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1

Up-regulation of the clusterin gene after proteotoxic stress: implication of HSF1-HSF2 heterocomplexes  

Science.gov (United States)

Clusterin is a secreted protein chaperone up-regulated in several pathologies, including cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. The present study shows that accumulation of aberrant proteins, caused by the proteasome inhibitor MG132 or the incorporation of the amino acid analogue AZC (L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid), increased both clusterin protein and mRNA levels in the human glial cell line U-251 MG. Consistently, MG132 treatment was capable of stimulating a 1.3 kb clusterin gene promoter. Promoter deletion and mutation studies revealed a critical MG132-responsive region between ?218 and ?106 bp, which contains a particular heat-shock element, named CLE for ‘clusterin element’. Gel mobility-shift assays demonstrated that MG132 and AZC treatments induced the formation of a protein complex that bound to CLE. As shown by supershift and chromatin-immunoprecipitation experiments, CLE is bound by HSF1 (heat-shock factor 1) and HSF2 upon proteasome inhibition. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation assays indicated that these two transcription factors interact. Gel-filtration analyses revealed that the HSFHSF2 heterocomplexes bound to CLE after proteasome inhibition have the same apparent mass as HSF1 homotrimers after heat shock, suggesting that HSF1 and HSF2 could heterotrimerize. Therefore these studies indicate that the clusterin is a good candidate to be part of a cellular defence mechanism against neurodegenerative diseases associated with misfolded protein accumulation or decrease in proteasome activity.

Loison, Fabien; Debure, Laure; Nizard, Philippe; le Goff, Pascale; Michel, Denis; le Drean, Yves

2005-01-01

2

Hsf1-mediated stress response can transiently enhance cellular radioresistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

To elucidate how the heat-shock transcription factor 1 (Hsf1)-mediated stress response affects cellular radioresistance, mouse embryo fibroblasts with Hsf1-gene knockout (Hsf1(-/-) cells) or with normal wild-type Hsf1 expression (Hsf1 wild-type cells) were preconditioned by heating (43 degrees C, 30 min) without or with quercetin (an inhibitor of Hsf1) and then exposed to gamma radiation (4 or 6 Gy). Some cell samples were infected with virus-based vectors to overexpress the constitutively active (mutant) form of Hsf1 or individual heat-shock proteins (Hsps). The heat preconditioning transiently up-regulated the Hsp levels in Hsf1 wild-type cells and significantly improved their postirradiation survival; these effects could be abolished by quercetin or simulated (without preheating) by the Hsf1 overexpression. In contrast, no enhanced radioresistance was found in heat-preconditioned Hsf1(-/-) cells that were unable to trigger Hsf1-mediated Hsp induction after heating. However, when the constitutively active Hsf1 was overexpressed in Hsf1(-/-) cells, the latter accumulated stress-inducible Hsps and became more radioresistant like heat-preconditioned Hsf1 wild-type cells. The overexpression of Hsp70 or/ and Hsp27 also enhanced radioresistance of both cell cultures. Thus the preirradiation stress response resulting in the intracellular Hsp accumulation can improve survival of severely irradiated mammalian cells. PMID:16579653

Kabakov, Alexander E; Malyutina, Yana V; Latchman, David S

2006-04-01

3

A high resolution energy-selected kinetic energy release study of the process SF6+h??SF5++F+e-: Heat of formation of SF5+  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the newly constructed photoelectron-photoion coincidence apparatus associated with the chemical dynamics beamline at the advanced light source, we have performed a high resolution energy-selected kinetic energy release measurement for the dissociative photoionization process SF6+h??SF5++F+e-. After taking into account the center-of-mass kinetic energy release, the thermochemical threshold for this process is determined to be 14.11±0.08 eV. This value yields 18.5±1.9 and -202.9±2.2 kcal/mol for the heats of formation at 0 K for SF5+ and SF5, respectively. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

1997-01-01

4

Heat stress transcription factor HsfA5 as specific repressor of HsfA4  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Compared to all other organisms with 1 to 3 heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) or Hsf-related factors, plants have extraordinarily large Hsf families with more than 20 Hsfs. Plant Hsfs are classified into three classes according to their oligomerization domains which is built of hydrophobic heptad repeats (HR) in two parts, HR-A and HR-B. Both parts may be immediately adjacent (class B), or they are separated by insertion of 21 (class A) and 7 amino acid residues (class C). In plant Hsf...

Baniwal, Sanjeev Kumar

2007-01-01

5

Conservation of a stress response: human heat shock transcription factors functionally substitute for yeast HSF.  

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Heat shock factors (HSF) are important eukaryotic stress responsive transcription factors which are highly structurally conserved from yeast to mammals. HSFs bind as homotrimers to conserved promoter DNA recognition sites called HSEs. The baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses a single essential HSF gene, while distinct HSF isoforms have been identified in humans. To ascertain the degree of functional similarity between the yeast and human HSF proteins, human HSF1 and HSF2 were expr...

Liu, X. D.; Liu, P. C.; Santoro, N.; Thiele, D. J.

1997-01-01

6

Using ecological risk assessment in feasibility studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

US EPA has provided guidance under CERCLA for protection of the environment from hazardous waste. sites. In most cases this guidance has been utilized during the Remedial Investigation (RI), particularly in baseline ecological risk assessments. However, guidance and ecological principles dictate that ecological risk assessment should also be utilized during the Feasibility Study (FS). If unacceptable ecological risk has been identified during the RI it is important for the FS to address the ability of the proposed remedial alternatives to reduce ecological risk to acceptable levels. One of the factors determining risk reduction is the habitat range of receptor organism. Higher risk may be acceptable for organisms with limited range, such as mice, compared to wider ranging organisms, such as raptors. Ecological risk reduction is further complicated by the inherent ``risks of remediation``. Risks associated with any remedial alternative must be weighed against the ecological risks reduced by the proposed remediation. For example, excavation of a contaminated stream requires revegetation and colonization of the remediated streambed. The principles of ecological risk assessment applied to Feasibility Studies are described using examples of CERCLA ecological risk assessments. Use of background risks, baseline risks, and assessment of remedial alternatives are presented.

Hinckley, D.A.; Porter, K.D. [EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Hunt Valley, MD (United States)

1994-12-31

7

HSF1 transcriptional activity mediates alcohol induction of Vamp2 expression and GABA release  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many central synapses are highly sensitive to alcohol, and it is now accepted that short-term alterations in synaptic function may lead to longer term changes in circuit function. The regulation of postsynaptic receptors by alcohol has been well studied, but the mechanisms underlying the effects of alcohol on the presynaptic terminal are relatively unexplored. To identify a pathway by which alcohol regulates neurotransmitter release, we recently investigated the mechanism by which ethanol induces the Vamp2 gene, but not Vamp1, in mouse primary cortical cultures. These two genes encode isoforms of synaptobrevin, a vesicular soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE protein required for synaptic vesicle fusion. We found that alcohol activates the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1 to induce Vamp2 gene expression, while Vamp1 mRNA levels remain unaffected. As the Vamp2 gene encodes a SNARE protein, we then investigated whether ethanol exposure and HSF1 transcriptional activity alter neurotransmitter release using electrophysiology. We found that alcohol increased the frequency of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA-mediated miniature IPSCs via HSF1, but had no effect on mEPSCs. Overall, these data indicate that alcohol induces HSF1 transcriptional activity to trigger a specific coordinated adaptation in GABAergic presynaptic terminals. This mechanism could explain some of the changes in synaptic function that occur soon after alcohol exposure, and may underlie some of the more enduring effects of chronic alcohol intake on local circuit function.

FlorenceP.Varodayan

2013-12-01

8

Downregulation of Chloroplast RPS1 Negatively Modulates Nuclear Heat-Responsive Expression of HsfA2 and Its Target Genes in Arabidopsis  

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Heat stress commonly leads to inhibition of photosynthesis in higher plants. The transcriptional induction of heat stress-responsive genes represents the first line of inducible defense against imbalances in cellular homeostasis. Although heat stress transcription factor HsfA2 and its downstream target genes are well studied, the regulatory mechanisms by which HsfA2 is activated in response to heat stress remain elusive. Here, we show that chloroplast ribosomal protein S1 (RPS1) is a heat-res...

Yu, Hai-dong; Yang, Xiao-fei; Chen, Si-ting; Wang, Yu-ting; Li, Ji-kai; Shen, Qi; Liu, Xun-liang; Guo, Fang-qing

2012-01-01

9

A Study on Cultivating College Students’ Ecological Consciousness  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to cultivate modern college students’ ecological consciousness under the background of current deteriorating ecological crisis. The study shows some college students do not realize the harm of the ecological crisis and are not fully aware that it is each person’s duties and responsibilities to relieve even solve the ecological crisis either. The study also conveys most students have realized the importance of ecological consciousness in solving the current ecological crisis. They also would like to gain ecological consciousness and accept the three ways discussed in the part of discussion of cultivating their ecological consciousness. Because college students are the precious source of the world and thus colleges have the special mission of guiding the social trend, developing the social culture and making contributions to spiritual construction, it is absolutely urgent and necessary for colleges to make any effort to cultivate college students’ ecological consciousness.

Junhong Tang

2013-04-01

10

Ecological Studies on Salix Distribution in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research studied the ecological factors affecting Salix distribution in Egypt. Two species of Salix were recorded, S. tetrasperma (only male and S. mucronata (both sexes. They were recorded at River Nile canal system and in the Eastern Oasis. Female S. mucronata was recorded in the all studied habitats, where the male of same species was recorded only in Fayoum Region. Salix tetrasperma neither recorded in Upper Egypt nor Eastern Oasis. Elevation from water surface, soil texture, soil salinity and temperature were the most effective factors affecting the distribution of Salix sp.

Emad A. Al Sherif

2009-01-01

11

Connecicut River ecological study: a synopsis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper recounts some salient features of an extensive study of the thermal effects of the Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company's electric generating plant on biota of the lower Connecticut River. The work includes a description of the plume, an examination of the anadromous shad population, a discussion of the affected ichthvofauna and entrainment, and an account of alterations in benthic fauna. This study has several distinctive attributes, among them that it was begun before the Water Quality Act (1965) and that it had a long-term before-and-after character, beginning in 1965 before the plant began operating and continuing during operation (1968-1973). Ecological alterations observed to date appear to be well within the limits of acceptability, and in large measure, wrought by mechanical rather than thermal factors

1975-04-05

12

Study on the Construction of the Internet Ecological Concept  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the quickly development of Information Technology, the Internet has produced unprecedented influences to the human society, and the new existence space and environment for human being have been formed. Aiming at the serious social problems existing in the development of the Internet, “the Internet ecological crisis”, this article utilizes the theories such as ecology, environment management and harmonious society to primarily study the new approach to lead the healthy development of network by establishing network ecology, puts forward the network development principles such as harmonic network construction, network technology ecologization and network behavior ecologization based on the concept of network ecological concept, and expatiate on the important meanings of the network ecological concept to the healthy and harmonious development of network.

Yongqing Bai

2009-02-01

13

Studies on rhizobial ecology using marker genes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Not only traditional approaches such as serology, antibiotic resistance and plasmid profile analysis but also technologies based on molecular biology have been used for strain identification in studies on microbial ecology. Many methods suffer from certain limitations because they are often laborious and time consuming, requiring analysis of individual nodules, and therefore only a restricted amount of data can be collected. Use of marker genes has become popular, especially when they allow visual identification. The Escherichia coli gusA marker gene has proved to be a highly suitable tool for studying plant-microbe interactions. Nodules containing gusA marked rhizobia can be identified simply by their blue colour, which they produce after incubation in a phosphate buffer containing the substrate X-gluc, but marked bacteria can also be detected on plates or in liquid culture. Colorigenic markers have several advantages, since they are easy to use and it is possible to analyse a large sample size. They are suitable for competition studies of Rhizobium, detecting also double occupancy in nodules, and for studies on motility and survival. Marker genes greatly facilitate screening for successful strains in a specific environment and could be used in future for quality control of inoculants. (author). 30 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

1994-10-17

14

Loss of tumor suppressor NF1 activates HSF1 to promote carcinogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intrinsic stress response pathways are frequently mobilized within tumor cells. The mediators of these adaptive mechanisms and how they contribute to carcinogenesis remain poorly understood. A striking example is heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), master transcriptional regulator of the heat shock response. Surprisingly, we found that loss of the tumor suppressor gene neurofibromatosis type 1 (Nf1) increased HSF1 levels and triggered its activation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. As a consequence, Nf1-/- cells acquired tolerance to proteotoxic stress. This activation of HSF1 depended on dysregulated MAPK signaling. HSF1, in turn, supported MAPK signaling. In mice, Hsf1 deficiency impeded NF1-associated carcinogenesis by attenuating oncogenic RAS/MAPK signaling. In cell lines from human malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) driven by NF1 loss, HSF1 was overexpressed and activated, which was required for tumor cell viability. In surgical resections of human MPNSTs, HSF1 was overexpressed, translocated to the nucleus, and phosphorylated. These findings reveal a surprising biological consequence of NF1 deficiency: activation of HSF1 and ensuing addiction to this master regulator of the heat shock response. The loss of NF1 function engages an evolutionarily conserved cellular survival mechanism that ultimately impairs survival of the whole organism by facilitating carcinogenesis. PMID:22945628

Dai, Chengkai; Santagata, Sandro; Tang, Zijian; Shi, Jiayuan; Cao, Junxia; Kwon, Hyoungtae; Bronson, Roderick T; Whitesell, Luke; Lindquist, Susan

2012-10-01

15

Study on the Construction of the Internet Ecological Concept  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the quickly development of Information Technology, the Internet has produced unprecedented influences to the human society, and the new existence space and environment for human being have been formed. Aiming at the serious social problems existing in the development of the Internet, “the Internet ecological crisis”, this article utilizes the theories such as ecology, environment management and harmonious society to primarily study the new approach to lead the healthy development of ...

Yongqing Bai

2009-01-01

16

Plotting partial correlation and regression in ecological studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Multiple regression, the General linear model (GLM) and the Generalized linear model (GLZ) are widely used in ecology. The widespread use of graphs that include fitted regression lines to document patterns in simple linear regression can be easily extended to these multivariate techniques in plots that show the partial relationship of the dependent variable with each independent variable. However, the latter procedure is not nearly as widely used in ecological studies. In fact, a brief revie...

Moya-laran?o, J.; Corcobado, G.

2008-01-01

17

A Study on College English Ecological Teaching Strategies in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to create ecological college English teaching strategies in non-English speaking countries in view of the increasing importance and popularity of English. The study shows most college students hope they are able to learn English well and they will be very happy if college English teachers can adopt some efficient and suitable teaching strategies. In this paper, the author puts forward college English teaching is a kind of micro-ecosystem in the light of ecology which has got such ecological characteristics as adaptability, openness and sustainability. In order to create suitable ecological college English teaching environments, the college English teaching are supposed to insist on 5C principles, that is, cooperation, competition, consideration, creativeness and continuity which are on the basis of such ecological principles as “Symbiotic Effect”, “Niche”, “Laws Limiting Factor”, “Law of Tolerance”, “the Most Appropriate Principle”, “Flowerpots Effect”. The efficiency and practicality of college English teaching in non-English speaking countries are able to be obtained by using ecological college English teaching strategies discussed in the paper.

Junhong Tang

2013-08-01

18

Heat Shock Transcription Factor Hsf1 Is Involved in Tumor Progression via Regulation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 and RNA-Binding Protein HuR  

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Previously we demonstrated that the heat shock transcription factor Hsf1 is indispensable for transformation of mammary epithelial cells by the Her2 oncogene. Since Hsf1 affects oncogene-induced senescence (OIS), these findings suggest that Hsf1 affects tumor initiation when OIS plays a role. Indeed, here we report that Hsf1 knockout suppressed mammary hyperplasia in Her2-expressing mice and reduced tumor emergence. On the other hand, Hsf1 expression increases with advanced breast cancer, ind...

Gabai, Vladimir L.; Meng, Le; Kim, Geunwon; Mills, Teresa A.; Benjamin, Ivor J.; Sherman, Michael Y.

2012-01-01

19

Taxonomic and biogeographically-ecological studies on the insect fauna  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The topic of taxonomic and biogeographically-ecological studies is presented in the case of social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Vespinae et Polistinae) of the Balkan Peninsula and the neighboring regions, as an intentionally prepared summary of the author's Ph.D. thesis (?ETKOVI?, 2002). The broader context of this category of studies under local conditions, as well as topical and spatial frame of the studies, and the summary of the most important results of the analysis, are briefly prese...

?etkovi? Aleksandar S.

2002-01-01

20

Detection of in vivo interactions between Arabidopsis class A-HSFs, using a novel BiFC fragment, and identification of novel class B-HSF interacting proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Class A heat shock factors (Hsfs) of Arabidopsis are known to function as transcriptional activators of stress genes. Genetic and functional analysis suggests that HsfA1a and HsfA1b are central regulators required in the early phase of the heat shock response, which have the capacity to functionally replace each other. In order to examine Hsf interaction in vivo, we conducted interaction assays using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) on Arabidopsis protoplasts co-transformed with suitable Hsf-YFP fusion genes. BiFC assays were quantified with confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry, and confirmed with immunoprecipitation assays. For each Hsf we could not only demonstrate homomeric interactions but also detect heteromeric interaction between HsfA1a and HsfA1b. Truncated versions of these of Hsfs, containing deletions of the oligomerization domains (ODs), provided clear evidence that the ODs are required and sufficient for the HSF interaction in vivo. By contrast there was only homomeric but no heteromeric interaction detected between two different class B Hsf transcription factors (HsfB1 and HsfB2b) in a yeast two-hybrid assay. HsfB1/HsfB2b functions are not directly linked with the expression of conventional heat shock genes; class B Hsfs are devoid of the activation domain motif conserved in class A Hsfs. In order to identify other proteins interacting with HsfB1 and HsfB2b we performed yeast two-hybrid screenings of cDNA libraries. Three of the identified proteins were common to both screenings. This suggests that HsfB1 and HsfB2b may be involved in complex regulatory networks, which are linked to other stress responses and signaling processes. PMID:19945192

Li, Ming; Doll, Jasmin; Weckermann, Katrin; Oecking, Claudia; Berendzen, Kenneth W; Schöffl, Friedrich

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

An ecological study on childhood autism  

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Abstract Background and methods Idiopathic autism, suspected to be caused by exposure of genetically susceptible individuals to unknown environmental triggers, has increased dramatically in the past 25 years. The objectives of our study were to determine, using a linear regression model, whether the county prevalence of autism in the Pacific Northwest of the United States was associated with the source of drinking water for that county and whether this relationship was depend...

St-Hilaire Sophie; Ezike Victor O; Stryhn Henrik; Thomas Michael A

2012-01-01

22

Ecological investigations: vegetation studies, preliminary findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the vegetation studies conducted on the research site is to produce a descriptive data base that can be applied to determinations of carrying capacity of the site and surrounding area. Additional information obtained about parameters that influence vegetation growth and maintenance of soil nutrients, and moisture and temperature regimes help define dynamic relationships that must be understood to effect successful revegetation and habitat rehabilitation. The descriptive vegetation baseline also provides a point of departure for design of future monitoring programs, and predictive models and strategies to be used in dealing with impact mitigation; in turn, monitoring programs and predictive modeling form the bases for making distinctions between natural trends and man-induced perturbations.

Olgeirson, E.R.; Martin, R.B.

1978-09-01

23

Hsp90 orchestrates transcriptional regulation by Hsf1 and cell wall remodelling by MAPK signalling during thermal adaptation in a pathogenic yeast.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal adaptation is essential in all organisms. In yeasts, the heat shock response is commanded by the heat shock transcription factor Hsf1. Here we have integrated unbiased genetic screens with directed molecular dissection to demonstrate that multiple signalling cascades contribute to thermal adaptation in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. We show that the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) interacts with and down-regulates Hsf1 thereby modulating short term thermal adaptation. In the longer term, thermal adaptation depends on key MAP kinase signalling pathways that are associated with cell wall remodelling: the Hog1, Mkc1 and Cek1 pathways. We demonstrate that these pathways are differentially activated and display cross talk during heat shock. As a result ambient temperature significantly affects the resistance of C. albicans cells to cell wall stresses (Calcofluor White and Congo Red), but not osmotic stress (NaCl). We also show that the inactivation of MAP kinase signalling disrupts this cross talk between thermal and cell wall adaptation. Critically, Hsp90 coordinates this cross talk. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90 disrupts the Hsf1-Hsp90 regulatory circuit thereby disturbing HSP gene regulation and reducing the resistance of C. albicans to proteotoxic stresses. Hsp90 depletion also affects cell wall biogenesis by impairing the activation of its client proteins Mkc1 and Hog1, as well as Cek1, which we implicate as a new Hsp90 client in this study. Therefore Hsp90 modulates the short term Hsf1-mediated activation of the classic heat shock response, coordinating this response with long term thermal adaptation via Mkc1- Hog1- and Cek1-mediated cell wall remodelling. PMID:23300438

Leach, Michelle D; Budge, Susan; Walker, Louise; Munro, Carol; Cowen, Leah E; Brown, Alistair J P

2012-12-01

24

Terrestrial ecology. Comprehensive study of the grassland biome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Terrestrial ecology and grassland biome studies are designed to characterize the biota of the Hanford Reservation, elucidate seasonal dynamics of plant productivity, decomposition and mineral behavior patterns of important plant communities, and, to study the response of these communities to important natural environmental stresses, such as weather, wildfire and man-induced alterations of communities (influenced by grazing cattle and severe mechanical disturbance of the soil, such as affected by plowing or burial of waste materials or construction activities). A detailed account of the important findings of a 5-yr study is currently being prepared by the terrestrial ecology section staff for publication as a contribution to the International Biological Program Grassland Biome project

1976-02-01

25

Evolutionary and ecological approaches to the study of personality  

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This introduction to the themed issue on Evolutionary and ecological approaches to the study of personality provides an overview of conceptual, theoretical and methodological progress in research on animal personalities over the last decade, and places the contributions to this volume in context. The issue has three main goals. First, we aimed to bring together theoreticians to contribute to the development of models providing adaptive explanations for animal personality that could guide empi...

Re?ale, Denis; Dingemanse, Niels J.; Kazem, Anahita J. N.; Wright, Jonathan

2010-01-01

26

Ecological study of algal flora of Neelum river Azad Kashmir  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

First time ecological study of Algal Flora of Neelum River Azad Kashmir was carried out during January 1998 to July 1998. A total of 78 species belonging to 48 genera of 4 Algal groups. Cyanophyceae (16 species 20.5 % belonging to 11 genera), Choloronophycease (23 species 29.5 % belonging to 18 genera), Bacillariophyceae (37 species 47 % belonging to 17 genera), Xanthophyceae (2 species 3 % belonging to 2 genera) and 39 physico - chemical parameters were recorded. (author)

2000-01-01

27

Remote Sensing and Wetland Ecology: a South African Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Remote sensing offers a cost efficient means for identifying and monitoring wetlands over a large area and at different moments in time. In this study, we aim at providing ecologically relevant information on characteristics of temporary and permanent isolated open water wetlands, obtained by standard techniques and relatively cheap imagery. The number, surface area, nearest distance, and dynamics of isolated temporary and permanent wetlands were determined for the Western Cape, South Africa. Open water bodies (wetlands were mapped from seven Landsat images (acquired during 1987 – 2002 using supervised maximum likelihood classification. The number of wetlands fluctuated over time. Most wetlands were detected in the winter of 2000 and 2002, probably related to road constructions. Imagery acquired in summer contained fewer wetlands than in winter. Most wetlands identified from Landsat images were smaller than one hectare. The average distance to the nearest wetland was larger in summer. In comparison to temporary wetlands, fewer, but larger permanent wetlands were detected. In addition, classification of non-vegetated wetlands on an Envisat ASAR radar image (acquired in June 2005 was evaluated. The number of detected small wetlands was lower for radar imagery than optical imagery (acquired in June 2002, probably because of deterioration of the spatial information content due the extensive pre-processing requirements of the radar image. Both optical and radar classifications allow to assess wetland characteristics that potentially influence plant and animal metacommunity structure. Envisat imagery, however, was less suitable than Landsat imagery for the extraction of detailed ecological information, as only large wetlands can be detected. This study has indicated that ecologically relevant data can be generated for the larger wetlands through relatively cheap imagery and standard techniques, despite the relatively low resolution of Landsat and Envisat imagery. For the characterisation of very small wetlands, high spatial resolution optical or radar images are needed. This study exemplifies the benefits of integrating remote sensing and ecology and hence stimulates interdisciplinary research of isolated wetlands.

Luc Brendonck

2008-05-01

28

Radon and lung cancer. Case-control vs ecologic studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Problems in epidemiological studies in connection with the determination of radon-caused lung cancer are discussed. Biasing and confounding effects have led to very divergent results in epidemiological studies and there is still doubt on the carcinogenic effect of radon progenies in the concentration range of usual indoor air. Nevertheless, epidemiological studies seem to be the key tool to decide this question. Main investigates and disadvantages of case-control and ecologic studies are discussed and on overall uncertainty estimation is given for both types of investigations

1999-01-01

29

Ecological Consumer : A study on the factors influencing the ecological consumer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

  Ecological issues are current topics which consumers face in every-day life. The growing awareness by the consumers that they can have an impact on protection of the environment, animals and their own health is the reason of the growing market of ecological products (Kinnear, Talor and Ahmed, 1974; Polonsky, 1994). According to the Swedish consumer agency the agricultural sector had increased highly since the 1990s. Hence the companies had increased its market activities significant under ...

Mo?rhed, Jakob; Karlsson, Jennica; Kulik, Stephanie

2009-01-01

30

Study on Evaluation of Rural Ecological Environment and Its Influencing Factors in Sichuan Province  

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Rural ecological environment is the basic on human survival, analyze its structure and function is the key to crack the problem of agro-ecological environment. This paper studied the evaluation of rural ecological environment and its influencing factors. The results showed that: the rural ecological environment showed declining trend, the value of its input-output efficiency was low and its regional differences was significant; the quality of economic development affected the rural e...

Yingcong Zhang

2012-01-01

31

A Novel HSF4 Gene Mutation Causes Autosomal-Dominant Cataracts in a Chinese Family.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital cataracts are a significant cause of visual impairment or blindness in children. One-third of cases estimated to have a genetic cause. We carried out gene analysis and bioinformatics analysis to map the locus and to identify the underlying genetic defect in a 12-member, four-generation Chinese family affected with bilateral congenital cataracts. We screened individuals of the family and discovered a distinct missense mutation in HSF4 (a gene at this locus that encodes teat-shock transcription factor 4). Bioinformatics analysis was used to determine possible changes in the protein structure that could affect the phenotype. Sequencing of the candidate genes showed a heterozygous c.69 G?T change in the heat shock transcription factor 4 (HSF4) gene, which resulted in the substitution of a lysine with an asparagine (p. K23N). This mutation cosegregated with all affected individuals and was not observed in unaffected family members. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the p. K23N mutation was predicted to be disease causing. This is the first report of the novel missense mutation, c.69 G?T (p. K23N), in exon 3 of the HSF4 locus on 16q21-q22 associated with bilateral congenital cataracts in a Chinese family. This novel mutation could enable propergenetic diagnostics and counseling in affected families and could lead to a better understanding of the structure and function of HSF4 in health and disease. PMID:24637349

Lv, Huibin; Huang, Chen; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Ziyuan; Zhang, Zhike; Xu, Haining; You, Yuchen; Hu, Jinping; Li, Xuemin; Wang, Wei

2014-01-01

32

The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib is a potent inducer of zinc finger AN1-type domain 2a gene expression: role of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1)-heat shock factor 2 (HSF2) heterocomplexes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The zinc finger AN1-type domain 2a gene, also known as arsenite-inducible RNA-associated protein (AIRAP), was recently identified as a novel human canonical heat shock gene strictly controlled by heat shock factor (HSF) 1. Little is known about AIRAP gene regulation in human cells. Here we report that bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor with anticancer and antiangiogenic properties used in the clinic for treatment of multiple myeloma, is a potent inducer of AIRAP expression in human cells. Using endothelial cells as a model, we unraveled the molecular mechanism regulating AIRAP expression during proteasome inhibition. Bortezomib induces AIRAP expression at the transcriptional level early after treatment, concomitantly with polyubiquitinated protein accumulation and HSF activation. AIRAP protein is detected at high levels for at least 48 h after bortezomib exposure, together with the accumulation of HSF2, a factor implicated in differentiation and development regulation. Different from heat-mediated induction, in bortezomib-treated cells, HSF1 and HSF2 interact directly, forming HSF1-HSF2 heterotrimeric complexes recruited to a specific heat shock element in the AIRAP promoter. Interestingly, whereas HSF1 has been confirmed to be critical for AIRAP gene transcription, HSF2 was found to negatively regulate AIRAP expression after bortezomib treatment, further emphasizing an important modulatory role of this transcription factor under stress conditions. AIRAP function is still not defined. However, the fact that AIRAP is expressed abundantly in primary human cells at bortezomib concentrations comparable with plasma levels in treated patients suggests that AIRAP may participate in the regulatory network controlling proteotoxic stress during bortezomib treatment. PMID:24619424

Rossi, Antonio; Riccio, Anna; Coccia, Marta; Trotta, Edoardo; La Frazia, Simone; Santoro, M Gabriella

2014-05-01

33

Study of nuclear ecology problems with nuclear track methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a review of the application of radiography track method for determination composition, concentration, behaviour and spatial distribution of ecologically dangerous isotopes in soil, air, plants and various materials using their natural or induced radioactivity. The nondestructive methods of determination of activity, dimensions, forms, spatial distribution and migration of 'hot' particles are considered. With the aim to study the influence of the radioactive isotopes on human lung cancer we present a method of determination of their activity and spatial distribution in the thin slices of lung tissue using alpha -particle and neutron radiography

1999-01-01

34

A Study on the Pollination Ecology of Eremurus inderiensis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two-year study on the pollination ecology of Eremurus inderiensis reveals that the florescence of eremurus is from the middle ten days of May to the first ten years of June, anthesis of a single flower lasts one day. When the weather...

Junfeng Fan; Miao Ma

2009-01-01

35

Isolation of a cDNA for HSF 2: Evidence for two heat shock factor genes in humans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The heat shock response is transcriptionally regulated by an evolutionarily conserved protein termed heat shock factor (HSF). The authors report the purification to homogeneity and the partial peptide sequence of HSF from HeLa cells. The peptide sequence was used to isolate a human cDNA with a predicted open reading frame that has homology to the DNA binding domains of both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila HSFs. The cDNA directs the synthesis of a protein that binds to the heat shock element with specificity identical to HeLa HSF and stimulates transcription from a heat shock promoter. The expressed protein cross-reacts with anti-HSF antibodies. Surprisingly, however, this cDNA does not encode all of the peptides obtained from purified HeLa HSF. These peptides are encoded by a distinct human cDNA. HSF1. It therefore appears that there is a human heat shock factor gene family and that at least two separate but related HSF proteins regulate the stress response in humans.

Schuetz, T.J.; Gallo, G.J.; Sheldon, L.; Kingston, R.E. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (United States) Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Tempst, P. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States))

1991-08-15

36

Plotting partial correlation and regression in ecological studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multiple regression, the General linear model (GLM and the Generalized linear model (GLZ are widely used in ecology. The widespread use of graphs that include fitted regression lines to document patterns in simple linear regression can be easily extended to these multivariate techniques in plots that show the partial relationship of the dependent variable with each independent variable. However, the latter procedure is not nearly as widely used in ecological studies. In fact, a brief review of the recent ecological literature showed that in ca. 20% of the papers the results of multiple regression are displayed by plotting the dependent variable against the raw values of the independent variable. This latter procedure may be misleading because the value of the partial slope may change in magnitude and even in sign relative to the slope obtained in simple least-squares regression. Plots of partial relationships should be used in these situations. Using numerical simulations and real data we show how displaying plots of partial relationships may also be useful for: 1 visualizing the true scatter of points around the partial regression line, and 2 identifying influential observations and non-linear patterns more efficiently than using plots of residuals vs. fitted values. With the aim to help in the assessment of data quality, we show how partial residual plots (residuals from overall model + predicted values from the explanatory variable vs. the explanatory variable should only be used in restricted situations, and how partial regression plots (residuals of Y on the remaining explanatory variables vs. residuals of the target explanatory variable on the remaining explanatory variables should be the ones displayed in publications because they accurately reflect the scatter of partial correlations. Similarly, these partial plots can be applied to visualize the effect of continuous variables in GLM and GLZ for normal distributions and identity link functions.

J. Moya-Laraño

2008-06-01

37

Ecological and sociological considerations of wind energy: A multidisciplinary study  

Science.gov (United States)

Wind energy is quickly becoming a critical technology for providing Americans with renewable energy, and rapid construction of wind facilities may have impacts on both wildlife and human communities. Understanding both the social and ecological issues related to wind energy development could provide a framework for effectively meeting human energy needs while conserving species biodiversity. In this research I looked at two aspects of wind energy development: public attitudes toward wind energy development and wind facility impacts on local bat populations. These papers present aspects of wind energy development that have been the subject of increasing study. This preliminary research is intended to demonstrate the responsibility we have to making well-informed decisions as we continue to expand wind energy development. Additionally, I hope to generate interest in interdisciplinary study as a means to broaden the scope of research by making use of the diverse tools available within different disciplines.

Bicknell, Lucas John

38

Packaging and distributing ecological data from multisite studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Studies of global change and other regional issues depend on ecological data collected at multiple study areas or sites. An information system model is proposed for compiling diverse data from dispersed sources so that the data are consistent, complete, and readily available. The model includes investigators who collect and analyze field measurements, science teams that synthesize data, a project information system that collates data, a data archive center that distributes data to secondary users, and a master data directory that provides broader searching opportunities. Special attention to format consistency is required, such as units of measure, spatial coordinates, dates, and notation for missing values. Often data may need to be enhanced by estimating missing values, aggregating to common temporal units, or adding other related data such as climatic and soils data. Full documentation, an efficient data distribution mechanism, and an equitable way to acknowledge the original source of data are also required.

Olson, R.J.; Voorhees, L.D.; Field, J.M.; Gentry, M.J.

1996-10-01

39

Study on Evaluation of Rural Ecological Environment and Its Influencing Factors in Sichuan Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rural ecological environment is the basic on human survival, analyze its structure and function is the key to crack the problem of agro-ecological environment. This paper studied the evaluation of rural ecological environment and its influencing factors. The results showed that: the rural ecological environment showed declining trend, the value of its input-output efficiency was low and its regional differences was significant; the quality of economic development affected the rural ecological environment in a certain extent, but not the only factor; chemical fertilizer, pesticide, agricultural plastic film, arable land were key factors affecting the rural ecological environment. It implied that there was a large room for improving the rural ecological environment.

Yingcong Zhang

2012-01-01

40

Dog Ecology and Population Studies in Lagos State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dog population dynamics have a major impact upon the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. As such, understanding domestic dog ecology has been recognized as central to the design of effective rabies control programmes. This study was conducted to determine the dog ecology in Lagos State using compound dog count and street dog count in the three senatorial districts (Lagos West, East and Central of Lagos State from February, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 546 questionnaires were distributed for the compound dog count and all were completed and returned. Various aspects of dog ecology were determined, including size, sex, breed of the dog population, management of dogs and rabies awareness among the respondents. Out of the 546 compounds surveyed, 518 (94.87% owned at least one dog. A total of 1,427 dogs were counted from the street counts while a total of 1,447 dogs (2.8 dogs/compound were counted from the compound count. The dogs comprised of 583 males and 864 females, out of which 64.10% are confined. The dog vaccination coverage in the dog population surveyed was 64.10% and administered majorly (91.30% by veterinarians. Security (60% and pets (26% were the major reasons for keeping dogs. Majority (88.80% of the respondents were aware of rabies and its mode of transmission, but still believed in the use of concoctions (40.40%, herbs (19.90% and consumption of the organ of the offending dog (11.50% for the treatment of rabies. The findings of this study showed a male: female ratio of dog to be 1:1.5 and a dog: human ratio of 1:5.6. There was also a responsible dog ownership as majority of the respondents do confine, vaccinate and provide food for their dogs. Vaccination coverage of the total dog population was however below the 70-80% target recommended by the World Health Organization to achieve herd immunity.

Sunday Emmanuel Hambolu

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
41

A cascade of transcription factor DREB2A and heat stress transcription factor HsfA3 regulates the heat stress response of Arabidopsis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dehydration-responsive element binding protein (DREB)/C-repeat binding factor (CBF) family are the classical transcriptional regulators involved in plant responses to drought, salt and cold stress. Recently it was demonstrated that DREB2A is induced by heat stress (hs) and is a regulator of the hs response of Arabidopsis. Here we provide molecular insights into the regulation and function of hs transcription factor HsfA3. Among the 21 members of the Arabidopsis Hsf family, HsfA3 is the only Hsf that is transcriptionally induced during hs by DREB2A, and HsfA3 in turn regulates the expression of Hsp-encoding genes. This transcription factor cascade was reconstructed in transient GUS reporter assays in mesophyll protoplasts by showing that DREB2A could activate the HsfA3 promoter, whereas HsfA3 in turn was shown to be a potent activator on the promoters of Hsp genes. Direct binding to the corresponding promoters was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and the involvement of HsfA3 in the hs response in vivo was shown directly by observation of reduced thermotolerance in HsfA3 mutant lines. Altogether these data demonstrate that HsfA3 is transcriptionally controlled by DREB2A and important for the establishment of thermotolerance. PMID:17999647

Schramm, Franziska; Larkindale, Jane; Kiehlmann, Elke; Ganguli, Arnab; Englich, Gisela; Vierling, Elizabeth; von Koskull-Döring, Pascal

2008-01-01

42

Trophic magnification factors: considerations of ecology, ecosystems, and study design.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent reviews by researchers from academia, industry, and government have revealed that the criteria used by the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants under the United Nations Environment Programme are not always able to identify the actual bioaccumulative capacity of some substances, by use of chemical properties such as the octanol-water partitioning coefficient. Trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were suggested as a more reliable tool for bioaccumulation assessment of chemicals that have been in commerce long enough to be quantitatively measured in environmental samples. TMFs are increasingly used to quantify biomagnification and represent the average diet-to-consumer transfer of a chemical through food webs. They differ from biomagnification factors, which apply to individual species and can be highly variable between predator-prey combinations. The TMF is calculated from the slope of a regression between the chemical concentration and trophic level of organisms in the food web. The trophic level can be determined from stable N isotope ratios (?(15) N). In this article, we give the background for the development of TMFs, identify and discuss impacts of ecosystem and ecological variables on their values, and discuss challenges and uncertainties associated with contaminant measurements and the use of ?(15) N for trophic level estimations. Recommendations are provided for experimental design, data treatment, and statistical analyses, including advice for users on reporting and interpreting TMF data. Interspecies intrinsic ecological and organismal properties such as thermoregulation, reproductive status, migration, and age, particularly among species at higher trophic levels with high contaminant concentrations, can influence the TMF (i.e., regression slope). Following recommendations herein for study design, empirical TMFs are likely to be useful for understanding the food web biomagnification potential of chemicals, where the target is to definitively identify if chemicals biomagnify (i.e., TMF?>?or?assessments, where the goal is to predict absolute contaminant concentrations in organisms in relation to threshold levels. PMID:21674770

Borgå, Katrine; Kidd, Karen A; Muir, Derek C G; Berglund, Olof; Conder, Jason M; Gobas, Frank A P C; Kucklick, John; Malm, Olaf; Powell, David E

2012-01-01

43

An Ecological Flood Control System in Phoenix Island of Huzhou, China: A Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional flood control systems always have a conflict with natural ones, i.e., rivers in cities are usually straight and smooth, whereas natural ones are according to ecological mechanisms. Social and economic developments in the modern world require a new system combining ecological needs and traditional flood control system. Ecological flood control systems were put forward and defined as flood control systems with full consideration of ecological demands for sustainable development. In such systems, four aspects are promoted: connectivity of water system, landscapes of river and lakes, mobility of water bodies, and safety of flood control. In Phoenix Island, Huzhou, needs for ecological flood controls were analyzed from the four aspects above. The Water system layout was adjusted with the water surface ratio, which is the ratio of water surface area (including rivers, lakes, and other water bodies to the total drainage area, and connectivity as controlling indicators. The designed water levels provided references for landscape plant selection. Mobility of the adjusted water system was analyzed, including flow direction and residence time. On the bases mentioned above, ecological flood control projects were planned with comprehensive consideration of the ecological requirements. The case study indicates that ecological needs can be integrated with flood control to develop ecological flood control systems that do not only prevent floods but also retain the ecological functions of water bodies.

Zhuowen Wang

2013-09-01

44

Suppression of heat-induced HSF activation by CDDP in human glioblastoma cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The kinetics of the accumulation of inducible 72-kD heat shock protein (hsp72) and the activation of heat shock transcriptional factor (HSF) after hyperthermia and/or CDDP treatment in two human glioblastoma cell lines, A-172 having the wild-type p53 gene and T98G having the mutated p53 gene were evaluated. Methods and Materials: Western blot analysis of hsp72, gel-mobility shift assay of HSF, cell survival, and development of thermotolerance were examined. Results: The prominent suppression of heat-induced hsp72 accumulation by CDDP was seen in A-172 cells, but not in T98G cells. This was due to the p53-dependent inhibition of heat-induced HSF activation by CDDP. The interactive hyperthermic enhancement of CDDP cytotoxicity was observed in A-172 cells, but not in T98G cells. In addition, the heat-induced thermotolerance was suppressed by the presence of CDDP in the pretreatment. Conclusion: Suppression of heat-induced hsp72 accumulation by CDDP contributes to an interactive hyperthermic enhancement of CDDP cytotoxicity in the cells bearing the wild-type p53 gene

1998-07-01

45

[Suicide and work in Brazilian metropolises: an ecological study].  

Science.gov (United States)

The scope of this study was to correlate suicide mortality with health indicators and work in six Brazilian metropolises: Porto Alegre, Recife, Salvador, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. It was an ecological study, the outcome of which is the death rate from suicide in the historical series from 2002 to 2010, and the independent variables are the indicators of occupational activity and mental suffering. Statistical association using the Pearson Correlation test was conducted and the variables associated with suicide (p < 0.05) were included in a multivariate linear regression model. The suicide mortality was higher in Porto Alegre, followed by São Paulo, and the trend of the phenomenon was in the ascendant (p = 0.03). It was observed that the economically active and gainfully employed population remained in the final regression model in the city of São Paulo. The association between suicide mortality and occupational variables suggests that work in the context of insecurity worsens the quality of life of the working population, causing physical and mental suffering and increasing the risk of self-harm. PMID:25014301

Ceccon, Roger Flores; Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Tavares, Juliana Petri; Lautert, Liana

2014-07-01

46

mTOR is essential for the proteotoxic stress response, HSF1 activation and heat shock protein synthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The target of rapamycin (TOR) is a high molecular weight protein kinase that regulates many processes in cells in response to mitogens and variations in nutrient availability. Here we have shown that mTOR in human tissue culture cells plays a key role in responses to proteotoxic stress and that reduction in mTOR levels by RNA interference leads to increase sensitivity to heat shock. This effect was accompanied by a drastic reduction in ability to synthesize heat shock proteins (HSP), including Hsp70, Hsp90 and Hsp110. As HSP transcription is regulated by heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1), we examined whether mTOR could directly phosphorylate this factor. Indeed, we determined that mTOR could directly phosphorylate HSF1 on serine 326, a key residue in transcriptional activation. HSF1 was phosphorylated on S326 immediately after heat shock and was triggered by other cell stressors including proteasome inhibitors and sodium arsenite. Null mutation of S326 to alanine led to loss of ability to activate an HSF1-regulated promoter-reporter construct, indicating a direct role for mTOR and S326 in transcriptional regulation of HSP genes during stress. As mTOR is known to exist in at least two intracellular complexes, mTORC1 and mTOR2 we examined which complex might interact with HSF1. Indeed mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin prevented HSF1-S326 phosphorylation, suggesting that this complex is involved in HSF1 regulation in stress. Our experiments therefore suggest a key role for mTORC1 in transcriptional responses to proteotoxic stress. PMID:22768106

Chou, Shiuh-Dih; Prince, Thomas; Gong, Jianlin; Calderwood, Stuart K

2012-01-01

47

Study on remote sensing method for drawing up and utilizing ecological and natural map II; concentrated on drawing up a plant ecological classification map  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following with the flows of the environmental conservation, Korea has revised the law of natural environmental conservation. In this law, it has suggested to draw up an ecological nature figure for efficient preservation and utilization of a country. To draw up an ecological nature figure, it requires several evaluating factors. Among them, a plant ecological classification is a very important evaluating factor since it can evaluate a habitation area of natural organisms. This study investigated a drawing up method of plant ecological classification using satellite image data. However the limit of satellite image data and the quality of required plant ecological classification are not quite matched but if the satellite image data and the infrared color aerial photograph are mixed, it can be expected to have an excellent quality of plant ecological classification. 85 refs., 86 figs., 45 tabs.

Jeon, Seong Woo; Chung, Hwui Chul [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

1999-12-01

48

Temporal and Spatial Melanoma Trends in Austria: An Ecological Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Annual solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR is mostly determined by latitude and altitude. Over the last decades, increasing UVR ground levels have been observed. Exposure to UVR is associated with a life-time risk to develop melanoma, a malign skin cancer. Thus, we hypothesized that melanoma incidence in Austria is associated with altitude of place of living and time of diagnosis. We investigated this hypothesis in an ecological study by district and year for Austrian melanoma incidence (1990–2010 and mortality (1970–2011 data. As expected, incidence rates increased with altitude (about 2% per 10 m and year (about 2%. Additionally, melanoma incidence rates were about 50% higher in urban than in rural districts. In contrast, mortality rates decreased with altitude (for males: 0.4% per 10 m, for women: 0.7% per 10 m, respectively. The observed discrepancy between incidence and mortality data could partly be explained by melanoma diagnosis at earlier tumor stage in districts with higher altitude. Possible reasons for this finding include higher awareness of patients, better diagnostic performance of medical professionals working at higher altitudes, or slower tumor growth due to protective effects of sun light-associated vitamin D synthesis.

Daniela Haluza

2014-01-01

49

Temporal and spatial melanoma trends in Austria: an ecological study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Annual solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is mostly determined by latitude and altitude. Over the last decades, increasing UVR ground levels have been observed. Exposure to UVR is associated with a life-time risk to develop melanoma, a malign skin cancer. Thus, we hypothesized that melanoma incidence in Austria is associated with altitude of place of living and time of diagnosis. We investigated this hypothesis in an ecological study by district and year for Austrian melanoma incidence (1990-2010) and mortality (1970-2011) data. As expected, incidence rates increased with altitude (about 2% per 10 m) and year (about 2%). Additionally, melanoma incidence rates were about 50% higher in urban than in rural districts. In contrast, mortality rates decreased with altitude (for males: 0.4% per 10 m, for women: 0.7% per 10 m, respectively). The observed discrepancy between incidence and mortality data could partly be explained by melanoma diagnosis at earlier tumor stage in districts with higher altitude. Possible reasons for this finding include higher awareness of patients, better diagnostic performance of medical professionals working at higher altitudes, or slower tumor growth due to protective effects of sun light-associated vitamin D synthesis. PMID:24398911

Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

2014-01-01

50

Site-Specific ecological risk assessment. Case-study 2  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The decision supporting and integrating assessment tool, TRIAD, is used site-specific on PAH- and heavy metal contaminated sites in Denmark. The various aspects of the TRIAD approach are used on a set of chemistry-, ecotoxicology- and ecology related data collected among others in the EU project â??Development of a decision support system for sustainable management of contaminated land by linking bioavailability, ecological risk and ground water pollution of organic pollutantsâ?or in short â??LIBERATIONâ?. The presentation includes examples on how to scale and integrate the results from various scientific disciplines.

Jensen, John

51

Substance use and hepatitis C: An ecological momentary assessment study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess craving and mood related to opioid and cocaine use among asymptomatic hepatitis C virus (HCV)+ and HCV- methadone patients who have not started antiviral treatment. Methods: In this 28-week prospective ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study, 114 methadone-maintained, heroin- and cocaine-abusing individuals reported from the field in real time on their mood, craving, exposure to drug-use triggers, and drug use via handheld computers. Results: Sixty-one percent were HCV+; none were overtly symptomatic or receiving HCV treatment. HCV status was not associated with age, sex, race, or past-30-day or lifetime heroin or cocaine use. In event-contingent EMA entries, HCV+ individuals more often attributed use to having been bored, worried, or sad; feeling uncomfortable; or others being critical of them compared with HCV- participants. In randomly prompted EMA entries, HCV+ participants reported significantly more exposure to drug-use triggers, including handling ?$10, seeing cocaine or heroin, seeing someone being offered/use cocaine or heroin, being tempted to use cocaine, and wanting to see what would happen if they used just a little cocaine or heroin. Conclusions: HCV+ individuals experienced more negative moods and more often cited these negative moods as causes for drug use. HCV+ individuals reported greater exposure to environmental drug-use triggers, but they did not more frequently cite these as causes for drug use. The EMA data reported here suggest that HCV+ intravenous drug users may experience more labile mood and more reactivity to mood than HCV- intravenous drug users. The reason for the difference is not clear, but HCV status may be relevant to tailoring of treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24977312

Phillips, Karran A; Epstein, David H; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Mezghanni, Mustapha; Lin, Jia-Ling; Preston, Kenzie L

2014-07-01

52

HSF1-mediated oxidative stress response to menadione in Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377Y3 by using proteomic approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hat shock transcription factor HSF1 inthe yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulates a wide range of genes and functions in diverse cellular reactions. To investigate the physiological response of HSF1 inthe presence of menadione (MD in S. cerevisiae KNU 5377Y3, wild-type (k3wt and isogenic hsf1 mutant (k3h1 cells were introduced. HSF1 was induced when k3wt cells were exposed to the superoxide-generating agent MD and k3h1 cells were hypersensitive to MD. Under MD stress, k3h1 cells down-regulated the expression of metabolic enzymes (Hxk, Fba1, Pgk1, Eno2, and Adh1, antioxidant enzymes (Trx2 and porin, and molecular chaperones and their cofactors (Hsp104, Ssb1, Hsp60, Hsp42, Hsp26, Hsp12, Cpr1, and Sti1. In addition, k3h1 cells increased cellular hydroperoxide levels and protein carbonylation under MD stress as compared to k3wt cells. However, there was a moderate difference in the wild-type (b3wt and mutant (b3h1 cells derived from S. cerevisiae S288Cunder the same conditions. Thus, these results show that HSF1 is an important component of the stress response system, acting as an activator of cell rescue genes in S. cerevisiae KNU5377Y3, and its expression protects the cells from MD-induced oxidative damage by maintaining redox homeostasis and proteostasis in the presence of MD.

Il-Sup Kim

2013-01-01

53

Supercharged Snails for Stream Ecology & Water-Quality Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Gill-breathing freshwater snails (Family "Pleuroceridae") are ecologically important, abundant in many streams in the United States, and easy to collect and maintain under classroom conditions. These snails can be used in classroom tests to demonstrate effects of pollutants on aquatic organisms. In more advanced classes, students can cage the…

Stewart, Arthur J.; Ryon, Michael G.

2003-01-01

54

Ecological Methods in the Study of Administrative Behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Qualitative/naturalistic inquiry intends to discover whatever naturally occurring order exists rather than to test various theories or conceptual frameworks held by the investigator. Naturalistic, ecological data are urgently needed concerning the behavior of educational administrators. Such data can considerably change the knowledge base of the…

Scott, Myrtle; Eklund, Susan J.

55

A Study of the St. Lawrence River Ecological Habitat  

Science.gov (United States)

Save the River, a grassroots advocacy group established in 1978, lobbies for policies to preserve the upper St. Lawrence River and uses the community's help to keep an eye on the existing habitats. Recently, they procured the Fresh Sound Foundation grant to support the development of new K-12 ecology curricula by local area teachers to educate…

Mesires, Maria

2010-01-01

56

Molecular mechanism of polypeptides from Chlamys farreri (PCF)'s anti-apoptotic effect in UVA-exposed HaCaT cells involves HSF1/HSP70, JNK, XO, iNOS and NO/ROS.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the molecular mechanisms of polypeptides from Chlamys farreri (PCF)'s anti-apoptotic effects in ultraviolet A-rays (UVA) exposed HaCaT cells. UVA-induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells was confirmed with Hoechst 33258 fluorescent staining; PCF treatment inhibited UVA-induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells, increased transcriptional activities of heat shock factor protein 1 (HSF1) and the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), whereas inhibited activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), expression of xanthine oxidese (XO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and release of nitric oxide (NO)/reactive oxygen species (ROS). Meanwhile, the HSF1 transcription inhibitor quercetin increased UVA-induced apoptosis, activation of JNK, expression of XO and iNOS and release of NO/ROS. Among the two NO release peaks we found in UVA exposed HaCaT cells, XO inhibitor oxypurinol was found to be able to inhibit NO release at 3h post UVA exposure but not 18h, while iNOS inhibitor S-methylisothiourea sulfate (SMT) was found to inhibit iNOS expression and NO release at 18h but not 3h. PCF's protection against UVA-induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells involves increased transcriptional activity of HSF1, increased expression of HSP70, and the subsequential inhibition of JNK pathway, XO and iNOS expression and ROS/NO release. PMID:24296267

Wang, Xiaowen; Jiang, Qixiao; Wang, Wencheng; Su, Li; Han, Yantao; Wang, Chunbo

2014-01-01

57

Ecological and phytochemical studies on the "miswak", salvadora persica l.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The "Miswak", which is produced from the stolons and branches of Salvadora persica is used as a substitute for ordinary tooth brushes. The use of "Miswak" has been recommended by Islam. It is endowed by several characteristics supporting its use. In view of such facts, the ecology, geographical distribution and the chemical constituents of the plant have been investigated. It has been found that "Miswak" contains mucilage (2.2%) and sterols QS-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol and cholest...

Ma Ayergi, H. A.

1984-01-01

58

STABLE ISOTOPES IN ECOLOGICAL STUDIES: NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN MIXING MODELS (BRAZIL)  

Science.gov (United States)

Stable isotopes are increasingly being used as tracers in ecological studies. One application uses isotopic ratios to quantify the proportional contributions of multiple sources to a mixture. Examples include pollution sources for air or water bodies, food sources for animals, ...

59

STABLE ISOTOPES IN ECOLOGICAL STUDIES: NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN MIXING MODELS (URUGUAY)  

Science.gov (United States)

Stable isotopes are increasingly being used as tracers in ecological studies. One application uses isotopic ratios to quantify the proportional contributions of multiple sources to a mixture. Examples include pollution sources for air or water bodies, food sources for animals, ...

60

Field Studies Reveal Strong Postmating Isolation between Ecologically Divergent Butterfly Populations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A mismatch between hybrid butterflies and their ecological environment restricts gene flow between populations that feed on different host plants, highlighting the potential importance of a seldom-studied mechanism of reproductive isolation.

Mcbride, Carolyn S.; Singer, Michael C.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory has completed 10 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site. This progress report examines water quality studies on streams peripheral to the DWPF construction site and examines the effectiveness of refuge ponds'' in ameliorating the effects of construction on local amphibians. Individual papers on these topics are indexed separately. 93 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs. (MHB)

Scott, D.E.; Pechmann, J.H.K.; Knox, J.N.; Estes, R.A.; McGregor, J.H.; Bailey, K. (ed.)

1988-12-01

62

Warfare Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

Among human activities causing ecological change, war is both intensive and far-reaching. Yet environmental research related to warfare is limited in depth and fragmented by discipline. Here we (1) outline a field of study called "warfare ecology," (2) provide a taxonomy of warfare useful for organizing the field, (3) review empirical studies, and (4) propose research directions and policy implications that emerge from the ecological study of warfare. Warfare ecology extends to the three stages of warfare - preparations, war, and postwar activities - and treats biophysical and socioeconomic systems as coupled systems. A review of empirical studies suggests complex relationships between warfare and ecosystem change. Research needs include the development of theory and methods for examining the cascading effects of warfare on specific ecosystems. Policy implications include greater incorporation of ecological science into military planning and improved rehabilitation of postwar ecosystem services, leading to increased peace and security.

Gary E. Machlis (University of Idaho;); Thor Hanson (University of Idaho;)

2008-09-01

63

Evaluation of evapotranspiration in small on-site HSF constructed wetlands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experimental results on evapotranspiration (ET), relevant to small on-site facilities are presented, derived from one-year controlled experiments in five pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow (HSF) constructed wetlands (CW) used as lysimeters. The CW units operated in Northern Greece. They were rectangular tanks made of steel, with dimensions 3m long, 0.75m wide and 1m deep. Three different porous media were used, i.e., medium gravel, fine gravel and cobbles. Two plants were used, namely common reed (R, Phragmites australis) and cattails (C, Typha latifolia). One unit was unplanted. ET was estimated based on the water budget method. Conclusions were drawn on its relation to season and vegetation density. Furthermore, Pearson correlation coefficient analysis identified the main factors affecting wetland plant ET. Seven well-known ET empirical methods were applied to estimate ET using the measured meteorological and wetland data. ET estimated by the empirical methods were multiplied with appropriate correction coefficients to match measured ET, providing this way appropriate plant coefficient (K(c)) values, and equations for predicting HSF CW evapotranspiration. The suitability of these methods for the particular constructed wetland type is discussed through comparison with the measured data. The Blaney-Criddle method was found as best. Furthermore, stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was used with the measured ET and meteorological data to produce simple empirical equations to predict ET rates according to meteorological factors, plant and substrate material. PMID:22416871

Papaevangelou, Vassiliki A; Gikas, Georgios D; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

2012-01-01

64

Wetlands in the ecological risk assessment process: A case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the past few years, the ecological risk assessment (ERA) process as outlined in the EPA document Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment has been successfully used to assess risk to birds, mammals, aquatic organisms, plants, and to a limited extent, reptiles and amphibians, but has only recently been applied to wetlands. Due to the unique role that wetlands play in the environment as sources and sinks for nutrients, sediment retention, high productivity, habitat transition zones, aquifer recharge, high diversity and richness of biota, and aesthetic value, it is important to consider the entire wetland system in the ERA process. Because nearly sixty percent of Superfund sites are located in or near wetlands, a comprehensive approach is proposed to evaluate potential risks to flora and fauna in these wetland environments. Using the delineation and functional assessment techniques developed by wetland scientists, an estuarine wetland in western Washington was evaluated within the scope of ERA`S. The ERA was applied to the wetland using functional assessments as an integral part of the problem formulation phase of the risk assessment process. Applying the ERA process to wetlands enhances the functional assessment process and helps to define critical elements to evaluate within wetland systems. The results of this risk assessment help to define patches within a landscape that are potentially at risk and how to prioritize remedial actions.

Saban, L.B. [Roy F. Weston, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

1995-12-31

65

Ecological risk caused by land use change in the coastal zone: a case study in the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone  

Science.gov (United States)

China's coastal zone plays an important role in ecological services production and social-economic development; however, extensive and intensive land resource utilization and land use change have lead to high ecological risk in this area during last decade. Regional ecological risk assessment can provide fundamental knowledge and scientific basis for better understanding of the relationship between regional landscape ecosystem and human activities or climate changes, facilitating the optimization strategy of land use structure and improving the ecological risk prevention capability. In this paper, the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone is selected as the study site, which is undergoing a new round of coastal zone exploitation and has endured substantial land use change in the past decade. Land use maps of 2000, 2005 and 2010 were generated based on Landsat images by visual interpretation method, and the ecological risk index was then calculated. The index was 0.3314, 0.3461 and 0.3176 in 2000, 2005 and 2010 respectively, which showed a positive transition of regional ecological risk in 2005.

Di, X. H.; Wang, Y. D.; Hou, X. Y.

2014-03-01

66

Transcription factor OsHsfC1b regulates salt tolerance and development in Oryza sativa ssp. japonica  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper describes the functional analysis of a class C heat shock transcription factor from rice (Oryza sativa). OsHsfC1b is shown to play a role in ABA-mediated salt stress tolerance and is required for plant growth under non-stress conditions.

Schmidt, Romy; Schippers, Jos H. M.; Welker, Annelie; Mieulet, Delphine; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Mueller-roeber, Bernd

2012-01-01

67

Ecological risk assessment guidance for preparation of remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial assessment investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfired Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), an RI/FS work plan win have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping the process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites. An overview analysis of early ecological risk assessment methods (i.e., in the 1980s) at Superfund sites was conducted by the EPA (1989a). That review provided a perspective of attention given to ecological issues in some of the first RI/FS studies. By itself, that reference is of somewhat limited value; it does, however, establish a basis for comparison of past practices in ecological risk with current, more refined methods

1993-01-01

68

Ecological risk assessment guidance for preparation of remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial assessment investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfired Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), an RI/FS work plan win have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping the process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites. An overview analysis of early ecological risk assessment methods (i.e., in the 1980s) at Superfund sites was conducted by the EPA (1989a). That review provided a perspective of attention given to ecological issues in some of the first RI/FS studies. By itself, that reference is of somewhat limited value; it does, however, establish a basis for comparison of past practices in ecological risk with current, more refined methods.

Pentecost, E.D.; Vinikour, W.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-08-01

69

The heat stress transcription factor HsfA2 serves as a regulatory amplifier of a subset of genes in the heat stress response in Arabidopsis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the Arabidopsis family of 21 heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) HsfA2 is the strongest expressed member under heat stress (hs) conditions. Irrespective of the tissue, HsfA2 accumulates under heat stress similarly to other heat stress proteins (Hsps). A SALK T-DNA insertion line with a complete HsfA2-knockout was analyzed with respect to the changes in the transcriptome under heat stress conditions. Ascorbate peroxidase 2 (APX2) was identified as the most affected transcript in addition to several sHsps, individual members of the Hsp70 and Hsp100 family, as well as many transcripts of genes with yet unknown functions. For functional validation, the transcription activation potential of HsfA2 on GUS reporter constructs containing 1 kb upstream promoter sequences of selected target genes were analyzed using transient reporter assays in mesophyll protoplasts. By deletion analysis the promoter region of the strongest affected target gene APX2 was functionally mapped in detail to verify potential HsfA2 binding sites. By electrophoretic mobility shift assays we identified TATA-Box proximal clusters of heat stress elements (HSE) in the promoters of selected target genes as potential HsfA2 binding sites. The results presented here demonstrate that the expression of HsfA2 in Arabidopsis is strictly heat stress-dependent and this transcription factor represents a regulator of a subset of stress response genes in Arabidopsis. PMID:16649111

Schramm, Franziska; Ganguli, Arnab; Kiehlmann, Elke; Englich, Gisela; Walch, Daniela; von Koskull-Döring, Pascal

2006-03-01

70

Ecological studies on the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) on the Savannah River Plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is the largest vertebrate of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), reaching a maximum length of 3.7 meters (12 feet) and weighing up to 175 kg (385 pounds). Currently, populations in coastal South Carolina are considered Threatened, whereas populations in inland areas (such as the SRP) are still Endangered. Because of their legal status and economic and ecological importance, it is important to determine the environmental impacts of SRP operations on the local alligator population. The major objectives under the Endangered Species Program of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) were as follows: (1) document and compare the present status and distribution of alligators on the SRP to previous surveys, in order to determine long-term changes in population abundance; (2) establish baseline population and ecological parameters of the Steel Creek population so that the ecological effects of L-Reactor operations can be determined, and (3) conduct ecological research on the immediate impacts of thermal effluents on American alligators. Gladden et al., (1985) summarized data on previous population surveys, temporal changes in the Par Pond population, preliminary results of the Steel Creek surveys and Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) research on the effects of thermal effluents. This report summarizes the current status of the SRP population, presents data on the abundance, movement patterns and activity cycles of the Steel Creek population, and presents additional data on the effect of cooling water releases on alligator ecology and behavior.

Seigel, R.A.; Brandt, L.A.; Knight, J.L.; Novak, S.S.

1986-06-01

71

Ecological optimization and performance study of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat engines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concept of finite time thermodynamics is used to determine the ecological function of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat engine cycles. The ecological function is defined as the power output minus power loss (irreversibility), which is the ambient temperature times, the entropy generation rate. The ecological function is maximized with respect to cycle temperature ratio and the expressions for the corresponding power output and thermal efficiency are derived at the optimal operating conditions. The effect of different operating parameters, the effectiveness on the hot, cold and the regenerative side heat exchangers, the cycle temperature ratio, heat capacitance ratio and the internal irreversibility parameter on the maximum ecological function are studied. It is found that the effect of regenerator effectiveness is more than the hot and cold side heat exchangers and the effect of the effectiveness on cold side heat exchanger is more than the effectiveness on the hot side heat exchanger on the maximum ecological function. It is also found that the effect of internal irreversibility parameter is more than the other parameters not only on the maximum ecological function but also on the corresponding power output and the thermal efficiency

2002-10-21

72

Regulation of the heat stress response in Arabidopsis by MPK6-targeted phosphorylation of the heat stress factor HsfA2  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

So far little is known on the functional role of phosphorylation in the heat stress response of plants. Here we present evidence that heat stress activates the Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK6. In vitro and in vivo evidence is provided that MPK6 specifically targets the major heat stress transcription factor HsfA2. Activation of MPK6 results in complex formation with HsfA2. MPK6 phosphorylates HsfA2 on T249 and changes its intracellular localisation. Protein kinase and phosph...

Evrard, Alexandre; Kumar, Mukesh; Lecourieux, David; Lucks, Jessica; Von Koskull-do?ring, Pascal; Hirt, Heribert

2013-01-01

73

Tomato heat stress transcription factor HsfB1 represents a novel type of general transcription coactivator with a histone-like motif interacting with HAC1/CBP  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In contrast to the class A heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) of plants, a considerable number of Hsfs assigned to classes B and C have no evident function as transcription activators on their own. In the course of my PhD work I showed that tomato HsfB1, a heat stress induced member of class B Hsf family, is a novel type of transcriptional coactivator in plants. Together with class A Hsfs, e.g. tomato HsfA1, it plays an important role in efficient transcrition initiation during heat str...

Bharti, Kapil

2005-01-01

74

Why does not ecological wine sell in the restaurants? : A case study on Chilean ecological wine on the Swedish market  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The last five years has seen a large increase in the sales of ecological wines in the Swedish retail stores. This trend has not yet reached the restaurants, where the consumers do not choose an ecological alternative in the same amount as in the stores. The Chilean ecological wines were 2010, in top five bestsellers among the organic wines. With their good quality and low price they should be able to reach a larger market share in the restaurants as well. The purpose of this paper is to exami...

Fredriksson, Katja

2011-01-01

75

Ecology of Urban Bees: A Review of Current Knowledge and Directions for Future Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban bee ecology is an emerging field that holds promise for advancing knowledge of bee community dynamics and promoting bee conservation. Published studies of bee communities in urban and suburban habitats are fewer than those documenting bees in agricultural and wildland settings. As land lost to urbanization is predicted to increase in coming years the necessity of studying urban bee populations is growing. We reviewed 59 publications on urban bee ecology with the following goals, to assess current knowledge, to highlight areas in need of further research, and to suggest applications of study findings to bee conservation. Identified trends in urban areas included the following, negative correlation between bee species richness and urban development, increase in abundance of cavity-nesters in urban habitats, and scarcity of floral specialists. Future directions for studying urban bee ecology include incorporation of landscape-scale assessments, conducting manipulative experiments and actively designing urban bee habitats.

Gordon W. Frankie

2009-01-01

76

Case study of ecological risk assessment at an Alaska airport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ecological risk assessment was conducted for 10 sites at a remote location that has unique biological resources. Chemicals of concern included petroleum, metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, and dioxins and furans. Risks to 23 species of mammals and birds were evaluated by using toxicity reference values and a hazard quotient approach analogous to the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) approach for evaluating noncarcinogenic human health effects. Risks to fish and aquatic invertebrates were evaluated using risk-based concentrations for water analogous to the USEPA's water quality criteria. Risks to plants were evaluated using risk-based concentrations for soil. Toxicity reference values and risk-based concentrations were developed by applying uncertainty factors to the highest quality toxicity data available in the literature. Intake rates for wildlife were obtained from the USEPA's wildlife exposure factors handbook, or were estimated using allometric equations. The sizes of wildlife home ranges were compared with the size of each site to determine species- and site-specific exposure frequencies. Indicator chemicals were selected to represent the chemical and toxicological characteristics of petroleum fractions. The species most often at risk were found to be fish and aquatic invertebrates, as well as small-bodied, ground-dwelling or ground-feeding wildlife

1996-11-17

77

Ecological shortage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Meadows study (Limits to Growth) has made the environmental problem popular, but it has reduced the ecological problem to one of population and raw materials, leaving the conditions of social organisation and developmental policy out of consideration. This means that in spite of the repeated moral appeals, developing countries are left to their natural fate while fear and resignation are spread in the industrial nations. The present study tries to contradict this trend in consideration of interdependences in ecological development. (orig.)

1981-01-01

78

Ecological forecasting under climatic data uncertainty: a case study in phenological modeling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forecasting ecological responses to climate change represents a challenge to the ecological community because models are often site-specific and climate data are lacking at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. We use a case study approach to demonstrate uncertainties in ecological predictions related to the driving climatic input data. We use observational records, derived observational datasets (e.g. interpolated observations from local weather stations and gridded data products) and output from general circulation models (GCM) in conjunction with site based phenology models to estimate the first flowering date (FFD) for three woody flowering species. Using derived observations over the modern time period, we find that cold biases and temperature trends lead to biased FFD simulations for all three species. Observational datasets resolved at the daily time step result in better FFD predictions compared to simulations using monthly resolution. Simulations using output from an ensemble of GCM and regional climate models over modern and future time periods have large intra-ensemble spreads and tend to underestimate observed FFD trends for the modern period. These results indicate that certain forcing datasets may be missing key features needed to generate accurate hindcasts at the local scale (e.g. trends, temporal resolution), and that standard modeling techniques (e.g. downscaling, ensemble mean, etc) may not necessarily improve the prediction of the ecological response. Studies attempting to simulate local ecological processes under modern and future climate forcing therefore need to quantify and propagate the climate data uncertainties in their simulations.

2010-10-01

79

Ecological optimization and parametric study of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat pumps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This communication presents the ecological optimization and parametric study of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat pump cycles, in which the external irreversibility is due to finite temperature difference between working fluid and external reservoirs while the internal irreversibilities are due to regenerative heat loss and other entropy generations within the cycle. The ecological function is defined as the heating load minus the irreversibility (power loss) which is ambient temperature times the entropy generation. The ecological function is optimized with respect to working fluid temperatures, and the expressions for various parameters at the optimal operating condition are obtained. The effects of different operating parameters on the performance of these cycles have been studied. It is found that the effect of internal irreversibility parameter is more pronounced than the other parameters on the performance of these cycles. (author)

2002-08-21

80

Air pollution and case fatality of SARS in the People's Republic of China: an ecologic study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS has claimed 349 lives with 5,327 probable cases reported in mainland China since November 2002. SARS case fatality has varied across geographical areas, which might be partially explained by air pollution level. Methods Publicly accessible data on SARS morbidity and mortality were utilized in the data analysis. Air pollution was evaluated by air pollution index (API derived from the concentrations of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and ground-level ozone. Ecologic analysis was conducted to explore the association and correlation between air pollution and SARS case fatality via model fitting. Partially ecologic studies were performed to assess the effects of long-term and short-term exposures on the risk of dying from SARS. Results Ecologic analysis conducted among 5 regions with 100 or more SARS cases showed that case fatality rate increased with the increment of API (case fatality = - 0.063 + 0.001 * API. Partially ecologic study based on short-term exposure demonstrated that SARS patients from regions with moderate APIs had an 84% increased risk of dying from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs (RR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.41–2.40. Similarly, SARS patients from regions with high APIs were twice as likely to die from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs. (RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.31–3.65. Partially ecologic analysis based on long-term exposure to ambient air pollution showed the similar association. Conclusion Our studies demonstrated a positive association between air pollution and SARS case fatality in Chinese population by utilizing publicly accessible data on SARS statistics and air pollution indices. Although ecologic fallacy and uncontrolled confounding effect might have biased the results, the possibility of a detrimental effect of air pollution on the prognosis of SARS patients deserves further investigation.

Yu Shun-Zhang

2003-11-01

 
 
 
 
81

ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF RESTORATED TRADITIONAL SETTLEMENTS: A CASE STUDY IN KALE?Ç? (ANTALYA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Historical fabrics of the cities reflect the cultural backgrounds of the societies. For centuries in historical urban settlements formed via experiences the most appropriate structure type to the climatic conditions and the region, has been produced. With the industrial revolution, to be able to have more comfortable places in the settlement, fossil fuel based energy consumption began to be generally preferred. As a result, the ecological balance in the nature has begun to deteriorate in an irrevocable way. To find a solution for the situation, in ecological architecture and planning issues various ecological structure criteria is defined. Accordingly, buildings appropriate to the local and climatic characteristics are meant to be constructed besides the use of renewable energy sources and minimizing energy consumption. When historical city fabrics are analyzed in the ecological context, one can observe that these include sustainable structure characteristics. In order for the buildings to be renewed and restored in accordance with their original structures, great care should be given in terms of financial resource, manpower, material and control.Antalya Kaleiçi which was chosen as the working area was analyzed in terms of settlement structure, building form and structure cover, place organization, material choice, renewable, clean energy usage and water saving and usage and it was determined to have ecological, sustainable settlement characteristics. Traditional architecture samples which have been built by the people after trial and error for centuries and with the solutions appropriate to the climatic and environmental conditions are highly appropriate to the ecological design criteria as structures and settlements peculiar to the district. However the mistakes in the restoration of the buildings used for touristic aims after 1970s, adding of new necessary functions to the buildings, not taking care of the original structure and materials show that historical urban fabric of the city is faced with the danger of losing its ecological feature.In this study, Antalya-Kaleiçi historical urban settlement which was built in the context of the ecological design criteria and which has conventional houses that achieved to reach our day has been discussed. When houses with historical fabric which are experiencing a function shift to ensure sustainability in today's conditions are analyzed in terms of ecological design criteria, we will mention the sustainability of the criteria obtained in terms of availability and the problems faced with the restoration.

Hacer MUTLU DANACI

2011-12-01

82

HER2/ErbB2 activates HSF1 and thereby controls HSP90 clients including MIF in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) in breast cancer strongly correlates with aggressive tumors and poor prognosis. Recently, a positive correlation between HER2 and MIF (macrophage migration inhibitory factor, a tumor-promoting protein and heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) client) protein levels was shown in cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanistic link remained unknown. Here we show that overexpressed HER2 constitutively activates heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1), the master transcriptional regulator of the inducible proteotoxic stress response of heat-shock chaperones, including HSP90, and a crucial factor in initiation and maintenance of the malignant state. Inhibiting HER2 pharmacologically by Lapatinib (a dual HER2/epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor) or CP724.714 (a specific HER2 inhibitor), or by knockdown via siRNA leads to inhibition of phosphoactivated Ser326 HSF1, and subsequently blocks the activity of the HSP90 chaperone machinery in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer lines. Consequently, HSP90 clients, including MIF, AKT, mutant p53 and HSF1 itself, become destabilized, which in turn inhibits tumor proliferation. Mechanistically, HER2 signals via the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT- mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) axis to induce activated pSer326 HSF1. Heat-shock stress experiments confirm this functional link between HER2 and HSF1, as HER2 (and PI3K) inhibition attenuate the HSF1-mediated heat-shock response. Importantly, we confirmed this axis in vivo. In the mouse model of HER2-driven breast cancer, ErbB2 inhibition by Lapatinib strongly suppresses tumor progression, and this is associated with inactivation of the HSF1 pathway. Moreover, ErbB2-overexpressing cancer cells derived from a primary mouse ErbB2 tumor also show HSF1 inactivation and HSP90 client destabilization in response to ErbB2 inhibition. Furthermore, in HER2-positive human breast cancers HER2 levels strongly correlate with pSer326 HSF1 activity. Our results show for the first time that HER2/ErbB2 overexpression controls HSF1 activity, with subsequent stabilization of numerous tumor-promoting HSP90 clients such as MIF, AKT and HSF1 itself, thereby causing a robust promotion in tumor growth in HER2-positive breast cancer. PMID:24384723

Schulz, R; Streller, F; Scheel, A H; Rüschoff, J; Reinert, M-C; Dobbelstein, M; Marchenko, N D; Moll, U M

2014-01-01

83

HER2/ErbB2 activates HSF1 and thereby controls HSP90 clients including MIF in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) in breast cancer strongly correlates with aggressive tumors and poor prognosis. Recently, a positive correlation between HER2 and MIF (macrophage migration inhibitory factor, a tumor-promoting protein and heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) client) protein levels was shown in cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanistic link remained unknown. Here we show that overexpressed HER2 constitutively activates heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1), the master transcriptional regulator of the inducible proteotoxic stress response of heat-shock chaperones, including HSP90, and a crucial factor in initiation and maintenance of the malignant state. Inhibiting HER2 pharmacologically by Lapatinib (a dual HER2/epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor) or CP724.714 (a specific HER2 inhibitor), or by knockdown via siRNA leads to inhibition of phosphoactivated Ser326 HSF1, and subsequently blocks the activity of the HSP90 chaperone machinery in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer lines. Consequently, HSP90 clients, including MIF, AKT, mutant p53 and HSF1 itself, become destabilized, which in turn inhibits tumor proliferation. Mechanistically, HER2 signals via the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)–AKT– mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) axis to induce activated pSer326 HSF1. Heat-shock stress experiments confirm this functional link between HER2 and HSF1, as HER2 (and PI3K) inhibition attenuate the HSF1-mediated heat-shock response. Importantly, we confirmed this axis in vivo. In the mouse model of HER2-driven breast cancer, ErbB2 inhibition by Lapatinib strongly suppresses tumor progression, and this is associated with inactivation of the HSF1 pathway. Moreover, ErbB2-overexpressing cancer cells derived from a primary mouse ErbB2 tumor also show HSF1 inactivation and HSP90 client destabilization in response to ErbB2 inhibition. Furthermore, in HER2-positive human breast cancers HER2 levels strongly correlate with pSer326 HSF1 activity. Our results show for the first time that HER2/ErbB2 overexpression controls HSF1 activity, with subsequent stabilization of numerous tumor-promoting HSP90 clients such as MIF, AKT and HSF1 itself, thereby causing a robust promotion in tumor growth in HER2-positive breast cancer.

Schulz, R; Streller, F; Scheel, A H; Ruschoff, J; Reinert, M-C; Dobbelstein, M; Marchenko, N D; Moll, U M

2014-01-01

84

Incorporating ecological risk assessment into remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), and RI/FS work plan will have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites

1994-01-01

85

Incorporating ecological risk assessment into remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), and RI/FS work plan will have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites.

1994-06-01

86

Ecological studies in the NRDA process: Some guidelines for what is necessary and what is not  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biological resources are usually the primary focus of a natural resource damage assessment (NRDA). The NRDA should emphasize ecological studies on resources that sustained substantial injuries resulting in significant reduction of services and loss of use, and thus in substantial damages. Further, assessment costs should be ''reasonable.'' Congress, in passing the laws providing for NRDAs, did not intend that every conceivable injury to every biological resource be documented; this is economically and scientifically unreasonable. Congress did however intend that the NRDA process should be objective, based on sound science, and focused on restoration of the injured resources and services. Appropriate ecological studies should focus on the dominant sensitive habitats, major recreational species, threatened, endangered and otherwise ''sensitive'' species, and ecologically ''key'' species. However, many NRDAs have been and are being conducted in an adversarial atmosphere where the threat of litigation, not cooperation, prevails. This results in additional studies of insignificant, extremely speculative, and/or highly improbable injuries that objective, experienced ecologists would agree will not have ecological significance and should not result in damages. These studies waste time and money for all parties involved. They erode the credibility of the scientists involved as well as the credibility of the whole NRDA process. Examples of both necessary and unnecessary studies will be drawn from several oil spills including Exxon Valdez, Exxon Bayway Pipeline Leak, and Shell Martinez Manufacturing complex

1993-11-14

87

Ignorance of Hedonic Adaptation to Hemodialysis: A Study Using Ecological Momentary Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Healthy people generally underestimate the self-reported well-being of people with disabilities and serious illnesses. The cause of this discrepancy is in dispute, and the present study provides evidence for 2 causes. First, healthy people fail to anticipate hedonic adaptation to poor health. Using an ecological momentary assessment measure of…

Riis, Jason; Loewenstein, George; Baron, Jonathan; Jepson, Christopher; Fagerlin, Angela; Ubel, Peter A.

2005-01-01

88

Science and Ecological Economics: Integrating of the Study of Humans and the Rest of Nature  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological economics is a transdisciplinary field that seeks to integrate the study of humans and the rest of nature as the basis for the creation of a sustainable and desirable future. It seeks to dissolve the barriers between the traditional disciplines and achieve a true "consilience" of all the sciences and humanities. This consilient,…

Costanza, Robert

2009-01-01

89

Undertaking an Ecological Approach to Advance Game-Based Learning: A Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Systematic incorporation of digital games in schools is largely unexplored. This case study explored the ecological conditions necessary for implementing a game-based learning course by examining the interaction between three domains (the innovator, the innovation, and the context). From January-April 2012, one in-service teacher learned and…

Shah, Mamta; Foster, Aroutis

2014-01-01

90

Areca Nut Chewing and Risk of Atrial Fibrillation in Taiwanese Men: A Nationwide Ecological Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Areca nut chewing is associated with the risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and cardiovascular mortality. Although a few case reports or case series have suggested the link between areca nut chewing and cardiac arrhythmias, information about the relationship between areca nut chewing and atrial fibrillation (AF) is lacking. Thus, a nationwide ecological study was conducted to investigate this.

2013-01-01

91

Ecological bases for the forestry of the natural forest, Case study of the Catival (Prioretum copaiferae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A first development is presented for Colombia of the ecological bases for the forestry by means of the case study of the Catival consortium (prioretum copaiferae); recapturing the results of the investigations carried out for more of 16 years for the National Corporation of Investigation and Forestall Development-CONIF and the company Pizano adding the achievements of other investigations

2000-09-01

92

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and productivity of schizophrenia trials: an ecological study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The 5000 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's database affords an opportunity to research for variables related to the differences between nations of their output of schizophrenia trials. Methods Ecological study – investigating the relationship between four economic/demographic variables and number of schizophrenia RCTs per country. The variable with closest correlation was used to predict the expected ...

Moll Carina; Gessler Ursula; Bartsch Stephanie; El-sayeh Hany; Fenton Mark; Adams Clive

2003-01-01

93

Simulation of Regionally Ecological Land Based on a Cellular Automation Model: A Case Study of Beijing, China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ecological land is like the “liver” of a city and is very useful to public health. Ecological land change is a spatially dynamic non-linear process under the interaction between natural and anthropogenic factors at different scales. In this study, by setting up natural development scenario, object orientation scenario and ecosystem priority scenario, a Cellular Automation (CA) model has been established to simulate the evolution pattern of ecological land in Beijing in the year 2020. Unde...

Hualin Xie; Chih-Chun Kung; Yanting Zhang; Xiubin Li

2012-01-01

94

Ecological studies on the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) on the Savannah River Plant. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study: Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is the largest vertebrate of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), reaching a maximum length of 3.7 meters (12 feet) and weighing up to 175 kg (385 pounds). Currently, populations in coastal South Carolina are considered Threatened, whereas populations in inland areas (such as the SRP) are still Endangered. Because of their legal status and economic and ecological importance, it is important to determine the environmental impacts of SRP operations on the local alligator population. The major objectives under the Endangered Species Program of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) were as follows: (1) document and compare the present status and distribution of alligators on the SRP to previous surveys, in order to determine long-term changes in population abundance; (2) establish baseline population and ecological parameters of the Steel Creek population so that the ecological effects of L-Reactor operations can be determined, and (3) conduct ecological research on the immediate impacts of thermal effluents on American alligators. Gladden et al., (1985) summarized data on previous population surveys, temporal changes in the Par Pond population, preliminary results of the Steel Creek surveys and Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) research on the effects of thermal effluents. This report summarizes the current status of the SRP population, presents data on the abundance, movement patterns and activity cycles of the Steel Creek population, and presents additional data on the effect of cooling water releases on alligator ecology and behavior.

Seigel, R.A.; Brandt, L.A.; Knight, J.L.; Novak, S.S.

1986-06-01

95

Integrin-linked kinase modulates longevity and thermotolerance in C. elegans through neuronal control of HSF-1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrin-signaling complexes play important roles in cytoskeletal organization and cell adhesion in many species. Components of the integrin-signaling complex have been linked to aging in both Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, but the mechanism underlying this function is unknown. Here, we investigated the role of integrin-linked kinase (ILK), a key component of the integrin-signaling complex, in lifespan determination. We report that genetic reduction of ILK in both C. elegans and Drosophila increased resistance to heat stress, and led to lifespan extension in C. elegans without majorly affecting cytoskeletal integrity. In C. elegans, longevity and thermotolerance induced by ILK depletion was mediated by heat-shock factor-1 (HSF-1), a major transcriptional regulator of the heat-shock response (HSR). Reduction in ILK levels increased hsf-1 transcription and activation, and led to enhanced expression of a subset of genes with roles in the HSR. Moreover, induction of HSR-related genes, longevity and thermotolerance caused by ILK reduction required the thermosensory neurons AFD and interneurons AIY, which are known to play a critical role in the canonical HSR. Notably, ILK was expressed in neighboring neurons, but not in AFD or AIY, implying that ILK reduction initiates cell nonautonomous signaling through thermosensory neurons to elicit a noncanonical HSR. Our results thus identify HSF-1 as a novel effector of the organismal response to reduced ILK levels and show that ILK inhibition regulates HSF-1 in a cell nonautonomous fashion to enhance stress resistance and lifespan in C. elegans. PMID:24314125

Kumsta, Caroline; Ching, Tsui-Ting; Nishimura, Mayuko; Davis, Andrew E; Gelino, Sara; Catan, Hannah H; Yu, Xiaokun; Chu, Chu-Chiao; Ong, Binnan; Panowski, Siler H; Baird, Nathan; Bodmer, Rolf; Hsu, Ao-Lin; Hansen, Malene

2014-06-01

96

Ecological studies of small vertebrates in Pu-contaminated study areas of NTS and TTR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ecological studies of vertebrates in plutonium-contaminated areas of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were initiated in March 1972, and have continued to date. In September 1973, standard census methods were also employed to derive a qualitative and quantitative inventory of vertebrate biota of four Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) study areas of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). A checklist of vertebrates of NAEG study areas of NTS and TTR is presented. Data are presented on vertebrate composition, relative abundance, and seasonal status in the study areas. Concentrations of 239Pu and 241Am were determined in pelt or skin, GI tract, and carcass of 13 lizards and 16 mammals resident on Clean Slate 2, TTR, and Area 11, NTS. A total of 71 animals were collected for radioanalysis. However, the data were not available at the time this report was written. Pu tissue burdens were highest in lizards from Area 11 GZ. Maximum values obtained in nCi/g ash were 30.9, 42.2, and 0.43 for the pelt, GI tract, and carcass, respectively. Maximum 239Pu values in tissues of small rodents from Area 11 (not from GZ) were 11.4, 6.49, and 0.20 nCi/g ash for pelt, GI tract, and carcass, respectively. Pu/Am ratios were relatively consistent in tissue samples of lizards and small mammals from Area 11 (approximately 6:1, Pu/Am). Pu/Am ratios were not consistent in vertebrates of Clean Slate 2, TTR, and appeared to be lower in carcass (28:1, Pu/Am in mammals) than GI tract (9:1, Pu/Am in mammals). Although this trend was more conspicuous in mammals, it was also evident in reptiles. (auth)

1975-06-01

97

Compliance to a Cell Phone-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment Study: The Effect of Time and Personality Characteristics  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a method that is now widely used to study behavior and mood in the settings in which they naturally occur. It maximizes ecological validity and avoids the limitations of retrospective self-reports. Compliance patterns across time have not been studied. Consistent compliance patterns could lead to data not…

Courvoisier, Delphine S.; Eid, Michael; Lischetzke, Tanja

2012-01-01

98

Ecological stability of landscape - ecological infrastructure - ecological management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Field Workshop 'Ecological Stability of Landscape - Ecological Infrastructure - Ecological Management' was held within a State Environmental Programme financed by the Federal Committee for the Environment. The objectives of the workshop were to present Czech and Slovak approaches to the ecological stability of the landscape by means of examples of some case studies in the field, and to exchange ideas, theoretical knowledge and practical experience on implementing the concept of ecological infrastructure in landscape management. Out of 19 papers contained in the proceedings, 3 items were inputted to the INIS system. (Z.S.)

1992-06-15

99

Geospatial web services for limnological data: a case study of sensor observation service for ecological observations  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work aims at designing and implementing a spatial data infrastructure for storing and sharing ecological data through geospatial web services. As case study, we concentrated on limnological data coming from the drainage basin of Lake Maggiore in the Northern of Italy. In order to establish the infrastructure, we started with two basic questions: (1) What type of data is the ecological dataset? (2) Which are the geospatial web services standards most suitable to store and share ecological data? In this paper we describe the possibilities for sharing ecological data using geospatial web services and the difficulties that can be encountered in this task. In order to test actual technological solutions, we use real data of a limnological published study.We concluded that limnological data can be considered observational data, composed by biological (species) data and environmental data, and it can be modeled using Observation and Measurement (O&M) specification. With the actual web service implementation the geospatial web services that could potentially be used to publish limnological data are Sensor Observation Services (SOS) and Web Feature Services (WFS). SOS holds the essential components to represent time series observations, while WFS is a simple model that requires profiling. Both, SOS and WFS are not perfectly suitable to publish biological data, so other alternatives must be considered, as linked data.

Arias Muñoz, C.; Oggioni, A.; Brovelli, M. A.

2014-04-01

100

Merging Taxonomy with Ecological Population Prediction in a Case Study of Vibrionaceae ? †  

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We synthesized population structure data from three studies that assessed the fine-scale distribution of Vibrionaceae among temporally and spatially distinct environmental categories in coastal seawater and animals. All studies used a dynamic model (AdaptML) to identify phylogenetically cohesive and ecologically distinct bacterial populations and their predicted habitats without relying on a predefined genetic cutoff or relationships to previously named species. Across the three studies, popu...

Preheim, Sarah P.; Timberlake, Sonia; Polz, Martin F.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

The legacy of biosphere 2 for the study of biospherics and closed ecological systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The unprecedented challenges of creating Biosphere 2, the world's first laboratory for biospherics, the study of global ecology and long-term closed ecological system dynamics, led to breakthrough developments in many fields, and a deeper understanding of the opportunities and difficulties of material closure. This paper will review accomplishments and challenges, citing some of the key research findings and publications that have resulted from the experiments in Biosphere 2. Engineering accomplishments included development of a technique for variable volume to deal with pressure differences between the facility and outside environment, developing methods of atmospheric leak detection and sealing, while achieving new standards of closure, with an annual atmospheric leakrate of less than 10%, or less than 300 ppm per day. This degree of closure permitted detailed tracking of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and trice gases such as nitrous oxide and ethylene over the seasonal variability of two years. Full closure also necessitated developing new approaches and technologies for complete air, water, and wastewater recycle and reuse within the facility. The development of a soil-based highly productive agricultural system was a first in closed ecological systems, and much was learned about managing a wide variety of crops using non-chemical means of pest and disease control. Closed ecological systems have different temporal biogeochemical cycling and ranges of atmospheric components because of their smaller reservoirs of air, water and soil, and higher concentration of biomass, and Biosphere 2 provided detailed examination and modeling of these accelerated cycles over a period of closure which measured in years. Medical research inside Biosphere 2 included the effects on humans of lowered oxygen: the discovery that human productivity can be maintained with good health with lowered atmospheric oxygen levels could lead to major economies on the design of space stations and planetary/lunar settlements. The improved health resulting from the calorie-restricted but nutrient dense Biosphere 2 diet was the first such scientifically controlled experiment with humans. The success of Biosphere 2 in creating a diversity of terrestrial and marine environments, from rainforest to coral reef, allowed detailed studies with comprehensive measurements such that the dynamics of these complex biomic systems are now better understood. The coral reef ecosystem, the largest artificial reef ever built, catalyzed methods of study now being applied to planetary coral reef systems. Restoration ecology advanced through the creation and study of the dynamics of adaptation and self-organization of the biomes in Biosphere 2. The international interest that Biosphere 2 generated has given new impetus to the public recognition of the sciences of biospheres (biospherics), biomes and closed ecological life systems. The facility, although no longer a materially-closed ecological system, is being used as an educational facility by Columbia University as an introduction to the study of the biosphere and complex system ecology and for carbon dioxide impacts utilizing the complex ecosystems created in Biosphere '.The many lessons learned from Biosphere 2 are being used by its key team of creators in their design and operation of a laboratory-sized closed ecological system, the Laboratory Biosphere, in operation as of March 2002, and for the design of a Mars on Earth ™ prototype life support system for manned missions to Mars and Mars surface habitats. Biosphere 2 is an important foundation for future advances in biospherics and closed ecological system research.

Allen, J. P.; Nelson, M.; Alling, A.

102

Fire Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

Forest fires have become a regular summertime occurrence in North America, sparking debate about the proper role of fire on the land. The following websites examine fires and fire ecology in different ecosystems, regions, and time periods. The first site (1), from the USGS-Western Ecological Research Center shares information about fire ecology research in the California shrublands, Sierra Nevada forests, and Mohave and Sonoran deserts. The second site (2) features the Fire Ecology Center at Texas Tech University. The Fire Ecology Center focuses on the role of fire in grassland ecosystems and their website contains information on current research, publications, managing pastures, managing problem plants, and more. The third site (3), from the USGS-Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center contains "an annotated bibliography on fire in North American wetland ecosystems and a subject index of all fire-related literature that has appeared in Wildlife Review." Hosted by Yellowstone National Park, the fourth site (4) addresses wildland fires in Yellowstone. The Park website presents brief sections on Fire Ecology, Fire Monitoring, Prescribed Fire, and Fire Effects -- to name a few. The fifth (5) site, from the Canadian Forest Service, provides information about forest fires in Canada including weekly fire statistics, fire research, daily fire maps, a fire database, and more. Part of a great site on the land use history of the Colorado Plateau from Northern Arizona University, the sixth site (6) offers a brief overview of wildfire history and ecology on the Plateau with links to information about ponderosa pine fire ecology, reintroduction of fire to forest ecosystems, and fire ecology research studies. The seventh site (7), from DiscoverySchool.com, contains a lesson plan on forest fire ecology for grade levels 9-12. The lesson spans two class periods and the site provides objectives, materials needed, discussion questions, academic standards, and more. The final (8) website, from the Why Files, "examines the role of fire in natural systems, and the role of science in understanding wildfires." The eleven-page website follows a kid-friendly narrative format and includes a bibliography and glossary.

103

An Experimental Ecological Study of a Garden Compost Heap.  

Science.gov (United States)

A quantitative study of the fauna of a garden compost heap shows it to be similar to that of organisms found in soil and leaf litter. Materials, methods, and results are discussed and extensive tables of fauna lists, wet/dry masses, and statistical analyses are presented. (Author/DH)

Curds, Tracy

1985-01-01

104

Applications of C and N stable isotopes to ecological and environmental studies in seagrass ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen are increasingly used in marine ecosystems, for ecological and environmental studies. Here, we examine some applications of stable isotopes as ecological integrators or tracers in seagrass ecosystem studies. We focus on both the use of natural isotope abundance as food web integrators or environmental tracers and on the use of stable isotopes as experimental tools. As ecosystem integrators, stable isotopes have helped to elucidate the general structure of trophic webs in temperate, Mediterranean and tropical seagrass ecosystems. As environmental tracers, stable isotopes have proven their utility in sewage impact measuring and mapping. However, to make such environmental studies more comprehensible, future works on understanding of basic reasons for variations of N and C stable isotopes in seagrasses should be encouraged. At least, as experimental tracers, stable isotopes allow the study of many aspects of N and C cycles at the scale of a plant or at the scale of the seagrass ecosystem

2004-12-01

105

Exploring Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems Through Comparative Studies and Theory Development: Introduction to the Special Issue  

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This special issue of Ecology and Society on exploring resilience in social-ecological systems draws together insights from comparisons of 15 case studies conducted during two Resilience Alliance workshops in 2003 and 2004. As such, it represents our current understanding of resilience theory and the issues encountered in our attempts to apply it.

Walker, Brian H.; Anderies, John M.; Kinzig, Ann P.; Paul Ryan

2006-01-01

106

An Ecological Approach to Prospective and Retrospective Timing of Long Durations: A Study Involving Gamers  

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To date, most studies comparing prospective and retrospective timing have failed to use long durations and tasks with a certain degree of ecological validity. The present study assessed the effect of the timing paradigm on playing video games in a “naturalistic environment” (gaming centers). In addition, as it involved gamers, it provided an opportunity to examine the effect of gaming profile on time estimation. A total of 116 participants were asked to estimate prospectively or retrospec...

Tobin, Simon; Bisson, Nicolas; Grondin, Simon

2010-01-01

107

Historical ecology provides new insights for ecosystem management: Eastern Baltic cod case study  

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A recent historical marine ecological case study (cod in the eastern Baltic Sea) is used to show how long-term data and knowledge of fluctuations can contribute to revisions of fishery management policy. The case study first developed new longer analytical time series of spawner biomass and recruitment back to the 1920s, which extended knowledge of population dynamics into a time period when ecosystem state was characterized by temporally varying combinations of exploitation, climate-hydrogra...

Mackenzie, Brian; Ojaveer, Henn; Eero, Margit

2010-01-01

108

Ecological Studies on Al-Khadoud Spring, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Al-Khadoud spring is one of the most important water resources in Al-Hassa Governorate, Saudi Arabia. However, much of its biotic information is still unknown. This study presented preliminary ecological information of this aquatic body. Regarding to macrophytes, a total of eight species were observed along the study sites. These species include two submerged aquatic plants (Potamogeton pectinatus L. and Ceratophyllum demersum L.). The common distributed species are Phragmite...

Al-kahtani, Mohammed A.; Youssef, Ashraf M.; Fathi, Adel A.

2007-01-01

109

A novel HSF4 gene mutation (p.R405X causing autosomal recessive congenital cataracts in a large consanguineous family from Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary cataracts are most frequently inherited as autosomal dominant traits, but can also be inherited in an autosomal recessive or X-linked fashion. To date, 12 loci for autosomal recessive cataracts have been mapped including a locus on chromosome 16q22 containing the disease-causing gene HSF4 (Genbank accession number NM_001040667. Here, we describe a family from Pakistan with the first nonsense mutation in HSF4 thus expanding the mutational spectrum of this heat shock transcription factor gene. Methods A large consanguineous Pakistani family with autosomal recessive cataracts was collected from Quetta. Genetic linkage analysis was performed for the common known autosomal recessive cataracts loci and linkage to a locus containing HSF4 (OMIM 602438 was found. All exons and adjacent splice sites of the heat shock transcription factor 4 gene (HSF4 were sequenced. A mutation-specific restriction enzyme digest (HphI was performed for all family members and unrelated controls. Results The disease phenotype perfectly co-segregated with markers flanking the known cataract gene HSF4, whereas other autosomal recessive loci were excluded. A maximum two-point LOD score with a Zmax = 5.6 at ? = 0 was obtained for D16S421. Direct sequencing of HSF4 revealed the nucleotide exchange c.1213C > T in this family predicting an arginine to stop codon exchange (p.R405X. Conclusion We identified the first nonsense mutation (p.R405X in exon 11 of HSF4 in a large consanguineous Pakistani family with autosomal recessive cataract.

Cheema Abdul

2008-11-01

110

A pilot study of Aboriginal health promotion from an ecological perspective  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background For health promotion to be effective in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities, interventions (and their evaluation need to work within a complex social environment and respect Indigenous knowledge, culture and social systems. At present, there is a lack of culturally appropriate evaluation methods available to practitioners that are capable of capturing this complexity. As an initial response to this problem, we used two non-invasive methods to evaluate a community-directed health promotion program, which aimed to improve nutrition and physical activity for members of the Aboriginal community of the Goulburn-Murray region of northern Victoria, Australia. The study addressed two main questions. First, for members of an Aboriginal sporting club, what changes were made to the nutrition environment in which they meet and how is this related to national guidelines for minimising the risk of chronic disease? Second, to what degree was the overall health promotion program aligned with an ecological model of health promotion that addresses physical, social and policy environments as well as individual knowledge and behaviour? Methods Rather than monitoring individual outcomes, evaluation methods reported on here assessed change in the nutrition environment (sports club food supply as a facilitator of dietary change and the 'ecological' nature of the overall program (that is, its complexity with respect to numbers of targets, settings and strategies. Results There were favourable changes towards the provision of a food supply consistent with Australian guidelines at the sports club. The ecological analysis indicated that the design and implementation of the program were consistent with an ecological model of health promotion. Conclusions The evaluation was useful for assessing the impact of the program on the nutrition environment and for understanding the ecological nature of program activities.

van den Tol Gemma

2011-09-01

111

Ecological studies in the middle reach of Chesapeake Bay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Passage of estuarine water and phytoplankton through the cooling system of the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plant in the summer months of 1977-1981 resulted in frequent reductions of phytoplankton densities particularly during periods when flagellated taxa dominated total cell numbers. Entrainment-induced reductions in chlorophyll were observed on only four occasions, however. Phytoplankton productivity as oxygen evolution or 14C-uptake was even more susceptible to the effects of passing through the cooling system. Inhibition of productivitiy was observed during periods dominated by flagellated cells and generally occurred with ambient water temperature ? 250C. Results from track autoradiography employed in 1981 indicated that carbon fixation in the commonly observed flagellate Cryptomonas acuta was significantly depressed during July, August and September. In contrast, the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum and the diatoms Cyclotella caspia and Thalassionema nitzschioides were not affected by entrainment. Although entrainment affects Cryptomonas and flagellate-dominated assemblages in the summer there are no detectable effects of power plant operations on cell densities or productivity in flagellate-dominated waters in the vicinity of the power plant. Transitory exposure of estuarine zooplankton to the elevated temperatures of CCNPP entrainment and discharge plumes was generally non-lethal. In the species selected for study the survival rate after entrainment was 65 to 100%. The effects of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen levels upon entrained organisms were also analyzed. (orig.)

1987-01-01

112

ECOLOGICAL EDUCATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While in most emerging and developing countries, the population has a lower ecological footprint in the developed countries have a larger footprint.There is also an alarming contrast between a person perception of her liability for damages to its environment and its actual size. These misconceptions may have their source in the absence of awareness of risks from climate change, culture or religion.The purpose of this study is to analyze the situation at the international and Romanian level and to draw attention on the necessity of un ecological education.

GABRIELA GYONGY MIHUT

2011-04-01

113

Recent biogeographic and ecological studies on otter (Lutra lutra) and European mink (Mustela lutreola) in France  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Otter and European mink are two threatened species in France. The mink is even considered to be on the verge of extinction. Studies have been carried out for more than ten years to attempt to understand the changes in their distribution and the ecological needs of these two semi-aquatic mustelids. The results of the research programmes completed or still under way, are presented. The French Ministry of Environment has set up two specific restoration plans, with the contribution of Conversatio...

Bellefroid, Marie Des Neiges; Libois, Roland; Rosoux, Rene?

2001-01-01

114

Ecological studies on the freshwater fishes of the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tropical climate of the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory has a distinctive Wet-Dry cycle resulting in seasonal flows in the creeks and rivers of its catchments. The present study, begun during August 1978, aimed at developing an ecological monitoring system that would detect changes in freshwater fish communities brought about by recent uranium mining and processing in the lowlands of the region

1986-01-01

115

Studies on the sandfly fauna of Samuel Ecological Station, Porto Velho Municipality, Rondônia State, Brazil  

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In a study of sandfly species in the Samuel Ecological Station, in Porto Velho, Rondônia State, the following species were identified: Lutzomyia brasiliensis, L. evangelistai, L. gomezi, L. anduzei, L. flaviscutellata, L. richardwardi, L. shawi, L. umbratilis, L. yuilli yuilli, L. dendrophyla, L. puctigeniculata, L. shannoni, L. amazonensis, L. ayrozai, L. carrerai carrerai, L. claustrei, L. davisi and L. lainsoni. L. richardwardi, L. umbratilis and L. c. carrerai were the predominant specie...

Azevedo, Alfredo C. R.; Bessa Luz, Se?rgio L.; Vilela, Mauri?cio L.; Rangel, Elizabeth F.

1993-01-01

116

Molecular Studies on the Ecology of Listeria monocytogenes in the Smoked Fish Processing Industry  

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We have applied molecular approaches, including PCR-based detection strategies and DNA fingerprinting methods, to study the ecology of Listeria monocytogenes in food processing environments. A total of 531 samples, including raw fish, fish during the cold-smoking process, finished product, and environmental samples, were collected from three smoked fish processing facilities during five visits to each facility. A total of 95 (17.9%) of the samples tested positive for L. monocytogenes using a ...

Norton, Dawn M.; Mccamey, Meghan A.; Gall, Kenneth L.; Scarlett, Janet M.; Boor, Kathryn J.; Wiedmann, Martin

2001-01-01

117

The integration of GPS, vegetation mapping and GIS in ecological and behavioural studies  

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Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite navigation receivers are increasingly being used in ecological and behavioural studies to track the movements of animals in relation to the environments in which they live and forage. Concurrent recording of the animal's foraging behaviour (e.g. from jaw movement recording) allows foraging locations to be determined. By combining the animal GPS movement and foraging data with habitat and vegetation maps using a Geographical Information System (GIS) it...

Steven Mark Rutter

2007-01-01

118

Field studies to determine the ecological effects of cleanup methods on oiled shorelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study identifies research needed to assess the ecological effects and efficiency of various spill cleanup methods for oiled salt marshes. This is part of a larger program with the goal of developing ecologically based cleanup methods for a variety of shoreline habitats using controlled shoreline oiling plus various cleanup methods, preceded and followed by ecological monitoring. The information provided by these experiments will strengthen the scientific base available to support decision makers during spills and provide a sound approach to spill response planners. The first phase of the program has involved the design of a proposed experiment and selection of a site. A literature review has been completed as well as an evaluation of state and federal permitting procedures for experimental shoreline oiling. Development of the field study, which has yet to be implemented, included the following components: Identified a Spartina marsh as the priority habitat for the first phase of the program; Selected a proposed experimental site in Louisiana; Proposed the treatment methods to be evaluated, such as flushing and vegetation cropping. Previous controlled oil spill experiments have provided valuable data on the effects and efficiency of different cleanup techniques in a variety of habitats. More can be learned by such experimental oilings, where pre-spill data, dosage, and pre- and post-spill monitoring are controlled, than it is possible to learn from studying spills of opportunity

1993-04-01

119

A theoretical quantitative genetic study of negative ecological interactions and extinction times in changing environments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid human-induced changes in the environment at local, regional and global scales appear to be contributing to population declines and extinctions, resulting in an unprecedented biodiversity crisis. Although in the short term populations can respond ecologically to environmental alterations, in the face of persistent change populations must evolve or become extinct. Existing models of evolution and extinction in changing environments focus only on single species, even though the dynamics of extinction almost certainly depend upon the nature of species interactions. Results Here, I use a model of quantitative trait evolution in a two-species community to show that negative ecological interactions, such as predation and competition, can produce unexpected results regarding time to extinction. Under some circumstances, negative interactions can be expected to hasten the extinction of species declining in numbers. However, under other circumstances, negative interactions can actually increase times to extinction. This effect occurs across a wide range of parameter values and can be substantial, in some cases allowing a population to persist for 40 percent longer than it would in the absence of the species interaction. Conclusion This theoretical study indicates that negative species interactions can have unexpected positive effects on times to extinction. Consequently, detailed studies of selection and demographics will be necessary to predict the consequences of species interactions in changing environments for any particular ecological community.

Jones Adam G

2008-04-01

120

Wildfire History and Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

Part of a great site on the land use history of the Colorado Plateau from Northern Arizona University, this site offers a brief overview of wildfire history and ecology on the Plateau with links to information about ponderosa pine fire ecology, reintroduction of fire to forest ecosystems, and fire ecology research studies.

2008-09-17

 
 
 
 
121

Developmental and heat stress-regulated expression of HsfA2 and small heat shock proteins in tomato anthers  

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The high sensitivity of male reproductive cells to high temperatures may be due to an inadequate heat stress response. The results of a comprehensive expression analysis of HsfA2 and Hsp17-CII, two important members of the heat stress system, in the developing anthers of a heat-tolerant tomato genotype are reported here. A transcriptional analysis at different developmental anther/pollen stages was performed using semi-quantitative and real-time PCR. The messengers were localized using in sit...

2010-01-01

122

Opportunities for telemetry techniques in studies on the nutritional ecology of free-ranging domesticated ruminants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The principles of domestic herbivore nutrition are well understood and have been developed through detailed physiological studies, although methods to accurately measure field-based intake still challenge herbivore nutrition research. Nutritional ecology considers an animal's interaction with the environment based on its nutritional demands. Although there are a number of theoretical frameworks that can be used to explore nutritional ecology, optimal foraging provides a suitable starting point. Optimal foraging models have progressed from deterministic techniques to spatially explicit agent-based simulation methods. The development of optimal foraging modelling points towards opportunities for field-based research to explore behavioural preferences within studies that have an array of nutritional choices that vary both spatially and temporally. A number of techniques including weighing animals, weighing herbage, using markers (both natural and artificial) and sampling forage, using oesophageal-fistulated animals, have been used to determine intake in the field. These intake measurement techniques are generally most suited to studies that occur over a few days and with relatively small (often less than 10) groups of animals. Over the last 10 years, there have been a number of advances in automated behavioural monitoring technology (e.g. global positioning systems) to track animal movement. A number of recent studies have integrated detailed spatial assessments of vegetation using on-ground sampling and satellite remote sensing; these data have been linked to behavioural preferences of herbivores. Although the recent studies still do not address nutritional interactions over months or years, they do point to methods that could be used to address landscape scale nutritional interactions. Emerging telemetry techniques used to monitor herbivore behavioural preferences and also to determine detailed landscape vegetation mapping provide the opportunity for future herbivore nutritional ecology studies. PMID:23031210

Swain, D L; Friend, M A

2013-03-01

123

Trajectories of legitimate peripheral participation: Ethnographic case studies of learning ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

Current reform documents in education call for elementary and high school students to engage in "authentic" scientific practices. In the past several years a number of authors have suggested that science education research and curriculum development could benefit from insights gained by research in the social studies of science that documents and theorizes science as it is actually done. Yet, although practices of laboratory science are well understood and provide a foundation from which educational practices could be drawn, little is known about the practices of the science disciplines which deal with field research and how people are enculturated into those practices. This dissertation is constituted by a series of research papers on different (although inter-related) topics, in which I examine the enculturation into the practices of field ecology and the world-view that is associated with that enculturation. To better understand the practices of field ecology and how they develop, I conducted several projects: (i) a video ethnography of a second-year university ecology class and observations on research experiences undergraduates experience; (ii) ethnographic research with ecologists conducting field research; (iii) observations of graduate student and professional ecologists as they participated in conferences, engaged in interaction in their laboratory and social settings, and presented/discussed their findings in various settings; (iv) interviews with graduate student and professional ecologists discussing their field research experiences; (v) videotaped interviews with practicing researchers and under/graduate science and non-science students as they interpreted various ecology-related inscriptions; (vi) an analysis of the inscriptions and textual information present in the various texts (textbooks and journals) used to teach students about ecology; and, (vii) observations of elementary school students engaged in practices congruent with those of field ecologists. Collectively, these studies suggest that the way in which undergraduate students are taught about disciplines such as ecology which involve field research---generally lectures and structured laboratory research investigations---does not well prepare them to enact the practices common to research in the discipline such as designing and conducting research projects, summarizing and interpreting data in graphs, and making scientific knowledge claims. In addition, the formal texts (textbooks, lectures, and journal articles) used to enculturate students into disciplinary concerns and practices develop in students a reductionist, anthropocentric view of nature as opposed to the holisitic view which ecology ostensibly represents. Story-telling within the community was revealed as an important mechanism by which field research methods, almost unmentioned in the formal texts of the discipline, are learned and the community of ecologists established and maintained. These findings have implications for how we prepare student teachers to teach science, for merely encouraging them to take undergraduate science courses will develop attitudes about nature and approaches to teaching which are perhaps undesirable. On the basis of the study reported, I conclude that both teacher education and science curricula would be best served by engaging participants (either student teachers or public school students) in long-term research projects whose conclusions they can present and defend to peers and instructors in their education program. This would need to be coupled with a critically reflective component which encouraged these participants to examine the assumptions and implicit judgements made in the conduct of their work. By engaging in such a process students will learn about scientific practices and concepts as well as about the socially-mediated nature of scientific communities and knowledge.

Bowen, Gervase Michael Reynolds

1999-09-01

124

Simulation of Regionally Ecological Land Based on a Cellular Automation Model: A Case Study of Beijing, China  

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Full Text Available Ecological land is like the “liver” of a city and is very useful to public health. Ecological land change is a spatially dynamic non-linear process under the interaction between natural and anthropogenic factors at different scales. In this study, by setting up natural development scenario, object orientation scenario and ecosystem priority scenario, a Cellular Automation (CA model has been established to simulate the evolution pattern of ecological land in Beijing in the year 2020. Under the natural development scenario, most of ecological land will be replaced by construction land and crop land. But under the scenarios of object orientation and ecosystem priority, the ecological land area will increase, especially under the scenario of ecosystem priority. When considering the factors such as total area of ecological land, loss of key ecological land and spatial patterns of land use, the scenarios from priority to inferiority are ecosystem priority, object orientation and natural development, so future land management policies in Beijing should be focused on conversion of cropland to forest, wetland protection and prohibition of exploitation of natural protection zones, water source areas and forest parks to maintain the safety of the regional ecosystem.

Xiubin Li

2012-08-01

125

Ecological Factors and Adolescent Marijuana Use: Results of a Prospective Study in Santiago, Chile  

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Full Text Available Purpose: Despite the growing evidence that ecological factors contribute to substance use, the relationship of ecological factors and illicit drugs such as marijuana use is not well understood, particularly among adolescents in Latin America. Guided by social disorganization and social stress theories, we prospectively examined the association of disaggregated neighborhood characteristics with marijuana use among adolescents in Santiago, Chile, and tested if these relationships varied by sex. Methods: Data for this study are from 725 community-dwelling adolescents participating in the Santiago Longitudinal Study, a study of substance using behaviors among urban adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Adolescents completed a two-hour interviewer administered questionnaire with questions about drug use and factors related to drug using behaviors. Results: As the neighborhood levels of drug availability at baseline increased, but not crime or noxious environment, adolescents had higher odds of occasions of marijuana use at follow up, approximately 2 years later (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.16–1.66, even after controlling for the study’s covariates. No interactions by sex were significant. Discussion: The findings suggest that “poverty”, “crime”, and “drug problems” may not be synonyms and thus can be understood discretely. As Latin American countries re-examine their drug policies, especially those concerning decriminalizing marijuana use, the findings suggest that attempts to reduce adolescent marijuana use in disadvantaged neighborhoods may do best if efforts are concentrated on specific features of the “substance abuse environment”.

Jorge Delva

2014-03-01

126

Ecological networks as a new approach for nature conservation in Turkey: A case study of Izmir Province  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper aims to identify and evaluate a potential ecological network including core areas and large-scale corridors in the ¿zmir Province and its surrounding areas, Turkey. It is one of the first studies on the connectivity for mammal species and the detection of potential ecological corridors for Turkey. Four wide-ranging species (Hyaena hyaena, Lynx lynx, Caracal caracal, and Felis chaus) have been chosen as target species. Existing Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) and surrounding lands ha...

Hepcan, C. C.; Bouwma, I. M.; Jongman, R. H. G.; Ozkan, M. B.

2009-01-01

127

Implementing fire history and fire ecology in fire risk assessment: the study case of Canton Ticino (southern Switzerland)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The understanding of the ecological role of wildfires and the knowledge of its past natural and cultural dynamics in different ecosystems have been recognize as a prerequisite for a sustainable land and ecosystem management. The main objective of this work is to propose a methodological approach for implementing the knowledge derived from studies of fire history, fire ecology, and fire suppression strategies in fire risk analyses in a low-to medium fire-prone region such as the Canton Ticino.

2009-01-01

128

STUDIES CONCERNING THE ECOLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF SOIL IN ORDER TO ENSURE A SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT  

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Full Text Available The present study aim to determine the effectiveness of the proposed ecological reconstruction method by using the perennial grasses (e.g. Festuca rubra, Poa Pratensis, Lolium perenne, and Medicago sativa and dolomite (DEL-CA-MAG as a soil amendment for a degraded soil (i.e. Valea Voievozilor area, Dambovita County, Romania, in order to improvements the quality indicators of analyzed soil. The physicochemical indicators of soil (e.g. pH, conductivity, salinity, TDS, redox potential, turbidity, humidity, carbonate, nitrate and nitrite concentration were determined.

CRISTIANA RADULESCU

2013-09-01

129

A Study of the Form of Organizations: Toward an Integrative Framework of Population Ecology and Institutionalism  

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Full Text Available Does the form of organizations tend to show diversity or homogeneity? This paper begins with two contrastingquestions: ‘Why are there many organizational forms?’ and ‘Why are organizations similar?’ Population ecologyand institutional theory represent different lenses through which theorists use for interpreting theseorganizational phenomena. Each paradigm offers compelling concepts and arguments for supporting their ownperspectives even though they seem to lead to contradictory results. This conceptual paper is an attempt to clarifythe fundamental divergence of ecological and institutional approaches and proposes an integrated perspective forfuture empirical studies.

Sheng-Hsien Lee

2012-05-01

130

Assessing ecological land use and water demand of river systems: a case study in Luanhe River, North China  

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Full Text Available Economic and social development has greatly increased ecological water demand and modified land use of river systems worldwide, causing overall degradation of many of these systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks for regionalization on the eco-environmental function of river systems are formulated and applied to the Luanhe River system. Based on its eco-environmental functions, this river can be regionalized into four types of first-class functional areas: ecological preservation areas, habitat restoration areas, ecological buffer areas and development and utilization areas. Considering the overall eco-environmental functions, we assessed the ecological land use of the Luanhe River system. The total area of basic ecological land use is 876.98 km2; the restrictive ecological land use is 1745.52 km2; ecological land use of the river system returned from farmland is 284.25 km2; and that returned from construction land is 17.35 km2. The average minimum ecological flow of mainstreams in upper and middle reaches of the Luanhe River is 4.896 m3 s?1 based on the habitat method. And the recommended minimum and suitable annual ecological water demand of channels in the lower reaches are 391 million m3 and 819.5 million m3, respectively. The evaporation and seepage consumption and vegetation consumption in riparian zones of the Luanhe River system are approximately 132.6 million m3 and 145.3 million m3 per year, respectively. Our results suggest that is crucial to regulate the instream ecological water use of the Luanhe River's mainstream starting from the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system. We recommend accelerating ecological land-use planning and strengthening the regulation of ecological water use on this river system focusing on important lower reaches under the condition of competitive water demand.

D. H. Yan

2012-08-01

131

USDOE study: Human health and ecological risk assessment for produced water discharges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain high concentrations of radionuclides, organics and heavy metals. There are concerns about potential human health and ecological impacts from the discharge of these contaminants to the Gulf of Mexico. Data collected in the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) field study are being used in a series of human health and ecological risk assessments. These assessments will support scientifically-based regulation and risk management. This presentation: summarizes risk assessments performed for produced water discharges; describes how uncertainties in these assessments are guiding data collection efforts in the USDOE field study; and outlines ongoing risk assessment studies. In these studies, risk assessment is treated as an iterative process. An initial screening-level assessment is performed to identify important contaminants, transport and exposure pathways, and parameters. These intermediate results are used to guide data collection efforts and refinements to the analysis. At this stage in the analysis, risk is described in terms of probabilities; the uncertainties in each measured or modeled parameter are considered explicitly.

Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.; DePhillips, M.; Hamilton, L.D.

1994-12-31

132

Terrestrial ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main effort of the Terrestrial Ecology Division has been redirected to a comprehensive study of the Espiritu Santo Drainage Basin located in northeastern Puerto Rico. The general objective are to provide baseline ecological data for future environmental assessment studies at the local and regional levels, and to provide through an ecosystem approach data for the development of management alternatives for the wise utilization of energy, water, and land resources. The interrelationships among climate, vegetation, soils, and man, and their combined influence upon the hydrologic cycle will be described and evaluated. Environmental management involves planning and decision making, and both require an adequate data base. At present, little is known about the interworkings of a complete, integrated system such as a drainage basin. A literature survey of the main research areas confirmed that, although many individual ecologically oriented studies have been carried out in a tropical environment, few if any provide the data base required for environmental management. In view of rapidly changing socio-economic conditions and natural resources limitations, management urgently requires data from these systems: physical (climatological), biological, and cultural. This integrated drainage basin study has been designed to provide such data. The scope of this program covers the hydrologic cycle as it is affected by the interactions of the physical, biological, and cultural systems

1977-10-01

133

Cavity types and microclimate: implications for ecological, evolutionary, and conservation studies  

Science.gov (United States)

The abiotic conditions of the immediate environment of organisms are key factors for a better understanding of ecological and evolutionary processes. Yet, information in this regard is biased towards some habitat types, landscapes, and organisms. Here, we present a 2-year comparative study of the microclimatic properties (temperature, relative humidity, and their fluctuation) of three cavity types (nest boxes, cavities in bridges, and burrows in sandy cliffs) in an arid environment. We found marked and consistent months-long differences in microclimate among the three cavity types. Nest boxes were colder than the other cavity types, with temperature oscillations being an order of magnitude higher than in other cavity types. In contrast, microclimate was very stable in burrows and cavities in bridges, the former being generally warmer and drier than the latter. We also discuss the biological implications of microclimatic conditions and its variation in different cavity types by presenting two case studies, namely the temperature-humidity index and water vapor pressure during the hatching period of an endotherm and the chilling period during the diapause of an ectotherm ectoparasite. We stress the need for comparative studies of the same organisms subjected to different microclimates given the important ecological, evolutionary, and conservation implications.

Amat-Valero, M.; Calero-Torralbo, M. A.; Václav, R.; Valera, F.

2014-02-01

134

How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran  

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Full Text Available Bazdid Vahdati F, Saeidi Mehrvarz Sh, Naqinezhad A, Gholizadeh H. 2014. How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran. Biodiversitas 15: 29-36. Species diversity is one of the most important indices for evaluating the stability and productivity of forest ecosystems. The aim of this research was to recognize ecological species groups and to determine the relationship between environmental variables and the distribution of ecological species groups. For this purpose, 25 400-m2 relevés were sampled using the Braun-Blanquet method. Vegetation was classified using modified Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN and resulted in three ecological species groups. Different species diversity indices were applied to quantify diversity of these species groups. ANOVA and Duncan’s tests indicated that all species and environmental variables except altitude changed significantly across the species groups. The results also showed that the group located in the northern aspect and on low slopes had the highest diversity indices compared with groups located in dry aspects and on high slopes. In reality, abundant precipitation (northern aspect ( and soil enrichment (low slopes are principal factors that provide suitable conditions for plant growth and species diversity. Thus, the study of diversity changes in ecological species groups can result in an ecologically precise perspective for managing forest ecosystems.

FATEMEH BAZDID VAHDATI

2014-04-01

135

Northern Rivers Basins ecological and human health studies : summary, relevance and recommendations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Residents in northern Alberta expressed concerns that the original Northern River Basins Study (NRBS) only examined the impacts of contaminants on ecological health and did not include impacts on human health. In response to these concerns, Alberta Health established the Northern River Basins Human Health Monitoring Program in 1994 to investigate the possible relationships between various environmental risk factors and the health of northern residents in the province. This document links the ecological information collected by the original NRBS program with the information provided by the health program. Issues regarding health impacts from pulp mills and oil sand mining were also discussed. The findings of the health program were summarized and recommendations were made for future studies. The contaminants of potential concern (COPC) arising from the original NRBS were described in terms of their sources and any known connections between exposure and human health. The COPCs included arsenic, dioxins, chlorinated furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) mercury, chlorinated phenolics, toxaphene, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, sulphur dioxide, acid sulphates and particulate matter. Examples of Canadian regulatory criteria for these contaminants were also presented. 41 refs., 1 tab

1999-01-01

136

A radiological case study of quantitative, probabilistic ecological risk assessment, using recently developed assessment tools  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case study of tritium release into a marine ecosystem demonstrates the feasibility of combining recent dose-estimation software (radiological impact assessment for coastal aquatic ecosystems, Version 1.15) with dose-response data selected from the FASSET Radiation Effects Database (FRED) to provide a basis for quantitative and probabilistic ecological risk assessment. The ecological risk assessment software, AQUARISK, fits probability distributions to both 'exposure' and 'response' data (matched as either dose or dose-rate) and uses a convolution algorithm to evaluate the overlap between the two distributions. Probabilistic estimates of exposure criteria are derived from the distribution fitted to the selected response data. Using only 'lowest observed effect' and 'highest no effect' dose-rates, a quite low criterion for the protection of 95% of species (15 ?Gy hr-1, with a 95% lower uncertainty limit of 3 ?Gy hr-1) is estimated. This compares with the proposed Canadian criteria for aquatic biota, with the 1/10th safety factor applied (i.e. 5 to 10 ?Gy hr-1). A conservative scenario, assuming constant exposure to undiluted effluent, estimated a very low likelihood of environmental damage in this case study. (author)

2003-09-01

137

A gain-of-function mutant p53-HSF1 feed forward circuit governs adaptation of cancer cells to proteotoxic stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

To overcome proteotoxic stress inherent to malignant transformation, cancer cells induce a range of adaptive mechanisms, with the master transcription factor heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1)-orchestrated response taking center stage. Here we define a novel gain-of-function of mutant p53 (mutp53), whereby mutp53-overexpressing cancer cells acquire superior tolerance to proteotoxic stress. mutp53 via constitutive stimulation of EGFR and ErbB2 signaling hyperactivates the MAPK and PI3K cascades, which induce stabilization and phosphoactivation of HSF1 on Ser326. Moreover, mutp53 protein via direct interaction with activated p-Ser326 HSF1 facilitates HSF1 recruitment to its specific DNA-binding elements and stimulates transcription of heat-shock proteins including Hsp90. In turn, induced Hsp90 stabilizes its oncogenic clients including EGFR, ErbB2 and mutp53, thereby further reinforcing oncogenic signaling. Thus, mutp53 initiates a feed forward loop that renders cancer cells more resistant to adverse conditions, providing a strong survival advantage. PMID:24763051

Li, D; Yallowitz, A; Ozog, L; Marchenko, N

2014-01-01

138

A gain-of-function mutant p53-HSF1 feed forward circuit governs adaptation of cancer cells to proteotoxic stress  

Science.gov (United States)

To overcome proteotoxic stress inherent to malignant transformation, cancer cells induce a range of adaptive mechanisms, with the master transcription factor heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1)-orchestrated response taking center stage. Here we define a novel gain-of-function of mutant p53 (mutp53), whereby mutp53-overexpressing cancer cells acquire superior tolerance to proteotoxic stress. mutp53 via constitutive stimulation of EGFR and ErbB2 signaling hyperactivates the MAPK and PI3K cascades, which induce stabilization and phosphoactivation of HSF1 on Ser326. Moreover, mutp53 protein via direct interaction with activated p-Ser326 HSF1 facilitates HSF1 recruitment to its specific DNA-binding elements and stimulates transcription of heat-shock proteins including Hsp90. In turn, induced Hsp90 stabilizes its oncogenic clients including EGFR, ErbB2 and mutp53, thereby further reinforcing oncogenic signaling. Thus, mutp53 initiates a feed forward loop that renders cancer cells more resistant to adverse conditions, providing a strong survival advantage.

Li, D; Yallowitz, A; Ozog, L; Marchenko, N

2014-01-01

139

Importance of thermal ecological studies in environment management around nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In thermal power plants, only about 30% of the heat energy generated is converted to electricity. Remaining heat is released to the environment either to atmosphere or to the nearest water body. During the operation of plants, it is essential to ensure that the release of heated effluent does not lead to any harmful consequences to eco system. Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) has stipulated stringent regulation with respect to temperature of the heated effluent that can be released to the environment. All power plants under DAE are strictly following this stipulation. As a pro-active step, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) carried out a comprehensive environmental impact assessment studies at Kalpakkam (coastal) site and at Kaiga (inland) site. The studies at Kalpakkam were coordinated by Water and Steam Chemistry Laboratory, Kalpakkam and the studies at Kaiga site was coordinated by Environmental Survey Laboratory, Kaiga. In addition to temperature mapping at the mixing zone, a detailed analysis of influence of heated effluent on water quality, primary productivity, benthic eco system, bio geochemical cycle, fish composition and diversity were carried out by different specialist groups under a coordinated BRNS project. The comprehensive thermal ecological studies clearly indicated that release of heated effluents does not lead to any significant impact on the overall ecosystem of the respective water body at Kalpakkam and Kaiga sites. Data generated in these studies are very useful in the designing suitable out fall system so that ecology of the aquatic body is not disturbed. This paper presents the highlights of the importance of such studies and salient features of the studies. (author)

2012-03-01

140

Exploring the implications of critical complexity for the study of social-ecological systems.  

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Full Text Available The complexity of social-ecological systems is well recognized (Berkes et al. 2003, Norberg and Cumming 2008. However, in the study of such systems, it is often the uncertainty that results from nonlinear interactions that forms the focus of discussion. Here, the normative implications of complexity for our knowledge of such systems are emphasised, by drawing largely on the work of Cilliers (1998, 2005a, who introduced the term "critical complexity." This perspective on complexity is distinct in bringing the value-based choices that frame our knowledge generation strategies to the fore. It is from this view that we investigate the implications of complexity for social-ecological systems research. Based on these implications, we propose a set of five key questions to guide the incorporation of insights from critical complexity into such research. We end with a brief application of the questions proposed to the National Freshwater Ecosystem Priority Areas (NFEPA project in South Africa, to illustrate their potential use in the context of resource management.

Michelle Audouin

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

The (limited) political influence of ecological economics. A case study on Dutch environmental policies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the ecological economics (EE) discourse attempts to influence environmental policy, empirical studies have concluded that its success in this endeavour has been limited thus far. In the Netherlands, however, two EE-related policy concepts, Environmental Utilisation Space and Ecological Footprint, were strongly present in environmental policy during certain periods in time, but subsequently disappeared from the environmental agenda. The central question of this article is how these ups and downs of the EE concepts can be understood: which factors determine their rise on and fall from the policy agenda over time? To answer this question, this article offers a conceptual model informed by the approaches in political science on framing, agenda-setting and knowledge utilisation. We conclude that the interplay of concept-specific characteristics, the formation of coalitions around the concept and contextual variables explain the rise and fall of the aforementioned concepts. A match between the dominant policy frame and the core elements of the concept provides the opportunity for the two concepts to be pushed on the agenda. We observe the alternation of 'constraining' frames, which allows for EE concepts to survive, and 'reconciling' frames, which block agenda entrance for EE concepts. Furthermore, the alternation of these frames seems to correlate with economic and public environmental attention cycles in the Netherlands. (author)

2010-07-15

142

Migration intensity has no effect on peak HIV prevalence: an ecological study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Correctly identifying the determinants of generalized HIV epidemics is crucial to bringing down ongoing high HIV incidence in these countries. High rates of migration are believed to be an important determinant of HIV prevalence. This study has two aims. Firstly, it evaluates the ecological association between levels of internal and international migration and national peak HIV prevalence using thirteen variables from a variety of sources to capture various aspects of internal and international migration intensity. Secondly, it examines the relationship between circular migration and HIV at an individual and population-level in South Africa. Methods Linear regression was used to analyze the association between the various measures of migration intensity and peak national HIV prevalence for 141 countries and HIV prevalence by province and ethnic group in South Africa. Results No evidence of a positive ecological association between national migration intensity and HIV prevalence was found. This remained the case when the analyses were limited to the countries of sub-Saharan Africa. On the whole, countries with generalized HIV epidemics had lower rates of internal and external migration. Likewise, no association was found between migration and HIV positivity at an individual or group-level in South Africa. Conclusion These results do not support the thesis that migration measured at the country level plays a significant role in determining peak HIV prevalence.

2014-01-01

143

Cooking "shrimp à la créole": a pilot study of an ecological rehabilitation in semantic dementia.  

Science.gov (United States)

New learning in semantic dementia (SD) seems to be tied to a specific temporal and spatial context. Thus, cognitive rehabilitation could capitalise upon preserved episodic memory and focus on everyday activities which, once learned, will have an impact in everyday life. This pilot study thus explores the effectiveness of an ecological approach in one patient suffering from SD. EC, a 68-year-old woman with SD, stopped cooking complex meals due to a substantial loss of knowledge related to all food types. The therapy consisted of preparing a target recipe. She was asked to generate semantic attributes of ingredients found in one target, one control and two no-therapy recipes. The number of recipes cooked by EC between therapy sessions was computed. She was also asked to prepare a generalisation recipe combining ingredients from the target and control recipes. EC's generated semantic attributes (GSA) of ingredients pertaining to the target and control recipes increased significantly (p recipes (ps > .79). The proportion of meals cooked also increased significantly (p = .021). For the generalisation recipe, she could not succeed without assistance. Frequent food preparation may have provided EC with new memories about the context, usage and appearance of some concepts. These memories seem very context-bound, but EC nonetheless re-introduced some recipes into her day-to-day life. The impact of these results on the relationship between semantic, episodic and procedural memory is discussed, as well as the relevance of an ecological approach in SD. PMID:21714761

Bier, Nathalie; Macoir, Joël; Joubert, Sven; Bottari, Carolina; Chayer, Céline; Pigot, Hélène; Giroux, Sylvain

2011-08-01

144

Mesocosm soil ecological risk assessment tool for GMO 2nd tier studies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) of GMO is basically identical to ERA of chemical substances, when it comes to assessing specific effects of the GMO plant material on the soil ecosystem. The tiered approach always includes the option of studying more complex but still realistic ecosystem level effects in 2nd tier caged experimental systems, cf. the new GMO ERA guidance: EFSA Journal 2010; 8(11):1879. We propose to perform a trophic structure analysis, TSA, and include the trophic structure as an ecological endpoint to gain more direct insight into the change in interactions between species, i.e. the food-web structure, instead of relying only on the indirect evidence from population abundances. The approach was applied for effect assessment in the agro-ecosystem where we combined factors of elevated CO2, viz. global climate change, and GMO plant effects. A multi-species (Collembola, Acari and Enchytraeidae) mesocosm factorial experiment was set up in a greenhouse at ambient CO2 and 450 ppm CO2 with a GM barley variety and conventional varieties. The GM barley differed concerning the composition of amino acids in the grain (antisense C-hordein line). The fungicide carbendazim acted as a positive control. After 5 and 11 weeks, data on populations, plants and soil organic matter decomposition were evaluated. Natural abundances of stable isotopes, 13C and 15N, of animals, soil, plants and added organic matter (crushed maize leaves) were used to describe the soil food web structure.

D'Annibale, Alessandra; Maraldo, Kristine

145

Applications of the rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting technique to study microbial diversity, ecology and evolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

A large number of repetitive DNA sequences are found in multiple sites in the genomes of numerous bacteria, archaea and eukarya. While the functions of many of these repetitive sequence elements are unknown, they have proven to be useful as the basis of several powerful tools for use in molecular diagnostics, medical microbiology, epidemiological analyses and environmental microbiology. The repetitive sequence-based PCR or rep-PCR DNA fingerprint technique uses primers targeting several of these repetitive elements and PCR to generate unique DNA profiles or 'fingerprints' of individual microbial strains. Although this technique has been extensively used to examine diversity among variety of prokaryotic microorganisms, rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting can also be applied to microbial ecology and microbial evolution studies since it has the power to distinguish microbes at the strain or isolate level. Recent advancement in rep-PCR methodology has resulted in increased accuracy, reproducibility and throughput. In this minireview, we summarize recent improvements in rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting methodology, and discuss its applications to address fundamentally important questions in microbial ecology and evolution. PMID:19207574

Ishii, Satoshi; Sadowsky, Michael J

2009-04-01

146

The integration of GPS, vegetation mapping and GIS in ecological and behavioural studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global Positioning System (GPS satellite navigation receivers are increasingly being used in ecological and behavioural studies to track the movements of animals in relation to the environments in which they live and forage. Concurrent recording of the animal's foraging behaviour (e.g. from jaw movement recording allows foraging locations to be determined. By combining the animal GPS movement and foraging data with habitat and vegetation maps using a Geographical Information System (GIS it is possible to relate animal movement and foraging location to landscape and habitat features and vegetation types. This powerful approach is opening up new opportunities to study the spatial aspects of animal behaviour, especially foraging behaviour, with far greater precision and objectivity than before. Advances in GPS technology now mean that sub-metre precision systems can be used to track animals, extending the range of application of this technology from landscape and habitat scale to paddock and patch scale studies. As well as allowing ecological hypotheses to be empirically tested at the patch scale, the improvements in precision are also leading to the approach being increasing extended from large scale ecological studies to smaller (paddock scale agricultural studies. The use of sub-metre systems brings both new scientific opportunities and new technological challenges. For example, fitting all of the animals in a group with sub-metre precision GPS receivers allows their relative inter-individual distances to be precisely calculated, and their relative orientations can be derived from data from a digital compass fitted to each receiver. These data, analyzed using GIS, could give new insights into the social behaviour of animals. However, the improvements in precision with which the animals are being tracked also needs equivalent improvements in the precision with which habitat and vegetation are mapped. This needs some degree of automation, as vegetation mapping at a fine spatial scale using the traditional manual approach is far too time consuming. This paper explores these issues, discussing new applications as well as approaches to overcoming some of the associated problems.

Steven Mark Rutter

2007-07-01

147

Effects of ionizing radiations on reticulated polymers associated to nuclear wastes. The HSF-SIMS technique contribution; Effets des radiations ionisantes sur les polymeres reticules associes aux dechets nucleaires. Apport de la technique HSF-SIMS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Among the materials used for confinement of nuclear wastes of low and medium level activity the epoxyde resins are known as matrices which preserve well their properties in an ionizing environment. This work is dedicated to the investigation of the modifications occurring in molecular structure of these materials as well as of the ion exchange resins they incorporate, irradiated in different conditions. The first part deals with the analysis of a commercial reticulated epoxyde resin submitted to a 2 MGy integral dose gamma irradiation under two different dose rate (51 and 900 Gy/h), and under two different environments (air and water). The results obtained with the techniques providing structure information (time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HSF-SIMS) and FT-IR spectrometry) confirm those obtained by techniques sensible to macroscopic properties of material (DMA, DSC), taking into account that no noticeable irradiation effect can be made evident inside the material. On the other hand, an irradiation carried out in air results in a superficial oxidation, due probably to the action of the air radiolysis products. The preliminary results of an ion irradiation followed by an in-situ HSF-SIMS analysis pointed out to a basic difference between the energy amount transferred by gamma photons and fast ions; the last ones being able to induce scissions of the nearby liaisons in the material. The second part of this work is concerned with the ion exchange resins of the type PS-DVB saturated in water and non-active ions, simulating real wastes, irradiated in the same conditions as the epoxyde resins. In contrast to the results on the last one, it appears that the irradiation of these materials results primarily in scissions of the functional groups on which the ions are attached. In addition to this finding it appears that the role of water as carrying outward the attached ions appears to be fundamental 175 refs.

Debre, O. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire

1997-06-30

148

Extraction of high-quality host DNA from feces and regurgitated seeds: a useful tool for vertebrate ecological studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available DNA extraction methods for genotyping non-invasive samples have led to great advances in molecular research for ecological studies, and have been particularly useful for analyzing threatened species. However, scarce amounts of fragmented DNA and the presence of Taq polymerase inhibitors in non-invasive samples are potential problems for subsequent PCR amplifications. In this study we describe a novel technique for extracting DNA from alimentary tract cells found on external surfaces of feces and regurgitated seeds. The presence of contaminants and inhibitors is minimized and samples are preserved intact for use in other ecological research (e.g. trophic studies. The amplification efficiency and purity of the extracted DNA from feces were significantly higher than in commonly used extraction procedures. Moreover, DNA of two bird species was identified from seeds expelled by regurgitation. Therefore, this method may be suitable for future ecological studies of birds, and other vertebrate groups.

PATRICIA MARRERO

2009-01-01

149

A Study of the Social Ecological Wisdom in H.W. Longfellow?s Poetry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Under eco-criticism springing up as a literary, cultural and social criticism, which aims at exploring the relationships between literature, culture, society and natural environment to find out the ecological wisdom in literary works so as to awaken the ecological consciousness of the contemporaries, the present article mainly focuses on the great American poet and intellectual thinker, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s poems on slavery to explore his social ecological wisdom. By reading Lon...

Jingcheng Xu; Meifang Nan Gong

2012-01-01

150

Ecological character displacement in Plethodon: Biomechanical differences found from a geometric morphometric study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ecological character displacement describes a pattern where morphological differences between sympatric species are enhanced through interspecific competition. Although widely considered a pervasive force in evolutionary ecology, few clear-cut examples have been documented. Here we report a case of ecological character displacement between two salamander species, Plethodon cinereus and Plethodon hoffmani. Morphology was quantified by using linear measurements and landmark-based geometric morp...

Adams, Dean C.; Rohlf, F. James

2000-01-01

151

Giving Back: Collaborations with Others in Ecological Studies on the Nevada National Security Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Formerly named the Nevada Test Site, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) was the historical site for nuclear weapons testing from the 1950s to the early 1990s. The site was renamed in 2010 to reflect the diversity of nuclear, energy, and homeland security activities now conducted at the site. Biological and ecological programs and research have been conducted on the site for decades to address the impacts of radiation and to take advantage of the relatively undisturbed and isolated lands for gathering basic information on the occurrence and distribution of native plants and animals. Currently, the Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) oversees the radiological biota monitoring and ecological compliance programs on the NNSS. The top priority of these programs are compliance with federal and state regulations. They focus on performing radiological dose assessments for the public who reside near the NNSS and for populations of plants and animals on the NNSS and in protecting important species and habitat from direct impacts of mission activities. The NNSS serves as an invaluable outdoor laboratory. The geographic and ecological diversity of the site offers researchers many opportunities to study human influences on ecosystems. NNSA/NSO has pursued collaborations with outside agencies and organizations to be able to conduct programs and studies that enhance radiological biota monitoring and ecosystem preservation when budgets are restrictive, as well as to provide valuable scientific information to the human health and natural resource communities at large. NNSA/NSO is using one current collaborative study to better assess the potential dose to the off-site public from the ingestion of game animals, the most realistic pathway for off-site public exposure at this time from radionuclide contamination on the NNSS. A second collaborative study is furthering desert tortoise conservation measures onsite. It is the goal of NNSA/NSO to continue to develop such collaborations in the sharing of resources, such as personnel, equipment, expertise, and NNSS land access, with outside entities to meet mutually beneficial goals cost effectively.

Scott A. Wade (NFO); Kathryn S. Knapp (NFO); Cathy A. Wills (NSTec)

2013-02-24

152

Giving Back: Collaborations with Others in Ecological Studies on the Nevada National Security Site - 13058  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Formerly named the Nevada Test Site, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) was the historical site for nuclear weapons testing from the 1950's to the early 1990's. The site was renamed in 2010 to reflect the diversity of nuclear, energy, and homeland security activities now conducted at the site. Biological and ecological programs and research have been conducted on the site for decades to address the impacts of radiation and to take advantage of the relatively undisturbed and isolated lands for gathering basic information on the occurrence and distribution of native plants and animals. Currently, the Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) oversees the radiological biota monitoring and ecological compliance programs on the NNSS. The top priority of these programs are compliance with federal and state regulations. They focus on performing radiological dose assessments for the public who reside near the NNSS and for populations of plants and animals on the NNSS and in protecting important species and habitat from direct impacts of mission activities. The NNSS serves as an invaluable outdoor laboratory. The geographic and ecological diversity of the site offers researchers many opportunities to study human influences on ecosystems. NNSA/NSO has pursued collaborations with outside agencies and organizations to be able to conduct programs and studies that enhance radiological biota monitoring and ecosystem preservation when budgets are restrictive, as well as to provide valuable scientific information to the human health and natural resource communities at large. NNSA/NSO is using one current collaborative study to better assess the potential dose to the off-site public from the ingestion of game animals, the most realistic pathway for off-site public exposure at this time from radionuclide contamination on the NNSS. A second collaborative study is furthering desert tortoise conservation measures onsite. It is the goal of NNSA/NSO to continue to develop such collaborations in the sharing of resources, such as personnel, equipment, expertise, and NNSS land access, with outside entities to meet mutually beneficial goals cost effectively. (authors)

2013-02-24

153

Biodiversity and productivity of Rana Patap Sagar lake a thermo-ecological study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rana Pratap Sagar (RPS) in Rajasthan, is a man made fresh water reservoir and is balancing between Gandhi Sagar on upstream and Jawahar sagar on its down stream. On its eastern bank there exists Rawatbhata Site, comprising of multi -nuclear facilities. There are four PHWR units of Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) which are in operations, two are under construction and another two are under advanced stage of planning. In addition to nuclear power plants the Site also houses a Heavy Water Plant and other allied facilities such as cobalt facility and waste management facilities. RAPS draws water from RPS lake through a 300 m long conduit pipe located at lake bottom about 20 m below the surface. Duly treated low level radioactive liquid effluents from RAPS facilities are injected to the warmed condenser outlet and then allowed to discharge to RPS in a controlled manner. The warm water is likely to remain at the surface and get mixed with lake water and cooled due to dilutions, evaporation from lake surface and wind currents. The heat release to the RPS lake through condenser outlet may effect the microbiological and water quality parameters, planktonic biodiversity, fish productivity etc. and thus it is imperative to conduct the thermal ecological study to assess the extent of maturation of the water body to identify its present trophic status in terms of eutrophication. This presentation gives the details of thermal ecological studies carried out at Rana Pratap Sagar lake during 2002-2004 under DAE-BRNS project.. The study includes monitoring of several water quality parameters, biological and bacterial parameters and data on thermal stratification in respect of RPS reservoir. The data so obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. The probabilistic and possibilistic approaches have been applied to evaluate ecological risk. The study reveals that there is no adverse effect on RPS water quality owing to receive the warmed effluents from RAPS. Furthermore, it shows that RPS water is nearly homogeneous and shows weak thermocline and chemocline patterns. Based on monitoring data, the reservoir can be assigned mild eutrophic status. (author)

2007-02-19

154

An Integrated Study of Ecological and Hydrological Processes in the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation provides an overview of a major new research initiative supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China for an integrative study of ecological principles, hydrological processes and socioeconomic considerations in the Heihe River Basin (HRB) in northwest China. The HRB is an inland watershed located at the center of the arid zone in East Asia, stretching from the Qilianshan Mountains in the south to the Gobi desert in the north bordering China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and Mongolia (Figure 1). The total area of the Heihe River Basin is approximately 130,000 km2, covering a wide range of climatic, geographical, ecological and hydrogeological conditions, from the high-altitude alpine ecosystem with glaciers and permafrost in the upper HRB, to the intensively irrigated agricultural ecosystem in the middle HRB, to the fragile, thinly vegetated desert ecosystem in the lower HRB. The new research initiative builds on the existing observatory infrastructure and long-term ecohydrological datasets since the 1950s. It seeks to reveal the complex interactions across multiple spatiotemporal scales between the basin hydrologic cycle and diverse ecosystem functioning in a water-limited environment with about 60 new, well-coordinated research projects supported for the next five years. These projects may be categorized into five groups: 1) Basin-wide transect sampling, airborne and remote sensing experimentation to collect vegetation, soil, DEM, ET, and other relevant data and build comprehensive databases and data services; 2) Observation, measurement and modeling of regional climate variability, precipitation and water resources distribution, ecosystem productivity, and development of framework for integrated models and decision support systems; 3) Study of the upper HRB, with emphasis on glaciers, snow, and permafrost; 4) Study of the middle HRB, with emphasis on surface-groundwater interactions and agriculture water use efficiency; and 5) Study of the lower HRB, with emphasis on desert vegetation and terminal lakes. The data and findings from these projects are to be synthesized and integrated into a basin-scale ecological-hydrological-economic model to provide stronger scientific underpinning for more sustainable water resource management that maximizes the economic benefits without irreparably damaging the ecosystems.Figure 1. Location of the Heihe River Basin (HRB).

Zheng, C.; Cheng, G.; Fu, B.; Song, C.; Xiao, H.

2012-12-01

155

The Systemic Amyloid Precursor Transthyretin (TTR) Behaves as a Neuronal Stress Protein Regulated by HSF1 in SH-SY5Y Human Neuroblastoma Cells and APP23 Alzheimer's Disease Model Mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased neuronal synthesis of transthyretin (TTR) may favorably impact on Alzheimer's disease (AD) because TTR has been shown to inhibit A? aggregation and detoxify cell-damaging conformers. The mechanism whereby hippocampal and cortical neurons from AD patients and APP23 AD model mice produce more TTR is unknown. We now show that TTR expression in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, primary hippocampal neurons and the hippocampus of APP23 mice, is significantly enhanced by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays demonstrated occupation of TTR promoter heat shock elements by HSF1 in APP23 hippocampi, primary murine hippocampal neurons, and SH-SY5Y cells, but not in mouse liver, cultured human hepatoma (HepG2) cells, or AC16 cultured human cardiomyocytes. Treating SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells with heat shock or the HSF1 stimulator celastrol increased TTR transcription in parallel with that of HSP40, HSP70, and HSP90. With both treatments, ChIP showed increased occupancy of heat shock elements in the TTR promoter by HSF1. In vivo celastrol increased the HSF1 ChIP signal in hippocampus but not in liver. Transfection of a human HSF1 construct into SH-SY5Y cells increased TTR transcription and protein production, which could be blocked by shHSF1 antisense. The effect is neuron specific. In cultured HepG2 cells, HSF1 was either suppressive or had no effect on TTR expression confirming the differential effects of HSF1 on TTR transcription in different cell types. PMID:24849358

Wang, Xin; Cattaneo, Francesca; Ryno, Lisa; Hulleman, John; Reixach, Natàlia; Buxbaum, Joel N

2014-05-21

156

Progress of soil radionuclide distribution studies for the Nevada Applied Ecology Group: 1981  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two nuclear sites have been under intensive study by the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) during 1980 and 1981, NS201 in area 18 and NS219,221 in area 20. In support of the various studies Los Alamos National Laboratory (Group LS-6) has provided consultation and evaluations relative to radionuclide distributions in soils inundated with radioactive debris from those tests. In addition, a referee effort was also conducted in both analysis of replicate samples and in evaluating various data sets for consistency of results. This report summarizes results of several of the data sets collected to test certain hypotheses relative to radionuclide distributions and factors affecting calculations of hypotheses relative to radionuclide distributions and factors affecting calculations of radionuclide inventories and covers the period February 1980 to May 1981.

Essington, E.H.

1981-01-01

157

Attitudes, Opinions and Behavior of Managers on Application of Ecological Marketing in their Business - Testing Hypotheses - Case Study:Brasov County  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents results of a quantitative research which studies the attitudes, opinions and behavior of managers of companies in Brasov on application of ecological marketing in their business. The research method used is a sample survey based. Research objectives are considering to determine the extent to which managers know and apply ecological marketing, reasons for which the ecological marketing application is a long-term strategy, views on the opportunity to apply ecological marketing etc. Conclusions drawn from testing of hypotheses of research show that, generally, managers of local firms consider ecological marketing as a long-term strategy of the company. The percentage of managers that applied ecological marketing in companies does not exceed 60%. A relatively small percentage of respondents believes that the application of ecological marketing within firms is a necessity, a social responsibility that can bring long-term benefits to companies.

Funaru, M.

2014-06-01

158

Ecological Based Planning of Forest Outdoor Recreation Case Study: Traditional Span of Mandj in Lordegan Forests-Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Forest is considered as one of the most important and most attractive recreation resources in nature which is the destination of most of the nature tourists. One of the most important ecologic usages of Zagros forests in west of Iran is outdoor recreation planning. In this study, using local multi criteria evaluation method, emphasizing on ecological criteria and combination of informational layers using Geographic Information System (GIS, forest based recreation planning in two forms of intensive and extensive in traditional span of Mandj in Lordegan city in Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari province is studied and outdoor recreation desirability of areas are determined using weighted method. Also cooling power method of Biker was used for time evaluation of planning. Six (6 criteria including climate, soil, forest structure, water sources, shape of land and landscape, 12 secondary criteria and 36 indices were used in order to evaluate outdoor recreation ecologic ability of region. According to this investigation, 7 forest areas with total area of 6.3 ha are suitable for intensive outdoor recreation and remaining areas of this region (2476 ha could be used for extensive outdoor recreation. Checking ecologic local criteria used in this study showed that water sources as a limiting factor, is a key exclusive factor in evaluating ecologic outdoor recreation power in this region. Also results showed months May, June, October, September, July and August are most suitable based on climate parameters.

Naghmeh Sharifi

2012-07-01

159

Terrestrial Ecology Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

This collection of study units focuses on the study of the ecology of land habitats. Considered are such topics as map reading, field techniques, forest ecosystem, birds, insects, small mammals, soils, plant ecology, preparation of terrariums, air pollution, photography, and essentials of an environmental studies program. Each unit contains…

Morrison, James W., Ed.; Hall, James A., Ed.

160

Radio-ecological studies on the river Lippe (1982-1983)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1982 and 1983 the Laboratory for Radio-ecology of water bodies of the Federal Institute for Fishery performed radio-ecological studies on the river Lippe, on the Datteln-Hamm-Canal and on one section of the Rhine near the city of Wesel in order to enable expert examination of the population's exposure to radiation originating from effluents of the planned Hamm Nuclear Power Plant (HNP). The present-day distribution of artificial and natural radionuclides in water, fish, seston, sediment and in drill cores from the Lippe and the pastures lying within the flood area was examined using radio-chemical methods and the nuclear-radiation measurement technique. The contents of the stable elements of antimony, nickel, cobalt, zinc, manganese, iron, silver and phosphorus in water and fish were determined to obtain some suggestions concerning the behaviour of radionuclides which are expected in the waste water of the HNP but which cannot be found in the environment at present. Concerning uptake and incorporation of radioactive nuclides in the bodies of fish from the Lippe and the Rhine section studied, mean concentration factors could be calculated from the measured values for the state of equilibrium. One single-time emission with the cooling water of the Westfalen nuclear power plant was examined using the inactive tracer of Dysprosium in order to study the behaviour of the emission cloud when running off with the river water. With this examination, complete cross-mixing at 800 m downstream from the cooling-water re-entry building was found at a Lippe downstream flow rate of 22 cbm/s which corresponds to its annual mean. The down-stream flow graph could be described by a dispersion graph showing a marked trailing effect. The cloud-fail values which were higher compared with those of the graph, could possibly be explained by recirculation obtaining with cooling water influx. (orig.)

1984-03-01

 
 
 
 
161

Plasmid content in different serovars of Salmonella isolated in Sicily: an ecology study.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study determined plasmid relative abundance and distribution among a representative collection of Sicilian strains of Salmonella, with the purpose of gaining more insight into bacterial and plasmid ecology. 161 Salmonella strains of different serovars, isolated in Sicily from human and environmental sources between 1981 and 1985 were characterized by plasmid profile typing. Two main sets of Salmonella serovars were identified, one composed by plasmid-free serovars, rarely associated with clinical salmonellosis but typical of environmental niches; the other comprising the serovars usually encountered as major agents of human and animal salmonellosis. The biological relevance of the baseline information so provided on the genetic profiles of different serovars in Sicily is discussed. PMID:7760755

Marranzano, M; Gulisano, M; Agodi, A

1995-01-01

162

Studies on the sandfly fauna of Samuel Ecological Station, Porto Velho Municipality, Rondônia State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In a study of sandfly species in the Samuel Ecological Station, in Porto Velho, Rondônia State, the following species were identified: Lutzomyia brasiliensis, L. evangelistai, L. gomezi, L. anduzei, L. flaviscutellata, L. richardwardi, L. shawi, L. umbratilis, L. yuilli yuilli, L. dendrophyla, L. pu [...] ctigeniculata, L. shannoni, L. amazonensis, L. ayrozai, L. carrerai carrerai, L. claustrei, L. davisi and L. lainsoni. L. richardwardi, L. umbratilis and L. c. carrerai were the predominant species captured of man forming 60.30% of the total catch. L. richarwardi was the most frequent at ground level (29.9%), while L. umbratilis predominated in the canopy (48.5%).

Azevedo, Alfredo C. R. de; Luz, Sérgio L. Bessa; Vilela, Maurício L.; Rangel, Elizabeth F..

163

Radio-ecological studies on the air-soil-vine-wine food chain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report summarizes the results of the first three years (1983-85) of the radio-ecological studies on wine which were performed on eight sites from major German wine-growing regions involving red and white wine varieties typical of their region. The radionuclides of tritium, carbon 14, strontium 90, cesium 137, radium 226 and sodium 40 were examined for their contents and presence in the food chain of air-soil-vine-wine in order to determine the pollution situation in grapes and wine and to gain information on their behaviour in the food chain. A number of soil parameters important for nutrient uptake were determined to describe the site. (orig./MG)

1987-01-01

164

Systematic and ecological studies on Chlorophyceae of North India and their relationship with water quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the course of systematic and ecological studies on algal flora of fresh water environment of three different agroclimatic zone of Uttar Pradesh revealed one hundred eighty two species represented by fifty-two genera inhabiting fresh water bodies having different physico-chemical properties. In both the regions members of order Conjugales were dominant and represented by ninety nine species belonging to fourteen genera. This is followed by Chlorococcales having fifty two species represented by nineteen genera and Chaetophorales with nine species of four genera only. In the central Uttar Pradesh a positive correlation was found between hydrogen ions concentration with temperature and species diversity, while in western Uttar Pradesh a highly positive correlation was found in electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids. PMID:16334288

Dwivedi, S; Misra, P K; Tripathi, R D; Rai, U N; Dwivedi, C P; Baghel, V S; Suseela, M R; Srivastava, M N

2005-07-01

165

Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was built on the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the mid-1980's. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 12 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Research conducted by the SREL has focused primarily on four questions related to these wetlands: (1) Prior to construction, what fauna and flora were present at the DWPF site and at similar, yet undisturbed, alternative sites (2) By comparing the Carolina bay at the DWPF site (Sun Bay) with an undisturbed control Carolina bay (Rainbow Bay), what effect is construction having on the organisms that inhabited the DWPF site (3) By comparing control streams with streams on the periphery of the DWPF site, what effect is construction having on the peripheral streams (4) How effective have efforts been to lessen the impacts of construction, both with respect to erosion control measures and the construction of refuge ponds'' as alternative breeding sites for amphibians that formerly bred at Sun Bay Through the long-term census-taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has begun to evaluate the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. Similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive Orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10CFR1022).

Pechmann, J.H.K.; Scott, D.E.; McGregor, J.H.; Estes, R.A.; Chazal, A.C.

1993-02-01

166

The Relationship between the Learning Ecology System and Students’ Engagement: A Case Study in Selangor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available School engagement is a relatively new concept in education. However, studies have demonstrated that the concept is useful in predicting students’ academic achievement. The present study was conducted to examine Malaysian students’ school engagement status and to understand the factors that influenced their engagement. The survey method was used to collect data with a questionnaire measuring the level of students’ engagement in three psychological domains (cognitive, affective, and behavior. The influential factors were measured by learning about the ecological factors affecting the students’ academic engagement, including their teachers’ teaching practice and the support they received from teachers, peers, and parents. A total of 311 (male and female participants between the ages of 12 -16 years from form one, form two, form three, and form four in a school in Selangor were selected using a random sampling procedure. Data was analyzed using descriptive and correlational analyses. The results showed that male and female students exhibit significantly different levels of engagement. Female students have a higher level of engagement than males. Teachers’ teaching practices and the support students received from peers, parents, and teachers were positively correlated with students’ engagement level. Although the results of the study support the findings of previous studies, further studies are suggested to verify the present findings. Implications for schools and parenting practices are also discussed.

Amla Mohd Salleh

2013-08-01

167

Linking stroke mortality with air pollution, income, and greenness in northwest Florida: an ecological geographical study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively few studies have examined the association between air pollution and stroke mortality. Inconsistent and inclusive results from existing studies on air pollution and stroke justify the need to continue to investigate the linkage between stroke and air pollution. No studies have been done to investigate the association between stroke and greenness. The objective of this study was to examine if there is association of stroke with air pollution, income and greenness in northwest Florida. Results Our study used an ecological geographical approach and dasymetric mapping technique. We adopted a Bayesian hierarchical model with a convolution prior considering five census tract specific covariates. A 95% credible set which defines an interval having a 0.95 posterior probability of containing the parameter for each covariate was calculated from Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations. The 95% credible sets are (-0.286, -0.097 for household income, (0.034, 0.144 for traffic air pollution effect, (0.419, 1.495 for emission density of monitored point source polluters, (0.413, 1.522 for simple point density of point source polluters without emission data, and (-0.289,-0.031 for greenness. Household income and greenness show negative effects (the posterior densities primarily cover negative values. Air pollution covariates have positive effects (the 95% credible sets cover positive values. Conclusion High risk of stroke mortality was found in areas with low income level, high air pollution level, and low level of exposure to green space.

Rao K Ranga

2008-05-01

168

An ecological study of cancer incidence in Port Hope, Ontario from 1992 to 2007  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A plant processing radium and uranium ores has been operating in the town of Port Hope since 1932. Given the nuclear industry located in the community and ongoing public health concerns, cancer incidence rates in Port Hope were studied for a recent 16 year period (1992–2007) for continued periodic cancer incidence surveillance of the community. The cancer incidence in the local community for all cancers combined was similar to the Ontario population, health regions with similar socio-economic characteristics in Ontario and in Canada, and the Canadian population. No statistically significant differences in childhood cancer, leukaemia or other radiosensitive cancer incidence were observed, with the exception of statistically significant elevated lung cancer incidence among women. However, the statistical significance was reduced or disappeared when the comparison was made to populations with similar socio-economic characteristics. These findings are consistent with previous ecological, case-control and cohort studies conducted in Port Hope, environmental assessments, and epidemiological studies conducted elsewhere on populations living around similar facilities or exposed to similar environmental contaminants. Although the current study covered an extended period of time, the power to detect risk at the sub-regional level of analysis was limited since the Port Hope population is small (16?500). The study nevertheless indicated that large differences in cancer incidence are not occurring in Port Hope compared to other similar communities and the general population. (paper)

2013-03-01

169

Plant sexual reproduction during climate change: gene function in natura studied by ecological and evolutionary systems biology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background It is essential to understand and predict the effects of changing environments on plants. This review focuses on the sexual reproduction of plants, as previous studies have suggested that this trait is particularly vulnerable to climate change, and because a number of ecologically and evolutionarily relevant genes have been identified.

Shimizu, Kentaro K.; Kudoh, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masaki J.

2011-01-01

170

An Ecological Correlation Study of Late Age-Related Macular Degeneration and the Complement Factor H Y402H Polymorphism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on published data, this ecological correlation study showed evidence to support the hypothesis that variation in the risk allele frequency of the Y402H polymorphism across ethnicities explains variation in prevalence of late AMD when data on people of African ancestry are excluded.

Nonyane, Bareng A. S.; Nitsch, Dorothea; Whittaker, John C.; Sofat, Reecha; Smeeth, Liam; Chakravarthy, Usha; Fletcher, Astrid E.

2010-01-01

171

QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN FOR 1991 PILOT STUDY OF ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TREATMENT SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this quality assurance plan is to detail the methods and procedures to be used in the pilot study of the ecological condition in municipal wastewater constructed wetland treatment systems. t includes specific procedures for assuring that data are of known, high qua...

172

Quality assurance plan for 1991 pilot study of the ecological condition of municipal wastewater constructed wetland treatment systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the quality assurance plan is to detail the methods and procedures to be used in the pilot study of the ecological condition in municipal wastewater constructed wetland treatment systems. It includes specific procedures for assuring that data are of known, high quality. Background material and description of the general approach are outlined in a separate project work plan.

Sherman, A.D.; McAllister, L.S.

1992-12-01

173

Support for NATO Advanced Study Institute on molecular ecology of aquatic microbes, August 28--September 9, 1994. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a summary paper for a NATO Advanced Study Institute sponsored meeting entitled `The Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes` held in Luccia, Italy from August 28 to September 9, 1994. A full reference book for the proceedings is to be published later.

Joint, I.

1995-06-16

174

Revisiting the Affect Regulation Model of Binge Eating: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Using Ecological Momentary Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

The affect regulation model of binge eating, which posits that patients binge eat to reduce negative affect (NA), has received support from cross-sectional and laboratory-based studies. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves momentary ratings and repeated assessments over time and is ideally suited to identify temporal antecedents and…

Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

2011-01-01

175

Oral ingestion of hexavalent chromium through drinking water and cancer mortality in an industrial area of Greece - An ecological study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Hexavalent chromium is a known carcinogen when inhaled, but its carcinogenic potential when orally ingested remains controversial. Water contaminated with hexavalent chromium is a worldwide problem, making this a question of significant public health importance. Methods We conducted an ecological mortality study within the Oinofita region of Greece, where water has been contaminated with hexavalent chromium. We calculated gender, age, and per...

Linos Athena; Petralias Athanassios; Christophi Costas A; Christoforidou Eleni; Kouroutou Paraskevi; Stoltidis Melina; Veloudaki Afroditi; Tzala Evangelia; Makris Konstantinos C; Karagas Margaret R

2011-01-01

176

Associations between national tuberculosis program budgets and tuberculosis outcomes: an ecological study  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction The objective of this study is to explore the associations between national tuberculosis program (NTP) budget allocation and tuberculosis related outcomes in the World Health Organization's 22 high burden countries from 2007–2009. Methods This ecological study used mixed effects and generalized estimating equation models to identify independent associations between NTP budget allocations and various tuberculosis related outcomes. Models were adjusted for a number of independent variables previously noted to be associated with tuberculosis incidence. Results Increasing the percent of the NTP budget for advocacy, communication and social mobilization was associated with an increase in the case detection rate. Increasing TB-HIV funding was associated with an increase in HIV testing among TB patients. Increasing the percent of the population covered by the Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) program was associated with an increase in drug susceptibility testing. Laboratory funding was positively associated with tuberculosis notification. Increasing the budgets for first line drugs, management and multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) was associated with a decrease in smear positive deaths. Conclusion Effective TB control is a complex and multifaceted challenge. This study revealed a number of budget allocation related factors associated with improved TB outcome parameters. If confirmed with future longitudinal studies, these findings could help guide NTP managers with allocation decisions.

Chapple, Will; Katz, Alan Roy; Li, Dongmei

2012-01-01

177

Prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren, and climate in west European countries: an ecologic study  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries.

Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Águeda; Busquets-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo A.; López-Silvarrey, Angel; García-Hernández, Gloria; Fuertes, Jorge

2013-09-01

178

Metabolic ecology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological theory that is grounded in metabolic currencies and constraints offers the potential to link ecological outcomes to biophysical processes across multiple scales of organization. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) has emphasized the potential for metabolism to serve as a unified theory of ecology, while focusing primarily on the size and temperature dependence of whole-organism metabolic rates. Generalizing metabolic ecology requires extending beyond prediction and application of standardized metabolic rates to theory focused on how energy moves through ecological systems. A bibliometric and network analysis of recent metabolic ecology literature reveals a research network characterized by major clusters focused on MTE, foraging theory, bioenergetics, trophic status, and generalized patterns and predictions. This generalized research network, which we refer to as metabolic ecology, can be considered to include the scaling, temperature and stoichiometric models forming the core of MTE, as well as bioenergetic equations, foraging theory, life-history allocation models, consumer-resource equations, food web theory and energy-based macroecology models that are frequently employed in ecological literature. We conclude with six points we believe to be important to the advancement and integration of metabolic ecology, including nomination of a second fundamental equation, complementary to the first fundamental equation offered by the MTE. PMID:24028511

Humphries, Murray M; McCann, Kevin S

2014-01-01

179

An ecological approach to prospective and retrospective timing of long durations: a study involving gamers.  

Science.gov (United States)

To date, most studies comparing prospective and retrospective timing have failed to use long durations and tasks with a certain degree of ecological validity. The present study assessed the effect of the timing paradigm on playing video games in a "naturalistic environment" (gaming centers). In addition, as it involved gamers, it provided an opportunity to examine the effect of gaming profile on time estimation. A total of 116 participants were asked to estimate prospectively or retrospectively a video game session lasting 12, 35 or 58 minutes. The results indicate that time is perceived as longer in the prospective paradigm than in the retrospective one, although the variability of estimates is the same. Moreover, the 12-minute session was perceived as longer, proportionally, than the 35- and 58-minute sessions. The study also revealed that the number of hours participants spent playing video games per week was a significant predictor of time estimates. To account for the main findings, the differences between prospective and retrospective timing are discussed in quantitative terms using a proposed theoretical framework, which states that both paradigms use the same cognitive processes, but in different proportions. Finally, the hypothesis that gamers play more because they underestimate time is also discussed. PMID:20174648

Tobin, Simon; Bisson, Nicolas; Grondin, Simon

2010-01-01

180

Ecological studies on the freshwater fishes of the Alligator Rivers region, Northern Territory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tropical climate of the Alligator Rivers Region (ARR) has a distinctive wet-dry cycle , resulting in seasonal flows in the creeks and rivers of its catchments. The present study, begun in August 1978, was aimed at developing an ecological monitoring system that would detect any changes to the freshwater fish communities brought about by recent uranium mining and processing in the lowlands of the ARR. The focus of the synecological studies, was a description of spatial and temporal patterns in the community structure of the fish fauna. Interpretation of these patterns was made possible by the collection of detailed environmental data from the study sites. It was found that of the ARR seasonal changes in environmental conditions were so marked that they often obscured the effects of environmental gradients along a watercourse and differing environmental conditions characteristics of different types of waterbody. Hence it may not be entirely satisfactory to define environmental zones in these catchments based on overall environmental conditions through the whole seasonal cycle, because changes in any one such zone between seasons result in very marked changes in the fish communities of habitats in that zone. 34 refs., 22 tabs., 45 figs., 3 maps

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Frontiers of torenia research: innovative ornamental traits and study of ecological interaction networks through genetic engineering.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in research in the past few years on the ornamental plant torenia (Torenia spps.) have made it notable as a model plant on the frontier of genetic engineering aimed at studying ornamental characteristics and pest control in horticultural ecosystems. The remarkable advantage of torenia over other ornamental plant species is the availability of an easy and high-efficiency transformation system for it. Unfortunately, most of the current torenia research is still not very widespread, because this species has not become prominent as an alternative to other successful model plants such as Arabidopsis, snapdragon and petunia. However, nowadays, a more global view using not only a few selected models but also several additional species are required for creating innovative ornamental traits and studying horticultural ecosystems. We therefore introduce and discuss recent research on torenia, the family Scrophulariaceae, for secondary metabolite bioengineering, in which global insights into horticulture, agriculture and ecology have been advanced. Floral traits, in torenia particularly floral color, have been extensively studied by manipulating the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways in flower organs. Plant aroma, including volatile terpenoids, has also been genetically modulated in order to understand the complicated nature of multi-trophic interactions that affect the behavior of predators and pollinators in the ecosystem. Torenia would accordingly be of great use for investigating both the variation in ornamental plants and the infochemical-mediated interactions with arthropods. PMID:23803155

Nishihara, Masahiro; Shimoda, Takeshi; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Arimura, Gen-Ichiro

2013-01-01

182

Bladder cancer mortality and private well use in New England: An ecological study  

Science.gov (United States)

Study objective: To investigate the possible relation between bladder cancer mortality among white men and women and private water use in New England, USA, where rates have been persistently raised and use of private water supplies (wells) common. Design: Ecological study relating age adjusted cancer mortality rates for white men and women during 1985-1999 and proportion of persons using private water supplies in 1970. After regressing mortality rates on population density, Pearson correlation coefficients were computed between residual rates and the proportion of the population using private water supplies, using the state economic area as the unit of calculation. Calculations were conducted within each of 10 US regions. Setting: The 504 state economic areas of the contiguous United States. Participants: Mortality analysis of 11 cancer sites, with the focus on bladder cancer. Main results: After adjusting for the effect of population density, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between residual bladder cancer mortality rates and private water supply use among both men and women in New England (men, r=0.42; women, r=0.48) and New York/New Jersey (men, r=0.49; women, r=0.62). Conclusions: Use of well water from private sources, or a close correlate, may be an explanatory variable for the excess bladder cancer mortality in New England. Analytical studies are underway to clarify the relation between suspected water contaminants, particularly arsenic, and raised bladder cancer rates in northern New England.

Ayotte, J. D.; Baris, D.; Cantor, K. P.; Colt, J.; Robinson, Jr. , G. R.; Lubin, J. H.; Karagas, M.; Hoover, R. N.; Fraumeni, Jr. , J. F.; Silverman, D. T.

2006-01-01

183

Two approaches using traits to assess ecological resilience: A case study on earthworm communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The relation between biological diversity and ecosystem functioning is a central theme in ecology. Ecological traits of species are often regarded as a link between structure and function, and trait distributions in a community may change in response to environmental stressors. Likewise, resilience in a community may be derived from the diversity in traits and trait values relevant to a particular stressor. We combine two approaches to test this: a novel trait frequency analysis and a multiva...

Lange, H. J.; Kramer, K.; Faber, J. H.

2013-01-01

184

Pluralism, Resilience, and the Ecology of Survival: Case Studies from the Pamir Mountains of Afghanistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As resilience is observed under circumstances of systemic stress, the various ecological zones of the Pamir Mountains of Afghanistan and the cultural diversity contained within this milieu provide an appropriate setting from which to ask "How can a dynamic concept of pluralism inform adaptation, survival, and resilience in the face of dramatic socio-cultural and environmental change?" This paper asserts that understanding of resilience in coupled socio-cultural and ecological system...

Kassam, Karim-aly S.

2010-01-01

185

Ecological baseline studies in Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons County of Los Alamos, New Mexico. A two-year study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the summers of 1993 and 1994, the Biological Resource Evaluations Team (BRET) of the Environmental Protection Group (ESH-8) conducted baseline studies within two canyon systems, Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons. Biological data was collected within each canyon to provide background and baseline information for Ecological Risk models. Baseline studies included establishment of permanent vegetation plots within each canyon along the elevational gradient. Then, in association with the various vegetation types, surveys were conducted for ground dwelling insects, birds, and small mammals. The stream channels associated with the permanent vegetation plots were characterized and aquatic macroinvertebrates collected within the stream monthly throughout a six-month period. The Geographic Position System (GPS) in combination with ARC INFO was used to map the study areas. Considerable data was collected during these surveys and are summarized in individual chapters.

Foxx, T.S. [comp.

1995-11-01

186

Studies on the Potential Ecological Risk and Homology Correlation of Heavy Metal in the Surface Soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper was attempted to investigate the distribution, the potential ecological hazards and thehomologous relativity of heavy metals in soil of Fujian agricultural protection area on the both side of 324National Road in Xiang'an of Xiamen City. We analyzed the content of heavy metals in the surface of farmingsoil using ICP-MS and evaluated the potential ecological hazard of heavy metals in the soil of agriculturalprotection zone in Xiang'an and further investigated the relevance of heavy metals in the soil by the classicalLars Hakanson potential ecological risk index method. Results showed that the potential ecological risk levels(hazard index of eight kinds of heavy metals in Xiang'an area were classified in the order Cd (94.4> Hg (54.3>As (46.7> Pb (10.5> Cu (4.3> Ni (3.1> Cr (2.3> Zn (1.9, and the global potential ecological risk index (HIof heavy metal was 216.8. The comprehensive evaluation of potential ecological risk of agricultural safetybelonged to the moderate level. The major pollutants in this area were Cd and Pb, which attained the middleecological hazard level. Through the correlation analysis of heavy metals, we found that the main externalsources of pollution were the waste gas after the combustion of petrol and diesel, the excessive application ofpesticides and so on. The internal source of pollution was the high background values of new cover soil.

Haiyuan Qiu

2010-05-01

187

Ectopic over-expression of BhHsf1, a heat shock factor from the resurrection plant Boea hygrometrica, leads to increased thermotolerance and retarded growth in transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) are commonly found to be involved in various stress responses. Several Hsfs displayed dwarf phenotype while conferred stress tolerance when over-expressed. However, the underlying mechanisms were not fully understood. Here we report the cloning and characterization of an Hsf (BhHsf1) from the resurrection plant Boea hygrometrica. Drought, heat and wound can induce BhHsf1 expression. The over-expression of BhHsf1 conferred growth retardation and stress tolerance in both Arabidopsis and tobacco. Evidence was presented to show that the growth retardation of aerial organs in the transgenic plants was resulted from the reduction of cell proliferation. Gene expression profiling using microarray hybridization and pathway analysis showed that Hsps and stress-associated genes were induced whereas the genes related to DNA replication and mitotic cell cycle were down-regulated in BhHsf1 over-expression Arabidopsis, which was in consistence with the observation of the impaired nuclear endoreduplication. Taking together, our results suggest that BhHsf1 may play dual roles in mediating the processes in heat stress tolerance and growth retardation via regulation of target genes related to stress protection and mitotic cell cycle. PMID:19701723

Zhu, Yan; Wang, Zhi; Jing, Yanjun; Wang, Lili; Liu, Xia; Liu, Yongxiu; Deng, Xin

2009-11-01

188

Can Local Ecological Knowledge Contribute to Wildlife Management? Case Studies of Migratory Birds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sound management of wildlife species, particularly those that are harvested, requires extensive information on their natural history and demography. For many global wildlife populations, however, insufficient scientific information exists, and alternative data sources may need to be considered in management decisions. In some circumstances, local ecological knowledge (LEK can serve as a useful, complementary data source, and may be particularly valuable when managing wildlife populations that occur in remote locations inhabited by indigenous peoples. Although several published papers discuss the general benefits of LEK, few attempt to examine the reliability of information generated through this approach. We review four case studies of marine birds in which we gathered LEK for each species and then compared this information to empirical data derived from independent scientific studies of the same populations. We then discuss how we attempted to integrate LEK into our own conservation and management efforts of these bird species with variable success. Although LEK proved to be a useful source of information for three of four species, we conclude that management decisions based primarily on LEK, in the absence of scientific scrutiny, should be treated with caution.

Mark Mallory

2005-06-01

189

Historical ecology provides new insights for ecosystem management: Eastern Baltic cod case study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A recent historical marine ecological case study (cod in the eastern Baltic Sea) is used to show how long-term data and knowledge of fluctuations can contribute to revisions of fishery management policy. The case study first developed new longer analytical time series of spawner biomass and recruitment back to the 1920s, which extended knowledge of population dynamics into a time period when ecosystem state was characterized by temporally varying combinations of exploitation, climate-hydrographic conditions, marine mammal predation and eutrophication. Recovery of spatially resolved historical catch data from the late 1500s to early 1600s also contributed new perspectives to cod population dynamics under alternative ecosystem forcings. These new perspectives have contributed, and will likely continue to contribute to new management policies (e.g., revision of fishery management reference points), which should lead to higher sustainability of the population and fishery yields, and improved overall ecosystem health. These perspectives will likely continue to provide baseline information as ICES and the EU develop new policies based on maximum sustainable yield concepts.

MacKenzie, Brian; Ojaveer, Henn

2011-01-01

190

Historical ecology provides new insights for ecosystem management : eastern Baltic cod case study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A recent historical marine ecological case study (cod in the eastern Baltic Sea) is used to show how long-term data and knowledge of fluctuations can contribute to revisions of fishery management policy. The case study first developed new longer analytical time series of spawner biomass and recruitment back to the 1920s, which extended knowledge of population dynamics into a time period when ecosystem state was characterized by temporally varying combinations of exploitation, climate-hydrographic conditions, marine mammal predation and eutrophication. Recovery of spatially resolved historical catch data from the late 1500s to early 1600s also contributed new perspectives to cod population dynamics under alternative ecosystem forcings. These new perspectives have contributed, and will likely continue to contribute to new management policies (e.g., revision of fishery management reference points), which should lead to higher sustainability of the population and fishery yields, and improved overall ecosystem health. These perspectives will likely continue to provide baseline information as ICES and the EU develop new policies based on maximum sustainable yield concepts.

Mackenzie, Brian Royce; Ojaveer, Henn

2011-01-01

191

Ecological study of gastric cancer in Brazil: Geographic and time trend analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

AIM: To investigate the geographic distributions and time trends of gastric cancer (GC) incidence and mortality in Brazil. METHODS: An ecological study of the DATASUS registry was conducted by identifying hospitalizations for GC between January 2005 and December 2010. The data included information on the gender, age, and town of residence at the time of hospital admission and death. RESULTS: The GC rates, adjusted according to available hospital beds, decreased from 13.8 per 100000 in 2005 to 12.7 per 100000 in 2010. The GC rates decreased more among the younger age groups, in which the male-to-female difference also decreased in comparison to the older age groups. Although the lethality rates tended to increase with age, young patients were proportionally more affected. The spatial GC distribution showed that the rates were higher in the south and southeast. However, while the rates decreased in the central-west and south, they increased in the northern regions. A geographic analysis showed higher rates of GC in more urbanized areas, with a coast-to-inland gradient. Geographically, GC lethality overlapped greatly with the hospital admission rates. CONCLUSION: The results of this study support the hypothesis of a critical role for environmental factors in GC pathogenesis. The declining rates in young patients, particularly males, suggest a relatively recent decrease in the exposure to risk factors associated with GC. The spatial distribution of GC indicates an ongoing dynamic change within the Brazilian environment.

Amorim, Cesar Augusto; Moreira, Jessica Pronestino; Rial, Luisa; Carneiro, Antonio Jose; Fogaca, Homero Soares; Elia, Celeste; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; de Souza, Heitor Siffert Pereira

2014-01-01

192

A Clinical Case Study of the use of Ecological Momentary Assessment in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Accurate assessment of obsessions and compulsions is a crucial step in treatment planning for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD. In this pilot study, we sought to determine if the use of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA could provide additional symptom information beyond that captured during standard assessment of OCD. We studied three adults diagnosed with OCD and compared the number and types of obsessions and compulsions captured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS compared to EMA. Following completion of the Y-BOCS interview, participants then recorded their OCD symptoms into a digital voice recorder across a twelve-hour period in reply to randomly sent mobile phone SMS prompts. The EMA approach yielded a lower number of symptoms of obsessions and compulsions than the Y-BOCS but produced additional types of obsessions and compulsions not identified by the Y-BOCS. We conclude that the EMA-OCD procedure may represent a worthy addition to the suite of assessment tools used when working with clients who have OCD. Further research with larger samples is required to strengthen this conclusion.

ClareSamanthaRees

2014-04-01

193

Pollination Ecology: Field Studies of Insect Visitation and Pollen Transfer Rates  

Science.gov (United States)

In this Experiment, students investigate questions related to the pollination ecology of the most common and accessible insect-pollinated flowers in bloom. Students start with natural history observations to answer common questions such as how long does the flower stay open, what are its major visitors, and how often is it visited by likely pollinators. They may then follow up the class study with their own questions, such as whether flowers that are in large clumps are more likely to be visited than more isolated flowers, how far the most frequent visitors fly between visits, how likely is it that the next visit will be to the same species of flower, and whether self pollen grows through the style more slowly than pollen from a different individual. Common techniques in pollination studies such as determination of flowering phenology, visitation rates, and identification of visitors and of pollen carried on visitors are used regardless of the question investigated. Spring flowers in the campus lawn, buckeye or crabapple flowers, horticultural plantings on campus, roadside goldenrods, or wildflowers in nearby natural areas should make it possible to complete this lab at almost any time in the growing season.

Parrish, Judy

2010-02-16

194

A clinical case study of the use of ecological momentary assessment in obsessive compulsive disorder  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurate assessment of obsessions and compulsions is a crucial step in treatment planning for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). In this clinical case study, we sought to determine if the use of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) could provide additional symptom information beyond that captured during standard assessment of OCD. We studied three adults diagnosed with OCD and compared the number and types of obsessions and compulsions captured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) compared to EMA. Following completion of the Y-BOCS interview, participants then recorded their OCD symptoms into a digital voice recorder across a 12-h period in reply to randomly sent mobile phone SMS prompts. The EMA approach yielded a lower number of symptoms of obsessions and compulsions than the Y-BOCS but produced additional types of obsessions and compulsions not previously identified by the Y-BOCS. We conclude that the EMA-OCD procedure may represent a worthy addition to the suite of assessment tools used when working with clients who have OCD. Further research with larger samples is required to strengthen this conclusion.

Tilley, P. J. Matt; Rees, Clare S.

2014-01-01

195

Neurospora crassa heat shock factor 1 Is an Essential Gene; a Second Heat Shock Factor-Like Gene, hsf2, Is Required for Asexual Spore Formation?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Appropriate responses of organisms to heat stress are essential for their survival. In eukaryotes, adaptation to high temperatures is mediated by heat shock transcription factors (HSFs). HSFs regulate the expression of heat shock proteins, which function as molecular chaperones assisting in protein folding and stability. In many model organisms a great deal is known about the products of hsf genes. An important exception is the filamentous fungus and model eukaryote Neurospora crassa. Here we...

2008-01-01

196

A novel HSF4 gene mutation (p.R405X) causing autosomal recessive congenital cataracts in a large consanguineous family from Pakistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Hereditary cataracts are most frequently inherited as autosomal dominant traits, but can also be inherited in an autosomal recessive or X-linked fashion. To date, 12 loci for autosomal recessive cataracts have been mapped including a locus on chromosome 16q22 containing the disease-causing gene HSF4 (Genbank accession number NM_001040667). Here, we describe a family from Pakistan ...

Sajjad Naheed; Goebel Ingrid; Kakar Naseebullah; Cheema Abdul; Kubisch Christian; Ahmad Jamil

2008-01-01

197

Ecological economics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ecological economics is a recently developed field, which sees the economy as a subsystem of a larger finite global ecosystem. Ecological economists question the sustainability of the economy because of its environmental impacts and its material and energy requirements, and also because of the growth of population. Attempts at assigning money values to environmental services and losses, and attempts at correcting macroeconomic accounting, are part of ecological economics, but its main thrust ...

Marti?nez Alier, Joan

2001-01-01

198

Morphological, anatomical and ecological studies on some Orchis (Orchidaceae) taxa of Mediterranean region, Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, nine species mainly distributed in Mediterranean (+ Aegean region) region of Turkey were investigated in terms of 15 morphological, 16 anatomical and 5 ecological characteristics. Those species are Orchis anatolica Boiss., Orchis italica Poiret, Orchis laxiflora Lam., Orchis morio L. subsp. morio, Orchis provincialis Balbis ex DC., Orchis purpurea Hudson, Orchis sancta L., Orchis simia Lam., Orchis tridentata Scop. In conclusion, we found that O. laxiflora was characterized by the longest plant height and O. purpurea had the biggest tuber; whereas O. italica was identified by the highest number of leafs and O. purpurea had the longest leaf length and widest leaf width. Additionally, the other species which were characterized by different morphological and anatomical parameters are as follow: O. sancta with the longest bract length, O. italica and O. simia with the longest sepal lengths, O. laxiflora with the shortest and widest labellum, O. simia with the longest petal length, O. sancta with longest caudiculum length, O. anatolica with the longest spur length and O. provincialis with the longest ovary length. Particularly, O. laxiflora and O. purpurea species present essential divergence from the aspect of anatomical features of leaf surface in comparison with the other species. Morphological and anatomical traits of the species were attributed to the habitat selections of the species since that character differs along with each species. PMID:23424837

Sevgi, Ece; Altundag, Ernaz; Kara, Omer; Sevgi, Orhan; Tecimen, Huseyin Baris; Bolat, Ilyas

2012-04-01

199

Air Manganese Levels and Chronic Liver Disease Mortality in North Carolina Counties: An Ecological Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Manganese is an essential trace element which is toxic in high doses. Over the past several decades, manganese has replaced lead as the anti-knock agent in gasoline, raising concern about air and road-side contamination with this element. In addition, manganese is absorbed by the liver, making specific populations (e.g., pregnant women, infants and children, and patients with liver disease susceptible to its toxic effects. Using data from the US Census Bureau, the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics, and the US Environmental Protection Agency, this ecological study evaluated chronic liver disease mortality rates in North Carolina’s 100 counties. It correlated these rates with county-level demographics as well as on-road and non-road air borne manganese concentrations. Median income by county was inversely associated with chronic liver disease mortality, while the logarithmically transformed airborne concentrations of on-road manganese were positively correlated with county-level chronic liver disease mortality. Because environmental manganese near roads is likely to increase over time, these pilot findings potentially have regulatory implications and argue for further research.

John G. Spangler

2012-09-01

200

Ecological Studies on the Aquatic Vegetation in North East Nile Delta, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research comprises an investigation of the vegetation analysis, a quantitative assessment of the soil and water characteristics and an evaluation of the relationship between the major identified vegetation groups and the environmental attributes of the canals, drains and their wet shorelines at four governorates in North East Nile Delta, namely: Damietta, El Dakahlya, El Sharkia and Al Qaliopia. Vegetation, soil and water were sampled in 65 representative stands. The floristic categories, life span and life-forms of the recorded species were described. The soil and water characteristics were determined for each stand. The vegetation analysis was carried out using the multivariate techniques. The classification (TWINSPAN and ordination (DCA techniques of the stands led to recognition of four vegetation groups: group A codominated by Veronica anagallis-aquatica, Potulaca oleracea and Cynodon dactylon, group B codominated by Rumex dentatus, Phragmites australis and Cynodon dactylon, group C codominated by Phragmites australis and Echinochloa stagnina and group D codominated by Phragmites australis and Bolboschoenus glaucus. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA was applied to detect the main environmental factors influencing the vegetation groups. The electrical conductivity, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, total nitrogen, chlorides and bicarbonates are the most effective environmental variables, which showed significant correlations with the first and second ordination axes. Accordingly, these soil and water variables seem to be the major ecological factors control the distribution of vegetation in the study area.

M.E. Abu Ziada

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 2 study of the radio-ecological consequences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The data compiled and processed within the framework of the French-German Initiative represent the so far most comprehensive collection of electronic data that has ever been put together on the topic of the 'Study of the radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'.The R.E.D.A.C. database system provides a powerful tool for the reconstruction of the dispersion of radionuclides through ecosystems and food chains and for the interpretation and prediction of their long-term behaviour. This allows the development of effective countermeasures to minimise risks to human health and improve the overall environmental situation. R.E.D.A.C. can also be used for the development and verification of realistic radioecology models. As the data were acquired under realistic conditions, the results can be used directly for model calculations in emergencies. This allows concrete planning, e. g. in connection with the securing of waste, its disposal, and the ecological restoration of waste disposal sites. The data also allow a reconstruction of the radioecological situation in the past, an analysis of the current situation, and predictions of future developments of the accident consequences on a large as well as on a small scale. (N.C.)

NONE

2006-03-15

202

Ecological study of hantavirus infection in wild rodents in an endemic area in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 3-year ecological study of small mammals was carried out in an endemic area for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the state of Santa Catarina in Southern Brazil. A total of 994 rodents of 14 different species corresponding to the subfamilies of Sigmodontinae, Murinae, Eumysopinae, and Caviinae were captured during 2004-2006. Oligoryzomys nigripes and Akodon montensis were the most abundant species and showed a clear seasonal pattern with higher population sizes during the winter. Rodent population outbreaks, associated within bamboo mast seeding events, were detected predominantly in areas where hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases were notified in the state. Antibody reactivity to Hantavirus was detected in five sigmodontine species: O. nigripes (39/435), A. montensis (15/318), Akodon paranaensis (4/37), Thaptomys nigrita (1/86) and Sooretamys angouya (1/12). The highest hantavirus antibody prevalence occurred during the period of highest population size in A. montensis. For O. nigripes, hantavirus prevalence was higher in late spring, when reproduction was more frequent. Co-circulation of Juquitiba (JUQV) and Jabora (JABV) viruses was observed - JABV in A. paranaensis and A. montensis; JUQV in O. nigripes and T. nigrita. JABV occurrence was associated to gender and population size of the rodent while JUQV was related to gender, season, temperature, and locality. PMID:24291677

Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Gentile, Rosana; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; Teixeira, Bernardo Rodrigues; Vaz, Vanderson; Valdez, Fernanda Pedone; Vicente, Luciana Helena Bassan; da Costa-Neto, Sócrates Fraga; Bonvicino, Cibele; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Lemos, Elba R S

2014-03-01

203

The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 2 study of the radio-ecological consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The data compiled and processed within the framework of the French-German Initiative represent the so far most comprehensive collection of electronic data that has ever been put together on the topic of the 'Study of the radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'.The R.E.D.A.C. database system provides a powerful tool for the reconstruction of the dispersion of radionuclides through ecosystems and food chains and for the interpretation and prediction of their long-term behaviour. This allows the development of effective countermeasures to minimise risks to human health and improve the overall environmental situation. R.E.D.A.C. can also be used for the development and verification of realistic radioecology models. As the data were acquired under realistic conditions, the results can be used directly for model calculations in emergencies. This allows concrete planning, e. g. in connection with the securing of waste, its disposal, and the ecological restoration of waste disposal sites. The data also allow a reconstruction of the radioecological situation in the past, an analysis of the current situation, and predictions of future developments of the accident consequences on a large as well as on a small scale. (N.C.)

2006-01-01

204

The value of ecologic studies: mercury concentration in ambient air and the risk of autism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecologic studies of the spatial relationship between disease and sources of environmental contamination can help to ascertain the degree of risk to populations from contamination and to inform legislation to ameliorate the risk. Population risks associated with persistent low-level mercury exposure have recently begun to be of concern and current reports implicate environmental mercury as a potential contributor in the etiology of various developmental and neurodegenerative diseases including autism and Alzheimer's disease. In this demonstration of preliminary findings, we demonstrate for Bexar County Texas and Santa Clara County California, the hypothesis that the spatial structure of the occurrence of autism has a positive co-variation with the spatial structure of the distribution of mercury in ambient air. The relative risk of autism is greater in the geographic areas of higher levels of ambient mercury. We find that the higher levels of ambient mercury are geographically associated with point sources of mercury emission, such as coal-fired power plants and cement plants with coal-fired kilns. Although this does not indicate a cause, these results should not be dismissed, but rather seen as a preliminary step for generating a hypothesis for further investigation. PMID:21905454

Blanchard, K Stephen; Palmer, Raymond F; Stein, Zachary

2011-01-01

205

Non invasive methods for genetic analysis applied to ecological and behavioral studies in Latino-America  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Documenting the presence and abundance of the neotropical mammals is the first step for understanding their population ecology, behavior and genetic dynamics in designing conservation plans. The combination of field research with molecular genetics techniques are new tools that provide valuable biological information avoiding the disturbance in the ecosystems, trying to minimize the human impact in the process to gather biological information. The objective of this paper is to review the available non invasive sampling techniques that have been used in Neotropical mammal studies to apply to determine the presence and abundance, population structure, sex ratio, taxonomic diagnostic using mitochondrial markers, and assessing genetic variability using nuclear markers. There are a wide range of non invasive sampling techniques used to determine the species identification that inhabit an area such as searching for tracks, feces, and carcasses. Other useful equipment is the camera traps that can generate an image bank that can be valuable to assess species presence and abundance by morphology. With recent advances in molecular biology, it is now possible to use the trace amounts of DNA in feces and amplify it to analyze the species diversity in an area, and the genetic variability at intraspecific level. This is particularly helpful in cases of sympatric and cryptic species in which morphology failed to diagnose the taxonomic status of several species of brocket deer of the genus Mazama.

Susana González

2007-07-01

206

Aquatic Ecology Section  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Population studies included stock-progeny models of use in impact analyses; density-dependent function for fishing mortality; and the effect of growth curve and sampling regime on various methods for estimating aquatic insect production; a computer simulation. Studies on ecological effects included radiological and chemical effects. Ecological transport studies were conducted on transport of radionuclides and trace elements. Other activities included environmental monitoring of aquatic ecosystems, conferences, and marine studies

1977-11-01

207

An ecological systems approach to examining risk factors for early childhood overweight: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To use an ecological systems approach to examine individual-, family-, community- and area-level risk factors for overweight (including obesity) in 3-year-old children. Methods: A prospective nationally representative cohort study conducted in England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland. Participants included 13 188 singleton children aged 3 years in the Millennium Cohort Study, born between 2000 and 2002, who had complete height/weight data. The main outcome measure was childhood o...

Hawkins, S. S.; Cole, T. J.; Law, C.; Millennium Cohort Study Child Health Group, The

2009-01-01

208

Costa Rican coffee and bananas : A social-ecological study of management practices and their effects on the environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis investigates the variability in management practices on coffee and banana farms in an attempt to identify practices that reduce the environmental impact of export crop production. Different banana production systems are studied to determine their level of environmental impact. Insect sampling and bird surveys are used to assess the level of ecological quality on banana farms and their surrounding environments. The first two studies are based on interview methods and focus more on ...

2011-01-01

209

Study of the Ecology of Fresh Sausages and Characterization of Populations of Lactic Acid Bacteria by Molecular Methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, a polyphasic approach was used to study the ecology of fresh sausages and to characterize populations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The microbial profile of fresh sausages was monitored from the production day to the 10th day of storage at 4°C. Samples were collected on days 0, 3, 6, and 10, and culture-dependent and -independent methods of detection and identification were applied. Traditional plating and isolation of LAB strains, which were subsequently identified by molecu...

Cocolin, Luca; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Iacumin, Lucilla; Urso, Rosalinda; Cantoni, Carlo; Comi, Giuseppe

2004-01-01

210

Revisiting the Affect Regulation Model of Binge Eating: A Meta-Analysis of Studies using Ecological Momentary Assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The affect regulation model of binge eating, which posits that patients binge eat to reduce negative affect (NA), has received support from cross-sectional and laboratory-based studies. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves momentary ratings and repeated assessments over time and is ideally suited to identify temporal antecedents and consequences of binge eating. This meta-analytic review includes EMA studies of affect and binge eating. Electronic database and manual searches produce...

Haedt-matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

2011-01-01

211

Electronic structure of H2S, SF2, and HSF and implications for hydrogen-substituted hypervalent sulfur fluorides.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well known that hypervalent molecules are more stable with very electronegative ligands such as fluorine. For example, while SF6 is uniquely stable and experimentally well characterized and many of the features of SF4 have been characterized, neither H4S nor H6S has been observed. Furthermore, no hypervalent sulfur species with mixed hydrogen and fluorine ligands have been experimentally characterized to date. In this work, we present detailed calculations of the electronic structure of H2S, SF2, and HSF. While all three compounds have similar bent singlet ground states, the potential energy surfaces of various low lying electronic states as a function of bond angle reveal very different behaviors, in particular for linear geometries. We use the disparate bonding motifs of the low-lying triplet states to rationalize the differences between SF4 and the hypothetical H4S molecule. We also make predictions about the effects of hydrogen substitution on the energetics and geometries of hypervalent sulfur fluoride compounds. PMID:24471583

Lindquist, Beth A; Woon, David E; Dunning, Thom H

2014-02-20

212

Studies on Sustainable Development of Ecological Sports Tourism Resources and Its Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Through the analysis of ecological sports tourism resources and its characteristics, we investigated the key ecological sports tourism resources from the angle of regional planning, industrialization programming, design and so on in the present paper and put forwar...

Pengfei Zhu

2009-01-01

213

A Study on the Coupling Rules between Ecological Environment and Urban Competitiveness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relation between city and ecological environment forms in the coupling process of urban systems and environmental factors, in which there is a definite rule. Urban competitiveness embodies the evolvement and development of the city, using the dissipative structure principle and mathematical analysis, this paper probes into the coupling rule between urban competitiveness and ecological environment. It is indicated that the amicability degree of human environmental behavior determines the shape of environmental Kuznets curve, the human amicable behavior and technological progress are significant for coordinating the city development and improving the urban competitiveness.

Tong Yang

2009-02-01

214

Periodical Ecological Study of Deliya Lake of Visnagar. At. Visnagar. Ta.Visnagar, Gujarat, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visnagar city is located in north Gujarat (72 30 n and 73 30 n 23 0 e and 23 35 e. Visnagar taluka is popularly known as ‘Shikshan Nagari’ and also known as Copper city. The climate of visnagar is tropical arid to marginal semi-arid. It is strongly periodic and seasonal. There are many fresh water bodies are situated at and arou Deliya lake is natural fresh water body having 19 hector area & circular in shape. It is located between latitude230 41’ 60’’N longitude720 32’ 60’’ E. it is oldest lake of visnagar. It is also known as hanuman temple talav. Constructed before 10’th century.nd Visnagar taluka. The present study deals with the physico-chemical status of deliya lake. This water bodies has dense growth of algae and planktons in its. Physico-chemical status of lakes belongs to Visnagar Taluka were studied in year 2011. The physico- chemical parameters show pH, Dissolve Oxygen, totol dissolved Solid, E.C., Chloride, Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Calcium, Calcium Hardness, Magnesium, Magnesium Hardness, Fluoride, Nitrate, COD, BOD, etc and water is essential for living organisms especially like flora and fauna observed through various field trips. Showing abundance of analytic species and spirulina species with many other members of chlorophyceae. Euglenophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and cyanophyceae, microbiological analysis shows positive results for E.Coli, Vibro sp. and many other pathogenic. An isolated area of the lake is totally infested with eicchornia Spe. The migratory and local bird like plegadis falcinellus, Ardea parpurea, Egretta intermediate. Ardeola grayli, Dendrocygna, jaranica (and many more have been observed. If the sewage and other waste are diverted to some appropriate area other than the lake water quality and ecology of the pond can be restored and will be used in drinking and agriculture by the people.

H.V.JOSHI , DR. R.S.PATEL

2013-05-01

215

Studies on Biology and Ecology of the Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The diamondback moths, Plutella xylostella L. were reared with cabbage leaves under field condition at Khao Khor Highland Agricultural Research Station (16-47 degree celsius, 22-96% R.H.). The average duration of the egg, larval (1st and 2nd instar, 3rd instar and 4th instar), pupal and male and female adult stages were 3.21± 0.30, 5.57 ± 0.60, 3.16 ± 1.07, 3.43+0.97, 3.88 ± 1.59, 17.72 ± 2.74 and 16.16 ± 3.93 days respectively. Female laid eggs at 1 day old and the highest number of eggs were counted in the 2nd day of the oviposition period. The number of eggs laid per female averaged 109+77.60 eggs, ranging from 17 to 248 eggs. The life cycle from egg to adult stage was 13-31 days. The population parameters were the cohort generation time (Tc)=23.45 days, the net reproductive rate (Ro)=25 and the finite rate of increase (?)=1.15 time per day respectively. Studies on reproductive system of this insect showed that the developed testes were found in the 4th instar larva while developed ovaries were found after emergence. Male mated many times (average 3.33 times) while almost female mated only once (92%). The ecological life table of this insect was studied in the cabbage field at the Khao Khor Highland Agricultural Research Station. The eggs hatch was 55.89% and the highest mortality occurred in the 1st and 2nd instar larval period (64.37%). The disease and parasites caused the high mortality in the 4th larval and pupal period (49.64 and 46.38%)

1998-12-01

216

Anatomical, chemical, and ecological factors affecting tree species choice in dendrochemistry studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently, element concentrations in tree rings have been used to monitor metal contamination, fertilization, and the effects of acid precipitation on soils. This has stimulated interest in which tree species may be suitable for use in studies of long-term trends in environmental chemistry. Potential radial translocation of elements across living boundaries can be a confounding factor in assessing environmental change. The selection of species which minimizes radial translocation of elements can be critical to the success of dendrochemical research. Criteria for selection of species with characteristics favorable for dendrochemical analysis are categorized into (1) habitat-based factors, (2) xylem-based factors, and (3) element-based factors. A wide geographic range and ecological amplitude provide an advantage in calibration and better controls on the effects of soil chemistry. The most important xylem-based criteria are heartwood moisture content, permeability, and the nature of the sapwood-heartwood transition. The element of interest is important in determining suitable tree species because all elements are not equally mobile or detectable in the xylem. Ideally, the tree species selected for dendrochemical study will be long-lived, grow on a wide range of sites over a large geographic distribution, have a distinct heartwood with a low number of rings in the sapwood, a low heartwood moisture content, and have low radial permeability. Recommended temperate zone North American species include white oak (Quercus alba L.), post oak (Q. stellate Wangenh.), eastern redcedar (funiperus virginiana L.), old-growth Douglas-fir [Pseudoaugu menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] and big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.). In addition, species such as bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata Engelm. syn. longaeva), old-growth redwood [Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.], and giant sequoia [S. gigantea (Lindl.) Deene] may be suitable for local purposes. 118 refs., 2 tabs.

Cutter, B.E.; Guyette, R.P. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

1993-07-01

217

Radio-ecological study of the Lodeve mining complex (France) 1981-1985  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radio-ecological study of the Lodeve mining complex (mine + uranium process plant) was carried out between 1981 and 1985. Four aquatic compartments -water, sediments, vegetals, fish- were studied in eight stations selected on the basis of the existence of two liquid wastes. The measurements essentially concerned radium 226 and uranium 238 but also lead 210 (1985), thorium 232, potassium 40 and cesium 137. Spectrometry ? Ge-Li, emanometry and fluorimetry were used. Only a small brook -Rivernoux- an affluent of the Lergue river, shows radium and uranium activity levels higher than those measured upstream of the site; and this for the four compartments. In water, radium is associated with the solved cationic fraction (66%) and with materials in suspension (21%), whereas uranium is essentially associated with the solved anionic fraction (84%); the radium migration potentialities are therefore lesser than that of uranium. Radium distribution in fish is as follows: flesh (5 to 15%), skeleton (12%), viscera (30%) and skin + fins (30%). Radium concentration (or exchange) factors are always higher than those corresponding to uranium. In general, they are more important in non-influenced zones than in influenced zones (Rivernoux); this implies that radium and uranium evacuated by the mining complex are, at least partly, in non bio-available forms. For water/fish exchange a concentration factor of 100 will be considered for radium. On the basis of this value a weekly consumption of 200 g of fried gudgeon gives an annual committed dose equivalent corresponding to 0.86% of the dose authorized for the public (5.10-3 Sv.an-1)

1987-01-01

218

Women and environment. A socio-ecological study for women on the reformation of the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study addresses the following issues: contributions to improve our environment; the impact of pollutants on our health; the pollution of food and water; water quality regulations. Protection of the environment is defined as the sum total of measures that safeguard woman's natural environment and maintain a biological equilibrium. The efficiency of technological solutions to protect the environment is strictly limited by ecological factors. The goal of environmental protection is to ensure the survival of womankind. Just like plants and animals, the human race is part of an ecosystem. Once this system is destroyed, there is nothing technical measures of environmental protection can do to reverse the process. Life on earth depends on the equilibrium between the oxygen produced by chlorophyllous plants and the oxygen consumed by human beings, animals and technological processes. My interviews with young women and children show that women could contribute very much to the melioration of the environment. The majority of women is trying to switch to non-chemically engineered products, which improves the quality of our water. Biological gardening is preferred by a small minority of women only, but many women take the separation of waste very seriously. However, individual actions can do little to solve the problem of pollution caused by road and air traffic. Life in the fast lane condemns us to the use of cars and airplanes. In the foreseeable future, this means more rather than less pollution. With genetic engineering developing at a breathtaking rate, it seems impossible to avoid a large-scale modification of our food and agricultural produce. So far, many Austrian women fail to appreciate the trend towards genetic manipulation. Neither on the farm nor in the food products themselves is it possible to distinguish genetically engineered innovations. However, behind the consumer's back, this revolution of the food industry is pushed through at an ever greater speed. Because a majority of the population rejects such foodstuffs outright. Nevertheless, genetically engineered food products have already found their way into Austrian groceries stores, and this development is set to gather pace in years to come. This study gives priority to the question whether women can improve the environment. As I have mentioned before, women can indeed contribute to an improvement of the environment. However, only big ecological organizations can return nature to its pristine state, but any such efforts are currently foiled by the greed for profit of large corporations. As a conclusion of this study, it is fair to say that women can contribute to the reformation of the environment, for instance by reducing the toxic discharge into rivers and lakes, by separating waste and promoting recycled products, and by relying on biological products to promote a healthier lifestyle. The substitution of fossil fuels with electric power or natural gas for heating purposes clearly improves the quality of the air in one's own private environment. Green belts in residential areas and plants in the house are sources of oxygen that protect the respiratory system against damaging environmental influences. The survey also showed that women do not know enough about a healthy lifestyle, but they are eager to learn more about this issue. Several statements revealed interesting experiences. If women are increasingly interested in a healthy environment and turn to biologically farmed natural products, the soil will be able to regenerate, and this would clearly benefit the environment. (author)

2000-01-01

219

Inventory of selected freshwater-ecology studies from the New England Coastal Basins (Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island), 1937-97  

Science.gov (United States)

An inventory of published studies that address freshwater ecology within the New England Coastal Basins was created through computerized bibliographic literature searches and consultation with environmental agencies. Assembled papers were classified to associate their contents with one or more states, ecoregions, river basins, and ecological topics. Full references and their classifications were entered into a bibliographic software program and then exported to a data-base application to generate a checklist summary of study contents. This report presents a listing and classification of 154 selected studies, published between 1937 and 1997, that provide background knowledge and serve as general aquatic-ecology references for the New England Coastal Basins study area.

Tessler, Steven; Coles, J. F.; Beaulieu, K. M.

1999-01-01

220

Sudbury soils study : human health and ecological risk assessment : a case study in science, process and perception  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation discussed the public relations and public opinion strategies used as part of a soils study conducted to assess the risk of mining activities in the Sudbury region to human health and the environment. The human health risk assessment (HHRA) study was conducted and administered by a multi-stakeholder technical committee attended by the public. The study was comprised of extensive soil collection and analysis; a review of historical soils data; and extensive human health and ecological risk assessments. Extensive sampling was also conducted on air, dust, and locally-produced foods. A public advisory committee was formed to disseminate scientific information to the community. Scientific data obtained in the study were reviewed by experts in various fields. Results of the study were also peer-reviewed by an independent expert review panel comprised of leading specialists in human health, toxicology, speciation, and risk assessment. The study showed that the identified risks were over-estimated in the interest of protecting human health. It was concluded that the HHRA's findings were generally accepted by the public. tabs., figs

2009-03-01

 
 
 
 
221

Sudbury soils study : human health and ecological risk assessment : a case study in science, process and perception  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation discussed the public relations and public opinion strategies used as part of a soils study conducted to assess the risk of mining activities in the Sudbury region to human health and the environment. The human health risk assessment (HHRA) study was conducted and administered by a multi-stakeholder technical committee attended by the public. The study was comprised of extensive soil collection and analysis; a review of historical soils data; and extensive human health and ecological risk assessments. Extensive sampling was also conducted on air, dust, and locally-produced foods. A public advisory committee was formed to disseminate scientific information to the community. Scientific data obtained in the study were reviewed by experts in various fields. Results of the study were also peer-reviewed by an independent expert review panel comprised of leading specialists in human health, toxicology, speciation, and risk assessment. The study showed that the identified risks were over-estimated in the interest of protecting human health. It was concluded that the HHRA's findings were generally accepted by the public. tabs., figs.

Wren, C. [AECOM, Guelph, ON (Canada)

2009-03-15

222

Determination of ecological significance based on geostatistical assessment: a case study from the Slovak Natura 2000 protected area  

Science.gov (United States)

The Sitno Natura 2000 Site covers an area of 935,56 hectares. The Sitno region is significant due to the number of rare and endangered species of plants, and as a result is considered a location of great importance to the maintenance of floral gene pools. The study area suffers human impacts in the form of tourism. The main purpose of this study is to the measure landscape elements, determine the ecological significance of habitats within the Sitno area, and from this data, organize the study area into conservation zones. The results of this landscape quantification are numerical values that can be used to interpret the quality of ongoing ecological processes within individual landscape types. Interpretation of this quantified data can be used to determine the ecological significance of landscapes in other study areas. This research examines the habitats of Natura 2000 Sites by a set of landscape metrics for habitat area, size, density, and shape, such as Number of patches (NP), Patch density (PD), Mean patch size (MPS), Patch size standard deviation (PSSD) and Mean shape index (MSI). The classification of land cover patches is based on the Annex Code system.

Klau?o, Michal; Gregorová, Bohuslava; Stankov, Uglješa; Markovi?, Vladimir; Lemenkova, Polina

2013-03-01

223

Extraction of high-quality host DNA from feces and regurgitated seeds: a useful tool for vertebrate ecological studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english DNA extraction methods for genotyping non-invasive samples have led to great advances in molecular research for ecological studies, and have been particularly useful for analyzing threatened species. However, scarce amounts of fragmented DNA and the presence of Taq polymerase inhibitors in non-invas [...] ive samples are potential problems for subsequent PCR amplifications. In this study we describe a novel technique for extracting DNA from alimentary tract cells found on external surfaces of feces and regurgitated seeds. The presence of contaminants and inhibitors is minimized and samples are preserved intact for use in other ecological research (e.g. trophic studies). The amplification efficiency and purity of the extracted DNA from feces were significantly higher than in commonly used extraction procedures. Moreover, DNA of two bird species was identified from seeds expelled by regurgitation. Therefore, this method may be suitable for future ecological studies of birds, and other vertebrate groups.

MARRERO, PATRICIA; FREGEL, ROSA; CABRERA, VICENTE M; NOGALES, MANUEL.

224

Innovations fields from corporate studies to socio-ecological indicators : a point of review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we attempt a crossing state of the art of innovation concept, through exploring the both corporate and territorial significations of this notion. Next, we list the corresponding specified innovation indicators, in order to be able to propose a systemic description of socio-ecological innovation, through introducing its informational characterization

Woloszyn, Philippe

2010-01-01

225

Using the Urban Environment to Engage Youths in Urban Ecology Field Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent science education reform proponents explicitly put forward the idea that all students, regardless of culture, gender, race, or socioeconomic status, are capable of understanding and doing science. To address this need, the authors have developed and implemented a field-based urban ecology science program to engage traditionally…

Barnett, Michael; Lord, Charles; Strauss, Eric; Rosca, Camelia; Langford, Heather; Chavez, Dawn; Deni, Leah

2006-01-01

226

Humanity, Forest Ecology, and the Future in a British Columbia Valley:A Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most important and challenging issues facing humanity in the 21st century is the increasingly complex human-ecology interface. This article suggests the potential that integral mediation and integral ecology hold in addressing this interface. It distinguishes two categories of ecological challenges, removed and local tangible ones, and indicates that they require adapting methodologies to address them. Using a local tangible challenge—a 35-year old conflict over land use issues in the Slocan Valley, British Columbia, Canada—as an example, an integral mediation approach is outlined. First, context is given, both historically and geographically. Then the main capacities employed in the vision-building and mediation process are outlined. The article presents the case in such a way as to emphasize some generalizations, favoring these over a presentation of many case details. It concludes with a brief description of perspectives that are prerequisites in order to successfully apply integral solutions to the human-ecology interface.

Stephan Martineau

2007-06-01

227

INTEGRATION OF HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT - CASE STUDY DEMONSTRATIONS AND IMPLEMENTATION NEEDS  

Science.gov (United States)

The WHO International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), together with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has developed a framework for integrated assessment of human health and ecological risks. Four case stu...

228

Ecological Study of Braconid Wasps in Different Logged over Forests with Special Emphasis on the Microgastrines (Hymenoptera:Braconidae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An ecological study of braconid wasps with special emphasis on the subfamily microgastrinae was conducted in three different logged and fragmented forests (HSUKM, HSKLU and HSKLS). Sampling was done for one week per month starting from July to November 2001 using nine Malaise traps per forest. A total of 953 braconidae individuals comprising 19 subfamilies and 91 species (morphospecies) were collected. Of this, 195 individuals were collected at HSUKM, 414 individuals at HSKLU and 344 individu...

2002-01-01

229

Pregnancy outcomes and outdoor air pollution: an ecological study in districts of the Czech Republic 1986-8  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: Outdoor air pollution has consistently been shown to predict mortality. The finding that this association is stronger in infants than in children or adults raises the question whether air pollution could also be related to pregnancy outcomes--such as birthweight and stillbirth. The association between outdoor air pollution and stillbirths and low birthweight in the Czech Republic, where air pollution was high, was examined. METHODS: An ecological study was conducted, with ro...

Bobak, M.; Leon, D. A.

1999-01-01

230

Cancer risk among residents of Rhineland-Palatinate winegrowing communities: a cancer-registry based ecological study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Aim To investigate the cancer risk among residents of Rhineland-Palatinate winegrowing communities in an ecological study. Methods On the basis of the Rhineland-Palatinate cancer-registry, we calculated age-adjusted incidence rate ratios for communities with a medium area under wine cultivation (>5 to 20 percent) and a large area under wine cultivation (>20 percent) in comparison with communities with a small area under wine cultivation (>0 to 5 percent...

Seidler Andreas; Hammer Gaël; Husmann Gabriele; König Jochem; Krtschil Anne; Schmidtmann Irene; Blettner Maria

2008-01-01

231

Ecological study of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in soil: growth ability, conidia production and molecular detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ecology is not completely understood, although several pieces of evidence point to the soil as its most probable habitat. The present study aimed to investigate the fungal growth, conidia production and molecular pathogen detection in different soil conditions. Methods Soils samples of clayey, sandy and medium textures were collected from ground surface and the interior of armadillo burrows in a hyperend...

Terçarioli Gisela; Bagagli Eduardo; Reis Gabriela; Theodoro Raquel; Bosco Sandra; Macoris Severino; Richini-Pereira Virgínia

2007-01-01

232

Oral Ingestion of Hexavalent Chromium through Drinking Water and Cancer Mortality in an Industrial Area of Greece - An Ecological Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Hexavalent chromium is a known carcinogen when inhaled, but its carcinogenic potential when orally ingested remains controversial. Water contaminated with hexavalent chromium is a worldwide problem, making this a question of significant public health importance. Methods: We conducted an ecological mortality study within the Oinofita region of Greece, where water has been contaminated with hexavalent chromium. We calculated gender, age, and period standardized mortality ratios (SMR...

Linos, Athena; Petralias, Athanassios; Christoforidou, Eleni; Kouroutou, Paraskevi; Stoltidis, Melina; Veloudaki, Afroditi; Tzala, Evangelia; Christophi, Costas A.; Makris, Konstantinos C.; Karagas, Margaret R.

2011-01-01

233

Ecological Footprint as a tool for local sustainability: The municipality of Piacenza (Italy) as a case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ecological Footprint is a synthetic index useful to assess sustainability of anthropic systems. Its operational use, however, has been hampered by some difficulties, especially at a local scale. Being conceived as a measure of the biologically productive area requested to sustain individual consumptions in a human community, it leaves out the impacts associated to economic activities. Accordingly, the index cannot contribute much to define local policies, whose target are economic activities, and only marginally affect citizens' behaviour. Ecological Footprint calculation scheme can be modified to include the depletion of natural capital due to local activities such as industry, agriculture, tertiary sector, transport, waste and water management. We provide here an approach which takes into account these different aspects, while we discuss its application to a municipal area as a case study

2009-01-01

234

The ecological economics: An ecological economics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ecological Economics arise as a scientific discipline aimed to integrate concepts of economics, ecology, thermodynamics, ethic and other natural and social sciences in order to incorporate a biophysical and integrated perspective of the inter dependences between economies and environment, from a plural conception and a methodology beyond disciplines. Ecological Economics studies the black box of economic processes usually excluded of the traditional economics: thermodynamics and ecology. Although it is relatively a new field of study, it has been strengthening its theoretical framework with scientific basis and analytic principles that lead to its identification as a new discipline that show a whole new paradigm. The scope of this article is to show the conceptual and methodological bases, the main founders, approaches and central debates of this new discipline. This brief introduction is a preamble to the papers of the meeting Ecological Economics: a perspective for Colombia included in this number, that took place on September 22 - 27 of 2007, at the National University of Colombia at Bogota. During tree days national and international experts, professors, researchers, workers of environmental sector and people interested on environmental issues joined together to know the conceptual and methodological achievements reached of this discipline; as well as to analyse and evaluate the environmental problems of the country, from the systemic, interdisciplinary and general perspective that it promotes

2007-01-01

235

Ecological engineering to control bioclogging: an original field study coupling infiltration and biological measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

Infiltration systems are increasingly used in urban areas for several purposes such as flood prevention and groundwater recharge. However, their functioning is often impacted by clogging that leads to decreases in hydraulic and water treatment performances. These systems are commonly built with sand as infiltration medium, a media subject to rapid clogging by the combined and overlapping processes of pore occlusion by fine particles and biofilm development. In a previous study, we pointed out that the phototrophic component of biofilms developed at the surface layer of infiltration systems (algae, cyanobacteria) could reduce by up to 60-fold the saturated hydraulic conductivity. Consequently, it appears crucial to control biofilm growth to maintain porous infiltration media performances. The present study aimed to test the influence of biotic (addition of animals or macrophytes) and abiotic (light reduction) treatments on biofilm development and associated hydraulic properties in an infiltration device dedicated to aquifer recharge with river water in Lyon Area (France). Twenty-five benthic enclosures were used to test 5 "treatments" on non-manipulated surface layer under field conditions. Three biotic treatments consisted in the introduction of: (i) an invertebrate acting as algae grazer (Viviparus viviparus), (ii) an invertebrate that digs galleries in sediments (Tubifex tubifex), and (iii) a macrophyte that could inhibit benthic biofilm by allelopathic activity (Vallisneria spiralis L). The fourth treatment was designed to simulate shading. The last "treatment" was a control which monitored the evolution of the system during the experiment without manipulation (addition of macro-organisms or shading). Each treatment was replicated five times. The experiment was conducted for 6 weeks, and sampling of the surface layer (0-1 cm) was carried out in each enclosure at the beginning (t0) and the end (tf). We coupled biological characterizations (organic matter, algal biomass, bacterial abundances, microbial enzymatic activities, EPS composition, and photosynthetic efficiency) with in situ hydraulic conductivity measurements (falling head method, five measures per enclosure at t0 and tf). Our results showed that some treatments could regulate benthic biofilm growth and improve infiltration rate. For instance, V. viviparus treatment resulted in a decrease in chlorophyll-a, EPS sugar and protein contents and an associated increase of infiltration rate, while it decreased in the control treatment. These results are very promising for the future development of ecological engineering solutions to prevent biological clogging in systems dedicated to infiltration. To our knowledge, this study is the first to highlight such potential role of macro-organisms under field conditions.

Gette-bouvarot, Morgane; Mermillod-Blondin, Florian; Lassabatere, Laurent; Lemoine, Damien; Delolme, Cécile; Volatier, Laurence

2014-05-01

236

Concern about passive smoking and tobacco control policies in European countries: An ecological study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the magnitude of the global tobacco epidemic, the World Health Organisation developed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC, an international legally binding treaty to control tobacco use. Adoption and implementation of specific tobacco control measures within FCTC is an outcome of a political process, where social norms and public opinion play important roles. The objective of our study was to examine how a country’s level of tobacco control is associated with smoking prevalence, two markers of denormalisation of smoking (social disapproval of smoking and concern about passive smoking, and societal support for tobacco control. Methods An ecological study was conducted, using data from two sources. The first source was the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS from 2011, which quantifies the implementation of tobacco control policies in European Union (EU countries. Data on smoking prevalence, societal disapproval of smoking, concern about passive smoking, and societal support for policy measures were taken from the Eurobarometer survey of 2009. Data from Eurobarometer surveys were aggregated to country level. Data from the 27 European Union member states were used. Results Smoking prevalence rates in 2009 were negatively associated with a country’s TCS 2011 score, although not statistically significant (r = ?.25; p = .21. Experience of societal disapproval was positively associated with higher TCS scores, though not significantly (r = .14; p = .48. The same was true for societal support for tobacco control (r = .27; p = .18. The TCS score in 2011 was significantly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .42; p =.03. Support for tobacco control measures was also strongly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .52, p = .006. Conclusions Smokers in countries with a higher TCS score were more concerned about whether their smoke harms others. Further, support for tobacco control measures is higher in countries that have more of these concerned smokers. Concerns about passive smoking seem central in the implementation of tobacco control measures, stressing the importance of continuing to educate the public about the harm from passive smoking.

Willemsen Marc C

2012-10-01

237

Model development in freshwater ecology with a case study using evolutionary computation  

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Full Text Available Ecological modeling faces some unique problems in dealing with complex environment-organism relationships,making it one of the toughest domains that might be encountered by a modeler. Newer technologies and ecosystemmodeling paradigms have recently been proposed, all as part of a broader effort to reduce the uncertainty in modelsarising from qualitative and quantitative imperfections in the ecological data. In this paper, evolutionary computationmodeling approaches are introduced and proposed as useful modeling tools for ecosystems. The results of our casestudy support the applicability of an algal predictive model constructed via genetic programming. In conclusion, wepropose that evolutionary computation may constitute a powerful tool for the modeling of highly complex objects, suchas river ecosystems.

Dong-Kyun Kim

2010-12-01

238

Case Studies of Ecological Integrative Information Systems: The Luquillo and Sevilleta Information Management Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The thirty-year-old United States Long Term Ecological Research Network has developed extensive metadata to document their scientific data. Standard and interoperable metadata is a core component of the data-driven analytical solutions developed by this research network Content management systems offer an affordable solution for rapid deployment of metadata centered information management systems. We developed a customized integrative metadata management system based on the Drupal content management system technology. Building on knowledge and experience with the Sevilleta and Luquillo Long Term Ecological Research sites, we successfully deployed the first two medium-scale customized prototypes. In this paper, we describe the vision behind our Drupal based information management instances, and list the features offered through these Drupal based systems. We also outline the plans to expand the information services offered through these metadata centered management systems. We will conclude with the growing list of participants deploying similar instances.

San Gil, Inigo; White, Marshall; Melendez, Eda; Vanderbilt, Kristin

239

Subantarctic forest ecology : case study of a conifer-broadleaved stand in Patagonia, Argentina  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the temperate rainforests of southern South America, the tree genus Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae) is the dominant in extension and abundance on zonal soils at different latitudes and altitudes, as well as on intrazonal (e.g., wetlands) and azonal soils (e.g., morrenic and fluvioglacial deposits). Although concern on the global role of this biome is currently important, the existing level of ecological knowledge on its functioning is still inadequate to design a sound management to maintain or...

2000-01-01

240

Non invasive methods for genetic analysis applied to ecological and behavioral studies in Latino-America  

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Documenting the presence and abundance of the neotropical mammals is the first step for understanding their population ecology, behavior and genetic dynamics in designing conservation plans. The combination of field research with molecular genetics techniques are new tools that provide valuable biological information avoiding the disturbance in the ecosystems, trying to minimize the human impact in the process to gather biological information. The objective of this paper is to review the avai...

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

A method for under-sampled ecological network data analysis: plant-pollination as case study  

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Full Text Available In this paper, we develop a method, termed the Interaction Distribution (ID method, for analysis of quantitative ecological network data. In many cases, quantitative network data sets are under-sampled, i.e. many interactions are poorly sampled or remain unobserved. Hence, the output of statistical analyses may fail to differentiate between patterns that are statistical artefacts and those which are real characteristics of ecological networks. The ID method can support assessment and inference of under-sampled ecological network data. In the current paper, we illustrate and discuss the ID method based on the properties of plant-animal pollination data sets of flower visitation frequencies. However, the ID method may be applied to other types of ecological networks. The method can supplement existing network analyses based on two definitions of the underlying probabilities for each combination of pollinator and plant species: (1, pi,j: the probability for a visit made by the i’th pollinator species to take place on the j’th plant species; (2, qi,j: the probability for a visit received by the j’th plant species to be made by the i’th pollinator. The method applies the Dirichlet distribution to estimate these two probabilities, based on a given empirical data set. The estimated mean values for pi,j and qi,j reflect the relative differences between recorded numbers of visits for different pollinator and plant species, and the estimated uncertainty of pi,j and qi,j decreases with higher numbers of recorded visits.

Peter B. Sorensen

2012-01-01

242

Study on heavy metals and ecological risk assessment from Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia sections of the Yellow River, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Yellow River is the most important resource of water supply in northern China. The purpose of this work are to investigate the concentrations and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, the concentrations of eight heavy metals including As, Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn in filtered water and suspended particles from 12 sampling sites of Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia sections of the Yellow River of China were studied by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) and high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS) in this paper. The results implied that all heavy metals in filtered water were lower than the limit standards for drinking water except for Cr (56.9 approximately 71. 5 microg L-1 ). Water quality parameters such as total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and pH were also determined and the contents were low along the river except for TN at S1 (2.48) and S9 (2.38), which exceeded the maximum permitted concentration of Class V for the protection of surface water. In suspended particles, the concentrations of Hg, Cd, Pb and Zn were much higher than those in the background value of soil from local section. Cluster analysis (CA) indicated that same sources for Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn and Pb could be stainless steel and petrochemical industrial activities, while As, Cd and Hg derived from agrochemicals, fertilizers, mining, fuel and coal combustion, respectively. Ecological risk assessment was undertaken using risk index (RI) for sampling sites and ecological risk factor (Er) for heavy metals. Eleven suspension samples existed considerable ecological risk (300.6384. 0) and S5 (373. 3), respectively, implied a high pollution in these sampling sites. The results could provide reliable experimental data and theoretical basis for the relevant departments. PMID:24611380

Liu, Jing-Jun; Liu, Ying

2013-12-01

243

Economic-Ecological Values of Non-Tidal Swamp Ecosystem: Case Study in Tapin District, Kalimantan, Indonesia  

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Full Text Available This article would like to describe the economic and ecological benefits, as well as analyzing the total economic value of non-tidal swamps. Non-tidal swamps in the District Tapin are interested to be studied because of the use of non-tidal swamp in this area for people, especially ethnic Banjar since over a hundred years ago. But since 2011 the South Kalimantan local government has set a palm oil plantation development plans (Elaeis guineensis on the area. Assessment has been conducted with a total valuation approach (total valuation. We found that the ecosystem has economic benefits in the form of functions of water supply for rice paddy (Oryza sativa, timber plants (Melaleca cajuputi, fisheries, Purun plants (Eleocharis dulcis, and functions as a source of domestic water. It has also ecological benefits in the form of biological functions such as: the provision of feed (feeding ground, where fish rearing, timber Galam (nursery ground, and hatchery fish (spawning ground, as storage and recycle of water, and function options (option value in the form of biodiversity. Based on the results of the assessment are known, the total economic value amounted to 22.7 million per hectare, with the ratio of the economic value of only 7.14% compared to the ecological value of 92.86%. Therefore non-tidal swamps conversion plan into another function not only the loss of economic value (direct benefits that had been in the swamp enjoy the surrounding community, but also a greater loss in the form of loss of ecological value (indirect benefits.

Hamdani Hamdani

2013-12-01

244

Floristical and Ecological Studies on Burned Blackpine (Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb Holmboe Forest Area at Central Anatolia  

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Full Text Available In the burned forest area between 1999-2002 the floristical and ecological studies were conducted. In this period, successional development of the area was observed. After the fire in 1995, new life forms migrated from unburned parts of Sundiken Mountains and occupied the burned area in 7-8 years. There were 133 plant taxa were collected at the first year of the study and during the successional development the number of plant taxa decreased to 75. The secondary succession of the area were determined between 1999-2002. After the fire the dominant plant species of the study area is Cistus laurifolius.

Atila Ocak

2007-01-01

245

Outdoor air pollution, subtypes and severity of ischemic stroke - a small-area level ecological study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Evidence linking outdoor air pollution and incidence of ischemic stroke subtypes and severity is limited. We examined associations between outdoor PM10 and NO2 concentrations modeled at a fine spatial resolution and etiological and clinical ischemic stroke subtypes and severity of ischemic stroke. Methods We used a small-area level ecological study design and a stroke register set up to capture all incident cases of first ever stroke (1995–2007) occurring in a defined geographical area in South London (948 census output areas; population of 267839). Modeled PM10 and NO2 concentrations were available at a very fine spatial scale (20 meter by 20 meter grid point resolution) and were aggregated to output area level using postcode population weighted averages. Ischemic stroke was classified using the Oxford clinical classification, the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) etiological classification, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score and a pragmatic clinical severity classification based on Glasgow coma score, ability to swallow, urinary continence and death pollutants and the incidence of ischemic stroke subtypes classified using the Oxford and TOAST classifications. We found no significant association with stroke severity using NIHSS severity categories. However, we found that outdoor concentrations of both PM10 and NO2 appeared to be associated with increased incidence of mild but not severe ischemic stroke, classified using the pragmatic clinical severity classification. For mild ischemic stroke, the rate ratio in the highest PM10 category by tertile was 1.20 (1.05-1.38) relative to the lowest category. The rate ratio in the highest NO2 category was 1.22 (1.06-1.40) relative to the lowest category. Conclusions We found no evidence of association between outdoor PM10 and NO2 concentrations and ischemic stroke subtypes but there was a suggestion that living in areas with elevated outdoor PM10 and NO2 concentrations might be associated with increased incidence of mild, but not severe, ischemic stroke.

2014-01-01

246

Inventory of Selected Freshwater-Ecology Studies From the New England Coastal Basins (Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island), 1937-1997.  

Science.gov (United States)

An inventory of published studies that address freshwater ecology within the New England Coastal Basins was created through computerized bibliographic literature searches and consultation with environmental agencies. Assembled papers were classified to as...

S. Tessler J. F. Coles K. M. Beaulieu

1999-01-01

247

Demographic analysis and population models in ecology, evolution and conservation: a transversal approach with case studies = L’anàlisi demogràfica i els models poblacionals en ecologia, evolució i conservació: un enfoc transversal amb casos d’estudi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[eng] Population ecology is a scientific discipline primarily interested in the ecological processes that make the number of individuals in a population to change over space and time, and by focusing on populations as fundamental units, this discipline allows studying processes at multiple scales of ecological complexity, linking basic ecological science with evolutionary studies and more applied disciplines such as conservation biology. Inference about the responses of population to change a...

Ferna?ndez Chaco?n, Albert

2013-01-01

248

Development of a zoning-based environmental-ecological-coupled model for lakes: a case study of Baiyangdian Lake in North China  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental/ecological models are widely used for lake management as they provide a means to understand physical, chemical and biological processes in highly complex ecosystems. Most research focused on the development of environmental (water quality) and ecological models, separately. Limited studies were developed to couple the two models, and in these limited coupled models a lake was regarded as a whole for analysis (i.e., considering the lake to be one well-mixed box), which was appropriate for small-scale lakes and was not sufficient to capture spatial variations within middle-scale or large-scale lakes. In response to this problem, this paper seeks to establish a zoning-based environmental-ecological-coupled model for a lake. The hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was adopted to determine the number of zones for a lake based on the analysis of hydrological, water quality and ecological data. MIKE21 model was used to construct two-dimensional hydrodynamics and water quality simulations. STELLA software was used to create a lake ecological model which can simulate the spatial variations of ecological condition based on flow field distribution results generated by MIKE21. The Baiyangdian Lake, the largest freshwater lake in Northern China, was adopted as the study case. The results showed that the new model was promising to predict the spatial variation trends of ecological condition in response to the changes of water quantity and water quality for lakes, and could provide a great convenience for lake management.

Zhao, Y. W.; Xu, M. J.; Xu, F.; Wu, S. R.; Yin, X. A.

2014-02-01

249

Development of a zoning-based environmental-ecological coupled model for lakes: a case study of Baiyangdian Lake in northern China  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental/ecological models are widely used for lake management as they provide a means to understand physical, chemical, and biological processes in highly complex ecosystems. Most research has focused on the development of environmental (water quality) and ecological models, separately. Limited studies were developed to couple the two models, and in these limited coupled models, a lake was regarded as a whole for analysis (i.e. considering the lake to be one well-mixed box), which is appropriate for small-scale lakes but is not sufficient to capture spatial variations within middle-scale or large-scale lakes. In response to this problem, this paper seeks to establish a zoning-based environmental-ecological coupled model for a lake. Hierarchical cluster analysis was adopted to determine the number of zones in a given lake based on hydrological, water quality, and ecological data analysis. The MIKE 21 model was used to construct 2-D hydrodynamics and water quality simulations. STELLA software was used to create a lake ecological model that can simulate the spatial variations of ecological condition based on flow field distribution results generated by MIKE 21. Baiyangdian Lake, the largest freshwater lake in northern China, was adopted as the study case. The results showed that the new model is promising for predicting spatial variations of ecological conditions in response to changes in lake water quantity and quality, and could be useful for lake management.

Zhao, Y. W.; Xu, M. J.; Xu, F.; Wu, S. R.; Yin, X. A.

2014-06-01

250

?????????????—???????????? Development of Ecological Economy, Accelerate Wetland Conservation—The case study on West Dongting Lake Nature Reserve  

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Full Text Available ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Since established, the West Dongting Lake Nature Reserve has taken full advantage of ecological economics theories and system engineering methods to change the production and consumption patterns. This article expounds that the West Dongting Lake Nature Reserve makes the best of the wetland resources to develop ecological economy, such as ecological tourism, Organic Fisheries and so on within the ecological capacities, and effectively promotes the protection of the ecological environment, and offers reasonable proposals for the future development of the wetland ecological economy.

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2013-04-01

251

The role of the Yala swamp lakes in the conservation of Lake Victoria region haplochromine cichlids : Evidence from genetic and trophic ecology studies  

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Lake Kanyaboli, an isolated satellite lake of Lake Victoria, has been suggested as a potential refugium for haplochromine cichlids that have gone extinct in the main basin of Lake Victoria. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecular markers, as well as feeding ecology studies, were employed in this study to re-evaluate the evolutionary and ecological significance of six common Lake Kanyaboli haplochromines. The mtDNA marker revealed high genetic variability within four of the six haplochromine cichl...

Abila, Romulus; Salzburger, Walter; Ndonga, Millicent Florence; Owiti, Dickson Otieno; Barluenga, Marta; Meyer, Axel

2008-01-01

252

Microarrays in ecological research: A case study of a cDNA microarray for plant-herbivore interactions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technology allows researchers to simultaneously monitor changes in the expression ratios (ERs of hundreds of genes and has thereby revolutionized most of biology. Although this technique has the potential of elucidating early stages in an organism's phenotypic response to complex ecological interactions, to date, it has not been fully incorporated into ecological research. This is partially due to a lack of simple procedures of handling and analyzing the expression ratio (ER data produced from microarrays. Results We describe an analysis of the sources of variation in ERs from 73 hybridized cDNA microarrays, each with 234 herbivory-elicited genes from the model ecological expression system, Nicotiana attenuata, using procedures that are commonly used in ecologic research. Each gene is represented by two independently labeled PCR products and each product was arrayed in quadruplicate. We present a robust method of normalizing and analyzing ERs based on arbitrary thresholds and statistical criteria, and characterize a "norm of reaction" of ERs for 6 genes (4 of known function, 2 of unknown with different ERs as determined across all analyzed arrays to provide a biologically-informed alternative to the use of arbitrary expression ratios in determining significance of expression. These gene-specific ERs and their variance (gene CV were used to calculate array-based variances (array CV, which, in turn, were used to study the effects of array age, probe cDNA quantity and quality, and quality of spotted PCR products as estimates of technical variation. Cluster analysis and a Principal Component Analysis (PCA were used to reveal associations among the transcriptional "imprints" of arrays hybridized with cDNA probes derived from mRNA from N. attenuata plants variously elicited and attacked by different herbivore species and from three congeners: N. quadrivalis, N. longiflora and N. clevelandii. Additionally, the PCA revealed the contribution of individual gene ERs to the associations among arrays. Conclusions While the costs of 'boutique' array fabrication are rapidly declining, familiar methods for the analysis of the data they create are still missing. The case history illustrated here demonstrates the ease with which this powerful technology can be adapted to ecological research.

Gase Klaus

2004-09-01

253

Assessment of ecological studies examining the risk of thyroid cancer in children through radiation exposure following the nuclear power plant disaster in Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiological studies can be divided into studies with an individual database (cohort studies, case control studies) and studies with aggregate data (ecological studies). The former have the advantage that they can make use of methods based on risk models and examine dose-effect curves with due consideration to potential confounders, but the drawback of being expensive. Studies based on aggregate data can take account of large case numbers at comparatively low cost. However, ecological studies are also associated with serious methodological problems, especially when the goal is to find causal links (''ecological bias''). Thus it is well known that variations in a confounding factor (such as smoking in a study on lung cancer through radon) can invalidate the results of studies based on aggregate data. On the other hand, the only studies to have produced quantitative results on the risk of acquiring thyroid cancer through 131I exposure during childhood in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl disaster happen to be based on aggregate data. The purpose of the present paper is to examine problems associated with ecological studies which have already been in the focus of many studies of epidemiological methodology in terms of whether they are relevant to studies investigating connections between thyroid cancer and 131I exposure. It also presents the results of several simulation studies which examine the degree of distortion associated with ecological analyses

2005-01-27

254

A short Study of Indigenouse Social Movments and the Political Ecology in Mexico and Latin America  

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Full Text Available

Struggles of traditional movements have become blurred in the face of globalization intersecting with new demands and causes revolving around globalization, such as indigenous, women and human rights, environment, etc. The internationalization of civil society refers to cross-border linkages established by social movement organizations in peace, human rights, and environmental, gender, and labor, indigenous and other social movements.

This paper aims to analyze the historical social approach and under the frame of indigenous political ecology of social movements for recognition of indigenous rights in contemporary Mexico.

 

José G. Vargas Hernández

2010-02-01

255

Higher tier field research in ecological risk assessment: a case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A newly developed basic procedure for site-specific ecological risk assessment in The Netherlands was followed in practice for the first time. In line with conventional Triade approaches, the procedure includes multidisciplinary parameters from environmental chemistry, toxicology and ecology to provide multiple weight of evidence. However, land use at the contaminated site and its vicinity is given more importance, and research parameters are selected in accordance to specific objectives for land use in order to test for harmful effects to underlying ecosystem services. Moreover, the approach is characterized by repetitive interactions between stakeholders and researching consultants, in particular with respect to the choice of parameters and criteria to assess the results. The approach was followed in an ecological risk assessment to test the assumptions underlying a soil management plant for a rural area in The Netherlands, called 'Krimpenerwaard'. Throughout this region some 5000 polder ditches have been filled with waste materials originating from local households, waterway sludge, industrial wastes, car shredders, and more. Several sites are severely polluted by heavy metals, cyanide, PAH or chlorinated hydrocarbons and require remediation or clean up. However, the exact distribution of these wastes over the entire region is scarcely known, and the Krimpenerwaard as a whole is treated as one case of serious soil pollution. A soil management plan was constructed by 13 stakeholding parties, aiming for a 'functional clean up' in view of land use, by means of covering 'suspected' categories of wastes with a 30-cm layer of local type soil. The ecological risk assessment aims to verify the assumptions in the soil management plan regarding the prevention of possible undesirable effects induced by the various waste materials. A tiered approach is followed, including a screening for bioavailable contaminants, a testing for general effects by use of standardized bioassays, and further testing and field inventories to survey specific effects of natural and agricultural ecosystem services. Moreover, site specific effects, if demonstrated in lower tiers, will be scaled up to the entire region in higher tiers. (orig.)

Faber, J. [Alterra, Wageningen (Netherlands)

2003-07-01

256

A Study on the Coupling Rules between Ecological Environment and Urban Competitiveness  

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The relation between city and ecological environment forms in the coupling process of urban systems and environmental factors, in which there is a definite rule. Urban competitiveness embodies the evolvement and development of the city, using the dissipative structure principle and mathemat...

Tong Yang; Tao Zeng

2009-01-01

257

Testing hypotheses on the ecological patterns of rarity using a novel model of study: snake communities worldwide  

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Full Text Available The theoretical and empirical causes and consequences of rarity are of central importance for both ecological theory and conservation. It is not surprising that studies of the biology of rarity have grown tremendously during the past two decades, with particular emphasis on patterns observed in insects, birds, mammals, and plants. I analyse the patterns of the biology of rarity by using a novel model system: snake communities worldwide. I also test some of the main hypotheses that have been proposed to explain and predict rarity in species. I use two operational definitions for rarity in snakes: Rare species (RAR are those that accounted for 1% to 2% of the total number of individuals captured within a given community; Very rare species (VER account for ?1% of individuals captured. I analyse each community by sample size, species richness, continent, climatic region, habitat and ecological characteristics of the RAR and VER species. Positive correlations between total species number and the fraction of RAR and VER species and between sample size and rare species in general were found. As shownin previous insect studies, there is a clear trend for the percentage of RAR and VER snake species to increase in species-rich, tropical African and South American communities. This study also shows that rare species are particularly common in the tropics, although habitat type did not influence the frequency of RAR and VER species. This analysis also confirms the commonly accepted ecological hypothesis that body size and rarity are clearly and widely correlated in natural animal communities. However, in snake communities there is often an association between large and small species among the rare species, and a tendency for ophiophagous species to be rare. In addition, there was no support for the hypothesis that rare species should be typically phylogenetically primitive. The hypothesis that species with narrower realized ecological niches are more likely to be rare or very rare is supported by the evidence presented here on snake communities. In general, this study shows that snakes may make ”model organisms” for studies on the biology of rarity.

L. Luiselli

2006-12-01

258

Ecological Biology (Program Description)  

Science.gov (United States)

... Environmental Biology Ecological Biology Description The Ecological Biology Cluster supports ... findings into new paradigms. The Ecological Biology Cluster funds research in the following areas ...

259

Ecological effects on streams from forest fertilization; literature review and conceptual framework for future study in the western Cascades  

Science.gov (United States)

Fertilization of forests with urea-nitrogen has been studied numerous times for its effects on water quality. Stream nitrogen concentrations following fertilization are typically elevated during winter, including peaks in the tens-of-thousands of parts per billion range, with summer concentrations often returning to background or near-background levels. Despite these increases, water-quality criteria for nitrogen have rarely been exceeded. However, such criteria are targeted at fish toxicity or human health and are not relevant to concentrations that could cause ecological disturbances.Studies of the responses of stream biota to fertilization have been rare and have targeted either immediate, toxicity-based responses or used methods insensitive to ongoing ecological processes. This report reviews water-quality studies following forest fertilizations, emphasizing Cascade streams in the Pacific Northwest and documented biological responses in those streams. A conceptual model predicting potential ecological response to fertilization, which includes effects on algal growth and primary production, is presented. In this model, applied fertilizer nitrogen reaching streams is mostly exported during winter. However, some nitrogen retained in soils or stream and riparian areas may become available to aquatic biota during spring and summer. Biological responses may be minimal in small streams nearest to application because of light limitation, but may be elevated downstream where light is sufficient to allow algal growth. Ultimately, algal response could be greatest in downstream reaches, although ambient nutrient concentrations remain low due to uptake and benthic nutrient recycling. Ground-water flow paths and hyporheic processing could be critical in determining the fate of applied nitrogen. A framework is provided for testing this response in the Little River watershed, a tributary to the North Umpqua River, Oregon, at basic and intensive levels of investigation.

Anderson, C. W.

2002-01-01

260

A Multicountry Ecological Study of Cancer Incidence Rates in 2008 with Respect to Various Risk-Modifying Factors  

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Full Text Available Observational and ecological studies are generally used to determine the presence of effect of cancer risk-modifying factors. Researchers generally agree that environmental factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, poor diet, lack of physical activity, and low serum 25-hdyroxyvitamin D levels are important cancer risk factors. This ecological study used age-adjusted incidence rates for 21 cancers for 157 countries (87 with high-quality data in 2008 with respect to dietary supply and other factors, including per capita gross domestic product, life expectancy, lung cancer incidence rate (an index for smoking, and latitude (an index for solar ultraviolet-B doses. The factors found to correlate strongly with multiple types of cancer were lung cancer (direct correlation with 12 types of cancer, energy derived from animal products (direct correlation with 12 types of cancer, inverse with two, latitude (direct correlation with six types, inverse correlation with three, and per capita gross national product (five types. Life expectancy and sweeteners directly correlated with three cancers, animal fat with two, and alcohol with one. Consumption of animal products correlated with cancer incidence with a lag time of 15–25 years. Types of cancer which correlated strongly with animal product consumption, tended to correlate weakly with latitude; this occurred for 11 cancers for the entire set of countries. Regression results were somewhat different for the 87 high-quality country data set and the 157-country set. Single-country ecological studies have inversely correlated nearly all of these cancers with solar ultraviolet-B doses. These results can provide guidance for prevention of cancer.

William B. Grant

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
261

Political ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.)

1979-01-01

262

Development of virtual research environment for regional climatic and ecological studies and continuous education support  

Science.gov (United States)

Volumes of environmental data archives are growing immensely due to recent models, high performance computers and sensors development. It makes impossible their comprehensive analysis in conventional manner on workplace using in house computing facilities, data storage and processing software at hands. One of possible answers to this challenge is creation of virtual research environment (VRE), which should provide a researcher with an integrated access to huge data resources, tools and services across disciplines and user communities and enable researchers to process structured and qualitative data in virtual workspaces. VRE should integrate data, network and computing resources providing interdisciplinary climatic research community with opportunity to get profound understanding of ongoing and possible future climatic changes and their consequences. Presented are first steps and plans for development of VRE prototype element aimed at regional climatic and ecological monitoring and modeling as well as at continuous education and training support. Recently developed experimental software and hardware platform aimed at integrated analysis of heterogeneous georeferenced data "Climate" (http://climate.scert.ru/, Gordov et al., 2013; Shulgina et al., 2013; Okladnikov et al., 2013) is used as a VRE element prototype and approach test bench. VRE under development will integrate on the base of geoportal distributed thematic data storage, processing and analysis systems and set of models of complex climatic and environmental processes run on supercomputers. VRE specific tools are aimed at high resolution rendering on-going climatic processes occurring in Northern Eurasia and reliable and found prognoses of their dynamics for selected sets of future mankind activity scenaria. Currently the VRE element is accessible via developed geoportal at the same link (http://climate.scert.ru/) and integrates the WRF and «Planet Simulator» models, basic reanalysis and instrumental measurements data and support profound statistical analysis of storaged and modeled on demand data. In particular, one can run the integrated models, preprocess modeling results data, using dedicated modules for numerical processing perform analysys and visualize obtained results. New functionality recently has been added to the statistical analysis tools set aimed at detailed studies of climatic extremes occurring in Northern Asia. The VRE element is also supporting thematic educational courses for students and post-graduate students of the Tomsk State University. In particular, it allow students to perform on-line thematic laboratory work cycles on the basics of analysis of current and potential future regional climate change using Siberia territory as an example (Gordova et al, 2013). We plan to expand the integrated models set and add comprehensive surface and Arctic Ocean description. Developed VRE element "Climate" provides specialists involved into multidisciplinary research projects with reliable and practical instruments for integrated research of climate and ecosystems changes on global and regional scales. With its help even a user without programming skills can process and visualize multidimensional observational and model data through unified web-interface using a common graphical web-browser. This work is partially supported by SB RAS project VIII.80.2.1, RFBR grant 13-05-12034, grant 14-05-00502, and integrated project SB RAS 131. References 1. Gordov E.P., Lykosov V.N., Krupchatnikov V.N., Okladnikov I.G., Titov A.G., Shulgina T.M. Computationaland information technologies for monitoring and modeling of climate changes and their consequences. Novosibirsk: Nauka, Siberian branch, 2013. - 195 p. (in Russian) 2. T.M. Shulgina, E.P. Gordov, I.G. Okladnikov, A.G., Titov, E.Yu. Genina, N.P. Gorbatenko, I.V. Kuzhevskaya,A.S. Akhmetshina. Software complex for a regional climate change analysis. // Vestnik NGU. Series: Information technologies. 2013. Vol. 11. Issue 1. P. 124-131. (in Russian) 3. I.G. Okladnikov, A.G. Titov, T.M. Shulgina,

Gordov, Evgeny; Lykosov, Vasily; Krupchatnikov, Vladimir; Bogomolov, Vasily; Gordova, Yulia; Martynova, Yulia; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander; Shulgina, Tamara

2014-05-01

263

Modeling socioeconomic and ecologic aspects of land-use change. A case study of Central Rondonia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Land use change is one of the major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Prevalent types of land-use change include replacing forests with agriculture, mines or ranches; forest degradation from collection of firewood; and forest logging. A global effect of wide-scale deforestation is an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, which may affect climate. Regional effects include loss of biodiversity and disruption of hydrologic regimes. Local effects include soil erosion, siltation and decreases in soil fertility, loss of extractive reserves, and disruption of indigenous people. Modeling land use change requires combining socioeconomic and ecological factors because socioeconomic forces frequently initiate land-use change and are affected by the subsequent ecological degradation. This paper describes a modeling system that integrates submodels of human colonization and impacts to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land use scenarios. Immigration which follows road building or paving is a major factor in the rapid deforestation of previously inaccessible areas. Roads facilitate colonization, allow access for large machines, and provide transportation routes for mort of raw materials and produce.

Dale, V.H.; Pedlowski, M.A.; O`Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F.

1992-11-01

264

Study on ecological awareness and performance of nursing personnel in dialysis units  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: When designing new hospital construction or refurbishment can be adopted green practices both in design and in construction and operation. Objective: To explore the ecological awareness and behavior of nursing staff in a dialysis unit. Methods: This survey involved 90 Registered Nurses and Nurses’ aides of General Hospitals in the Capital (Athens and in province of Greece (Region of Peloponnese. These individuals were given an overall anonymous self-completed questionnaire. Results: The most important finding is that 70.8% considered as mandatory an organized effort to protect the environment in their workplace. Nurses think that greater environmental awareness is obtained 37.1% by using guidelines, 23.6% with relative stimulation, and 20.2% with educational lectures, 10.1% using poster and 6.7% in view educational videos. Finally, the correlations of ecological awareness with demographic characteristics of the sample revealed that older nursing staff with more years of working experience knows about environmental management (p-value=0.012. At the same time, gender (p-value=0,030 and educational level of the nursing staff plays an important role in the knowledge of it (p-value=0,044. Conclusions: To control costs and environmental pollution guidelines for saving energy and water and the use of environmentally friendly materials should be implemented. Thus, hospitals can become more competitive by reducing the amount of natural resources used.  Normal 0 false false false EL X-NONE X-NONE

Sofia Zyga

2013-03-01

265

Social-Ecological Guilds: Putting People into Marine Historical Ecology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Marine historical ecology provides historic insights into past ocean ecosystems that are crucial to effectively confronting the declining health and resilience in marine ecosystems. A more 'peopled' approach to marine historical ecology is necessary, given the heightened emphasis on human dimensions in marine management. This study examined the historical ecology of Hawaiian coral reef ecosystems through oral histories of diverse ocean experts, representing six traditional, local, a...

Shackeroff, Janna M.; Campbell, Lisa M.; Crowder, Larry B.

2011-01-01

266

Ecological studies on the diversity of terrestrial poisonous snakes "Proteroglyphous” of Jazan region Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Reptilia: Ophidia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work was carried out in Jazan region. The region of Jazan in being in the South-Western part of Saudi Arabia between longitudes 420 and 43.80 and latitudes 5, 16o and 17o, and is bounded on the south and east of the Republic of Yemen, Asir area in the north and the Red Sea in the west. The results showed that there are four families of poisonous snakes "Proteroglyphous" living in Jazan region. They are: Family Atractaspididae, Elapidae, Viperidae and Hydrophiidae . This work aimed to unveil ecological problems and throw light on diversity of poisonous snakes in Jazan region and the danger of these species to human life. Despite the fact that these snakes may be harmful to human life in some cases, it may also be useful to him in many aspects of life. Since there are no enough studies on the animal species in the region, this study came to identify the diversity of this animal group. There is no doubt that the study of these species and identifying them will provide some solutions that could make this group as an endless source of biodiversity and at the same time, this study provides information on the feasibility of protection of this species in this region. Discussion of ecological and geographical affinities of this taxa and taxonomic keys of different types in order to facilitate the process of identification will be provided

Mostafa F. Masood

2012-10-01

267

Research of land reclamation and ecological restoration in the resource-exhausting city : a case study of Huaibei in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eco-city construction is a strong tool which could move a city from traditional industrial civilization to ecological civilization. The city of Huaibet, located in China, has 50 years of coal mining history, and has been listed as a national resource-exhausting city. The city's sustainable development and ecological restoration is encountering extreme challenges. This study used time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in order to study the situation of evolution and distribution of subsidence in the area in Huaibet. The purpose of the study was to provide strategic recommendations to assist Huaibei city transform from a resource-exhausting city to an eco-city. Specifically, the paper discussed the direction of eco-reconstruction in Huaibei such as rural eco-agriculture; wetland park or suburban park; and mine park. It also presented a time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in Huaibet including the subsidence status of the main city of Huaibet and intensive use of land evaluation and land use measures of the main city of Huaibei. Land reclamation and eco-reconstruction of Huaibet was also examined in the paper. It was concluded that based on land use of all aspects of the evaluation area and city's development plan, an integrated tourism with full use of subsidence land could be developed. 10 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

2010-05-24

268

Analysis of the Wnt/B-catenin/TCF4 pathway using SAGE, genome-wide microarray and promoter analysis: Identification of BRI3 and HSF2 as novel targets.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Wnt signaling pathway is involved in many differentiation events during embryonic development and can lead to tumor formation after aberrant activation of its components. beta-catenin, a cytoplasmic component, plays a major role in the transduction of canonical Wnt signaling. The aim of this study was to identify novel genes that are regulated by active beta-catenin/TCF signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma-derived Huh7 cells with high (transfected) and low beta-catenin/TCF activities. High TCF activity Huh7 cells led to earlier and larger tumor formation when xenografted into nude mice. SAGE (Serial Analysis of Gene Expression), genome-wide microarray and in silico promoter analysis were performed in parallel, to compare gene expression between low and high beta-catenin/TCF activity clones, and also those that had been rescued from the xenograft tumors. SAGE and genome-wide microarray data were compared and contrasted. BRI3 and HSF2 were identified as novel targets of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling after combined analysis and confirming experiments including qRT-PCR, ChIP, luciferase assay and lithium treatment. PMID:20538055

Kavak, Ersen; Najafov, Ayaz; Ozturk, Nuri; Seker, Tuncay; Cavusoglu, Kader; Aslan, Tolga; Duru, Adil Doganay; Saygili, Tahsin; Hoxhaj, Gerta; Hiz, Mahmut Can; Unal, Durisehvar Ozer; Birgül-Iyison, Necla; Ozturk, Mehmet; Koman, Ahmet

2010-10-01

269

A Basic Introduction to Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecology is the science that studies the interactions and relationships that exist among living organisms with each other and their environment. This selection offers tools necessary to define ecology, while gaining a better understanding of its application to real world experiences. It offers instruction in basic ecological terms, while explaining the meaning of the biotic and abiotic factors within an environment and presents examples of those influences. You will also find information necessary to identify the basic factors necessary for living.

Galle, Janet R.; Warren, Patricia A.

2005-01-01

270

New Frontiers in Nematode Ecology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Future areas of emphasis for research and scholarship in nematode ecology are indicated by pressing agricultural and environmental issues, by new directions in applied nematology, and by current technological advances. Studies in nematode ecology must extend beyond observation, counting, and simple statistical analysis. Experimentation and the testing of hypotheses are needed for understanding the biological mechanisms of ecological systems. Opportunities for fruitful experimentation in nemat...

Ferris, Howard

1993-01-01

271

Genomics and marine microbial ecology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[EN] Genomics has brought about a revolution in all fields of biology. Before the development of microbial ecology in the 1970s, microbes were not even considered in marine ecological studies. Today we know that half of the total primary production of the planet must be credited to microorganisms. This and other discoveries have changed dramatically the perspective and the focus of marine microbial ecology. The application of genomics-based approaches has provided new challenges and has allow...

Pedro?s-alio?, Carlos

2006-01-01

272

Lake Restoration in Terms of Ecological Resilience: a Numerical Study of Biomanipulations under Bistable Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An abstract version of the comprehensive aquatic simulation model (CASM is found to exhibit bistability under intermediate loading of nutrient input, supporting the alternative-stable-states theory and field observations for shallow lakes. Our simulations of biomanipulations under the bistable conditions reveal that a reduction in the abundance of zooplanktivorous fish cannot switch the system from a turbid to a clear state. Rather, a direct reduction of phytoplankton and detritus was found to be most effective to make this switch in the present model. These results imply that multiple manipulations may be effective for practical restorations of lakes. We discuss the present results of biomanipulations in terms of ecological resilience in multivariable systems or natural systems.

Kiminori Itoh

2005-12-01

273

The stability of thoracic segmentation in trilobites: a case study in developmental and ecological constraints.  

Science.gov (United States)

The decline in origination rate of new metazoan body plans following the Cambrian radiation has been suggested to reflect developmental canalization in derived taxa, limiting their ability to evolve forms with radically different morphotypes. Segmentation is a fundamental aspect of arthropod body plan, and here we show that a derived trilobite that secondarily converged on a morphotype characteristic of basal members of the clade also reverted to a pattern of segmental variability common among basal trilobites. Hence a secular trend in loss of variability of the trilobite thorax was not due to the evolution of an inviolable developmental constraint. This result challenges the notion of developmental canalization in phylogenetically derived taxa. Rather, early variability in trilobites may be the result of ecological factors that promoted segment-rich thoracic morphotypes during Cambrian time. PMID:11324017

Hughes, N C; Chapman, R E; Adrain, J M

1999-01-01

274

Local perceptions of changes in traditional ecological knowledge: a case study from Malekula island, Vanuatu.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) is a critical global resource that may be eroding amid social and environmental change. Here, we present data on local perceptions of TEK change from three communities on Malekula Island in Vanuatu. Utilizing a structured interview (n = 120), we find a common perception of TEK loss. Participants defined two key periods of TEK erosion (roughly 1940-1960 and 1980-present), and noted that TEK decline was driven both external (e.g., church) and internal (e.g., shifting values) processes. Erosion was perceived to more comprehensive in the worldview domain than in aspects of ethnobiological knowledge and practice. These data indicate the perceived fragility of TEK systems and the complexity of TEK change. TEK systems are critical to natural resource management, and data such as these will assist in designing nuanced responses to the ongoing loss of cultural knowledge and practice. PMID:23929459

McCarter, Joe; Gavin, Michael C

2014-04-01

275

Evaluation of agricultural ecological environment in determining the capable areas: A case study of city of Esfahan, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The nature of different activities in production, agriculture as well as distribution and consumption section, called as expansionist activities, largely influence the ability of the land. Production of consumable material, which is required for increasing population in various areas, and their attractions make it possible to earn more profit and it causes a significant pressure on soil and water resources and can threaten environmental pollution and human food security. A self-interested attitude on land resources has led to run short-term programs without considering the ecological capability of the land. These mentioned problems are, significantly intensified particularly in arid and semi-arid areas with severe limitations of water and soil quality and quantity. Therefore, land allocation based on ecological capability and self-purification indexes, used for land use planning, is an appropriate response to meet the deficiencies noted. This paper studies the agricultural capable lands based on land capability. The proposed study uses GIS software capabilities with application of the environmental ability evaluation model, as a holistic approach, to make sustainable development research in the region. The results indicate that suitable lands for agriculture in the whole area in different classes are widespread and with regards to dependency of more than 90 percent of people to agricultural activities, serious attention of authorities is required for providing the appropriate baseline and avoiding land use change to develop this activity.

Sedigheh Kiani Salmi

2013-02-01

276

Missing ecology: integrating ecological perspectives with the social-ecological system framework  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The social-ecological systems framework was designed to provide a common research tool for interdisciplinary investigations of social-ecological systems. However, its origin in institutional studies of the commons belies its interdisciplinary ambitions and highlights its relatively limited attention to ecology and natural scientific knowledge. This paper considers the biophysical components of the framework and its epistemological foundations as it relates to the incorporation of knowledge...

Graham Epstein; Vogt, Jessica M.; Mincey, Sarah K.; Michael Cox; Burney Fischer

2013-01-01

277

Nest box design for the study of diurnal raptors and owls is still an overlooked point in ecological, evolutionary and conservation studies: A review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of artificial nest boxes has led to significant progress in bird conservation and in our understanding of the functional and evolutionary ecology of free-ranging birds that exploit cavities for roosting and reproduction. Nest boxes and their improved accessibility have made it easier to perform comparative and experimental field investigations. However, concerns about the generality and applicability of scientific studies involving birds breeding in nest boxes have been raised because...

Lambrechts, Marcel M.; Wiebe, K. L.; Sunde, P.; Solonen, T.; Sergio, Fabrizio; Roulin, A.; Mo?ller, A. P.; Lo?pez, Bernat C.; Fargallo, Juan A.; Exo, K. M.; Omo, G.; Costantini, D.; Charter, M.; Butler, M. W.; Bortolotti, Gary R.

2012-01-01

278

Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS) began during FY-1984. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 15 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Through the long-term census taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has been evaluating the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10 CFR 1022).

NONE

1994-11-01

279

Ecological Studies in the Coastal Waters of Kalpakkam, Southeast Coast of India, in the Vicinity of a Nuclear Island  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ecological monitoring of the coastal waters at Kalpakkam, which presently harbour various nuclear facilities, has been in progress for the last four years to create a benchmark dataset on water quality, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fisheries, sedentary organisms and molluscan species diversity. Results indicated a significant impact of monsoonal rain and backwaters on the coastal water quality. About 325 phytoplankton, 140 zooplankton, 350 fish, 130 molluscs and 100 species of sedentary organisms have been catalogued. Two fish species, which are native to Indonesia, were recorded for the first time in Indian coastal water. The study indicated that the coastal water is rich in biodiversity. Similarly, results of studies on costal sediment characteristics indicated the influence of monsoonal rain and backwater discharge. Overall, the study indicated little impact of nuclear activity on coastal water biodiversity and water quality. (author)

2013-07-01

280

Ecology, Complexity, and Metaphor  

Science.gov (United States)

This peer-reviewed article from Bioscience is about Ecology, Complexity and Metaphor.Complexity has recently risen to prominence in ecology as part of a broader interest that suggests its status is something more than just a scientific theory or property of reality. It may be helpful to consider complexity, and related terms such as "self-organization," as recent metaphors deployed to advance knowledge on fundamental questions in ecology, including the relationship between parts and wholes, and between order and disorder. Though not commonly viewed as such, metaphors are an indispensable component of science, and should not be appraised as true or false, but rather in terms of how they help or hinder knowledge. By understanding metaphor as a necessary ally and not a threat to ecological knowledge, we may enrich our contextual understanding of complexity while continuing to invoke it in useful ways. The special section introduced by this article features essays by two prominent experts in ecology, complexity, and metaphor: science studies scholar Evelyn Fox Keller and theoretical ecologist Simon Levin

JAMES D. PROCTOR and BRENDON M. H. LARSON (;)

2005-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

Myco-ecological studies of natural morel bearing sites in Shivalik hills of Himachal Pradesh, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seven natural morel-bearing sites were investigated during fruiting season of Morchella for their physico-chemical and soil microbiota to determine conditions required for morel fructification. Sandy loam soils with humus and high aeration supported the morel fruiting. Soil temperature between 18-22.7 C, air temperature 23-27 C at low elevations and 18-27 C at high elevations, pH slightly acidic to neutral (6.5 to 7.0 and high electrical conductivity (44.4 to 176.3 µS were recorded during natural occurrence of morel fruiting. Elemental analysis of soil revealed high carbon, nitrogen, calcium, nitrates, sodium and lead with low phosphates, chlorides and potassium below the fruit body in comparison to soil away from the fruit body. Hyphomyces ocraseus, Phoma sp., Blastomyces, Acremoniella, Gliomastix and Cladosporium were invariably found associated with the soil beneath Morchella. Four bacterial species, namely, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus varians, Bacillus sphaericus and Pseudomonas spp., were also isolated from almost all the natural morel bearing sites. These myco-ecological conditions of natural morel bearing sites are of significance in controlled domestication trials.

R. C. Upadhyay

2004-01-01

282

ANALYSIS OF WASTE WATER FROM ECOLOGICAL CAR WASH – A CASE STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wastewaters resulted from different stages of washing process from ecological car wash were investigated for its physicochemical parameters and several heavy metals contents. For this purpose 75 samples were collected and analyzed by conductometric, potentiometric techniques and by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry during of November 2010. The results showed that the amount of zinc, copper, cadmium and lead elements in wastewater samples were higher than the Maximum Admitted Level (MAL values for investigated heavy metals, according to the Order 161/2006, after washing different cars in one week (from Monday to Friday at 14,00. The increase of Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn concentrations is visible (average weekly collections and these were higher especially on rainy days when cars came with a load more visible than in the days with good weather. In according with the Order 161/2006, regarding pH tolerance limit, the mean pH values for all collected samples were between 6.00 and 9.00. The temperature ranged between 14.10 - 17.10°C with an average value of 14.91±1.61°C. The highest values for conductivity, turbidity and TDS was found for samples Sp2, Sp5, Sp8, Sp11 and Sp14, before entrance in the first separator.

CRISTIANA RADULESCU

2011-06-01

283

Ecological responses of natural and planted forests to thinning in southeastern Korea: a chronosequence study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effects of forest thinning on community level properties have not been understood yet in Korea. We investigated regenerationpatterns and trajectories after a disturbance by applying a chronosequence approach. Light availability, litter andwoody debris cover, and species composition were determined for twenty 50 m line-transect samples representing a disturbanceduration gradient (within 11 years. Environmental factors such as light availability and coverage of woody debrisand litter changed abruptly after thinning and then returned to the pre-disturbance state. Although species richnesswas gained at shrub and ground layer in a limited way in both forests, cover of various functional types revealed diversityin their responses. Notably, Alnus firma stands exhibited a larger increment of cover in woody plants. Ordination analysisrevealed different regeneration trajectories between natural and planted stands. Based on ordination analysis, rehabilitatedstands showed movement to alternative states compared with natural ones, reflecting lower resilience to perturbation(i.e., lower stability. Our results suggest that community resilience to artificial thinning depends on properties ofthe dominant species. But to get more explanatory ecological information, longer-term static observations are required.

Yong-Chan Cho

2011-12-01

284

Children's traditional ecological knowledge of wild food resources: a case study in a rural village in Northeast Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Consuming wild foods is part of the food ways of people in many societies, including farming populations throughout the world. Knowledge of non-domesticated food resources is part of traditional and tacit ecological knowledge, and is largely transmitted through socialization within cultural and household contexts. The context of this study, a small village in Northeast Thailand, is one where the community has experienced changes due to the migration of the parental generation, with the children being left behind in the village to be raised by their grandparents. A case study approach was used in order to gain holistic in-depth insight into children's traditional ecological knowledge as well as patterns of how children acquire their knowledge regarding wild food resources. Techniques used during field data collection are free-listing conducted with 30 village children and the use of a sub-sample of children for more in-depth research. For the sub-sample part of the study, wild food items consisted of a selection of 20 wild food species consisting of 10 species of plants and 10 species of animals. Semi-structured interviews with photo identification, informal interviews and participatory observation were utilized, and both theoretical and practical knowledge scored. The sub-sample covers eight households with boys and girls aged between 10–12 years old from both migrant families and non-migrant families. The knowledge of children was compared and the transmission process was observed. The result of our study shows that there is no observable difference among children who are being raised by grandparents and those being raised by their parents, as there are different channels of knowledge transmission to be taken into consideration, particularly grandparents and peers. The basic ability (knowledge for naming wild food species remains among village children. However, the practical in-depth knowledge, especially about wild food plants, shows some potential eroding.

Price Lisa

2007-10-01

285

The chemical ecology of cyanobacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review covers the literature on the chemically mediated ecology of cyanobacteria, including ultraviolet radiation protection, feeding-deterrence, allelopathy, resource competition, and signalling. To highlight the chemical and biological diversity of this group of organisms, evolutionary and chemotaxonomical studies are presented. Several technologically relevant aspects of cyanobacterial chemical ecology are also discussed. PMID:22237837

Leão, Pedro N; Engene, Niclas; Antunes, Agostinho; Gerwick, William H; Vasconcelos, Vitor

2012-03-01

286

Application of ecological mapping  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Fish and Wildlife Service has initiated the production of a comprehensive ecological inventory map series for use as a major new planning tool. Important species data along with special land use designations are displayed on 1:250,000 scale topographic base maps. Sets of maps have been published for the Atlantic and Pacific coastal areas of the United States. Preparation of a map set for the Gulf of Mexico is underway at the present time. Potential application of ecological inventory map series information to a typical land disposal facility could occur during the narrowing of the number of possible disposal sites, the design of potential disposal site studies of ecological resources, the preparation of the environmental report, and the regulatory review of license applications. 3 figures, 3 tables

1982-09-01

287

Ecological impact assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantitative problems in accomplishing ecological impact assessment with particular reference to defining population effects are discussed with some comments on the two approaches most commonly used, e.g., the experimental and simulation models. Some alternatives are suggested because both methods will probably fail to detect real population effects mostly due to poor understanding of ecosystems or because of the limitations inherent in field census methods. Most judgments of ecological impact are not quantitatively defensible but are qualitative, subjective, or political in nature. An examination of aggregates of data from various nuclear power plant sites may be one way to obtain enough replication to judge ecological impact. Thus, currently available data from such studies as well as appropriate demographic, vegetation, census, and bibliographic material could offer an interesting challenge to computer professionals if such an undertaking were contemplated. Present research programs at PNL and computer involvement are described. Future possibilities and directions are discussed. (U.S.)

1975-07-09

288

Studies on Some Hexaploid Wheat Varieties (Triticum aestivum L. under the Agro-ecological Conditions of District Poonch, Azad Kashmir  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hexaploid wheat has the largest cultivation area among all other crop plants, due to its adaptability to different agro-climatic zones. To cater for the requirements of varied regional breeding programs a screening trial was conducted, in which six hexaploid wheat genotypes were executed for their adaptability under the agro-ecological environment of district Poonch, Azad Kashmir. Punjab-96, khyber-87 and pirsabak-91 have shown maximum plant height, number of spikelets/plant, spike length and 1000 grains weight. Increase in number of tillers/plant was only reported for variety Punjab-96. In this study only Punjab-96 was recommended for general cultivation in district Poonch, Azad Kashmir.

Muhammad Fareed Khan

2002-01-01

289

[Study on the ecological risk of wild veined rapa whelk (Rapana venosa) exposured to organotin compounds in Bohai Bay, China].  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study evaluated the potential ecological risk of organotin compounds (OTs) to wild veined rapa whelk (Rapana Venosa) population in Bohai Bay. The results showed that the imposex rate was 12.5% and 6.48% in Dashentang and Nanpaihe coastal areas, with relative penis size index of 9.61 and 12.45, respectively. The concentrations of butyltin compounds and phenyltin compounds were 39.04 ng x g(-1) dw and 46.48 ng x g(-1) dw in muscle tissues, and 32.09 ng x g(-1) dw and 109.03 ng x g(-1) dw in digest gland, respectively. Based on TBT levels in the muscles of all samples, a risk quotient of 0.024 was derived, indicating certain risk of OTs at current levels to wild veined rapa whelk populations in Bohai Bay. PMID:23798116

An, Li-Hui; Zhang, Yan-Qiang; Song, Shuang-Shuang; Liu, Yue; Gao, Jun-Min; Chen, Hao; Zhao, Xing-Ru; Lei, Kun; Zheng, Bing-Hui

2013-04-01

290

Mössbauer and FTIR spectroscopic studies of iron anthranilates: coordination, structure and some ecological aspects of iron complexation  

Science.gov (United States)

The data on the coordination and structure of iron(II) and iron(III) anthranilates in the solid state and in aqueous medium are presented and discussed, as studied using Mössbauer (for solid products and frozen solutions) and FTIR spectroscopy (for solid samples). Whereas, in slightly acidic nitrate solutions under aerobic conditions ferric ions can still be gradually reduced by anthranilic ( o-aminobenzoic) acid, which may have some ecological significance, in circumneutral media this process is retarded. Mössbauer parameters calculated for iron(II) and iron(III) anthranilates, as well as characteristic vibration modes of certain functional groups involved in coordination with iron cations are discussed. The FTIR data obtained for ferrous anthranilates, as compared to anthranilic acid, definitely exhibit the direct involvement of both the carboxylic and the amino groups of anthranilic acid in coordination with iron.

Kamnev, A. A.; Kuzmann, E.; Perfiliev, Yu. D.; Vankó, Gy.; Vértes, A.

1999-05-01

291

Industrial ecology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Industrial ecology addresses issues that will impact future production, use, and disposal technologies; proper use of the concept should reduce significantly the resources devoted to potential remediation in the future. This cradle-to-reincarnation production philosophy includes industrial processes that are environmentally sound and products that are environmentally safe during use and economically recyclable after use without adverse impact on the environment or on the net cost to society. This will require an industry-university-government round table to set the strategy and agenda for progress. PMID:11607254

Patel, C K

1992-02-01

292

Ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was built on the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the mid-1980's. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 14 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Research conducted by the SREL has focused primarily on four questions related to these wetlands: (1) Prior to construction, what fauna and flora were present at the DWPF site and at similar, yet undisturbed, alternative sites? (2) By comparing the Carolina bay at the DWPF site (Sun Bay) with an undisturbed control Carolina bay (Rainbow Bay), what effect is construction having on the organisms that inhabited the DWPF site? (3) By comparing control streams with streams on the periphery of the DWPF site, what effect is construction having on the peripheral streams? (4) How effective have efforts been to lessen the impacts of construction, both with respect to erosion control measures and the construction of ''refuge ponds'' as alternative breeding sites for amphibians that formerly bred at Sun Bay? Through the long-term census-taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has begun to evaluate the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. Similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive Orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10 CFR 1022)

1993-01-01

293

Improved probability of detection of ecological “surprises”  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ecological “surprises” are defined as unexpected findings about the natural environment. They are critically important in ecology because they are catalysts for questioning and reformulating views of the natural world, help shape assessments of the veracity of a priori predictions about ecological trends and phenomena, and underpin questioning of effectiveness of resource management. Despite the importance of ecological surprises, major gaps in understanding remain about how studies might...

Lindenmayer, D. B.; Likens, G. E.; Krebs, C. J.; Hobbs, R. J.

2010-01-01

294

Development of a concept for a long-term ecological monitoring system on the river Rhine. Phase 1: bibliographic study. Annex 1. Chronological bibliography and materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This bibliographic study describes the ecological changes to which the ecosystem Rhine river/floodplain has been exposed from its historical state, free of anthropogenic impacts, to its present state, marked by strong anthropogenic impacts. By classifying these changes it is possible to define reference states of the river which should become the basis for the restoration of certain conditions of the ecosystem river/floodplain and to discuss related targets and actions. A comparison of historical and present states of the ecosystem allows proposals to be derived for measuring parameters for a future ecological monitoring programme for the river Rhine. Finally, gaps in knowledge are revealed, which at present hinder the ecological monitoring of the river, its shores and floodplains. Annex I lists the references arranged in the order of authors and years of publication, presents a list of experts, an overview on research projects, current measuring and observation programmes on the river Rhine and makes proposals for future monitoring sites. (orig.)

1994-01-01

295

Development of a concept for a long-term ecological monitoring system on the river Rhine. Phase 1: bibliographic study. Annex 2. Summary of results and conclusions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This bibliographic study describes the ecological changes to which the ecosystem Rhine river/floodplain has been exposed from its historical state, free of anthropogenic impacts, to its present state, marked by strong anthropogenic impacts. By classifying these changes it is possible to define reference states of the river which should become the basis for the restoration of certain conditions of the ecosystem river/floodplain and to discuss related targets and actions. A comparison of historical and present states of the ecosystem allows proposals to be derived for measuring parameters for a future ecological monitoring programme for the river Rhine. Finally, gaps in knowledge are revealed, which at present hinder the ecological monitoring of the river, its shores and floodplains. Annex II is a summary of major findings and conclusions, which are discussed in the context of objectives and actions of the Rhine restoration programme. (orig.)

1994-01-01

296

Studies of obtaining and stability in aqueous medium of new complex compounds of Ti(IV) and Zr(IV) used in ecological leather tanning  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the study of obtaining new coordination compounds of Ti(IV) and Zr(IV) using as ligand: D,L-?-iso-butyric acid, is presented. Also, the stability of these compounds in aqueous medium is studied. The studies of obtaining and of stability of the new compounds were accomplished in aqueous solutions using methods characteristic for coordination compounds: conductance and pH measurements. The combination ratios and the stability were determined with methods characteristic for studies in solutions. From experimental data resulted that the combination ratio of central metallic atoms with the ligand derived from D,L-?-iso-butyric acid was 1:2. From experimental data resulted that in strong acid and strong basic mediums, the coordination compounds could not be obtained. The optimal stability of the studied compounds is limited between 3-6, pH - values. This fact is in accordance with the conditions of using these compounds in ecological leather tanning. Of great importance is that these compounds were used with very good results in tanning processes of different types of leather. This fact evidenced that the ecological alternative of tanning is better than non-ecological tanning using chrome compounds. The importance of this paper consists in obtaining new coordination compounds that can be used in ecological leather tanning.

Crudu, Marian; Sibiescu, Doina; Rosca, Ioan; Sutiman, Daniel; Vizitiu, Mihaela

2009-01-01

297

Studies on the Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution of Palms (Arecaceae) with Focus on the Americas  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Palmefamilien (Arecaceae) bruges i stigende grad som model gruppe til at undersøge tropiske økosystemers evolution og økologi. Denne afhandling spænder over adskillige emner indenfor palmers synøkologi (community ecology), makroøkologi, biogeografi og fylogeni, med fokus på forbindelser mellem økologiske og evolutionære processer. (i) Ud fra litteraturen opsummeres hvordan de faktorer, der påvirker palmers udbredel-sesområder, artssammensætning, og artsrigdom, varierer som funktion af undersøgel-sernes rumlig skala. Forskellige aspekter af abiotisk miljø, biotiske interaktioner og spredning har tydeligvis varierende indflydelse på forskellig rumlig og tidslig skala. Historiske (inkl. evolutionære) faktorer har stor betydning. (ii) Stor-skala rumlige mønstre i palmers artsrigdom og fylogenetisk udskiftning (turnover) er undersøgt for hele Amerika. Sammenhængen mellem miljø og artsrigdom varierer rumligt: korrelatio-nen mellem vand og artsrigdom aftager med afstand fra ækvator, mens korrelationen mellem energi og artsrigdom tiltager. Dette antyder, at de forskellige afgørende faktorer påvirker hinanden på en kompleks måde. Undersøgelser af fylogenetisk udskiftning i regionale palmesamfund viser, at evolutionshistorien påvirker palmers udbredelse signi-fikant på kontinental skala. En ny metode beskrives til at skelne mellem effekterne af fylogenetisk niche-konservatisme og spredningsbegrænsning i evolutionær tid. (iii) Lokale palmesamfund i Amerika er undersøgt, i første omgang ved at opsummere information om deres diversitet og vækstform-sammensætning fra litteraturen. Palme-samfund fra det vestlige Amazonas er desuden undersøgt ved brug af nyindsamlede data. Habitatforskelle er stærkt afgørende for artsrigdom, vækstform-sammensætning og fylogenetisk struktur i palmesamfund. Artsrigdom afhænger også af klimatisk og biogeografisk historie, som også påvirker den fylogenetiske struktur af palmesamfund i det vestlige Amazonas. (iv) Diversificeringen af palme undertribus Bactridinae, som er endemisk for Amerika, blev undersøgt ved brug af nukleart DNA og kloroplast-DNA. Resultatet er en højt opløst og solidt understøttet fylogeni, der delvist modsiger tidligere klassifikationer og fylogenetiske hypoteser baseret på morfologisk information. Denne gruppes diversificering er tilsyneladende præget af Andesbjergenes dannelse og mulig¬vis klimaforandringer i Kænozoikum. Alt i alt, nuværende mønstre i palmers diversitet og udbredelse er tydeligvis påvirket af både nuværende økologiske processer og evolu-tionær dynamik (artsdannelse, uddøen, niche evolution, migration) som følge af for-tidige miljøforandringer og spredningsdynamik over evolutionær tid.

Eiserhardt, Wolf L.

2011-01-01

298

Studies on the functional morphology and ecology of the atyid prawns of Dominica.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six species of atyid prawns, representing five genera, occur in streams on the West Indian island of Dominica (figures 1-6). The ecology and habits of each are described and the relation of features of gross morphology to ways of life noted. Xiphocaris elongata, the most primitive living atyid, is a lightly built prawn whose adult habits are related to life in quiet pools in streams. An agile species and an excellent swimmer, it picks up individual small food particles with specialized chelipeds (figures 18 and 19) that differ from those of all other atyids and manipulates them with mouthparts (figure 77) which, while highly complex, are more primitive than those described for any other member of the family. Atya innocous and A. scabra, representing perhaps the most specialized atyid genus, are very similar in gross morphology and are robustly built ambulatory species. A. innocous is common in a variety of situations: A. scabra is rare and has been found only in fast-flowing water. Both have chelipeds whose three distal segments are extremely specialized (figure 36) and whose propus and dactylus are armed with an exceedingly complex array of long, slender bristles. These can be used either as brushes for collecting finely particulate detritus (figures 58-60) or as filtering fans (figures 68 and 69) which, held passively in flowing water, extract suspended particles. The Atyidae is unique among the Malacostraca in having representatives that filter passively by means of the chelipeds. The bristles (figure 40) are extended (figure 49), not by muscles, of which there are none in the distal parts of the propus and none anywhere in the dactylus, but by hydraulic forces. The return of the bristles to rest is by means of a cuticular spring. Some of the bristles of A. innocous are armed distally with minute denticles (figures 41 and 42) that facilitate scraping and sweeping: no such are present in A. scabra. The difference is related to the relative importance of scraping in the two species: A. innocous scrapes frequently, A. scabra seldom. Finely particulate food is transferred and manipulated by the extremely complex oral machinery (figure 78). One of the most elaborate parts of this is a teaselling device in which components of the maxillae and first maxillipeds participate (figures 80 and 81). The feeding mechanism is described. Morphologically and functionally Micratya poeyi can be regarded as a miniature version of Atya. It can both sweep and filter. Potimirim glabra is rare in Dominica and its habits but little known. Morphologically it is similar to, but more primitive than, Micratya. Its cheliped bristles are clearly specialized for sweeping and show few signs of being used for passive filtration. Jonga serrei occupies a separate and well-defined niche in the quieter parts of streams. For this it shows many morphological specializations and lacks such attributes as stout claws and robust walking legs that are the hallmark of its relatives living in fast-flowing waters. PMID:850693

Fryer, G

1977-02-25

299

Learning about Environmental Issues in Engineering Programmes: A Case Study of First-Year Civil Engineering Students' Contextualisation of an Ecology Course  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes how first-year civil engineering students interpreted the content and structure of an ecology course. Students' learning processes were analysed from an intentional perspective, i.e. a perspective that takes into account the students' educational aims and conceptions of the study situation. Interviews were carried out with six civil…

Lundholm, Cecilia

2004-01-01

300

Application of the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean to Phytoplankton Ecology Studies in Monterey Bay, CA, USA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a demonstrator for technologies for the next generation of ocean color sensors, the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO provides enhanced spatial and spectral resolution that is required to understand optically complex aquatic environments. In this study we apply HICO, along with satellite remote sensing and in situ observations, to studies of phytoplankton ecology in a dynamic coastal upwelling environment—Monterey Bay, CA, USA. From a spring 2011 study, we examine HICO-detected spatial patterns in phytoplankton optical properties along an environmental gradient defined by upwelling flow patterns and along a temporal gradient of upwelling intensification. From a fall 2011 study, we use HICO’s enhanced spatial and spectral resolution to distinguish a small-scale “red tide” bloom, and we examine bloom expansion and its supporting processes using other remote sensing and in situ data. From a spectacular HICO image of the Monterey Bay region acquired during fall of 2012, we present a suite of algorithm results for characterization of phytoplankton, and we examine the strengths, limitations, and distinctions of each algorithm in the context of the enhanced spatial and spectral resolution.

John P. Ryan

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Leukemia Ecology: Ecological Prophylaxis of Leukemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contents: Etiopathogenesis of leukemia; Ecological leukemogenic factors; Epidemiology of leukemias; Geochemical environment in relationship to health and disease; Leukemia risk factor bank; Perspectives of leukemia prophylaxis by ecological and dietary me...

J. Aleksandrowica A. B. Skotnicki

1982-01-01

302

Ecological subsidies: a conceptual framework for integrating ecosystem and exposure studies in linked aquatic-terrestrial systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecology and ecotoxicology share common goals - tracing and quantifying material flux in the environment. Bridging these disciplines is challenging because their practitioners have slightly different methods, terminologies and objectives. For example, ecologists strive to identify...

303

EvolMarkers: a database for mining exon and intron markers for evolution, ecology and conservation studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent innovations in next-generation sequencing have lowered the cost of genome projects. Nevertheless, sequencing entire genomes for all representatives in a study remains expensive and unnecessary for most studies in ecology, evolution and conservation. It is still more cost-effective and efficient to target and sequence single-copy nuclear gene markers for such studies. Many tools have been developed for identifying nuclear markers, but most of these have focused on particular taxonomic groups. We have built a searchable database, EvolMarkers, for developing single-copy coding sequence (CDS) and exon-primed-intron-crossing (EPIC) markers that is designed to work across a broad range of phylogenetic divergences. The database is made up of single-copy CDS derived from BLAST searches of a variety of metazoan genomes. Users can search the database for different types of markers (CDS or EPIC) that are common to different sets of input species with different divergence characteristics. EvolMarkers can be applied to any taxonomic group for which genome data are available for two or more species. We included 82 genomes in the first version of EvolMarkers and have found the methods to be effective across Placozoa, Cnidaria, Arthropod, Nematoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Chordata and plants. We demonstrate the effectiveness of searching for CDS markers within annelids and show how to find potentially useful intronic markers within the lizard Anolis. PMID:22805179

Li, Chenhong; Riethoven, Jean-Jack M; Naylor, Gavin J P

2012-09-01

304

Exploring Collaborative Training with Educational Computer Assisted Simulations in Health Care Education: An Empirical Ecology of Resources Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explores collaborative training with educational computer assisted simulations (ECAS in health care education. The use of simulation technology is increasing in health care education (Issenberg et al., 2005; Bradley, 2006, and research is addressing the techniques of its application. Calls have been made for informing the field with existing and future educational research (e.g. Issenberg et al., 2011. This study investigates and examines collaboration as a technique for structuring simulation training. Part of a larger research and development project (H?ll et al., 2011; H?ll & S?derstr?m, 2012, this paper primarily utilizes qualitative observation analysis of dentistry students learning radiology to investigate the challenges that screen-based simulation technology poses for collaborative learning. Grounded in Luckin’s ecology of resources framework (Luckin, 2010 and informed by computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL research, the study identifies some disadvantages of free collaboration that need to be dealt with for collaboration to be a beneficial technique for ECAS in health care education. The discussion focuses on the use of scripts (Weinberger et al., 2009 to filter the interactions between the learner and the more able partner, supporting the collaborative-learning activity and enhancing learning with ECAS in health care education.

Lars O. Hall

2012-10-01

305

Proposed spatial framework to develop land use in an environmentally-sensitive area: Case study, El-Daba'a region, Egypt Part I: Ecological value assessment using GIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study is to assess the ecological characteristics of El-Daba'a area in Egypt using GIS as a first step for the development of an environmental management plan for the area. The absence of environmental planning in the process of land use development may cause many significant negative impacts on biodiversity, ecological value and the general environmental conditions and the therefore reducing such negative impacts will improve land use development. The first part of sequel of two papers, which is a part of a sustainable land use development research program, aims at designing a spatial framework to improve land use planning and development in an environmental context. The research program deals with the problem of land use planning and development in an arid coastal area under environmentally sensitive conditions. The study area is El-Daba'a region, located in the northwestern coast of Egypt, which can be described as a wild area. The approach used in this paper consists of studying the spatial ecological characteristics of El-Daba'a region using different spatial data including maps and land sat remote sensing data. These data are used to create a series of superimposed informative layers managed by a geographic information system (GIS) to describe the spatial ecological characteristics of the study area. The developed GIS allow decision makers to handle large amounts of information simultaneously such as geology, geomorphology, land cover, wild life and many other different information layers. The system is designed to help decision makers to organize, relate, analyze and visualize the ecological data and information in the study area. The developed GIS system might be used to determine the probable effects of building a nuclear power station on the ecosystem. (author)

2008-01-01

306

Ecology of Infectious Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

A joint National Science Foundation (NSF) and National Institutes of Health program, Ecology of Infectious Diseases (EID), allows scientists to study how large-scale environmental eventsâsuch as habitat destruction, invasions of non-native species and pollutionâalter the risks of emergence of viral, parasitic and bacterial diseases in humans and animals. Specific infectious diseases being studied include hantavirus, Lyme Disease, and Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD).

307

Molecular ecological network analyses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the interaction among different species within a community and their responses to environmental changes is a central goal in ecology. However, defining the network structure in a microbial community is very challenging due to their extremely high diversity and as-yet uncultivated status. Although recent advance of metagenomic technologies, such as high throughout sequencing and functional gene arrays, provide revolutionary tools for analyzing microbial community structure, it is still difficult to examine network interactions in a microbial community based on high-throughput metagenomics data. Results Here, we describe a novel mathematical and bioinformatics framework to construct ecological association networks named molecular ecological networks (MENs through Random Matrix Theory (RMT-based methods. Compared to other network construction methods, this approach is remarkable in that the network is automatically defined and robust to noise, thus providing excellent solutions to several common issues associated with high-throughput metagenomics data. We applied it to determine the network structure of microbial communities subjected to long-term experimental warming based on pyrosequencing data of 16?S rRNA genes. We showed that the constructed MENs under both warming and unwarming conditions exhibited topological features of scale free, small world and modularity, which were consistent with previously described molecular ecological networks. Eigengene analysis indicated that the eigengenes represented the module profiles relatively well. In consistency with many other studies, several major environmental traits including temperature and soil pH were found to be important in determining network interactions in the microbial communities examined. To facilitate its application by the scientific community, all these methods and statistical tools have been integrated into a comprehensive Molecular Ecological Network Analysis Pipeline (MENAP, which is open-accessible now (http://ieg2.ou.edu/MENA. Conclusions The RMT-based molecular ecological network analysis provides powerful tools to elucidate network interactions in microbial communities and their responses to environmental changes, which are fundamentally important for research in microbial ecology and environmental microbiology.

Deng Ye

2012-05-01

308

Ecological and Physiological Studies of Gymnodinium catenatum in the Mexican Pacific: A Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review presents a detailed analysis of the state of knowledge of studies done in Mexico related to the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum, a paralytic toxin producer. This species was first reported in the Gulf of California in 1939; since then most studies in Mexico have focused on local blooms and seasonal variations. G. catenatum is most abundant during March and April, usually associated with water temperatures between 18 and 25 ºC and an increase in nutrients. In vitro studies of...

2010-01-01

309

Social-Ecological Guilds: Putting People into Marine Historical Ecology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Marine historical ecology provides historic insights into past ocean ecosystems that are crucial to effectively confronting the declining health and resilience in marine ecosystems. A more 'peopled' approach to marine historical ecology is necessary, given the heightened emphasis on human dimensions in marine management. This study examined the historical ecology of Hawaiian coral reef ecosystems through oral histories of diverse ocean experts, representing six traditional, local, and scientific knowledge systems. Based on 61 in-depth interviews with these ocean experts, historical trends, abundance, and distribution over 80 years and a 50-mile region for 271 species emerged. Analyzing trends by ecological guild, e.g., herbivores, proved inappropriate to these data; rather, based on qualitative analyses, five distinct trends encompassing nearly all species emerged in what we term "social-ecological guilds." Ocean expert's observations of change were surprisingly consistent, regardless of their knowledge system, whereas perceptions of change varied widely. The historical picture was far broader and richer when the contributions of six knowledge systems were incorporated, compared to that of any one alone. Social-ecological guilds also matter critically from a management perspective, because understanding how experts from a multiplicity of perspectives observe, interpret, and respond to ecological change can help managers anticipate responses to management activities and perhaps to design better management strategies.

Larry B. Crowder

2011-03-01

310

Doctoral education in a successful ecological niche : A qualitative exploratory case study of the relationship between the microclimate and doctoral students' learning to become a researcher  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Scholarly communities are dependent on and often measured by their ability to attract and develop doctoral students. Recent literature suggests that most scholarly communities entail ecological niches in which the doctoral students learn the codes and practices of research. In this article, we explore the microclimate in an ecological niche of doctoral education. Based on a theoretical definition of microclimate as the emotional atmosphere that ties group members together and affects their actions, we conducted a case study that aimed to describe the key features of the microclimate in a successful ecological niche of doctoral education, and the ways in which the microclimate support the doctoral studentsâ?? learning. The methods we applied in the case study were based on short-term ethnographic fieldwork. The results reveal four key features of the emotional atmosphere in the microclimate: mutual appreciation, balancing seriousness and humor, desire, and ambition. These features constitute the shared emotionality that sets the scene for the microclimate, and affects and guides the doctoral studentsâ?? daily practices. Furthermore, the results indicate that the microclimate supports successful doctoral education because it: 1) fleshes out the professional attitude that is necessary for becoming a successful researcher in the department, 2) shapes and adapts the doctoral studentsâ?? desires to grasp and identify with the departmentâ??s practices, and 3) provides the doctoral students with access to flow zones that drive their education. These results may suggest practical implications for fostering and cultivating successful ecological niches in medical education at doctoral level.

Christensen, Mette Krogh; Lund, Ole

2014-01-01

311

Suicídio e trabalho em metrópoles brasileiras: um estudo ecológico / Suicide and work in Brazilian metropolises: an ecological study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi relacionar a mortalidade por suicídio com indicadores de saúde e trabalho em seis metrópoles brasileiras: Porto Alegre, Recife, Salvador, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo. Estudo ecológico, cujo desfecho é o coeficiente de mortalidade por suicídio na série histó [...] rica de 2002 a 2010, e as variáveis independentes são os indicadores de atividade laboral e de sofrimento mental. Realizou-se associação estatística por meio do teste de Correlação de Pearson e as variáveis associadas ao suicídio (p Abstract in english The scope of this study was to correlate suicide mortality with health indicators and work in six Brazilian metropolises: Porto Alegre, Recife, Salvador, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. It was an ecological study, the outcome of which is the death rate from suicide in the historical se [...] ries from 2002 to 2010, and the independent variables are the indicators of occupational activity and mental suffering. Statistical association using the Pearson Correlation test was conducted and the variables associated with suicide (p

Roger Flores, Ceccon; Stela Nazareth, Meneghel; Juliana Petri, Tavares; Liana, Lautert.

312

Suicídio e trabalho em metrópoles brasileiras: um estudo ecológico / Suicide and work in Brazilian metropolises: an ecological study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi relacionar a mortalidade por suicídio com indicadores de saúde e trabalho em seis metrópoles brasileiras: Porto Alegre, Recife, Salvador, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo. Estudo ecológico, cujo desfecho é o coeficiente de mortalidade por suicídio na série histó [...] rica de 2002 a 2010, e as variáveis independentes são os indicadores de atividade laboral e de sofrimento mental. Realizou-se associação estatística por meio do teste de Correlação de Pearson e as variáveis associadas ao suicídio (p Abstract in english The scope of this study was to correlate suicide mortality with health indicators and work in six Brazilian metropolises: Porto Alegre, Recife, Salvador, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. It was an ecological study, the outcome of which is the death rate from suicide in the historical se [...] ries from 2002 to 2010, and the independent variables are the indicators of occupational activity and mental suffering. Statistical association using the Pearson Correlation test was conducted and the variables associated with suicide (p

Roger Flores, Ceccon; Stela Nazareth, Meneghel; Juliana Petri, Tavares; Liana, Lautert.

313

Oral ingestion of hexavalent chromium through drinking water and cancer mortality in an industrial area of Greece - An ecological study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Hexavalent chromium is a known carcinogen when inhaled, but its carcinogenic potential when orally ingested remains controversial. Water contaminated with hexavalent chromium is a worldwide problem, making this a question of significant public health importance. Methods We conducted an ecological mortality study within the Oinofita region of Greece, where water has been contaminated with hexavalent chromium. We calculated gender, age, and period standardized mortality ratios (SMRs for all deaths, cancer deaths, and specific cancer types of Oinofita residents over an 11-year period (1999 - 2009, using the greater prefecture of Voiotia as the standard population. Results A total of 474 deaths were observed. The SMR for all cause mortality was 98 (95% CI 89-107 and for all cancer mortality 114 (95% CI 94-136. The SMR for primary liver cancer was 1104 (95% CI 405-2403, p-value Conclusions Elevated cancer mortality in the Oinofita area of Greece supports the hypothesis of hexavalent chromium carcinogenicity via the oral ingestion pathway of exposure. Further studies are needed to determine whether this association is causal, and to establish preventive guidelines and public health recommendations.

Stoltidis Melina

2011-05-01

314

How to choose geographical units in ecological studies: proposal and application to campylobacteriosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In spatial epidemiology, the choice of an appropriate geographical unit of analysis is a key decision that will influence most aspects of the study. In this study, we proposed and applied a set of measurable criteria applicable for orienting the choice of geographical unit. Nine criteria were selected, covering many aspects such as biological relevance, communicability of results, ease of data access, distribution of exposure variables, cases and population, and shape of unit. These criteria were then applied to compare various geographical units derived from administrative, health services, and natural frameworks that could be used for the study of the spatial distribution of campylobacteriosis in the province of Quebec, Canada. In this study, municipality was the geographical unit that performed the best according to our assessment and given the specific objectives and time period of the study. Future research areas for optimizing the choice of geographical unit are discussed. PMID:24238078

Arsenault, Julie; Michel, Pascal; Berke, Olaf; Ravel, André; Gosselin, Pierre

2013-12-01

315

Ecological transition towards a sustainable energy system. Case studies on biogas production and use in Germany and Peru. Study of the European Commission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The energy system - defined as the production, distribution and consumption of energy - plays an important role in sustainability because it is interlinked with economic development, environmental protection and also, in developing countries, with the basic need for a food supply. The energy system has to be studied in relation to the urgent global problems, such as increasing pollution, growing world population, deforestation, exploitation of nonrenewable resources etc. The study, therefore, has the following objectives: - Identification of basic needs by the definition of physical, economic and social indicators for sustainable development. - Definition of the energy system, in terms of processes from energy production to energy use, including actors and networks. -Identification of the main problem areas in industrialized and developing countries relating to the energy system, of necessary improvements and of activities which are essential for the fulfillment of basic needs. - Definition and description of the conventional energy system with its process chains and actors and of an ecological energy system. - Identification of technical and socioeconomic impacts of these systems and their relations to the sustainability indicators. - Analysis of barriers and promotion of measures for the ecological transi tion (actors, R and D, technology transfer, information, motivation, consultation, training, subsidies, and other policy implications). (orig./SR)

1996-01-01

316

Environmental evaluation of societal industrial ecology - Case studies of its implementation in the Swedish transport and building sectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis is a study of how to environmentally evaluate the Swedish concept 'kretsloppsanpassning', here termed Societal Industrial Ecology (SIE). The thesis is based on three case studies of its implementation in the transport and building sectors. The aim of the thesis is to study to what extent the implementation of SIE in the transport and building sectors leads to changes in material and energy flows and their management. The environmental management (solely in the transport sector) was studied in order to check implemented measures against the governmental goal definitions and validate the measures' inclusion and scope in the SIE concept. In order to environmentally analyse and discuss the changes in environmental management regarding material and energy flows, the industrial metabolism perspective was used. Then, measures were analysed as to how environmental evaluation could be applied and what the possible result would be. Finally, the implications of environmental evaluation for environmental management were discussed. The implementation of SIE in the transport and building sectors has generally lead to that the main part of measures are implemented on material outflows. However, the monitoring of material flows was mainly found on the inflow side. This means that the measures taken were not audited and the quantified information concerning material inflows seem not to influence planning of measures. implemented and planned SIE measures sometimes take place in a wider context than the internal organisation and thereby affect other actors in society. Compared with traditional environmental measuring, this makes other demands on how to environmentally evaluated these measures. Especially, wider system boundaries are a prerequisite to address and evaluate SIE measures. Environmental. evaluation in a systems approach would not result in a precise answer, even if the system studied were less complex than an industrial system. There are a lot of parameters affecting the final outcome, such as system boundaries, study objects, limitations, interpretation of the result and more, everyone contingent upon values.

Roth, L.

2001-08-01

317

Summaries of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioecology and Ecology Program's waste management related studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research summaries briefly describe studies concerning the activities of small mammals on and in waste disposal sites, revegetation of waste disposal sites, and contamination of wildlife by radionuclides and the spread of radionuclides by wildlife

1985-01-01

318

The Relationship between the Learning Ecology System and Students’ Engagement: A Case Study in Selangor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

School engagement is a relatively new concept in education. However, studies have demonstrated that the concept is useful in predicting students’ academic achievement. The present study was conducted to examine Malaysian students’ school engagement status and to understand the factors that influenced their engagement. The survey method was used to collect data with a questionnaire measuring the level of students’ engagement in three psychological domains (cognitive, affective, and behav...

2013-01-01

319

PROPOSAL OF A NEW METHOO OF ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF VEGETATION: THE CASE STUDY OF THE VEGETATION OF THE VENICE LAGOON LANDSCAPE ANO OF ITS SALT MARSHES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

In frequent case studies, the heterogeneity of vegetation formation is very high, because of the frequency of both natural and human disturbances. Consequently, the phytosociological approach .and the auto-ecological one are not completely adequate for the evaluation or the ecological state of this vegetation in a landscape.

So, this evaluation needs the integration with a landscape ecological method of vegetation survey through schedules, as indicated by Ingegnoli (2002. Each type of schedule has been designed to check the organisation level and to estimate the metastability of a tessera of a certain type of vegetation, considering both general ecological and landscape ecological characters: (A Landscape e1ement characters (e.g. tessera, corridor, (8 Plant, biomass above ground, (C Ecocoenotope pararneters. (D Relation among the elements and their landscape parameters. There are four evaluation classes, the weights per class depending on an evaluation model designed as shown later on. The principal aim of this research is to design a new schedule, available for the main coenosis of salt marshes vegetation, which allows to complete a preliminary study on the Venice lagoon landscape dynamics, based on its vegetation. The landscape of the Venice lagoon is very complex and articulated, its main vegetation formations are the following: Underwater, Salt marshes. Littoral. Reclamation colonisations, Wet areas. Wooded patches and corridors. Agricultural cultivations, Urban green. The most important typc of vegetation is represented by salt marshes prairies called "barene", especially by Limonietum venetum (Pignani. 1966, This association can be divided into three sub-associations, the first with three facies: but the reality presents a large quantity of tesserae in intermediate or ecotonal states, even mixed with other associations (e,g, Spartinetum maritimae. The design and control of the schedule, the first measure of the community plant biomasses are a part of this study, me results of which will be discussed in this work.

E. GIGLIO

2004-01-01

320

Conservation biology of greater horseshoe bats - from field studies to molecolar ecology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Greater horseshoe bats have experienced a substantial range contraction in Britain over the past century, and are also endangered in many European countries. Our studies on the conservation biology of greater horseshoe bats have been running since 1987, and have ranged from simple field-based studies on diet, through radio-tracking studies of habitat use, to research on population genetics, paternity and genetic factors affecting survival. Initially, I described the diet of the species and this proved to be a useful predictor of habitat use. Habitat use was studied in detail by radio-tracking 67 bats at three sites, with further small-scale studies to investigate the generality of landscape use patterns. We also studied the development of foraging behaviour in juveniles to determine critical foraging habitats that may promote juvenile survival. In Britain, greater horseshoe bats feed frequently in winter, and the extent of winter activity has been quantified by acoustic surveys and telemetry of hibernating bats. Recent advances in molecular genetics have provided fascinating insights into the conservation biology of threatened populations of this species, for example illustrating genetic effects of population isolation, and how outbreeding influences survival.

Gareth Jones

2003-10-01

 
 
 
 
321

Sound Ecologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Discussions about what constitutes ‘the rural’ invariably focus on notions of spatial location – of inhabiting spaces apart from that of the metropolitan. Deeply embedded in our images of what it means to be Australian, nonetheless our intellectual framing of ‘the rural’ as something outback and beyond has significant implications for our relations with these spaces. The relatively recent phenomenon of sea- and tree-changes has struck many unawares, and not simply because a good latté is so hard to find. Although a frivolous remark, such an apparent lack does shift our focus to a bodily scale of the rural; how is rural place re/made through our experiences of it? This article originates out of on-going research that explores the practice of listening and sound and the ways in which the body can draw attention to the intuitive, emotional, and psychoanalytical processes of subjectivity and place-making. Drawing on Nigel Thrift’s concept of an ecology of place, I suggest that contemporary heightened concerns with regards to loss and lack in rural Australia has led to a nascent emotional economy – one in which individual and intimate connections to the rural require a rethinking of how we live community and belonging. In such a terrain, what does it mean to be rural?

Michelle Duffy

2010-02-01

322

Sound Ecologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Discussions about what constitutes ‘the rural’ invariably focus on notions of spatial location – of inhabiting spaces apart from that of the metropolitan. Deeply embedded in our images of what it means to be Australian, nonetheless our intellectual framing of ‘the rural’ as something outback and beyond has significant implications for our relations with these spaces. The relatively recent phenomenon of sea- and tree-changes has struck many unawares, and not simply because a good latté is so hard to find. Although a frivolous remark, such an apparent lack does shift our focus to a bodily scale of the rural; how is rural place re/made through our experiences of it? This article originates out of on-going research that explores the practice of listening and sound and the ways in which the body can draw attention to the intuitive, emotional, and psychoanalytical processes of subjectivity and place-making. Drawing on Nigel Thrift’s concept of an ecology of place, I suggest that contemporary heightened concerns with regards to loss and lack in rural Australia has led to a nascent emotional economy – one in which individual and intimate connections to the rural require a rethinking of how we live community and belonging. In such a terrain, what does it mean to be rural?

Michelle Duffy

2010-03-01

323

Sound ecologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Discussions about what constitutes ‘the rural’ invariably focus on notions of spatial location – of inhabiting spaces apart from that of the metropolitan. Deeply embedded in our images of what it means to be Australian, nonetheless our intellectual framing of ‘the rural’ as something outback and beyond has significant implications for our relations with these spaces. The relatively recent phenomenon of sea- and tree-changes has struck many unawares, and not simply because a good latté is so hard to find. Although a frivolous remark, such an apparent lack does shift our focus to a bodily scale of the rural; how is rural place re/made through our experiences of it? This article originates out of on-going research that explores the practice of listening and sound and the ways in which the body can draw attention to the intuitive, emotional, and psychoanalytical processes of subjectivity and place-making. Drawing on Nigel Thrift’s concept of an ecology of place, I suggest that contemporary heightened concerns with regards to loss and lack in rural Australia has led to a nascent emotional economy – one in which individual and intimate connections to the rural require a rethinking of how we live community and belonging. In such a terrain, what does it mean to be rural?

Duffy, Michelle

2010-01-01

324

Emergence Unites Ecology and Society  

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Full Text Available The effort to combine analysis of ecosystems and social systems requires a firm theoretical basis. When humans are present in an ecosystem, their actions affect emergent structures; this paper examines forms of emergence that account for the presence of humans. Humans monitor and regulate ecosystems based on their cultural systems. Cultural systems consist of concepts linked in complicated ways that can form consistent world views, can contain inconsistencies, and may or may not accurately model the properties of a social–ecological system. Consequently, human monitoring and regulating processes will differ, depending on cultural systems. Humans, as agents, change or maintain pre-existing material and cultural emergent structures. The presentation is illustrated with a case study of fire-prone forests. The paper shows that explicit attention to emergence serves very well in unifying the following requirements for social–ecological analysis: coherent and observable definitions of sustainability; ways to link ecological and social phenomena; ways to understand cultural reasons for stability and instability in dynamic social–ecological systems; and ways to include human self-evaluation and culture within dynamic models of social–ecological systems. Analysis of cultural emergent structures clarifies many differences in assumptions among the fields of economics, sociology, political science, ecology, and ecological economics. Because it can be readily applied to empirical questions, the framework provides a good way to organize policy analysis that is not dominated by one or another discipline.

Ronald L. Trosper

2005-06-01

325

Simulation and experimental studies of operators' decision styles and crew composition while using an ecological and traditional user interface for the control room of a nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of this research is threefold: (1) use of the Skill-, Rule-, and Knowledge-based levels of cognitive control -- the SRK framework -- to develop an integrated information processing conceptual framework (for integration of workstation, job, and team design); (2) to evaluate the user interface component of this framework -- the Ecological display; and (3) to analyze the effect of operators' individual information processing behavior and decision styles on handling plant disturbances plus their performance on, and preference for, Traditional and Ecological user interfaces. A series of studies were conducted. In Part I, a computer simulation model and a mathematical model were developed. In Part II, an experiment was designed and conducted at the EBR-II plant of the Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho. It is concluded that: the integrated SRK-based information processing model for control room operations is superior to the conventional rule-based model; operators' individual decision styles and the combination of their styles play a significant role in effective handling of nuclear power plant disturbances; use of the Ecological interface results in significantly more accurate event diagnosis and recall of various plant parameters, faster response to plant transients, and higher ratings of subject preference; and operators' decision styles affect on both their performance and preference for the Ecological interface

1995-04-01

326

Ecological Study of Braconid Wasps in Different Logged over Forests with Special Emphasis on the Microgastrines (Hymenoptera:Braconidae  

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Full Text Available An ecological study of braconid wasps with special emphasis on the subfamily microgastrinae was conducted in three different logged and fragmented forests (HSUKM, HSKLU and HSKLS. Sampling was done for one week per month starting from July to November 2001 using nine Malaise traps per forest. A total of 953 braconidae individuals comprising 19 subfamilies and 91 species (morphospecies were collected. Of this, 195 individuals were collected at HSUKM, 414 individuals at HSKLU and 344 individuals at HSKLS. The microgastrinae, gnampthodontinae and rogadinae individuals were the most abundant in all forests having 427, 133 and 98 individuals respectively. Of the eight Microgastrinae species recorded, Sp4 was the most abundant in all forests but did not clearly indicate its preference to either older or younger regeneration forests. However, its presence seemed to be related to the forest size. Although HSUKM had the lowest microgastrines individuals, it had the highest diversity of microgastrines species compared with other forests. Results also showed that using value of H`(Shannon diversity index this group of parasitoid has potential to be used as a biological indicator of environmental health or habitat disturbance status. Species similarity between the forests is somewhat higher (> 70% but results suggested that the closer the forests the higher would be percent of species overlapped (shared. There were two different microgastrines community assemblages between the forests observed. The possible effect of size and distances between the logged over forests on the parasitoid abundance, diversity and species similarity are discussed.

A.B. Idris

2002-01-01

327

Experimental Study on the Diet of Mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) under Different Ecological Conditions in a Shallow Lake  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the diet of the eastern mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki with in situ experimental mesocosms located in a shallow lake. Different nutrient concentrations (phosphorus and nitrogen) and fish population densities were tested. Our results confirm that it is a planktivorous species, with also a great ingestion of algae and detritus. Nutrient fertilization caused almost no changes in this species feeding behavior, but larger mosquitofish stocks induced a shift to zooplanktivory and a decline in detritivory. When macrophytes were present, the predation effect focused on zooplankton and plant-associated animals, otherwise predation on bottom macroinvertebrates increased. Females preyed upon almost all groups more intensely, including detritus. Males and juveniles did not overlap diet, the former being more selective on ostracods, while juveniles consumed detritus, rotifers and cladoceran. Our data support the idea that mosquitofish can cause important top-down effects in shallow lakes under a wide variety of ecological conditions, being an important zooplanktivore in both turbid and plant-dominated shallow lakes especially in the Mediterranean zone, where high temperatures and absence of piscivores promote maintenance of its populations during the whole year. (

Blanco, Saúl; Romo, Susana; Villena, María-José

2004-07-01

328

Information seeking by blind and sight impaired citizens: an ecological study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article reports a study which investigated information seeking by blind and sight impaired people, with particular emphasis on the role of the Internet. A literature review revealed a paucity of studies about the information-seeking behaviour of groups of people with disabilities, including blind and sight impaired people. The study focussed very specifically on both personal lives and broader social contexts. The techniques for collecting qualitative data included two focus groups involving 16 participants and 15 individual interviewees, from both city and country settings. The findings of the study address issues of information needs, information sources, the role of the Internet in meeting needs and the barriers to the use of the Internet. A major conclusion is that people who are blind and sight impaired deserve to be provided with a range of ways of meeting information needs, as are available for people with normal sight. Given the inexorable continuing impact of the information age, it is also concluded that ways must be found so that people with disabilities can participate equitably in the information economy.

2000-01-01

329

Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Insect ecology studies and insect pest control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document reviews the activities of the Pest Control Research Group in Indonesia. Pests under study are the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), the rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis), the sugar cane borer (Chilo auricilius), bean flies (Agromyza spp.), tobacco insects (Heliothis armigera and Spodoptera litura) and cotton insects, especially the pink bollworm

1992-01-01

330

Ecological and Physiological Studies of Gymnodinium catenatum in the Mexican Pacific: A Review  

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Full Text Available This review presents a detailed analysis of the state of knowledge of studies done in Mexico related to the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum, a paralytic toxin producer. This species was first reported in the Gulf of California in 1939; since then most studies in Mexico have focused on local blooms and seasonal variations. G. catenatum is most abundant during March and April, usually associated with water temperatures between 18 and 25 ºC and an increase in nutrients. In vitro studies of G. catenatum strains from different bays along the Pacific coast of Mexico show that this species can grow in wide ranges of salinities, temperatures, and N:P ratios. Latitudinal differences are observed in the toxicity and toxin profile, but the presence of dcSTX, dcGTX2-3, C1, and C2 are usual components. A common characteristic of the toxin profile found in shellfish, when G. catenatum is present in the coastal environment, is the detection of dcGTX2-3, dcSTX, C1, and C2. Few bioassay studies have reported effects in mollusks and lethal effects in mice, and shrimp; however no adverse effects have been observed in the copepod Acartia clausi. Interestingly, genetic sequencing of D1-D2 LSU rDNA revealed that it differs only in one base pair, compared with strains from other regions.

Christine J. Band-Schmidt

2010-06-01

331

Ecological and physiological studies of Gymnodinium catenatum in the Mexican Pacific: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review presents a detailed analysis of the state of knowledge of studies done in Mexico related to the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum, a paralytic toxin producer. This species was first reported in the Gulf of California in 1939; since then most studies in Mexico have focused on local blooms and seasonal variations. G. catenatum is most abundant during March and April, usually associated with water temperatures between 18 and 25 °C and an increase in nutrients. In vitro studies of G. catenatum strains from different bays along the Pacific coast of Mexico show that this species can grow in wide ranges of salinities, temperatures, and N:P ratios. Latitudinal differences are observed in the toxicity and toxin profile, but the presence of dcSTX, dcGTX2-3, C1, and C2 are usual components. A common characteristic of the toxin profile found in shellfish, when G. catenatum is present in the coastal environment, is the detection of dcGTX2-3, dcSTX, C1, and C2. Few bioassay studies have reported effects in mollusks and lethal effects in mice, and shrimp; however no adverse effects have been observed in the copepod Acartia clausi. Interestingly, genetic sequencing of D1-D2 LSU rDNA revealed that it differs only in one base pair, compared with strains from other regions. PMID:20631876

Band-Schmidt, Christine J; Bustillos-Guzmán, José J; López-Cortés, David J; Gárate-Lizárraga, Ismael; Núñez-Vázquez, Erick J; Hernández-Sandoval, Francisco E

2010-01-01

332

An Ecological Study on the Introduction of the Banded Sculpin Into a Coal Flyash Impacted Stream  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A number of banded sculpins [Cottus carolinae (Gill)] were obtained from a population in a reference stream, marked with subcutaneous acrylic paint injections, and introduced into McCoy Branch, a small second-order stream located on the Oak Ridge Reservation in eastern Tennessee, which was inhabited by only a few banded sculpins prior to the study. McCoy Branch had received deposits of coal ash slurry for a prolonged period, however, there were some indications of recovery in the macroinvertebrate community due to improvements in water quality. Stream habitat characteristics and water chemistry parameters were monitored in McCoy Branch and a reference stream for a three-year period. Feeding patterns and reproductive activities of the banded sculpins were also monitored during the study. Sculpin population parameters including density, condition factor, and young-of-year (YOY) abundance and survival were studied. The results of the study show that the introduced fish have survived and appear to be in good condition. The sculpins have maintained a density of approximately 0.12 fish per square meter of stream, a figure similar to that found in other headwater streams located in the region. Colonization rates and sculpin densities in McCoy Branch were lower than expected, perhaps due to physical habitat degradation and reduced macroinvertebrate abundance. Evidence of sculpin reproduction in McCoy Branch was seen in the presence of gravid female sculpins (1994 and 1995) and YOY fish (1993 through 1995 year classes). This study indicates that McCoy Branch continues to recover from past perturbations to the point where it can now support a viable population of banded sculpins.

Carrico, B.A.; Ryon, M.G.

1996-02-01

333

Oak Savanna Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

Students will study the oak savannah ecosystems in Oregon to determine the environmental conditions that support this specific ecosystem. This lesson will be an inquiry based lesson that will create the foundation of a larger class project in which students explore the ecological changes to an area over time, and, using this data, develop an ecosystem determination and restoration plan for a site east of Cottage Grove. This resource includes both a teaching guide and student worksheets.

Aumack, Stefan

2011-09-15

334

Experimental study of the ecological impact of hot water/high pressure cleaning on rocky shores  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The efficiency of high pressure/hot water washing for cleaning oiled rocky shores was determined. The study also highlighted the level of tolerance towards high pressure/hot water of different intertidal biota and proposed some operational recommendations for using this technique in regards with the biota sensitivity range. The study showed that pressure, higher than 170 g/m{sup 2} on the substratum, had the most detrimental effects on intertidal biota. Temperatures between 25 and 53 degrees C had only minor effects. The most sensitive taxa were the foliaceous lichens and the barnacles. Crustose lichens and algae were found to be tolerant to both pressure and temperature. Seaweeds protected the underneath epifauna. 12 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

Menot, L.; Chasse, C.; Kerambrun, L. [CEDRE, Plouzane (France)

1998-09-01

335

Experimental study of the ecological impact of hot water/high pressure cleaning on rocky shores  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficiency of high pressure/hot water washing for cleaning oiled rocky shores was determined. The study also highlighted the level of tolerance towards high pressure/hot water of different intertidal biota and proposed some operational recommendations for using this technique in regards with the biota sensitivity range. The study showed that pressure, higher than 170 g/m2 on the substratum, had the most detrimental effects on intertidal biota. Temperatures between 25 and 53 degrees C had only minor effects. The most sensitive taxa were the foliaceous lichens and the barnacles. Crustose lichens and algae were found to be tolerant to both pressure and temperature. Seaweeds protected the underneath epifauna. 12 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

1998-06-10

336

REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY: A METHODOLOGICAL PROPOSAL FOR A STUDY BEYOND UBRBAN ECOLOGY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The territorial system at a regional scale has a greater capacity to allow dissipation and assimilation of different environmental impacts produced in the urban system. Urban spaces, considered as the main promoters of serious environmental impacts, should be analyzed as interdependent systems of other territories, establishing this way the conformation of regional systems of great importance for analyzing the environmental sustainability capacity. The method of study of such capacity is the aim of this article (phase four of the methodology, which product is one of the results of the research conducted within the framework of the Master's Degree thesis requirement of one of the authors. The selection of Twenty-two strategic environmental variables resulting from the analysis of two groups of environmental variables studied within this research become the main determinants that will determine the degree of success of environmental sustainability of an area set up as a region.

MARÍA VICTORIA PINZÓN BOTERO

2012-06-01

337

Religious subgroups influencing vaccination coverage in the Dutch Bible belt: an ecological study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The Netherlands has experienced epidemics of vaccine preventable diseases largely confined to the Bible belt, an area where -among others- orthodox protestant groups are living. Lacking information on the vaccination coverage in this minority, and its various subgroups, control of vaccine preventable diseases is focused on the geographical area of the Bible belt. However, the adequacy of this strategy is questionable. This study assesses the influence of p...

Lm, Ruijs Wilhelmina; La, Hautvast Jeannine; van der Velden Koos; de Vos Sjoerd; Knippenberg Hans; Ejl, Hulscher Marlies

2011-01-01

338

An ecological study of regional variation in work injuries among young workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The investigation of geographic variation in occupational injuries has received little attention. Young workers 15 to 24 years are of particular concern because they consistently show elevated occupational injury rates compared to older workers. The present study sought to: (a) to describe the geographic variation of work injuries; (b) to determine whether geographic variation remained after controlling for relevant demographic and job characteristics; (c)...

Curtis, Breslin F.; Smith Peter; Dunn James R

2007-01-01

339

An ecological study of upland forest site classification in southern Finland.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The vegetation and some physical and chemical soil properties were studied in 410 sample plots in a random sample of stands by two-way indicator species analysis, discriminant analysis and analysis of variance. Understorey vegetation was dependent on site fertility and on the tree stand (especially species composition). Although the forest vegetation was distributed in a rather continuous way along a soil fertility gradient, relatively unambiguous site classification was possible based on the...

Kuusipalo, Jussi

1985-01-01

340

Chemo-ecological studies on plant indicators for low level air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of low level air pollution on Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) have been studied in the surrounding area of two thermoelectric power stations newly constructed in a rural area, Fukui Prefecture, on the Japan Sea side of central Honshu, Japan. The degree of visual injury in Japanese Cedar, scored with six different categories, was examined in 1974 and 1977 respectively, covering the entire study area. A more complete monitoring has been conducted at eight permanent sites in Awara-cho since 1974. A dendrochronological study was also carried out to evaluate the effects of air pollution on the increment growth of Japanese Cedars. There were clear correlations between the distance from the power station and tree decline. Severe damage was observed, in general, within a 7 km radius from the power station. The localized injury of Japanese Cedar, along the flood plain of the two rivers, was also demonstrated. A rapid increase of injury was noted until through the late 1970's. The growth inhibition, during this period, was also revealed by tree ring analysis. Some recovery of tree vigor and increment growth was observed after the introduction of pollution control systems at the power station. Consistent relationships were demonstrated between the index of increment growth, i.e., standardized ring index, and the levels of SO2 and NO2. Scarcely any correlation was observed between pH of rain water and the standardized ring index. Decreased levels of foliar tannin were observed in the Japanese Cedars growing in the polluted areas. The inhibition of the shikimate pathway, by air pollution, was suggested by biochemical studies. Increased predation damage was observed in the foliage of Japanese Cedars with low tannin levels. The predisposed effects of air pollution were discussed with special reference to the inhibition of the shikimate pathway. (author)

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Temporal, seasonal and weather effects on cycle volume: an ecological study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Cycling has the potential to provide health, environmental and economic benefits but the level of cycling is very low in New Zealand and many other countries. Adverse weather is often cited as a reason why people do not cycle. This study investigated temporal and seasonal variability in cycle volume and its association with weather in Auckland, New Zealand's largest city. Methods Two datasets were used: automated cycle count data collected on...

Tin Tin Sandar; Woodward Alistair; Robinson Elizabeth; Ameratunga Shanthi

2012-01-01

342

Chemo-ecological studies on plant indicators for low level air pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of low level air pollution on Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) have been studied in the surrounding area of two thermoelectric power stations newly constructed in a rural area, Fukui Prefecture, on the Japan Sea side of central Honshu, Japan. The degree of visual injury in Japanese Cedar, scored with six different categories, was examined in 1974 and 1977 respectively, covering the entire study area. A more complete monitoring has been conducted at eight permanent sites in Awara-cho since 1974. A dendrochronological study was also carried out to evaluate the effects of air pollution on the increment growth of Japanese Cedars. There were clear correlations between the distance from the power station and tree decline. Severe damage was observed, in general, within a 7 km radius from the power station. The localized injury of Japanese Cedar, along the flood plain of the two rivers, was also demonstrated. A rapid increase of injury was noted until through the late 1970's. The growth inhibition, during this period, was also revealed by tree ring analysis. Some recovery of tree vigor and increment growth was observed after the introduction of pollution control systems at the power station. Consistent relationships were demonstrated between the index of increment growth, i.e., standardized ring index, and the levels of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}. Scarcely any correlation was observed between pH of rain water and the standardized ring index. Decreased levels of foliar tannin were observed in the Japanese Cedars growing in the polluted areas. The inhibition of the shikimate pathway, by air pollution, was suggested by biochemical studies. Increased predation damage was observed in the foliage of Japanese Cedars with low tannin levels. The predisposed effects of air pollution were discussed with special reference to the inhibition of the shikimate pathway. (author).

Katoh, Terutaka; Kasuya, Minoru; Kagamimori, Sadanobu (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Kozuka, Hiroshi; Kawano, Shoichi

1991-05-01

343

Frontiers of torenia research: innovative ornamental traits and study of ecological interaction networks through genetic engineering  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Advances in research in the past few years on the ornamental plant torenia (Torenia spps.) have made it notable as a model plant on the frontier of genetic engineering aimed at studying ornamental characteristics and pest control in horticultural ecosystems. The remarkable advantage of torenia over other ornamental plant species is the availability of an easy and high-efficiency transformation system for it. Unfortunately, most of the current torenia research is still not very widespread, bec...

Nishihara, Masahiro; Shimoda, Takeshi; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Arimura, Gen-ichiro

2013-01-01

344

Breast cancer survival and season of surgery: an ecological open cohort study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Vitamin D has been suggested to influence the incidence and prognosis of breast cancer, and studies have found better overall survival (OS) after diagnosis for breast cancer in summer-autumn, where the vitamin D level are expected to be highest. Objective To compare the prognostic outcome for early breast cancer patients operated at different seasons of the year. Design Open population-based cohort study. Setting Danish women operated 1978-2010. Cases 79?658 adjusted for age at surgery, period of surgery, tumour size, axillary lymph node status and hormone receptor status. Statistical analysis The association between OS and season of surgery was analysed by Cox proportional hazards regression models, at survival periods 0-1, 0-2, 0-5 and 0-10 years after surgery. A two-sided p value <0.05 was considered statistical significant. Results Only after adjustment for prognostic factors that may be influenced by vitamin D, 1-year survival was close to significantly associated season of surgery. 2, 5 and 10 years after surgery, the association between OS and season of surgery was not significant. Limitations Season is a surrogate measure of vitamin D. Conclusions The authors found no evidence of a seasonal variation in the survival after surgery for early breast cancer. Lack of seasonal variation in this study does not necessarily mean that vitamin D is of no importance for the outcome for breast cancer patients. PMID:22223841

Teilum, Dorthe; Bjerre, Karsten D; Tjønneland, Anne M; Kroman, Niels

2012-01-01

345

Analysis on Cross-Regional Land Ecological Compensation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper chose Eastern China area, Central China area, Western China area and Northeast China area as the study object and chose landuse classifications as the basic ecological system unit. It roughly estimated the regional ecological system service value. The theory of ecosystem service value, the method of ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity are applied to analyze the cross-regional land ecological compensation problem, providing the theoretical guidance for the ecological environment protection and land ecological compensation quantification study.

Lijuan Zhou

2012-03-01

346

Ecological baseline study of the Yakima Firing Center proposed land acquisition: A Preliminary Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A baseline census was conducted from October 1987 to Janurary 1988 on the property identified for possible expansion of the Yakima Firing Center. These studies provide general descriptions of the major plant communities presentand animal inhabitants during the late fall and winter study period. A vegetation map derived from a combination of onsite surveillance and remotely sensed imagery is also provided as part of this report. Through January 1988, 13 wildlife species of special interest to state and federal agencies, in addition to ducks and geese, were observed on the proposed expansion area. Then raptorial bird species were observed in the area, including bald eagles, golden eagles, and prairie falcons. Upland game bird species, such as sage grouse, California quail, chuckars, and gray (Hungarian) partridge were present. Loggerhead shrikes, a species of special interest, were also observed on the site. Estimates of waterfowl abundance are included for the Priest Rapids Pool of the Columbia River, which includes the proposed river crossing sites. The number of waterfowl on the proposed crossing areas were comparatively low during the winter of 1986 to 1987 and high in 1987 to 1988. Bald eagles ad common loons were observed on the crossing areas. Six small mammal species were captured during this study period;one, the sagebrush vole, is a species of special interest. Two large animal species, mule deer and elk, were noted on the site. Beaver were the only furbearig animals noted to date. Rainbow trout were the only fish species collected within the proposed northern expansion area. The distribution of fall chinook salmon spawning areas was documented within the proposed river crossing areas. 3 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Rogers, L.E.; Beedlow, P.A.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Dauble, D.D.; Fitzner, R.E.

1988-02-01

347

Gnotobiotic models for study of the microbial ecology of Clostridium difficile and Escherichia coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hamster flora introduced into germfree mice reduced the cecum to conventional size, suppressed populations of Escherichia coli and Clostridium difficile to the same degree that mouse flora did, and corrected the hypocellularity that is characteristic of the small bowel of germfree mice. A highly toxigenic strain of C. difficile readily induced cecitis in germfree and antibiotic-treated conventional mice, and histological examination frequently revealed pseudomembranes. Toxins A and B were both detected in ceca of animals with colitis. Gnotobiotic mice provide a model in which to study the role of the indigenous microflora in protecting against antibiotic-associated colitis. PMID:3512730

Wilson, K H; Sheagren, J N; Freter, R; Weatherbee, L; Lyerly, D

1986-03-01

348

Research on Ecological Operation of Three Gorges Cascade Hydropower Stations  

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Full Text Available This study present the general model on the ecology operation of reservoir containing four steps: Finding the points of ecological protection, confirming the ecological variables, searching the ecological relation, standardizing the variables. The study research the ecological operation of three gorges considering the breeding of the Chinese sturgeon, for which we structure a multi-objective programming model. Last, the method of decision-making about the Pareto-solutions to the above model is provided.

Li Wei

2013-01-01

349

Scientometric diagnosis of the use of remote sensing images in Landscape Ecology studies - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i1.8444  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work analyzed the implementation of images from the remote sensors ASTER, CBERS, IKONOS, LANDSAT, MODIS, NOAA, QUICKBIRD and SPOT in Brazilian and international Landscape Ecology studies, developed between 1991 and July 2009. The study analyzed works published in article form using the ISI Web of Knowledge website, and theses and dissertations from the “Thesis Database” at CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Ensino Superior). A total of 124 Brazil...

Mariana Cristina Sarragiotto; Evanilde Benedito

2012-01-01

350

Ecological study of avian malaria vectors on the island of Minami-Daito, Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The seasonal prevalence and spatial distribution of mosquitoes were examined as part of an avian malaria study on the oceanic island of Minami-Daito Island, Japan. Because dry ice was not available in this study, yeast-generated CO2 was used to attract biting mosquitoes. Adult mosquitoes were collected biweekly using battery-operated traps enhanced with yeast-generated CO2 and a gravid trap from March 2006 to February 2007. The CO2-baited traps were distributed in 4 different habitats: sugar cane field, forest and vegetation ring, residential area, and swamp area. At 3 collection sites beside sugar cane fields, traps were fixed at 2 different heights (3 and 6 m above the ground). A total of 1,437 mosquitoes of the following 9 species were collected: Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes albopictus, Coquillettidia sp., Mansonia uniformis, Culex rubithoracis, Armigeres subalbatus, Lutzia fuscanus, Aedes daitensis, and Aedes togoi. Among them, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. albopictus, and Coquillettidia sp. were dominant. The high density and wide distribution of Cx. quinquefasciatus throughout the island suggested the importance of this species as a principal vector of avian malaria on the island. PMID:19852217

Tsuda, Yoshio; Matsui, Shin; Saito, Atsushi; Akatani, Kana; Sato, Yukita; Takagi, Masaoki; Murata, Koichi

2009-09-01

351

Study on Ecological Growth Conditions of Cattle Hyalomma Ticks in Punjab, Pakistan  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: The survey for the prevalence of different species of cattle Hyalomma ticks was carried out in three districts (Rawalpindi, Multan and Lahore of Punjab province in Pakistan. The bionomical conditions suitable for Hyalomma were also studied in laboratory."nMethods:  One hundred specimens of ticks of different genera were collected from each district. After identification, the Hyalomma ticks were reared in laboratory under the influence of varying temperature and humidity."nResults:  The   results showed highest prevalence (67% of ticks in district Lahore. The highest prevalence (12% of Hya­lomma ticks and lowest prevalence (3.1% of Rhipicephalus in cattle was recorded. The bionomical study showed the high­est mean pre oviposition period was   during spring while it was lowest   in autumn .The  mean oviposition period was  also highest in spring  . The incubation period of the ova of Hyalomma varied in different seasons. No oviposition was   recorded at the temperature 100C and 85% humidity. The maximum number of eggs was laid at 340C and lowest egg production oc­curred at 150C. The maximum number of eggs hatched at 320C and 85% humidity."nConclusion: The variation in relative humidity had no appreciable effect on rate of development of ticks while the number of eggs laid increase with rise in temperature.

AR Shakoori

2009-02-01

352

Ecological studies of the solfatara vegetation on Mt. Zao, NE Japan  

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The vegetation, soil, and the nutrient content of plants were studied in and around the solfataras of Mt. Zao (NE Japan). Certain plant communities, including Carex angustisquama, Deschamsia flexuosa, Polygonum sachalinense, P. sachalininse-Miscanthus sinensis, and M. sinensis were recognized near all solfataras studied. The communities of Empetrum nigrum var. japonicum, Ledum palustre var. diversipilosum, Menziesia multiflora, Sasa kurilensis, and Polygonum japonica var. colorans were restricted to the area of those solfataras which were at high altitudes. The Clethra berbinervis community was restricted to low altitudes. The solfatara soils were strongly acidic, poor in nutrients, and had high concentrations of exchangeable sulfuric anion. They were especially poor in available solfatara soils and normal climax soils. The concentration of S, P, Ca, and K in the Carex a., Deschampsia f., Polygonum s., and Miscantha s. were directly proportional to their proximity to the solfataras. Those in Sasa k., Hydrangea paniculata, and Clethra b. were not affected by the habitat. The needles of Abies mariesii in the vicinity of solfataras accumulated sulfur to the extent that they suffered early defoliation.

Saito, K. (Dept. of Biol., Fac. of Gen. Ed., Yamagata Univ., Japan); Kawai, Y.; Abe, H.

1976-02-01

353

Pattern and determinants of hospitalization during heat waves: an ecologic study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies have investigated mortality during a heatwave, while few have quantified heat associated morbidity. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between hospital admissions and intensity, duration and timing of heatwave across the summer months. Methods The study area (Veneto Region, Italy holds 4577408 inhabitants (on January 1st, 2003, and is subdivided in seven provinces with 60 hospitals and about 20000 beds for acute care. Five consecutive heatwaves (three or more consecutive days with Humidex above 40°C occurred during summer 2002 and 2003 in the region. From the regional computerized archive of hospital discharge records, we extracted the daily count of hospital admissions for people aged ?75, from June 1 through August 31 in 2002 and 2003. Among people aged over 74 years, daily hospital admissions for disorders of fluid and electrolyte balance, acute renal failure, and heat stroke (grouped in a single nosologic entity, heat diseases, HD, respiratory diseases (RD, circulatory diseases (CD, and a reference category chosen a priori (fractures of the femur, FF were independently analyzed by Generalized Estimating Equations. Results Heatwave duration, not intensity, increased the risk of hospital admissions for HD and RD by, respectively, 16% (p Conclusion The first four days of an heatwave had only minor effects, thus supporting heat health systems where alerts are based on duration of hot humid days. Although the finding is based on a single late summer heatwave, adaptations to extreme temperature in late summer seem to be unlikely.

Milan Giovanni

2007-08-01

354

Impact of Mass Media on Public Behavior and Physicians: An Ecological Study of the H1N1 Influenza Pandemic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background.?The mass media plays an important role in public health behavior. Purpose.?The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of mass media coverage of the H1N1 pandemic on the number of emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admission rates. Methods.?An ecological study of ED visits to 8 general Israeli hospitals due to influenza-like illness during the period June-October 2009 was performed. Data on the number of visits per day for children and adults and daily hospitalization rates were analyzed. Associations with the estimated value of H1N1-related publications and weekly reports from nationwide sentinel clinics were assessed. The analysis was performed in 2012-2013. Results.?There were 55,070 ED visits due to influenza-like illness during the study period. The overall number of media reports was 1,812 (14.3% radio broadcasts, 9.8% television broadcasts, 27.5% newspaper articles, and 48.5% major website reports). The overall estimated value of advertising of publications was $16,399,000, excluding the Internet. While H1N1 incidence recorded by Israeli sentinel clinics showed no association with mass media publications, peaks of media reports were followed by an increase in the number of ED visits, usually with a delay of 3 days (P = .005). This association was noted in children (P .1), with a corresponding decrease in hospital admission rates. Publications' framing had no association with ED visits. Conclusions.?During the 2009 H1N1 influenza outbreak in Israel, an increase in mass media coverage was associated with an increase in pediatric ED visits. PMID:24799648

Codish, Shlomi; Novack, Lena; Dreiher, Jacob; Barski, Leonid; Jotkowitz, Alan; Zeller, Lior; Novack, Victor

2014-06-01

355

Ecological Studies on Zygophyllum aegyptium in the Deltaic Mediterranean Coast of Egypt  

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Full Text Available The present study evaluates the effects of environmental factors and associated species on the distribution and abundance of Zygophyllum aegyptium A. Hosny in different habitats in the Deltaic Mediterranean coast of Egypt. Four vegetation groups associated with Z. aegyptium were identified using Two way Indicator Species Analysis. These groups were named as Elymus farctus (Viv. Runemark (group A, Alhagi graecorum Boiss. (group B, Silene succulenta Forssk. (group C and Stipagrostis lanata (Forssk. De Winter (group D. The application of Detrended Correspondence Analysis and Canonical Correspondence Analysis explored the pattern of distribution and the main environmental factors influencing the distribution and abundance of Z. aegyptium. This showed the highest scores of abundance in the salt marshes (group A and fertile non-cultivated lands (group B however, the lowest scores of abundance in the sand dunes (groups C&D. Edaphically, the distribution of Z. aegyptium is mainly controlled by soil texture, moisture availability, calcareous sedimentation and soil fertility (organic carbon.

Ibrahim A. Mashaly

2002-01-01

356

Globalization and suicide: an ecological study across five regions of the world.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of globalization on health is recognized to be influenced by country and regional-level factors. This study aimed to investigate the possible relationship between globalization and suicide in five world regions. An index measure of globalization was developed at the country level over 1980 to 2006. The association between the index and sex specific suicide rates was tested using a fixed-effect regression model. Over time, the globalization index seemed to be associated with increased suicide rates in Asia and the Eastern European/Baltic region. In contrast, it was associated with decreased rates in Scandinavia. There was no significant relationship between globalization and suicide in Southern and Western Europe. The effects of globalization could be determined by specific regional (i.e., cultural and societal) factors. Identification of these mediators might provide opportunities to protect countries from the adverse impacts of globalization. PMID:22852785

Milner, Allison; McClure, Rod; De Leo, Diego

2012-01-01

357

Block design as a measure of everyday spatial ability: a study of ecological validity.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effectiveness of the WAIS-R Block Design subtest to predict everyday spatial ability for 65 university undergraduates (15 men, 50 women) who were administered Block Design, the Standardized Road Map Test of Direction Sense, and the Everyday Spatial Activities Test. In addition, the verbally loaded National Adult Reading Test was administered to assess whether the more visuospatial Block Design subtest was a better predictor of spatial ability. Moderate support was found. When age and sex were accounted for, Block Design accounted for 36% of the variance in performance (r = -.62) on the Road Map Test and 19% of the variance on the performance of the Everyday Spatial Activities Test (r = .42). In contrast, the scores on the National Adult Reading Test did not predict performance on the Road Map Test or Everyday Spatial Abilities Test. This suggests that, with appropriate caution, Block Design could be used as a measure of everyday spatial abilities. PMID:10833749

Groth-Marnat, G; Teal, M

2000-04-01

358

Enewetak Radioecology Research Program. I. Ecological studies on Engebi Island, 1975--1976  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Enewetak Radioecology Research Program, we studied radionuclide cycling from soil to plant to soil on Engebi Island at the Enewetak Atoll. Mature and dying leaves, young and old litter, humus, and soil beneath these organic strata were collected from 1975-76 at three Engebi sites. To study radionuclide depth distributions, five trenches of > 1 m were dug and sampled. From three representative sites, we found that "1"3"7Cs rapidly cycles from the plant biomass through the litter and humus into the vegetation. Continuously deposited litter decomposes within 6 to 12 months, but the constituent radionuclides are released early during physical decomposition. Soil radionuclides generally occur in the upper 40 cm of the soil profile, strongly associated with the organic horizon. Radionuclides such as "6"0Co, "1"5"2"-"1"5"5Eu, "2"0"7Bi, and "2"4"1Am are complexed in the finely divided organic matter or humus where "1"3"7Cs and "4"0K predominate. Our data suggest that there is a circulating pool of rapidly cycling "1"3"7Cs in the Engebi ecosystem that may be entirely associated with the plant biomass and organic strata of the soil. Soilbound radionuclides below the humus are low in concentration and may not enter into this pool because they are below the vegetation root zone, where they may be leached by rainwater. This information is needed in making realistic long-term radionuclide dose assessments for the Enewetak peoples

1978-01-01

359

Microfluidic Trap Arrays: Passive Sensors for Studying Aquatic Protozoan Ecology and Biogeography  

Science.gov (United States)

Microscopic organisms such as bacteria and protozoa are the engine that drives global biogeochemical processes: microbes fix carbon, produce oxygen, mediate nutrient cycling, and break down anthropogenic contaminants. In many habitats, the bacterial community structure and its net production is controlled in a top-down fashion by predation by protozoa. Despite their importance, many researchers have noted a significant gap in our understanding of their diversity, biogeography, and ecosystem function. We developed a microfluidic field sampling and analysis tool to study the biogeography and function of microbial eukaryotes. Microfluidic samplers were created to systematically target the morphology, function, and habitat of different microbial eukaryotes. Features such as channel dimensions, branching angles and radii of curvature were varied to allow organisms to be selected and captured based on cell size, shape, plasticity, and swimming or crawling modalities. We also developed genetic analysis protocols to extract and amplify DNA from a single trapped cell, allowing for molecular identification of trapped species. Results from freshwater sediment and water column deployments confirmed design efficiencies in trapping and concentrating protozoa based on biomass density, allowed for analysis of body plasticity and cell size, and also confirmed the viability of this technology for future real time monitoring of protozoa in aquatic ecosystems. This research offers a radical departure from existing approaches to study microbial eukaryotic communities in the field. Our novel methodology involving trapping, observation and recording of physical characteristics and genetic analysis of single cells allows comparison with bulk samples to place trapped microbes within a function- and habitat-specific context.

Chau, J. F.; Bouchillon, G.; Shor, L. M.

2012-12-01

360

Study on the Model Building for the Influence of the Water Environment on Urban Tourism Ecological Capacity  

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Full Text Available This article first define the concept of the urban water environment and city tourism environment capacity and points out that the urban tourism environment capacity including urban tourism ecological capacity, urban tourism spatial capacity, urban tourism economy capacity and city tourism mental capacity, on the basis of which, the tourist ecological capacity of the influence factors were analyzed. And from the water environment of tourist’s capital input and the relationship among the water environment of the city tourism ecological capacity of six son model and influence comprehensive model, in order to improve the water quality and water environment, promote the city tourism economy and here comes the theory basis.

Wan Zu-yong

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Ecological Studies of the River Padma at Mawa Ghat, Munshiganj I. Physico-chemical Properties  

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Full Text Available Some selected physico-chemical properties were measured in three stations at Mawa Ghat, Munshiganj, of Padma river between February and December, 2002. The pH of the water was slightly acidic to alkaline (6.2 to 7.5. Conductivity ranged from 106.0-209.0 ?S cm-1. The values of chloride, alkalinity, free CO2 were 65.0-85.6, 57.7-110.0 and 2.3-13.4 mg L-1, respectively. The values of dissolved oxygen were 5.1 to 10.3 mg L-1. BOD5 ranged from 3.4 to 7.2 mg L-1. Total hardness were 2.9 to 6.5 mg L-1 and the values were 2.3-4.2 mg L-1 in case of permanent hardness. Total solids were 175.5-472.1 mg L-1 and 35.5-179.9 mg L-1 dissolved solids were recorded. River water did not show any significant pollution during the present study. Free CO2 showed negative correlations with all other parameters. The relation was highly significance (p=0.01 in case of conductivity and total hardness. The other parameters showed positive correlation among themselves.

Ashfaque Ahmed

2004-01-01

362

Ecological baseline study of the Yakima Firing Center proposed land acquisition: A status report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides baseline environmental information for the property identified for possible expansion of the Yakima Firing Center. Results from this work provide general descriptions of the animals and major plant communities present. A vegetation map derived from a combination of on-site surveillance and remotely sensed imagery is provided as part of this report. Twenty-seven wildlife species of special interest (protected, sensitive, furbearer, game animal, etc.), and waterfowl, were observed on the proposed expansion area. Bird censuses revealed 13 raptorial species (including four of special interest: bald eagle, golden eagle, osprey, and prairie falcon); five upland game bird species (sage grouse, California quail, chukar, gray partridge, and ring-necked pheasant); common loons (a species proposed for state listing as threatened); and five other species of special interest (sage thrasher, loggerhead shrike, mourning dove, sage sparrow, and long-billed curlew). Estimates of waterfowl abundance are included for the Priest Rapids Pool of the Columbia River. Six small mammal species were captured during this study; one, the sagebrush vole, is a species of special interest. Two large animal species, mule deer and elk, were noted on the site. Five species of furbearing animals were observed (coyote, beaver, raccoon, mink, and striped skunk). Four species of reptiles and one amphibian were noted. Fisheries surveys were conducted to document the presence of gamefish, and sensitive-classified fish and aquatic invertebrates. Rainbow trout were the only fish collected within the boundaries of the proposed northern expansion area. 22 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

Rogers, L.E.; Beedlow, P.A.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Dauble, D.D.; Fitzner, R.E.

1989-01-01

363

Trophic ecology of mullets during their spring migration in a European saltmarsh: A stable isotope study  

Science.gov (United States)

Mullet populations are abundant in littoral waters throughout the world and play a significant role in organic matter fluxes. Mullets are opportunistic feeders: adults have frequently been shown to feed on primary producers (e.g. fresh or detrital plant material, microphytobenthos) but they may also feed on meiofauna. The population structure and stomach contents of mullets that colonize saltmarsh creeks in Aiguillon Bay (French Atlantic coast) were studied to determine if they use saltmarshes as a feeding ground in spring. Stable isotope analyses were carried out on mullets sampled to assess their diet during their spring migration. The mullet population was primarily composed of young-of-the-year (G0), 1 year-old (G1) of both Liza ramada and Liza aurata species and 3 year-old or older (G3+) L. ramada individuals. G0 and G3+ population densities increased during the spring period: catch per unit effort (CPUE) increased from 0.22 to 1.49 ind min -1 for the G0 age group; but stomach content analyses revealed that only G1 and G3+ feed in the saltmarsh. Isotopic signatures of G1 (spring: ? 13C: -14.8‰, ? 15N: 14.1‰) and G3+ mullets (spring: ? 13C: -16.9‰, ? 15N: 13.8‰) indicate that mullet growth is supported largely by primary consumers, such as benthic meiofauna or small macrofauna. Mullets are thus positioned at a much higher trophic level than true primary consumers.

Lebreton, Benoit; Richard, Pierre; Parlier, Emmanuel P.; Guillou, Gaël; Blanchard, Gérard F.

2011-03-01

364

Mark-recapture and behavioral ecology: a case study of Cliff Swallows  

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Full Text Available Mark-recapture and the statistical analysis methods associated with it offer great potential for investigating fitness components associated with particular behavioral traits. However, few behavioral ecologists have used these techniques. We illustrate the insights that have come from a long-term mark-recapture study of social behavior in Cliff Swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota. The number of transient swallows passing through a colony per hour increased with colony size and was responsible in part for increased rates of ectoparasite introduction from outside the group into the larger colonies. Annual survival probabilities of males engaging in extra-pair copulation attempts were lower than those of males not seen to commit extra-pair copulations, suggesting that males who engage in this behavior may be inferior individuals and that females do not benefit from copulating with them. Females engaging in intraspecific brood parasitism had higher annual survival probabilities than ones either parasitized by others or not known to be either hosts or parasites. This suggests that parasitic females are high-quality birds and that brood parasitism is an effective reproductive tactic for increasing their fitness. By estimating first-year survival of chicks, we found that a clutch size of 4 eggs is often the most productive, on average, as measured by recruitment of offspring as breeders, although birds laying the more uncommon clutch size of 5 fledge more young on average. This helps to explain the observed clutch-size distribution in which clutch size 4 is the most commonly produced.

Bronw, M. B.

2004-01-01

365

Reference information for realizing ecological restoration of river: A case study in the Bongseonsa stream  

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Full Text Available In Korea, where the plain land is greatly deficient as a mountainous nation, most of riparian zones were transformed into agricultural fields and urban areas. Excessive use of the land, which is close to river, makes the rivers enduring severe pollution stresses. Disappearance of riparian buffer, which plays a function of filter in the riverside, appears as a main factor aggravating water pollution of rivers. In this respect, it is imperative to restore the lost riparian vegetation. This study found out restoration models of riparian vegetation from the Bongseonsa stream, which has remnant riparian vegetation patches as a conservation reserve. Feasible reference information applicable for restoration of riparian vegetation was shown in the species level in the order of herb, shrub, and tree and sub-tree zones as far away from the waterway. Those information could contribute to restoring integrate and healthy rivers and streams beyond simple landscaping differently from the other restoration projects when they will be applied to the restoration project to be carried out in the future. In addition, the spatial range of river and stream, background that riparian zone disappeared in Korea, and application plan of the obtained reference information were discussed.

Chang-Seok Lee

2013-12-01

366

Consanguinity Associated with Child and Adult Mortality in 24 Asian and African Countries, an Ecological Study  

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Full Text Available Background: Although numerous studies have found deleterious effects of inbreeding on childhood and pre-reproductive mortality, one question remains inadequately addressed: Dose inbreeding lead to increased childhood mortality rates in countries with high level of consanguinity? Methods: To evaluate the public health impact of inbreeding on offspring mortality, the association between mean of inbreeding coefficient (? and sex specific child and adult mortality rates in 24 countries from Asia and Africa was analyzed. Results: Statistical analysis showed that countries with relatively higher rates of consanguineous marriages have higher mortality rates than the countries with lower consanguinity rates. Also, countries with relatively higher GDP per capita have lower mortality rates. After controlling the GDP per capita, significant positive correlations between ? and child (Female: r=0.4355, df=21, P=0.038; Male: r=0.3991, df=21, P=0.059 mortality rates were observed. There was no significant correlation between ? and adult (Female: r=0.2977, df=21, P=0.168; Male: r=0.2207, df=21, P=0.312 mortality rates, after controlling for GDP per capita. Conclusion: It is concluded that consanguinity influences child deaths rate independent of the GDP per capita and that a large proportion of deaths could be attributed to inbreeding in several countries due to high frequencies of consanguinity.

M Saadat

2007-05-01

367

Ecological studies in the middle reach of Chesapeake Bay. Calvert Cliffs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Passage of estuarine water and phytoplankton through the cooling system of the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plant in the summer months of 1977-1981 resulted in frequent reductions of phytoplankton densities particularly during periods when flagellated taxa dominated total cell numbers. Entrainment-induced reductions in chlorophyll were observed on only four occasions, however. Phytoplankton productivity as oxygen evolution or /sup 14/C-uptake was even more susceptible to the effects of passing through the cooling system. Inhibition of productivitiy was observed during periods dominated by flagellated cells and generally occurred with ambient water temperature greater than or equal to 25/sup 0/C. Results from track autoradiography employed in 1981 indicated that carbon fixation in the commonly observed flagellate Cryptomonas acuta was significantly depressed during July, August and September. In contrast, the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum and the diatoms Cyclotella caspia and Thalassionema nitzschioides were not affected by entrainment. Although entrainment affects Cryptomonas and flagellate-dominated assemblages in the summer there are no detectable effects of power plant operations on cell densities or productivity in flagellate-dominated waters in the vicinity of the power plant. Transitory exposure of estuarine zooplankton to the elevated temperatures of CCNPP entrainment and discharge plumes was generally non-lethal. In the species selected for study the survival rate after entrainment was 65 to 100%. The effects of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen levels upon entrained organisms were also analyzed.

Heck, K.L. Jr. (Dauphin Island Sea Lab., AL (USA)) (ed.)

1987-01-01

368

Direct extraction of DNA from soils for studies in microbial ecology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Molecular analyses for the study of soil microbial communities often depend on the extraction of DNA directly from soils. These extractions are by no means trivial, being complicated by humic substances that are inhibitory to PCR and restriction enzymes or being too highly colored for blot hybridization protocols. Many different published protocols exist, but none have been found to be suitable enough to be generally accepted as a standard. Most direct extraction protocols start with relatively harsh cell breakage steps such as bead-beating and freeze-thaw cycles, followed by the addition of detergents and high salt buffers and/or enzymic digestion with lysozyme and proteases. After typical organic extraction and alcohol precipitation, further purification is usually needed to remove inhibitory substances from the extract. The purification steps include size-exclusion chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, silica gel spin columns, and cesium chloride gradients, among others. A direct DNA extraction protocol is described that has been shown to be effective in a wide variety of soil types. This protocol is experimentally compared to several published protocols. PMID:12638659

Schneegurt, Mark A; Dore, Sophia Y; Kulpa, Charles F

2003-01-01

369

On fuzzy-relational simulation modelling of Prespa-Ohrid Lakes system for ecological studies (Macedonia)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Novel results on simulation modelling of Prespa-Ohrid natural complex system of lakes (in Macedonia) in terms of long-term water level dynamics, for which the observation data are uncertain and unreliable due to historical events, via fuzzy-relations models is presented. This complex system of natural lakes has been found to be rather endangered water resource system during last four decades due to changes caused by local urbanization and irrigation construction. In the course of the study, a kind of self-regulation property of Prespa-Ohrid Lakes due to their natural geophysical creation has been revealed first. In turn, this has enables derivation on an appropriate approach to the simulation modelling of long-term dynamics of water levels. These results have been obtained on the grounds of the observed self-regulation property and of system-theoretic approach to complex processes represented by fuzzy models. Through developed for the case of Prespa-Ohrid complex, it is believed to represent a more general methodology for simulation modelling of natural lakes and man-made reservoirs. (author)

1997-01-01

370

Impacts of inorganic fluorides on terrestrial ecosystems: An ecological risk assessment case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1994, the national environmental assessment under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act concluded that concentrations of inorganic fluorides near industrial sources in Canada may cause long-term adverse effects in sensitive terrestrial plant and wildlife species. This case study examines the accumulation of inorganic fluorides in vegetation and subsequent effects on a sensitive herbivore species, the white tail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on Cornwall Island, Ontario, near an aluminum smelting facility, Using environmental concentration data for air, water and food (vegetation), a Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the probability that multimedia exposure of inorganic fluorides exceeded known effects thresholds of skeletal and dental fluorosis in deer, and in turn quantify the magnitude of that risk. With daily intakes ranging from 2--324 {micro}g/deer/day, it was estimated that exposure to fluorides exceeds the daily intake threshold for fluorosis (55 {micro}g/deer/day) in 12% of the deer population. Seasonal differences in exposure and subsequent risk were noted. These results are also supported by additional field data on domestic cattle from the Cornwall Island area where effects (e.g., excessive teeth wear, delayed eruption of permanent teeth, osteosclerosis, osteonecrosis) have been reported and linked to high levels of fluorides in air, water, and forage. It is estimated that at least 10% of the deer from the Cornwall Island area may be subject to debilitating skeletal and dental fluorosis as a result of fluoride emissions from the adjacent aluminum smelter.

Kent, R.A.; Schneider, U.A.; Pawlisz, A.V. [Environment Canada, Hull, Quebec (Canada). Evaluation and Interpretation Branch

1995-12-31

371

An ecological study of regional variation in work injuries among young workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The investigation of geographic variation in occupational injuries has received little attention. Young workers 15 to 24 years are of particular concern because they consistently show elevated occupational injury rates compared to older workers. The present study sought to: (a to describe the geographic variation of work injuries; (b to determine whether geographic variation remained after controlling for relevant demographic and job characteristics; (c to identify the region-level factors that correlate with the geographic variation. Methods Using workers compensation claims and census data, we estimated claim rates per 100 full-time equivalents for 15 to 24 year olds in 46 regions in Ontario. A total of 21 region-level indicators were derived primarily from Census and Labour Force Survey data to reflect social and material deprivation of the region as well as demographic and employment characteristics of youth living in those areas. Results Descriptive findings showed substantial geographic variation in young worker injury rates, even after controlling for several job and demographic variables. Region-level characteristics such as greater residential stability were associated with low work injury rates. Also, regions with the lowest claim rates tended to have proportionally fewer cuts and burns than high-claim-rate regions. Conclusion The finding of substantial geographic variation in youth claim rates even after controlling for demographic and job factors can aid in targeting prevention resource. The association between region-level indicators such as residential stability and youth work injury suggests that work injury prevention strategies can be integrated with other local economic development measures. The findings partially support the notion that work safety measures may be unevenly distributed with respect to regional socio-economic factors.

Smith Peter

2007-05-01

372

Variation in general practice prostate-specific antigen testing and prostate cancer outcomes : An ecological study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Brugen af prostata-specifikt antigen (PSA) er mangedoblet i dansk almen praksis siden introduktionen i 1990â??erne. Dansk Urologisk Selskab anbefaler brug af testen ved relevante symptomer og arvelig disposition, men ikke til screening. Alligevel varierer brugen af PSA-tests i almen praksis. Dette registerstudie undersøger variationen i brugen af PSA-tests blandt praktiserende læger i Region Midtjylland i perioden 2004-2009. Studiet ser ogsÃ¥ nærmere pÃ¥, hvilke konsekvenser variationen har for mændene i de forskellige praksispopulationer. Almen praksis blev inddelt i fire grupper efter deres brug af PSA-tests. Den mest testende fjerdedel af praksis brugte teksten 3,6 gange oftere end den mindst testende praksisgruppe. I den mest testende gruppe fik 76 % flere personer en biopsi af prostata og 37 % flere mænd blev diagnosticeret med prostatacancer sammenlignet med den mindst testende gruppe. Risikoen for at blive diagnosticeret med lokal prostatacancer var 61 % højere i den mest testende gruppe sammenlignet med den mindst testende gruppe. Risikoen for at finde regional sygdom eller fjern¬meta¬staser var dog den samme i de fire grupper. Risikoen for at fÃ¥ fjernet hele blærehalskirtlen (prostatektomi) var 2,25 gange større i den mest testende gruppe sammenlignet med den mindst testende gruppe. Dødeligheden (mortaliteten) â?? bÃ¥de den over¬ordnede og den prostata-specifikke â?? var den samme i alle fire grupper. Resultaterne indikerer, at der er forskellig klinisk praksis for brugen af PSA-tests, og at forskellene har betydning for praksispopulationerne. Biopsi fra prostata og prostatektomi er begge procedurer, som giver stor risiko for bivirkninger, men dette studie kan ikke pÃ¥vise, at intensiv PSA-testning giver en reduceret dødelighed.

Hjertholm, Peter; Fenger-Grøn, Morten

2014-01-01

373

Geographic variability of fatal road traffic injuries in Spain during the period 2002–2004: an ecological study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study is to describe the inter-province variability of Road Traffic Injury (RTI mortality on Spanish roads, adjusted for vehicle-kilometres travelled, and to assess the possible role played by the following explicative variables: sociodemographic, structural, climatic and risk conducts. Methods An ecological study design was employed. The mean annual rate of RTI deaths was calculated for the period 2002–2004, adjusted for vehicle-kilometres travelled, in the 50 provinces of Spain. The RTI death rate was related with the independent variables described above, using simple and multiple linear regression analysis with backward step-wise elimination. The level of statistical significance was taken as p Results In the period 2002–2004 there were 12,756 RTI deaths in Spain (an average of 4,242 per year, SD = 356.6. The mean number of deaths due to RTI per 100 million vehicle-kilometres (mvk travelled was 1.76 (SD = 0.51, with a minimum value of 0.66 (in Santa Cruz de Tenerife and a maximum of 3.31 (in the province of Lugo. All other variables being equal, a higher proportion of kilometres available on high capacity roads, and a higher cultural and education level were associated with lower death rates due to RTI, while the opposite was true for the rate of alcohol consumers and the road traffic volume of heavy vehicles. The variables included in the model accounted for 55.4% of the variability in RTI mortality. Conclusion Adjusting RTI mortality rates for the number of vehicle-kilometres travelled enables us to identify the high variability of this cause of death, and its relation with risk factors other than those inherent to human behaviour, such as the type of roads and the type of vehicles using them.

Jimenez-Puente Alberto

2007-09-01

374

Ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY-1994 and FY-1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory initiated ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF on the SRS in FY-1979. Two areas have been used for biological surveys and long-term monitoring: the DWPF construction site (S-Area and Z-Area), and two control sites (Rainbow Bay and Tinker Creek). The Rainbow Bay study area and S-Area are located within 5 km of each other on the SRS, and both once contained Carolina bays which were very similar ecologically. One goal of the SREL`s faunal studies is to compare the natural variation in amphibian populations at the Rainbow Bay control site to the variation observed at the human-altered site (Sun Bay, formerly on the DWPF construction site). Pre-construction biological surveys included data on vegetation, birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles, fish and several invertebrate groups. No species on the Federal Endangered or Threatened lists were found on either site, but several plants and animals of threatened or special-concern status in South Carolina were present and the gopher frog (Rana areolata) currently is being considered for federal listing. Continuing studies are directed towards assessing construction impacts on the biota and towares modeling the effects of alteration of wetland hydroperiod on the biota. Primary emphasis is being paced on evaluation the effectiveness of mitigation measures undertaken by DOE.

NONE

1995-12-01

375

Ecological Assessment of Wadeable Streams on O`ahu, Hawai'i, 2006-2007: A Pilot Study  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2006-07, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Pacific Islands Water Science Center (PIWSC), in cooperation with the Hawai'i Department of Health (HDOH), conducted a pilot study as a participant in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) program. Forty randomly selected sites on perennial streams on O'ahu, Hawai'i, were surveyed for habitat characteristics, water chemistry, and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages. Of the original sampling frame of approximately 505.2 miles of perennial stream, roughly 96.7 +or- 30.7 miles were found to be nonperennial or estuarine and another 200.5 +or- 64.7 miles were judged to be inaccessible. The scope of this report presents an assessment of the remaining 208 +or- 57.6 miles of accessible, wadeable, perennial stream length on O'ahu. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were used to determine the ecological condition at each site. Components of the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were assessed using the multimetric Preliminary-Hawaiian Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity (P-HBIBI) developed by Wolff (2005). Based on the P-HBIBI scores, an estimated 5.8 +or- 5.8 percent of the island's total stream length is in most disturbed condition, 56 +or- 13.5 percent is in intermediately disturbed condition, and 38.2 +or- 13.2 percent is in least disturbed condition. Windward O'ahu had the highest percentage of stream length in least disturbed biological condition at 56.7 +or- 20.8 percent. Using the relative abundance of insects, one of the core metrics that make up the P-HBIBI, 43.4 +or- 14.2 percent of the islandwide stream length was classified in the most disturbed condition - 52 +or- 31.2 percent of the Honolulu region stream length and 51.4 +or- 23.3 percent of the windward O'ahu stream length. An analysis of total nitrogen (N) estimated approximately 41.1 +or- 13.7 percent of the stream length on O'ahu was in most disturbed condition. Regionally, the Honolulu region had the largest proportion, 61.3 +or- 28.6 percent, of most disturbed stream length in terms of total N. An analysis of total phosphorus (P) classified approximately 43.2 +or- 14 percent of the stream length on O'ahu as most disturbed. Regionally, windward O'ahu had the largest proportion, 78.4 +or- 19.5 percent, of stream length classified as most disturbed. An analysis of embeddedness classified 30.3 +or- 14.7 percent of O'ahu's stream length as most. Regionally, windward O'ahu had the largest proportion, 43.3 +or- 17.1 percent, of stream length classified as most disturbed as compared to the reference condition. An analysis of riparian disturbance, an index of the in-channel, riparian, and near-stream human activities, classified 43 +or- 13 percent of stream length on O'ahu as most disturbed. The Honolulu region had the largest proportion of stream length, 86.3 +or- 13.7 percent, classified as most disturbed. The information in this report is the first attempt in Hawai'i to assess the islandwide ecological condition of wadeable, perennial streams on O'ahu using the USEPA WSA probabilistic design. This study has demonstrated that such an assessment is practical and that it can provide information that may help the USEPA and HDOH in determining the status of aquatic ecosystems on O'ahu, Hawai'i. This study provides a baseline assessment of the current islandwide ecological condition and identifies potential environmental stressors. It can be used, with future WSA studies in Hawai'i, to measure the changes in those conditions and the effectiveness of management efforts to protect, restore, and maintain Hawai'i's aquatic environment.

Wolff, Reuben H.; Koch, Linda A.

2009-01-01

376

Integrating diverse scientific and practitioner knowledge in ecological risk analysis: a case study of biodiversity risk assessment in South Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological risk analysis (ERA) is a structured evaluation of threats to species, natural communities, and ecosystem processes from pollutants and toxicants and more complicated living stressors such as invasive species, genetically modified organisms, and biological control agents. Such analyses are typically conducted by a narrowly-focused group of scientific experts using technical information. We evaluate whether the inclusion of more diverse experts and practitioners in ERA improved the ecological knowledge base about South African biodiversity and the potential impacts of genetically modified (GM) crops. We conducted two participatory ERA workshops in South Africa, analyzing potential impacts of GM maize on biodiversity. The first workshop involved only four biological scientists, who were joined by 18 diverse scientists and practitioners in the second, and we compared the ERA process and results between the two using descriptive statistics and semi-structured interview responses. The addition of diverse experts and practitioners led to a more comprehensive understanding of biological composition of the agro-ecosystem and a more ecologically relevant set of hazards, but impeded hazard prioritization and the generation of precise risk assessment values. Results suggest that diverse participation can improve the scoping or problem formulation of the ERA, by generating an ecologically robust set of information on which to base the subsequent, more technical risk assessment. The participatory ERA process also increased the transparency of the ERA by exposing the logic and rationale for decisions made at each step. PMID:22266478

Dana, G V; Kapuscinski, A R; Donaldson, J S

2012-05-15

377

Terrestrial Ecology Section  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies on ecological effects of coal combustion included the following: episodic air pollution stress; interaction of gaseous pollutants and acid precipitation; and brimstone: preliminary results from SO_2 effects on forest growth. Studies on fate and transport of contaminants included deposition of aerosol-associated trace elements to a deciduous forest; hydrologic source areas; and environmental behavior of mercury. The environmental research park is described and forest resource management is discussed. Ecosystem analysis studies included hydrology of Walker branch; water budget of an oak-hickory forest; nutrient release from decaying wood; transpiration of the tulip poplar; and atmospheric CO_2 and its interaction with biospheric changes

1978-03-01

378

Socioeconomic factors and cancer incidence, mortality, and survival in a metropolitan area of Japan: a cross-sectional ecological study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer mortality is generally high in people of low socioeconomic status compared with people of high socioeconomic status (SES). Although these differences in mortality may be caused by differences in cancer incidence and survival, analysis of these factors has rarely been conducted. The objective of our cross-sectional ecological study was to analyze socioeconomic differences in cancer incidence, mortality and survival in a metropolitan area of Japan. The age-adjusted cancer incidence rates, age-adjusted mortality rates, relative 5-year survival, and proportions of early stage cancer were calculated for 67 municipalities in Osaka, Japan. For area-based socioeconomic variables, we used the percentages of male unemployment, college or graduate school graduates, home ownership, households receiving government assistance, and households below the subsistence habitation level in each municipality. We performed linear regression taking each municipality's population as weight to examine the relationships between measurements relating cancer and socioeconomic variables. Factor analysis of socioeconomic variables was carried out to determine whether a particular socioeconomic variable tended to be associated with another. Cancer incidence, cancer mortality, 5-year cancer survival, and proportion of early stage cancer were highly correlated with each socioeconomic variable at the municipality level. Five area-based socioeconomic variables could be explained by three factors: economic status, housing characteristics and educational attainment. Despite the major limitation of a lack of individual information about socioeconomic characteristics and outcomes related to cancer, we hypothesize that a municipal area's socioeconomic status might be a predictor of individual incidence, mortality, and survival of cancer. PMID:16232200

Ueda, Kimiko; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Ajiki, Wakiko; Oshima, Akira

2005-10-01

379

Ecological study of revegetated coal mine spoil of an Indian dry tropical ecosystem along an age gradient.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mineral nitrogen (MN), belowground (root) biomass (BGB), soil nitrogen (N) mineralization (NM), microbial biomass N (MBN) and mine dump stability of a revegetated mine spoil were studied after 2, 6, 10 and 12 years of re-vegetation on coal mine spoil site. MN in revegetated mine spoil ranged from 7.4 to 11.6 kg ha(-1), NM from 38.4 to 252 kg ha(-1) year(-1), MBN from 86 to 426 kg ha(-1), and BGB from 380 to 3,750 kg ha(-1). Mining caused decline of physico-chemical characteristics of soil like MN by 46 %, N-mineralization by 92 %, MBN values by 91 %, respectively compared to forest ecosystems and reduction of total plant biomass (above ground and below ground). Revegetation of mine spoil caused increase in MN values by 12, 36 and 76 %, BGB values by 380, 1770 and 3750 times, NM values by 0.6, 3.58 and 9.5 times and MBN values by 0.43, 2.77, and 6.07 times in 2, 6 and 12 years, respectively. BGB was highly correlated with MN and MBN. Clay content was positively correlated to MN, NM, and the age of revegetation (P < 0.01). Numerical modelling indicated that revegetation increased the dump slope stability with a factor of safety from 1.2 to 1.4, 1.7, 1.9 and 2.1 after 2, 6, 10 and 12 years, respectively. Thus, long-term revegetation was found to enhance the dump stability and the soil fertility status in mine spoil, where plant biomass and microbial biomass provide major contributions in ecological redevelopment of the mine spoil. PMID:22864538

Singh, R S; Tripathi, N; Chaulya, S K

2012-11-01

380

Analysis on Cross-Regional Land Ecological Compensation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper chose Eastern China area, Central China area, Western China area and Northeast China area as the study object and chose landuse classifications as the basic ecological system unit. It roughly estimated the regional ecological