutions appropriate to the climatic and environmental conditions are highly appropriate to the ecological design criteria as structures and settlements peculiar to the district. However the mistakes in the restoration of the buildings used for touristic aims after 1970s, adding of new necessary functions to the buildings, not taking care of the original structure and materials show that historical urban fabric of the city is faced with the danger of losing its ecological feature.In this study, Antalya-Kaleiçi historical urban settlement which was built in the context of the ecological design criteria and which has conventional houses that achieved to reach our day has been discussed. When houses with historical fabric which are experiencing a function shift to ensure sustainability in today's conditions are analyzed in terms of ecological design criteria, we will mention the sustainability of the criteria obtained in terms of availability and the problems faced with the restoration.

Hacer MUTLU DANACI

2011-12-01

148

Simulation of Regionally Ecological Land Based on a Cellular Automation Model: A Case Study of Beijing, China  

OpenAIRE

Ecological land is like the “liver” of a city and is very useful to public health. Ecological land change is a spatially dynamic non-linear process under the interaction between natural and anthropogenic factors at different scales. In this study, by setting up natural development scenario, object orientation scenario and ecosystem priority scenario, a Cellular Automation (CA) model has been established to simulate the evolution pattern of ecological land in Beijing in the year 2020. Unde...

Xiubin Li; Chih-Chun Kung; Yanting Zhang; Hualin Xie

2012-01-01

149

Compliance to a Cell Phone-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment Study: The Effect of Time and Personality Characteristics  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a method that is now widely used to study behavior and mood in the settings in which they naturally occur. It maximizes ecological validity and avoids the limitations of retrospective self-reports. Compliance patterns across time have not been studied. Consistent compliance patterns could lead to data not…

Courvoisier, Delphine S.; Eid, Michael; Lischetzke, Tanja

2012-01-01

150

Science and Ecological Economics: Integrating of the Study of Humans and the Rest of Nature  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological economics is a transdisciplinary field that seeks to integrate the study of humans and the rest of nature as the basis for the creation of a sustainable and desirable future. It seeks to dissolve the barriers between the traditional disciplines and achieve a true "consilience" of all the sciences and humanities. This consilient,…

Costanza, Robert

2009-01-01

151

Ecological bases for the forestry of the natural forest, Case study of the Catival (Prioretum copaiferae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A first development is presented for Colombia of the ecological bases for the forestry by means of the case study of the Catival consortium (prioretum copaiferae); recapturing the results of the investigations carried out for more of 16 years for the National Corporation of Investigation and Forestall Development-CONIF and the company Pizano adding the achievements of other investigations

152

Daily Emotional Dynamics in Depressed Youth: A Cell Phone Ecological Momentary Assessment Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This study used a new cell phone ecological momentary assessment approach to investigate daily emotional dynamics in 47 youths with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 32 no-psychopathology controls (CON) (ages 7-17 years). Information about emotional experience in the natural environment was obtained using answer-only cell phones, while MDD…

Silk, Jennifer S.; Forbes, Erika E.; Whalen, Diana J.; Jakubcak, Jennifer L.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Ryan, Neal D.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Dahl, Ronald E.

2011-01-01

153

[Ecological vulnerability of coal mining area: a case study of Shengli Coalfield in Xilinguole of Inner Mongolia, China].  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, an ecological vulnerability evaluation index system for the Shengli Coalfield in Xilinguole of Inner Mongolia was established, which included 16 factors in ecological sensitivity, natural and social pressure, and ecological recovery capacity, respectively. Based on the expert scoring method and analytic hierarchy process (AHP), an ecological vulnerability model was built for the calculation of the regional ecological vulnerability by means of RS and GIS spatial analysis. An analysis of the relationships between land use and ecological vulnerability was also made, and the results were tested by spatial auto-correlation analysis. Overall, the ecological vulnerability of the study area was at medium-high level. The exploitation of four opencast areas in the Coalfield caused a significant increase of ecological vulnerability. Moreover, due to the effects of mine drained water and human activities, the 300 -2000 m around the opencast areas was turning into higher ecologically fragile area. With further exploitation, the whole Coalfield was evolved into moderate and heavy ecological vulnerability area, and the coal resources mining was a key factor in this process. The cluster analysis showed that the spatial distribution of the ecological vulnerability in the study area had reasonable clustering characteristics. To decrease the population density, control the grazing capacity of grassland, and regulate the ratios of construction land and cultivated land could be the optimal ways for resolving the natural and social pressure, and to increase the investment and improve the vegetation recovery coefficient could be the fundamental measures for decreasing the ecological vulnerability of the study area. PMID:24066564

Quan, Zhan-Jun; Li, Yuan; Li, Jun-Sheng; Han, Yu; Xiao, Neng-Wen; Fu, Meng-Di

2013-06-01

154

Emerging synthesis themes from the study of social-ecological systems of a tropical city  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The synthesis of the contributions in this special issue about the tropical city of San Juan has resulted in five themes. First, the city is subject to multiple vulnerabilities, but socioeconomic factors and education level affect the perception of citizens to those vulnerabilities, even in the face of imminent threat. Second, in light of the social-ecological conditions of the city, how its citizens and institutions deal with knowledge to respond to vulnerabilities becomes critical to the adaptive capacity of the city. Third, the relationship between socioeconomic factors and green cover, which in 2002 covered 42% of the city, is not what has been reported for other temperate zone cities. In San Juan, neighborhoods with households of high socioeconomic level were not necessarily associated with greater green cover. However, in adjacent neighborhoods within the densely populated zones of the city, households of high socioeconomic level did preserve green cover better than households in lower socioeconomic-level neighborhoods. Fourth, tropical conditions such as climate may explain some of the unique aspects of the social-ecological system of San Juan. The most obvious is the exuberance of tropical biota in the city that not only forms novel species assemblages but also provides many ecological services, including food production for up to 60% of the members of particular neighborhoods. Ecosystem resilience is particularly high in aquatic and terrestrial ecological systems in San Juan. Fifth, it appears that the emergence of novel systems in the city represent adaptive responses to the social end ecological conditions in the city. We conclude that the study of a tropical city provides contrast to the prevailing literature on temperate and boreal cities and expands the suite of behaviors of urban social-ecological systems, thus advancing the dialogue on the functioning of cities in light of environmental change.

Tischa A. Muñoz-Erickson

2014-09-01

155

The heat shock transcription factor Hsf1 is downregulated in DNA damage-associated senescence, contributing to the maintenance of senescence phenotype.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat shock response (HSR) that protects cells from proteotoxic stresses is downregulated in aging, as well as upon replicative senescence of cells in culture. Here we demonstrate that HSR is suppressed in fibroblasts from the patients with segmental progerioid Werner Syndrome, which undergo premature senescence. Similar suppression of HSR was seen in normal fibroblasts, which underwent senescence in response to DNA damaging treatments. The major DNA-damage-induced signaling (DDS) pathways p53-p21 and p38-NF-kB-SASP contributed to the HSR suppression. The HSR suppression was associated with inhibition of both activity and transcription of the heat shock transcription factor Hsf1. This inhibition in large part resulted from the downregulation of SIRT1, which in turn was because of decrease in the expression of the translation regulator HuR. Importantly, we uncovered a positive feedback regulation, where suppression of Hsf1 further activates the p38-NF-?B-SASP pathway, which in turn promotes senescence. Overexpression of Hsf1 inhibited the p38-NF?B-SASP pathway and partially relieved senescence. Therefore, downregulation of Hsf1 plays an important role in the development or in the maintenance of DNA damage signaling-induced cell senescence. PMID:22510478

Kim, Geunwon; Meriin, Anatoli B; Gabai, Vladimir L; Christians, Elisabeth; Benjamin, Ivor; Wilson, Andrew; Wolozin, Benjamin; Sherman, Michael Y

2012-08-01

156

The legacy of biosphere 2 for the study of biospherics and closed ecological systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The unprecedented challenges of creating Biosphere 2, the world's first laboratory for biospherics, the study of global ecology and long-term closed ecological system dynamics, led to breakthrough developments in many fields, and a deeper understanding of the opportunities and difficulties of material closure. This paper will review accomplishments and challenges, citing some of the key research findings and publications that have resulted from the experiments in Biosphere 2. Engineering accomplishments included development of a technique for variable volume to deal with pressure differences between the facility and outside environment, developing methods of atmospheric leak detection and sealing, while achieving new standards of closure, with an annual atmospheric leakrate of less than 10%, or less than 300 ppm per day. This degree of closure permitted detailed tracking of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and trice gases such as nitrous oxide and ethylene over the seasonal variability of two years. Full closure also necessitated developing new approaches and technologies for complete air, water, and wastewater recycle and reuse within the facility. The development of a soil-based highly productive agricultural system was a first in closed ecological systems, and much was learned about managing a wide variety of crops using non-chemical means of pest and disease control. Closed ecological systems have different temporal biogeochemical cycling and ranges of atmospheric components because of their smaller reservoirs of air, water and soil, and higher concentration of biomass, and Biosphere 2 provided detailed examination and modeling of these accelerated cycles over a period of closure which measured in years. Medical research inside Biosphere 2 included the effects on humans of lowered oxygen: the discovery that human productivity can be maintained with good health with lowered atmospheric oxygen levels could lead to major economies on the design of space stations and planetary/lunar settlements. The improved health resulting from the calorie-restricted but nutrient dense Biosphere 2 diet was the first such scientifically controlled experiment with humans. The success of Biosphere 2 in creating a diversity of terrestrial and marine environments, from rainforest to coral reef, allowed detailed studies with comprehensive measurements such that the dynamics of these complex biomic systems are now better understood. The coral reef ecosystem, the largest artificial reef ever built, catalyzed methods of study now being applied to planetary coral reef systems. Restoration ecology advanced through the creation and study of the dynamics of adaptation and self-organization of the biomes in Biosphere 2. The international interest that Biosphere 2 generated has given new impetus to the public recognition of the sciences of biospheres (biospherics), biomes and closed ecological life systems. The facility, although no longer a materially-closed ecological system, is being used as an educational facility by Columbia University as an introduction to the study of the biosphere and complex system ecology and for carbon dioxide impacts utilizing the complex ecosystems created in Biosphere '.The many lessons learned from Biosphere 2 are being used by its key team of creators in their design and operation of a laboratory-sized closed ecological system, the Laboratory Biosphere, in operation as of March 2002, and for the design of a Mars on Earth ™ prototype life support system for manned missions to Mars and Mars surface habitats. Biosphere 2 is an important foundation for future advances in biospherics and closed ecological system research.

Allen, J. P.; Nelson, M.; Alling, A.

157

Research on the Ecological Conflict between Coastal Wetland and Port Construction—A Case Study of the Meizhou Gulf  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is a study on the management of wetland. The future impact of landscape of coastal wetland with the constant changes of human activities is discussed on the basis of the theory and methodology of landscape ecology. Solutions to the contradictions of ecological protection and port construction are put forward.

Jun Hu

2014-05-01

158

On the use of fungicides in ecological seed burial studies  

OpenAIRE

Evidence for effects of saprophytic fungi on buried seed demography is usually obtained from studies involving the simultaneous burial of fungicide-treated seeds and of untreated seeds. However, any potential influence of fungicide treatment on seed dormancy levels is generally ignored in these studies. Also, some studies assume that a combination of several fungicidal compounds provides better protection against a broader range of fungi, ignoring chemical interactions that may potentially oc...

Mitschunas, Nadine; Filser, Juliane; Wagner, Markus

2009-01-01

159

ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF CYANOBACTERIA IN SEWAGE POND OF H.E.C INDUSTRIAL AREA, RANCHI INDIA  

OpenAIRE

The ecological study of the sewage stabilization pond of HEC area, Hatia, Ranchi has been taken for the first time in this area. Studies were conducted to determine the occurrence and abundance of cyanobacteria in relation to physico-chemical characteristics of sewage pond. It assumes significance of algae mostly cyanobacteria can be used as bioindicators of water pollution in different water habitat of the area. Increased eutrophication from domestic effluent, sewage promotes the development...

Amit Kumar; Radha Sahu

2012-01-01

160

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and productivity of schizophrenia trials: an ecological study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The 5000 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's database affords an opportunity to research for variables related to the differences between nations of their output of schizophrenia trials. Methods Ecological study – investigating the relationship between four economic/demographic variables and number of schizophrenia RCTs per country. The variable with closest correlation was used to predict the expected number of studies. Results GDP ...

Fenton Mark; El-sayeh Hany; Bartsch Stephanie; Gessler Ursula; Moll Carina; Adams Clive

2003-01-01

161

An Ecological Approach to Prospective and Retrospective Timing of Long Durations: A Study Involving Gamers  

OpenAIRE

To date, most studies comparing prospective and retrospective timing have failed to use long durations and tasks with a certain degree of ecological validity. The present study assessed the effect of the timing paradigm on playing video games in a “naturalistic environment” (gaming centers). In addition, as it involved gamers, it provided an opportunity to examine the effect of gaming profile on time estimation. A total of 116 participants were asked to estimate prospectively or retrospec...

Tobin, Simon; Bisson, Nicolas; Grondin, Simon

2010-01-01

162

The systemic amyloid precursor transthyretin (TTR) behaves as a neuronal stress protein regulated by HSF1 in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and APP23 Alzheimer's disease model mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased neuronal synthesis of transthyretin (TTR) may favorably impact on Alzheimer's disease (AD) because TTR has been shown to inhibit A? aggregation and detoxify cell-damaging conformers. The mechanism whereby hippocampal and cortical neurons from AD patients and APP23 AD model mice produce more TTR is unknown. We now show that TTR expression in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, primary hippocampal neurons and the hippocampus of APP23 mice, is significantly enhanced by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays demonstrated occupation of TTR promoter heat shock elements by HSF1 in APP23 hippocampi, primary murine hippocampal neurons, and SH-SY5Y cells, but not in mouse liver, cultured human hepatoma (HepG2) cells, or AC16 cultured human cardiomyocytes. Treating SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells with heat shock or the HSF1 stimulator celastrol increased TTR transcription in parallel with that of HSP40, HSP70, and HSP90. With both treatments, ChIP showed increased occupancy of heat shock elements in the TTR promoter by HSF1. In vivo celastrol increased the HSF1 ChIP signal in hippocampus but not in liver. Transfection of a human HSF1 construct into SH-SY5Y cells increased TTR transcription and protein production, which could be blocked by shHSF1 antisense. The effect is neuron specific. In cultured HepG2 cells, HSF1 was either suppressive or had no effect on TTR expression confirming the differential effects of HSF1 on TTR transcription in different cell types. PMID:24849358

Wang, Xin; Cattaneo, Francesca; Ryno, Lisa; Hulleman, John; Reixach, Natàlia; Buxbaum, Joel N

2014-05-21

163

Study of Evaluation Characterisitics of Ecological Infrastructure and Countermeasure in Pivot Cities of Three Gorges Reservoir Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ecological infrastructure is involved with ecological security and health of cities.At present there are so many studies about it. However, quantitative study is muchindetermination and imperfection. In this paper in order to ravel out this problem, the evaluation indexes system are established on the basis of air system, greenbelt system and water system from the conception and connotation of ecological infrastructure. They do not only consult inside and outside of Chinese ecological cities and garden cities but also consult with internal and international related index standard. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and the method of comprehensive index evaluation are applied to establish the evaluation model. Then it studies the quality and evolvement characteristics of ecolocal infrastructure in the case of main town of Chongqing, Yichang, Fulin, Wanzhou——the four pivot cities of Three Gorges Reservoir Region from 2002 to 2005. Finally, the paper draws a conclusion by qulitative and quantitative analysis showing that the quality of ecological infrastructure of four cities is in rise. At present, the quality of ecological infrastructure of Yichang and Fulin remains with better grade; Wanzhou and the main town of Chongqin belongs to common grade. The integrated quality conditins of ecological infrstructure of these four cities follow the sequence (from high to low : Yichang> Fulin> Wanzhou> main town of Chongqing. The quality of ecological infrastructure of four cities is known through evaluation analysis, which has provided a scientific basis for the cities Three Gorges Reseveoir Region in programming.

Peng Li

2009-06-01

164

Immune microbiological studies during medical and ecological monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Materials testifying to the necessity and prospects of immunological studies by monitoring the health state of the population residing in radiationally and chemically residing in radiationally and chemically contaminated regions are presented. The above studies make it possible to evaluate the immune state of individual persons as well as of the population at large. It is advisable to use not only immunological but also microbiological methods, which make it possible to specify the state of general nonspecific antiinfection resistivity. 33 refs

165

Theories of practice - new inspiration for ecological economic studies on consumption  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The dynamics behind ever-increasing consumption have long been a core issue of ecological economics. Studies on this topic have traditionally drawn not only on insights from economics, but also from such disciplines as sociology, anthropology and psychology. In recent years, a practice theory approach has emerged in sociological consumption studies, as part of a general wave of renewed interest in practice theory emanating from a desire to move beyond such dominant dualisms as the structure-actor opposition in sociology. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the practice theory approach in relation to studies of everyday life, domestic practices and consumption, and to argue that this approach can be fruitful for ecological economics and other fields interested in the environmental aspects of consumption. The paper emphasizes the immense challenge involved in promoting sustainable consumption, and the need for collective efforts supported by research into the co-evolution of domestic practices, systems ofprovision, supply chains and production.

RØpke, Inge

2009-01-01

166

Site study plan for ecology, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary Draft  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ecology Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of studies which include surveys for endangered, threatened, and candidate species; vegetation characterization, including mapping and cover typing, plant succession, wetlands description, and preexisting stresses; and wildlife community characterization, including availability and quality of habitats and descriptions of mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, and invertebrate populations. The plan for each study describes the need for the study, study design, data management and use, schedule and personnel requirements, and quality assurance. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document (SRP-RD). 83 refs., 3 tabs

167

Effects of ionizing radiations on reticulated polymers associated to nuclear wastes. The HSF-SIMS technique contribution; Effets des radiations ionisantes sur les polymeres reticules associes aux dechets nucleaires. Apport de la technique HSF-SIMS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Among the materials used for confinement of nuclear wastes of low and medium level activity the epoxyde resins are known as matrices which preserve well their properties in an ionizing environment. This work is dedicated to the investigation of the modifications occurring in molecular structure of these materials as well as of the ion exchange resins they incorporate, irradiated in different conditions. The first part deals with the analysis of a commercial reticulated epoxyde resin submitted to a 2 MGy integral dose gamma irradiation under two different dose rate (51 and 900 Gy/h), and under two different environments (air and water). The results obtained with the techniques providing structure information (time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HSF-SIMS) and FT-IR spectrometry) confirm those obtained by techniques sensible to macroscopic properties of material (DMA, DSC), taking into account that no noticeable irradiation effect can be made evident inside the material. On the other hand, an irradiation carried out in air results in a superficial oxidation, due probably to the action of the air radiolysis products. The preliminary results of an ion irradiation followed by an in-situ HSF-SIMS analysis pointed out to a basic difference between the energy amount transferred by gamma photons and fast ions; the last ones being able to induce scissions of the nearby liaisons in the material. The second part of this work is concerned with the ion exchange resins of the type PS-DVB saturated in water and non-active ions, simulating real wastes, irradiated in the same conditions as the epoxyde resins. In contrast to the results on the last one, it appears that the irradiation of these materials results primarily in scissions of the functional groups on which the ions are attached. In addition to this finding it appears that the role of water as carrying outward the attached ions appears to be fundamental 175 refs.

Debre, O. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire

1997-06-30

168

An Improvement in Total RNA Isolation Protocol for Ecologic Studies: Case Study Tobacco Cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many experimental techniques related to molecular biology such as the Northern blot analysis, RNA protection assays, in situ hybridization and RT-PCR need maximum-yielded, highly purified RNA samples. Researchers who study with RNA extraction are well known for being extremely sensitive about their chemical solutions, equipment, glassware and even laboratories. Taking certain precautions, which are given in protocol, is more convenient than obtaining a low 260/280 spectrophotometric ratio or a blank line in RT-PCR gel for ecologic studies. In the improved protocol, which is presented here, each step was tested many times and high-quality total RNA was determined. Using this protocol, 260/280 spectrophotometric ratio was found between 1.88-1.97 and total RNA was found between 174.6-184.3 µg RNA g cell FW-1 in tobacco cells. However, in order to obtain RNA with high purity levels, an additional step may be necessary to eliminate contaminating DNA depending on the sample characteristics.

Senol Boztok

2006-01-01

169

Role of green structure and ecological services: a case study of bahawalpur city, pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cities can make broader contribution to achieve the goals of sustainable development as they are considered major consumers of resources and ecological services. Ecological services provide a range of benefits at local, regional and global levels. Terrestrial ecosystem has different components in urban environment that provides ecological services to its inhabitants. Cities not only benefit from the internal urban ecosystem but also depend upon other ecosystems beyond the city limit. Green structure is an important component in terms of making city more sustainable and habitable. Green structure in urban environment means green infrastructure that is planned and supports sustainable that is planned and supports sustainable urban development. From planning perspective, spatial structure of green space provides a basis for sustainable urban development. In sustainable perspective, green structure more than the sum of green spaces. It is considered as spatial network of open spaces, public and private gardens and parks, sports fields, allotment gardens, woodlands and recreational grounds. Therefore, it is considered as a significant part of built-up environment and major source of ecological services. To structure urban areas of sustainable development, it is necessary to develop a proportion between grey and green cities. Keeping in view, research has been conducted to investigate spatial network of green structure in planned areas of Bahawalpur City of Pakistan. This study analyzes the ecological services generated from the investigated green structures, and helped develop an approach of inter-relation between green environment and urban society. Moreover, strategies for better land-use planning in green and sustainable perspective have been proposed. (author)

170

Ecological studies on the intermediate host snails and the relevance to schistosomiasis control  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A detailed knoledge of distribution patterns schistosome intermediate hsts and their populations dynamics and factors affecting these patterns will provide useful information about the possibilities and desirability of conducting snail control measures in various transmission situations. On the basi [...] s of various case studies the association between the occurence of human water contacts and the presence of schistosome intermediate hosts or infections in the intermediate hosts is illustrated. Other parameters affecting snail distribution patterns and density fluctuations are discussed. It is concluded that ecological studies on the intermediate host are extremely relevant, either to optimally apply existing control measures or to develop alternative measures of snail control, such as ecological or biological control.

Henry, Madsen.

171

Ecological studies on the intermediate host snails and the relevance to schistosomiasis control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A detailed knoledge of distribution patterns schistosome intermediate hsts and their populations dynamics and factors affecting these patterns will provide useful information about the possibilities and desirability of conducting snail control measures in various transmission situations. On the basis of various case studies the association between the occurence of human water contacts and the presence of schistosome intermediate hosts or infections in the intermediate hosts is illustrated. Other parameters affecting snail distribution patterns and density fluctuations are discussed. It is concluded that ecological studies on the intermediate host are extremely relevant, either to optimally apply existing control measures or to develop alternative measures of snail control, such as ecological or biological control.

Henry Madsen

1992-01-01

172

An ecologic study of skin cancer and environmental arsenic exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted an epidemiologic study of skin cancer incidence rates for four counties in Montana. The two counties considered to be exposed to arsenic were Deer Lodge, containing the former Anaconda copper smelter, and Silver Bow, containing an open pit copper mine. Residents in these counties had potential exposure to arsenic and other heavy metals. Gallatin and Park counties served as controls. All histologically proven skin cancer cases during the period January 1980 through June 1986 were collected from pathology services and dermatologists in these four counties. In addition, all skin cancer cases from four dermatologists practicing in urban referral areas outside the counties were reviewed. Results were analyzed by individual as well as by two different definitions of anatomically distinct lesions: the National Cancer Institute (NCI) definition and the study definition. There were 1616 individuals with skin cancer in the four counties during the period under consideration, yielding 2252 (NCI definition) and 2451 (study definition) cases. The clinical features of the skin cancers in the exposed counties were not similar to those described for arsenic-related skin cancer. The age-adjusted annual skin cancer rates were higher for the two control counties as compared to either the county with the former smelter, Deer Lodge, or the county with the mine, Silver Bow. Our results cannot be explained by differences in ascertainment, latitude, or altitude. They can be partially explained by differences in both outdoor employment and medical practice. The overall skin cancer incidence rates for the exposed counties were well within the range of skin cancer rates observed for other locations in the United States. PMID:1468791

Wong, O; Whorton, M D; Foliart, D E; Lowengart, R

1992-01-01

173

Ecological studies in the middle reach of Chesapeake Bay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Passage of estuarine water and phytoplankton through the cooling system of the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plant in the summer months of 1977-1981 resulted in frequent reductions of phytoplankton densities particularly during periods when flagellated taxa dominated total cell numbers. Entrainment-induced reductions in chlorophyll were observed on only four occasions, however. Phytoplankton productivity as oxygen evolution or 14C-uptake was even more susceptible to the effects of passing through the cooling system. Inhibition of productivitiy was observed during periods dominated by flagellated cells and generally occurred with ambient water temperature ? 250C. Results from track autoradiography employed in 1981 indicated that carbon fixation in the commonly observed flagellate Cryptomonas acuta was significantly depressed during July, August and September. In contrast, the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum and the diatoms Cyclotella caspia and Thalassionema nitzschioides were not affected by entrainment. Although entrainment affects Cryptomonas and flagellate-dominated assemblages in the summer there are no detectable effects of power plant operations on cell densities or productivity in flagellate-dominated waters in the vicinity of the power plant. Transitory exposure of estuarine zooplankton to the elevated temperatures of CCNPP entrainment and discharge plumes was generally non-lethal. In the species selected for study the survival rate es selected for study the survival rate after entrainment was 65 to 100%. The effects of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen levels upon entrained organisms were also analyzed. (orig.)

174

Correlates of environmental factors and human plague: an ecological study in Vietnam  

OpenAIRE

Background Human plague caused by Yersinia pestis remains a public health threat in endemic countries, because the disease is associated with increased risk of mortality and severe economic and social consequences. During the past 10 years, outbreaks of plague have occasionally occurred in Vietnam's Central Highlands region. The present study sought to describe and analyse the occurrence of plague and its association with ecological factors.

Pham, Hau V.; Dang, Dat T.; Tran Minh, Nguyen N.; Nguyen, Nguyen D.; Nguyen, Tuan V.

2009-01-01

175

Building an Landscape in Yogyakarta, Indonesia : -A study of Ecological planning for Building and Landscape.  

OpenAIRE

The objective with this final thesis is to show how to work and help as an engineer by an ecological planning for building and landscape in an Asian and Muslim country like Indonesia. The qualitative working method that was used highlights the importance of field trips and free structured interviews. Talking to the people involved and seeing the specific areas gives understanding you can not get by studying literature.   The importance of all the work areas in the process of exploiting an ar...

Svensson, Pia-lice

2008-01-01

176

Ecological studies on the freshwater fishes of the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tropical climate of the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory has a distinctive Wet-Dry cycle resulting in seasonal flows in the creeks and rivers of its catchments. The present study, begun during August 1978, aimed at developing an ecological monitoring system that would detect changes in freshwater fish communities brought about by recent uranium mining and processing in the lowlands of the region

177

STUDIES CONCERNING THE ECOLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF SOIL IN ORDER TO ENSURE A SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT  

OpenAIRE

The present study aim to determine the effectiveness of the proposed ecological reconstruction method by using the perennial grasses (e.g. Festuca rubra, Poa Pratensis, Lolium perenne, and Medicago sativa) and dolomite (DEL-CA-MAG) as a soil amendment for a degraded soil (i.e. Valea Voievozilor area, Dambovita County, Romania), in order to improvements the quality indicators of analyzed soil. The physicochemical indicators of soil (e.g. pH, conductivity, salinity, TDS, redox potential, turbid...

CRISTIANA RADULESCU; ALEXANDRU SIDOR; CLARA STIRBU

2013-01-01

178

Formalizing agro-ecological knowledge for future-oriented land use studies.  

OpenAIRE

Keywords : agro-ecological engineering, land use system, modeling, uncertainty, temporal variability, Costa Rica, West Africa.Identification and ex-ante assessment of alternative land use systems is increasingly important to develop systems that are able to fulfill multiple and possibly conflicting needs of mankind.This study contributes to the development of a formalized approach to identify and engineer future-oriented land use systems at the field level enabling the systematic exploration ...

Hengsdijk, H.

2001-01-01

179

Daily Emotional Dynamics in Depressed Youth: A Cell-Phone Ecological Momentary Assessment Study  

OpenAIRE

This study utilized a new cellular phone ecological momentary assessment approach to investigate daily emotional dynamics in 47 youth with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 32 no psychopathology controls (CON), ages 7 – 17. Information about emotional experience in the natural environment was obtained using answer-only cellular phones while MDD youth received an 8 week course of cognitive behavioral therapy and/or psychopharmacological treatment. Compared to CON youth, MDD youth reported ...

Silk, Jennifer S.; Forbes, Erika E.; Whalen, Diana J.; Jakubcak, Jennifer L.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Ryan, Neal D.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Dahl, Ronald E.

2010-01-01

180

Diabetes mortality and environmental heavy metals in North Carolina counties: An ecological study  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Arsenic, beryllium, cadmium and nickel have been associated with the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in populations exposed to these elements. However, diabetes mortality has not been evaluated. This ecological study correlated airborne concentrations of these metals with diabetes mortality in North Carolina counties. Methods: County level data were extracted from the 2000 US Census, the 1999 US Environmental Protection Agency National Air Toxins Assessment, and 2001-2005 diabet...

Spangler, John G.

2012-01-01

181

Ascendency as Ecological Indicator for Environmental Quality Assessment at the Ecosystem Level: A Case Study  

OpenAIRE

Previous studies have shown that when an ecosystem consists of many interacting components it becomes impossible to understand how it functions by focussing only on individual relationships. Alternatively, one can attempt to quantify system behaviour as a whole by developing ecological indicators that combine numerous environmental factors into a single value. One such holistic measure, called the system ‘ascendency’, arises from the analysis of networks of trophic exchanges. It deals wit...

Patri?cio, J.; Ulanowicz, R.; Pardal, M.; Marques, J.

2006-01-01

182

Effects of ionizing radiations on reticulated polymers associated to nuclear wastes. The HSF-SIMS technique contribution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among the materials used for confinement of nuclear wastes of low and medium level activity the epoxyde resins are known as matrices which preserve well their properties in an ionizing environment. This work is dedicated to the investigation of the modifications occurring in molecular structure of these materials as well as of the ion exchange resins they incorporate, irradiated in different conditions. The first part deals with the analysis of a commercial reticulated epoxyde resin submitted to a 2 MGy integral dose gamma irradiation under two different dose rate (51 and 900 Gy/h), and under two different environments (air and water). The results obtained with the techniques providing structure information (time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HSF-SIMS) and FT-IR spectrometry) confirm those obtained by techniques sensible to macroscopic properties of material (DMA, DSC), taking into account that no noticeable irradiation effect can be made evident inside the material. On the other hand, an irradiation carried out in air results in a superficial oxidation, due probably to the action of the air radiolysis products. The preliminary results of an ion irradiation followed by an in-situ HSF-SIMS analysis pointed out to a basic difference between the energy amount transferred by gamma photons and fast ions; the last ones being able to induce scissions of the nearby liaisons in the material. The second part of this work is concerned with the ion exchange resins of the type PS-DVB saturated in water and non-active ions, simulating real wastes, irradiated in the same conditions as the epoxyde resins. In contrast to the results on the last one, it appears that the irradiation of these materials results primarily in scissions of the functional groups on which the ions are attached. In addition to this finding it appears that the role of water as carrying outward the attached ions appears to be fundamental

183

Ecological study of river Suswa: modeling DO and BOD.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper limnological status of river Suswa was observed for a period of two years. A water quality Beck modified Khanna Bhutiani model (BMKB model) was developed to calculate DO (dissolved Oxygen) and BOD (biochemical oxygen demand). The model was developed to calculate DO and BOD by using DO/BOD of same place and upstream in previous season which results in Single output. This model gives the seasonal value on the basis of previously taken upstream and downstream observations/concentrations of DO and BOD. The model was calibrated and verified for the water quality data (Physico-chemical data) of samples collected from river Suswa in different seasons. The model gave good agreement between data observed by it and the data observed manually, thus substantiating the validity of the model. Only minor differences were observed in physical, chemical and heavy metals of all the four sampling stations during the course of study. PMID:17058010

Bhutiani, Rakesh; Khanna, D R

2007-02-01

184

Case studies and mathematical models of ecological speciation. 1. Cichlids in a crater lake.  

Science.gov (United States)

A recent study of a pair of sympatric species of cichlids in Lake Apoyo in Nicaragua is viewed as providing probably one of the most convincing examples of sympatric speciation to date. Here, we describe and study a stochastic, individual-based, explicit genetic model tailored for this cichlid system. Our results show that relatively rapid (<20,000 generations) colonization of a new ecological niche and (sympatric or parapatric) speciation via local adaptation and divergence in habitat and mating preferences are theoretically plausible if: (i) the number of loci underlying the traits controlling local adaptation, and habitat and mating preferences is small; (ii) the strength of selection for local adaptation is intermediate; (iii) the carrying capacity of the population is intermediate; and (iv) the effects of the loci influencing nonrandom mating are strong. We discuss patterns and timescales of ecological speciation identified by our model, and we highlight important parameters and features that need to be studied empirically to provide information that can be used to improve the biological realism and power of mathematical models of ecological speciation. PMID:17614905

Gavrilets, Sergey; Vose, Aaron; Barluenga, Marta; Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel

2007-07-01

185

Studying the neurobiology of human social interaction: Making the case for ecological validity.  

Science.gov (United States)

With this commentary we make the case for an increased focus on the ecological validity of the measures used to assess aspects of human social functioning. Impairments in social functioning are seen in many types of psychopathology, negatively affecting the lives of psychiatric patients and those around them. Yet the neurobiology underlying abnormal social interaction remains unclear. As an example of human social neuroscience research with relevance to biological psychiatry and clinical psychopharmacology, this commentary discusses published experimental studies involving manipulation of the human brain serotonin system that included assessments of social behavior. To date, these studies have mostly been laboratory-based and included computer tasks, observations by others, or single-administration self-report measures. Most laboratory measures used so far inform about the role of serotonin in aspects of social interaction, but the relevance for real-life interaction is often unclear. Few studies have used naturalistic assessments in real life. We suggest several laboratory methods with high ecological validity as well as ecological momentary assessment, which involves intensive repeated measures in naturalistic settings. In sum, this commentary intends to stimulate experimental research on the neurobiology of human social interaction as it occurs in real life. PMID:25566795

Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, Robert A; Aan Het Rot, Marije

2015-06-01

186

An ecological study of Bithynia snails, the first intermediate host of Opisthorchis viverrini in northeast Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infection with the food-borne trematodiasis, liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, is a major public health concern in Southeast Asia. While epidemiology and parasitic incidence in humans are well studied, ecological information on the O. viverrini intermediate hosts remains limited. This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the distribution and abundance of the first intermediate host, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos snails. Water quality and snails were sampled in 31 sites in Muang District, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand from June 2012 to January 2013 to characterize the B.s. goniomphalos snail habitats. Species relative abundance and Shannon's diversity and evenness indices were employed to describe snail compositions and diversities across different habitat types. Statistical analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which the water quality variables and species interactions account for the relative abundance of B.s. goniomphalos snails. The results showed that the freshwater habitats of ponds, streams and rice paddies possessed significantly different abiotic water qualities, with water temperature and pH showing distinct statistical differences (Pwater qualities associated with each habitat types. The relative abundance of B.s. goniomphalos snails was found to be negatively correlated with that of Filopaludina martensi martensi snails (r=-0.46, P<0.05), underscoring the possible influence of species interaction on B.s. goniomphalos snail population. Field work observations revealed that rice planting seasons and irrigation could regulate snail population dynamics at rice paddy habitats. This study provides new ecological insights into the factors affecting Bithynia snail distribution and abundance. It bridges the knowledge gap in O. viverrini disease ecology and highlights the potential effect of anthropogenic irrigation practices on B.s. goniomphalos snail ecology. PMID:24561073

Wang, Yi-Chen; Ho, Richard Cheng Yong; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Namsanor, Jutamas; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

2015-01-01

187

Spatial variation in lake benthic macroinvertebrate ecological assessment: a synthesis of European case studies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper summarizes eight case studies that were analysed as part of the research theme ``lake benthic macroinvertebrates'' forming part of the EU-funded WISER project ``Water bodies in Europe: Integrative Systems to assess Ecological status and Recovery''. The relationships between lake benthic macroinvertebrate community composition and natural and human induced environmental variables (eutrophication, catchment land-use, and hydromorphological pressures) were studied. This was done in different lake habitats (the profundal, sublittoral, and littoral) in five regions of Europe (Alpine, Northern, Central Baltic, Atlantic, and Mediterranean). The goal of the papers was to assess the main environmental factors and how they affected benthic macroinvertebrate variation at different ecological scales and thus better our basic understanding of how changes in these environmental variables can be tracked using local invertebrate assemblages. In this issue we provide a contribution towards the understanding of basic sources of spatial variation of invertebrate assemblages in different European lake habitat types and their relationship with major human pressures. All papers have an obvious applied objective and our aim is to provide useful information for designing monitoring programs and invertebrate based ecological classification tools with the ultimate aim to improve a sound management of European lake ecosystems.

Sandin, Leif Leonard; Solimini, Angelo G.

2012-01-01

188

An ecology of text: using text retrieval to study alife on the net.  

Science.gov (United States)

I introduce a new alife model, an ecology based on a corpus of text, and apply it to the analysis of posts to USENET News. In this corporal ecology posts are organisms, the newsgroups of NetNews define an environment, and human posters situated in their wider context make up a scarce resource. I apply latent semantic indexing (LSI), a text retrieval method based on principal component analysis, to distill from the corpus those replicating units of text. LSI arrives at suitable replicators because it discovers word co-occurrences that segregate and recombine with appreciable frequency. I argue that natural selection is necessarily in operation because sufficient conditions for its occurrence are met: replication, mutagenicity, and trait/fitness covariance. I describe a set of experiments performed on a static corpus of over 10,000 posts. In these experiments I study average population fitness, a fundamental element of population ecology. My study of fitness arrives at the unhappy discovery that a flame-war, centered around an overly prolific poster, is the king of the jungle. PMID:9654782

Best, M L

1997-01-01

189

Students' exposure and career aspirations in ecology: A study using semi-structured interviews to gain knowledge of public school students  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecology as a field is dominated by white males, McCarter (2003) has noted that women and minorities are underrepresented in the discipline of ecology across the United States. The contribution of this research is to assess and quantify, in a scientific manner, students' exposure, and career aspirations towards ecology; 226 student responses were coded from semi-structured interviews. The main objectives of this study, using student interviews, were the following: (1) assess the importance of exposure to ecology and ecological related topics to: gender, ethnicity, region, grades in science, grades in non-science, grade level, and interest in ecology career. (2) determine if early exposure to ecology (i.e. gained in high school) and ecological related topics is related to an increased interest of students continuing in an ecologically related field and (3) assess if high school students who have been involved in more outdoor related activities such as camping, hiking, hunting, and/or fishing, will be more likely to be interested in an ecological career. Overall, the results indicated that students interviewed for this study generally responded in a positive manner, and were generally interested in ecology. Some students were even interested in pursuing a career in ecology. The study revealed significant differences in the exposure of ecology between school locations, girls and boys, and whites and non-whites. The results of this research and avenues for future research are discussed.

Miller, Heather C.

190

Cranberry Extract Standardized for Proanthocyanidins Promotes the Immune Response of Caenorhabditis elegans to Vibrio cholerae through the p38 MAPK Pathway and HSF-1  

Science.gov (United States)

Botanicals are rich in bioactive compounds, and some offer numerous beneficial effects to animal and human health when consumed. It is well known that phytochemicals in cranberries have anti-oxidative and antimicrobial activities. Recently, an increasing body of evidence has demonstrated that cranberry phytochemicals may have potential benefits that promote healthy aging. Here, we use Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to show that water-soluble cranberry extract standardized to 4.0% proanthocyanidins (WCESP), a major component of cranberries, can enhance host innate immunity to resist against Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae; wild type C6706 (O1 El Tor biotype)) infection. Supplementation of WCESP did not significantly alter the intestinal colonization of V. cholerae, but upregulated the expression of C. elegans innate immune genes, such as clec-46, clec-71, fmo-2, pqn-5 and C23G10.1. Additionally, WCESP treatment did not affect the growth of V. cholerae and expression of the major bacterial virulence genes, and only slightly reduced bacterial colonization within C. elegans intestine. These findings indicate that the major components of WCESP, including proanthocyanidins (PACs), may play an important role in enhancing the host innate immunity. Moreover, we engaged C. elegans mutants and identified that the p38 MAPK signaling, insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS), and HSF-1 play pivotal roles in the WCESP-mediated host immune response. Considering the level of conservation between the innate immune pathways of C. elegans and humans, the results of this study suggest that WCESP may also play an immunity-promoting role in higher order organisms. PMID:25062095

Pederson, Daniel B.; Wang, Xiaoxia; Cao, Min; Dong, Yuqing

2014-01-01

191

Ecological stability of landscape - ecological infrastructure - ecological management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Field Workshop 'Ecological Stability of Landscape - Ecological Infrastructure - Ecological Management' was held within a State Environmental Programme financed by the Federal Committee for the Environment. The objectives of the workshop were to present Czech and Slovak approaches to the ecological stability of the landscape by means of examples of some case studies in the field, and to exchange ideas, theoretical knowledge and practical experience on implementing the concept of ecological infrastructure in landscape management. Out of 19 papers contained in the proceedings, 3 items were inputted to the INIS system. (Z.S.)

192

Ancient DNA from marine mammals : studying long-lived species over ecological and evolutionary timescales  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Marine mammals have long generation times and broad, difficult to sample distributions, which makes inferring evolutionary and demographic changes using field studies of extant populations challenging. However, molecular analyses from sub-fossil or historical materials of marine mammals such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an oppor- tunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have focused on detecting changes in genetic diversity following periods of exploitation and environmental change. To date, these studies have shown that even small sample sizes can provide useful information on historical genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also been used in investigations of changes in distribution and range of marine mammal species; we review these studies and discuss the limitations of such ‘presence only’ studies. Combining aDNA data with stable isotopes can provide further insights into changes in ecology and we review past studies and suggest future potential applications. We also discuss studies recon- structing inter- and intra-specific phylogenies from aDNA sequences and discuss how aDNA sequences could be used to estimate mutation rates. Finally, we highlight some of the problems of aDNA studies on marine mammals, such as obtaining sufficient sample sizes and calibrating for the marine reservoir effect when radiocarbon-dating such wide-ranging species.

Foote, Andrew David; Hofreiter, Michael

2012-01-01

193

Ancient DNA from marine mammals: studying long-lived species over ecological and evolutionary timescales.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine mammals have long generation times and broad, difficult to sample distributions, which makes inferring evolutionary and demographic changes using field studies of extant populations challenging. However, molecular analyses from sub-fossil or historical materials of marine mammals such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an opportunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have focused on detecting changes in genetic diversity following periods of exploitation and environmental change. To date, these studies have shown that even small sample sizes can provide useful information on historical genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also been used in investigations of changes in distribution and range of marine mammal species; we review these studies and discuss the limitations of such 'presence only' studies. Combining aDNA data with stable isotopes can provide further insights into changes in ecology and we review past studies and suggest future potential applications. We also discuss studies reconstructing inter- and intra-specific phylogenies from aDNA sequences and discuss how aDNA sequences could be used to estimate mutation rates. Finally, we highlight some of the problems of aDNA studies on marine mammals, such as obtaining sufficient sample sizes and calibrating for the marine reservoir effect when radiocarbon-dating such wide-ranging species. PMID:21652193

Foote, Andrew D; Hofreiter, Michael; Morin, Phillip A

2012-01-20

194

Can Social Theory Adequately Address Nature-Society Issues? Do political ecology and science studies in Geography incorporate ecological change?  

OpenAIRE

There has been an expansion of interest in nature-society issues within human geography spurred by the rich, sophisticated analyses of environment-development issues within the Third World. This latter work emerged out of the fusion of cultural ecology and the political economy of resource use, but scholars are increasingly turning towards post-structuralism to engage with the complex, mutual constitution of symbolic and material struggles over land and resources. Yet to some e...

Nightingale, Andrea J.

2006-01-01

195

Possibilities of the Integration of the Method of the Ecologically Oriented Independent Scientific Research in the Study Process  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this paper is to analyse possibilities of the integration of the method of the ecologically oriented independent scientific research in the study process. In order to achieve the set aim, the following scientific research methods were used: analysis of the conceptual guidelines for the development of environmentally oriented entrepreneurship, interpretation of the experts' evaluation of the ecologically oriented management, analysis of the results of the students' ecologically oriented independent scientific research, as well as monographic and logically constructive methods. The results of the study give an opportunity to make conclusions and to develop conceptual recommendations on how to introduce future economics and business professionals with the theoretical and practical aspects of ecologically oriented management during the study process.

Grizans, Jurijs; Vanags, Janis

2010-01-01

196

'Ecological embeddedness' and Its Public Health Implications: Findings From an Exploratory Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Western culture over the last two centuries has become significantly ecologically 'dis-embedded', with nature increasingly reduced to resources for human use. The consequence is global environmental degradation, including accelerating climate change. Much recent research supports associations between nature contact and human health and well-being, and between feelings of nature-connectedness and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours. The oft-cited Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (WHO, Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, 1986) emphasises human-environment inextricability; however public health discourse and response has not fully engaged with this recognition. This qualitative study explored the attitudes, motivations, and experiences-including formative influences-of six individuals whose behaviour was congruent with recognition of human-nature interconnectedness; such individuals may be understood as ecologically embedded. Key aspects of participants' experience, identified through grounded theory thematic analysis, were (i) connecting with nature (especially in childhood); (ii) seeing the threat and taking it personally; (iii) the nature of reality; (iv) dedicated beyond the ego-oriented self; and (v) sustaining the eco-centric self. The findings highlight the necessity for cross-sectoral advocacy at all levels of government policy development focused on recognition of human-environment connectedness, especially bridging health, planning and education policies affecting children. Only thus will both population health and ecological health on which population health depends be possible. PMID:25352183

Lewis, Marina; Townsend, Mardie

2014-10-29

197

Opportunities for telemetry techniques in studies on the nutritional ecology of free-ranging domesticated ruminants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The principles of domestic herbivore nutrition are well understood and have been developed through detailed physiological studies, although methods to accurately measure field-based intake still challenge herbivore nutrition research. Nutritional ecology considers an animal's interaction with the environment based on its nutritional demands. Although there are a number of theoretical frameworks that can be used to explore nutritional ecology, optimal foraging provides a suitable starting point. Optimal foraging models have progressed from deterministic techniques to spatially explicit agent-based simulation methods. The development of optimal foraging modelling points towards opportunities for field-based research to explore behavioural preferences within studies that have an array of nutritional choices that vary both spatially and temporally. A number of techniques including weighing animals, weighing herbage, using markers (both natural and artificial) and sampling forage, using oesophageal-fistulated animals, have been used to determine intake in the field. These intake measurement techniques are generally most suited to studies that occur over a few days and with relatively small (often less than 10) groups of animals. Over the last 10 years, there have been a number of advances in automated behavioural monitoring technology (e.g. global positioning systems) to track animal movement. A number of recent studies have integrated detailed spatial assessments of vegetation using on-ground sampling and satellite remote sensing; these data have been linked to behavioural preferences of herbivores. Although the recent studies still do not address nutritional interactions over months or years, they do point to methods that could be used to address landscape scale nutritional interactions. Emerging telemetry techniques used to monitor herbivore behavioural preferences and also to determine detailed landscape vegetation mapping provide the opportunity for future herbivore nutritional ecology studies. PMID:23031210

Swain, D L; Friend, M A

2013-03-01

198

Implementing fire history and fire ecology in fire risk assessment: the study case of Canton Ticino (southern Switzerland)  

OpenAIRE

The understanding of the ecological role of wildfires and the knowledge of its past natural and cultural dynamics in different ecosystems have been recognize as a prerequisite for a sustainable land and ecosystem management. The main objective of this work is to propose a methodological approach for implementing the knowledge derived from studies of fire history, fire ecology, and fire suppression strategies in fire risk analyses in a low-to medium fire-prone region such as the Canton Ticino.

Conedera, Marco

2009-01-01

199

Neurospora crassa heat shock factor 1 Is an Essential Gene; a Second Heat Shock Factor-Like Gene, hsf2, Is Required for Asexual Spore Formation?  

OpenAIRE

Appropriate responses of organisms to heat stress are essential for their survival. In eukaryotes, adaptation to high temperatures is mediated by heat shock transcription factors (HSFs). HSFs regulate the expression of heat shock proteins, which function as molecular chaperones assisting in protein folding and stability. In many model organisms a great deal is known about the products of hsf genes. An important exception is the filamentous fungus and model eukaryote Neurospora crassa. Here we...

Thompson, Seona; Croft, Nirvana J.; Sotiriou, Antonis; Piggins, Hugh D.; Crosthwaite, Susan K.

2008-01-01

200

Ecological Factors and Adolescent Marijuana Use: Results of a Prospective Study in Santiago, Chile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Despite the growing evidence that ecological factors contribute to substance use, the relationship of ecological factors and illicit drugs such as marijuana use is not well understood, particularly among adolescents in Latin America. Guided by social disorganization and social stress theories, we prospectively examined the association of disaggregated neighborhood characteristics with marijuana use among adolescents in Santiago, Chile, and tested if these relationships varied by sex. Methods: Data for this study are from 725 community-dwelling adolescents participating in the Santiago Longitudinal Study, a study of substance using behaviors among urban adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Adolescents completed a two-hour interviewer administered questionnaire with questions about drug use and factors related to drug using behaviors. Results: As the neighborhood levels of drug availability at baseline increased, but not crime or noxious environment, adolescents had higher odds of occasions of marijuana use at follow up, approximately 2 years later (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.16–1.66, even after controlling for the study’s covariates. No interactions by sex were significant. Discussion: The findings suggest that “poverty”, “crime”, and “drug problems” may not be synonyms and thus can be understood discretely. As Latin American countries re-examine their drug policies, especially those concerning decriminalizing marijuana use, the findings suggest that attempts to reduce adolescent marijuana use in disadvantaged neighborhoods may do best if efforts are concentrated on specific features of the “substance abuse environment”.

Jorge Delva

2014-03-01

201

Introduction to Ecological Landscaping: A Holistic Description and Framework to Guide the Study and Management of Urban Landscape Parcels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urbanized ecosystems and urban human populations are expanding around the world causing many negative environmental effects. A challenge for achieving sustainable urban social-ecological systems is understanding how urbanized landscapes can be designed and managed to minimize negative outcomes. To this end, an interdisciplinary Ecological Landscaping conference was organized to examine the interacting sociocultural and ecological causes and consequences of landscaping practices and products. This special issue of Cities and the Environment contains a diverse set of articles arising from that conference. In this introductory paper, we describe the meaning of ecological landscaping and a new conceptual framework that helps organize the topic’s complex issues. The essence of ecological landscaping is a holistic systems-thinking perspective for understanding the interrelationships among physical-ecological and sociocultural variables that give rise to the patterns and processes of biodiversity, abiotic conditions, and ecosystem processes within and among individually-managed urban landscape parcels. This perspective suggests that 1 variables not considered part of traditional landscaping and 2 the effects of landscaping within an individual parcel on variables outside of it must both be considered when making design and management decisions about a parcel. To illustrate how these points help create a more holistic, ecological approach to landscaping, a traditional ecosystem model is used to create a framework for discussing how sociocultural and physical-ecological inputs to a landscape parcel affect its characteristics and outputs. As exemplified by papers in this issue, an integrated sociocultural-ecological approach to the study of urban landscaping practices and products is needed to 1 understand why and how humans design and mange urban landscape parcels, 2 describe how the combined characteristics and outputs of many parcels give rise to the emergent ecosystem properties of urbanized areas, and 3 develop effective educational programs that catalyze adoption of sustainable landscaping choices and practices. The paper concludes with a discussion of challenges for the future of ecological landscaping research and practice, and a list of preliminary guidelines for ecological landscaping. We hope that this special issue will increase understanding, visibility, and research about the value of an ecological approach to urban landscaping.

Parwinder Grewal

2008-01-01

202

USDOE study: Human health and ecological risk assessment for produced water discharges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain high concentrations of radionuclides, organics and heavy metals. There are concerns about potential human health and ecological impacts from the discharge of these contaminants to the Gulf of Mexico. Data collected in the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) field study are being used in a series of human health and ecological risk assessments. These assessments will support scientifically-based regulation and risk management. This presentation: summarizes risk assessments performed for produced water discharges; describes how uncertainties in these assessments are guiding data collection efforts in the USDOE field study; and outlines ongoing risk assessment studies. In these studies, risk assessment is treated as an iterative process. An initial screening-level assessment is performed to identify important contaminants, transport and exposure pathways, and parameters. These intermediate results are used to guide data collection efforts and refinements to the analysis. At this stage in the analysis, risk is described in terms of probabilities; the uncertainties in each measured or modeled parameter are considered explicitly.

Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.; DePhillips, M.; Hamilton, L.D.

1994-12-31

203

Bioremediation in marine ecosystems: a computational study combining ecological modeling and flux balance analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pressure to search effective bioremediation methodologies for contaminated ecosystems has led to the large-scale identification of microbial species and metabolic degradation pathways. However, minor attention has been paid to the study of bioremediation in marine food webs and to the definition of integrated strategies for reducing bioaccumulation in species. We propose a novel computational framework for analysing the multiscale effects of bioremediation at the ecosystem level, based on coupling food web bioaccumulation models and metabolic models of degrading bacteria. The combination of techniques from synthetic biology and ecological network analysis allows the specification of arbitrary scenarios of contaminant removal and the evaluation of strategies based on natural or synthetic microbial strains. In this study, we derive a bioaccumulation model of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Adriatic food web, and we extend a metabolic reconstruction of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 (iJN746) with the aerobic pathway of PCBs degradation. We assess the effectiveness of different bioremediation scenarios in reducing PCBs concentration in species and we study indices of species centrality to measure their importance in the contaminant diffusion via feeding links. The analysis of the Adriatic sea case study suggests that our framework could represent a practical tool in the design of effective remediation strategies, providing at the same time insights into the ecological role of microbial communities within food webs. PMID:25309577

Taffi, Marianna; Paoletti, Nicola; Angione, Claudio; Pucciarelli, Sandra; Marini, Mauro; Liò, Pietro

2014-01-01

204

Ecological studies in the Ratanica catchment (Carpathian foothills, southern Poland) - an overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper includes an overview of ecological studies conducted since 1986 in the Ratanica pine-beech forested catchment located in the polluted, high populated southern part of Poland. General characteristics of the catchment (including soil and vegetation, air pollution, input/output of nutrients and pollutants, element budget data and forest health assessment) are presented. Based on biogeochemical and bioindication results, the Ratanica catchment has been classified as a moderately to heavily deteriorated area. Predictions for this forested catchment for various deposition of anthropogenic pollutants, are also discussed. 22 refs., 1 fig

205

STUDIES CONCERNING THE ECOLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF SOIL IN ORDER TO ENSURE A SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study aim to determine the effectiveness of the proposed ecological reconstruction method by using the perennial grasses (e.g. Festuca rubra, Poa Pratensis, Lolium perenne, and Medicago sativa and dolomite (DEL-CA-MAG as a soil amendment for a degraded soil (i.e. Valea Voievozilor area, Dambovita County, Romania, in order to improvements the quality indicators of analyzed soil. The physicochemical indicators of soil (e.g. pH, conductivity, salinity, TDS, redox potential, turbidity, humidity, carbonate, nitrate and nitrite concentration were determined.

CRISTIANA RADULESCU

2013-09-01

206

Fire Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

Forest fires have become a regular summertime occurrence in North America, sparking debate about the proper role of fire on the land. The following websites examine fires and fire ecology in different ecosystems, regions, and time periods. The first site (1), from the USGS-Western Ecological Research Center shares information about fire ecology research in the California shrublands, Sierra Nevada forests, and Mohave and Sonoran deserts. The second site (2) features the Fire Ecology Center at Texas Tech University. The Fire Ecology Center focuses on the role of fire in grassland ecosystems and their website contains information on current research, publications, managing pastures, managing problem plants, and more. The third site (3), from the USGS-Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center contains "an annotated bibliography on fire in North American wetland ecosystems and a subject index of all fire-related literature that has appeared in Wildlife Review." Hosted by Yellowstone National Park, the fourth site (4) addresses wildland fires in Yellowstone. The Park website presents brief sections on Fire Ecology, Fire Monitoring, Prescribed Fire, and Fire Effects -- to name a few. The fifth (5) site, from the Canadian Forest Service, provides information about forest fires in Canada including weekly fire statistics, fire research, daily fire maps, a fire database, and more. Part of a great site on the land use history of the Colorado Plateau from Northern Arizona University, the sixth site (6) offers a brief overview of wildfire history and ecology on the Plateau with links to information about ponderosa pine fire ecology, reintroduction of fire to forest ecosystems, and fire ecology research studies. The seventh site (7), from DiscoverySchool.com, contains a lesson plan on forest fire ecology for grade levels 9-12. The lesson spans two class periods and the site provides objectives, materials needed, discussion questions, academic standards, and more. The final (8) website, from the Why Files, "examines the role of fire in natural systems, and the role of science in understanding wildfires." The eleven-page website follows a kid-friendly narrative format and includes a bibliography and glossary.

207

How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran. Biodiversitas 15: 31-38. Species diversity is one of the most important indices for evaluating the stability and productivity of forest ecosystems. The aim of this research was to recognize ecological species groups and to determine the relationship between environmental variables and the distribution of ecological species groups. For this purpose, 25 400-m2 relevés were sampled using the Braun-Blanquet method. Vegetation was classified using modified Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN and resulted in three ecological species groups. Different species diversity indices were applied to quantify diversity of these species groups. ANOVA and Duncan’s tests indicated that all species and environmental variables except altitude changed significantly across the species groups. The results also showed that the group located in the northern aspect and on low slopes had the highest diversity indices compared with groups located in dry aspects and on high slopes. In reality, abundant precipitation (northern aspect ( and soil enrichment (low slopes are principal factors that provide suitable conditions for plant growth and species diversity. Thus, the study of diversity changes in ecological species groups can result in an ecologically precise perspective for managing forest ecosystems.

FATEMEH BAZDID VAHDATI¹,

2014-11-01

208

Cavity types and microclimate: implications for ecological, evolutionary, and conservation studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The abiotic conditions of the immediate environment of organisms are key factors for a better understanding of ecological and evolutionary processes. Yet, information in this regard is biased towards some habitat types, landscapes, and organisms. Here, we present a 2-year comparative study of the microclimatic properties (temperature, relative humidity, and their fluctuation) of three cavity types (nest boxes, cavities in bridges, and burrows in sandy cliffs) in an arid environment. We found marked and consistent months-long differences in microclimate among the three cavity types. Nest boxes were colder than the other cavity types, with temperature oscillations being an order of magnitude higher than in other cavity types. In contrast, microclimate was very stable in burrows and cavities in bridges, the former being generally warmer and drier than the latter. We also discuss the biological implications of microclimatic conditions and its variation in different cavity types by presenting two case studies, namely the temperature-humidity index and water vapor pressure during the hatching period of an endotherm and the chilling period during the diapause of an ectotherm ectoparasite. We stress the need for comparative studies of the same organisms subjected to different microclimates given the important ecological, evolutionary, and conservation implications. PMID:24573376

Amat-Valero, M; Calero-Torralbo, M A; Václav, R; Valera, F

2014-11-01

209

A radiological case study of quantitative, probabilistic ecological risk assessment, using recently developed assessment tools  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case study of tritium release into a marine ecosystem demonstrates the feasibility of combining recent dose-estimation software (radiological impact assessment for coastal aquatic ecosystems, Version 1.15) with dose-response data selected from the FASSET Radiation Effects Database (FRED) to provide a basis for quantitative and probabilistic ecological risk assessment. The ecological risk assessment software, AQUARISK, fits probability distributions to both 'exposure' and 'response' data (matched as either dose or dose-rate) and uses a convolution algorithm to evaluate the overlap between the two distributions. Probabilistic estimates of exposure criteria are derived from the distribution fitted to the selected response data. Using only 'lowest observed effect' and 'highest no effect' dose-rates, a quite low criterion for the protection of 95% of species (15 ?Gy hr-1, with a 95% lower uncertainty limit of 3 ?Gy hr-1) is estimated. This compares with the proposed Canadian criteria for aquatic biota, with the 1/10th safety factor applied (i.e. 5 to 10 ?Gy hr-1). A conservative scenario, assuming constant exposure to undiluted effluent, estimated a very low likelihood of environmental damage in this case study. (author)

210

Connecting scales: achieving in-field pest control from areawide and landscape ecology studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Areawide management has a long history of achieving solutions that target pests, however, there has been little focus on the areawide management of arthropod natural enemies. Landscape ecology studies that show a positive relationship between natural enemy abundance and habitat diversity demonstrate landscape-dependent pest suppression, but have not yet clearly linked their findings to pest management or to the suite of pests associated with crops that require control. Instead the focus has often been on model systems of single pest species and their natural enemies. We suggest that management actions to capture pest control from natural enemies may be forth coming if: (i) the suite of response and predictor variables focus on pest complexes and specific management actions; (ii) the contribution of "the landscape" is identified by assessing the timing and numbers of natural enemies immigrating and emigrating to and from the target crop, as well as pests; and (iii) pest control thresholds aligned with crop development stages are the benchmark to measure impact of natural enemies on pests, in turn allowing for comparison between study regions, and generalizations. To achieve pest control we will need to incorporate what has been learned from an ecological understanding of model pest and natural enemy systems and integrate areawide landscape management with in-field pest management. PMID:25099692

Schellhorn, Nancy A; Parry, Hazel R; Macfadyen, Sarina; Wang, Yongmo; Zalucki, Myron P

2015-02-01

211

Importance of thermal ecological studies in environment management around nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In thermal power plants, only about 30% of the heat energy generated is converted to electricity. Remaining heat is released to the environment either to atmosphere or to the nearest water body. During the operation of plants, it is essential to ensure that the release of heated effluent does not lead to any harmful consequences to eco system. Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) has stipulated stringent regulation with respect to temperature of the heated effluent that can be released to the environment. All power plants under DAE are strictly following this stipulation. As a pro-active step, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) carried out a comprehensive environmental impact assessment studies at Kalpakkam (coastal) site and at Kaiga (inland) site. The studies at Kalpakkam were coordinated by Water and Steam Chemistry Laboratory, Kalpakkam and the studies at Kaiga site was coordinated by Environmental Survey Laboratory, Kaiga. In addition to temperature mapping at the mixing zone, a detailed analysis of influence of heated effluent on water quality, primary productivity, benthic eco system, bio geochemical cycle, fish composition and diversity were carried out by different specialist groups under a coordinated BRNS project. The comprehensive thermal ecological studies clearly indicated that release of heated effluents does not lead to any significant impact on the overall ecosystem of the respective water body at Kalpakkam and Kaiga sites. Data generated in thesem and Kaiga sites. Data generated in these studies are very useful in the designing suitable out fall system so that ecology of the aquatic body is not disturbed. This paper presents the highlights of the importance of such studies and salient features of the studies. (author)

212

Biodiversity and productivity of Rana Patap Sagar lake a thermo-ecological study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rana Pratap Sagar (RPS) in Rajasthan, is a man made fresh water reservoir and is balancing between Gandhi Sagar on upstream and Jawahar sagar on its down stream. On its eastern bank there exists Rawatbhata Site, comprising of multi -nuclear facilities. There are four PHWR units of Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) which are in operations, two are under construction and another two are under advanced stage of planning. In addition to nuclear power plants the Site also houses a Heavy Water Plant and other allied facilities such as cobalt facility and waste management facilities. RAPS draws water from RPS lake through a 300 m long conduit pipe located at lake bottom about 20 m below the surface. Duly treated low level radioactive liquid effluents from RAPS facilities are injected to the warmed condenser outlet and then allowed to discharge to RPS in a controlled manner. The warm water is likely to remain at the surface and get mixed with lake water and cooled due to dilutions, evaporation from lake surface and wind currents. The heat release to the RPS lake through condenser outlet may effect the microbiological and water quality parameters, planktonic biodiversity, fish productivity etc. and thus it is imperative to conduct the thermal ecological study to assess the extent of maturation of the water body to identify its present trophic status in terms of eutrophication. This presentation gives the details of thermal ecological studies carried out at Rana Pratap Sagaal studies carried out at Rana Pratap Sagar lake during 2002-2004 under DAE-BRNS project.. The study includes monitoring of several water quality parameters, biological and bacterial parameters and data on thermal stratification in respect of RPS reservoir. The data so obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. The probabilistic and possibilistic approaches have been applied to evaluate ecological risk. The study reveals that there is no adverse effect on RPS water quality owing to receive the warmed effluents from RAPS. Furthermore, it shows that RPS water is nearly homogeneous and shows weak thermocline and chemocline patterns. Based on monitoring data, the reservoir can be assigned mild eutrophic status. (author)

213

The integration of GPS, vegetation mapping and GIS in ecological and behavioural studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global Positioning System (GPS satellite navigation receivers are increasingly being used in ecological and behavioural studies to track the movements of animals in relation to the environments in which they live and forage. Concurrent recording of the animal's foraging behaviour (e.g. from jaw movement recording allows foraging locations to be determined. By combining the animal GPS movement and foraging data with habitat and vegetation maps using a Geographical Information System (GIS it is possible to relate animal movement and foraging location to landscape and habitat features and vegetation types. This powerful approach is opening up new opportunities to study the spatial aspects of animal behaviour, especially foraging behaviour, with far greater precision and objectivity than before. Advances in GPS technology now mean that sub-metre precision systems can be used to track animals, extending the range of application of this technology from landscape and habitat scale to paddock and patch scale studies. As well as allowing ecological hypotheses to be empirically tested at the patch scale, the improvements in precision are also leading to the approach being increasing extended from large scale ecological studies to smaller (paddock scale agricultural studies. The use of sub-metre systems brings both new scientific opportunities and new technological challenges. For example, fitting all of the animals in a group with sub-metre precision GPS receivers allows their relative inter-individual distances to be precisely calculated, and their relative orientations can be derived from data from a digital compass fitted to each receiver. These data, analyzed using GIS, could give new insights into the social behaviour of animals. However, the improvements in precision with which the animals are being tracked also needs equivalent improvements in the precision with which habitat and vegetation are mapped. This needs some degree of automation, as vegetation mapping at a fine spatial scale using the traditional manual approach is far too time consuming. This paper explores these issues, discussing new applications as well as approaches to overcoming some of the associated problems.

Steven Mark Rutter

2007-07-01

214

The integration of GPS, vegetation mapping and GIS in ecological and behavioural studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite navigation receivers are increasingly being used in ecological and behavioural studies to track the movements of animals in relation to the environments in which they live and forage. Concurrent recording of the animal's foraging behaviour (e.g. from jaw mov [...] ement recording) allows foraging locations to be determined. By combining the animal GPS movement and foraging data with habitat and vegetation maps using a Geographical Information System (GIS) it is possible to relate animal movement and foraging location to landscape and habitat features and vegetation types. This powerful approach is opening up new opportunities to study the spatial aspects of animal behaviour, especially foraging behaviour, with far greater precision and objectivity than before. Advances in GPS technology now mean that sub-metre precision systems can be used to track animals, extending the range of application of this technology from landscape and habitat scale to paddock and patch scale studies. As well as allowing ecological hypotheses to be empirically tested at the patch scale, the improvements in precision are also leading to the approach being increasing extended from large scale ecological studies to smaller (paddock) scale agricultural studies. The use of sub-metre systems brings both new scientific opportunities and new technological challenges. For example, fitting all of the animals in a group with sub-metre precision GPS receivers allows their relative inter-individual distances to be precisely calculated, and their relative orientations can be derived from data from a digital compass fitted to each receiver. These data, analyzed using GIS, could give new insights into the social behaviour of animals. However, the improvements in precision with which the animals are being tracked also needs equivalent improvements in the precision with which habitat and vegetation are mapped. This needs some degree of automation, as vegetation mapping at a fine spatial scale using the traditional manual approach is far too time consuming. This paper explores these issues, discussing new applications as well as approaches to overcoming some of the associated problems.

Steven Mark, Rutter.

2007-07-01

215

Mesocosm soil ecological risk assessment tool for GMO 2nd tier studies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) of GMO is basically identical to ERA of chemical substances, when it comes to assessing specific effects of the GMO plant material on the soil ecosystem. The tiered approach always includes the option of studying more complex but still realistic ecosystem level effects in 2nd tier caged experimental systems, cf. the new GMO ERA guidance: EFSA Journal 2010; 8(11):1879. We propose to perform a trophic structure analysis, TSA, and include the trophic structure as an ecological endpoint to gain more direct insight into the change in interactions between species, i.e. the food-web structure, instead of relying only on the indirect evidence from population abundances. The approach was applied for effect assessment in the agro-ecosystem where we combined factors of elevated CO2, viz. global climate change, and GMO plant effects. A multi-species (Collembola, Acari and Enchytraeidae) mesocosm factorial experiment was set up in a greenhouse at ambient CO2 and 450 ppm CO2 with a GM barley variety and conventional varieties. The GM barley differed concerning the composition of amino acids in the grain (antisense C-hordein line). The fungicide carbendazim acted as a positive control. After 5 and 11 weeks, data on populations, plants and soil organic matter decomposition were evaluated. Natural abundances of stable isotopes, 13C and 15N, of animals, soil, plants and added organic matter (crushed maize leaves) were used to describe the soil food web structure.

D'Annibale, Alessandra; Maraldo, Kristine

216

The (limited) political influence of ecological economics. A case study on Dutch environmental policies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the ecological economics (EE) discourse attempts to influence environmental policy, empirical studies have concluded that its success in this endeavour has been limited thus far. In the Netherlands, however, two EE-related policy concepts, Environmental Utilisation Space and Ecological Footprint, were strongly present in environmental policy during certain periods in time, but subsequently disappeared from the environmental agenda. The central question of this article is how these ups and downs of the EE concepts can be understood: which factors determine their rise on and fall from the policy agenda over time? To answer this question, this article offers a conceptual model informed by the approaches in political science on framing, agenda-setting and knowledge utilisation. We conclude that the interplay of concept-specific characteristics, the formation of coalitions around the concept and contextual variables explain the rise and fall of the aforementioned concepts. A match between the dominant policy frame and the core elements of the concept provides the opportunity for the two concepts to be pushed on the agenda. We observe the alternation of 'constraining' frames, which allows for EE concepts to survive, and 'reconciling' frames, which block agenda entrance for EE concepts. Furthermore, the alternation of these frames seems to correlate with economic and public environmental attention cycles in the Netherlands. (author)(author)

217

Assessing Ecological Water Quality with Macroinvertebrates and Fish: A Case Study from a Small Mediterranean River  

Science.gov (United States)

Biological elements, such as benthic macroinvertebrates and fish, have been used in assessing the ecological quality of rivers according to the requirements of the Water Framework Directive. However, the concurrent use of multiple organism groups provides a broader perspective for such evaluations, since each biological element may respond differently to certain environmental variables. In the present study, we assessed the ecological quality of a Greek river (RM4 type), during autumn 2003 and spring 2004 at 10 sites, with benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. Hydromorphological and physicochemical parameters, habitat structure, and riparian vegetation were also considered. Pollution sensitive macroinvertebrate taxa were more abundant at headwaters, which had good/excellent water quality according to the Hellenic Evaluation System (HES). The main river reaches possessed moderate water quality, while downstream sites were mainly characterised as having bad or poor water quality, dominated by pollution-tolerant macroinvertebrate taxa. Macroinvertebrates related strongly to local stressors as chemical degradation (ordination analysis CCA) and riparian quality impairment (bivariate analysis) while fish did not. Fish were absent from the severely impacted lower river reaches. Furthermore, external pathological signs were observed in fish caught at certain sites. A combined use of both macroinvertebrates and fish in biomonitoring programs is proposed for providing a safer assessment of local and regional habitat impairment.

Cheimonopoulou, Maria Th.; Bobori, Dimitra C.; Theocharopoulos, Ioannis; Lazaridou, Maria

2011-02-01

218

Giving Back: Collaborations with Others in Ecological Studies on the Nevada National Security Site - 13058  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Formerly named the Nevada Test Site, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) was the historical site for nuclear weapons testing from the 1950's to the early 1990's. The site was renamed in 2010 to reflect the diversity of nuclear, energy, and homeland security activities now conducted at the site. Biological and ecological programs and research have been conducted on the site for decades to address the impacts of radiation and to take advantage of the relatively undisturbed and isolated lands for gathering basic information on the occurrence and distribution of native plants and animals. Currently, the Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) oversees the radiological biota monitoring and ecological compliance programs on the NNSS. The top priority of these programs are compliance with federal and state regulations. They focus on performing radiological dose assessments for the public who reside near the NNSS and for populations of plants and animals on the NNSS and in protecting important species and habitat from direct impacts of mission activities. The NNSS serves as an invaluable outdoor laboratory. The geographic and ecological diversity of the site offers researchers many opportunities to study human influences on ecosystems. NNSA/NSO has pursued collaborations with outside agencies and organizations to be able to conduct programs and studies that enhance radiological biota monitoring and ecosystem preservation when budgets are restrictive, as well as to provide valuable scientific information to the human health and natural resource communities at large. NNSA/NSO is using one current collaborative study to better assess the potential dose to the off-site public from the ingestion of game animals, the most realistic pathway for off-site public exposure at this time from radionuclide contamination on the NNSS. A second collaborative study is furthering desert tortoise conservation measures onsite. It is the goal of NNSA/NSO to continue to develop such collaborations in the sharing of resources, such as personnel, equipment, expertise, and NNSS land access, with outside entities to meet mutually beneficial goals cost effectively. (authors)

219

Methodological approaches for studying the microbial ecology of drinking water distribution systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of the microbial ecology of drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) has traditionally been based on culturing organisms from bulk water samples. The development and application of molecular methods has supplied new tools for examining the microbial diversity and activity of environmental samples, yielding new insights into the microbial community and its diversity within these engineered ecosystems. In this review, the currently available methods and emerging approaches for characterising microbial communities, including both planktonic and biofilm ways of life, are critically evaluated. The study of biofilms is considered particularly important as it plays a critical role in the processes and interactions occurring at the pipe wall and bulk water interface. The advantages, limitations and usefulness of methods that can be used to detect and assess microbial abundance, community composition and function are discussed in a DWDS context. This review will assist hydraulic engineers and microbial ecologists in choosing the most appropriate tools to assess drinking water microbiology and related aspects. PMID:25105587

Douterelo, Isabel; Boxall, Joby B; Deines, Peter; Sekar, Raju; Fish, Katherine E; Biggs, Catherine A

2014-11-15

220

Distribution of Brazilian dermatologists according to geographic location, population and HDI of municipalities: an ecological study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study investigated the geographic distribution of dermatologists in Brazilian municipalities in relation to the population, regions of the country and human development index. We conducted an ecological study based on data from the 2010 census, the 2010 human development index, and the records [...] of the Brazilian Society of Dermatology. 5565 municipalities and 6718 dermatologists were surveyed. Only 504 (9.1%) municipalities had dermatologists, and accounted for 56.2% of the Brazilian population. The smallest population size and lowest HDI rate that best discriminated municipalities that did not have dermatologists were found to be 28,000 and 0.71, respectively. The average population density of dermatologists in cities was 1/23.000 inhabitants, and variations were independently associated with the HDI, the population of the municipalities and the region of the country.

Juliano Vilaverde, Schmitt; Hélio Amante, Miot.

1013-10-01

221

Emotional Reactivity and Regulation in Anxious and Nonanxious Youth: A Cell-Phone Ecological Momentary Assessment Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Reviews have highlighted anxious youths' affective disturbances, specifically, elevated negative emotions and reliance on ineffective emotion regulation strategies. However, no study has examined anxious youth's emotional reactivity and regulation in real-world contexts. Methods: This study utilized an ecological momentary assessment…

Tan, Patricia Z.; Forbes, Erika E.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Ryan, Neal D.; Siegle, Greg J.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Silk, Jennifer S.

2012-01-01

222

Conceptualizing and Estimating Process Speed in Studies Employing Ecological Momentary Assessment Designs: A Multilevel Variance Decomposition Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers have been making use of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and other study designs that sample feelings and behaviors in real time and in naturalistic settings to study temporal dynamics and contextual factors of a wide variety of psychological, physiological, and behavioral processes. As EMA designs become more widespread,…

Shiyko, Mariya P.; Ram, Nilam

2011-01-01

223

Integrating a DNA barcoding project with an ecological survey: a case study on temperate intertidal polychaete communities in Qingdao, China  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we integrated a DNA barcoding project with an ecological survey on intertidal polychaete communities and investigated the utility of CO1 gene sequence as a DNA barcode for the classification of the intertidal polychaetes. Using 16S rDNA as a complementary marker and combining morphological and ecological characterization, some of dominant and common polychaete species from Chinese coasts were assessed for their taxonomic status. We obtained 22 haplotype gene sequences of 13 taxa, including 10 CO1 sequences and 12 16S rDNA sequences. Based on intra- and inter-specific distances, we built phylogenetic trees using the neighbor-joining method. Our study suggested that the mitochondrial CO1 gene was a valid DNA barcoding marker for species identification in polychaetes, but other genes, such as 16S rDNA, could be used as a complementary genetic marker. For more accurate species identification and effective testing of species hypothesis, DNA barcoding should be incorporated with morphological, ecological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic information. The application of DNA barcoding and molecular identification in the ecological survey on the intertidal polychaete communities demonstrated the feasibility of integrating DNA taxonomy and ecology.

Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Zhinan; Chen, Haiyan; Sun, Renhua; Wang, Hui; Guo, Lei; Pan, Haijian

2010-07-01

224

Humanity, Forest Ecology, and the Future in a British Columbia Valley:A Case Study  

OpenAIRE

One of the most important and challenging issues facing humanity in the 21st century is the increasingly complex human-ecology interface. This article suggests the potential that integral mediation and integral ecology hold in addressing this interface. It distinguishes two categories of ecological challenges, removed and local tangible ones, and indicates that they require adapting methodologies to address them. Using a local tangible challenge—a 35-year old conflict over land use issues i...

Stephan Martineau

2007-01-01

225

Ecological character displacement in Plethodon: Biomechanical differences found from a geometric morphometric study  

OpenAIRE

Ecological character displacement describes a pattern where morphological differences between sympatric species are enhanced through interspecific competition. Although widely considered a pervasive force in evolutionary ecology, few clear-cut examples have been documented. Here we report a case of ecological character displacement between two salamander species, Plethodon cinereus and Plethodon hoffmani. Morphology was quantified by using linear measurements and landmark-based geometric morp...

Adams, Dean C.; Rohlf, F. James

2000-01-01

226

The need for an ecological approach within the study and comprehension of cognitive processes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los procesos cognitivos organizan y transforman inferencialmente la información sensorio-perceptiva del medio. La base de dichos procesos es ecológica. Se entiende como ecológica toda relación entre un organismo viviente y su medio para alcanzar los balances entre su medio interno y externo. Esas re [...] laciones permiten explicar las funciones preservadoras de la vida. La representación mental es una función preservadora de la vida. Cada especie desarrolla (como requisito de superviviencia) su propia representación holográfica del medio ambiente, pero esta representación adquiere la máxima complejidad cognitiva en la especie humana. Si un desbalance se perpetúa, lleva a la muerte del organismo y a la extinción de la especie. En esto reside la importancia del enfoque ecológico y la profundización del mismo. La explicación de los procesos cognitivos ha avanzado a través de un esquema ecológico tipo abajo/arriba, bottom-up, más que a través de esquemas formales - proposicionales de tipo teoricista arriba / abajo o top-down. Abstract in english Cognitive processes are information, meaning, structure organization and transformation processes, most of which are inferential. Then, an important question about cognitive processes is: What is their deepest basis? Where, when, how and at what level do they originate? Here, it is proposed that the [...] original and deepest basis of cognitive processes is essentially ecological and sustained on the permanent unity and relationship between the living organism and its environment. We understand as ecological the undecomposable union between a living organism and its environment, as well as every kind of immediate and stepwise relationship between them. The relationships between a living organism and its environment is held everyday and continuously in order to get its life-preserving resources and to adopt their adequate, best or most successful actions and reactions over the environment, as well as to reach its necessary internal and external balances with and within it. In these terms, the elementary perception and categorization are seen as basic cognitive processes originated in that permanent and whole ecological relationship. This way, representation systems and information processes as developed by each species are seen as basic preservation functions (life-preservation functions) in the teleonomic sense given by Pittendrigh (1958) and later used by Lorenz (1986) within his ethological approach. These arguments support the idea that any species, whatever simpler or complex it may be, whenever it is endowed of minimal sensors (elementary sensory perceptive receptors) for light (sight), odor (olfaction), sound (hearing), taste and tactile stimuli, etc., can form and must have a minimal representation of its immediate surroundings; and so that those living organisms can then count on or have at their own's disposal a minimal mental representation of the immediate and customary environment in which they live and survive along all their lifetime. Otherwise these living organisms will soon and easily die, and its species will be exposed to be extinguished soon too. So, all these argumentations are required and provided in order to analyze and explain the origin of cognitive processes within an ecological bottom-up direction. The main approaches adopted to sustain this ecological view originate in Gibson's (1979) studies on direct perception, in Rosch's (1978) approaches to natural and prototypical categorization of concept-formation, and, finally, it is also found in different attempts by Schank and Abelson (1977) and other authors to describe, for example, the formation of semantic primitives, or of schemata and scripts on alternative and ever changing areas of commonplace social experience and representations. One cue is to easily differentiate between the role and definition between defined attributes and characteristic or prototypical attributes when referring to concepts and their s

Alfredo Oscar, López Alonso; Ricardo, Minervino.

2007-12-01

227

Snow Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

In this volume, a multidisciplinary group of acknowledged experts fully intergrate the physical, chemical, and biological sciences to provide a complete understanding of the interrelationships between snow structure and life. This volume opens a new perspecitve on snow cover as a habitat for organisms under extreme environmental conditions and as a key factor in the ecology of much of the Earth's surface. The contributors describe the fundamental physical and small-scale chemical processes that characterize the evolution of snow and their influence on the life cycles of true snow organisms and the biota of cold regions with extended snow cover. The book further expands on the role of snow in the biosphere by the study of the relationship between snow and climate and the paleo-ecological evidence for the influence of past snow regimes on plant communities. Snow Ecology will form a main textbook on advanced courses in biology, ecology, geography, environmental science, and earth science where an important component is devoted to the study of the cryosphere. It will also be useful as a reference text for graduate students, researchers, and professionals at academic institutions and in government and nongovernmental agencies with environmental concerns.

Jones, H. G.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Walker, D. A.; Hoham, R. W.

2001-01-01

228

Administrative Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

2007-01-01

229

Radio-ecological studies on the air-soil-vine-wine food chain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report summarizes the results of the first three years (1983-85) of the radio-ecological studies on wine which were performed on eight sites from major German wine-growing regions involving red and white wine varieties typical of their region. The radionuclides of tritium, carbon 14, strontium 90, cesium 137, radium 226 and sodium 40 were examined for their contents and presence in the food chain of air-soil-vine-wine in order to determine the pollution situation in grapes and wine and to gain information on their behaviour in the food chain. A number of soil parameters important for nutrient uptake were determined to describe the site. (orig./MG)

230

Tuberculosis in women from Pashtun region: an ecological study in Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMMARY In general, tuberculosis (TB) is more common in men than women. However, for reasons currently not understood, women are 1·5-2 times more likely to report TB compared to men in Pashtun region (Afghanistan, adjacent provinces Pakistan and Iran). We explored whether or not gender disparity in TB notifications in the Pashtun region of Pakistan can be explained by Pashtun ethnicity. Using an ecological linear regression design, we estimated the effect of Pashtun ethnicity on female-to-male ratio (FMR) in TB notifications after adjusting for other determinants of women's health, in Pakistan. Districts with a high proportion of women of Pashtun ethnicity had a 44% (95% confidence interval 27-61) increase in FMR of notified TB cases compared to those with low proportions, after controlling for confounders. Genetic predisposition and distinct socio-cultural determinants could be possible causative factors. However, these hypotheses need further evaluation through rigorous longitudinal studies. PMID:24992188

Shah, S K; Dogar, O F; Siddiqi, K

2015-04-01

231

Occurrence of severe dengue in Rio de Janeiro: an ecological study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Introduction This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the incidence of severe dengue during the 2008 epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and socioeconomic indicators, as well as indicators of health [...] service availability and previous circulation of the dengue virus serotype-3 (DENV-3). Methods In this ecological study, the units of analysis were the districts of Rio de Janeiro. The data were incorporated into generalized linear models, and the incidence of severe dengue in each district was the outcome variable. Results The districts with more cases of dengue fever in the 2001 epidemic and a higher percentage of residents who declared their skin color or race as black had higher incidence rates of severe dengue in the 2008 epidemic [incidence rate ratio (IRR)= 1.21; 95% confidence interval (95%CI)= 1.05-1.40 and IRR= 1.34; 95%CI= 1.16-1.54, respectively]. In contrast, the districts with Family Health Strategy (FHS) clinics were more likely to have lower incidence rates of severe dengue in the 2008 epidemic (IRR= 0.81; 95%CI= 0.70-0.93). Conclusions At the ecological level, our findings suggest the persistence of health inequalities in this region of Brazil that are possibly due to greater social vulnerability among the self-declared black population. Additionally, the protective effect of FHS clinics may be due to the ease of access to other levels of care in the health system or to a reduced vulnerability to dengue transmission that is afforded by local practices to promote health.

Gerusa, Gibson; Reinaldo, Souza-Santos; Alexandre San, Pedro; Nildimar Alves, Honório; Marilia, Sá Carvalho.

2014-12-01

232

The influence of ecology on chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) cultural behavior: a case study of five Ugandan chimpanzee communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of ecology on the development of behavioral traditions in animals is controversial, particularly for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), for which it is difficult to rule out environmental influences as a cause of widely observed community-specific behavioral differences. Here, we investigated 3 potential scenarios that could explain the natural variation in a key extractive tool behavior, "fluid-dip," among several communities of chimpanzees of the Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii subspecies in Uganda. We compared data from previous behavioral ecological studies, field experiments, and long-term records of chimpanzee tool-using behavior. We focused on the quality of the available food, dietary preferences, and tool sets of 5 different communities, and carried out a standardized field experiment to test systematically for the presence of fluid-dip in 4 of these communities. Our results revealed major differences in habitat, available diet, and tool use behavior between geographically close communities. However, these differences in ecology and feeding behavior failed to explain the differences in tool use across communities. We conclude that ecological variables may lead both to innovation and loss of behavioral traditions, while contributing little to their transmission within the community. Instead, as soon as a behavioral tradition is established, sociocognitive factors likely play a key maintenance role as long as the ecological conditions do not change sufficiently for the tradition to be abandoned. PMID:22746159

Gruber, Thibaud; Potts, Kevin B; Krupenye, Christopher; Byrne, Maisie-Rose; Mackworth-Young, Constance; McGrew, William C; Reynolds, Vernon; Zuberbühler, Klaus

2012-11-01

233

Ecology, Microbial  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microbial ecology is a relatively young discipline within the field of microbiology. Its modern history spans just the past 60 years, and the field is defined by its emphasis on understanding the interactions of microbes with their environment, rather than their behavior under artificial laboratory conditions. Because microbes are ubiquitous, microbial ecologists study a broad diversity of habitats that range from aquatic to terrestrial to plant- or animal-associated. This has made it a challenge to identify unifying principles within the field. One approach is to recognize that although the activity of microbes in nature have effects at the macroscale, they interact with their physical, chemical and biological milieu at a scale of micrometers. At this scale, several different microbial ecosystems can be defined, based upon association with particles, the presence of environmental gradients and the continuous availability of water. Principles applicable to microbial ecology reflect not only their population ecology and physiological ecology, but also their broad versatility and quantitative importance in the biosphere as biogeochemical catalysts and capacity for rapid physiological and evolutionary responses.

Konopka, Allan

2009-05-15

234

Ecology, Microbial  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microbial ecology is a relatively young discipline within the field of microbiology. Its modern history spans just the past 60 years, and the field is defined by its emphasis on understanding the interactions of microbes with their environment, rather than their behavior under artificial laboratory conditions. Because microbes are ubiquitous, microbial ecologists study a broad diversity of habitats that range from aquatic to terrestrial to plant- or animal-associated. This has made it a challenge to identify unifying principles within the field. One approach is to recognize that although the activity of microbes in nature have effects at the macroscale, they interact with their physical, chemical and biological milieu at a scale of micrometers. At this scale, several different microbial ecosystems can be defined, based upon association with particles, the presence of environmental gradients and the continuous availability of water. Principles applicable to microbial ecology reflect not only their population ecology and physiological ecology, but also their broad versatility and quantitative importance in the biosphere as biogeochemical catalysts and capacity for rapid physiological and evolutionary responses.

Konopka, Allan

2009-03-19

235

Integration of field and captive studies for understanding the behavioral ecology of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sp.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Captive and field studies both provide valuable and complementary information that lead to a better understanding of a species' behavioral ecology. Here, we review studies from wild, captive, and semi-free ranging populations of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sp.), in order to (a) provide a more current (1985-2010) review of Saimiri behavioral ecology and (b) illustrate that integrating data collected in a variety of settings is an effective approach to addressing ecological questions in primates. Captive environments, such as zoological facilities and research colonies, can be advantageous to researchers by allowing longitudinal studies of behavior and reproduction, as well as providing opportunities for gathering data on life history, because physiological and life history data are known for individual animals. Studies of field populations can provide contextual information regarding the adaptive nature of behaviors that are studied in captivity. Squirrel monkeys are small, neotropical primates that have extensively been used in captive research. As the last in-depth review of Saimiri biology was published in 1985 [Rosenblum & Coe, The squirrel monkey. New York: Academic Press], we review studies since conducted on Saimiri ecology, life history, social behavior, reproduction, and conservation. Our review indicates that there is much variation in socioecology and life history traits between Saimiri species and, surprisingly, also between populations of the same species studied at different locales. In addition, much is known about squirrel monkey reproductive physiology, basic ecology, and vocal communication, but data are still lacking in the fields of life history and some adaptive components and social behavior. In particular, longitudinal studies in the field would be particularly relevant for a genus with a slow life history such as Saimiri. Finally, few data (captive or wild) are available on S. ustus and S. vanzolinii, though at least one of these species is threatened. PMID:21404315

Zimbler-Delorenzo, Heather S; Stone, Anita I

2011-07-01

236

Characterization of 35 novel microsatellite loci for ecological and evolutionary studies of the bluntnose minnow (Pimephales notatus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The bluntnose minnow (Pimephales notatus) is abundant and widespread with a broad ecological niche. This species is also sexually dimorphic with strong competition between males during the mating season. We developed two genomic libraries enriched for microsatellite repeats - one dinucleotide and one tetranucleotide - and isolated 48 putative, novel microsatellite loci. Of those, we present 35 polymorphic and statistically independent microsatellite markers with two to 18 alleles per locus and heterozygosities ranging from 0.04 to 1. These markers will be useful for future behavioural, ecological, evolutionary and mating system studies using P. notatus. PMID:21564771

Landis, J B; Grose, M J; Wiley, E O; Hudman, S P

2009-05-01

237

A Case Study: Using Authentic Scientific Data for Teaching and Learning of Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a culminating assignment for students enrolled in a human ecology course in a Masters in Science Education program. The goal of this assignment was for students to use published scientific data to link daily life, human impact, and sustainability to ecological function. This activity required students to consider the…

Wyner, Yael

2013-01-01

238

GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND ECOLOGY CASE STUDY – ?ARCU MOUNTAINS (SOUTHERN CARPATHIANS)  

OpenAIRE

The significance of geographic information systems (GIS) for environmental managment and resource planning has increased in recent years. Current ecological theory, in particular ecosystem theoy, is characteriyed by a new better understanding of ecosystem patterns and dynamics. This paper describes some of the basic application methods using GIS in connection with ecological factors constrained by relief in ?arcu Mountains, Southern Carpathians.

Oance, M. To?ro?k –.; Oance, Rodica To?ro?k –.

2003-01-01

239

Studies on Sustainable Development of Ecological Sports Tourism Resources and Its Industry  

OpenAIRE

Through the analysis of ecological sports tourism resources and its characteristics, we investigated the key ecological sports tourism resources from the angle of regional planning, industrialization programming, design and so on in the present paper and put forward novel countermeasure for sustainable development.

Pengfei Zhu

2009-01-01

240

Data Explorations in Ecology: Salt Pollution as a Case Study for Teaching Data Literacy  

Science.gov (United States)

Does working with first- and second-hand ecological data improve students' knowledge of ecological ideas, motivation and engagement in science, data exploration, and citizenship skills (students' ability to make informed decisions)? We have been exploring this question with high school science teachers in New York State for the past year using a…

Harris, Cornelia; Berkowitz, Alan R.; Alvarado, Angelita

2012-01-01

241

[Ecological risk assessment of human activity of rapid economic development regions in southern Jiangsu, China: a case study of Dantu District of Zhenjiang City].  

Science.gov (United States)

This article investigated the spatiotemporal variation of landscape ecological risk in Dantu District of Zhenjiang City with statistical method based on the ETM remote sensing data in 2000 and 2005, and the TM remote sensing data in 2010, and quantitative index of regional ecological risk assessment was established with the employment of landscape index, so as to enhance the ecosystem management, prevent and reduce the regional ecological risk in southern Jiangsu with rapid economic development. The results showed that the fragmentations, divergence, and ecological losses of natural landscape types, such as forestland, wetland, waters, etc., were deteriorated with the expansion of built-up lands from 2000 to 2010. The higher ecological risk zone took up 5.7%, 9.0%, and 10.2% of the whole region in 2000, 2005, and 2010, respectively, which mainly distributed in the plain hilly region. During the study period, the area aggravating to the higher ecological risk zone was approximately 296.2 km2, 48% of the whole region. The ecological risk rose up in most of the region. The interference of rapid economic development to landscape patterns was even more intensive, with obvious spatial differences in ecological risk distribution. The measures of exploiting resources near the port, utilizing natural wetlands, constructing industrial parks, and rapid urbanization, etc., intensified the ecological risk and accelerated the conversion rate. Prompt strategies should be established to manage the ecological risk of this region. PMID:25011302

Fang, Guang-Ling; Xiang, Bao; Wang, Bao-Liang; Jin, Xia; Hu, Yu; Zhang, Li-Kun

2014-04-01

242

Spatial patterns, ecological niches, and interspecific competition of avian brood parasites: inferring from a case study of Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since obligate avian brood parasites depend completely on the effort of other host species for rearing their progeny, the availability of hosts will be a critical resource for their life history. Circumstantial evidence suggests that intense competition for host species may exist not only within but also between species. So far, however, few studies have demonstrated whether the interspecific competition really occurs in the system of avian brood parasitism and how the nature of brood parasitism is related to their niche evolution. Using the occurrence data of five avian brood parasites from two sources of nationwide bird surveys in South Korea and publically available environmental/climatic data, we identified their distribution patterns and ecological niches, and applied species distribution modeling to infer the effect of interspecific competition on their spatial distribution. We found that the distribution patterns of five avian brood parasites could be characterized by altitude and climatic conditions, but overall their spatial ranges and ecological niches extensively overlapped with each other. We also found that the predicted distribution areas of each species were generally comparable to the realized distribution areas, and the numbers of individuals in areas where multiple species were predicted to coexist showed positive relationships among species. In conclusion, despite following different coevolutionary trajectories to adapt to their respect host species, five species of avian brood parasites breeding in South Korea occupied broadly similar ecological niches, implying that they tend to conserve ancestral preferences for ecological conditions. Furthermore, our results indicated that contrary to expectation interspecific competition for host availability between avian brood parasites seemed to be trivial, and thus, play little role in shaping their spatial distributions and ecological niches. Future studies, including the complete ranges of avian brood parasites and ecological niches of host species, will be worthwhile to further elucidate these issues. PMID:25478158

Lee, Jin-Won; Noh, Hee-Jin; Lee, Yunkyoung; Kwon, Young-Soo; Kim, Chang-Hoe; Yoo, Jeong-Chil

2014-09-01

243

Morphological, hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological changes and challenges in river restoration - the Thur River case study  

Science.gov (United States)

River restoration can enhance river dynamics, environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity, but the underlying processes governing the dynamic changes need to be understood to ensure that restoration projects meet their goals, and adverse effects are prevented. In particular, we need to comprehend how hydromorphological variability quantitatively relates to ecosystem functioning and services, biodiversity as well as ground- and surface water quality in restored river corridors. This involves (i) physical processes and structural properties, determining erosion and sedimentation, as well as solute and heat transport behavior in surface water and within the subsurface; (ii) biogeochemical processes and characteristics, including the turnover of nutrients and natural water constituents; and (iii) ecological processes and indicators related to biodiversity and ecological functioning. All these aspects are interlinked, requiring an interdisciplinary investigation approach. Here, we present an overview of the recently completed RECORD (REstored CORridor Dynamics) project in which we combined physical, chemical, and biological observations with modeling at a restored river corridor of the perialpine Thur River in Switzerland. Our results show that river restoration, beyond inducing morphologic changes that reshape the river bed and banks, triggered complex spatial patterns of bank infiltration, and affected habitat type, biotic communities and biogeochemical processes. We adopted an interdisciplinary approach of monitoring the continuing changes due to restoration measures to address the following questions: How stable is the morphological variability established by restoration? Does morphological variability guarantee an improvement in biodiversity? How does morphological variability affect biogeochemical transformations in the river corridor? What are some potential adverse effects of river restoration? How is river restoration influenced by catchment-scale hydraulics and which feedbacks exist on the large scale? Beyond summarizing the major results of individual studies within the project, we show that these overarching questions could only be addressed in an interdisciplinary framework.

Schirmer, M.; Luster, J.; Linde, N.; Perona, P.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Barry, D. A.; Hollender, J.; Cirpka, O. A.; Schneider, P.; Vogt, T.; Radny, D.; Durisch-Kaiser, E.

2014-06-01

244

Study on O2-supplying characteristics of Azolla in Controlled Ecological Life Support System  

Science.gov (United States)

Azolla has high growth and propagation rate, strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability and rich nutrient value. It is able to be used as salad-type vegetable, and can also be cultured on wet bed in multi-layer condition. Hence, it possesses a potential functioning as providing O2, fresh vegetable and absorbing CO2 for Controlled Ecological Life Support System in space. In this study, we try to make clear the O2-providing characteristics of Azolla in controlled close chamber under manned condition in order to lay a foundation for Azolla as a biological component in the next ground simulated experiment and space application. A closed test cham-ber of Controlled Ecological Life Support System and Azolla wet-culturing devices were built to measure the changes of atmospheric O2-CO2 concentration inside chamber under "Azolla-fish -men" coexisting condition. The results showed that, the amount of O2 consumption is 80.49 83.07 ml/h per kilogram fish, the amount of CO2 emissions is 70.49 73.56 ml/(kg • h); O2 consumption of trial volunteers is 19.71 L/h, the volume of respiration release CO2 18.90 L/h .Artificial light intensity of Azolla wet culture under 70009000 Lx, people respiration and Azolla photosynthesis complemented each other, the atmospheric O2-CO2 concentration inside chamber maintained equilibration. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations in close chamber have obvious effects on enhancing Azolla net photosynthesis efficiency. This shows that Azolla has strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability, which equilibrates the O2-CO2 concentration inside chamber in favor of human survival, and then verifies the prospect of Azolla in space application.

Chen, Min; Deng, Sufang; Yang, Youquang; Huang, Yibing; Liu, Zhongzhu

245

The Relationship between the Learning Ecology System and Students’ Engagement: A Case Study in Selangor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available School engagement is a relatively new concept in education. However, studies have demonstrated that the concept is useful in predicting students’ academic achievement. The present study was conducted to examine Malaysian students’ school engagement status and to understand the factors that influenced their engagement. The survey method was used to collect data with a questionnaire measuring the level of students’ engagement in three psychological domains (cognitive, affective, and behavior. The influential factors were measured by learning about the ecological factors affecting the students’ academic engagement, including their teachers’ teaching practice and the support they received from teachers, peers, and parents. A total of 311 (male and female participants between the ages of 12 -16 years from form one, form two, form three, and form four in a school in Selangor were selected using a random sampling procedure. Data was analyzed using descriptive and correlational analyses. The results showed that male and female students exhibit significantly different levels of engagement. Female students have a higher level of engagement than males. Teachers’ teaching practices and the support students received from peers, parents, and teachers were positively correlated with students’ engagement level. Although the results of the study support the findings of previous studies, further studies are suggested to verify the present findings. Implications for schools and parenting practices are also discussed.

Amla Mohd Salleh

2013-08-01

246

Using Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory to Understand Community Partnerships: A Historical Case Study of One Urban High School  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the value of school-community partnerships is unquestioned, the reasons for success and failure are not sufficiently understood. This mixed-methods case study examines 60 years of partnering at one urban high school, using Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory to better understand the effect on student development as measured by…

Leonard, Jack

2011-01-01

247

Development of Knowledge Frameworks and Higher Order Cognitive Operations among Secondary School Students Who Studied a Unit on Ecology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interviews 9th and 10th grade students (n=13) who studied an ecology unit and analyzed tape-recorded data for changes in organization of knowledge, represented by ideational networks and the development of higher cognitive operations. Provides insights into how students developed knowledge schemata, ideational networks, and the capacity to express…

Bischoff, Paul J.; Anderson, O. Roger

2001-01-01

248

Revisiting the Affect Regulation Model of Binge Eating: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Using Ecological Momentary Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

The affect regulation model of binge eating, which posits that patients binge eat to reduce negative affect (NA), has received support from cross-sectional and laboratory-based studies. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves momentary ratings and repeated assessments over time and is ideally suited to identify temporal antecedents and…

Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

2011-01-01

249

Support for NATO Advanced Study Institute on molecular ecology of aquatic microbes, August 28--September 9, 1994. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a summary paper for a NATO Advanced Study Institute sponsored meeting entitled `The Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes` held in Luccia, Italy from August 28 to September 9, 1994. A full reference book for the proceedings is to be published later.

Joint, I.

1995-06-16

250

Prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren, and climate in west European countries: an ecologic study  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries.

Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Águeda; Busquets-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo A.; López-Silvarrey, Angel; García-Hernández, Gloria; Fuertes, Jorge

2013-09-01

251

Terrestrial ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main effort of the Terrestrial Ecology Division has been redirected to a comprehensive study of the Espiritu Santo Drainage Basin located in northeastern Puerto Rico. The general objective are to provide baseline ecological data for future environmental assessment studies at the local and regional levels, and to provide through an ecosystem approach data for the development of management alternatives for the wise utilization of energy, water, and land resources. The interrelationships among climate, vegetation, soils, and man, and their combined influence upon the hydrologic cycle will be described and evaluated. Environmental management involves planning and decision making, and both require an adequate data base. At present, little is known about the interworkings of a complete, integrated system such as a drainage basin. A literature survey of the main research areas confirmed that, although many individual ecologically oriented studies have been carried out in a tropical environment, few if any provide the data base required for environmental management. In view of rapidly changing socio-economic conditions and natural resources limitations, management urgently requires data from these systems: physical (climatological), biological, and cultural. This integrated drainage basin study has been designed to provide such data. The scope of this program covers the hydrologic cycle as it is affected by the interactions of the physical, biological, and cultural system physical, biological, and cultural systems

252

The construction of students' knowledge of ecological concepts through the use of structured controversy compared to individual study  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of structured controversy on learning and using ten targeted ecological concepts. Structured controversy, from the cooperative learning model, is a debate-styled instructional strategy used to enhance cognitive processing of concepts by challenging opposite ecological viewpoints. Forty-eight students in a college environmental science course were placed in heterogeneous groups of four by ACT score, gender, and the first exam score. The groups of four were randomly assigned to the treatment group or the individual study (control) group. In a pre- and post-treatment written assessment, the students individually generated a series of propositional statements that they used to support a decision about the use of pesticides. Change in the quality (correct, incorrect, and vague) of propositions was compared between the structured controversy and individual study groups. No significant differences were observed for targeted ecological concepts. However, the control group showed a significant decrease in the number of correct non-target (social, economics, etc.) propositions and an increase in number of incorrect non-target propositions based on pre- to post-treatment data and between control and experimental groups. Although not significant, the structured controversy group maintained the quality of both the ecological and social related concepts. This change in the social-related topics in a science course was an unexpected, but positive, outcome.

Beilby, Jerry Paul

253

In the Yeast Heat Shock Response, Hsf1-Directed Induction of Hsp90 Facilitates the Activation of the Slt2 (Mpk1) Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Required for Cell Integrity?  

OpenAIRE

Yeast is rendered temperature sensitive with loss of the C-terminal (CT) domain of heat shock transcription factor (Hsf1). This domain loss was found to abrogate heat stimulation of Slt2 (Mpk1), the mitogen-activated protein kinase that directs the reinforced cell integrity gene expression needed for high-temperature growth. In Hsf1 CT domain-deficient cells, Slt2 still undergoes Mkk1/2-directed dual-Thr/Tyr phosphorylation in response to the heat stimulation of cell integrity pathway signali...

Truman, Andrew W.; Millson, Stefan H.; Nuttall, James M.; Mollapour, Mehdi; Prodromou, Chrisostomos; Piper, Peter W.

2007-01-01

254

Marine ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies on marine ecology included marine pollution; distribution patterns of Pu and Am in the marine waters, sediments, and organisms of Bikini Atoll and the influence of physical, chemical, and biological factors on their movements through marine biogeochemical systems; transfer and dispersion of organic pollutants from an oil refinery through coastal waters; transfer of particulate pollutants, including sediments dispersed during construction of offshore power plants; and raft culture of the mangrove oysters

255

Application of the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean to Phytoplankton Ecology Studies in Monterey Bay, CA, USA  

OpenAIRE

As a demonstrator for technologies for the next generation of ocean color sensors, the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) provides enhanced spatial and spectral resolution that is required to understand optically complex aquatic environments. In this study we apply HICO, along with satellite remote sensing and in situ observations, to studies of phytoplankton ecology in a dynamic coastal upwelling environment—Monterey Bay, CA, USA. From a spring 2011 study, we examine HICO-de...

Ryan, John P.; Davis, Curtiss O.; Tufillaro, Nicholas B.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Bo-Cai Gao

2014-01-01

256

Bladder cancer mortality and private well use in New England: An ecological study  

Science.gov (United States)

Study objective: To investigate the possible relation between bladder cancer mortality among white men and women and private water use in New England, USA, where rates have been persistently raised and use of private water supplies (wells) common. Design: Ecological study relating age adjusted cancer mortality rates for white men and women during 1985-1999 and proportion of persons using private water supplies in 1970. After regressing mortality rates on population density, Pearson correlation coefficients were computed between residual rates and the proportion of the population using private water supplies, using the state economic area as the unit of calculation. Calculations were conducted within each of 10 US regions. Setting: The 504 state economic areas of the contiguous United States. Participants: Mortality analysis of 11 cancer sites, with the focus on bladder cancer. Main results: After adjusting for the effect of population density, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between residual bladder cancer mortality rates and private water supply use among both men and women in New England (men, r=0.42; women, r=0.48) and New York/New Jersey (men, r=0.49; women, r=0.62). Conclusions: Use of well water from private sources, or a close correlate, may be an explanatory variable for the excess bladder cancer mortality in New England. Analytical studies are underway to clarify the relation between suspected water contaminants, particularly arsenic, and raised bladder cancer rates in northern New England.

Ayotte, J.D.; Baris, D.; Cantor, K.P.; Colt, J.; Robinson, G.R., Jr.; Lubin, J.H.; Karagas, M.; Hoover, R.N.; Fraumeni, J.F., Jr.; Silverman, D.T.

2006-01-01

257

ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF CYANOBACTERIA IN SEWAGE POND OF H.E.C INDUSTRIAL AREA, RANCHI INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ecological study of the sewage stabilization pond of HEC area, Hatia, Ranchi has been taken for the first time in this area. Studies were conducted to determine the occurrence and abundance of cyanobacteria in relation to physico-chemical characteristics of sewage pond. It assumes significance of algae mostly cyanobacteria can be used as bioindicators of water pollution in different water habitat of the area. Increased eutrophication from domestic effluent, sewage promotes the development of algal bloom. This study indicates the maximum occurrence and abundance of Microcystis, Oscillatoria, and phormidium spp. in all sites of the sewage pond. The physico-chemical analysis shows maximum nitrogen up to 35.4 mg l-1, 4.8 mg l-1 phosphate, 147.131 mg l-1 chloride and alkaline nature of water throughout the year favour the growth of cyanophycean members and promote algal bloom formation of Microcystis aeruginosa, O.princeps and O.tenuis in this pond.

Amit Kumar

2012-01-01

258

Ecological studies on the freshwater fishes of the Alligator Rivers region, Northern Territory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tropical climate of the Alligator Rivers Region (ARR) has a distinctive wet-dry cycle , resulting in seasonal flows in the creeks and rivers of its catchments. The present study, begun in August 1978, was aimed at developing an ecological monitoring system that would detect any changes to the freshwater fish communities brought about by recent uranium mining and processing in the lowlands of the ARR. The focus of the synecological studies, was a description of spatial and temporal patterns in the community structure of the fish fauna. Interpretation of these patterns was made possible by the collection of detailed environmental data from the study sites. It was found that of the ARR seasonal changes in environmental conditions were so marked that they often obscured the effects of environmental gradients along a watercourse and differing environmental conditions characteristics of different types of waterbody. Hence it may not be entirely satisfactory to define environmental zones in these catchments based on overall environmental conditions through the whole seasonal cycle, because changes in any one such zone between seasons result in very marked changes in the fish communities of habitats in that zone. 34 refs., 22 tabs., 45 figs., 3 maps

259

Associations between Green Space and Health in English Cities: An Ecological, Cross-Sectional Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Green space has been identified as a modifiable feature of the urban environment and associations with physiological and psychological health have been reported at the local level. This study aims to assess whether these associations between health and green space are transferable to a larger scale, with English cities as the unit of analysis. We used an ecological, cross-sectional study design. We classified satellite-based land cover data to quantify green space coverage for the 50 largest cities in England. We assessed associations between city green space coverage with risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and suicide between 2002 and 2009 using Poisson regression with random effect. After adjustment for age, income deprivation and air pollution, we found that at the city level the risk of death from all causes and a priori selected causes, for men and women, did not significantly differ between the greenest and least green cities. These findings suggest that the local health effects of urban green space observed at the neighbourhood level in some studies do not transfer to the city level. Further work is needed to establish how urban residents interact with local green space, in order to ascertain the most relevant measures of green space. PMID:25775020

Bixby, Honor; Hodgson, Susan; Fortunato, Léa; Hansell, Anna; Fecht, Daniela

2015-01-01

260

Ecological Studies on Al-Khadoud Spring, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Al-Khadoud spring is one of the most important water resources in Al-Hassa Governorate, Saudi Arabia. However, much of its biotic information is still unknown. This study presented preliminary ecological information of this aquatic body. Regarding to macrophytes, a total of eight species were observed along the study sites. These species include two submerged aquatic plants (Potamogeton pectinatus L. and Ceratophyllum demersum L.. The common distributed species are Phragmites australis (Cav. Trimex Steud and Cyperus rotundus (L.. On the other hand, a total of 20 algal genera were recorded with 7 genera of Chlorophyceae, 8 of Bacillariophyceae, 4 of Cyanophyceae and one of Euglenophyceae. The common phytoplankton occurred in all three investigated sites were Chlorella vulgaris, Mougeotia sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Actinastrum sp. Regarding to the biotic fauna, different forms of unicellular zooplankton such as Paramecium and Amoeba were recorded. Invertebrates such as freshwater insects and some freshwater snails were documented in the study sites including Melanodies tuberculata, Melanopsis praemorsa and Lymnaea auricularia. As regard to vertebrates, one species of fish, Aphanius dispar, dominate the spring basin and its extended channels.

Mohammed A. Al-Kahtani

2007-01-01

261

Ecological studies on Al-Khadoud Spring, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Al-Khadoud spring is one of the most important water resources in Al-Hassa Governorate, Saudi Arabia. However, much of its biotic information is still unknown. This study presented preliminary ecological information of this aquatic body. Regarding to macrophytes, a total of eight species were observed along the study sites. These species include two submerged aquatic plants (Potamogeton pectinatus L. and Ceratophyllum demersum L.). The common distributed species are Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trimex Steud and Cyperus rotundus (L.). On the other hand, a total of 20 algal genera were recorded with 7 genera of Chlorophyceae, 8 of Bacillariophyceae, 4 of Cyanophyceae and one of Euglenophyceae. The common phytoplankton occurred in all three investigated sites were Chlorella vulgaris, Mougeotia sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Actinastrum sp. Regarding to the biotic fauna, different forms of unicellular zooplankton such as Paramecium and Amoeba were recorded. Invertebrates such as freshwater insects and some freshwater snails were documented in the study sites including Melanodies tuberculata, Melanopsis praemorsa and Lymnaea auricularia. As regard to vertebrates, one species of fish, Aphanius dispar, dominate the spring basin and its extended channels. PMID:19090280

Al-Kahtani, Mohammed A; Youssef, Ashraf M; Fathi, Adel A

2007-11-15

262

Ecotoxicogenomics to Support Ecological Risk Assessment: A Case Study with Bisphenol A in Fish  

Science.gov (United States)

Toxicogenomic approaches are being increasingly applied in the field of ecotoxicology. Given the growing availability of ecotoxicogenomic data, the Agency and the broader scientific community are actively engaged in considering how best to use those data to support ecological ris...

263

Diabetes mortality and environmental heavy metals in North Carolina counties: An ecological study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Arsenic, beryllium, cadmium and nickel have been associated with the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in populations exposed to these elements. However, diabetes mortality has not been evaluated. This ecological study correlated airborne concentrations of these metals with diabetes mortality in North Carolina counties. Methods: County level data were extracted from the 2000 US Census, the 1999 US Environmental Protection Agency National Air Toxins Assessment, and 2001-2005 diabetes mortality rates by county from the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics. Multivariable linear regression correlated airborne concentrations of each element with diabetes mellitus mortality rates in all 100 North Carolina counties controlling for county-level characteristics. Airborne concentrations were logarithmically transformed to normalize their distribution. Results: The lowest air concentrations detected were beryllium and cadmium, with nickel showing the highest concentration. Logarithmic concentrations spanned from 3.74 to 4.02 orders of magnitude. County-level diabetes mortality rates were negatively associated with median county income, but positively associated with county-level air concentrations of arsenic, beryllium, cadmium and nickel. Conclusions: These results support diabetes mortality effects of air pollution, and agree with other studies correlating arsenic, beryllium, cadmium and nickel with diabetes prevalence. Policy implications include regulating point source air pollution.

John G. Spangler

2012-11-01

264

Radon in Drinking Water and Cancer Mortality: An Ecological Study in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is limited information on the health effects of radon in drinking water in spite of their potential exposures. We conducted an ecological study in a small town in Japan where the groundwater with high concentrations of radon is supplied as utilities. A total of 607 cancer deaths were ascertained by vital statistics in that town from 1972 to 1997. Standardized mortality ratios on the basis of national rates were 1.01 (95% confidence interval; 0.93-1.09) for all cancers, 1.10 (0.95-1.28) for stomach cancer, 0.88 (0.70-1.10) for lung cancer, and 1.14 (0.87-1.48) for liver cancer. Mortality from liver cancer was significantly higher than that of two surrounding control cities combined, with a relative risk of 1.40 (1.04-1.89) based on Poisson regression analysis. Lack of information on possible confounders including diet, alcohol drinking, smoking and hepatitis virus infection, is the main limitation of the study, which precludes the evaluation of causal associations

265

Medico-ecological study and health impact assessment of hydro-electric projects in Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of this studies were to determine i) if there was any potential health risks in terms of spread of vector-borne and other communicable diseases resulting from the changes in the environment due to creation of large bodies of water as consequence of the construction of dams, ii) diseases of public health importance in populations affected by such projects. Nine pre-impoundment studies had been carried out and potential impact of the change in environment on discases and health of the affected populations in each areas was evaluated. Risk of infections to the dam construction workers also assessed. Recommendations on mitigation measures were made for each situation so that adequate provisions could be made to improve the health conditions of these populations especially those who would be resettled as a result of impoundment . Prevention and control measures on transmission of infection, including vector control were proposed. The potential medico-ecological hazards encountered by immigrants and visitors to the area on completion of the hydro project were also envisaged

266

Studies of the ecology of insects sterilized artificially (gamma radiation), 12  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimental results of artificially sterilized insects studied with gamma rays from 1968 to 1977 are reviewed and summarized from a statistical and population ecological point of view. The discussion is based on experimental results of callosobruchus chinensis, spodoptera litura and dacus dorsalis. A model of population fluctuations was constructed theoretically by experimental results concerning the effect of insecticides, heats or gamma rays upon oviposition, sex ratio and survival rate during growing period of insects. The theoretical population fluctuation brought about by insecticides or heats became wide, the population density was high and remarkable peak appeared frequently in succeeding generations. On the other hand, that induced by gamma rays was narrow and the population density maintained a low level during several generations. Such a theoretical fluctuation was demonstrated by experiments dealt with the experimental population of callosobruchus chinensis. Sexual competitiveness between sterilized males and normal ones in the mixed population was discussed theoretically. The relationship between log (S/N) and hatchability of egg laid ought to show a straight line. The difference between the theoretical log (S/N)-hatchability regression equation and the experimental one was examined. Growth of population containing some sterile males was studied by means of theoretical calculation of population numbers from generation to generation. The rate of increase otion to generation. The rate of increase of the strilized populations was found to be remarkably smaller than that of normal ones. (Iwakiri, K.)

267

Historical ecology provides new insights for ecosystem management : eastern Baltic cod case study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A recent historical marine ecological case study (cod in the eastern Baltic Sea) is used to show how long-term data and knowledge of fluctuations can contribute to revisions of fishery management policy. The case study first developed new longer analytical time series of spawner biomass and recruitment back to the 1920s, which extended knowledge of population dynamics into a time period when ecosystem state was characterized by temporally varying combinations of exploitation, climate-hydrographic conditions, marine mammal predation and eutrophication. Recovery of spatially resolved historical catch data from the late 1500s to early 1600s also contributed new perspectives to cod population dynamics under alternative ecosystem forcings. These new perspectives have contributed, and will likely continue to contribute to new management policies (e.g., revision of fishery management reference points), which should lead to higher sustainability of the population and fishery yields, and improved overall ecosystem health. These perspectives will likely continue to provide baseline information as ICES and the EU develop new policies based on maximum sustainable yield concepts.

Mackenzie, Brian Royce; Ojaveer, Henn

2011-01-01

268

Historical ecology provides new insights for ecosystem management: Eastern Baltic cod case study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A recent historical marine ecological case study (cod in the eastern Baltic Sea) is used to show how long-term data and knowledge of fluctuations can contribute to revisions of fishery management policy. The case study first developed new longer analytical time series of spawner biomass and recruitment back to the 1920s, which extended knowledge of population dynamics into a time period when ecosystem state was characterized by temporally varying combinations of exploitation, climate-hydrographic conditions, marine mammal predation and eutrophication. Recovery of spatially resolved historical catch data from the late 1500s to early 1600s also contributed new perspectives to cod population dynamics under alternative ecosystem forcings. These new perspectives have contributed, and will likely continue to contribute to new management policies (e.g., revision of fishery management reference points), which should lead to higher sustainability of the population and fishery yields, and improved overall ecosystem health. These perspectives will likely continue to provide baseline information as ICES and the EU develop new policies based on maximum sustainable yield concepts.

MacKenzie, Brian; Ojaveer, Henn

2011-01-01

269

Ecology and affective behavior: selected results from a quantitative study among Efe foragers of northeast Zaire.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports selected results of a quantitative study of the affective behavior of the Efe, exchange-dependent hunter-gatherers of the Ituri forest in northeastern Zaire. Measures of the amount and kind of affective display were based on systematic, direct observation of the routine behavior of three Efe bands in residential settings (camps), using a new technique to characterize affect-laden behavior according to nonlinguistic information conveyed in the voice. Resulting data provide a direct measure of the affective milieu of a foraging people, providing an objective indicator of the subjective impact of social and ecological conditions, which are thought to affect quality of life. In this paper, measures of "camp mood" are used to explore the psychosocial impact of a 3-month period of acute food shortage that occurred in the Ituri Project study area in 1983. Contrary to expectation, rates of behaviors conveying pleasure did not exhibit significant change, whereas a 44% increase in expressions of displeasure and a 17% drop in use of complaint tones were observed during the period of hunger. This and other findings support the view that systematic, direct observation in natural habitats can increase our understanding, both of the functions of affective behavior, and of the affective dimension of quality of life. PMID:2712165

De Zalduondo, B O

1989-04-01

270

The benefit of sustainable industrial cooperation. Study on the economical and ecological benefits of industrial cooperatives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From scientific literature and policy memoranda it appears that sustainable industrial cooperatives result into economical and ecological benefits. However, little empirical data on practical results is available. Therefore, recently, an analysis has been carried out determining the benefit of industrial cooperation. The economical and ecological offer businesses a cost-effective option to reduce the environmental burden. Still, real implementation of such cooperatives is only realized yet by forerunners in the field of environmental management

271

Linking Ecological and Perceptual Assessments for Environmental Management: a Coral Reef Case Study  

OpenAIRE

Integrating information from a range of community members in environmental management provides a more complete assessment of the problem and a diversification of management options, but is difficult to achieve. To investigate the relationship between different environmental interpretations, I compared three distinct measures of anchor damage on coral reefs: ecological measures, perceptual meanings, and subjective health judgments. The ecological measures identified an increase in the number o...

Dinsdale, Elizabeth A.

2009-01-01

272

Sudbury soils study : human health and ecological risk assessment : a case study in science, process and perception  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation discussed the public relations and public opinion strategies used as part of a soils study conducted to assess the risk of mining activities in the Sudbury region to human health and the environment. The human health risk assessment (HHRA) study was conducted and administered by a multi-stakeholder technical committee attended by the public. The study was comprised of extensive soil collection and analysis; a review of historical soils data; and extensive human health and ecological risk assessments. Extensive sampling was also conducted on air, dust, and locally-produced foods. A public advisory committee was formed to disseminate scientific information to the community. Scientific data obtained in the study were reviewed by experts in various fields. Results of the study were also peer-reviewed by an independent expert review panel comprised of leading specialists in human health, toxicology, speciation, and risk assessment. The study showed that the identified risks were over-estimated in the interest of protecting human health. It was concluded that the HHRA's findings were generally accepted by the public. tabs., figs

273

Studies on the Potential Ecological Risk and Homology Correlation of Heavy Metal in the Surface Soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper was attempted to investigate the distribution, the potential ecological hazards and thehomologous relativity of heavy metals in soil of Fujian agricultural protection area on the both side of 324National Road in Xiang'an of Xiamen City. We analyzed the content of heavy metals in the surface of farmingsoil using ICP-MS and evaluated the potential ecological hazard of heavy metals in the soil of agriculturalprotection zone in Xiang'an and further investigated the relevance of heavy metals in the soil by the classicalLars Hakanson potential ecological risk index method. Results showed that the potential ecological risk levels(hazard index of eight kinds of heavy metals in Xiang'an area were classified in the order Cd (94.4> Hg (54.3>As (46.7> Pb (10.5> Cu (4.3> Ni (3.1> Cr (2.3> Zn (1.9, and the global potential ecological risk index (HIof heavy metal was 216.8. The comprehensive evaluation of potential ecological risk of agricultural safetybelonged to the moderate level. The major pollutants in this area were Cd and Pb, which attained the middleecological hazard level. Through the correlation analysis of heavy metals, we found that the main externalsources of pollution were the waste gas after the combustion of petrol and diesel, the excessive application ofpesticides and so on. The internal source of pollution was the high background values of new cover soil.

Haiyuan Qiu

2010-05-01

274

Actual directions in study of ecological consequences of a highly toxic 1,1-dimethylhydrazine-based rocket fuel spills  

OpenAIRE

The paper represents a review of the actual directions in study of ecological consequences of highly toxic 1,1-dimethylhydrazine-based rocket fuel spills. Recent results on study of processes of transformation of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, identification of its main metabolites and development of analytical methods for their determination are generalized. Modern analytical methods of determination of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine and its transformation products in environmental samples are characterized....

Bulat Kenessov; Svetlana Batyrbekova

2012-01-01

275

Novel Polyfermentor Intestinal Model (PolyFermS) for Controlled Ecological Studies: Validation and Effect of pH  

OpenAIRE

In vitro gut fermentation modeling offers a useful platform for ecological studies of the intestinal microbiota. In this study we describe a novel Polyfermentor Intestinal Model (PolyFermS) designed to compare the effects of different treatments on the same complex gut microbiota. The model operated in conditions of the proximal colon is composed of a first reactor containing fecal microbiota immobilized in gel beads, and used to continuously inoculate a set of parallel second-stage reactors....

Zihler Berner, A.; Fuentes Enriquez Salamanca, S.; Dostal, A.; Payne, A. N.; Vazquez Gutierrez, P.; Chassard, C.; Grattepanche, F.; Vos, W. M.; Lacroix, C.

2013-01-01

276

Geographic variability of fatal road traffic injuries in Spain during the period 2002–2004: an ecological study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The aim of the present study is to describe the inter-province variability of Road Traffic Injury (RTI) mortality on Spanish roads, adjusted for vehicle-kilometres travelled, and to assess the possible role played by the following explicative variables: sociodemographic, structural, climatic and risk conducts. Methods An ecological study design was employed. The mean annual rate of RTI deaths was calculated for the period 2002–2004, adjusted for vehicle-kilometres travel...

Jimenez-Puente Alberto; Perea-Milla Emilio; Rivas-Ruiz Francisco

2007-01-01

277

Ecology and environment  

OpenAIRE

In introduction I want mention a briefly about ecology, then I will mention some problems and solution. Ecology is the study of the ways in which organisms (plants and animals) depend upon each other and upon their surroundings. Each organism requires conditions in order to be able to live and breed. These conditions are its environment by changing the ecological conditions. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/31578

Ismoilov, S.

2013-01-01

278

Inventory of selected freshwater-ecology studies from the New England Coastal Basins (Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island), 1937-97  

Science.gov (United States)

An inventory of published studies that address freshwater ecology within the New England Coastal Basins was created through computerized bibliographic literature searches and consultation with environmental agencies. Assembled papers were classified to associate their contents with one or more states, ecoregions, river basins, and ecological topics. Full references and their classifications were entered into a bibliographic software program and then exported to a data-base application to generate a checklist summary of study contents. This report presents a listing and classification of 154 selected studies, published between 1937 and 1997, that provide background knowledge and serve as general aquatic-ecology references for the New England Coastal Basins study area.

Tessler, Steven; Coles, J.F.; Beaulieu, K.M.

1999-01-01

279

Island Ecology in Bermuda.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports on an island ecology course offered by Eastern Connecticut State College providing opportunities for students to study the ecology and natural history of organisms found in a variety of subtropical habitats in Bermuda. Explains student selection criteria, trip preparation, evaluation criteria, daily programs, and habitats studied on the…

Wulff, Barry L.; And Others

1981-01-01

280

Linking the toxic metals to benthic community alteration: a case study of ecological status in the Bohai Bay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological effects and quality status of sediments in the Bohai Bay (North China) were studied by incorporating the traditional chemical analysis and benthic community structure. In the present study, paired sediments from 20 stations were sampled for chemical analysis and benthic assemblages. The overall results demonstrated that sediment impairment mainly appeared in the southern part of the Bay. The results obtained from the principal component analysis regarding benthic data and potential explanatory factors indicated that As, Hg and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) were responsible for the distribution of macrofaunal assemblages. Canonical correspondence analysis further showed As was significantly correlated to the benthic alteration, which provided evidence of ecological relevance to chemical substances of concern. Overall, this study revealed the metal contamination in the Bohai Bay was not as severe as previously regarded. Yet, further investigation is still needed considering the complexity of sediment matrices. PMID:24768175

Wu, Bin; Song, Jinming; Li, Xuegang

2014-06-15

281

Spatial modeling using mixed models: an ecologic study of visceral leishmaniasis in Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most ecologic studies use geographical areas as units of observation. Because data from areas close to one another tend to be more alike than those from distant areas, estimation of effect size and confidence intervals should consider spatial autocorrelation of measurements. In this report we demonstrate a method for modeling spatial autocorrelation within a mixed model framework, using data on environmental and socioeconomic determinants of the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in the city of Teresina, Piauí, Brazil. A model with a spherical covariance structure indicated significant spatial autocorrelation in the data and yielded a better fit than one assuming independent observations. While both models showed a positive association between VL incidence and residence in a favela (slum or in areas with green vegetation, values for the fixed effects and standard errors differed substantially between the models. Exploration of the data's spatial correlation structure through the semivariogram should precede the use of these models. Our findings support the hypothesis of spatial dependence of VL rates and indicate that it might be useful to model spatial correlation in order to obtain more accurate point and standard error estimates.

Werneck Guilherme L.

2002-01-01

282

The BAARA (Biological AutomAted RAdiotracking) System: A New Approach in Ecological Field Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiotracking is an important and often the only possible method to explore specific habits and the behaviour of animals, but it has proven to be very demanding and time-consuming, especially when frequent positioning of a large group is required. Our aim was to address this issue by making the process partially automated, to mitigate the demands and related costs. This paper presents a novel automated tracking system that consists of a network of automated tracking stations deployed within the target area. Each station reads the signals from telemetry transmitters, estimates the bearing and distance of the tagged animals and records their position. The station is capable of tracking a theoretically unlimited number of transmitters on different frequency channels with the period of 5–15 seconds per single channel. An ordinary transmitter that fits within the supported frequency band might be used with BAARA (Biological AutomAted RAdiotracking); an extra option is the use of a custom-programmable transmitter with configurable operational parameters, such as the precise frequency channel or the transmission parameters. This new approach to a tracking system was tested for its applicability in a series of field and laboratory tests. BAARA has been tested within fieldwork explorations of Rousettus aegyptiacus during field trips to Dakhla oasis in Egypt. The results illustrate the novel perspective which automated radiotracking opens for the study of spatial behaviour, particularly in addressing topics in the domain of population ecology. PMID:25714910

?e?ucha, Šimon; Bartoni?ka, Tomáš; Jedli?ka, Petr; ?ížek, Martin; Hlouša, Ond?ej; Lu?an, Radek; Horá?ek, Ivan

2015-01-01

283

The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 2 study of the radio-ecological consequences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The data compiled and processed within the framework of the French-German Initiative represent the so far most comprehensive collection of electronic data that has ever been put together on the topic of the 'Study of the radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'.The R.E.D.A.C. database system provides a powerful tool for the reconstruction of the dispersion of radionuclides through ecosystems and food chains and for the interpretation and prediction of their long-term behaviour. This allows the development of effective countermeasures to minimise risks to human health and improve the overall environmental situation. R.E.D.A.C. can also be used for the development and verification of realistic radioecology models. As the data were acquired under realistic conditions, the results can be used directly for model calculations in emergencies. This allows concrete planning, e. g. in connection with the securing of waste, its disposal, and the ecological restoration of waste disposal sites. The data also allow a reconstruction of the radioecological situation in the past, an analysis of the current situation, and predictions of future developments of the accident consequences on a large as well as on a small scale. (N.C.)

NONE

2006-03-15

284

Stomach cancer incidence in Brazil: an ecologic study with selected risk factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contrary to many industrialized countries in which a sharp decline in stomach cancer incidence has been observed, Brazil still shows intermediate to high incidence rates. An ecologic analysis was performed to explore variables possibly associated with the development of stomach cancer. Cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and factor analysis were carried out with population data, including the following: stomach cancer incidence rates in the early 1990s obtained from population-based cancer registries in Porto Alegre, Campinas, Fortaleza, Belém, and Goiânia; and data from a Brazilian national survey on family expenditures (several diet consumption items and availability of home refrigerators carried out in 1974-75. The results suggested that past availability of a home refrigerator, i.e. food preservation, may have played an important role in currently observed differences in stomach cancer incidence among the various populations studied in Brazil. Differences in living standards among populations in these cities also appear to have played an important role in the observed incidence differences.

Koifman Sergio

1997-01-01

285

The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 2 study of the radio-ecological consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The data compiled and processed within the framework of the French-German Initiative represent the so far most comprehensive collection of electronic data that has ever been put together on the topic of the 'Study of the radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'.The R.E.D.A.C. database system provides a powerful tool for the reconstruction of the dispersion of radionuclides through ecosystems and food chains and for the interpretation and prediction of their long-term behaviour. This allows the development of effective countermeasures to minimise risks to human health and improve the overall environmental situation. R.E.D.A.C. can also be used for the development and verification of realistic radioecology models. As the data were acquired under realistic conditions, the results can be used directly for model calculations in emergencies. This allows concrete planning, e. g. in connection with the securing of waste, its disposal, and the ecological restoration of waste disposal sites. The data also allow a reconstruction of the radioecological situation in the past, an analysis of the current situation, and predictions of future developments of the accident consequences on a large as well as on a small scale. (N.C.)

286

The BAARA (Biological AutomAted RAdiotracking) System: A New Approach in Ecological Field Studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiotracking is an important and often the only possible method to explore specific habits and the behaviour of animals, but it has proven to be very demanding and time-consuming, especially when frequent positioning of a large group is required. Our aim was to address this issue by making the process partially automated, to mitigate the demands and related costs. This paper presents a novel automated tracking system that consists of a network of automated tracking stations deployed within the target area. Each station reads the signals from telemetry transmitters, estimates the bearing and distance of the tagged animals and records their position. The station is capable of tracking a theoretically unlimited number of transmitters on different frequency channels with the period of 5-15 seconds per single channel. An ordinary transmitter that fits within the supported frequency band might be used with BAARA (Biological AutomAted RAdiotracking); an extra option is the use of a custom-programmable transmitter with configurable operational parameters, such as the precise frequency channel or the transmission parameters. This new approach to a tracking system was tested for its applicability in a series of field and laboratory tests. BAARA has been tested within fieldwork explorations of Rousettus aegyptiacus during field trips to Dakhla oasis in Egypt. The results illustrate the novel perspective which automated radiotracking opens for the study of spatial behaviour, particularly in addressing topics in the domain of population ecology. PMID:25714910

?e?ucha, Šimon; Bartoni?ka, Tomáš; Jedli?ka, Petr; ?ížek, Martin; Hlouša, Ond?ej; Lu?an, Radek; Horá?ek, Ivan

2015-01-01

287

Study on heavy metals and ecological risk assessment from Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia sections of the Yellow River, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Yellow River is the most important resource of water supply in northern China. The purpose of this work are to investigate the concentrations and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, the concentrations of eight heavy metals including As, Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn in filtered water and suspended particles from 12 sampling sites of Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia sections of the Yellow River of China were studied by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) and high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS) in this paper. The results implied that all heavy metals in filtered water were lower than the limit standards for drinking water except for Cr (56.9 approximately 71. 5 microg L-1 ). Water quality parameters such as total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and pH were also determined and the contents were low along the river except for TN at S1 (2.48) and S9 (2.38), which exceeded the maximum permitted concentration of Class V for the protection of surface water. In suspended particles, the concentrations of Hg, Cd, Pb and Zn were much higher than those in the background value of soil from local section. Cluster analysis (CA) indicated that same sources for Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn and Pb could be stainless steel and petrochemical industrial activities, while As, Cd and Hg derived from agrochemicals, fertilizers, mining, fuel and coal combustion, respectively. Ecological risk assessment was undertaken using risk index (RI) for sampling sites and ecological risk factor (Er) for heavy metals. Eleven suspension samples existed considerable ecological risk (300.6Mongolia section, while very high ecological risk for Cd at S11 (396.0), S9 (384. 0) and S5 (373. 3), respectively, implied a high pollution in these sampling sites. The results could provide reliable experimental data and theoretical basis for the relevant departments. PMID:24611380

Liu, Jing-Jun; Liu, Ying

2013-12-01

288

Effects of urbanization expansion on landscape pattern and region ecological risk in Chinese coastal city: a case study of Yantai city.  

Science.gov (United States)

Applied with remote sensing, GIS, and mathematical statistics, the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics of urbanization expansion of Yantai city from 1974 to 2009 was studied. Based on landscape pattern metrics and ecological risk index, the landscape ecological risk from the landscape pattern dynamics was evaluated. The results showed that the area of urban land increased by 189.77 km(2) with average expansion area of 5.42 km(2) y(-1) from 1974 to 2009. The urbanization intensity index during 2004-2009 was 3.92 times of that during 1974-1990. The land use types of urban land and farmland changed greatly. The changes of landscape pattern metrics for land use patterns indicated that the intensity of human activities had strengthened gradually in study period. The landscape ecological risk pattern of Yantai city shaped half-round rings along the coastline. The ecological risk index decreased with increase of the distance to the coastline. The ratio of high ecological risk to subhigh ecological risk zones in 2009 was 2.23 times of that in 1990. The significant linear relationship of urbanization intensity index and regional ecological risk indicated that the anthropological economic activities were decisive factors for sustainable development of costal ecological environment. PMID:24983003

Zhou, Di; Shi, Ping; Wu, Xiaoqing; Ma, Jinwei; Yu, Junbao

2014-01-01

289

Ecological studies of small mammals in a nuclear site on Nevada Test Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ecological studies of small vertebrates in nuclear event sites in NTS began in spring 1977 with the establishment of a permanent live-trapping grid in Little Feller II. These study areas are located in Area 18, a relatively homogeneous area vegetatively and topographically. Most of the flora and fauna are typical of the Great Basin desert found in southern Nevada. Dominant vegetation includes Artemesia spp. and to a lesser extent Atriplex. Salsola is an abundant weed in areas that have been mechanically disturbed such as the vicinity of GZ. A 400-station live-trapping grid was established in Little Feller II, April 1977. Sixteen lines of live traps (25 traps per line, each trap 50 feet apart) comprise the 8.4 hectare grid encompassing GZ. Nine trapping periods have been completed to date totaling over 10,000 trap nights. Over 400 small vertebrates have been marked for permanent identification in the grid. Over 60 known residents (animals marked 3 months previously and recaptured in the same vicinity) have been collected and prepared for shipping; however, radioanalytical results were not available to include in this report. Both census and field note observations were used to develop an inventory of the vertebrates found in the study areas. Sufficient data have been generated from Little Feller II to estimate density of rodents. These data and comparative data from Area 5 (Mohave Desert), Area 11 (Transition), and Area 13 (Great Basin) are presented. It was readily apat Basin) are presented. It was readily apparent that rodents in general were more numerous in Little Feller II. In addition, Dipodomys ordii, a Great Basin species, was an important new addition to the rodent fauna

290

Modeling naturalistic craving, withdrawal, and affect during early nicotine abstinence: A pilot ecological momentary assessment study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the critical role of withdrawal, craving, and positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) in smoking relapse, relatively little is known about the temporal and predictive relationship between these constructs within the first day of abstinence. This pilot study aims to characterize dynamic changes in withdrawal, craving, and affect over the course of early abstinence using ecological momentary assessment. Beginning immediately after smoking, moderate and heavy smoking participants (n = 15 per group) responded to hourly surveys assessing craving, withdrawal, NA, and PA. Univariate and multivariate multilevel random coefficient modeling was used to describe the progression of craving, withdrawal/NA, and PA and to test correlations between these constructs at the subject level over the course of early abstinence. Heavy smokers reported greater craving from 1-4 hr of abstinence and greater withdrawal/NA after 3 or more hours as compared with moderate smokers. Level of withdrawal/NA was strongly positively associated with craving, and PA was negatively correlated with craving; however, the temporal dynamics of these correlations differed substantially. The association between withdrawal/NA and craving decreased over early abstinence, whereas the reverse was observed for PA. These findings can inform experimental studies of nicotine abstinence as well as their clinical applications to smoking cessation efforts. In particular, these results help to elucidate the role of PA in nicotine abstinence by demonstrating its independent association with nicotine craving over and above withdrawal/NA. If supported by future studies, these findings can refine experimental methods and clinical approaches for smoking cessation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25844632

Bujarski, Spencer; Roche, Daniel J O; Sheets, Erin S; Krull, Jennifer L; Guzman, Iris; Ray, Lara A

2015-04-01

291

Evaluation on Security of Planting Ecology: A Case Study of Shapingba District in Chongqing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ecology security is the basis of regional sustainable development. The authors constructed planting eco-security evaluation indicator system, which included resources, environment, social and economic. Based on standardization of method, weighted function method and obstacle degree method, using analytic hierarchy process (AHP, this paper conformed the weighted coefficient comprehensive analyzed planting eco-security degree of Shapingba District in Chongqing. The results are following:1 from 1995 to 2010, the comprehensive index of planting ecology security increased from 0.272 2 to 0.647 7. 2 from 1995 to 2010, the obstacle degree of resources increased from 28.83% to 34.39%, but obstacle degree of environment declined from 46.37% to21.78%, obstacle degree of eco-security declined from 24.80 % to 9.68%. 3 to the ecology security of planting, there are some major limiting factors such as plough per capita, intensity of fertilizer using, intensity of pesticide using, intensity of film using and frequency of acid rain. Thus it can be seen that the security level of planting ecology is ascending year by year in Shapingba District since 1995. The security level of planting ecology will be increased by protecting resources, improving environmental governance and increasing infrastructure investment of agricultural.

BAN Rong-bo

2013-07-01

292

A Study on remote sensing method for drawing up and utilizing ecological and natural map - concentrated on drawing up of Land Cover Classification Map  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The drawing up of ecological and natural map, which is highly efficient using remote exploration method, was promoted in this study. As the first step of drawing up of ecological and natural map, this study is working on the drawing up of Land Cover using as a base map. Through the detailed and sufficient consideration on GAP analysis of USA, CORINE project of EU, and examples in Korea, it studied and proposed the Land Cover Classification system and method suitable for Korea. It will be helpful to draw up ecological and natural map by providing two strategies and principles for land cover classification. 26 refs., 33 figs., 9 tabs.

Jun, Sung Woo; Chung, Sung Moon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

1998-12-01

293

Toward A Conceptual Synthesis and Ecological Approach to Case Studies of Curricular Innovation Implementation and University Restructuring in Russian HE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study addresses the methodological and conceptual challenges associated with the application of disconnected frameworks of organizational theory and case studies, focused on “efficiency, effectiveness, and economy” to investigate complex educational phenomena in post-Soviet higher education systems under the condition of restructuring. I use the example of university restructuring and institutional curricular innovation implementation in Russian higher education to test and validate an alternative model, which employs ecological principles as the guiding value system and utilizes conceptual synthesis at all stages of this case study. The resulting descriptive model comprises antecedents, processes, and contents of university restructuring under three broad categories: organization, environment, and relation. Elaborated with an ecological approach, this model enriches the current vision of curricular innovation implementation from lineal to the perspectives of emergence, networking, and self-organization principles of ecological science. In discussing the results of the study, I offer a new research model with its possible methodological constraints as well as its great potentials to advance the sub-field of educational policy and educational administration.

Tamara Savelyeva

2013-09-01

294

Ecological evaluation and planning of loess hilly semi-arid region - a case study on Dingxi Prefecture, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental evaluation and planning is a hot point of the relative science research nowadays. So the work is carried out in the Dingxi prefecture, a typical loess gully-hilly region of the semi-arid regions. The AHP method is used to evaluate the characteristic, quality, and degree and potential in use of the regional ecological environment. Then some suggestion on the ecological renovating, restoring, and planning were presented. The factors were selected according to our data resources and the factors weight is defined. The results indicate that using AHP model, the environmental evaluation can be performed in the loess gully-hilly region in northwest of China. In the study area, the quality, and degree and potential in use is not so good in the most of the study area. On the bases of quality evaluation, the environmental planning was developed.

Chen, Xianzhang; Ma, Mingguo; Ran, Youhua; Wang, Lihong; Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Feng

2003-07-01

295

Radio-ecological study of the Lodeve mining complex (France) 1981-1985  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radio-ecological study of the Lodeve mining complex (mine + uranium process plant) was carried out between 1981 and 1985. Four aquatic compartments -water, sediments, vegetals, fish- were studied in eight stations selected on the basis of the existence of two liquid wastes. The measurements essentially concerned radium 226 and uranium 238 but also lead 210 (1985), thorium 232, potassium 40 and cesium 137. Spectrometry ? Ge-Li, emanometry and fluorimetry were used. Only a small brook -Rivernoux- an affluent of the Lergue river, shows radium and uranium activity levels higher than those measured upstream of the site; and this for the four compartments. In water, radium is associated with the solved cationic fraction (66%) and with materials in suspension (21%), whereas uranium is essentially associated with the solved anionic fraction (84%); the radium migration potentialities are therefore lesser than that of uranium. Radium distribution in fish is as follows: flesh (5 to 15%), skeleton (12%), viscera (30%) and skin + fins (30%). Radium concentration (or exchange) factors are always higher than those corresponding to uranium. In general, they are more important in non-influenced zones than in influenced zones (Rivernoux); this implies that radium and uranium evacuated by the mining complex are, at least partly, in non bio-available forms. For water/fish exchange a concentration factor of 100 will be considered for radium. On the basis of this value a weekly consumption of 200 g of fried gudgeon gives an annual committed dose equivalent corresponding to 0.86% of the dose authorized for the public (5.10-3 Sv.an-1)

296

Periodical Ecological Study of Deliya Lake of Visnagar. At. Visnagar. Ta.Visnagar, Gujarat, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visnagar city is located in north Gujarat (72 30 n and 73 30 n 23 0 e and 23 35 e. Visnagar taluka is popularly known as ‘Shikshan Nagari’ and also known as Copper city. The climate of visnagar is tropical arid to marginal semi-arid. It is strongly periodic and seasonal. There are many fresh water bodies are situated at and arou Deliya lake is natural fresh water body having 19 hector area & circular in shape. It is located between latitude230 41’ 60’’N longitude720 32’ 60’’ E. it is oldest lake of visnagar. It is also known as hanuman temple talav. Constructed before 10’th century.nd Visnagar taluka. The present study deals with the physico-chemical status of deliya lake. This water bodies has dense growth of algae and planktons in its. Physico-chemical status of lakes belongs to Visnagar Taluka were studied in year 2011. The physico- chemical parameters show pH, Dissolve Oxygen, totol dissolved Solid, E.C., Chloride, Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Calcium, Calcium Hardness, Magnesium, Magnesium Hardness, Fluoride, Nitrate, COD, BOD, etc and water is essential for living organisms especially like flora and fauna observed through various field trips. Showing abundance of analytic species and spirulina species with many other members of chlorophyceae. Euglenophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and cyanophyceae, microbiological analysis shows positive results for E.Coli, Vibro sp. and many other pathogenic. An isolated area of the lake is totally infested with eicchornia Spe. The migratory and local bird like plegadis falcinellus, Ardea parpurea, Egretta intermediate. Ardeola grayli, Dendrocygna, jaranica (and many more have been observed. If the sewage and other waste are diverted to some appropriate area other than the lake water quality and ecology of the pond can be restored and will be used in drinking and agriculture by the people.

H.V.JOSHI , DR. R.S.PATEL

2013-05-01

297

Study of technical and financial pre-feasibility to produce a natural shampoo and ecological  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study of technical and financial pre-feasibility was described for producing natural shampoo, ecological and to determine attributes desired by people in that shampoo. A survey was performed to study which characteristics have improved the hair condition; and from the results a model was developed with which is backing the formulation of the shampoo. The proposed shampoo has had as functionality provide hair shine, moisturize, reconstruct, provide protection and has reduced the static (is anti-frizz) because has used biodegradable and friendly raw materials to the environment. The color is light green and its aroma-herbal will have a white container with green lid and will be marketed in 500mL presentation. The production process is done in six steps: reception, storage and dosing of raw materials, preparation of the surfactant and liquid phase of shampoo (addition of active natural preservatives, dyes and fragrances), preparation of the stabilizing phase, mixed, pH regulation and quality control, packaging and storage. A semi-continuous production system was suggested to be more economical, flexible and easy to sterilize. The equipments used in the process are: a stirred tank of 205L, a stirred tank of 500L and a Semiautomatic packaging each built in stainless steel with sanitary finish by the company TECNOFAR. The tanks were designed in compliance with the typical dimensions of these teams and were sized in order to supply the first 5 years of production. A publicity campaign and marketing is recommended to fulfill sales target and execute the project of a plant to produce shampoo and natural cosmetics

298

Maternal Mortality in Colombia in 2011: A Two Level Ecological Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Maternal mortality reduction is a Millennium Development Goal. In Colombia, there is a large disparity in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) between and into departments (states) and also between municipalities. We examined socioeconomics variables at the municipal and departmental levels which could be associated to the municipal maternal mortality in Colombia. Methods A multilevel ecology study was carried out using different national data sources in Colombia. The outcome variable was the MMR at municipal level in 2011 with multidimensional poverty at municipal and department level as the principal independent variables and other measures of the social and economic characteristics at municipal and departmental level were also considered explicative variables (overall fertility municipal rate, percentage of local rural population, health insurance coverage, per capita territorial participation allocated to the health sector, transparency index and Gini coefficient). The association between MMR and socioeconomic contextual conditions at municipal and departmental level was assessed using a multilevel Poisson regression model. Results The MMR in the Colombian municipalities was associated significantly with the multidimensional poverty (relative ratio of MMR: 3.52; CI 95%: 1.09-11.38). This association was stronger in municipalities from departments with the highest poverty (relative ratio of MMR: 7.14; CI 95%: 2.01-25.35). Additionally, the MMR at municipal level was marginally associated with municipally health insurance coverage (relative ratio of MMR: 0.99; CI 95%: 0.98-1.00), and significantly with transparency index at departmental level (relative ratio of MMR: 0.98; CI 95%: 0.97-0.99). Conclusion Poverty and transparency in a contextual level were associated with the increase of the municipal MMR in Colombia. The results of this study are useful evidence for informing the public policies discussion and formulation processes with a differential approach. PMID:25785719

Cárdenas-Cárdenas, Luz Mery; Cotes-Cantillo, Karol; Chaparro-Narváez, Pablo Enrique; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Paternina-Caicedo, Angel; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos; De la Hoz-Restrepo, Fernando

2015-01-01

299

Anatomical, chemical, and ecological factors affecting tree species choice in dendrochemistry studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently, element concentrations in tree rings have been used to monitor metal contamination, fertilization, and the effects of acid precipitation on soils. This has stimulated interest in which tree species may be suitable for use in studies of long-term trends in environmental chemistry. Potential radial translocation of elements across living boundaries can be a confounding factor in assessing environmental change. The selection of species which minimizes radial translocation of elements can be critical to the success of dendrochemical research. Criteria for selection of species with characteristics favorable for dendrochemical analysis are categorized into (1) habitat-based factors, (2) xylem-based factors, and (3) element-based factors. A wide geographic range and ecological amplitude provide an advantage in calibration and better controls on the effects of soil chemistry. The most important xylem-based criteria are heartwood moisture content, permeability, and the nature of the sapwood-heartwood transition. The element of interest is important in determining suitable tree species because all elements are not equally mobile or detectable in the xylem. Ideally, the tree species selected for dendrochemical study will be long-lived, grow on a wide range of sites over a large geographic distribution, have a distinct heartwood with a low number of rings in the sapwood, a low heartwood moisture content, and have low radial permeability. Recommended temperate zone North American species include white oak (Quercus alba L.), post oak (Q. stellate Wangenh.), eastern redcedar (funiperus virginiana L.), old-growth Douglas-fir [Pseudoaugu menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] and big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.). In addition, species such as bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata Engelm. syn. longaeva), old-growth redwood [Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.], and giant sequoia [S. gigantea (Lindl.) Deene] may be suitable for local purposes. 118 refs., 2 tabs.

Cutter, B.E.; Guyette, R.P. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

1993-07-01

300

Studies on Biology and Ecology of the Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The diamondback moths, Plutella xylostella L. were reared with cabbage leaves under field condition at Khao Khor Highland Agricultural Research Station (16-47 degree celsius, 22-96% R.H.). The average duration of the egg, larval (1st and 2nd instar, 3rd instar and 4th instar), pupal and male and female adult stages were 3.21± 0.30, 5.57 ± 0.60, 3.16 ± 1.07, 3.43+0.97, 3.88 ± 1.59, 17.72 ± 2.74 and 16.16 ± 3.93 days respectively. Female laid eggs at 1 day old and the highest number of eggs were counted in the 2nd day of the oviposition period. The number of eggs laid per female averaged 109+77.60 eggs, ranging from 17 to 248 eggs. The life cycle from egg to adult stage was 13-31 days. The population parameters were the cohort generation time (Tc)=23.45 days, the net reproductive rate (Ro)=25 and the finite rate of increase (?)=1.15 time per day respectively. Studies on reproductive system of this insect showed that the developed testes were found in the 4th instar larva while developed ovaries were found after emergence. Male mated many times (average 3.33 times) while almost female mated only once (92%). The ecological life table of this insect was studied in the cabbage field at the Khao Khor Highland Agricultural Research Station. The eggs hatch was 55.89% and the highest mortality occurred in the 1st and 2nd instar larval period (64.37%). The disease and parasites caused the high mortality in the 4th larval and pupal period (49.64 and 46.38%)

301

Family- and Genus-Level 16S rRNA-Targeted Oligonucleotide Probes for Ecological Studies of Methanotrophic Bacteria  

OpenAIRE

Methanotrophic bacteria play a major role in the global carbon cycle, degrade xenobiotic pollutants, and have the potential for a variety of biotechnological applications. To facilitate ecological studies of these important organisms, we developed a suite of oligonucleotide probes for quantitative analysis of methanotroph-specific 16S rRNA from environmental samples. Two probes target methanotrophs in the family Methylocystaceae (type II methanotrophs) as a group. No oligonucleotide signature...

Gulledge, Jay; Ahmad, Azeem; Steudler, Paul A.; Pomerantz, William J.; Cavanaugh, Colleen M.

2001-01-01

302

Ecology, ethics, and professional environmental practice: The Yucca Mountain, Nevada, project as a case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to develop a geologic repository for disposing of high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this commentary, the ecology program for the DOE's Yucca Mountain Project is discussed from the perspective of state-of-the-art ecosystem analysis, environmental ethics, and standards of professional practice. Specifically at issue is the need by the Yucca Mountain ecology program to adopt an ecosystem approach that encompasses the current strategy based on population biology and community ecology alone. The premise here is that an ecosystem approach is essential for assessing the long-term potential environmental impacts at Yucca Mountain in light of the thermal effects expected to be associated with heat from radioactive decay

303

Women and environment. A socio-ecological study for women on the reformation of the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study addresses the following issues: contributions to improve our environment; the impact of pollutants on our health; the pollution of food and water; water quality regulations. Protection of the environment is defined as the sum total of measures that safeguard woman's natural environment and maintain a biological equilibrium. The efficiency of technological solutions to protect the environment is strictly limited by ecological factors. The goal of environmental protection is to ensure the survival of womankind. Just like plants and animals, the human race is part of an ecosystem. Once this system is destroyed, there is nothing technical measures of environmental protection can do to reverse the process. Life on earth depends on the equilibrium between the oxygen produced by chlorophyllous plants and the oxygen consumed by human beings, animals and technological processes. My interviews with young women and children show that women could contribute very much to the melioration of the environment. The majority of women is trying to switch to non-chemically engineered products, which improves the quality of our water. Biological gardening is preferred by a small minority of women only, but many women take the separation of waste very seriously. However, individual actions can do little to solve the problem of pollution caused by road and air traffic. Life in the fast lane condemns us to the use of cars and airplanes. In the foreseeable future, this means more rathe foreseeable future, this means more rather than less pollution. With genetic engineering developing at a breathtaking rate, it seems impossible to avoid a large-scale modification of our food and agricultural produce. So far, many Austrian women fail to appreciate the trend towards genetic manipulation. Neither on the farm nor in the food products themselves is it possible to distinguish genetically engineered innovations. However, behind the consumer's back, this revolution of the food industry is pushed through at an ever greater speed. Because a majority of the population rejects such foodstuffs outright. Nevertheless, genetically engineered food products have already found their way into Austrian groceries stores, and this development is set to gather pace in years to come. This study gives priority to the question whether women can improve the environment. As I have mentioned before, women can indeed contribute to an improvement of the environment. However, only big ecological organizations can return nature to its pristine state, but any such efforts are currently foiled by the greed for profit of large corporations. As a conclusion of this study, it is fair to say that women can contribute to the reformation of the environment, for instance by reducing the toxic discharge into rivers and lakes, by separating waste and promoting recycled products, and by relying on biological products to promote a healthier lifestyle. The substitution of fossil fuels with electric power or natural gas for heating purposes clearly improves the quality of the air in one's own private environment. Green belts in residential areas and plants in the house are sources of oxygen that protect the respiratory system against damaging environmental influences. The survey also showed that women do not know enough about a healthy lifestyle, but they are eager to learn more about this issue. Several statements revealed interesting experiences. If women are increasingly interested in a healthy environment and turn to biologically farmed natural products, the soil will be able to regenerate, and this would clearly benefit the environment. (author)

304

Future ecological studies of Brazilian headwater streams under global-changes Estudos ecológicos futuros em riachos de cabeceira na perspectiva de mudanças globais  

OpenAIRE

This paper results from discussions triggered during the "Stream Ecology Symposium" that took place at the XIII Congress of the Brazilian Society of Limnology in September of 2011 in Natal, Brazil. Based on our experiences, we have raised several questions regarding ecological studies of headwater streams facing threats under global-changes and proposed numerous subjects to be addressed in future studies in Brazil. These studies deal with the necessity of knowing species biology and the elabo...

Marcos Callisto; Adriano Sanches Melo; Darcilio Fernandes Baptista; José Francisco Gonçalves Junior; Manuel Augusto Simões Graça; Fernanda Gaudio Augusto

2012-01-01

305

ECOLOGICAL AND ENZYMATHICAL STUDY UPON SOIL RESOURCES FROM FOREST ECOSYSTEMS IN MIDDLE PRUT RIVER COURSE  

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Full Text Available Rezultatele experimentale prezentate în lucrarea de fa?? fac parte dintr-un studiu ecologic multidisciplinar desf??urat în cadrul Programului Na?ional de Cercetare BIOSTAR în ecosisteme forestiere naturale ?i antropizate din Lunca Prutului (Prisecani Ia?i. Diagnoza ecologic? a solului eviden?iaz? un poten?ial trofic ridicat care nu-i utilizat la optim în sezonul estival foarte secetos. Studiul poten?ialului enzimatic ne prezint? valori mijlocii, ceva mai ridicate în p?duri naturale.

Geanina Bireescu

2006-10-01

306

Age adjustment in ecological studies: using a study on arsenic ingestion and bladder cancer as an example  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its limitations, ecological study design is widely applied in epidemiology. In most cases, adjustment for age is necessary, but different methods may lead to different conclusions. To compare three methods of age adjustment, a study on the associations between arsenic in drinking water and incidence of bladder cancer in 243 townships in Taiwan was used as an example. Methods A total of 3068 cases of bladder cancer, including 2276 men and 792 women, were identified during a ten-year study period in the study townships. Three methods were applied to analyze the same data set on the ten-year study period. The first (Direct Method applied direct standardization to obtain standardized incidence rate and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis. The second (Indirect Method applied indirect standardization to obtain standardized incidence ratio and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis instead. The third (Variable Method used proportions of residents in different age groups as a part of the independent variables in the multiple regression models. Results All three methods showed a statistically significant positive association between arsenic exposure above 0.64 mg/L and incidence of bladder cancer in men and women, but different results were observed for the other exposure categories. In addition, the risk estimates obtained by different methods for the same exposure category were all different. Conclusions Using an empirical example, the current study confirmed the argument made by other researchers previously that whereas the three different methods of age adjustment may lead to different conclusions, only the third approach can obtain unbiased estimates of the risks. The third method can also generate estimates of the risk associated with each age group, but the other two are unable to evaluate the effects of age directly.

Guo How-Ran

2011-10-01

307

An Improvement in Total RNA Isolation Protocol for Ecologic Studies: Case Study Tobacco Cells  

OpenAIRE

Many experimental techniques related to molecular biology such as the Northern blot analysis, RNA protection assays, in situ hybridization and RT-PCR need maximum-yielded, highly purified RNA samples. Researchers who study with RNA extraction are well known for being extremely sensitive about their chemical solutions, equipment, glassware and even laboratories. Taking certain precautions, which are given in protocol, is more convenient than obtaining a low 260/280 spectrophotometric ratio or ...

Senol Boztok; Burcin Cokuysal

2006-01-01

308

Urban green and its relation with air pollution: ecological studies in the Metropolitan area of Rome  

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Full Text Available Tropospheric ozone (O3 and Particulate Matter (PM have become a major concern in most European cities. In particular, in Italy the O3 concentrations exceed the limits established for the protection of both human health and vegetation. More integrative studies are revealing that urban trees could concretely help in improving air quality, not only because of their well known aesthetic and recreational benefit, but also for their capability to reduce air temperature and to remove air pollutants. This reduction takes place both directly, by dry deposition to plant surfaces and uptake through stomata, and indirectly, by mitigation of the urban heat island intensity by canopy transpiration and building shading, that lowers the activity of chemical reactions that led to the formation of photochemical pollutants in air. This is of particular importance especially for those cities located in the Mediterranean Basin, whose urban vegetation is often characterized by VOC-emitting species that can contribute significantly to the O3 formation and destruction dynamics. The aim of this paper is to present a short review of ecological research performed on vegetation of the metropolitan area of Rome, at different spatial and temporal scale, in order to evaluate the functional role of urban green to monitor and improve urban air quality. In the frame of the project HEREPLUS (EU FP7, all of this information, opportunely integrated with climatic and pollutant data, will be implemented in a GIS and, by the use of geo-statistical methods, the ameliorating effect of urban vegetation will be quantified and mapped.

Fausto Manes

2008-12-01

309

Collective trauma in northern Sri Lanka: a qualitative psychosocial-ecological study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex situations that follow war and natural disasters have a psychosocial impact on not only the individual but also on the family, community and society. Just as the mental health effects on the individual psyche can result in non pathological distress as well as a variety of psychiatric disorders; massive and widespread trauma and loss can impact on family and social processes causing changes at the family, community and societal levels. Method This qualitative, ecological study is a naturalistic, psychosocial ethnography in Northern Sri Lanka, while actively involved in psychosocial and community mental health programmes among the Tamil community. Participatory observation, key informant interviews and focus group discussion with community level relief and rehabilitation workers and government and non-governmental officials were used to gather data. The effects on the community of the chronic, man-made disaster, war, in Northern Sri Lanka were compared with the contexts found before the war and after the tsunami. Results Fundamental changes in the functioning of the family and the community were observed. While the changes after the tsunami were not so prominent, the chronic war situation caused more fundamental social transformations. At the family level, the dynamics of single parent families, lack of trust among members, and changes in significant relationships, and child rearing practices were seen. Communities tended to be more dependent, passive, silent, without leadership, mistrustful, and suspicious. Additional adverse effects included the breakdown in traditional structures, institutions and familiar ways of life, and deterioration in social norms and ethics. A variety of community level interventions were tried. Conclusion Exposure to conflict, war and disaster situations impact on fundamental family and community dynamics resulting in changes at a collective level. Relief, rehabilitation and development programmes to be effective will need to address the problem of collective trauma, particularly using integrated multi-level approaches.

Somasundaram Daya

2007-10-01

310

Factors associated with maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: an ecological study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal health is one of the major worldwide health challenges. Currently, the unacceptably high levels of maternal mortality are a common subject in global health and development discussions. Although some countries have made remarkable progress, half of the maternal deaths in the world still take place in Sub-Saharan Africa where little or no progress has been made. There is no single simple, straightforward intervention that will significantly decrease maternal mortality alone; however, there is a consensus on the importance of a strong health system, skilled delivery attendants, and women's rights for maternal health. Our objective was to describe and determine different factors associated with the maternal mortality ratio in Sub-Saharan countries. Methods An ecological multi-group study compared variables between many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa using data collected between 1997 and 2006. The dependent variable was the maternal mortality ratio, and Health care system-related, educational and economic indicators were the independent variables. Information sources included the WHO, World Bank, UNICEF and UNDP. Results Maternal mortality ratio values in Sub-Saharan Africa were demonstrated to be high and vary enormously among countries. A relationship between the maternal mortality ratio and some educational, sanitary and economic factors was observed. There was an inverse and significant correlation of the maternal mortality ratio with prenatal care coverage, births assisted by skilled health personnel, access to an improved water source, adult literacy rate, primary female enrolment rate, education index, the Gross National Income per capita and the per-capita government expenditure on health. Conclusions Education and an effective and efficient health system, especially during pregnancy and delivery, are strongly related to maternal death. Also, macro-economic factors are related and could be influencing the others.

Hernández Valentín

2009-12-01

311

Ecological Footprint as a tool for local sustainability: The municipality of Piacenza (Italy) as a case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ecological Footprint is a synthetic index useful to assess sustainability of anthropic systems. Its operational use, however, has been hampered by some difficulties, especially at a local scale. Being conceived as a measure of the biologically productive area requested to sustain individual consumptions in a human community, it leaves out the impacts associated to economic activities. Accordingly, the index cannot contribute much to define local policies, whose target are economic activities, and only marginally affect citizens' behaviour. Ecological Footprint calculation scheme can be modified to include the depletion of natural capital due to local activities such as industry, agriculture, tertiary sector, transport, waste and water management. We provide here an approach which takes into account these different aspects, while we discuss its application to a municipal area as a case study

312

Migration Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

This site from the University of Lund, Sweden, introduces various research studies in the field of Migration Ecology including research information on "Orientation and navigation," "Flight," "Migration patterns," and "Energetics." The mission of the group is "to forward, by research and teaching, the understanding of adaptive values and evolutionary possibilities and limitations in animal migration, -flight, -orientation and energetics." Many of the group's publications are available for free as PDFs, and the site offers a simple search mechanism to help visitors find the publications they are seeking.

Alerstam, Thomas

313

Urban Environmental Education: Leveraging Technology and Ecology to Engage Students in Studying the Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we describe the outcomes of the first year of an intensive, urban ecology focused, summer program for urban high school youth. Students in our program conduct scientific investigations of their urban ecosystems while exploring potential career options in science and technology fields. In conducting their investigations, the students…

Barnett, Michael; Vaughn, Meredith Houle; Strauss, Eric; Cotter, Lindsey

2011-01-01

314

Ecological studies of the psocids Liposcelis brunnea, L. rufa, L. pearmani, and Lepinotus reticulatus  

Science.gov (United States)

Psocids (Psocoptera) are an emerging problem in grain storages, grain processing facilities, and product warehouses in the United States and many other countries. Development of effective pest management programs for psocids is dependent on having sound knowledge of their ecology. Given the limited ...

315

Innovations fields from corporate studies to socio-ecological indicators : a point of review  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we attempt a crossing state of the art of innovation concept, through exploring the both corporate and territorial significations of this notion. Next, we list the corresponding specified innovation indicators, in order to be able to propose a systemic description of socio-ecological innovation, through introducing its informational characterization

Woloszyn, Philippe

2010-01-01

316

Ecological Momentary Assessment: A Research Method for Studying the Daily Lives of Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to introduce ecological momentary assessment (EMA) as an effective approach for capturing teachers' emotional states and behaviours over time. Although the implementation of EMA has a rich and successful history among social science researchers in general, traditional retrospective, self-report methods for collecting…

Carson, Russell L.; Weiss, Howard M.; Templin, Thomas J.

2010-01-01

317

Ecological engineering to control bioclogging: an original field study coupling infiltration and biological measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

Infiltration systems are increasingly used in urban areas for several purposes such as flood prevention and groundwater recharge. However, their functioning is often impacted by clogging that leads to decreases in hydraulic and water treatment performances. These systems are commonly built with sand as infiltration medium, a media subject to rapid clogging by the combined and overlapping processes of pore occlusion by fine particles and biofilm development. In a previous study, we pointed out that the phototrophic component of biofilms developed at the surface layer of infiltration systems (algae, cyanobacteria) could reduce by up to 60-fold the saturated hydraulic conductivity. Consequently, it appears crucial to control biofilm growth to maintain porous infiltration media performances. The present study aimed to test the influence of biotic (addition of animals or macrophytes) and abiotic (light reduction) treatments on biofilm development and associated hydraulic properties in an infiltration device dedicated to aquifer recharge with river water in Lyon Area (France). Twenty-five benthic enclosures were used to test 5 "treatments" on non-manipulated surface layer under field conditions. Three biotic treatments consisted in the introduction of: (i) an invertebrate acting as algae grazer (Viviparus viviparus), (ii) an invertebrate that digs galleries in sediments (Tubifex tubifex), and (iii) a macrophyte that could inhibit benthic biofilm by allelopathic activity (Vallisneria spiralis L). The fourth treatment was designed to simulate shading. The last "treatment" was a control which monitored the evolution of the system during the experiment without manipulation (addition of macro-organisms or shading). Each treatment was replicated five times. The experiment was conducted for 6 weeks, and sampling of the surface layer (0-1 cm) was carried out in each enclosure at the beginning (t0) and the end (tf). We coupled biological characterizations (organic matter, algal biomass, bacterial abundances, microbial enzymatic activities, EPS composition, and photosynthetic efficiency) with in situ hydraulic conductivity measurements (falling head method, five measures per enclosure at t0 and tf). Our results showed that some treatments could regulate benthic biofilm growth and improve infiltration rate. For instance, V. viviparus treatment resulted in a decrease in chlorophyll-a, EPS sugar and protein contents and an associated increase of infiltration rate, while it decreased in the control treatment. These results are very promising for the future development of ecological engineering solutions to prevent biological clogging in systems dedicated to infiltration. To our knowledge, this study is the first to highlight such potential role of macro-organisms under field conditions.

Gette-bouvarot, Morgane; Mermillod-Blondin, Florian; Lassabatere, Laurent; Lemoine, Damien; Delolme, Cécile; Volatier, Laurence

2014-05-01

318

The role of the Yala swamp lakes in the conservation of Lake Victoria region haplochromine cichlids : Evidence from genetic and trophic ecology studies  

OpenAIRE

Lake Kanyaboli, an isolated satellite lake of Lake Victoria, has been suggested as a potential refugium for haplochromine cichlids that have gone extinct in the main basin of Lake Victoria. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecular markers, as well as feeding ecology studies, were employed in this study to re-evaluate the evolutionary and ecological significance of six common Lake Kanyaboli haplochromines. The mtDNA marker revealed high genetic variability within four of the six haplochromine cichl...

Abila, Romulus; Salzburger, Walter; Ndonga, Millicent Florence; Owiti, Dickson Otieno; Barluenga, Marta; Meyer, Axel

2008-01-01

319

Aquatic Ecology Section  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Population studies included stock-progeny models of use in impact analyses; density-dependent function for fishing mortality; and the effect of growth curve and sampling regime on various methods for estimating aquatic insect production; a computer simulation. Studies on ecological effects included radiological and chemical effects. Ecological transport studies were conducted on transport of radionuclides and trace elements. Other activities included environmental monitoring of aquatic ecosystems, conferences, and marine studies

320

Economic-Ecological Values of Non-Tidal Swamp Ecosystem: Case Study in Tapin District, Kalimantan, Indonesia  

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Full Text Available This article would like to describe the economic and ecological benefits, as well as analyzing the total economic value of non-tidal swamps. Non-tidal swamps in the District Tapin are interested to be studied because of the use of non-tidal swamp in this area for people, especially ethnic Banjar since over a hundred years ago. But since 2011 the South Kalimantan local government has set a palm oil plantation development plans (Elaeis guineensis on the area. Assessment has been conducted with a total valuation approach (total valuation. We found that the ecosystem has economic benefits in the form of functions of water supply for rice paddy (Oryza sativa, timber plants (Melaleca cajuputi, fisheries, Purun plants (Eleocharis dulcis, and functions as a source of domestic water. It has also ecological benefits in the form of biological functions such as: the provision of feed (feeding ground, where fish rearing, timber Galam (nursery ground, and hatchery fish (spawning ground, as storage and recycle of water, and function options (option value in the form of biodiversity. Based on the results of the assessment are known, the total economic value amounted to 22.7 million per hectare, with the ratio of the economic value of only 7.14% compared to the ecological value of 92.86%. Therefore non-tidal swamps conversion plan into another function not only the loss of economic value (direct benefits that had been in the swamp enjoy the surrounding community, but also a greater loss in the form of loss of ecological value (indirect benefits.

Hamdani Hamdani

2013-12-01

321

Miscanthus plants used as an alternative biofuel material. The basic studies on ecology and molecular evolution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Miscanthus Anderss, widely distributed in Asia and Pacific Islands, possesses 20 species. Of which 8 species and 1 variety were recorded in Chinese Mainland; 6 species and 1 variety found in Japan; 5 species and 3 varieties distributed in Taiwan; 3 species documented in the Philippines; and rest of species have been recorded in Jawa, eastern Himalaya, and Sikkim. The plant is a C{sub 4} perennial grass with high productivity of biomass. In the 19th and early 20th centuries in Taiwan, Miscanthus was a very important crop used for forage grass, clothing, and shelter, etc. The relatively high germination, and high yield of biomass made the plant available for people of Taiwan including aboriginal. The taxonomic study of Miscanthus plants was much done by several scientists, and its ecological study has been only taken by the present author since 1972. Chou and his associates paid a great attention to elucidate the mechanism of dominance of Miscanthus vegetation and found that allelopathy plays an important role. In addition, the population biology of Miscanthus taxa by using polyacrylamide gel electrophoreses technique to examine the patterns of peroxidase and esterase among populations (over 100) of Miscanthus in Taiwan were conducted. They also elucidated the phylogenetic relationship among species and varieties in Taiwan. Chou and Ueng proposed an evolutionary trend of Miscanthus species, indicating that the Miscanthus sinensis was assumed to be the origin of Miscanthus Anderss, which evolved to M. sinensis var. formosana, and M. sinensis var. flavidus, and M. sinensis var. transmorrisonensis, and Miscanthus floridulus was thought to be an out group of M. sinensis complex. Moreover, molecular phylogeny was attempted to clarify the population heterogeneity of M. sinensis complex, resulting in a substantial information. It would be available for making hybridization between Miscanthus species and its related species, such as Saccharum (sugar cane) spp. which is a high energy resource plant. European scientists already brought Asian Miscanthus species and bred a new hybrid called Miscanthus x giganteus, which is now being used as a biofuel material in Europe and would be widely used in the world in the near future if fundamental questions, such as fiber transformation to alcohol or other breeding techniques, are answered. (author)

Chou, Chang-Hung [Graduate Institute of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, College of Life Sciences, China Medical University, Taichung 404 (China)

2009-08-15

322

The ecology of the planktonic diatom Cyclotella and its implications for global environmental change studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fossil record of diatoms in lake sediments can be used to assess the effects of climate variability on lake ecosystems if ecological relationships between diatom community structure and environmental parameters are well understood. Cyclotella sensu lato taxa are a key group of diatoms that are frequently dominant members of phytoplankton communities in low- to moderate-productivity lakes. Their relative abundances have fluctuated significantly in palaeolimnological records spanning over a century in arctic, alpine, boreal and temperate lakes. This suggests that these species are sensitive to environmental change and may serve as early indicators of ecosystem effects of global change. Yet patterns of change in Cyclotella species are not synchronous or unidirectional across, or even within, regions, raising the question of how to interpret these widespread changes in diatom community structure. We suggest that the path forward in resolving seemingly disparate records is to identify clearly the autecology of Cyclotella species, notably the role of nutrients, dissolved organic carbon and light, coupled with better consideration of both the mechanisms controlling lake thermal stratification processes and the resulting effects of changing lake thermal regimes on light and nutrients. Here we begin by reviewing the literature on the resource requirements of common Cyclotella taxa, illustrating that many studies reveal the importance of light, nitrogen, phosphorus, and interactions among these resources in controlling relative abundances. We then discuss how these resource requirements can be linked to shifts in limnological processes driven by environmental change, including climate-driven change in lakewater temperature, thermal stratification and nutrient loading, as well as acidification-driven shifts in nutrients and water clarity. We examine three case studies, each involving two lakes from the same region that have disparate trends in the relative abundances of the same species, and illustrate how the mechanisms by which these species abundances are changing can be deciphered. Ultimately, changes in resource availability and water clarity are key factors leading to shifts in Cyclotella abundances. Tighter integration of the autecology of this important group of diatoms with environmental change and subsequent alterations in limnological processes will improve interpretations of palaeolimnological records, and clarify the drivers of seemingly disparate patterns in fossil records showing widespread and rapid changes across the northern hemisphere. PMID:24917134

Saros, J E; Anderson, N J

2014-06-11

323

Model development in freshwater ecology with a case study using evolutionary computation  

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Full Text Available Ecological modeling faces some unique problems in dealing with complex environment-organism relationships,making it one of the toughest domains that might be encountered by a modeler. Newer technologies and ecosystemmodeling paradigms have recently been proposed, all as part of a broader effort to reduce the uncertainty in modelsarising from qualitative and quantitative imperfections in the ecological data. In this paper, evolutionary computationmodeling approaches are introduced and proposed as useful modeling tools for ecosystems. The results of our casestudy support the applicability of an algal predictive model constructed via genetic programming. In conclusion, wepropose that evolutionary computation may constitute a powerful tool for the modeling of highly complex objects, suchas river ecosystems.

Dong-Kyun Kim

2010-12-01

324

STUDY CONCERNING FOREST ECOLOGIC RECONSTRUCTIUON ON DEGRADED LAND IN RANGE OCOLUL SILVIC “VALEA CIBINULUI”, SALISTE, ROMANIA  

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Full Text Available The study examines the stationary conditions, determine solutions to improve degraded land, assessing the cost of ecological restoration work needed in the area of improving degraded lands at Rapa - Cop?cel, estimated benefits of the project and its viability. Objectives of the paper: need to introduce in the circuit of productive forest lands within the improvement of the area "La Rapa - Cop?cel" danger zone where activation of the phenomena of degradation (erosion , landslides predominate. Out of 102.33 ha as area for improvement, the effective area of 101.6 ha is forested, representing a difference of 0.73 ha, 1.2 m wide strip that is to be the place for hedges. Viability of the project results from the ratio calculated benefit/cost = 2.3 which justifies the need and opportunity for investment. Opportunity project results in immediate and potential beneficial effects of the a forestation namely stabilization by stopping land erosion and landslides with positive influences on human settlements, infrastructure and communication lines, reducing the intensity of land degradation processes and the gradual improvement their production capacity as the direct effect of forest cultures, the role of forests in improving the main factors of environmental water, air, climate, reducing extreme values of climatic factors (temperature, evapotranspiration, wind speed, humidity and air purification by the ozoning phyithoncide releasing the destructive effect of microbes; regulating rainfall, ensuring constant and permanent water flow, reducing the effects of drought and floods, improving stationary conditions for the maintenance and development of herbaceous vegetation and forest. It specifies the role and sanogene functions of the forest – ambient of the forest, an constructive and necessary factor for the ecosystems and human health, and its other roles: aesthetic role "attribute of all forests" - contemplating a sylvan landscape with positive effects on the psyche (lights, shadows, colors, contrasts, echo, thus improving the appearance of the landscape area surrounding Loamnes; diversifying and increasing social functions, conservation of biodiversity, creating a favorable climate for wildlife, creating database, nectarous economic effects are related to obtaining wood in a wood shortage area.

Robert BLAJ

2014-12-01

325

Study on the Collaborative Innovation Oriented SDN Enterprise Ecological Collaboration Model  

OpenAIRE

By comparing the similarities between SDN (Supply and Demand Network with multifunctional and opening characteristics for enterprise) and natural ecosystem, the ecological characteristics of SDN enterprise are summarized in this article. The relationship among biological species groups in the natural ecosystem is used to describe the relationships of SDN enterprise in the collaborative innovation, and the collaborative innovation model among SDN enterprises based on the biology is generalized...

Li Chen; Fuyuan Xu

2011-01-01

326

Sampling design in large-scale vegetation studies: Do not sacrifice ecological thinking to statistical purism!.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 42, - (2007), s. 199-208. ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA6163303; GA ?R(CZ) GA206/05/0020 Grant ostatní: GA AV ?R(CZ) KJB601630504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Ecological methodology * Large-scale vegetation patterns * Macroecology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.133, year: 2007

Role?ek, J.; Chytrý, M.; Hájek, Michal; Lvon?ík, S.; Tichý, L.

2007-01-01

327

Subantarctic forest ecology : case study of a conifer-broadleaved stand in Patagonia, Argentina  

OpenAIRE

In the temperate rainforests of southern South America, the tree genus Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae) is the dominant in extension and abundance on zonal soils at different latitudes and altitudes, as well as on intrazonal (e.g., wetlands) and azonal soils (e.g., morrenic and fluvioglacial deposits). Although concern on the global role of this biome is currently important, the existing level of ecological knowledge on its functioning is still inadequate to design a sound management to maintain or...

Dezzotti, A.

2000-01-01

328

Xylitol and its effect on oral ecology : clinical studies in children and adolescents  

OpenAIRE

Xylitol, classified as a natural sugar substitute, has for about 35 years been known as an agent that may act against caries. The mechanism of action; how it inhibits mutans streptococci (MS) and the clinical dose-response relationship are not however fully investigated. The general aim of the investigations was to evaluate the effect of xylitol on oral ecology in children and adolescents. A series of experimental and controlled clinical trials were performed in which samples of saliva and pl...

Lif Holgerson, Pernilla

2007-01-01

329

Ascendency as an ecological indicator: a case study of estuarine pulse eutrophication  

OpenAIRE

Increasingly, management agencies require that the remediation of eutrophic waters be addressed at the level of the whole ecosystem. One whole-system approach to quantify ecosystems is called ecological network analysis. Ascendency theory, the branch of the field that deals with the quantification of whole-system status, specifically addresses the definition of eutrophication. This definition has been applied to data taken over a gradient of eutrophication. Three separate areas were observed:...

Patri?cio, J.; Ulanowicz, R.; Pardal, M. A.; Marques, J. C.

2004-01-01

330

Respuesta celular de línea de hepatoma humano (HepG2) al estrés hipotérmico con recuperación: Inducción de la expresión de Hsp60, Hsp70, y Hsf1 / Human hepatoma cell line (Hep G2) cellular response to hypothermic stress with recovery: Induction of Hsp70, Hsp60 and Hsf1 expression  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se analizó la respuesta celular de células HepG2 expuestas a hipotermia con posterior recuperación. Los hallazgos ultraestructurales en células sometidas a estrés hipotérmico incluyeron mitocondrias edematizadas, núcleos picnóticos, vacuolas y reorganización nucleolar en forma de ani [...] llo. Tales cambios están relacionados con diferencias significativas en la inducción de la expresión de Hsp60, Hsp70 inducible y Hsf 1 monomérico en todas las muestras tratadas, pero no de Hsc70. La respuesta celular a la hipotermia puede ser relacionada con la inducción sinergística de las Hsp Abstract in english The cell response of human HepG2 cells exposed to hypothermia with rewarming was analyzed. Ultrastructural findings in hypothermic stressed cells showed swollen mitochondria, dispersed chromatin, vacuoles and ring-shape nucleolar reorganization. These changes were coupled with significative differen [...] ces in the induction of Hsp60, inducible Hsp70 and monomeric Hsf1 in all treated samples, but not in Hsc 70 expression. Cellular response to hypothermia could be associated with the synergistic induction of Hsp expression

Alegna, Rada; Elizabeth, Merentes; Marianela, Rodríguez; Guillermo, Anselmi; Mirian, Strauss.

2010-12-01

331

?????????????—???????????? Development of Ecological Economy, Accelerate Wetland Conservation—The case study on West Dongting Lake Nature Reserve  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Since established, the West Dongting Lake Nature Reserve has taken full advantage of ecological economics theories and system engineering methods to change the production and consumption patterns. This article expounds that the West Dongting Lake Nature Reserve makes the best of the wetland resources to develop ecological economy, such as ecological tourism, Organic Fisheries and so on within the ecological capacities, and effectively promotes the protection of the ecological environment, and offers reasonable proposals for the future development of the wetland ecological economy.

???

2013-04-01

332

Linking Ecological and Perceptual Assessments for Environmental Management: a Coral Reef Case Study  

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Full Text Available Integrating information from a range of community members in environmental management provides a more complete assessment of the problem and a diversification of management options, but is difficult to achieve. To investigate the relationship between different environmental interpretations, I compared three distinct measures of anchor damage on coral reefs: ecological measures, perceptual meanings, and subjective health judgments. The ecological measures identified an increase in the number of overturned corals and a reduction in coral cover, the perceptual meanings identified a loss of visual quality, and the health judgments identified a reduction in the health of the coral reef sites associated with high levels of anchoring. Combining the perceptual meanings and health judgments identified that the judgment of environmental health was a key feature that both scientific and lay participants used to describe the environment. Some participants in the survey were familiar with the coral reef environment, and others were not. However, they provided consistent judgment of a healthy coral reef, suggesting that these judgments were not linked to present-day experiences. By combining subjective judgments and ecological measures, the point at which the environment is deemed to lose visual quality was identified; for these coral reefs, if the level of damage rose above 10.3% and the cover of branching corals dropped below 17.1%, the reefs were described as unhealthy. Therefore, by combining the information, a management agency can involve the community in identifying when remedial action is required or when management policies are effectively maintaining a healthy ecosystem.

Elizabeth A. Dinsdale

2009-12-01

333

A Study on Remote Probing Method for Drawing Ecology/Nature Map and the Application (III) - Drawing the Swamp Classification Map around River  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The map of ecology/nature in the amended Natural Environment Conservation Act is the necessary data, which is drawn through assessing the national land with ecological factors, to execute the Korea's environmental policy. Such important ecology/nature map should be continuously revised and improved the reliability with adding several new factors. In this point of view, this study has the significance in presenting the improvement scheme of ecology/nature map. 'A Study on Remote Probing Method for Drawing Ecology/Nature Map and the Application' that has been performed for 3 years since 1998 has researched the drawing method of subject maps that could be built in a short time - a land-covering classification map, a vegetation classification map, and a swamp classification map around river - and the promoting principles hereafter. This study also presented the possibility and limit of classification by several satellite image data, so it would be a big help to build the subject map in the Government level. The land-covering classification map, a result of the first year, has been already being built by Ministry of Environment as a national project, and the improvement scheme of the vegetation map that was presented as a result of second year has been used in building the basic ecology/nature map. We hope that the results from this study will be applied as basic data to draw an ecology/nature map and contribute to expanding the understanding on the usefulness of the several ecosystem analysis methods with applying an ecology/nature map and a remote probe. 55 refs., 38 figs., 24 tabs.

Jeon, Seong Woo; Cho, Jeong Keon; Jeong, Hwi Chol [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

2000-12-01

334

Linking concepts in the ecology and evolution of invasive plants: network analysis shows what has been most studied and identifies knowledge gaps  

OpenAIRE

In recent decades, a growing number of studies have addressed connections between ecological and evolutionary concepts in biologic invasions. These connections may be crucial for understanding the processes underlying invaders’ success. However, the extent to which scientists have worked on the integration of the ecology and evolution of invasive plants is poorly documented, as few attempts have been made to evaluate these efforts in invasion biology research. Such analysis can facilitate r...

Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Brown, Cynthia S.; Tepolt, Carolyn K.; Tsutsui, Neil D.; Vanparys, Vale?rie; Atkinson, Sheryl; Mahy, Gre?gory; Monty, Arnaud

2010-01-01

335

Social-Ecological Patterns of Soil Heavy Metals Based on a Self-Organizing Map (SOM): A Case Study in Beijing, China  

OpenAIRE

The regional management of trace elements in soils requires understanding the interaction between the natural system and human socio-economic activities. In this study, a social-ecological patterns of heavy metals (SEPHM) approach was proposed to identify the heavy metal concentration patterns and processes in different ecoregions of Beijing (China) based on a self-organizing map (SOM). Potential ecological risk index (RI) values of Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, Cu, As, Cd and Pb were calculated for 1,018...

Binwu Wang; Hong Li; Danfeng Sun

2014-01-01

336

Microarrays in ecological research: A case study of a cDNA microarray for plant-herbivore interactions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technology allows researchers to simultaneously monitor changes in the expression ratios (ERs of hundreds of genes and has thereby revolutionized most of biology. Although this technique has the potential of elucidating early stages in an organism's phenotypic response to complex ecological interactions, to date, it has not been fully incorporated into ecological research. This is partially due to a lack of simple procedures of handling and analyzing the expression ratio (ER data produced from microarrays. Results We describe an analysis of the sources of variation in ERs from 73 hybridized cDNA microarrays, each with 234 herbivory-elicited genes from the model ecological expression system, Nicotiana attenuata, using procedures that are commonly used in ecologic research. Each gene is represented by two independently labeled PCR products and each product was arrayed in quadruplicate. We present a robust method of normalizing and analyzing ERs based on arbitrary thresholds and statistical criteria, and characterize a "norm of reaction" of ERs for 6 genes (4 of known function, 2 of unknown with different ERs as determined across all analyzed arrays to provide a biologically-informed alternative to the use of arbitrary expression ratios in determining significance of expression. These gene-specific ERs and their variance (gene CV were used to calculate array-based variances (array CV, which, in turn, were used to study the effects of array age, probe cDNA quantity and quality, and quality of spotted PCR products as estimates of technical variation. Cluster analysis and a Principal Component Analysis (PCA were used to reveal associations among the transcriptional "imprints" of arrays hybridized with cDNA probes derived from mRNA from N. attenuata plants variously elicited and attacked by different herbivore species and from three congeners: N. quadrivalis, N. longiflora and N. clevelandii. Additionally, the PCA revealed the contribution of individual gene ERs to the associations among arrays. Conclusions While the costs of 'boutique' array fabrication are rapidly declining, familiar methods for the analysis of the data they create are still missing. The case history illustrated here demonstrates the ease with which this powerful technology can be adapted to ecological research.

Gase Klaus

2004-09-01

337

Testing hypotheses on the ecological patterns of rarity using a novel model of study: snake communities worldwide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The theoretical and empirical causes and consequences of rarity are of central importance for both ecological theory and conservation. It is not surprising that studies of the biology of rarity have grown tremendously during the past two decades, with particular emphasis on patterns observed in insects, birds, mammals, and plants. I analyse the patterns of the biology of rarity by using a novel model system: snake communities worldwide. I also test some of the main hypotheses that have been proposed to explain and predict rarity in species. I use two operational definitions for rarity in snakes: Rare species (RAR are those that accounted for 1% to 2% of the total number of individuals captured within a given community; Very rare species (VER account for ?1% of individuals captured. I analyse each community by sample size, species richness, continent, climatic region, habitat and ecological characteristics of the RAR and VER species. Positive correlations between total species number and the fraction of RAR and VER species and between sample size and rare species in general were found. As shownin previous insect studies, there is a clear trend for the percentage of RAR and VER snake species to increase in species-rich, tropical African and South American communities. This study also shows that rare species are particularly common in the tropics, although habitat type did not influence the frequency of RAR and VER species. This analysis also confirms the commonly accepted ecological hypothesis that body size and rarity are clearly and widely correlated in natural animal communities. However, in snake communities there is often an association between large and small species among the rare species, and a tendency for ophiophagous species to be rare. In addition, there was no support for the hypothesis that rare species should be typically phylogenetically primitive. The hypothesis that species with narrower realized ecological niches are more likely to be rare or very rare is supported by the evidence presented here on snake communities. In general, this study shows that snakes may make ”model organisms” for studies on the biology of rarity.

L. Luiselli

2006-12-01

338

Linking concepts in the ecology and evolution of invasive plants: network analysis shows what has been most studied and identifies knowledge gaps.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent decades, a growing number of studies have addressed connections between ecological and evolutionary concepts in biologic invasions. These connections may be crucial for understanding the processes underlying invaders' success. However, the extent to which scientists have worked on the integration of the ecology and evolution of invasive plants is poorly documented, as few attempts have been made to evaluate these efforts in invasion biology research. Such analysis can facilitate recognize well-documented relationships and identify gaps in our knowledge. In this study, we used a network-based method for visualizing the connections between major aspects of ecology and evolution in the primary research literature. Using the family Poaceae as an example, we show that ecological concepts were more studied and better interconnected than were evolutionary concepts. Several possible connections were not documented at all, representing knowledge gaps between ecology and evolution of invaders. Among knowledge gaps, the concepts of plasticity, gene flow, epigenetics and human influence were particularly under-connected. We discuss five possible research avenues to better understand the relationships between ecology and evolution in the success of Poaceae, and of alien plants in general. PMID:25567919

Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Brown, Cynthia S; Tepolt, Carolyn K; Tsutsui, Neil D; Vanparys, Valérie; Atkinson, Sheryl; Mahy, Grégory; Monty, Arnaud

2010-03-01

339

Incorporating ecology and social system into formal hypotheses to guide field studies of color vision in primates.  

Science.gov (United States)

The X-linked gene polymorphism responsible for the variable color vision of most Neotropical monkeys and some lemurs is thought to be maintained by balancing selection, such that trichromats have an advantage over dichromats for some ecologically important task(s). However, evidence for such an advantage in wild primate populations is equivocal. The purpose of this study is to refine a hypothesis for a trichromat advantage by tailoring it to the ecology of territorial primates with female natal dispersal, such that dispersing trichromatic females have a foraging and, by extension, survival advantage over dichromats. I then examine the most practical way to test this hypothesis using field data. Indirect evidence in support of the hypothesis may take the form of differences in genotype frequencies among life stages and differences in disperser food item encounter rates. A deterministic evolutionary matrix population model and a stochastic model of food patch encounter rates are constructed to investigate the magnitude of such differences and the likelihood of statistical detection using field data. Results suggest that, although the sampling effort required to detect the hypothesized genotype frequency differences is impractical, a field study of reasonable scope may be able to detect differences in disperser foraging rates. This study demonstrates the utility of incorporating socioecological details into formal hypotheses during the planning stages of field studies of primate color vision. Am. J. Primatol. 77:516-526, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25690845

Bunce, John A

2015-05-01

340

Ecological studies on the diversity of terrestrial poisonous snakes "Proteroglyphous” of Jazan region Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Reptilia: Ophidia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work was carried out in Jazan region. The region of Jazan in being in the South-Western part of Saudi Arabia between longitudes 420 and 43.80 and latitudes 5, 16o and 17o, and is bounded on the south and east of the Republic of Yemen, Asir area in the north and the Red Sea in the west. The results showed that there are four families of poisonous snakes "Proteroglyphous" living in Jazan region. They are: Family Atractaspididae, Elapidae, Viperidae and Hydrophiidae . This work aimed to unveil ecological problems and throw light on diversity of poisonous snakes in Jazan region and the danger of these species to human life. Despite the fact that these snakes may be harmful to human life in some cases, it may also be useful to him in many aspects of life. Since there are no enough studies on the animal species in the region, this study came to identify the diversity of this animal group. There is no doubt that the study of these species and identifying them will provide some solutions that could make this group as an endless source of biodiversity and at the same time, this study provides information on the feasibility of protection of this species in this region. Discussion of ecological and geographical affinities of this taxa and taxonomic keys of different types in order to facilitate the process of identification will be provided

Mostafa F. Masood

2012-10-01

341

Terrestrial animal ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Animal Ecology project is an integral part of the terrestrial ecology program. For convenience, it is reported separately because of the specialized nature of its techniques. It includes studies to characterize faunal populations taxonomically and ecologically and to estimate density and biomass of important mammal, bird, herpetofauna, and invertebrate populations. Extensive studies of small mammal populations conducted in past years are being summarized for open literature publication. Methodology and techniques developed in the animal ecology program are expected to be vital to studies to be initiated under a newly funded 189 entitled Radioecology of Waste Management Zones. These kinds of supportive studies will be needed to determine dietary habits of important animals inhabiting waste management zones, construction of realistic food chain models, and estimating radioactivity doses to biota

342

Ecological effects on streams from forest fertilization; literature review and conceptual framework for future study in the western Cascades  

Science.gov (United States)

Fertilization of forests with urea-nitrogen has been studied numerous times for its effects on water quality. Stream nitrogen concentrations following fertilization are typically elevated during winter, including peaks in the tens-of-thousands of parts per billion range, with summer concentrations often returning to background or near-background levels. Despite these increases, water-quality criteria for nitrogen have rarely been exceeded. However, such criteria are targeted at fish toxicity or human health and are not relevant to concentrations that could cause ecological disturbances.

Anderson, C.W.

2002-01-01

343

Ecological economics  

OpenAIRE

Ecological economics is a recently developed field, which sees the economy as a subsystem of a larger finite global ecosystem. Ecological economists question the sustainability of the economy because of its environmental impacts and its material and energy requirements, and also because of the growth of population. Attempts at assigning money values to environmental services and losses, and attempts at correcting macroeconomic accounting, are part of ecological economics, but its main thrust ...

Marti?nez Alier, Joan

2001-01-01

344

Summarizing history of the Nevada Applied Ecology Groups' environmental studies of transuranics and other radionuclides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents historical summaries of the research programs at the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG). NAEG was formed in 1970 as an outgrowth of the formation of the Office of Effects Evaluation and an anticipation by NV management of what was to become the National Environmental Policy Act. The objectives of the NAEG programs were: (1) delineate locations of contamination; (2) determine concentrations in ecosystem components; (3) quantify rates of movement among ecosystem components; and (4) evaluate potential dose from plutonium and other radionuclides

345

Agronomic and ecological studies on potato production in Southwest China. Seed and crop management.  

OpenAIRE

Potato is an important crop in sub-tropical Southwest China, where it is double-cropped in diverse ecological systems. Yields are higher at higher elevation. Spring crops show higher yields but lower light use efficiencies than autumn crops, especially at higher altitudes. The gaps between the actual and potential yields are mainly due to insufficient utilization of radiation and low light use efficiency of the actual crops.Earlier planting in spring increased yield at 500 m asl. At 1200 m as...

He, W.

1997-01-01

346

Understanding the biology and ecology of vulnerable plant species: case study with tetratheca juncea occurring over coal leases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tetratheca juncea Smith (Tremandraceae) is a vulnerable species listed under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act (Schedule 2, TSC Act 1995), and in the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.Researchers at the Universities of Queensland, New England and Newcastle established A collaborative research program investigated the reproductive and establishment biology of T juncea. Breeding systems, seed biology and mycorrhizal associations were investigated to determine factors limiting the reproductive output of the species. Native bees necessary for pollination were not detected in 100 hours of observation. The three key ramifications from this study of T. juncea's ecology is that: a pollinator is required for high seed yields; fire is required for germination; and a mycorrhizal partner is required for plant longevity. These findings indicate that translocations of the species cannot be recommended as there is a lack of knowledge about many factors that are critical for the persistence of the species. A fire management plan will need to cater for all obligate ecological requirements. The results of this study have been used to develop a flowchart on the biological procedures that need to be considered when a threatened flora species is found on a site. The results from this study are also considered to be a relevant guide for managing populations of other species of Tetratheca, many of which are also rare or threatened.

David Mulligan; Sean Bellairs; F.V. Bartier; C.L. Gross; D. Bowen

2001-06-01

347

Research of land reclamation and ecological restoration in the resource-exhausting city : a case study of Huaibei in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eco-city construction is a strong tool which could move a city from traditional industrial civilization to ecological civilization. The city of Huaibet, located in China, has 50 years of coal mining history, and has been listed as a national resource-exhausting city. The city's sustainable development and ecological restoration is encountering extreme challenges. This study used time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in order to study the situation of evolution and distribution of subsidence in the area in Huaibet. The purpose of the study was to provide strategic recommendations to assist Huaibei city transform from a resource-exhausting city to an eco-city. Specifically, the paper discussed the direction of eco-reconstruction in Huaibei such as rural eco-agriculture; wetland park or suburban park; and mine park. It also presented a time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in Huaibet including the subsidence status of the main city of Huaibet and intensive use of land evaluation and land use measures of the main city of Huaibei. Land reclamation and eco-reconstruction of Huaibet was also examined in the paper. It was concluded that based on land use of all aspects of the evaluation area and city's development plan, an integrated tourism with full use of subsidence land could be developed. 10 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

348

Development of virtual research environment for regional climatic and ecological studies and continuous education support  

Science.gov (United States)

Volumes of environmental data archives are growing immensely due to recent models, high performance computers and sensors development. It makes impossible their comprehensive analysis in conventional manner on workplace using in house computing facilities, data storage and processing software at hands. One of possible answers to this challenge is creation of virtual research environment (VRE), which should provide a researcher with an integrated access to huge data resources, tools and services across disciplines and user communities and enable researchers to process structured and qualitative data in virtual workspaces. VRE should integrate data, network and computing resources providing interdisciplinary climatic research community with opportunity to get profound understanding of ongoing and possible future climatic changes and their consequences. Presented are first steps and plans for development of VRE prototype element aimed at regional climatic and ecological monitoring and modeling as well as at continuous education and training support. Recently developed experimental software and hardware platform aimed at integrated analysis of heterogeneous georeferenced data "Climate" (http://climate.scert.ru/, Gordov et al., 2013; Shulgina et al., 2013; Okladnikov et al., 2013) is used as a VRE element prototype and approach test bench. VRE under development will integrate on the base of geoportal distributed thematic data storage, processing and analysis systems and set of models of complex climatic and environmental processes run on supercomputers. VRE specific tools are aimed at high resolution rendering on-going climatic processes occurring in Northern Eurasia and reliable and found prognoses of their dynamics for selected sets of future mankind activity scenaria. Currently the VRE element is accessible via developed geoportal at the same link (http://climate.scert.ru/) and integrates the WRF and «Planet Simulator» models, basic reanalysis and instrumental measurements data and support profound statistical analysis of storaged and modeled on demand data. In particular, one can run the integrated models, preprocess modeling results data, using dedicated modules for numerical processing perform analysys and visualize obtained results. New functionality recently has been added to the statistical analysis tools set aimed at detailed studies of climatic extremes occurring in Northern Asia. The VRE element is also supporting thematic educational courses for students and post-graduate students of the Tomsk State University. In particular, it allow students to perform on-line thematic laboratory work cycles on the basics of analysis of current and potential future regional climate change using Siberia territory as an example (Gordova et al, 2013). We plan to expand the integrated models set and add comprehensive surface and Arctic Ocean description. Developed VRE element "Climate" provides specialists involved into multidisciplinary research projects with reliable and practical instruments for integrated research of climate and ecosystems changes on global and regional scales. With its help even a user without programming skills can process and visualize multidimensional observational and model data through unified web-interface using a common graphical web-browser. This work is partially supported by SB RAS project VIII.80.2.1, RFBR grant 13-05-12034, grant 14-05-00502, and integrated project SB RAS 131. References 1. Gordov E.P., Lykosov V.N., Krupchatnikov V.N., Okladnikov I.G., Titov A.G., Shulgina T.M. Computationaland information technologies for monitoring and modeling of climate changes and their consequences. Novosibirsk: Nauka, Siberian branch, 2013. - 195 p. (in Russian) 2. T.M. Shulgina, E.P. Gordov, I.G. Okladnikov, A.G., Titov, E.Yu. Genina, N.P. Gorbatenko, I.V. Kuzhevskaya,A.S. Akhmetshina. Software complex for a regional climate change analysis. // Vestnik NGU. Series: Information technologies. 2013. Vol. 11. Issue 1. P. 124-131. (in Russian) 3. I.G. Okladnikov, A.G. Titov, T.M. Shulgina,

Gordov, Evgeny; Lykosov, Vasily; Krupchatnikov, Vladimir; Bogomolov, Vasily; Gordova, Yulia; Martynova, Yulia; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander; Shulgina, Tamara

2014-05-01

349

The Electronically Steerable Flash Lidar: A NASA Facility Instrument for Ecological Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

The Electronically Steerable Flash Lidar (ESFL) is a lidar concept created at Ball Aerospace and developed in conjunction with NASA. It represents a new paradigm for airborne or spaceborne lidar remote sensing. Instead of the mechanical scanning common to airborne lidars, or the fixed beam approach found in spaceborne lidars, ESFL allows the number and position of transmitted beams to vary shot-to-shot. This is done using an acousto-optic beam deflector that splits a single laser beam into N output beams, where N and the position of beam N on the ground can be reconfigured in real time electronically. This transmitter concept is coupled with a Flash Focal Plane Array (FFPA), a pixilated detector where every pixel delivers a time-resolved intensity waveform, thus allowing lidar imaging. The ESFL enables several jumps in capability for remote sensing of ecosystems. Multiple spatial scales can be probed simultaneously or within the same flight transect because beam spacings can be varied in real time. This means contiguous beams can be applied to regions where smaller scale variability needs to be probed, and in areas where maximum across-track coverage is needed, those beams are spread out. Furthermore, each beam can be projected onto multiple pixels, allowing one to collect a waveform over multiple length scales simultaneously. The electronic interface with the AOBD means that the transmitted pattern can respond to any of a multitude of inputs. The ESFL can interface with another forward-looking sensor, such as a hyperspectral instrument or another lidar or a digital camera. The data from that second sensor could be used to direct the ESFL observation toward, for example, an area with a specific spectral signature, or an area free from clouds. The ESFL concept was designed with a path to space in mind, but an airborne version has been built and tested on aircraft. The work continues under a NASA Airborne Instrument Technology Transition (AITT) grant designed to improve the reliability of the instrument. The AITT work will culminate in the ESFL becoming a NASA facility instrument, so that time on ESFL can be proposed through NASA. This allows public access to ESFL and ideally a long-term stream of data to the ecological community. The overall flexibility of the transmitter pattern and ability to alter it to respond to a changing scene makes the ESFL well-suited for many applications such as forest science, but also to track rivers for hydrological studies. This poster will discuss recent analysis of ESFL data in forests to prove its applicability to estimate canopy height in airborne systems. Furthermore, we will discuss improvements to the ESFL that are underway as part of the AITT to improve data throughput, allow for higher altitude operation, and increase overall reliability of the instrument.

Ramond, T.; Weimer, C. S.; Lefsky, M. A.; Duong, H.

2011-12-01

350

Study on ecological awareness and performance of nursing personnel in dialysis units  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: When designing new hospital construction or refurbishment can be adopted green practices both in design and in construction and operation. Objective: To explore the ecological awareness and behavior of nursing staff in a dialysis unit. Methods: This survey involved 90 Registered Nurses and Nurses’ aides of General Hospitals in the Capital (Athens and in province of Greece (Region of Peloponnese. These individuals were given an overall anonymous self-completed questionnaire. Results: The most important finding is that 70.8% considered as mandatory an organized effort to protect the environment in their workplace. Nurses think that greater environmental awareness is obtained 37.1% by using guidelines, 23.6% with relative stimulation, and 20.2% with educational lectures, 10.1% using poster and 6.7% in view educational videos. Finally, the correlations of ecological awareness with demographic characteristics of the sample revealed that older nursing staff with more years of working experience knows about environmental management (p-value=0.012. At the same time, gender (p-value=0,030 and educational level of the nursing staff plays an important role in the knowledge of it (p-value=0,044. Conclusions: To control costs and environmental pollution guidelines for saving energy and water and the use of environmentally friendly materials should be implemented. Thus, hospitals can become more competitive by reducing the amount of natural resources used.  Normal 0 false false false EL X-NONE X-NONE

Sofia Zyga

2013-03-01

351

Morphometric study of phylogenetic and ecologic signals in procyonid (mammalia: carnivora) endocasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endocasts provide a proxy for brain morphology but are rarely incorporated in phylogenetic analyses despite the potential for new suites of characters. The phylogeny of Procyonidae, a carnivoran family with relatively limited taxonomic diversity, is not well resolved because morphological and molecular data yield conflicting topologies. The presence of phylogenetic and ecologic signals in the endocasts of procyonids will be determined using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Endocasts of seven ingroup species and four outgroup species were digitally rendered and 21 landmarks were collected from the endocast surface. Two phylogenetic hypotheses of Procyonidae will be examined using methods testing for phylogenetic signal in morphometric data. In analyses of all taxa, there is significant phylogenetic signal in brain shape for both the morphological and molecular topologies. However, the analyses of ingroup taxa recover a significant phylogenetic signal for the morphological topology only. These results indicate support for the molecular outgroup topology, but not the ingroup topology given the brain shape data. Further examination of brain shape using principal components analysis and wireframe comparisons suggests procyonids possess more developed areas of the brain associated with motor control, spatial perception, and balance relative to the basal musteloid condition. Within Procyonidae, similar patterns of variation are present, and may be associated with increased arboreality in certain taxa. Thus, brain shape derived from endocasts may be used to test for phylogenetic signal and preliminary analyses suggest an association with behavior and ecology. PMID:25066912

Ahrens, Heather E

2014-12-01

352

Convergence of ecological footprint and emergy analysis as a sustainability indicator of countries: Peru as case study  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last decade, two scientific tools have been extensively used worldwide to measure the human impact on nature: ecological footprint (EF) and emergy analysis (EA). Papers trying to combine the strong points of EF and EA, and obtain more accurate results have appeared in scientific literature, in which Zhao's et al. (2005) [61] approach is an important one. Unfortunately, some weak points of the original methods still remain on the new approaches proposed. The aim of this present work is to discuss some weak points found in Zhao's approach, trying to overcome them through a new approach called emergetic ecological footprint (EEF). The main difference between Zhao's approach and EEF is that the last one accounted for the internal storage of capital natural in the biocapacity calculation. Besides that, soil loss and water for human consume were considered as additional categories in the footprint calculation. After discussing it through comparisons with other approaches, EEF was used to assess Peru as a case study, resulting in a biocapacity of 51.76 gha capita -1 and a footprint of 12.23 gha capita -1, with 2004 data; that resulted in an ecological surplus of 39.53 gha capita -1. The load capacity factor obtained was 4.23, meaning that Peru can support a population 4.23 times bigger considering the life style of 2004. The main limitations of the EEF are: (i) it is impossible to make comparisons between the biocapacity and footprint for each category; (ii) a need for a handbook with emergy intensity factors with good quality. On the other hand, the main positive points are: (i) its easiness of application in global and national scales; (ii) its final indicators account for all the previous energy (or emergy) used to make something; (iii) internal natural capital storage was accounted for in the biocapacity calculation, which can be a valid step towards the evaluation and assess of services provided by nature.

Siche, Raúl; Pereira, Lucas; Agostinho, Feni; Ortega, Enrique

2010-10-01

353

[System construction of early warning for ecological security at cultural and natural heritage mixed sites and its application: a case study of Wuyishan Scenery District].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposed a new concept of ecological security for protection by a comprehensive analysis of the contents and standards of world heritage sites. A frame concept model named "Pressure-State-Control" for early warning of ecological security at world heritage mixed sites was constructed and evaluation indicators of this frame were also selected. Wuyishan Scenery District was chosen for a case study, which has been severely disturbed by natural and artificial factors. Based on the frame model of "Pressure-State-Control" and by employing extension analysis, the matter-element model was established to assess the ecological security status of this cultural and natural world heritage mixed site. The results showed that the accuracy of ecological security early warning reached 84%. Early warning rank was I level (no alert status) in 1997 and 2009, but that in 2009 had a higher possibility to convert into II level. Likewise, the early-warning indices of sensitive ranks were different between 1997 and 2009. Population density, population growth rate, area index for tea garden, cultivated land owned per capita, level of drought, and investment for ecological and environmental construction were the main limiting factors to hinder the development of ecological security from 2009 to future. In general, the status of Wuyishan Scenery District ecological security was relatively good and considered as no alert level, while risk conditions also existed in terms of a few early-warning indicators. We still need to pay more attention to serious alert indicators and adopt effective prevention and control measures to maintain a good ecological security status of this heritage site. PMID:25129949

You, Wei-Bin; He, Dong-Jin; Qin, De-Hua; Ji, Zhi-Rong; Wu, Li-Yun; Yu, Jian-An; Chen, Bing-Rong; Tan, Yong

2014-05-01

354

Ecological Studies in the Coastal Waters of Kalpakkam, Southeast Coast of India, in the Vicinity of a Nuclear Island  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ecological monitoring of the coastal waters at Kalpakkam, which presently harbour various nuclear facilities, has been in progress for the last four years to create a benchmark dataset on water quality, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fisheries, sedentary organisms and molluscan species diversity. Results indicated a significant impact of monsoonal rain and backwaters on the coastal water quality. About 325 phytoplankton, 140 zooplankton, 350 fish, 130 molluscs and 100 species of sedentary organisms have been catalogued. Two fish species, which are native to Indonesia, were recorded for the first time in Indian coastal water. The study indicated that the coastal water is rich in biodiversity. Similarly, results of studies on costal sediment characteristics indicated the influence of monsoonal rain and backwater discharge. Overall, the study indicated little impact of nuclear activity on coastal water biodiversity and water quality. (author)

355

Lake Restoration in Terms of Ecological Resilience: a Numerical Study of Biomanipulations under Bistable Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An abstract version of the comprehensive aquatic simulation model (CASM is found to exhibit bistability under intermediate loading of nutrient input, supporting the alternative-stable-states theory and field observations for shallow lakes. Our simulations of biomanipulations under the bistable conditions reveal that a reduction in the abundance of zooplanktivorous fish cannot switch the system from a turbid to a clear state. Rather, a direct reduction of phytoplankton and detritus was found to be most effective to make this switch in the present model. These results imply that multiple manipulations may be effective for practical restorations of lakes. We discuss the present results of biomanipulations in terms of ecological resilience in multivariable systems or natural systems.

Kiminori Itoh

2005-12-01

356

Landscape and soil regionalization in southern Brazilian Amazon and contiguous areas: methodology and relevance for ecological studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Soils of a large tropical area with differentiated landscapes cannot be treated uniformly for ecological applications. We intend to develop a framework based on physiography that can be used in regional applications. The study region occupies more than 1.1 million km² and is located at the junction [...] of the savanna region of Central Brazil and the Amazon forest. It includes a portion of the high sedimentary Central Brazil plateau and large areas of mostly peneplained crystalline shield on the border of the wide inner-Amazon low sedimentary plain. A first broad subdivision was made into landscape regions followed by a more detailed subdivision into soil regions. Mapping information was extracted from soil survey maps at scales of 1:250000-1:500000. Soil units were integrated within a homogenized legend using a set of selected attributes such as taxonomic term, the texture of the B horizon and the associated vegetation. For each region, a detailed inventory of the soil units with their area distribution was elaborated. Ten landscape regions and twenty-four soil regions were recognized and delineated. Soil cover of a region is normally characterized by a cluster composed of many soil units. Soil diversity is comparable in the landscape and the soil regions. Composition of the soil cover is quantitatively expressed in terms of area extension of the soil units. Such geographic divisions characterized by grouping soil units and their spatial estimates must be used for regional ecological applications.

Boris, Volkoff; Francisco Fujita de Castro, Mello; Stoécio Malta Ferreira, Maia; Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino, Cerri.

2012-06-01

357

Ontogenetic diet shifts and their incidence on ecological processes: a case study using two morphologically similar stoneflies (Plecoptera)  

Science.gov (United States)

Most ecological studies consider conspecific individuals as ecologically equivalent, assuming that inter-instar variation is weak and has a limited influence on functional processes. To test this assumption, we investigated the life history and trophic basis of production in two predatory stoneflies, Perlodes microcephalus and Isoperla acicularis, in a mountain stream. The variety of prey types increased with predator size. However, larvae started their development with a strictly phytophagous diet (3 months), then ingested both vegetal material and animal prey (2-3 months). Finally, larvae were strictly carnivorous when head width reached 1.1 mm. Young (herbivorous) I. acicularis larvae occurred from June to August. Young P. microcephalus larvae hatched in October, and were herbivorous until December, when I. acicularis larvae were omnivorous. Competition for animal prey was likely to occur in the spring, but P. microcephalus grew faster and emerged earlier. The cohort productions were mostly based on carnivory (78.7-90.7%), because most production occurred in later instars. Ontogenetic diet shifts could play a role in the structuring of species assemblages by adjusting species' requirements to the temporal dynamics of environmental conditions, including food availability and biotic interactions. However, their incidence on global processes is quantitatively limited, large individuals having the greatest impacts on the way energy flows.

Céréghino, Régis

2006-07-01

358

Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS) began during FY-1984. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 15 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Through the long-term census taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has been evaluating the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10 CFR 1022).

NONE

1994-11-01

359

Landscape and soil regionalization in southern Brazilian Amazon and contiguous areas: methodology and relevance for ecological studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soils of a large tropical area with differentiated landscapes cannot be treated uniformly for ecological applications. We intend to develop a framework based on physiography that can be used in regional applications. The study region occupies more than 1.1 million km² and is located at the junction of the savanna region of Central Brazil and the Amazon forest. It includes a portion of the high sedimentary Central Brazil plateau and large areas of mostly peneplained crystalline shield on the border of the wide inner-Amazon low sedimentary plain. A first broad subdivision was made into landscape regions followed by a more detailed subdivision into soil regions. Mapping information was extracted from soil survey maps at scales of 1:250000-1:500000. Soil units were integrated within a homogenized legend using a set of selected attributes such as taxonomic term, the texture of the B horizon and the associated vegetation. For each region, a detailed inventory of the soil units with their area distribution was elaborated. Ten landscape regions and twenty-four soil regions were recognized and delineated. Soil cover of a region is normally characterized by a cluster composed of many soil units. Soil diversity is comparable in the landscape and the soil regions. Composition of the soil cover is quantitatively expressed in terms of area extension of the soil units. Such geographic divisions characterized by grouping soil units and their spatial estimates must be used for regional ecological applications.

Boris Volkoff

2012-06-01

360

Introduction to Ecological Landscaping: A Holistic Description and Framework to Guide the Study and Management of Urban Landscape Parcels  

OpenAIRE

Urbanized ecosystems and urban human populations are expanding around the world causing many negative environmental effects. A challenge for achieving sustainable urban social-ecological systems is understanding how urbanized landscapes can be designed and managed to minimize negative outcomes. To this end, an interdisciplinary Ecological Landscaping conference was organized to examine the interacting sociocultural and ecological causes and consequences of landscaping practices and products. ...

Parwinder Grewal; Byrne, Loren B.

2008-01-01

361

The quantitative study of marked individuals in ecology, evolution and conservation biology: a foreword to the EURING 2003 Conference  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Few fields in modern ecology have developed as fast as the analysis of marked individuals in the study of wild animal populations (Seber & Schwarz, 2002. This is the topic of EURING Conferences, which from 1986 have been the premier forum for advances in capture-recapture methodology. In this sense, EURING Conferences still maintain the flavour that originally inspired scientific meetings: to disseminate the very last findings, ideas and results on the field. Traditionally, EURING Conferences have been published in the form of Proceedings, which because of their relevant content, become a required reading to anyone interested in the capture-recapture methodology. EURING 2003 was held in Radolfzell (Germany, hosted by the Max Planck Research Centre for Ornithology, and the Proceedings appear as a special issue of Animal Biodiversity and Conservation. The full title of the 2003 meeting was “The quantitative study of marked individuals in ecology, evolution and conservation biology”, which stands for one of the main aims of the meeting: to establish the capture-recapture approach as one of the standard methodologies in studies within these fields. One of the shared views is that capture-recapture methodologies have reached a considerable maturity, but the need still exists to spread their use as a “standard” methodology. The nice review paper by Lebreton et al. (1993 in Trends in Ecology and Evolution is still applicable, in that general ecologists and evolutionary biologists still resist their general use. The same applies to conservation biology, where the analysis of marked individuals may also be a key tool in its development. We hope, with the spread of 2003 Proceedings, to help to fill this gap. The Proceedings follow the same general structure as the Conference. We organised the EURING meeting in 10 technical sessions, covering what we considered as fastest growing areas in the field. We appointed for each session, two chairs, which were charged with selecting 4-7 talks on the topic of their session. Each session additionally included a plenary conference intended to summarise or to provide a general but synthetic flavour of the topic. As a novelty in EURING conferences, we asked session chairs to include at least one talk dealing with study species other than birds. This is the result of a heated but fruitful discussion at EURING 2000 in Point Reyes, and fits with the general aim to spread the capture-recapture methodology beyond zoological groups: although EURING as an organization, deals with birds, and conferences have traditionally focused on this group, the capture-recapture approach is becoming a standard way to address biologically relevant questions on populations and individuals (Schwarz, 2002, for any zoological group. This volume, contains several nice examples of taxa other than birds. As far as possible, we selected chairs so that each session was delineated with a good balance between the biological and the statistician emphasis. This balance has in fact characterised EURING conferences, which in addition to the workshop atmosphere always present, has lead to very fruitful exchanges. Session The quantitative study of marked individuals in ecology, evolution and conservation biology: a foreword to the EURING 2003 Conference which in addition to the workshop atmosphere always present, has lead to very fruitful exchanges. Session chairs were also asked to act as editors for the papers within their session. All the papers were hence subjected to peer review, as in any other issue of Animal Biodiversity and Conservation, and presentation of the paper in the Conference did not assure publication in the Proceedings. This has lead to an even higher quality of the papers presented at the Conference. Editors were additionally asked to write a short summary on their session. Given that these summaries also present the views of the Editors on the different topics presented, we have preferred each introduction to appear as a short paper in the front of each one of the sessions, so that i

Senar, J. C.

2004-06-01

362

Community Ecology  

CERN Document Server

This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

1988-01-01

363

Phytoplankton Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

This site describes phytoplankton ecology research by marine ecologists at Mote Marine Laboratory (MML), an independent, nonprofit research organization based in Sarasota, Florida. The emphasis of MML's phytoplankton ecology research is the photophysiology of marine algae -- with recent emphasis on the ability to predict and possibly mitigate blooms of the toxic marine dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium breve. The no-frills phytoplankton ecology homepage describes research and offers data (maps, figures, tables) from 1998 and 1999 projects on Red Tide transects, Nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations, and Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (ECOHAB) transect data, among several others. The site also offers general information on Red Tides, Red Tide conditions in Southwest Florida, a chronology of historic Red Tide events, and links to related resources.

364

Urban Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

When people think about the concept and idea of ecology, they may not immediately picture a bustling urban street or a network of interconnected bike paths. Since 1975, a group of architects and activists have been thinking about exactly those things in terms of urban ecology (and a good deal more to boot), coupling it with a conviction that urban ecology can draw on ecology, public participation and urban planning "to help design and build healthier cities." Given these ideas, it seems logical that this organization has its roots in the Bay Area, and continues to offer up interesting plans and proposals, many of which can be found on the website. One such document is the Walkable Streets Toolkit, which is designed for use by communities that seek to make their streets more pedestrian friendly. Additionally, visitors will want to look at current and past editions of The Urban Ecologist, which is the group's quarterly newsletter.

365

[Study on the ecological risk of wild veined rapa whelk (Rapana venosa) exposured to organotin compounds in Bohai Bay, China].  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study evaluated the potential ecological risk of organotin compounds (OTs) to wild veined rapa whelk (Rapana Venosa) population in Bohai Bay. The results showed that the imposex rate was 12.5% and 6.48% in Dashentang and Nanpaihe coastal areas, with relative penis size index of 9.61 and 12.45, respectively. The concentrations of butyltin compounds and phenyltin compounds were 39.04 ng x g(-1) dw and 46.48 ng x g(-1) dw in muscle tissues, and 32.09 ng x g(-1) dw and 109.03 ng x g(-1) dw in digest gland, respectively. Based on TBT levels in the muscles of all samples, a risk quotient of 0.024 was derived, indicating certain risk of OTs at current levels to wild veined rapa whelk populations in Bohai Bay. PMID:23798116

An, Li-Hui; Zhang, Yan-Qiang; Song, Shuang-Shuang; Liu, Yue; Gao, Jun-Min; Chen, Hao; Zhao, Xing-Ru; Lei, Kun; Zheng, Bing-Hui

2013-04-01

366

Filling gaps in large ecological databases: consequences for the study of global-scale plant functional trait patterns  

Science.gov (United States)

With the advent of remotely sensed data and coordinated efforts to create global databases, the ecological community has progressively become more data-intensive. However, in contrast to other disciplines, statistical ways of handling these large data sets, especially the gaps which are inherent to them, are lacking. Widely used theoretical approaches, for example model averaging based on Akaike's information criterion (AIC), are sensitive to missing values. Yet, the most common way of handling sparse matrices - the deletion of cases with missing data (complete case analysis) - is known to severely reduce statistical power as well as inducing biased parameter estimates. In order to address these issues, we present novel approaches to gap filling in large ecological data sets using matrix factorization techniques. Factorization based matrix completion was developed in a recommender system context and has since been widely used to impute missing data in fields outside the ecological community. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of probabilistic matrix factorization techniques for imputing missing data in ecological matrices using two imputation techniques. Hierarchical Probabilistic Matrix Factorization (HPMF) effectively incorporates hierarchical phylogenetic information (phylogenetic group, family, genus, species and individual plant) into the trait imputation. Advanced Hierarchical Probabilistic Matrix Factorization (aHPMF) on the other hand includes climate and soil information into the matrix factorization by regressing the environmental variables against residuals of the HPMF. One unique opportunity opened up by aHPMF is out-of-sample prediction, where traits can be predicted for specific species at locations different to those sampled in the past. This has potentially far-reaching consequences for the study of global-scale plant functional trait patterns. We test the accuracy and effectiveness of HPMF and aHPMF in filling sparse matrices, using the TRY database of plant functional traits (http://www.try-db.org). TRY is one of the largest global compilations of plant trait databases (750 traits of 1 million plants), encompassing data on morphological, anatomical, biochemical, phenological and physiological features of plants. However, despite of unprecedented coverage, the TRY database is still very sparse, severely limiting joint trait analyses. Plant traits are the key to understanding how plants as primary producers adjust to changes in environmental conditions and in turn influence them. Forming the basis for Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs), plant traits are also fundamental in global change studies for predicting future ecosystem changes. It is thus imperative that missing data is imputed in as accurate and precise a way as possible. In this study, we show the advantages and disadvantages of applying probabilistic matrix factorization techniques in incorporating hierarchical and environmental information for the prediction of missing plant traits as compared to conventional imputation techniques such as the complete case and mean approaches. We will discuss the implications of using gap-filled data for global-scale studies of plant functional trait - environment relationship as opposed to the above-mentioned conventional techniques, using examples of out-of-sample predictions of foliar Nitrogen across several species' ranges and biomes.

Schrodt, Franziska; Shan, Hanhuai; Fazayeli, Farideh; Karpatne, Anuj; Kattge, Jens; Banerjee, Arindam; Reichstein, Markus; Reich, Peter

2013-04-01

367

Advances in genome editing technology and its promising application in evolutionary and ecological studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic modification has long provided an approach for "reverse genetics", analyzing gene function and linking DNA sequence to phenotype. However, traditional genome editing technologies have not kept pace with the soaring progress of the genome sequencing era, as a result of their inefficiency, time-consuming and labor-intensive methods. Recently, invented genome modification technologies, such as ZFN (Zinc Finger Nuclease), TALEN (Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nuclease), and CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Cas9 nuclease) can initiate genome editing easily, precisely and with no limitations by organism. These new tools have also offered intriguing possibilities for conducting functional large-scale experiments. In this review, we begin with a brief introduction of ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas9 technologies, then generate an extensive prediction of effective TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 target sites in the genomes of a broad range of taxonomic species. Based on the evidence, we highlight the potential and practicalities of TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 editing in non-model organisms, and also compare the technologies and test interesting issues such as the functions of candidate domesticated, as well as candidate genes in life-environment interactions. When accompanied with a high-throughput sequencing platform, we forecast their potential revolutionary impacts on evolutionary and ecological research, which may offer an exciting prospect for connecting the gap between DNA sequence and phenotype in the near future. PMID:25414792

Chen, Lei; Tang, Linyi; Xiang, Hui; Jin, Lijun; Li, Qiye; Dong, Yang; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Guojie

2014-01-01

368

ANALYSIS OF WASTE WATER FROM ECOLOGICAL CAR WASH – A CASE STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wastewaters resulted from different stages of washing process from ecological car wash were investigated for its physicochemical parameters and several heavy metals contents. For this purpose 75 samples were collected and analyzed by conductometric, potentiometric techniques and by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry during of November 2010. The results showed that the amount of zinc, copper, cadmium and lead elements in wastewater samples were higher than the Maximum Admitted Level (MAL values for investigated heavy metals, according to the Order 161/2006, after washing different cars in one week (from Monday to Friday at 14,00. The increase of Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn concentrations is visible (average weekly collections and these were higher especially on rainy days when cars came with a load more visible than in the days with good weather. In according with the Order 161/2006, regarding pH tolerance limit, the mean pH values for all collected samples were between 6.00 and 9.00. The temperature ranged between 14.10 - 17.10°C with an average value of 14.91±1.61°C. The highest values for conductivity, turbidity and TDS was found for samples Sp2, Sp5, Sp8, Sp11 and Sp14, before entrance in the first separator.

CRISTIANA RADULESCU

2011-06-01

369

Residential mobility and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: an ecological study  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted an ecological analysis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia-incidence data from children ?5 years old during 1992–1998 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program in 200 counties and Hawaii. The response variable was the count of cases in each county race–sex stratum, examined in relation to data from the United States Census and the United States Department of Agriculture. The final models for both sexes included race, proportion moved during 1985–1990, and proportion of households with income ?$5000 as potential predictors. Incidence was lower among black boys (rate ratio (RR)=0.5) and black girls (RR=0.4) than among other children of the same sex; no other significant racial differences were detected. Incidence was elevated among males (but not females) residing in counties where ?50% of the population relocated (RR=1.5) and among females (but not males) residing in counties where <6% of the households had incomes <$5000 (RR=1.5). These sex differences in risk factors were unexpected. PMID:17533404

Adelman, A S; Groves, F D; O'Rourke, K; Sinha, D; Hulsey, T C; Lawson, A B; Wartenberg, D; Hoel, D G

2007-01-01

370

Ecological responses of natural and planted forests to thinning in southeastern Korea: a chronosequence study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effects of forest thinning on community level properties have not been understood yet in Korea. We investigated regenerationpatterns and trajectories after a disturbance by applying a chronosequence approach. Light availability, litter andwoody debris cover, and species composition were determined for twenty 50 m line-transect samples representing a disturbanceduration gradient (within 11 years. Environmental factors such as light availability and coverage of woody debrisand litter changed abruptly after thinning and then returned to the pre-disturbance state. Although species richnesswas gained at shrub and ground layer in a limited way in both forests, cover of various functional types revealed diversityin their responses. Notably, Alnus firma stands exhibited a larger increment of cover in woody plants. Ordination analysisrevealed different regeneration trajectories between natural and planted stands. Based on ordination analysis, rehabilitatedstands showed movement to alternative states compared with natural ones, reflecting lower resilience to perturbation(i.e., lower stability. Our results suggest that community resilience to artificial thinning depends on properties ofthe dominant species. But to get more explanatory ecological information, longer-term static observations are required.

Yong-Chan Cho

2011-12-01

371

Advances in genome editing technology and its promising application in evolutionary and ecological studies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Genetic modification has long provided an approach for "reverse genetics", analyzing gene function and linking DNA sequence to phenotype. However, traditional genome editing technologies have not kept pace with the soaring progress of the genome sequencing era, as a result of their inefficiency, time-consuming and labor-intensive methods. Recently, invented genome modification technologies, such as ZFN (Zinc Finger Nuclease), TALEN (Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nuclease), and CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Cas9 nuclease) can initiate genome editing easily, precisely and with no limitations by organism. These new tools have also offered intriguing possibilities for conducting functional large-scale experiments. In this review, we begin with a brief introduction of ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas9 technologies, then generate an extensive prediction of effective TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 target sites in the genomes of a broad range of taxonomic species. Based on the evidence, we highlight the potential and practicalities of TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 editing in non-model organisms, and also compare the technologies and test interesting issues such as the functions of candidate domesticated, as well as candidate genes in life-environment interactions. When accompanied with a high-throughput sequencing platform, we forecast their potential revolutionary impacts on evolutionary and ecological research, which may offer an exciting prospect for connecting the gap between DNA sequence and phenotype in the near future.

Chen, Lei; Tang, Linyi

2014-01-01

372

New Frontiers in Nematode Ecology  

OpenAIRE

Future areas of emphasis for research and scholarship in nematode ecology are indicated by pressing agricultural and environmental issues, by new directions in applied nematology, and by current technological advances. Studies in nematode ecology must extend beyond observation, counting, and simple statistical analysis. Experimentation and the testing of hypotheses are needed for understanding the biological mechanisms of ecological systems. Opportunities for fruitful experimentation in nemat...

Ferris, Howard

1993-01-01

373

Campus Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

This website from the National Wildlife Federation showcases environmental conservation projects that have been successfully undertaken by various universities. The site features example projects and resources for doing your own campus project. Topics include building design, energy, environmental literacy, habitat restoration, water, transportation and waste reduction. Links to the online Campus Ecology Yearbook and the Campus Ecology Research Station and other resources are also included.

National Wildlife Federation

374

Development of a concept for a long-term ecological monitoring system on the river Rhine. Phase 1: bibliographic study. Annex 2. Summary of results and conclusions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This bibliographic study describes the ecological changes to which the ecosystem Rhine river/floodplain has been exposed from its historical state, free of anthropogenic impacts, to its present state, marked by strong anthropogenic impacts. By classifying these changes it is possible to define reference states of the river which should become the basis for the restoration of certain conditions of the ecosystem river/floodplain and to discuss related targets and actions. A comparison of historical and present states of the ecosystem allows proposals to be derived for measuring parameters for a future ecological monitoring programme for the river Rhine. Finally, gaps in knowledge are revealed, which at present hinder the ecological monitoring of the river, its shores and floodplains. Annex II is a summary of major findings and conclusions, which are discussed in the context of objectives and actions of the Rhine restoration programme. (orig.)

375

Compositional Data Analysis (CoDA) as a tool to study the (paleo)ecology of coccolithophores from coastal-neritic settings off central Portugal  

Science.gov (United States)

Whereas using the species percentages is the standard analytical procedure used to infer species ecological preferences, independently of taphonomical effects, the closure problem associated with closed number systems and subsequent inconsistency of determining percentages may lead to spurious correlations, biased statistical analysis and misleading interpretations. To avoid these problems, we applied Compositional Data Analysis (CoDA) to investigate the (paleo)ecological preferences and spatial distribution of coccolith assemblages preserved in seafloor sediments, using as a case-study the central Portuguese submarine canyons and adjacent shelf-slope areas. Results from using the isometric log-ratio (ilr) approach from CoDA are compared with results from using classical analytical methods, and further discussed. While providing scale invariance and subcompositional coherence, CoDA is revealed to be a consistent statistical tool to infer the (paleo)ecological preferences of coccolithophores, corroborating earlier work based on from percentage determinations. Results of this study clearly confirmed the coastal-neritic distribution of coccoliths from Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Helicosphaera carteri and Coronosphaera mediterranea, whereas coccoliths from Calcidiscus leptoporus, Umbilicosphaera sibogae, Umbellosphaera irregularis and Rhabdosphaera spp. more typically occur offshore. Differences between canyons and adjacent shelf and slope areas were also confirmed, namely the (a) greater importance of the coastal-neritic assemblage possibly resulting from local and persistent nutrient pumping in these areas, and (b) stronger mixing of coccoliths from coastal and oceanic species in upper canyon reaches, resulting from the focused coastward advection of more oceanic water masses along their axes. Unlike the results from both ilr-coordinates and the percentage approaches, both coccolith concentrations and fluxes showed that spatial trends in which the species ecological inter-relationships appear to be masked by taphonomical phenomena, especially towards the coast and in the canyons, suggesting the two latter approaches are not suitable to perform (paleo)ecological inferences in more dynamic coastal-neritic settings. Our study suggests that the (paleo)ecological signal preserved in the studied sediment samples is persistent enough to be revealed by both CoDA and percentages. Yet, given that CoDA provides the only statistical solution to coherently draw (paleo)ecological interpretations from compositional data, our recommendation is that CoDA should always be used to test and validate any ecological signals obtained from percentage distributions.

Guerreiro, Catarina; Cachão, Mário; Pawlowsky-Glahn, Vera; Oliveira, Anabela; Rodrigues, Aurora

2015-04-01

376

Developing Ecological Footprint Scenarios on University Campuses: A Case Study of the University of Toronto at Mississauga  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The ecological footprint represents a simple way to assess the amount of materials consumed and waste produced by a given entity. The approach has been applied to countries, towns, households, and more recently university campuses. One of the challenges of using the ecological footprint at a university is the difficulty of determining how…

Conway, Tenley M.; Dalton, Chelsea; Loo, Jennifer; Benakoun, Laura

2008-01-01

377

Learning about Environmental Issues in Engineering Programmes: A Case Study of First-Year Civil Engineering Students' Contextualisation of an Ecology Course  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes how first-year civil engineering students interpreted the content and structure of an ecology course. Students' learning processes were analysed from an intentional perspective, i.e. a perspective that takes into account the students' educational aims and conceptions of the study situation. Interviews were carried out with six civil…

Lundholm, Cecilia

2004-01-01

378

Knowledge and Values in Science Textbooks Concerning Complexity in Ecological Systems and Environmental Problems: A Cross-cultural Study on Secondary School Manuals  

Science.gov (United States)

The study was carried out within the European research project "Biology, Health and Environmental Education for Better Citizenship" that joined 18 European and North-African countries. We report here the methodology and some of the conclusions drawn from an analysis of science textbooks that considered the topics ecology and environmental…

Boujemaa, Agorram; Silvia, Caravita; Adriana, Valente; Daniela, Luzi; Nicola, Margnelli

2009-01-01

379

The Learning Effects of an Ecology Enrichment Summer Program on Gifted Students from Mainstream and Diverse Cultural Backgrounds: A Preliminary Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Enrichment is one of the important educational models for gifted students. However, the research on gifted enrichment programs rarely leads to instructional interventions for culturally diverse students. The purposes of this study were: (a) to propose an ecology enrichment summer program for gifted students from mainstream and diverse cultural…

Wang, Wen-Ling; Wu, Jiun-Wei; Lin, Yu-Chin

2006-01-01

380

Ecological transition towards a sustainable energy system. Case studies on biogas production and use in Germany and Peru. Study of the European Commission  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy system - defined as the production, distribution and consumption of energy - plays an important role in sustainability because it is interlinked with economic development, environmental protection and also, in developing countries, with the basic need for a food supply. The energy system has to be studied in relation to the urgent global problems, such as increasing pollution, growing world population, deforestation, exploitation of nonrenewable resources etc. The study, therefore, has the following objectives: - Identification of basic needs by the definition of physical, economic and social indicators for sustainable development. - Definition of the energy system, in terms of processes from energy production to energy use, including actors and networks. - Identification of the main problem areas in industrialized and developing countries relating to the energy system, of necessary improvements and of activities which are essential for the fulfillment of basic needs. - Definition and description of the conventional energy system with its process chains and actors and of an ecological energy system. - Identification of technical and socioeconomic impacts of these systems and their relations to the sustainability indicators. - Analysis of barriers and promotion of measures for the ecological transi tion (actors, R and D, technology transfer, information, motivation, consultation, training, subsidies, and other policy implications). (orig./SR)

Gruber, E.; Reichert, J.; Walz, R.; Herz, H.

1996-06-01

381

Ecological transition towards a sustainable energy system. Case studies on biogas production and use in Germany and Peru. Study of the European Commission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The energy system - defined as the production, distribution and consumption of energy - plays an important role in sustainability because it is interlinked with economic development, environmental protection and also, in developing countries, with the basic need for a food supply. The energy system has to be studied in relation to the urgent global problems, such as increasing pollution, growing world population, deforestation, exploitation of nonrenewable resources etc. The study, therefore, has the following objectives: - Identification of basic needs by the definition of physical, economic and social indicators for sustainable development. - Definition of the energy system, in terms of processes from energy production to energy use, including actors and networks. -Identification of the main problem areas in industrialized and developing countries relating to the energy system, of necessary improvements and of activities which are essential for the fulfillment of basic needs. - Definition and description of the conventional energy system with its process chains and actors and of an ecological energy system. - Identification of technical and socioeconomic impacts of these systems and their relations to the sustainability indicators. - Analysis of barriers and promotion of measures for the ecological transi tion (actors, R and D, technology transfer, information, motivation, consultation, training, subsidies, and other policy implications). (orig./SR)implications). (orig./SR)

382

Application of the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean to Phytoplankton Ecology Studies in Monterey Bay, CA, USA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a demonstrator for technologies for the next generation of ocean color sensors, the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO provides enhanced spatial and spectral resolution that is required to understand optically complex aquatic environments. In this study we apply HICO, along with satellite remote sensing and in situ observations, to studies of phytoplankton ecology in a dynamic coastal upwelling environment—Monterey Bay, CA, USA. From a spring 2011 study, we examine HICO-detected spatial patterns in phytoplankton optical properties along an environmental gradient defined by upwelling flow patterns and along a temporal gradient of upwelling intensification. From a fall 2011 study, we use HICO’s enhanced spatial and spectral resolution to distinguish a small-scale “red tide” bloom, and we examine bloom expansion and its supporting processes using other remote sensing and in situ data. From a spectacular HICO image of the Monterey Bay region acquired during fall of 2012, we present a suite of algorithm results for characterization of phytoplankton, and we examine the strengths, limitations, and distinctions of each algorithm in the context of the enhanced spatial and spectral resolution.

John P. Ryan

2014-01-01

383

Ecological performance and possible origin of a ubiquitous but under-studied gastropod  

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Invasions by non-indigenous species (NIS) have been suggested to alter local, regional and global biota on unprecedented scales. To manage NIS, it is pivotal to identify whether a species is introduced or native, but even today the geographical origin of thousands of species worldwide remain uncertain. Most of these 'cryptogenic species' are inconspicuous and rare, but in a few instances, they can also be abundant and conspicuous species, with large impacts on community structure. The identification of cryptogenic species, and summarizing information on their most likely origin, is an important task in invasion biology, and can highlight the need for research and management. Here, we document that the gastropod Batillaria australis in the Swan River estuary (Perth, Western Australia) is a conspicuous species of uncertain origin. A literature review combined with new survey data revealed that all evidence point to a recent human-mediated transfer; for example, it is absent from the fossil record, was first collected in 1954, has a low parasite diversity, has increased its population size dramatically in recent times, is separated by >3000 km from conspecifics, has no long-distance dispersal mechanisms, and existing ocean currents run against a natural range extension. Surprisingly, despite political and scientific focus on NIS hardly any ecological data have been published on this species from Western Australia. We show that B. australis is highly abundant in both seagrass beds (424 ± 29 ind m -2) and on unvegetated sand flats (92 ± 22 ind m -2) being orders of magnitudes more abundant than any native gastropod in the Swan River. Experiments showed that high resistance to predation and environmental stress potentially explains its success. From our survey data, we calculated that >3.6 billion invasive snails today occupy the Swan River. This large snail populations support other organisms; for example, almost 1 billion macroalgae are found attached to living B. australis and >100 million hermit crabs occupy its empty shells. Given Battilaria's high abundance, wide distribution, large size, persistent shells that support other organisms and bioturbating behavior, it seems inescapable that this potential invader has impacted the ecosystem functioning of the Swan River. We argue that the search for abundant species of uncertain origin should continue, and that these species generally should be treated with the same interest as high status invaders to mitigate impacts in already invaded systems and to avoid secondary spread into neighboring ecosystems.

Thomsen, Mad S.; Wernberg, Thomas; Tuya, Fernando; Silliman, Brian R.

2010-05-01

384

Radioisotopes in Studies on the Ecology of Tick Vectors of Disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper demonstrates the feasibility of mass rearing of radioisotope-tagged immature ticks by collecting the progeny of engorged females of three species inoculated with carbon-14 glucose or glycine prior to oviposition. The incorporation of radiochemicals internally into ticks reduces the chance of loss of the radioactive label when moulting occurs, or under natural conditions. Most treated ticks laid eggs. The amount of radioactivity in the progeny could be controlled by controlling the size of the dose administered to the parent ticks. However, differences in radioactivity in the progeny of treated ticks in relation to the day of oviposition were noted. This activity declined progressively through the ninth day. Differences were also noted in relation to the radiochemical used. Most of the carbon-14 glycine (79.0%]o) received by the engorged females remained in the parents, whereas most of the carbon-14 glucose (77.5 %) received was transferred to the progeny. Hatching of eggs labelled by this method was less than in untreated oviposits. Radiosensitivity in the eggs was also noted and was related to the size of the dose administered to the parent tick. No hatching occurred when the average radioactivity of the labelled eggs exceeded 637 counts/min per egg over background. Nevertheless, many highly radioactive eggs hatched, and larvae with counts as high as 510 counts/min per larva over background were observed. The biological characteristics of the tagged larvaegical characteristics of the tagged larvae were apparently unaffected by incorporation of radiochemicals into these individuals. The proportion of marked larvae which attached to hosts was similar to the proportion of unmarked larvae which attached. The duration of survival of fasting, radioisotope-tagged larvae, under laboratory conditions, was similar to the period of survival of nonradioactive larvae. No apparent loss in radioactivity in fasting larvae held for up to 70 days under laboratory conditions was detected. This demonstration of the feasibility of mass rearing and long-term survival of radioisotope-tagged immature ticks suggests that it is now possible to apply this radioecological technique to obtain important new knowledge, on the ecology of tick vectors of disease. (author)

385

Proposed spatial framework to develop land use in an environmentally-sensitive area: Case study, El-Daba'a region, Egypt Part I: Ecological value assessment using GIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study is to assess the ecological characteristics of El-Daba'a area in Egypt using GIS as a first step for the development of an environmental management plan for the area. The absence of environmental planning in the process of land use development may cause many significant negative impacts on biodiversity, ecological value and the general environmental conditions and the therefore reducing such negative impacts will improve land use development. The first part of sequel of two papers, which is a part of a sustainable land use development research program, aims at designing a spatial framework to improve land use planning and development in an environmental context. The research program deals with the problem of land use planning and development in an arid coastal area under environmentally sensitive conditions. The study area is El-Daba'a region, located in the northwestern coast of Egypt, which can be described as a wild area. The approach used in this paper consists of studying the spatial ecological characteristics of El-Daba'a region using different spatial data including maps and land sat remote sensing data. These data are used to create a series of superimposed informative layers managed by a geographic information system (GIS) to describe the spatial ecological characteristics of the study area. The developed GIS allow decision makers to handle large amounts of information simultaneously such as geology, geomorphology, land cover, wild life ogy, geomorphology, land cover, wild life and many other different information layers. The system is designed to help decision makers to organize, relate, analyze and visualize the ecological data and information in the study area. The developed GIS system might be used to determine the probable effects of building a nuclear power station on the ecosystem. (author)

386

Application of species sensitivity distribution in aquatic probabilistic ecological risk assessment of cypermethrin: A case study in an urban stream in South China.  

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A tiered ecological risk assessment was applied to quantitatively refine the overall probabilistic risk of cypermethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, to aquatic organisms. These results were then validated through the bioassays using field water from an urban stream, Chebei Creek in Guangzhou, South China. Seventeen water samples were collected along Chebei Creek for evaluation. In total, 71% of the field waters were acutely toxic to Hyallela azteca and 24% of the waters caused 100% mortality. Toxic unit evaluation suggested that cypermethrin was one of the main contributors to toxicity. The tiered ecological risk assessment approach (deterministic quotient method and probabilistic methods, including joint probability curve and Monte Carlo Simulation) suggested that cypermethrin posed significant threats to aquatic ecology in this stream. The overall probabilistic risk of cypermethrin to aquatic species in Chebei Creek reached 66% when acute-to-chronic ratios were set at 125. An exceedance probability of cypermethrin in Chebei Creek that affected H. azteca as modeled using the joint probability curve method was 88%, suggesting that most sites were at risk due to cypermethrin exposure. This value was similar to the results obtained from acute toxicity tests (71% of field water samples were acutely toxic to H. azteca), indicating the effectiveness of the tiered approach to assess risk of cypermethrin in urban waterways. To the authors' knowledge, the present study is the first to provide a focused probabilistic evaluation of ecological risk for cypermethrin in a complex urban waterway environment. Despite uncertainties existing in the ecological risk assessment procedure, this approach provides a comprehensive assessment of ecological risk of cypermethrin, and subsequently, a foundation for further risk diagnosis and management in urban waterways. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:640-648. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25545801

Li, Huizhen; You, Jing

2015-03-01

387

Vegetation Dynamics Depending on Ecological Particularities of Bozanta Mare (Maramures County-Romania Tailing Pound. Case Study  

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Full Text Available The present study follows an ecological demarch of reintegration in the scenary through revegetation of an anthropic ground, consisting in a waste pond formed from the flotation activity of non-ferrous ores. Problem statement: To support the formation of a compact vegetal layer, having an anti-errosion and a restoration role, a preliminary study was required regarding the spontaneous settlement of different vegetal species. We have followed the specific floristic composition and the biodiversity on the waste pond, the manner of association of plant species, and the possible interractions with other species from the biocenosis (microorganisms and fungi. We have also studied the pace at which vegetal species settle, as well as the reciprocal influence, from the point of view of vegetation, with the neighbouring area, since the desideratum is the settlement of a vegetation similar to the natural one. Approach: The aim of the research is to draw a list of the vegetal taxa installed on the pond, as well as to detect some succession stages or some possible vegetal associations. We have established the share of different species in the vegetal layer on the waste pond through an analysis of the ecological preferences, of the geographical origin of plant species, of the cariological and bioform profile. All this was done to compare the possible vegetal associations which settle on such anthropic grounds with the neighbouring vegetation. The approach used was the classical one in fitosociology, recommended by the Central European Fitosociological School adapted to the pedo-climatic conditions in Romania. Results: Over 50 species of plants and fungi spontaniously settled have been listed, and we have followed their association as well as their distribution, compared to the microclimatical conditions of the waste pond. In this way,we have distinguished species with a large potential of revegetating highly polluted with heavy metals waste ponds and sites. Conclusions/Recommendations: Starting from this study, we may establish a formula of sustaining the vegetation and using the interractions among species in order to stimulate the settlement of a dense vegetation which might ensure anti-errosion protection and landscape integration.

Monica Marian

2009-01-01

388

Daily functioning profile of children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder: A pilot study using an ecological assessment.  

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Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often present with activities of daily living (ADL) performance deficits. This study aimed to compare the performance characteristics of children with ADHD to those of controls based on the Do-Eat assessment tool, and to establish the tool's validity. Participants were 23 children with ADHD and 24 matched controls, aged 6-9?years. In addition to the Do-Eat, the Children Activity Scale-Parent (ChAS-P) and the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) were used to measure sensorimotor abilities and executive function (EF). Significant differences were found in the Do-Eat scores between children with ADHD and controls. Significant moderate correlations were found between the Do-Eat sensorimotor scores, the ChAS-P and the BRIEF scores in the ADHD group. Significant correlations were found between performance on the Do-Eat and the ChAS-P questionnaire scores, verifying the tool's ecological validity. A single discriminant function described primarily by four Do-Eat variables, correctly classified 95.5% of the study participants into their respective study groups, establishing the tool's predictive validity within this population. These preliminary findings indicate that the Do-Eat may serve as a reliable and valid tool that provides insight into the daily functioning characteristics of children with ADHD. However, further research on larger samples is indicated. PMID:25054849

Rosenblum, Sara; Frisch, Carmit; Deutsh-Castel, Tsofia; Josman, Naomi

2015-06-01

389

Political ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.)

390

Doctoral Education in a Successful Ecological Niche: A Qualitative Exploratory Case Study of the Relationship between the Microclimate and Doctoral Students’ Learning to Become a Researcher  

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Full Text Available Scholarly communities are dependent on and often measured by their ability to attract and develop doctoral students. Recent literature suggests that most scholarly communities entail ecological niches in which the doctoral students learn the codes and practices of research. In this article, we explore the microclimate in an ecological niche of doctoral education. Based on a theoretical definition of microclimate as the emotional atmosphere that ties group members together and affects their actions, we conducted a case study that aimed to describe the key features of the microclimate in a successful ecological niche of doctoral education, and the ways in which the microclimate support the doctoral students’ learning. The methods we applied in the case study were based on short-term ethnographic fieldwork. The results reveal four key features of the emotional atmosphere in the microclimate: mutual appreciation, balancing seriousness and humor, desire, and ambition. These features constitute the shared emotionality that sets the scene for the microclimate, and affects and guides the doctoral students’ daily practices. Furthermore, the results indicate that the microclimate supports successful doctoral education because it: 1 fleshes out the professional attitude that is necessary for becoming a successful researcher in the department, 2 shapes and adapts the doctoral students’ desires to grasp and identify with the department’s practices, and 3 provides the doctoral students with access to flow zones that drive their education. These results may suggest practical implications for fostering and cultivating successful ecological niches in medical education at doctoral level.

Mette Krogh Christensen

2014-06-01

391

Doctoral education in a successful ecological niche : A qualitative exploratory case study of the relationship between the microclimate and doctoral students' learning to become a researcher  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Scholarly communities are dependent on and often measured by their ability to attract and develop doctoral students. Recent literature suggests that most scholarly communities entail ecological niches in which the doctoral students learn the codes and practices of research. In this article, we explore the microclimate in an ecological niche of doctoral education. Based on a theoretical definition of microclimate as the emotional atmosphere that ties group members together and affects their actions, we conducted a case study that aimed to describe the key features of the microclimate in a successful ecological niche of doctoral education, and the ways in which the microclimate support the doctoral students’ learning. The methods we applied in the case study were based on short-term ethnographic fieldwork. The results reveal four key features of the emotional atmosphere in the microclimate: mutual appreciation, balancing seriousness and humor, desire, and ambition. These features constitute the shared emotionality that sets the scene for the microclimate, and affects and guides the doctoral students’ daily practices. Furthermore, the results indicate that the microclimate supports successful doctoral education because it: 1) fleshes out the professional attitude that is necessary for becoming a successful researcher in the department, 2) shapes and adapts the doctoral students’ desires to grasp and identify with the department’s practices, and 3) provides the doctoral students with access to flow zones that drive their education. These results may suggest practical implications for fostering and cultivating successful ecological niches in medical education at doctoral level.

Christensen, Mette Krogh; Lund, Ole

2014-01-01

392

The Development of Talent in Young Adults with Williams Syndrome: An Exploratory Study of Ecological Influences  

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This mixed methods study employed comparative, case-study methodology to explore influences affecting the development of musical interests and achievements in eight female and eight male young adults with Williams Syndrome. Components of the "Schoolwide Enrichment Model"; (Renzulli & Reis, 1997b) were used to guide the study. Caregivers completed…

Milne, Harry

2004-01-01

393

PROPOSAL OF A NEW METHOO OF ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF VEGETATION: THE CASE STUDY OF THE VEGETATION OF THE VENICE LAGOON LANDSCAPE ANO OF ITS SALT MARSHES  

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Full Text Available

In frequent case studies, the heterogeneity of vegetation formation is very high, because of the frequency of both natural and human disturbances. Consequently, the phytosociological approach .and the auto-ecological one are not completely adequate for the evaluation or the ecological state of this vegetation in a landscape.

So, this evaluation needs the integration with a landscape ecological method of vegetation survey through schedules, as indicated by Ingegnoli (2002. Each type of schedule has been designed to check the organisation level and to estimate the metastability of a tessera of a certain type of vegetation, considering both general ecological and landscape ecological characters: (A Landscape e1ement characters (e.g. tessera, corridor, (8 Plant, biomass above ground, (C Ecocoenotope pararneters. (D Relation among the elements and their landscape parameters. There are four evaluation classes, the weights per class depending on an evaluation model designed as shown later on. The principal aim of this research is to design a new schedule, available for the main coenosis of salt marshes vegetation, which allows to complete a preliminary study on the Venice lagoon landscape dynamics, based on its vegetation. The landscape of the Venice lagoon is very complex and articulated, its main vegetation formations are the following: Underwater, Salt marshes. Littoral. Reclamation colonisations, Wet areas. Wooded patches and corridors. Agricultural cultivations, Urban green. The most important typc of vegetation is represented by salt marshes prairies called "barene", especially by Limonietum venetum (Pignani. 1966, This association can be divided into three sub-associations, the first with three facies: but the reality presents a large quantity of tesserae in intermediate or ecotonal states, even mixed with other associations (e,g, Spartinetum maritimae. The design and control of the schedule, the first measure of the community plant biomasses are a part of this study, me results of which will be discussed in this work.

E. GIGLIO

2004-01-01

394

Ecological subsidies: a conceptual framework for integrating ecosystem and exposure studies in linked aquatic-terrestrial systems  

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Ecology and ecotoxicology share common goals - tracing and quantifying material flux in the environment. Bridging these disciplines is challenging because their practitioners have slightly different methods, terminologies and objectives. For example, ecologists strive to identify...