WorldWideScience
 
 
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Methodology and Results of the Near-Earth Object (NEO) Human Space Flight (HSF) Accessible Targets Study (NHATS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) have been identified by the current administration as potential destinations for human explorers during the mid-2020s. While the close proximity of these objects' orbits to Earth's orbit creates a risk of highly damaging or catastrophic impacts, it also makes some of these objects particularly accessible to spacecraft departing Earth, and this presents unique opportunities for solar system science and humanity's first ventures beyond cislunar space. Planning such ambitious missions first requires the selection of potentially accessible targets from the growing population of nearly 7,800 NEAs. To accomplish this, NASA is conducting the Near-Earth Object (NEO) Human Space Flight (HSF) Accessible Targets Study (NHATS). Phase I of the NHATS was executed during September of 2010, and Phase II was completed by early March of 2011. The study is ongoing because previously undetected NEAs are being discovered constantly, which has motivated an effort to automate the analysis algorithms in order to provide continuous monitoring of NEA accessibility. The NHATS analysis process consists of a trajectory filter and a minimum maximum estimated size criterion. The trajectory filter employs the method of embedded trajectory grids to compute all possible ballistic round-trip mission trajectories to every NEA in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Small-Body Database (SBDB) and stores all solutions that satisfy the trajectory filter criteria. An NEA must offer at least one qualifying trajectory solution to pass the trajectory filter. The Phase II NHATS filter criteria were purposely chosen to be highly inclusive, requiring Earth departure date between January 1st, 2015 and December 31st, 2040, total round-trip flight time = 8 days, Earth departure C(sub 3) energy = 30 m. This corresponds to an absolute magnitude H = 30 m. The distributions of osculating heliocentric orbital semi-major axis (a), eccentricity (e), and inclination (i), for those 590 NEAs are shown. Note that the semi-latus rectum used is equal to alpha (1-e(exp 2)). To further our understanding of round-trip trajectory accessibility dynamics, it is instructive to examine the distribution of the NHATS-Qualifying NEAs according to orbit classification. NEAs are grouped into four orbit families: Atiras (aphelion 0.983 AU, alpha 1.0 AU), and Amors (1.017 < perihelion < 1.3 AU). Of the 765 NEAhich satisfied the NHATS trajectory criteria, none are

Barbee, Brent; Mink, Ronald; Adamo, Daniel

2011-01-01

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PRC1 associates with the hsp70i promoter and interacts with HSF2 during mitosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mitosis is a series of events leading to division of a cell by the process known as cytokinesis. Protein regulating cytokinesis 1 (PRC1) is a CDK substrate that associates with the mitotic spindle and functions in microtubule bundling. Previous studies revealed that loss of PRC1 is associated with chromosomal mis-segregation and atypical chromosome alignment. HSF2 is a DNA binding protein that we previously showed bookmarks the hsp70i gene during mitosis, an epigenetic mechanism which allows the hsp70i gene to re-establish transcriptional competence early in G1. Another study demonstrated that HSF2-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) exhibit increased numbers of multinucleated cells vs. wild-type MEFs. This suggests that HSF2 is important for proper cytokinesis, but the mechanism was unknown. Here we report the existence of a direct interaction between HSF2 and PRC1. HSF2 and PRC1 associate during mitosis and co-localize during this phase of the cell cycle. PRC1 does not interact with the related protein HSF1, indicating the specificity of the HSF2-PRC1 interaction. Intriguingly, PRC1 is associated with the hsp70i promoter during mitosis. These results provide a potential mechanistic basis for the defective cytokinesis phenotype exhibited by HSF2-/- cells, as well as suggest a potential role for PRC1 in HSF2-mediated gene bookmarking. PMID:18570919

Murphy, Lynea A; Wilkerson, Donald C; Hong, Yiling; Sarge, Kevin D

2008-07-01

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Function of Hsf1 in SV40 T?antigen?transformed HEK293T cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), a main regulator of the heat shock response in eukaryotes, increases cell survival in numerous pathophysiological conditions. The aim of the present study was to o bserve the function of defective HSF1 expression in HEK293T cells. shRNA of human HSF1 was constructed into the retroviral vector pLTHR generating pLTHR?shRNA?HSF1. The shRNA was transiently transfected into HEK293T cells to silence the expression of the HSF1 gene. Cell colony formation, MTT and cell cycle assays were used to analyze the SV40 T?antigen (Ag)?transformed cell proliferation rate. Immunoblotting was used to study the protein expression of HSF1, SV40 T?Ag, p53, p21, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), Hsp70 and Hsp25. The results revealed that a deficiency in HSF1 expression inhibited cellular growth. Defective HSF1 upregulated the protein expression of p53, retinoblastoma protein (Rb) and SV40 T?Ag, and reduced the association between SV40 T?Ag and p53/Rb, which resulted in growth inhibition of SV40 T?Ag?transformed cells. In conclusion, HSF1 is involved in the regulation of SV40 T?Ag?induced cell growth and modulates the expression of p53 and Rb proteins. PMID:25310819

Jiang, Qiying; Zhang, Zhi; Hu, Yanzhong; Ma, Yuanfang

2014-12-01

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Developmentally dictated expression of heat shock factors: exclusive expression of HSF4 in the postnatal lens and its specific interaction with alphaB-crystallin heat shock promoter.  

Science.gov (United States)

The molecular cascade of stress response in higher eukaryotes commences in the cytoplasm with the trimerization of the heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), followed by its transport to the nucleus, where it binds to the heat shock element leading to the activation of transcription from the down-stream gene(s). This well-established paradigm has been mostly studied in cultured cells. The developmental and tissue-specific control of the heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) and their interactions with heat shock promoters remain unexplored. We report here that in the rat lens, among the three mammalian HSFs, expression of HSF1 and HSF2 is largely fetal, whereas the expression of HSF4 is predominantly postnatal. Similar pattern of expression of HSF1 and HSF4 is seen in fetal and adult human lenses. This stage-specific inverse relationship between the expression of HSF1/2 and HSF4 suggests tissue-specific management of stress depending on the presence or absence of specific HSF(s). In addition to real-time PCR and immunoblotting, gel mobility shift assays, coupled with specific antibodies and HSE probes, derived from three different heat shock promoters, establish that there is no HSF1 or HSF2 binding activity in the postnatal lens nuclear extracts. Using this unique, developmentally modulated in vivo system, we demonstrate 1) specific patterns of HSF4 binding to heat shock elements derived from alphaB-crystallin, Hsp70, and Hsp82 promoters and 2) that it is HSF4 and not HSF1 or HSF2 that interacts with the canonical heat shock element of the alphaB-crystallin gene. PMID:15308659

Somasundaram, T; Bhat, Suraj P

2004-10-22

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Physiological fever temperature induces a protective stress response in T lymphocytes mediated by heat shock factor-1 (HSF1).  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat shock factor-1 (HSF1) is a transcription factor that serves as the major temperature-inducible sensor for eukaryotic cells. In most cell types, HSF1 becomes activated to the DNA binding form at 42 degrees C and mediates the classical heat shock response, protecting the cells from subsequent lethal temperatures. We have recently demonstrated that HSF1 is activated at a lower temperature in T lymphocytes than in most other cell types (39 degrees C vs 42 degrees C), within the physiological range of fever. In this study, we show that T cell activation at fever temperatures not only activates HSF1 but induces the up-regulation of the HSF1 protein and the HSF1-regulated protein, HSP70i. T cells from HSF1 knockout mice proliferate normally under optimal conditions but are impaired in proliferation at physiological fever temperatures and low CO2 concentrations, conditions that do not impair wild-type T cells. This defect in proliferation appears to be mediated by a block in the G1/S transition of the cell cycle and is independent of HSP70. Elevated temperature and low CO2 concentrations resulted in a dramatic reduction of the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in both normal and knockout T cells. Wild-type T cells were able to restore ROS levels to normal within 5 h, whereas HSF1-/- T cells were not. These results suggest that the proliferation defect seen in T cells from HSF1-/- mice at fever temperatures was because of dysregulated ROS levels and that HSF1 is important in maintaining ROS homeostasis and cell cycle progression under the stressful conditions encountered during fever. PMID:18056375

Murapa, Patience; Gandhapudi, Siva; Skaggs, Hollie S; Sarge, Kevin D; Woodward, Jerold G

2007-12-15

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HSF1 deficiency and impaired HSP90-dependent protein folding are hallmarks of aneuploid human cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aneuploidy is a hallmark of cancer and is associated with malignancy and poor prognosis. Recent studies have revealed that aneuploidy inhibits proliferation, causes distinct alterations in the transcriptome and proteome and disturbs cellular proteostasis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the changes in gene expression and the impairment of proteostasis are not understood. Here, we report that human aneuploid cells are impaired in HSP90-mediated protein folding. We show that aneuploidy impairs induction of the heat shock response suggesting that the activity of the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is compromised. Indeed, increased levels of HSF1 counteract the effects of aneuploidy on HSP90 expression and protein folding, identifying HSF1 overexpression as the first aneuploidy-tolerating mutation in human cells. Thus, impaired HSF1 activity emerges as a critical factor underlying the phenotypes linked to aneuploidy. Finally, we demonstrate that deficient protein folding capacity directly shapes gene expression in aneuploid cells. Our study provides mechanistic insight into the causes of the disturbed proteostasis in aneuploids and deepens our understanding of the role of HSF1 in cytoprotection and carcinogenesis. PMID:25205676

Donnelly, Neysan; Passerini, Verena; Dürrbaum, Milena; Stingele, Silvia; Storchová, Zuzana

2014-10-16

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Over-expression of OsHsfA7 enhanced salt and drought tolerance in transgenic rice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Heat shock proteins play an important role in plant stresstolerance and are mainly regulated by heat shock transcriptionfactors (Hsfs). In this study, we generated transgenic riceover-expressing OsHsfA7 and carried out morphologicalobservation and stress tolerance assays. Transgenic plantsexhibited less, shorter lateral roots and root hair. Under salttreatment, over-expressing OsHsfA7 rice showed alleviativeappearance of damage symptoms and higher survival rate, leafelectrical conductivity an...

Ai-Ling Liu; Jie Zou; Cui-Fang Liu; Xiao-Yun Zhou; Xian-Wen Zhang; Guang-Yu Luo; Xin-Bo Chen

2013-01-01

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Regulation of the heat stress response in Arabidopsis by MPK6-targeted phosphorylation of the heat stress factor HsfA2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available So far little is known on the functional role of phosphorylation in the heat stress response of plants. Here we present evidence that heat stress activates the Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK6. In vitro and in vivo evidence is provided that MPK6 specifically targets the major heat stress transcription factor HsfA2. Activation of MPK6 results in complex formation with HsfA2. MPK6 phosphorylates HsfA2 on T249 and changes its intracellular localisation. Protein kinase and phosphatase inhibitor studies indicate that HsfA2 protein stability is regulated in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, but this mechanism is independent of MPK6. Overall, our data show that heat stress-induced targeting of HsfA2 by MPK6 participates in the complex regulatory mechanism how plants respond to heat stress.

Alexandre Evrard

2013-04-01

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ANG II promotes IGF-IIR expression and cardiomyocyte apoptosis by inhibiting HSF1 via JNK activation and SIRT1 degradation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis are major characteristics of early-stage heart failure. Our previous studies found that the activation of insulin-like growth factor receptor II (IGF-IIR) signaling was critical for hypertensive angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. However, the detailed mechanism by which ANG II regulates IGF-IIR in heart cells remains elusive. In this study, we found that ANG II activated its downstream kinase JNK to increase IGF-IIR expression through the ANG II receptor angiotensin type 1 receptor. JNK activation subsequently led to sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) degradation via the proteasome, thus preventing SIRT1 from deacetylating heat-shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1). The resulting increase in the acetylation of HSF1 impaired its ability to bind to the IGF-IIR promoter region (nt -748 to -585). HSF1 protected cardiomyocytes by acting as a repressor of IGF-IIR gene expression, and ANG II diminished this HSF1-mediated repression through enhanced acetylation, thus activating the IGF-IIR apoptosis pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that HSF1 represses IGF-IIR gene expression to protect cardiomyocytes. ANG II activates JNK to degrade SIRT1, resulting in HSF1 acetylation, which induces IGF-IIR expression and eventually results in cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis. HSF1 could be a valuable target for developing treatments for cardiac diseases in hypertensive patients. PMID:24786827

Huang, C-Y; Kuo, W-W; Yeh, Y-L; Ho, T-J; Lin, J-Y; Lin, D-Y; Chu, C-H; Tsai, F-J; Tsai, C-H; Huang, C-Y

2014-08-01

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Moderate alcohol induces stress proteins HSF1 and hsp70 and inhibits proinflammatory cytokines resulting in endotoxin tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Binge or moderate alcohol exposure impairs host defense and increases susceptibility to infection because of compromised innate immune responses. However, there is a lack of consensus on the molecular mechanism by which alcohol mediates this immunosuppression. In this study, we show that cellular stress proteins HSF1 and hsp70 play a mechanistic role in alcohol-mediated inhibition of the TLR4/MyD88 pathway. Alcohol exposure induced transcription factor HSF1 mRNA expression and DNA binding activity in primary human monocytes and murine macrophages. Furthermore, HSF1 target gene hsp70 mRNA and protein are upregulated by alcohol in monocytes. In vitro pre-exposure to moderate alcohol reduced subsequent LPS-induced NF-?B promoter activity and downstream TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-1? production in monocytes and macrophages, exhibiting endotoxin tolerance. Mechanistic analysis demonstrates that alcohol-induced HSF1 binds to the TNF-? promoter in macrophages at early time points, exerting transrepression and decreased TNF-? expression. Furthermore, association of hsp70 with NF-?B subunit p50 in alcohol-treated macrophages correlates with reduced NF-?B activation at later time points. Hsp70 overexpression in macrophages was sufficient to block LPS-induced NF-?B promoter activity, suggesting alcohol-mediated immunosuppression by hsp70. The direct crosstalk of hsp70 and HSF1 was further confirmed by the loss of alcohol-mediated endotoxin tolerance in hsp70- and HSF1-silenced macrophages. Our data suggest that alcohol-mediated activation of HSF1 and induction of hsp70 inhibit TLR4-MyD88 signaling and are required for alcohol-induced endotoxin tolerance. Using stress proteins as direct drug targets would be clinically relevant in alcohol abuse treatment and may serve to provide a better understanding of alcohol-mediated immunosuppression. PMID:25024384

Muralidharan, Sujatha; Ambade, Aditya; Fulham, Melissa A; Deshpande, Janhavee; Catalano, Donna; Mandrekar, Pranoti

2014-08-15

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HSF-1-mediated cytoskeletal integrity determines thermotolerance and life span.  

Science.gov (United States)

The conserved heat shock transcription factor-1 (HSF-1) is essential to cellular stress resistance and life-span determination. The canonical function of HSF-1 is to regulate a network of genes encoding molecular chaperones that protect proteins from damage caused by extrinsic environmental stress or intrinsic age-related deterioration. In Caenorhabditis elegans, we engineered a modified HSF-1 strain that increased stress resistance and longevity without enhanced chaperone induction. This health assurance acted through the regulation of the calcium-binding protein PAT-10. Loss of pat-10 caused a collapse of the actin cytoskeleton, stress resistance, and life span. Furthermore, overexpression of pat-10 increased actin filament stability, thermotolerance, and longevity, indicating that in addition to chaperone regulation, HSF-1 has a prominent role in cytoskeletal integrity, ensuring cellular function during stress and aging. PMID:25324391

Baird, Nathan A; Douglas, Peter M; Simic, Milos S; Grant, Ana R; Moresco, James J; Wolff, Suzanne C; Yates, John R; Manning, Gerard; Dillin, Andrew

2014-10-17

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Over-expression of OsHsfA7 enhanced salt and drought tolerance in transgenic rice  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat shock proteins play an important role in plant stress tolerance and are mainly regulated by heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs). In this study, we generated transgenic rice over-expressing OsHsfA7 and carried out morphological observation and stress tolerance assays. Transgenic plants exhibited less, shorter lateral roots and root hair. Under salt treatment, over-expressing OsHsfA7 rice showed alleviative appearance of damage symptoms and higher survival rate, leaf electrical conductivity and malondialdehyde content of transgenic plants were lower than those of wild type plants. Meanwhile, transgenic rice seedlings restored normal growth but wild type plants could not be rescued after drought and re-watering treatment. These findings indicate that over-expression of OsHsfA7 gene can increase tolerance to salt and drought stresses in rice seedlings. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(1): 31-36] PMID:23351381

Liu, Ai-Ling; Zou, Jie; Liu, Cui-Fang; Zhou, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, Xian-Wen; Luo, Guang-Yu; Chen, Xin-Bo

2013-01-01

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Over-expression of OsHsfA7 enhanced salt and drought tolerance in transgenic rice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Heat shock proteins play an important role in plant stresstolerance and are mainly regulated by heat shock transcriptionfactors (Hsfs. In this study, we generated transgenic riceover-expressing OsHsfA7 and carried out morphologicalobservation and stress tolerance assays. Transgenic plantsexhibited less, shorter lateral roots and root hair. Under salttreatment, over-expressing OsHsfA7 rice showed alleviativeappearance of damage symptoms and higher survival rate, leafelectrical conductivity and malondialdehyde content of transgenicplants were lower than those of wild type plants. Meanwhile,transgenic rice seedlings restored normal growth but wild typeplants could not be rescued after drought and re-wateringtreatment. These findings indicate that over-expression ofOsHsfA7 gene can increase tolerance to salt and drought stressesin rice seedlings. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(1: 31-36

Ai-Ling Liu

2013-01-01

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A Study on Cultivating College Students’ Ecological Consciousness  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to cultivate modern college students’ ecological consciousness under the background of current deteriorating ecological crisis. The study shows some college students do not realize the harm of the ecological crisis and are not fully aware that it is each person’s duties and responsibilities to relieve even solve the ecological crisis either. The study also conveys most students have realized the importance of ecological consciousness in solving the current ecological crisis. They also would like to gain ecological consciousness and accept the three ways discussed in the part of discussion of cultivating their ecological consciousness. Because college students are the precious source of the world and thus colleges have the special mission of guiding the social trend, developing the social culture and making contributions to spiritual construction, it is absolutely urgent and necessary for colleges to make any effort to cultivate college students’ ecological consciousness.

Junhong Tang

2013-04-01

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Use of Hsf1-/- mice reveals an essential role for HSF1 to protect lung against cadmium-induced injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cadmium (Cd) is known to activate heat shock (HS) response, which is characterized by overexpression of heat shock proteins (Hsps) under the control of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). The potential protection provided by the HS response, induced by increasing the body temperature of animals before Cd exposure or by Cd itself, against pathophysiological changes occurring after Cd intranasal instillation (1 to 100 ?g/mouse) was examined. HSF1-deficient mice were used to evaluate the role of this factor in lung protection. Cd instillation caused dose- and time-dependent changes in the respiratory pattern measured by plethysmography (Penh), and significant increases in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity as well as macrophage and neutrophil counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. HS preconditioning induced Hsp overexpression and reduced the Penh (-30 %), LDH (-25%), and neutrophil (-55 %) responses to subsequent administration of the highest Cd doses (50 and 100 ?g) in wild-type mice. HSF1 deficiency abolished the HS response and its protective effect. In the absence of preconditioning, Hsf1-/- mice exhibited higher values of Penh (+70 %) and LDH activity (+42 %) compared with wild-type animals when exposed to the lowest Cd doses. Higher macrophage (+80%) and neutrophil counts (+115 %) were recorded whatever the dose. Western blot analyses indicated that lung protection might be related to the kinetics of HSF1-dependent Hsp70 expression. Altogether, our data demonstrate that HS response elicited both by prior HS and by Cd itself moderates pulmonary injuries due to Cd instillation, and that HSF1 is a major mediator in this protection

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Bias magnification in ecologic studies: a methodological investigation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background As ecologic studies are often inexpensive to conduct, consideration of the magnitude and direction of ecologic biases may be useful in both study design and sensitivity analysis of results. This paper examines three types of ecologic bias: confounding by group, effect measure modification by group, and non-differential exposure misclassification. Methods Bias of the risk difference on the individual and ecologic levels are compared using two-...

2007-01-01

17

Ecological Studies on Salix Distribution in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research studied the ecological factors affecting Salix distribution in Egypt. Two species of Salix were recorded, S. tetrasperma (only male and S. mucronata (both sexes. They were recorded at River Nile canal system and in the Eastern Oasis. Female S. mucronata was recorded in the all studied habitats, where the male of same species was recorded only in Fayoum Region. Salix tetrasperma neither recorded in Upper Egypt nor Eastern Oasis. Elevation from water surface, soil texture, soil salinity and temperature were the most effective factors affecting the distribution of Salix sp.

Emad A. Al Sherif

2009-01-01

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Heat shock factors HsfB1 and HsfB2b are involved in the regulation of Pdf1.2 expression and pathogen resistance in Arabidopsis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to assess the functional roles of heat stress-induced class B-heat shock factors in Arabidopsis, we investigated T-DNA knockout mutants of AtHsfB1 and AtHsfB2b. Micorarray analysis of double knockout hsfB1/hsfB2b plants revealed as strong an up-regulation of the basal mRNA-levels of the defensin genes Pdf1.2a/b in mutant plants. The Pdf expression was further enhanced by jasmonic acid treatment or infection with the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. The single mutant hsfB2b and the double mutant hsfB1/B2b were significantly improved in disease resistance after A. brassicicola infection. There was no indication for a direct interaction of Hsf with the promoter of Pdf1.2, which is devoid of perfect HSE consensus Hsf-binding sequences. However, changes in the formation of late HsfA2-dependent HSE binding were detected in hsfB1/B2b plants. This suggests that HsfB1/B2b may interact with class A-Hsf in regulating the shut-off of the heat shock response. The identification of Pdf genes as targets of Hsf-dependent negative regulation is the first evidence for an interconnection of Hsf in the regulation of biotic and abiotic responses. PMID:19529832

Kumar, Mukesh; Busch, Wolfgang; Birke, Hannah; Kemmerling, Birgit; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Schöffl, Friedrich

2009-01-01

19

Studies on rhizobial ecology using marker genes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Not only traditional approaches such as serology, antibiotic resistance and plasmid profile analysis but also technologies based on molecular biology have been used for strain identification in studies on microbial ecology. Many methods suffer from certain limitations because they are often laborious and time consuming, requiring analysis of individual nodules, and therefore only a restricted amount of data can be collected. Use of marker genes has become popular, especially when they allow visual identification. The Escherichia coli gusA marker gene has proved to be a highly suitable tool for studying plant-microbe interactions. Nodules containing gusA marked rhizobia can be identified simply by their blue colour, which they produce after incubation in a phosphate buffer containing the substrate X-gluc, but marked bacteria can also be detected on plates or in liquid culture. Colorigenic markers have several advantages, since they are easy to use and it is possible to analyse a large sample size. They are suitable for competition studies of Rhizobium, detecting also double occupancy in nodules, and for studies on motility and survival. Marker genes greatly facilitate screening for successful strains in a specific environment and could be used in future for quality control of inoculants. (author). 30 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

20

Bias magnification in ecologic studies: a methodological investigation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background As ecologic studies are often inexpensive to conduct, consideration of the magnitude and direction of ecologic biases may be useful in both study design and sensitivity analysis of results. This paper examines three types of ecologic bias: confounding by group, effect measure modification by group, and non-differential exposure misclassification. Methods Bias of the risk difference on the individual and ecologic levels are compared using two-by-two tables, simple equations, and risk diagrams. Risk diagrams provide a convenient way to simultaneously display information from both levels. Results Confounding by group and effect measure modification by group act in the same direction on the individual and group levels, but have larger impact on the latter. The reduction in exposure variance caused by aggregation magnifies the individual level bias due to ignoring groups. For some studies, the magnification factor can be calculated from the ecologic data alone. Small magnification factors indicate little bias beyond that occurring at the individual level. Aggregation is also responsible for the different impacts of non-differential exposure misclassification on individual and ecologic studies. Conclusion The analytical tools developed here are useful in analyzing ecologic bias. The concept of bias magnification may be helpful in designing ecologic studies and performing sensitivity analysis of their results.

Webster Thomas F

2007-07-01

 
 
 
 
21

Ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book turns to the freshment, the teacher, for preparation of ecological topics for lessons, but also to pupils of the secondary stage II, and the main course ecology. The book was knowingly held simple with the restriction to: the ecosystem and its abiotic basic functions, simple articles on population biology, bioceonotic balance ith the questions of niche formation and the life form types coherent with it, of the substance and energy household, the production biology and space-wise and time-wise differentations within an ecological system form the main points. A central role in the volume is given to the illustrations. Their variety is to show and deepen the coherences shown. (orig./HP)

22

Induced mutations in gene-ecological studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey on gene-ecological studies carried out for 10 years with mutants and recombinants of Pisum is given. Genotypes with characters of economic interest were grown commonly with their parental variety in seven climatically different locations of India, in three African countries, Brazil and South Australia. The performance of material was compared with the findings obtained in the Federal Republic of Germany over a large number of generations. An early mutant shows tolerance to heat and drought and is being used agronomically in India. High-yielding fasciated mutants produced in this institute, however, cannot be used for breeding purposes in most of the countries tested. They have a gene suppressing the initiation of flower formation under short-day conditions. Forty-two Pisum mutants and recombinants were grown under long- and short-day conditions in a phytotron. Their flowering behaviour was evaluated, together with some other criteria of plant development. Each genotype was found to show its specific reaction to the two photoperiods used. In long day, some fasciated genotypes begin flowering many weeks later than under the long-day field conditions. In short day, they do not flower at all due to the presence of a mutant gene for long-day requirement. Some recombinants carrying a gene for earliness are either extremely late or do not flower at all under the influence of other mutant genes. A micromutant, not reliably discernible under field conditions, differs strongly from its mother variety in the phytotron, demonstrating that the term 'micromutation' is questionable. The results show that utilization of mutants in plant breeding could be much more effective if prospective genotypes were tested under different climatic conditions

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Heat Shock Factors HsfB1 and HsfB2b Are Involved in the Regulation of Pdf1.2 Expression and Pathogen Resistance in Arabidopsis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to assess the functional roles of heat stress-induced class B-heat shock factors in Arabidopsis, we investigated T-DNA knockout mutants of AtHsfB1 and AtHsfB2b. Micorarray analysis of double knockout hsfB1/hsfB2b plants revealed as strong an up-regulation of the basal mRNA-levels of the defensin genes Pdf1.2a/b in mutant plants. The Pdf expression was further enhanced by jasmonic acid treatment or infection with the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. The single mutant hsfB2...

Kumar, Mukesh; Busch, Wolfgang; Birke, Hannah; Kemmerling, Birgit; Nu?rnberger, Thorsten; Scho?ffl, Friedrich

2009-01-01

24

Characterizing the role of Hsp90 in production of heat shock proteins in motor neurons reveals a suppressive effect of wild-type Hsf1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Induction of heat shock proteins (Hsps) is under investigation as treatment for neurodegenerative disorders, yet many types of neurons, including motor neurons that degenerate in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), have a high threshold for activation of the major transcription factor mediating stress-induced Hsp upregulation, heat shock transcription factor 1 (Hsf1). Hsf1 is tightly regulated by a series of inhibitory checkpoints that include sequestration in multichaperone complexes governed by Hsp90. This study examined the role of multichaperone complexes in governing the heat shock response in motor neurons. Hsp90 inhibitors induced expression of Hsp70 and Hsp40 and transactivation of a human inducible hsp70 promoter-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter construct in motor neurons of dissociated spinal cord-dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cultures. On the other hand, overexpression of activator of Hsp90 adenosine triphosphatase ([ATPase 1], Aha1), which should mobilize Hsf1 by accelerating turnover of mature, adenosine triphosphate-(ATP) bound Hsp90 complexes, and death domain-associated protein (Daxx), which in cell lines has been shown to promote transcription of heat shock genes by relieving inhibition exerted by interactions between nuclear Hsp90/multichaperone complexes and trimeric Hsf1, failed to induce Hsps in the absence or presence of heat shock. These results indicate that disruption of multichaperone complexes alone is not sufficient to activate the neuronal heat shock response. Furthermore, in motor neurons, induction of Hsp70 by Hsp90-inhibiting drugs was prevented by overexpression of wild-type Hsfl, contrary to what would be expected for a classical Hsf1-mediated pathway. These results point to additional differences in regulation of hsp genes in neuronal and nonneuronal cells. PMID:17688194

Taylor, David M; Tradewell, Miranda L; Minotti, Sandra; Durham, Heather D

2007-01-01

25

Ecology Sports Studies Carried Out in School Sports  

Science.gov (United States)

In the 1970 s, people began to care for the environment and concern about the ecology thinking in sports, to study the modern sports facing the ecology problems, to explore “people, sports, environment” the harmonious development of the way. In the paper from the actual conditions of the school briefly discuss the advantages of carrying out 3.3 no complete teaching schemas and the main difficulties it faces, and then propose appropriate measures to provide a theoretical basis for the ecology sports better carried out in school sports.

Shuyu, Xia

26

Stable isotope methods in biological and ecological studies of arthropods  

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This is an eclectic review and analysis of contemporary and promising stable isotope methodologies to study the biology and ecology of arthropods. It is augmented with literature from other disciplines, indicative of the potential for knowledge transfer. It is demonstrated that stable isotopes can be used to understand fundamental processes in the biology and ecology of arthropods, which range from nutrition and resource allocation to dispersal, food-web structure, predation, etc. It is concl...

Hood-nowotny, R. C.; Knols, B. G. J.

2007-01-01

27

A Study on College English Ecological Teaching Strategies in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to create ecological college English teaching strategies in non-English speaking countries in view of the increasing importance and popularity of English. The study shows most college students hope they are able to learn English well and they will be very happy if college English teachers can adopt some efficient and suitable teaching strategies. In this paper, the author puts forward college English teaching is a kind of micro-ecosystem in the light of ecology which has got such ecological characteristics as adaptability, openness and sustainability. In order to create suitable ecological college English teaching environments, the college English teaching are supposed to insist on 5C principles, that is, cooperation, competition, consideration, creativeness and continuity which are on the basis of such ecological principles as “Symbiotic Effect”, “Niche”, “Laws Limiting Factor”, “Law of Tolerance”, “the Most Appropriate Principle”, “Flowerpots Effect”. The efficiency and practicality of college English teaching in non-English speaking countries are able to be obtained by using ecological college English teaching strategies discussed in the paper.

Junhong Tang

2013-08-01

28

Ecological study of a bioaugmentation failure.  

Science.gov (United States)

A nitrifying sequencing batch reactor was inoculated twice with the aerobic denitrifying bacterium Microvirgula aerodenitrificans and fed with acetate. No improvement was obtained on nitrogen removal. The second more massive inoculation was even followed by a nitrification breakdown, while at the same time, nitrification remained stable in a second reactor operated under the same conditions without bioaugmentation. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with rRNA-targeted probes revealed that the added bacteria almost disappeared from the reactor within 2 days, and that digestive vacuoles of protozoa gave strong hybridization signals with the M. aerodenitrificans-specific probe. An overgrowth of protozoa, coincident with the disappearance of free-living bacteria, was monitored by radioactive dot-blot hybridization only in the bioaugmented reactor. Population dynamics were analysed with a newly developed in situ quantification procedure of the probe-targeted bacteria. The nitrifying groups of bacteria decreased in a similar way in the bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented reactors. Other bacterial groups evolved differently. The involvement of different ecological parameters are discussed separately for each reactor. These results underline the importance of predator-prey interaction and illustrate the undesirable effects of massive bioaugmentation. PMID:11220304

Bouchez, T; Patureau, D; Dabert, P; Juretschko, S; Doré, J; Delgenès, P; Moletta, R; Wagner, M

2000-04-01

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A Novel Integrated Ecological Model for the study of Sustainability  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, there has been a growing interest among various sections of the society in the study of sustainability. Recently, a generalized mathematical model depicting a combined economic-ecological-social system has been proposed to help in the formal study of sustainabili...

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Establishment and partial characterization of a human tumor cell line, GBM-HSF, from a glioblastoma multiforme.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper outlines the establishment of a new and stable cell line, designated GBM-HSF, from a malignant glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) removed from a 65-year-old Chinese woman. This cell line has been grown for 1 year without disruption and has been passaged over 50 times. The cells were adherently cultured in RPMI-1640 media with 10% fetal bovine serum supplementation. Cells displayed spindle and polygonal morphology, and displayed multi-layered growth without evidence of contact inhibition. The cell line had a high growth rate with a doubling time of 51 h. The cells were able to grow without adhering to the culture plates, and 4.5% of the total cells formed colonies in soft agar. The cell line has also been found to form tumors in nude mice and to be of a highly invasive nature. The cells were also partially characterized with RT-PCR. The RT-PCR revealed that Nestin, ?-tubulin III, Map2, Klf4, Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and CD26 were positively transcribed, whereas GFAP, Rex1, and CD133 were negatively transcribed in this cell line. These results suggest that the GBM-HSF cell line will provide a good model to study the properties of cancer stem cells and metastasis. It will also facilitate more detailed molecular and cellular studies of GBM cell division and pathology. PMID:24390806

Qu, Jiagui; Rizak, Joshua D; Fan, Yaodong; Guo, Xiaoxuan; Li, Jiejing; Huma, Tanzeel; Ma, Yuanye

2014-07-01

31

Hsp90 orchestrates transcriptional regulation by Hsf1 and cell wall remodelling by MAPK signalling during thermal adaptation in a pathogenic yeast.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal adaptation is essential in all organisms. In yeasts, the heat shock response is commanded by the heat shock transcription factor Hsf1. Here we have integrated unbiased genetic screens with directed molecular dissection to demonstrate that multiple signalling cascades contribute to thermal adaptation in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. We show that the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) interacts with and down-regulates Hsf1 thereby modulating short term thermal adaptation. In the longer term, thermal adaptation depends on key MAP kinase signalling pathways that are associated with cell wall remodelling: the Hog1, Mkc1 and Cek1 pathways. We demonstrate that these pathways are differentially activated and display cross talk during heat shock. As a result ambient temperature significantly affects the resistance of C. albicans cells to cell wall stresses (Calcofluor White and Congo Red), but not osmotic stress (NaCl). We also show that the inactivation of MAP kinase signalling disrupts this cross talk between thermal and cell wall adaptation. Critically, Hsp90 coordinates this cross talk. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90 disrupts the Hsf1-Hsp90 regulatory circuit thereby disturbing HSP gene regulation and reducing the resistance of C. albicans to proteotoxic stresses. Hsp90 depletion also affects cell wall biogenesis by impairing the activation of its client proteins Mkc1 and Hog1, as well as Cek1, which we implicate as a new Hsp90 client in this study. Therefore Hsp90 modulates the short term Hsf1-mediated activation of the classic heat shock response, coordinating this response with long term thermal adaptation via Mkc1- Hog1- and Cek1-mediated cell wall remodelling. PMID:23300438

Leach, Michelle D; Budge, Susan; Walker, Louise; Munro, Carol; Cowen, Leah E; Brown, Alistair J P

2012-12-01

32

Immunolocalization of Anti-Hsf1 to the Acetabular Glands of Infectious Schistosomes Suggests a Non-Transcriptional Function for This Transcriptional Activator  

Science.gov (United States)

Schistosomiasis is a chronically debilitating disease caused by parasitic worms of the genus Schistosoma, and it is a global problem affecting over 240 million people. Little is known about the regulatory proteins and mechanisms that control schistosome host invasion, gene expression, and development. Schistosome larvae, cercariae, are transiently free-swimming organisms and infectious to man. Cercariae penetrate human host skin directly using proteases that degrade skin connective tissue. These proteases are secreted from anucleate acetabular glands that contain many proteins, including heat shock proteins. Heat shock transcription factors are strongly conserved activators that play crucial roles in the maintenance of cell homeostasis by transcriptionally regulating heat shock protein expression. In this study, we clone and characterize the schistosome Heat shock factor 1 gene (SmHSF1). We verify its ability to activate transcription using a modified yeast one-hybrid system, and we show that it can bind to the heat shock binding element (HSE) consensus DNA sequence. Our quantitative RT-PCR analysis shows that SmHSF1 is expressed throughout several life-cycle stages from sporocyst to adult worm. Interestingly, using immunohistochemistry, a polyclonal antibody raised against an Hsf1-peptide demonstrates a novel localization for this conserved, stress-modulating activator. Our analysis suggests that schistosome Heat shock factor 1 may be localized to the acetabular glands of infective cercariae. PMID:25078989

Knudsen, Giselle M.; Jolly, Emmitt R.

2014-01-01

33

Methodology for Studying the Ecological Quality of Furniture  

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Full Text Available Decisions for environment-friendly production and environmentally acceptable products are becoming a necessity and one of very important objectives of timber companies next to already existing economic criteria. Individual products and their manufacture have different infl uences on the pollution of the environment. Therefore it is necessary to determine the ecological quality of individual products, which means analyzing their ecological suitability during their life cycle. In our research we developed the methodology for establishing the ecological quality of furniture, based on three scientific methods: the method of life cycle analysis, ABC analysis, modified for our case, and the multi-criteria decision-making method. We analyzed the ecological quality of three kitchens of a well-known manufacturer. The results of the research are the basis for developing an optimal business strategy from the viewpoint of determining a production assortment. The used methodology is also suitable for studying other furniture products and for accepting optimal environmentally acceptable decisions in wood companies.

Leon Oblak

2011-09-01

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Aquatic ecological studies around nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioecology occupies a highly important place in the system of natural sciences and interacts with different fields of knowledge on earth's biosphere. Use of nuclear energy for different purposes causes release of radionuclides into the atmosphere. Therefore, knowledge of the distribution pattern of both natural and anthropogenic radionuclides is an essential prerequisite for evaluation and control of public exposures at the site of any nuclear power station. Radioecological studies provide considerable information on the environmental behavior of many nucleotides. In recent times, particular emphasis is being given to research on radionuclide transport and accumulation in living organisms, since critical pathways of transport of the same are food chains and food webs in the environment. Inhalation and ingestion are the most likely routes for internal contamination from radionuclides, wherein, exposure continues until the radioactive material is flushed from the body by natural processes, or when it decays. Several studies on animals have demonstrated that chronic inhalation and oral exposure to certain radionuclides may lead to serious health hazards. Even though innumerable studies have been conducted in medical science on effects of radiation on the human and higher animal systems, little is known about migration of radionuclides across the producers and bioaccumulation at trophic levels in the tropical and subtropical aquatic environment. In order to supplement tatic environment. In order to supplement this research gap, radioecological studies have been initiated at CIFE, Mumbai, with backup support from the Department of Atomic Energy (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre and Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited), in the form of a mega mission mode project on 'Aquatic radioecology'. Presently two existing nuclear power plant sites at Tarapur and Kalpakkam, two proposed at Jaitapur and Jabalpur have been selected for providing first hand information on levels of radionuclides in micro and macro fauna in the marine and freshwater ecosystem in the vicinity of NPP sites. Further the projects aim at elucidating the bio-geochemical transfer mechanisms of radionuclides across the trophic levels of the aquatic environment. (author)

35

Ecological investigations: vegetation studies, preliminary findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the vegetation studies conducted on the research site is to produce a descriptive data base that can be applied to determinations of carrying capacity of the site and surrounding area. Additional information obtained about parameters that influence vegetation growth and maintenance of soil nutrients, and moisture and temperature regimes help define dynamic relationships that must be understood to effect successful revegetation and habitat rehabilitation. The descriptive vegetation baseline also provides a point of departure for design of future monitoring programs, and predictive models and strategies to be used in dealing with impact mitigation; in turn, monitoring programs and predictive modeling form the bases for making distinctions between natural trends and man-induced perturbations.

Olgeirson, E.R.; Martin, R.B.

1978-09-01

36

ELF communications system ecological monitoring program. Small vertebrate studies  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Navy has completed a program monitoring flora, fauna, and ecological relationships tor possible effects from electromagnetic fields produced by its Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System. This report documents studies of small mammals and nesting birds conducted near its transmitting antenna in Michigan. From 1982 through 1993 researchers from the Michigan State University (MSU) monitored organismal and population aspects of vertebrates in areas near (treatment) and far (control) from the Michigan antenna. They examined the reproductive, developmental, behavioral, and physiological characteristics of representative vertebrate species. Studied species were the deer mouse, chipmunk, tree swallow, and blackcapped - chickadee. Investigators had also monitored ecological aspects of the mammalian community until 1988 when this study element was discontinued due to highly variable results. In a different project, ornithologists from the University of Minnesota-Duluth monitored the ecological characteristics of the bird community near the ELF System. The MSU research team used several statistical tests to examine data; however, nested analysis of variance was the most often used test. Based on the results of their study, they conclude that the EM fields produced by the Naval Radio Transmitting Facility-Republic, Michigan did not affect small vertebrates.

Beaver, Donald L.; Hill, Richard W.; Hill, Susan D.

1994-10-01

37

Remote Sensing and Wetland Ecology: a South African Case Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Remote sensing offers a cost efficient means for identifying and monitoring wetlands over a large area and at different moments in time. In this study, we aim at providing ecologically relevant information on characteristics of temporary and permanent isolated open water wetlands, obtained by standard techniques and relatively cheap imagery. The number, surface area, nearest distance, and dynamics of isolated temporary and permanent wetlands were determined for the Western Cape, South Africa....

Luc Brendonck; Abraham Thomas; Okke Batelaan; Hans Lievens; Miya, Mtemi H.; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; Roeck, Els R.

2008-01-01

38

Evolutionary and ecological approaches to the study of personality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This introduction to the themed issue on Evolutionary and ecological approaches to the study of personality provides an overview of conceptual, theoretical and methodological progress in research on animal personalities over the last decade, and places the contributions to this volume in context. The issue has three main goals. First, we aimed to bring together theoreticians to contribute to the development of models providing adaptive explanations for animal personality that could guide empi...

Re?ale, Denis; Dingemanse, Niels J.; Kazem, Anahita J. N.; Wright, Jonathan

2010-01-01

39

Ecological study of algal flora of Neelum river Azad Kashmir  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

First time ecological study of Algal Flora of Neelum River Azad Kashmir was carried out during January 1998 to July 1998. A total of 78 species belonging to 48 genera of 4 Algal groups. Cyanophyceae (16 species 20.5 % belonging to 11 genera), Choloronophycease (23 species 29.5 % belonging to 18 genera), Bacillariophyceae (37 species 47 % belonging to 17 genera), Xanthophyceae (2 species 3 % belonging to 2 genera) and 39 physico - chemical parameters were recorded. (author)

40

Remote Sensing and Wetland Ecology: a South African Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Remote sensing offers a cost efficient means for identifying and monitoring wetlands over a large area and at different moments in time. In this study, we aim at providing ecologically relevant information on characteristics of temporary and permanent isolated open water wetlands, obtained by standard techniques and relatively cheap imagery. The number, surface area, nearest distance, and dynamics of isolated temporary and permanent wetlands were determined for the Western Cape, South Africa. Open water bodies (wetlands were mapped from seven Landsat images (acquired during 1987 – 2002 using supervised maximum likelihood classification. The number of wetlands fluctuated over time. Most wetlands were detected in the winter of 2000 and 2002, probably related to road constructions. Imagery acquired in summer contained fewer wetlands than in winter. Most wetlands identified from Landsat images were smaller than one hectare. The average distance to the nearest wetland was larger in summer. In comparison to temporary wetlands, fewer, but larger permanent wetlands were detected. In addition, classification of non-vegetated wetlands on an Envisat ASAR radar image (acquired in June 2005 was evaluated. The number of detected small wetlands was lower for radar imagery than optical imagery (acquired in June 2002, probably because of deterioration of the spatial information content due the extensive pre-processing requirements of the radar image. Both optical and radar classifications allow to assess wetland characteristics that potentially influence plant and animal metacommunity structure. Envisat imagery, however, was less suitable than Landsat imagery for the extraction of detailed ecological information, as only large wetlands can be detected. This study has indicated that ecologically relevant data can be generated for the larger wetlands through relatively cheap imagery and standard techniques, despite the relatively low resolution of Landsat and Envisat imagery. For the characterisation of very small wetlands, high spatial resolution optical or radar images are needed. This study exemplifies the benefits of integrating remote sensing and ecology and hence stimulates interdisciplinary research of isolated wetlands.

Luc Brendonck

2008-05-01

 
 
 
 
41

Radon and lung cancer. Case-control vs ecologic studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Problems in epidemiological studies in connection with the determination of radon-caused lung cancer are discussed. Biasing and confounding effects have led to very divergent results in epidemiological studies and there is still doubt on the carcinogenic effect of radon progenies in the concentration range of usual indoor air. Nevertheless, epidemiological studies seem to be the key tool to decide this question. Main investigates and disadvantages of case-control and ecologic studies are discussed and on overall uncertainty estimation is given for both types of investigations

42

[Suicide and work in Brazilian metropolises: an ecological study].  

Science.gov (United States)

The scope of this study was to correlate suicide mortality with health indicators and work in six Brazilian metropolises: Porto Alegre, Recife, Salvador, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. It was an ecological study, the outcome of which is the death rate from suicide in the historical series from 2002 to 2010, and the independent variables are the indicators of occupational activity and mental suffering. Statistical association using the Pearson Correlation test was conducted and the variables associated with suicide (p work in the context of insecurity worsens the quality of life of the working population, causing physical and mental suffering and increasing the risk of self-harm. PMID:25014301

Ceccon, Roger Flores; Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Tavares, Juliana Petri; Lautert, Liana

2014-07-01

43

CoREST represses the heat shock response mediated by HSF1.  

Science.gov (United States)

The stress response in cells involves a rapid and transient transcriptional activation of stress genes. It has been shown that Hsp70 limits its own transcriptional activation functioning as a corepressor of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) during the attenuation of the stress response. Here we show that the transcriptional corepressor CoREST interacts with Hsp70. Through this interaction, CoREST represses both HSF1-dependent and heat shock-dependent transcriptional activation of the hsp70 promoter. In cells expressing short hairpin RNAs directed against CoREST, Hsp70 cannot repress HSF1-dependent transcription. A reduction of CoREST levels also provoked a significant increase of Hsp70 protein levels and an increase of HSF1-dependent transactivation of hsp70 promoter. Via chromatin immunoprecipitation assays we show that CoREST is bound to the hsp70 gene promoter under basal conditions and that its binding increases during heat shock response. In conclusion, we demonstrated that CoREST is a key regulator of the heat shock stress response. PMID:18657505

Gómez, Andrea V; Galleguillos, Danny; Maass, Juan Cristóbal; Battaglioli, Elena; Kukuljan, Manuel; Andrés, María Estela

2008-07-25

44

Study of ecological situation for the West Kazakhstan south districts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the results of comprehensive research for ecological status of Karabota, Kaztal, Dzhangaly, Dzhanibek and Akzhaik districts of the West Kazakhstan districts adjoining to 'Kapustin Yar' and Azgir' test sites are presented. In the indicated districts the following examinations were conducted: analysis of soils samples; bottom sediments, flora and fauna samples for determination of radionuclide and heavy metals content in its; determination of absorption dose with population by the EPR dosimetry method by human teeth enamel; study of ?-radiation accumulation in a diverse trees' annual rings

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ELF communications system ecological monitoring program: Michigan bird studies  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Navy has completed a program monitoring flora, fauna, and ecological relationships for possible effects from electromagnetic fields produced by its Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System. This report documents studies of the resident and migratory birds in Michigan. Researchers from the University of Minnesota,Duluth (UMD) used a line-transect method to simultaneously census the avian community present in areas near (treatment) and far (reference) from the Michigan transmitter. Monthly censuses (May to September) were performed annually from 1986 through 1993. Data collected over the entire period of study were analyzed using repeated analysis of variance. Study parameters included total species richness, species abundance, abundance of common bird species, and abundance of birds within selected guilds. Analyses showed a few statistically significant changes in the intersite relationship of parameters over time; however, the pattern of changes was not related to EM exposures. The number of significant changes was small, and not greater than that expected to occur by chance alone. Study results in Michigan are similar to those obtained by UMD for surveys performed near the Wisconsin transmitter UMD researchers conclude no effects on avian ecology from operation of the ELF Communications System.

Hanowski, Joann M.; Niemi, Gerald J.; Blake, John G.

1994-10-01

46

Molecular studies of the structural ecology of natural occlusal caries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbiological studies of occlusal dental biofilms have hitherto been hampered by inaccessibility to the sampling site and demolition of the original biofilm architecture. This study shows for the first time the spatial distribution of bacterial taxa in vivo at various stages of occlusal caries, applying a molecular methodology involving preparation of embedded hard dental tissue slices for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal microscopy. Eleven freshly extracted teeth were classified according to their occlusal caries status. The teeth were fixed, embedded, sectioned and decalcified before FISH was performed using oligonucleotide probes for selected abundant species/genera associated with occlusal caries including Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Veillonella, Fusobacterium, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. The sites showed distinct differences in the bacterial composition between different ecological niches in occlusal caries. Biofilm observed along the entrance of fissures showed an inner layer of microorganisms organized in palisades often identified as Actinomyces, covered by a more loosely structured bacterial layer consisting of diverse genera, similar to supragingival biofilm. Biofilm within the fissure proper seemed less metabolically active, as judged by low fluorescence signal intensity and presence of material of non-bacterial origin. Bacterial invasion (often Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium spp.) into the dentinal tubules was seen only at advanced stages of caries with manifest cavity formation. It is concluded that the molecular methodology represents a valuable supplement to previous methods for the study of microbial ecology in caries by allowing analysis of the structural composition of the undisturbed biofilm in caries lesions in vivo. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24852305

Dige, Irene; Grønkjær, Lene; Nyvad, Bente

2014-01-01

47

Plotting partial correlation and regression in ecological studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multiple regression, the General linear model (GLM and the Generalized linear model (GLZ are widely used in ecology. The widespread use of graphs that include fitted regression lines to document patterns in simple linear regression can be easily extended to these multivariate techniques in plots that show the partial relationship of the dependent variable with each independent variable. However, the latter procedure is not nearly as widely used in ecological studies. In fact, a brief review of the recent ecological literature showed that in ca. 20% of the papers the results of multiple regression are displayed by plotting the dependent variable against the raw values of the independent variable. This latter procedure may be misleading because the value of the partial slope may change in magnitude and even in sign relative to the slope obtained in simple least-squares regression. Plots of partial relationships should be used in these situations. Using numerical simulations and real data we show how displaying plots of partial relationships may also be useful for: 1 visualizing the true scatter of points around the partial regression line, and 2 identifying influential observations and non-linear patterns more efficiently than using plots of residuals vs. fitted values. With the aim to help in the assessment of data quality, we show how partial residual plots (residuals from overall model + predicted values from the explanatory variable vs. the explanatory variable should only be used in restricted situations, and how partial regression plots (residuals of Y on the remaining explanatory variables vs. residuals of the target explanatory variable on the remaining explanatory variables should be the ones displayed in publications because they accurately reflect the scatter of partial correlations. Similarly, these partial plots can be applied to visualize the effect of continuous variables in GLM and GLZ for normal distributions and identity link functions.

J. Moya-Laraño

2008-06-01

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New methodology for studying the structural ecology of occlusal caries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Microbiological studies of occlusal dental biofilms have hitherto been hampered by inaccessibility to the sampling site and demolition of the original biofilm architecture. The aim of the present study was to explore the spatial distribution of bacterial taxa in vivo at various stages of occusal caries, applying a new methodology involving preparation of embedded hard dental tissue slices for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal microscopy. 11 extracted teeth were included in the study and classified according to their occlusal caries status (active/inactive/sound; cavitated/non-cavitated). The teeth were fixed (paraformaldehyde 3 %), embedded (Technovit 8100), sectioned and decalcified (EDTA 17%, pH 7.0) before FISH was performed using oligonucleotide probes for the most abundant species/genera associated with occlusal caries including Streptococcus and Actinomyces. The findings were related to histological features of lesion penetration. The sites showed distinct differences in the bacterial composition and fluorescence intensity between different ecological niches in occlusal caries. Biofilm observed along the entrance of fissures showed an inner layer of microorganisms organized in palisades often identified as Actinomyces, covered by a more loosely structured bacterial layer consisting of diverse genera, similar to supra-gingival biofilm. Biofilm within the fissure proper seemed less metabolically active, as judged by the low fluorescence signal intensity and the presence of material of non-bacterial origin resembling developmental protein, calculus and/or dead bacteria. Bacterial invasion with penetration into the dentinal tubules was seen only at advanced stages of the caries process with manifest cavity formation. It is concluded that the new methodology represents a valuable supplement to previous methods for the study of microbial ecology in caries by allowing analysis of the structural composition of the undisturbed biofilm in caries lesions in vivo.

Dige, Irene; GrØnkjær, Lene

49

Study on Evaluation of Rural Ecological Environment and Its Influencing Factors in Sichuan Province  

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Full Text Available Rural ecological environment is the basic on human survival, analyze its structure and function is the key to crack the problem of agro-ecological environment. This paper studied the evaluation of rural ecological environment and its influencing factors. The results showed that: the rural ecological environment showed declining trend, the value of its input-output efficiency was low and its regional differences was significant; the quality of economic development affected the rural ecological environment in a certain extent, but not the only factor; chemical fertilizer, pesticide, agricultural plastic film, arable land were key factors affecting the rural ecological environment. It implied that there was a large room for improving the rural ecological environment.

Yingcong Zhang

2012-01-01

50

Inequality in Maternal Mortality in Iran: An Ecologic Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Maternal mortality (MM) is an avoidable death and there is national, international and political commitment to reduce it. The objective of this study is to examine the relation of MM to socioeconomic factors and its inequality in Iran's provinces at an ecologic level. Methods: The overall MM from each province was considered for 3 years from 2004 to 2006. The five independent variables whose relations were studied included the literacy rate among men and women in each province, mean annual household income per capita, Gini coefficients in each province, and Human Development Index (HDI). The correlation of Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) to the above five variables was evaluated through Pearson's correlation coefficient (simple and weighted for each province's population) and linear regression – by considering MMR as the dependent variable and the Gini coefficient, HDI, and difference in literacy rate among men and women as the independent variables. Results: The mean MMR in the years 2004–2006 was 24.7 in 100,000 live births. The correlation coefficients between MMR and literacy rate among women, literacy rate among men, the mean annual household income per capita, Gini coefficient and HDI were 0.82, 0.90, –0.61, 0.52 and –0.77, respectively. Based on multivariate regression, MMR was significantly associated with HDI (standardized B=–0.93) and difference in literacy rate among men and women (standardized B=–0.47). However, MMR was not significantly associated with the Gini coefficient. Conclusion: This study shows the association between socioeconomic variables and their inequalities with MMR in Iran's provinces at an ecologic level. In addition to the other direct interventions performed to reduce MM, it seems essential to especially focus on more distal factors influencing MMR. PMID:22347608

Tajik, Parvin; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Afshar, Nozhat Emami; Changizi, Nasrin; Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Azemikhah, Arash; Aamrolalaei, Sima; Majdzadeh, Reza

2012-01-01

51

Ras-induced ROS upregulation affecting cell proliferation is connected with cell type-specific alterations of HSF1/SESN3/p21Cip1/WAF1 pathways.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oncogenes of the RAS family regulate many of the cell's activities, including proliferation, survival and differentiation. Activating mutations in these genes are common events for many types of cancer. One of the contradictory points concerning the biological significance of Ras activation is its dual effect (pro- or anti-proliferative) on cell reproduction. One of mechanisms by which Ras proteins influence cell growth is a regulation of intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), second messengers affecting variety of cellular processes including cell proliferation. Recently it was shown that repression of SESN1 and SESN3 genes, whose protein products control regeneration of peroxiredoxins, can play a critical role in Ras-induced ROS upregulation. In the present study we have found that Ras-induced repression of SESN3 expression and ROS upregulation is mediated via the modifications of transcriptional activity of HSF1. Interestingly, mutant Ras overexpression altered the activity of HSF1 in opposite directions in different cell contexts, in particular in human normal fibroblasts and HaCaT immortalized keratinocytes, but these opposite changes caused similar repression of SESN3 expression followed by elevation of ROS content and inhibition of cell proliferation in corresponding cell types. The inhibitory effect on cell proliferation was mediated by upregulation of p21(Cip1/WAF1). Thus, HSF1/SESN3/ROS/p21(Cip1/WAF1)-mediated deceleration of cell growth may contribute to cell defense systems protecting the organism from excessive proliferation of cells that overexpress activated Ras oncoproteins. PMID:23388456

Zamkova, Maria; Khromova, Natalia; Kopnin, Boris P; Kopnin, Pavel

2013-03-01

52

Dog Ecology and Population Studies in Lagos State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dog population dynamics have a major impact upon the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. As such, understanding domestic dog ecology has been recognized as central to the design of effective rabies control programmes. This study was conducted to determine the dog ecology in Lagos State using compound dog count and street dog count in the three senatorial districts (Lagos West, East and Central of Lagos State from February, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 546 questionnaires were distributed for the compound dog count and all were completed and returned. Various aspects of dog ecology were determined, including size, sex, breed of the dog population, management of dogs and rabies awareness among the respondents. Out of the 546 compounds surveyed, 518 (94.87% owned at least one dog. A total of 1,427 dogs were counted from the street counts while a total of 1,447 dogs (2.8 dogs/compound were counted from the compound count. The dogs comprised of 583 males and 864 females, out of which 64.10% are confined. The dog vaccination coverage in the dog population surveyed was 64.10% and administered majorly (91.30% by veterinarians. Security (60% and pets (26% were the major reasons for keeping dogs. Majority (88.80% of the respondents were aware of rabies and its mode of transmission, but still believed in the use of concoctions (40.40%, herbs (19.90% and consumption of the organ of the offending dog (11.50% for the treatment of rabies. The findings of this study showed a male: female ratio of dog to be 1:1.5 and a dog: human ratio of 1:5.6. There was also a responsible dog ownership as majority of the respondents do confine, vaccinate and provide food for their dogs. Vaccination coverage of the total dog population was however below the 70-80% target recommended by the World Health Organization to achieve herd immunity.

Sunday Emmanuel Hambolu

2013-11-01

53

A Study on the Pollination Ecology of Eremurus inderiensis  

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Full Text Available Two-year study on the pollination ecology of Eremurus inderiensis reveals that the florescence of eremurus is from the middle ten days of May to the first ten years of June, anthesis of a single flower lasts one day. When the weather is rainy and the highest temperature is less than 20 centigrade, anthesis of a single flower can last two days. Pollen dispersal period of single flower can last for 4 to 5 hours from 10:30 to 15:00 local time with the duration of pollen dispersal for single anther approximately 40min. The heterotypical maturation of 6 anthers could significantly prolong the pollen dispersal period of a single flower, suggesting an adaptation to the habitat of Eremurus inderiensis in the desert where the pollinators are uncertain. The main pollinators belong to Apidae, Halictidae, Syrphidae, Bombyliidae and Therevidae. Pollen/Ovule (P/O reveals that Eremurus inderiensis is obligate xenogamy.

Junfeng Fan

2009-02-01

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Hydrodynamic and Ecological Assessment of Nearshore Restoration: A Modeling Study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Along the Pacific Northwest coast, much of the estuarine habitat has been diked over the last century for agricultural land use, residential and commercial development, and transportation corridors. As a result, many of the ecological processes and functions have been disrupted. To protect coastal habitats that are vital to aquatic species, many restoration projects are currently underway to restore the estuarine and coastal ecosystems through dike breaches, setbacks, and removals. Information on physical processes and hydrodynamic conditions are critical for the assessment of the success of restoration actions. Restoration of a 160- acre property at the mouth of the Stillaguamish River in Puget Sound has been proposed. The goal is to restore native tidal habitats and estuary-scale ecological processes by removing the dike. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was developed for the Stillaguamish River estuary to simulate estuarine processes. The model was calibrated to observed tide, current, and salinity data for existing conditions and applied to simulate the hydrodynamic responses to two restoration alternatives. Responses were evaluated at the scale of the restoration footprint. Model data was combined with biophysical data to predict habitat responses at the site. Results showed that the proposed dike removal would result in desired tidal flushing and conditions that would support four habitat types on the restoration footprint. At the estuary scale, restoration would substantially increase the proportion of area flushed with freshwater (< 5 ppt) at flood tide. Potential implications of predicted changes in salinity and flow dynamics are discussed relative to the distribution of tidal marsh habitat.

55

Trophic magnification factors: considerations of ecology, ecosystems, and study design.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent reviews by researchers from academia, industry, and government have revealed that the criteria used by the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants under the United Nations Environment Programme are not always able to identify the actual bioaccumulative capacity of some substances, by use of chemical properties such as the octanol-water partitioning coefficient. Trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were suggested as a more reliable tool for bioaccumulation assessment of chemicals that have been in commerce long enough to be quantitatively measured in environmental samples. TMFs are increasingly used to quantify biomagnification and represent the average diet-to-consumer transfer of a chemical through food webs. They differ from biomagnification factors, which apply to individual species and can be highly variable between predator-prey combinations. The TMF is calculated from the slope of a regression between the chemical concentration and trophic level of organisms in the food web. The trophic level can be determined from stable N isotope ratios (?(15) N). In this article, we give the background for the development of TMFs, identify and discuss impacts of ecosystem and ecological variables on their values, and discuss challenges and uncertainties associated with contaminant measurements and the use of ?(15) N for trophic level estimations. Recommendations are provided for experimental design, data treatment, and statistical analyses, including advice for users on reporting and interpreting TMF data. Interspecies intrinsic ecological and organismal properties such as thermoregulation, reproductive status, migration, and age, particularly among species at higher trophic levels with high contaminant concentrations, can influence the TMF (i.e., regression slope). Following recommendations herein for study design, empirical TMFs are likely to be useful for understanding the food web biomagnification potential of chemicals, where the target is to definitively identify if chemicals biomagnify (i.e., TMF?>?or?levels. PMID:21674770

Borgå, Katrine; Kidd, Karen A; Muir, Derek C G; Berglund, Olof; Conder, Jason M; Gobas, Frank A P C; Kucklick, John; Malm, Olaf; Powell, David E

2012-01-01

56

Bis is Induced by Oxidative Stress via Activation of HSF1.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bis protein is known to be involved in a variety of cellular processes including apoptosis, migration, autophagy as well as protein quality control. Bis expression is induced in response to a number of types of stress, such as heat shock or a proteasome inhibitor via the activation of heat shock factor (HSF)1. We report herein that Bis expression is increased at the transcriptional level in HK-2 kidney tubular cells and A172 glioma cells by exposure to oxidative stress such as H2O2 treatment and oxygen-glucose deprivation, respectively. The pretreatment of HK-2 cells with N-acetyl cysteine, suppressed Bis induction. Furthermore, HSF1 silencing attenuated Bis expression that was induced by H2O2, accompaniedby increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Using a series of deletion constructs of the bis gene promoter, two putative heat shock elements located in the proximal region of the bis gene promoter were found to be essential for the constitutive expression is as well as the inducible expression of Bis. Taken together, our results indicate that oxidative stress induces Bis expression at the transcriptional levels via activation of HSF1, which might confer an expansion of antioxidant capacity against pro-oxidant milieu. However, the possible role of the other cis-element in the induction of Bis remains to be determined. PMID:25352760

Yoo, Hyung Jae; Im, Chang-Nim; Youn, Dong-Ye; Yun, Hye Hyeon; Lee, Jeong-Hwa

2014-10-01

57

An Ecological Flood Control System in Phoenix Island of Huzhou, China: A Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional flood control systems always have a conflict with natural ones, i.e., rivers in cities are usually straight and smooth, whereas natural ones are according to ecological mechanisms. Social and economic developments in the modern world require a new system combining ecological needs and traditional flood control system. Ecological flood control systems were put forward and defined as flood control systems with full consideration of ecological demands for sustainable development. In such systems, four aspects are promoted: connectivity of water system, landscapes of river and lakes, mobility of water bodies, and safety of flood control. In Phoenix Island, Huzhou, needs for ecological flood controls were analyzed from the four aspects above. The Water system layout was adjusted with the water surface ratio, which is the ratio of water surface area (including rivers, lakes, and other water bodies to the total drainage area, and connectivity as controlling indicators. The designed water levels provided references for landscape plant selection. Mobility of the adjusted water system was analyzed, including flow direction and residence time. On the bases mentioned above, ecological flood control projects were planned with comprehensive consideration of the ecological requirements. The case study indicates that ecological needs can be integrated with flood control to develop ecological flood control systems that do not only prevent floods but also retain the ecological functions of water bodies.

Zhuowen Wang

2013-09-01

58

Ecological studies of the Psocids Liposcelis brunnea, L. rufa, L. pearmani, and Lepinotus reticulatus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Psocids (Psocoptera) are an emerging problem in grain storages, grain processing facilities, and product warehouses in the United States and many other countries. Development of effective pest management programs for psocids is dependent on having sound knowledge of their ecology. Given the limited information available on the ecology of psocids, we conducted ecological studies of four psocid species namely, Liposcelis brunnea (Liposcelididae), Liposcelis rufa, Liposcelis pearmani and Lepinot...

Opit, G. P.; Gautam, S. G.; Aminatou B. A.; Throne, J. E.

2010-01-01

59

Study on Ecological Compensation Policy among the Micro Subjects on Water Energy Resources Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The subjects of ecological compensation involve the nation, society, development enterprises of wa-ter-energy resources, as well as the location of resource itself. This paper systematically studies on how to make “water energy sources market compensation policy”, “the economic compensation policy for relevant interest subjects” and “the ecological compensation policy of basin ecological water.” So, it is necessary to exert the complementary function between market compensation and government compensation by the means of economic compensation and to establish the ecological compensation policy of basin ecological water, which is beneficial to coordinating the stakeholders’ interests of cross-region or inter-basin. And it is important and significant to establish constantly perfected ecological compensation policy among the micro subjects on water energy resources development, so as to coordinate interest relationships among various subjects and finally reach the aim of sustainable use of water energy resources and environmental protection as possible.

Shihua LI

2009-05-01

60

Heat shock improves Sca-1+ stem cell survival and directs ischemic cardiomyocytes toward a prosurvival phenotype via exosomal transfer: a critical role for HSF1/miR-34a/HSP70 pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stem cell-based therapy is a promising intervention for ischemic heart diseases. However, the functional integrity of stem cells is impaired in an ischemic environment. Here, we report a novel finding that heat shock significantly improves Sca-1(+) stem cell survival in an ischemic environment by the regulation of the triangle: heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), HSF1/miR-34a, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Initially we prove that HSP70 is the key chaperone-mediating cytoprotective effect of heat shock in Sca-1(+) cells and then we establish miR-34a as a direct repressor of HSP70. We found that miR-34a was downregulated in heat shocked Sca-11 stem cells (HSSca-11 cells) [corrected]. Intriguingly, we demonstrate that the downregulation of miR-34a is attributed to HSF1-mediated epigenetic repression through histone H3 Lys27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) on miR-34a promoter. Moreover, we show that heat shock induces exosomal transfer of HSF1 from Sca-1(+) cells, which directs ischemic cardiomyocytes toward a prosurvival phenotype by epigenetic repression of miR-34a. In addition, our in vivo study demonstrates that transplantation of (HS) Sca-1(+) cells significantly reduces apoptosis, attenuates fibrosis, and improves global heart functions in ischemic myocardium. Hence, our study provides not only novel insights into the effects of heat shock on stem cell survival and paracrine behavior but also may have therapeutic values for stem cell therapy in ischemic heart diseases. PMID:24123326

Feng, Yuliang; Huang, Wei; Meng, Wei; Jegga, Anil G; Wang, Yigang; Cai, Wenfeng; Kim, Ha Won; Pasha, Zeeshan; Wen, Zhili; Rao, Fang; Modi, Rohan M; Yu, Xiyong; Ashraf, Muhammad

2014-02-01

 
 
 
 
61

Ecological study of dietary and smoking links to lymphoma  

Science.gov (United States)

The ecological approach is used to investigate dietary and smoking links to lymphoma. International mortality rate data for 1986 and 1994 by gender and age group are compared with national dietary supply values of various food components for up to 10 years prior to the mortality data as well as per capita cigarette consumption rates 5 and 15 years earlier. The non-fat portion of milk, 3-9 years prior to the 1986 mortality data and 4 years prior to the 1994 data, was found to have the highest association with lymphoma, with r as high as 0.89. The results imply that 70 percent of lymphoma mortality may be related to this dietary component. Cigarette smoking in 1980 was found to have a weaker association with 1994 lymphoma mortality rates, being most important for younger men and statistically insignificant for younger women. The non-fat milk result is consistent with both case-control studies and a Norwegian prospective study, and with the often-observed finding that abnormal calcium metabolism, hypercalciuria, and dysregulated calcitriol production are common in normocalcemic patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). It is hypothesized that excess dietary calcium from milk is a significant risk factor for lymphoma.

Grant, W. B.

2000-01-01

62

Genetic and ecological studies of animals in Chernobyl and Fukushima.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in genetic and ecological studies of wild animal populations in Chernobyl and Fukushima have demonstrated significant genetic, physiological, developmental, and fitness effects stemming from exposure to radioactive contaminants. The few genetic studies that have been conducted in Chernobyl generally show elevated rates of genetic damage and mutation rates. All major taxonomic groups investigated (i.e., birds, bees, butterflies, grasshoppers, dragonflies, spiders, mammals) displayed reduced population sizes in highly radioactive parts of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. In Fukushima, population censuses of birds, butterflies, and cicadas suggested that abundances were negatively impacted by exposure to radioactive contaminants, while other groups (e.g., dragonflies, grasshoppers, bees, spiders) showed no significant declines, at least during the first summer following the disaster. Insufficient information exists for groups other than insects and birds to assess effects on life history at this time. The differences observed between Fukushima and Chernobyl may reflect the different times of exposure and the significance of multigenerational mutation accumulation in Chernobyl compared to Fukushima. There was considerable variation among taxa in their apparent sensitivity to radiation and this reflects in part life history, physiology, behavior, and evolutionary history. Interestingly, for birds, population declines in Chernobyl can be predicted by historical mitochondrial DNA base-pair substitution rates that may reflect intrinsic DNA repair ability. PMID:25124815

Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

2014-01-01

63

An ecological study on suicide and homicide in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective was to evaluate correlations between suicide, homicide and socio-demographic variables by an ecological study. Mortality and socio-demographic data were collected from official records of the Ministry of Health and IBGE (2010), aggregated by state (27). The data were analyzed using correlation techniques, factor analysis, principal component analysis with a varimax rotation and multiple linear regression. Suicide age-adjusted rates for the total population, men and women were 5.0, 8.0, and 2.2 per 100,000 inhabitants respectively. The suicide rates ranged from 2.7 in Pará to 9.1 in Rio Grande do Sul. Homicide for the total population, men and women were 27.2, 50.8, and 4.5 per 100,000, respectively. The homicide rates ranged from 13.0 in Santa Catarina to 68.9 in Alagoas. Suicide and homicide were negatively associated, the significance persisted among men. Unemployment was negatively correlated with suicide and positively with homicide. Different socio-demographic variables were found to correlate with suicide and homicide in the regressions. Suicide showed a pattern suggesting that, in Brazil, it is related to high socioeconomic status. Homicide seemed to follow the pattern found in other countries, associated with lower social and economic status. PMID:24820601

Bando, Daniel Hideki; Lester, David

2014-04-01

64

Temporal and spatial melanoma trends in Austria: an ecological study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Annual solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is mostly determined by latitude and altitude. Over the last decades, increasing UVR ground levels have been observed. Exposure to UVR is associated with a life-time risk to develop melanoma, a malign skin cancer. Thus, we hypothesized that melanoma incidence in Austria is associated with altitude of place of living and time of diagnosis. We investigated this hypothesis in an ecological study by district and year for Austrian melanoma incidence (1990-2010) and mortality (1970-2011) data. As expected, incidence rates increased with altitude (about 2% per 10 m) and year (about 2%). Additionally, melanoma incidence rates were about 50% higher in urban than in rural districts. In contrast, mortality rates decreased with altitude (for males: 0.4% per 10 m, for women: 0.7% per 10 m, respectively). The observed discrepancy between incidence and mortality data could partly be explained by melanoma diagnosis at earlier tumor stage in districts with higher altitude. Possible reasons for this finding include higher awareness of patients, better diagnostic performance of medical professionals working at higher altitudes, or slower tumor growth due to protective effects of sun light-associated vitamin D synthesis. PMID:24398911

Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

2014-01-01

65

ELF communications system ecological monitoring program: Upland flora studies  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Navy has completed a program monitoring flora, fauna, and ecological relationships for possible effects from electromagnetic (EM) fields produced by its Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System. This report documents studies of upland flora conducted near the Navy's transmitting antenna in Michigan. From 1982 through 1993 researchers from the Michigan Technological University (MTU) monitored tree, herb, and fungal species dominant in areas near (treatment) and far (control) from the ELF antenna. Above-ground parameters included the productivity, physiology, and phenology of trees, as well as the morphology and phenology of an herb. Below-ground, the important association between tree roots and fungi were monitored. Investigators also measured ambient weather conditions, soil nutrients, and EM field intensities. The MTU research team used analysis of variance and covariance to examine the data. When site-by-year interactions were significant, correlations and regressions were used to determine whether residuals were related to EM exposure. Results suggest a possible subtle EM effect to the cambial and stemwood growth of some tree species but not to any other parameter. MTU investigators conclude no short-term, adverse effects on forest health from exposure to EM fields produced by the Naval Radio Transmitting Facility-Republic, Michigan.

Mroz, Glenn D.; Cattelino, Peter J.; Gale, Margaret R.; Jones, Elizabeth A.; Jurgensen, Martin F.

1994-10-01

66

An Exploratory Study of Elementary Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Ecology Using Concept Maps  

Science.gov (United States)

Classroom teachers serve a critical role in developing environmentally literate citizens. In this study, the authors assessed K-8 preservice teachers' understanding of basic ecological concepts. Participants (N = 56) constructed concept maps describing the inter-relationships among 16 ecological concepts. The authors analyzed the concept maps to…

Zak, Kevin M.; Munson, Bruce H.

2008-01-01

67

HSF1-Dependent Upregulation of Hsp70 by Sulfhydryl-Reactive Inducers of the KEAP1/NRF2/ARE Pathway  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMMARY The KEAP1/NRF2/ARE pathway and the heat shock response are inducible cytoprotective systems regulated by transcription factors NRF2 and HSF1, respectively. We report that structurally distinct small molecule NRF2 activators, all of which react with sulfhydryl groups but differ in potency by 15,000-fold, upregulate Hsp70, a prototypic HSF1-dependent gene. Hsp70 upregulation requires HSF1 but is NRF2 independent. We further demonstrate that a sulfoxythiocarbamate inducer conjugates to the negative regulator of HSF1, Hsp90. The differential concentration dependence of the two responses suggests that activation of NRF2 precedes that of HSF1: the KEAP1/NRF2/ARE pathway is at the fore-front of cellular defense, protecting against instant danger; the heat shock response closely follows to resolve subsequent potentially devastating damage, saving the proteome. This uncovered duality undoubtedly contributes to the cytoprotective effects of such molecules in models of carcinogenesis, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegeneration. PMID:22118669

Zhang, Ying; Ahn, Young-Hoon; Benjamin, Ivor J.; Honda, Tadashi; Hicks, Ronald J.; Calabrese, Vittorio; Cole, Philip A.; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.

2012-01-01

68

Study on remote sensing method for drawing up and utilizing ecological and natural map II; concentrated on drawing up a plant ecological classification map  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following with the flows of the environmental conservation, Korea has revised the law of natural environmental conservation. In this law, it has suggested to draw up an ecological nature figure for efficient preservation and utilization of a country. To draw up an ecological nature figure, it requires several evaluating factors. Among them, a plant ecological classification is a very important evaluating factor since it can evaluate a habitation area of natural organisms. This study investigated a drawing up method of plant ecological classification using satellite image data. However the limit of satellite image data and the quality of required plant ecological classification are not quite matched but if the satellite image data and the infrared color aerial photograph are mixed, it can be expected to have an excellent quality of plant ecological classification. 85 refs., 86 figs., 45 tabs.

Jeon, Seong Woo; Chung, Hwui Chul [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

1999-12-01

69

Strengthening Industrial Ecology’s Links with Business Studies: Insights and Potential Contributions from the Innovation and Business Models Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The declining availability of natural resources and the environmental impacts of continued extraction of primary resources for production activities have forced greater focus on waste streams and recycling activities. Industrial ecology as a field of practice and theory has been closely related to sustainability issues, yet despite the development of much theory and specific tools and methodologies, the link between natural, industrial and economic systems is not convincing. Not only that, the need for delivering sustainable production and consumption practices is increasing, which is demanding new solutions to existing problems, particularly around the degree of novelty. The interaction of industrial ecology with business studies and industrial investment decision-making remains under-developed, and this is likely impacting on the adoption of more sustainable and resource-efficient practices. As such, this paper uses a constructive approach and explores how two areas of the literature can support the development of the industrial ecology field into strategic business practice: firstly, the innovation literature, particularly the emerging work on open innovation and sustainable innovation as a model to understand radical innovation processes and the creation and maintenance of networked systems of firms; secondly, the closely related area of business model (BM innovation, specifically the emerging typologies of sustainable BMs and how these typologies can be developed and used as a route to positioning recycling activities at the strategic management level of the firm.

Samantha Sharpe

2014-03-01

70

Computational Ecology: an emerging ecological science  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Computational ecology is an emerging science to integrate and synthesize computation intensive areas in ecology. It was clearly defined and described in an earlier study. Aims and scope of computational ecology are further refined in present discussion.

WenJun Zhang

2011-04-01

71

Introducing Future Engineers to Sustainable Ecology Problems: A Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem of Earth environmental destruction by human activities is becoming dangerous. Engineers responsible for the production of any goods should be well aware of the negative influence of their activities on the state of the planet. This is why the understanding of ecological problems is essential for people responsible for production and…

Filipkowski, A.

2011-01-01

72

[Applications of stable isotope analysis in the trophic ecology studies of cephalopods].  

Science.gov (United States)

Cephalopods play an important role in marine food webs, however, knowledge about their complex life history, especially their feeding ecology, remains limited. With the rapidly increasing use of stable isotope analysis (SIA) in ecology, it becomes a powerful tool and complement of traditional methods for investigating the trophic ecology and migration patterns of invertebrates. Here, after summarizing the current methods for trophic ecology investigation of cephalopods, applications of SIA in studying the trophic ecology of cephalopods were reviewed, including the key issues such as standardization of available tissues for SIA analyzing, diet shift and migration patterns of cephalopods, with the aim of advancing its application in the biology of cephalopods in the fu- PMID:25129960

Li, Yun-Kai; Gong, Yi; Chen, Xin-Jun

2014-05-01

73

HSF-1, HIF-1and HSP90 expression on recombinant Pichia pastoris under fed-batch fermentation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Pichia pastoris is a methylotrophic yeast used as an efficient expression system for heterologous protein production as compared to other expression systems. Considering that every cell must respond to environmental changes to survive and differentiate, determination of endogenous protein related to [...] heat stress responses and hypoxia, it would necessary to establish the temperature and methanol concentration conditions for optimal growth. The aim of this study is characterize the culture conditions through the putative biomarkers in different conditions of temperature and methanol concentration. Three yeast cultures were performed: 3X = 3% methanol -10 °C, 4X = 3% methanol -30 °C, and 5X = 1% methanol -10 °C. The expression level of HIF-1?, HSF-1, HSP-70 and HSP-90 biomarkers were measured by Western blot and in situ detection was performed by immunocytochemistry. The western blot results of HIF-1? and HSP-90 did not indicate statistically significant in the culture conditions studied. Respect to biomarkers location, HIF-1? and HSP-90 presented differences between cultures. In conclusion, the results suggest the cultures in a hypoxic condition produce a high density and yeast cells smaller. Beside the high density would not necessary related with a high production of recombinant proteins in modified-genetically P. pastoris.

Andrea B., Zepeda; Carolina A., Figueroa; Dulcineia S.P., Abdalla; Andrea Q., Maranhão; Patricio H., Ulloa; Adalberto, Pessoa Jr.; Jorge G., Farías.

2014-06-01

74

HSF-1, HIF-1and HSP90 expression on recombinant Pichia pastoris under fed-batch fermentation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Pichia pastoris is a methylotrophic yeast used as an efficient expression system for heterologous protein production as compared to other expression systems. Considering that every cell must respond to environmental changes to survive and differentiate, determination of endogenous protein related to [...] heat stress responses and hypoxia, it would necessary to establish the temperature and methanol concentration conditions for optimal growth. The aim of this study is characterize the culture conditions through the putative biomarkers in different conditions of temperature and methanol concentration. Three yeast cultures were performed: 3X = 3% methanol -10 °C, 4X = 3% methanol -30 °C, and 5X = 1% methanol -10 °C. The expression level of HIF-1?, HSF-1, HSP-70 and HSP-90 biomarkers were measured by Western blot and in situ detection was performed by immunocytochemistry. The western blot results of HIF-1? and HSP-90 did not indicate statistically significant in the culture conditions studied. Respect to biomarkers location, HIF-1? and HSP-90 presented differences between cultures. In conclusion, the results suggest the cultures in a hypoxic condition produce a high density and yeast cells smaller. Beside the high density would not necessary related with a high production of recombinant proteins in modified-genetically P. pastoris.

Andrea B., Zepeda; Carolina A., Figueroa; Dulcineia S.P., Abdalla; Andrea Q., Maranhão; Patricio H., Ulloa; Adalberto, Pessoa Jr.; Jorge G., Farías.

75

HSF-1, HIF-1and HSP90 expression on recombinant Pichia pastoris under fed-batch fermentation  

Science.gov (United States)

Pichia pastoris is a methylotrophic yeast used as an efficient expression system for heterologous protein production as compared to other expression systems. Considering that every cell must respond to environmental changes to survive and differentiate, determination of endogenous protein related to heat stress responses and hypoxia, it would necessary to establish the temperature and methanol concentration conditions for optimal growth. The aim of this study is characterize the culture conditions through the putative biomarkers in different conditions of temperature and methanol concentration. Three yeast cultures were performed: 3X = 3% methanol ?10 °C, 4X = 3% methanol ?30 °C, and 5X = 1% methanol ?10 °C. The expression level of HIF-1?, HSF-1, HSP-70 and HSP-90 biomarkers were measured by Western blot and in situ detection was performed by immunocytochemistry. The western blot results of HIF-1? and HSP-90 did not indicate statistically significant in the culture conditions studied. Respect to biomarkers location, HIF-1? and HSP-90 presented differences between cultures. In conclusion, the results suggest the cultures in a hypoxic condition produce a high density and yeast cells smaller. Beside the high density would not necessary related with a high production of recombinant proteins in modified-genetically P. pastoris.

Zepeda, Andrea B.; Figueroa, Carolina A.; Abdalla, Dulcineia S.P.; Maranhao, Andrea Q.; Ulloa, Patricio H.; Pessoa, Adalberto; Farias, Jorge G.

2014-01-01

76

The population ecology of infectious diseases: pertussis in Thailand as a case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many of the fundamental concepts in studying infectious diseases are rooted in population ecology. We describe the importance of population ecology in exploring central issues in infectious disease research including identifying the drivers and dynamics of host-pathogen interactions and pathogen persistence, and evaluating the success of public health policies. The use of ecological concepts in infectious disease research is demonstrated with simple theoretical examples in addition to an analysis of case notification data of pertussis, a childhood respiratory disease, in Thailand as a case study. We stress that further integration of these fields will have significant impacts in infectious diseases research. PMID:22717183

Blackwood, J C; Cummings, D A T; Broutin, H; Iamsirithaworn, S; Rohani, P

2012-12-01

77

HSF and Msn2/4p can exclusively or cooperatively activate the yeast HSP104 gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort to understand how an accurate level of stress-specific expression is obtained, we studied the promoter of the yeast HSP104 gene. Through 5' deletions, we defined a 334 bp fragment upstream of the first coding AUG as sufficient and essential for maximal basal activity and a 260 bp fragment as sufficient and essential for heat shock responsiveness. These sequences contain heat shock elements (HSEs) and stress response elements (STREs) that cooperate to achieve maximal inducible expression. However, in the absence of one set of factors (e.g. in msn2Deltamsn4Delta cells) proper induction is obtained exclusively through HSEs. We also show that HSP104 is constitutively derepressed in ras2Delta cells. This derepression is achieved exclusively through activation of STREs, with no role for HSEs. Strikingly, in ras2Deltamsn2Deltamsn4Delta cells the HSP104 promoter is also derepressed, but in this strain derepression is mediated through HSEs, showing the flexibility and adaptation of the promoter. Thus, appropriate transcription of HSP104 is usually obtained through cooperation between the Msn2/4/STRE and the HSF/ HSE systems, but each factor could activate the promoter alone, backing up the other. Transcription control of HSP104 is adaptive and robust, ensuring proper expression under extreme conditions and in various mutants. PMID:11967066

Grably, Melanie R; Stanhill, Ariel; Tell, Osnat; Engelberg, David

2002-04-01

78

Studies on marine oil spills and their ecological damage  

Science.gov (United States)

The sources of marine oil spills are mainly from accidents of marine oil tankers or freighters, marine oil-drilling platforms, marine oil pipelines, marine oilfields, terrestrial pollution, oil-bearing atmosphere, and offshore oil production equipment. It is concluded upon analysis that there are two main reasons for marine oil spills: (I) The motive for huge economic benefits of oil industry owners and oil shipping agents far surpasses their sense of ecological risks. (II) Marine ecological safety has not become the main concern of national security. Oil spills are disasters because humans spare no efforts to get economic benefits from oil. The present paper draws another conclusion that marine ecological damage caused by oil spills can be roughly divided into two categories: damage to marine resource value (direct value) and damage to marine ecosystem service value (indirect value). Marine oil spills cause damage to marine biological, fishery, seawater, tourism and mineral resources to various extents, which contributes to the lower quality and value of marine resources.

Mei, Hong; Yin, Yanjie

2009-09-01

79

Application of photonuclear methods of analysis in biology, medicine, ecological studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Examples of application of photonuclear methods of analysis (PhMA) of the substance composition in biology, medicine, ecology are considered. The methods for determining the element composition of soft and bone tissues, blood, urine are developed. The results of studying the limits of determination of different elements are presented. In ecological investigations PhMA is applied for studying the composition of atmospheric aerosols, industrial sewage, canalization wastes, pollution of soil, plants, animals with toxic elements

80

Ecology of Urban Bees: A Review of Current Knowledge and Directions for Future Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Urban bee ecology is an emerging field that holds promise for advancing knowledge of bee community dynamics and promoting bee conservation. Published studies of bee communities in urban and suburban habitats are fewer than those documenting bees in agricultural and wildland settings. As land lost to urbanization is predicted to increase in coming years the necessity of studying urban bee populations is growing. We reviewed 59 publications on urban bee ecology with the following goals, to asse...

Frankie, Gordon W.; Hernandez, Jennifer L.; Thorp, Robbin W.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Life span alteration after irradiation in Drosophila melanogaster strains with mutations of Hsf and Hsps.  

Science.gov (United States)

The life span alteration after gamma-irradiation and/or paraquat treatment in Drosophila in wild type strain Canton-S and strains with mutations of heat shock factor (1-4 alleles) and heat shock proteins (Hsp70Ba ( 304 ), Hsp83 ( e6A ), Hsp22 ( EY09909 ), Hsp67Bb ( EY099099 )) was investigated. Chronic low-dose rate gamma-irradiation (0.017 and 0.17 cGy/h) on pre-imago stages was used as a priming dose (absorbed doses were 4 and 40 cGy). Paraquat, a free radical inducing agent, was a challenging factor (20 mM for 1 day). It was shown that chronic irradiation led to adaptive response in both sexes except homozygous males and females with mutations of Hsf ( 4 ) and Hsp70Ba ( 304 ). The gender-specific differences in stress response were discovered in wild type strain Canton-S, Hsp22 ( EY09909 ) Hsp67Bb ( EY09909 ) homozygotes and Hsp83 ( e6A ) heterozygotes: the adaptive response persisted in males, but not in females. Thus, Drosophila Hsp and Hsf mutation homozygotes did not demonstrate the adaptive response in the majority of cases, implying an important role of those genes in radiation hormesis and adaptation to stresses. PMID:18551381

Moskalev, A; Shaposhnikov, M; Turysheva, E

2009-02-01

82

Evaluation of evapotranspiration in small on-site HSF constructed wetlands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experimental results on evapotranspiration (ET), relevant to small on-site facilities are presented, derived from one-year controlled experiments in five pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow (HSF) constructed wetlands (CW) used as lysimeters. The CW units operated in Northern Greece. They were rectangular tanks made of steel, with dimensions 3m long, 0.75m wide and 1m deep. Three different porous media were used, i.e., medium gravel, fine gravel and cobbles. Two plants were used, namely common reed (R, Phragmites australis) and cattails (C, Typha latifolia). One unit was unplanted. ET was estimated based on the water budget method. Conclusions were drawn on its relation to season and vegetation density. Furthermore, Pearson correlation coefficient analysis identified the main factors affecting wetland plant ET. Seven well-known ET empirical methods were applied to estimate ET using the measured meteorological and wetland data. ET estimated by the empirical methods were multiplied with appropriate correction coefficients to match measured ET, providing this way appropriate plant coefficient (K(c)) values, and equations for predicting HSF CW evapotranspiration. The suitability of these methods for the particular constructed wetland type is discussed through comparison with the measured data. The Blaney-Criddle method was found as best. Furthermore, stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was used with the measured ET and meteorological data to produce simple empirical equations to predict ET rates according to meteorological factors, plant and substrate material. PMID:22416871

Papaevangelou, Vassiliki A; Gikas, Georgios D; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

2012-01-01

83

Transcription factor OsHsfC1b regulates salt tolerance and development in Oryza sativa ssp. japonica  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper describes the functional analysis of a class C heat shock transcription factor from rice (Oryza sativa). OsHsfC1b is shown to play a role in ABA-mediated salt stress tolerance and is required for plant growth under non-stress conditions.

Schmidt, Romy; Schippers, Jos H. M.; Welker, Annelie; Mieulet, Delphine; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Mueller-roeber, Bernd

2012-01-01

84

Toward a Network Perspective of the Study of Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Formal models used to study the resilience of social-ecological systems have not explicitly included important structural characteristics of this type of system. In this paper, we propose a network perspective for social-ecological systems that enables us to better focus on the structure of interactions between identifiable components of the system. This network perspective might be useful for developing formal models and comparing case studies of social-ecological systems. Based on an analysis of the case studies in this special issue, we identify three types of social-ecological networks: (1 ecosystems that are connected by people through flows of information or materials, (2 ecosystem networks that are disconnected and fragmented by the actions of people, and (3 artificial ecological networks created by people, such as irrigation systems. Each of these three archytypal social-ecological networks faces different problems that influence its resilience as it responds to the addition or removal of connections that affect its coordination or the diffusion of system attributes such as information or disease.

Ryan R. J. McAllister

2006-06-01

85

HSF1-mediated BAG3 expression attenuates apoptosis in 4-hydroxynonenal-treated colon cancer cells via stabilization of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE) is a pro-apoptotic electrophile generated during the spontaneous decomposition of oxidized lipids. We have previously shown that HNE activates the transcription factor, heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), and promotes cytoprotective heat shock gene expression and that silencing HSF1 sensitizes the colon cancer cell line RKO to HNE-induced apoptosis. Here we report a reduction in the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-X(L), Mcl-1, and Bcl-2 in HSF1-silenced RKO cells, and we examine the underlying mechanism. To investigate the regulation of the Bcl-2 family by HSF1, microarray analysis of gene expression was performed. We observed that the Hsp70 co-chaperone, BAG3 (Bcl-2-associated athanogene domain 3), is strongly induced by HNE in control but not in HSF1-silenced colon cancer cells. Silencing BAG3 expression with small interfering RNA caused a dramatic reduction in Bcl-X(L), Mcl-1, and Bcl-2 protein levels in colon cancer cells and increased apoptosis, similar to the effect of silencing HSF1. Also, immunoprecipitation experiments indicate specific interactions between BAG3, Hsp70, and the Bcl-2 family member, Bcl-X(L). Overall, our data reveal that BAG3 is HSF1-inducible and has a unique role facilitating cancer cell survival during pro-apoptotic stress by stabilizing the level of Bcl-2 family proteins. PMID:19179333

Jacobs, Aaron T; Marnett, Lawrence J

2009-04-01

86

Ecological risk assessment guidance for preparation of remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial assessment investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfired Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), an RI/FS work plan win have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping the process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites. An overview analysis of early ecological risk assessment methods (i.e., in the 1980s) at Superfund sites was conducted by the EPA (1989a). That review provided a perspective of attention given to ecological issues in some of the first RI/FS studies. By itself, that reference is of somewhat limited value; it does, however, establish a basis for comparison of past practices in ecological risk with current, more refined methods.

Pentecost, E.D.; Vinikour, W.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-08-01

87

Ecological risk assessment guidance for preparation of remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial assessment investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfired Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), an RI/FS work plan win have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping the process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites. An overview analysis of early ecological risk assessment methods (i.e., in the 1980s) at Superfund sites was conducted by the EPA (1989a). That review provided a perspective of attention given to ecological issues in some of the first RI/FS studies. By itself, that reference is of somewhat limited value; it does, however, establish a basis for comparison of past practices in ecological risk with current, more refined methods

88

Ecological risk caused by land use change in the coastal zone: a case study in the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone  

Science.gov (United States)

China's coastal zone plays an important role in ecological services production and social-economic development; however, extensive and intensive land resource utilization and land use change have lead to high ecological risk in this area during last decade. Regional ecological risk assessment can provide fundamental knowledge and scientific basis for better understanding of the relationship between regional landscape ecosystem and human activities or climate changes, facilitating the optimization strategy of land use structure and improving the ecological risk prevention capability. In this paper, the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone is selected as the study site, which is undergoing a new round of coastal zone exploitation and has endured substantial land use change in the past decade. Land use maps of 2000, 2005 and 2010 were generated based on Landsat images by visual interpretation method, and the ecological risk index was then calculated. The index was 0.3314, 0.3461 and 0.3176 in 2000, 2005 and 2010 respectively, which showed a positive transition of regional ecological risk in 2005.

Di, X. H.; Wang, Y. D.; Hou, X. Y.

2014-03-01

89

Ecological studies of polyploidy in the 100 years following its discovery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyploidy is a mutation with profound phenotypic consequences and thus hypothesized to have transformative effects in plant ecology. This is most often considered in the context of geographical and environmental distributions-as achieved from divergence of physiological and life-history traits-but may also include species interactions and biological invasion. This paper presents a historical overview of hypotheses and empirical data regarding the ecology of polyploids. Early researchers of polyploidy (1910 s-1930 s) were geneticists by training but nonetheless savvy to its phenotypic effects, and speculated on the importance of genome duplication to adaptation and crop improvement. Cytogenetic studies in the 1930 s-1950 s indicated that polyploids are larger (sturdier foliage, thicker stems and taller stature) than diploids while cytogeographic surveys suggested that polyploids and diploids have allopatric or parapatric distributions. Although autopolyploidy was initially regarded as common, influential writings by North American botanists in the 1940 s and 1950 s argued for the principle role of allopolyploidy; according to this view, genome duplication was significant for providing a broader canvas for hybridization rather than for its phenotypic effects per se. The emphasis on allopolyploidy had a chilling effect on nascent ecological work, in part due to taxonomic challenges posed by interspecific hybridization. Nonetheless, biosystematic efforts over the next few decades (1950s-1970s) laid the foundation for ecological research by documenting cytotype distributions and identifying phenotypic correlates of polyploidy. Rigorous investigation of polyploid ecology was achieved in the 1980s and 1990 s by population biologists who leveraged flow cytometry for comparative work in autopolyploid complexes. These efforts revealed multi-faceted ecological and phenotypic differences, some of which may be direct consequences of genome duplication. Several classical hypotheses about the ecology of polyploids remain untested, however, and allopolyploidy--regarded by most botanists as the primary mode of genome duplication--is largely unstudied in an ecological context. PMID:24958925

Ramsey, Justin; Ramsey, Tara S

2014-08-01

90

Ecological optimization and performance study of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat engines  

Science.gov (United States)

The concept of finite time thermodynamics is used to determine the ecological function of irreversible Stirling and Ericsson heat engine cycles. The ecological function is defined as the power output minus power loss (irreversibility), which is the ambient temperature times, the entropy generation rate. The ecological function is maximized with respect to cycle temperature ratio and the expressions for the corresponding power output and thermal efficiency are derived at the optimal operating conditions. The effect of different operating parameters, the effectiveness on the hot, cold and the regenerative side heat exchangers, the cycle temperature ratio, heat capacitance ratio and the internal irreversibility parameter on the maximum ecological function are studied. It is found that the effect of regenerator effectiveness is more than the hot and cold side heat exchangers and the effect of the effectiveness on cold side heat exchanger is more than the effectiveness on the hot side heat exchanger on the maximum ecological function. It is also found that the effect of internal irreversibility parameter is more than the other parameters not only on the maximum ecological function but also on the corresponding power output and the thermal efficiency.

Tyagi, S. K.; Kaushik, S. C.; Salhotra, R.

2002-10-01

91

LANDSCAPE ECOLOGICAL METHOD TO STUDY AGRICULTURAL VEGETATION: SOME EXAMPLES FROM THE PO VALLEY  

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Full Text Available Vegetation is the most important landscape component, as regards to its ability to catch solar energy and to transform it, but also to shape the landscape, to structure the space, to create the fit environment for different animal species, to contribute to the maintenance of a correct metastability level for the landscape, etc. It is a biological system which acts under the constraints of the principles of the System Theory and owns the same properties of any other living system: so, it is a complex adaptive, hierarchical, dynamic, dissipative, self-organizing, self-transcendent, autocatalytic, self-maintaining system and follows the non-equilibrium thermodynamic. Its ecological state can be investigated through the comparison between “gathered data” (pathology and “normal data” (physiology for analogous types of vegetation. The Biological Integrated School of Landscape Ecology provides an integrated methodology to define ecological threshold limits of the different Agricultural Landscape types and applies to agricultural vegetation the specific part of the new methodology already tested to studying forests (the Landscape Biological Survey of Vegetation. Ecological quality, better and worst parameters, biological territorial capacity of vegetated corridors, agricultural field, poplar groves, orchards and woody remnant patches are investigated. Some examples from diverse agricultural landscapes of the Po Valley will be discussed. KEY WORDS: agricultural landscape, vegetation, landscape ecology, landscape health, Biological Integrated Landscape Ecology, Landscape Biological Survey of vegetation.

E. GIGLIO

2006-01-01

92

Assessment of the U.S. outer continental shelf environmental studies program. 2. Ecology. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1986, the Minerals Management Service (MMS) requested that the National Research Council (NRC) evaluate the adequacy and applicability of studies conducted in the Environmental Studies Program (ESP), review the general state of knowledge in the appropriate disciplines, and recommend future studies. Under the auspices of the NRC Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, the Committee to Review the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program was formed to conduct the assignment. Three panels-dealing with ecology, physical oceanography, and socioeconomics--were established to review specific aspects of the assessment. The Ecology Panel investigated the main questions of ecological relevance to OCS oil and gas activities and ecological aspects of the ESP. The panel was divided into three working groups: on marine birds, mammals, turtles, and endangered species; on benthic processes; and on fisheries and ecosystems. The panel conducted workshops on each of those topics, focused on the progress of the ESP in assessing the environmental impacts of OCS oil and gas activities, evaluated shortcomings of the ESP, and identified future information needs. The report, the second in a series, presents the findings and recommendations of the Ecology Panel

93

Ecology of Urban Bees: A Review of Current Knowledge and Directions for Future Study  

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Full Text Available Urban bee ecology is an emerging field that holds promise for advancing knowledge of bee community dynamics and promoting bee conservation. Published studies of bee communities in urban and suburban habitats are fewer than those documenting bees in agricultural and wildland settings. As land lost to urbanization is predicted to increase in coming years the necessity of studying urban bee populations is growing. We reviewed 59 publications on urban bee ecology with the following goals, to assess current knowledge, to highlight areas in need of further research, and to suggest applications of study findings to bee conservation. Identified trends in urban areas included the following, negative correlation between bee species richness and urban development, increase in abundance of cavity-nesters in urban habitats, and scarcity of floral specialists. Future directions for studying urban bee ecology include incorporation of landscape-scale assessments, conducting manipulative experiments and actively designing urban bee habitats.

Gordon W. Frankie

2009-01-01

94

The ecology of early farming: A Mogollon case study  

Science.gov (United States)

The Mimbres region of southwest New Mexico is ideal for investigating the coevolutionary relationships among human impact, ecosystem processes, and settlement stability during the development of sedentism and agriculture. A resilience framework guides interpretations of nuanced relations among land use strategies and impacts through an examination of ecosystem processes around Mimbres pithouse sites. Analytical methods include multitemporal analysis of satellite imagery to measure vegetation response to precipitation variability and GIS-based spatial analyses to examine differences in ecosystem response for prehistoric sites and adjacent unoccupied locations in similar ecological settings. Palynological and architectural analyses provide independent means of assessing prehistoric impact and settlement choices (respectively). To evaluate the relative contribution of prehistoric selection and impact on occupation length, models are developed for "choice"---ecosystem characteristics that attracted initial settlement, and "impact"---modification to ecosystems resulting from prehistoric land use. Choices reflecting productivity maximization find support; prehistoric impact played a smaller role. Pollen data suggest even small prehistoric occupations shifted plant communities towards r-strategist taxa, but impacts were not long-lived, and legacy effects of Mimbres land use on modern ecosystem processes may be minor. Some Mimbres settlements had large, long occupations (villages), but most settlements were small and only briefly occupied (farmsteads). Greater architectural investment in early houses at villages than at farmsteads suggests occupation length was planned during initial construction. Satellite data indicate locations for each type of settlement were selected based on the way vegetation responds to precipitation variability. Farmsteads were constructed where pluvial effects last longer, but the effects of drought are more severe. Shorter use of these settlements does not reflect failed agricultural strategies or deleterious impacts. In contrast, villages were built where drought effects are less severe, but pluvial benefits more brief, reflecting risk-minimizing strategies. Mimbres settlement strategies were partly based on sophisticated ecological knowledge. Sustainable occupation at a regional scale, reflected in the continued use of the landscape, was derived from local decisions about the kinds of settlements to construct in specific places. Their settlement system reflects strategies of land use targeted to specific types of ecosystems and climate regimes.

Swanson, Steve

95

Ecological forecasting under climatic data uncertainty: a case study in phenological modeling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forecasting ecological responses to climate change represents a challenge to the ecological community because models are often site-specific and climate data are lacking at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. We use a case study approach to demonstrate uncertainties in ecological predictions related to the driving climatic input data. We use observational records, derived observational datasets (e.g. interpolated observations from local weather stations and gridded data products) and output from general circulation models (GCM) in conjunction with site based phenology models to estimate the first flowering date (FFD) for three woody flowering species. Using derived observations over the modern time period, we find that cold biases and temperature trends lead to biased FFD simulations for all three species. Observational datasets resolved at the daily time step result in better FFD predictions compared to simulations using monthly resolution. Simulations using output from an ensemble of GCM and regional climate models over modern and future time periods have large intra-ensemble spreads and tend to underestimate observed FFD trends for the modern period. These results indicate that certain forcing datasets may be missing key features needed to generate accurate hindcasts at the local scale (e.g. trends, temporal resolution), and that standard modeling techniques (e.g. downscaling, ensemble mean, etc) may not necessarily improve the prediction of the ecological response. Studies attempting to simulate local ecological processes under modern and future climate forcing therefore need to quantify and propagate the climate data uncertainties in their simulations.

96

Estimating survival rates in ecological studies with small unbalanced sample sizes: an alternative Bayesian point estimator  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasingly, the survival rates in experimental ecology are presented using odds ratios or log response ratios, but the use of ratio metrics has a problem when all the individuals have either died or survived in only one replicate. In the empirical ecological literature, the problem often has been ignored or circumvented by different, more or less ad hoc approaches. Here, it is argued that the best summary statistic for communicating ecological results of frequency data in studies with small unbalanced samples may be the mean of the posterior distribution of the survival rate. The developed approach may be particularly useful when effect size indexes, such as odds ratios, are needed to compare frequency data between treatments, sites or studies.

Christian Damgaard

2011-12-01

97

Isolation of heat shock factor HsfA1a-binding sites in vivo revealed variations of heat shock elements in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

Science.gov (United States)

The information about DNA-binding sites of regulatory protein is important to understanding the regulatory network of DNA-protein interactions in the genome. In this report we integrated chromatin immunoprecipitation with DNA cloning to isolate genomic sites bound in vivo by heat shock factor HsfA1a in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plantlets were subjected to formaldehyde crosslinking, followed by immunoprecipitation of chromatin. The immunoprecipitated DNA was amplified by PCR and cloned. From a library enriched in putative HsfA1a-binding sites, 21 different genomic fragments were identified (65-332 bp). Six fragments contained known HsfA1a-binding motif (perfect heat shock element). Six fragments contained novel HsfA1a-binding motifs: (1) gap-type, (2) TTC-rich-type, (3) stress responsive element (STRE). Representatives of each were verified by in vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assay. About 81% of the isolated fragments contained the HsfA1a-binding motifs, and/or could be bound by HsfA1a, demonstrating that the method is efficient in the isolation of genomic binding sites of a regulatory protein. The nearest downstream genes to the HsfA1a-binding fragments, which were considered as potential HsfA1a target genes, include a set of classical heat shock protein genes: Hsp17.4, Hsp18.2, Hsp21, Hsp81-1, Hsp101, and several novel genes encoding a non-race specific disease resistance protein and a transmembrane CLPTM1 family protein. PMID:18641404

Guo, Lihong; Chen, Shanna; Liu, Kaihui; Liu, Yanfang; Ni, Lianghua; Zhang, Keqin; Zhang, Lemin

2008-09-01

98

Air pollution and case fatality of SARS in the People's Republic of China: an ecologic study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS has claimed 349 lives with 5,327 probable cases reported in mainland China since November 2002. SARS case fatality has varied across geographical areas, which might be partially explained by air pollution level. Methods Publicly accessible data on SARS morbidity and mortality were utilized in the data analysis. Air pollution was evaluated by air pollution index (API derived from the concentrations of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and ground-level ozone. Ecologic analysis was conducted to explore the association and correlation between air pollution and SARS case fatality via model fitting. Partially ecologic studies were performed to assess the effects of long-term and short-term exposures on the risk of dying from SARS. Results Ecologic analysis conducted among 5 regions with 100 or more SARS cases showed that case fatality rate increased with the increment of API (case fatality = - 0.063 + 0.001 * API. Partially ecologic study based on short-term exposure demonstrated that SARS patients from regions with moderate APIs had an 84% increased risk of dying from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs (RR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.41–2.40. Similarly, SARS patients from regions with high APIs were twice as likely to die from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs. (RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.31–3.65. Partially ecologic analysis based on long-term exposure to ambient air pollution showed the similar association. Conclusion Our studies demonstrated a positive association between air pollution and SARS case fatality in Chinese population by utilizing publicly accessible data on SARS statistics and air pollution indices. Although ecologic fallacy and uncontrolled confounding effect might have biased the results, the possibility of a detrimental effect of air pollution on the prognosis of SARS patients deserves further investigation.

Yu Shun-Zhang

2003-11-01

99

ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF RESTORATED TRADITIONAL SETTLEMENTS: A CASE STUDY IN KALE?Ç? (ANTALYA  

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Full Text Available Historical fabrics of the cities reflect the cultural backgrounds of the societies. For centuries in historical urban settlements formed via experiences the most appropriate structure type to the climatic conditions and the region, has been produced. With the industrial revolution, to be able to have more comfortable places in the settlement, fossil fuel based energy consumption began to be generally preferred. As a result, the ecological balance in the nature has begun to deteriorate in an irrevocable way. To find a solution for the situation, in ecological architecture and planning issues various ecological structure criteria is defined. Accordingly, buildings appropriate to the local and climatic characteristics are meant to be constructed besides the use of renewable energy sources and minimizing energy consumption. When historical city fabrics are analyzed in the ecological context, one can observe that these include sustainable structure characteristics. In order for the buildings to be renewed and restored in accordance with their original structures, great care should be given in terms of financial resource, manpower, material and control.Antalya Kaleiçi which was chosen as the working area was analyzed in terms of settlement structure, building form and structure cover, place organization, material choice, renewable, clean energy usage and water saving and usage and it was determined to have ecological, sustainable settlement characteristics. Traditional architecture samples which have been built by the people after trial and error for centuries and with the solutions appropriate to the climatic and environmental conditions are highly appropriate to the ecological design criteria as structures and settlements peculiar to the district. However the mistakes in the restoration of the buildings used for touristic aims after 1970s, adding of new necessary functions to the buildings, not taking care of the original structure and materials show that historical urban fabric of the city is faced with the danger of losing its ecological feature.In this study, Antalya-Kaleiçi historical urban settlement which was built in the context of the ecological design criteria and which has conventional houses that achieved to reach our day has been discussed. When houses with historical fabric which are experiencing a function shift to ensure sustainability in today's conditions are analyzed in terms of ecological design criteria, we will mention the sustainability of the criteria obtained in terms of availability and the problems faced with the restoration.

Hacer MUTLU DANACI

2011-12-01

100

Incorporating ecological risk assessment into remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), and RI/FS work plan will have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites.

1994-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

Science and Ecological Economics: Integrating of the Study of Humans and the Rest of Nature  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological economics is a transdisciplinary field that seeks to integrate the study of humans and the rest of nature as the basis for the creation of a sustainable and desirable future. It seeks to dissolve the barriers between the traditional disciplines and achieve a true "consilience" of all the sciences and humanities. This consilient,…

Costanza, Robert

2009-01-01

102

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and productivity of schizophrenia trials: an ecological study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The 5000 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's database affords an opportunity to research for variables related to the differences between nations of their output of schizophrenia trials. Methods Ecological study – investigating the relationship between four economic/demographic variables and number of schizophrenia RCTs per country. The variable with closest correlation was used to predict the expected ...

Fenton Mark; El-sayeh Hany; Bartsch Stephanie; Gessler Ursula; Moll Carina; Adams Clive

2003-01-01

103

Daily Emotional Dynamics in Depressed Youth: A Cell Phone Ecological Momentary Assessment Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This study used a new cell phone ecological momentary assessment approach to investigate daily emotional dynamics in 47 youths with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 32 no-psychopathology controls (CON) (ages 7-17 years). Information about emotional experience in the natural environment was obtained using answer-only cell phones, while MDD…

Silk, Jennifer S.; Forbes, Erika E.; Whalen, Diana J.; Jakubcak, Jennifer L.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Ryan, Neal D.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Dahl, Ronald E.

2011-01-01

104

Undertaking an Ecological Approach to Advance Game-Based Learning: A Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Systematic incorporation of digital games in schools is largely unexplored. This case study explored the ecological conditions necessary for implementing a game-based learning course by examining the interaction between three domains (the innovator, the innovation, and the context). From January-April 2012, one in-service teacher learned and…

Shah, Mamta; Foster, Aroutis

2014-01-01

105

[Quantitative study on ecological suitability of Chinese herbal medicine based on GIS].  

Science.gov (United States)

The quality of Chinese herbal medicine is closely related to its producing region. In order to apply mathematical models to do a quantitative study on the suitability of Chinese herbal medicine, it is necessary to study on the ecological factors and the interpolation of climatic data, which influence the Chinese herbal medicine growth. The paper firstly studied the judgment standard of ecological index from the points of ecology and statistics, and how to calculate the optimum range values and the weight of each ecological factor. Secondly, meteorological element data is essential data in analyzing the suitable region of Chinese herbal medicine, and the spatial distribution of meteorological elements is closely related to terrain environment, so, in order to make the results close to true value by the greatest degree. The paper adopted multiple linear regression interpolation method which based on DEM. The paper distinguished the factor system of suitable region and interpolation on the point of datumization, and made a study on it about some key issues. PMID:21585048

Xie, Caixiang; Suo, Fengmei; Zhou, Yingqun; Wang, Lizhi; Xiang, Li; Dong, Liang; Jia, Guanglin; Sun, Chengzhong; Chen, Shilin

2011-02-01

106

Emerging synthesis themes from the study of social-ecological systems of a tropical city  

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Full Text Available The synthesis of the contributions in this special issue about the tropical city of San Juan has resulted in five themes. First, the city is subject to multiple vulnerabilities, but socioeconomic factors and education level affect the perception of citizens to those vulnerabilities, even in the face of imminent threat. Second, in light of the social-ecological conditions of the city, how its citizens and institutions deal with knowledge to respond to vulnerabilities becomes critical to the adaptive capacity of the city. Third, the relationship between socioeconomic factors and green cover, which in 2002 covered 42% of the city, is not what has been reported for other temperate zone cities. In San Juan, neighborhoods with households of high socioeconomic level were not necessarily associated with greater green cover. However, in adjacent neighborhoods within the densely populated zones of the city, households of high socioeconomic level did preserve green cover better than households in lower socioeconomic-level neighborhoods. Fourth, tropical conditions such as climate may explain some of the unique aspects of the social-ecological system of San Juan. The most obvious is the exuberance of tropical biota in the city that not only forms novel species assemblages but also provides many ecological services, including food production for up to 60% of the members of particular neighborhoods. Ecosystem resilience is particularly high in aquatic and terrestrial ecological systems in San Juan. Fifth, it appears that the emergence of novel systems in the city represent adaptive responses to the social end ecological conditions in the city. We conclude that the study of a tropical city provides contrast to the prevailing literature on temperate and boreal cities and expands the suite of behaviors of urban social-ecological systems, thus advancing the dialogue on the functioning of cities in light of environmental change.

Tischa A. Muñoz-Erickson

2014-09-01

107

[Ecological vulnerability of coal mining area: a case study of Shengli Coalfield in Xilinguole of Inner Mongolia, China].  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, an ecological vulnerability evaluation index system for the Shengli Coalfield in Xilinguole of Inner Mongolia was established, which included 16 factors in ecological sensitivity, natural and social pressure, and ecological recovery capacity, respectively. Based on the expert scoring method and analytic hierarchy process (AHP), an ecological vulnerability model was built for the calculation of the regional ecological vulnerability by means of RS and GIS spatial analysis. An analysis of the relationships between land use and ecological vulnerability was also made, and the results were tested by spatial auto-correlation analysis. Overall, the ecological vulnerability of the study area was at medium-high level. The exploitation of four opencast areas in the Coalfield caused a significant increase of ecological vulnerability. Moreover, due to the effects of mine drained water and human activities, the 300 -2000 m around the opencast areas was turning into higher ecologically fragile area. With further exploitation, the whole Coalfield was evolved into moderate and heavy ecological vulnerability area, and the coal resources mining was a key factor in this process. The cluster analysis showed that the spatial distribution of the ecological vulnerability in the study area had reasonable clustering characteristics. To decrease the population density, control the grazing capacity of grassland, and regulate the ratios of construction land and cultivated land could be the optimal ways for resolving the natural and social pressure, and to increase the investment and improve the vegetation recovery coefficient could be the fundamental measures for decreasing the ecological vulnerability of the study area. PMID:24066564

Quan, Zhan-Jun; Li, Yuan; Li, Jun-Sheng; Han, Yu; Xiao, Neng-Wen; Fu, Meng-Di

2013-06-01

108

On the use of fungicides in ecological seed burial studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Evidence for effects of saprophytic fungi on buried seed demography is usually obtained from studies involving the simultaneous burial of fungicide-treated seeds and of untreated seeds. However, any potential influence of fungicide treatment on seed dormancy levels is generally ignored in these studies. Also, some studies assume that a combination of several fungicidal compounds provides better protection against a broader range of fungi, ignoring chemical interactions that may potentially oc...

Mitschunas, Nadine; Filser, Juliane; Wagner, Markus

2009-01-01

109

The Ecology and Merit-Value of Postgraduate Studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Variations in the number of doctoral degrees awarded by Swedish universities since 1890 are being studied. Within a certain field of study, variations are found both at a national level between different periods, and at an institutional level between different universities. The focus is on the faculties of liberal arts, divinity, social science,…

Dahllof, Urban

110

The Analysis of Social Ecology and Physical Development Process of Cities (Towns Case Study: Alvand City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims the analysis of immigration influence on Alvand city resident's economical and living situation and its subsequent effects on Alvand city's social structure and its ecology and even its adjacency to industrial Alborz city. This analysis focuses on Alvand city's physical development using the software techniques such as GIS and using population data resulted from immigration which effects its physical development. We have increasingly witnessed the job-looking based immigrations since 1966 to 2006 which appeared differently in social, physical and spatial structure. This alternation and newly different situation has been seen apparently. The president's economic situation and immigration issue which considered as the most essential factor resulting in the ecology movements concerning Alvand city's circumstances. Such a factor could be seen in cultural varieties in Alvand city. This study also analyzes the ecological factors such as the immigration, economical situation, ecological movements and its influence on physical development using the descriptive and correlational methods to prove whether there is a logical relation among varieties providing that this statement is confirmed, this relation will be able to describe and explain the correlations in the different forms. The results show that immigration has influenced the spatial distribution of social groups and physical development of Alvand city.

Heshmati Ahmad

2013-10-01

111

Geospatial web services for limnological data: a case study of sensor observation service for ecological observations  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work aims at designing and implementing a spatial data infrastructure for storing and sharing ecological data through geospatial web services. As case study, we concentrated on limnological data coming from the drainage basin of Lake Maggiore in the Northern of Italy. In order to establish the infrastructure, we started with two basic questions: (1) What type of data is the ecological dataset? (2) Which are the geospatial web services standards most suitable to store and share ecological data? In this paper we describe the possibilities for sharing ecological data using geospatial web services and the difficulties that can be encountered in this task. In order to test actual technological solutions, we use real data of a limnological published study.We concluded that limnological data can be considered observational data, composed by biological (species) data and environmental data, and it can be modeled using Observation and Measurement (O&M) specification. With the actual web service implementation the geospatial web services that could potentially be used to publish limnological data are Sensor Observation Services (SOS) and Web Feature Services (WFS). SOS holds the essential components to represent time series observations, while WFS is a simple model that requires profiling. Both, SOS and WFS are not perfectly suitable to publish biological data, so other alternatives must be considered, as linked data.

Arias Muñoz, C.; Oggioni, A.; Brovelli, M. A.

2014-04-01

112

Immune microbiological studies during medical and ecological monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Materials testifying to the necessity and prospects of immunological studies by monitoring the health state of the population residing in radiationally and chemically residing in radiationally and chemically contaminated regions are presented. The above studies make it possible to evaluate the immune state of individual persons as well as of the population at large. It is advisable to use not only immunological but also microbiological methods, which make it possible to specify the state of general nonspecific antiinfection resistivity. 33 refs

113

ADJUSTMENT OF INCIDENCE RATES FOR MIGRATION IN INDIRECT ECOLOGIC STUDIES  

Science.gov (United States)

The overall objective of this research program was to develop a method for adjusting incidence rates for migration in studies relating environmental agents to diseases with long latent periods. Various methods of estimating migration and population change are considered. An examp...

114

Applications of C and N stable isotopes to ecological and environmental studies in seagrass ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen are increasingly used in marine ecosystems, for ecological and environmental studies. Here, we examine some applications of stable isotopes as ecological integrators or tracers in seagrass ecosystem studies. We focus on both the use of natural isotope abundance as food web integrators or environmental tracers and on the use of stable isotopes as experimental tools. As ecosystem integrators, stable isotopes have helped to elucidate the general structure of trophic webs in temperate, Mediterranean and tropical seagrass ecosystems. As environmental tracers, stable isotopes have proven their utility in sewage impact measuring and mapping. However, to make such environmental studies more comprehensible, future works on understanding of basic reasons for variations of N and C stable isotopes in seagrasses should be encouraged. At least, as experimental tracers, stable isotopes allow the study of many aspects of N and C cycles at the scale of a plant or at the scale of the seagrass ecosystem

115

Exploring Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems Through Comparative Studies and Theory Development: Introduction to the Special Issue  

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Full Text Available This special issue of Ecology and Society on exploring resilience in social-ecological systems draws together insights from comparisons of 15 case studies conducted during two Resilience Alliance workshops in 2003 and 2004. As such, it represents our current understanding of resilience theory and the issues encountered in our attempts to apply it.

Ann P. Kinzig

2006-06-01

116

Research on the Ecological Conflict between Coastal Wetland and Port Construction—A Case Study of the Meizhou Gulf  

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Full Text Available This article is a study on the management of wetland. The future impact of landscape of coastal wetland with the constant changes of human activities is discussed on the basis of the theory and methodology of landscape ecology. Solutions to the contradictions of ecological protection and port construction are put forward.

Jun Hu

2014-05-01

117

Ecological studies in the middle reach of Chesapeake Bay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Passage of estuarine water and phytoplankton through the cooling system of the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plant in the summer months of 1977-1981 resulted in frequent reductions of phytoplankton densities particularly during periods when flagellated taxa dominated total cell numbers. Entrainment-induced reductions in chlorophyll were observed on only four occasions, however. Phytoplankton productivity as oxygen evolution or 14C-uptake was even more susceptible to the effects of passing through the cooling system. Inhibition of productivitiy was observed during periods dominated by flagellated cells and generally occurred with ambient water temperature ? 250C. Results from track autoradiography employed in 1981 indicated that carbon fixation in the commonly observed flagellate Cryptomonas acuta was significantly depressed during July, August and September. In contrast, the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum and the diatoms Cyclotella caspia and Thalassionema nitzschioides were not affected by entrainment. Although entrainment affects Cryptomonas and flagellate-dominated assemblages in the summer there are no detectable effects of power plant operations on cell densities or productivity in flagellate-dominated waters in the vicinity of the power plant. Transitory exposure of estuarine zooplankton to the elevated temperatures of CCNPP entrainment and discharge plumes was generally non-lethal. In the species selected for study the survival rate es selected for study the survival rate after entrainment was 65 to 100%. The effects of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen levels upon entrained organisms were also analyzed. (orig.)

118

Study of Evaluation Characterisitics of Ecological Infrastructure and Countermeasure in Pivot Cities of Three Gorges Reservoir Region  

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Full Text Available Ecological infrastructure is involved with ecological security and health of cities.At present there are so many studies about it. However, quantitative study is muchindetermination and imperfection. In this paper in order to ravel out this problem, the evaluation indexes system are established on the basis of air system, greenbelt system and water system from the conception and connotation of ecological infrastructure. They do not only consult inside and outside of Chinese ecological cities and garden cities but also consult with internal and international related index standard. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and the method of comprehensive index evaluation are applied to establish the evaluation model. Then it studies the quality and evolvement characteristics of ecolocal infrastructure in the case of main town of Chongqing, Yichang, Fulin, Wanzhou——the four pivot cities of Three Gorges Reservoir Region from 2002 to 2005. Finally, the paper draws a conclusion by qulitative and quantitative analysis showing that the quality of ecological infrastructure of four cities is in rise. At present, the quality of ecological infrastructure of Yichang and Fulin remains with better grade; Wanzhou and the main town of Chongqin belongs to common grade. The integrated quality conditins of ecological infrstructure of these four cities follow the sequence (from high to low : Yichang> Fulin> Wanzhou> main town of Chongqing. The quality of ecological infrastructure of four cities is known through evaluation analysis, which has provided a scientific basis for the cities Three Gorges Reseveoir Region in programming.

Peng Li

2009-06-01

119

A pilot study of Aboriginal health promotion from an ecological perspective  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background For health promotion to be effective in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities, interventions (and their evaluation need to work within a complex social environment and respect Indigenous knowledge, culture and social systems. At present, there is a lack of culturally appropriate evaluation methods available to practitioners that are capable of capturing this complexity. As an initial response to this problem, we used two non-invasive methods to evaluate a community-directed health promotion program, which aimed to improve nutrition and physical activity for members of the Aboriginal community of the Goulburn-Murray region of northern Victoria, Australia. The study addressed two main questions. First, for members of an Aboriginal sporting club, what changes were made to the nutrition environment in which they meet and how is this related to national guidelines for minimising the risk of chronic disease? Second, to what degree was the overall health promotion program aligned with an ecological model of health promotion that addresses physical, social and policy environments as well as individual knowledge and behaviour? Methods Rather than monitoring individual outcomes, evaluation methods reported on here assessed change in the nutrition environment (sports club food supply as a facilitator of dietary change and the 'ecological' nature of the overall program (that is, its complexity with respect to numbers of targets, settings and strategies. Results There were favourable changes towards the provision of a food supply consistent with Australian guidelines at the sports club. The ecological analysis indicated that the design and implementation of the program were consistent with an ecological model of health promotion. Conclusions The evaluation was useful for assessing the impact of the program on the nutrition environment and for understanding the ecological nature of program activities.

van den Tol Gemma

2011-09-01

120

Role of green structure and ecological services: a case study of bahawalpur city, pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cities can make broader contribution to achieve the goals of sustainable development as they are considered major consumers of resources and ecological services. Ecological services provide a range of benefits at local, regional and global levels. Terrestrial ecosystem has different components in urban environment that provides ecological services to its inhabitants. Cities not only benefit from the internal urban ecosystem but also depend upon other ecosystems beyond the city limit. Green structure is an important component in terms of making city more sustainable and habitable. Green structure in urban environment means green infrastructure that is planned and supports sustainable that is planned and supports sustainable urban development. From planning perspective, spatial structure of green space provides a basis for sustainable urban development. In sustainable perspective, green structure more than the sum of green spaces. It is considered as spatial network of open spaces, public and private gardens and parks, sports fields, allotment gardens, woodlands and recreational grounds. Therefore, it is considered as a significant part of built-up environment and major source of ecological services. To structure urban areas of sustainable development, it is necessary to develop a proportion between grey and green cities. Keeping in view, research has been conducted to investigate spatial network of green structure in planned areas of Bahawalpur City of Pakistan. This study analyzes the ecological services generated from the investigated green structures, and helped develop an approach of inter-relation between green environment and urban society. Moreover, strategies for better land-use planning in green and sustainable perspective have been proposed. (author)

 
 
 
 
121

The genus Crataegus L.: an ecological and molecular study.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed at the indentification of the species and genotypes of the genus Crataegus in Syria and determination of the genetic relationships among them based on the analysis of genomic and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) using ISSRs and CAPS techniques. Morphological characterization carried out on 49 Crataegus samples collected from different geographical regions of Syria revealed four Crataegus species: C. monogyna, C. sinaica, C. aronia and C. azarolus. In the dendrogram constructed for those samples based on ISSRs (20 primers), all samples that belong to C. monogyna were clustered in one cluster. Samples of the other three species were overlaped in another cluster. Two samples of these were the most distant from all other samples in the dendrogram and were suggested to represent hybrid species or subspecies. When CAPS technique was applied on four Crataegus samples that represent the four suggested species using 22 cpDNA regions and 90 endonucleases, no polymorphism was detected neither in amplification products sizes nor in restriction profiles. The inability of detection of variation in cpDNA among species suggested can be attributed to the low level of evolution of the cpDNA in the genus, and to the possibility that some of these species are either subspecies or hybrids since the cpDNA is inherited through one parent only. PMID:21443158

MirAli, N; Al-Odat, M; Haider, N; Nabulsi, I

2011-01-01

122

The Effect of Inappropriate Calibration: Three Case Studies in Molecular Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

Time-scales estimated from sequence data play an important role in molecular ecology. They can be used to draw correlations between evolutionary and palaeoclimatic events, to measure the tempo of speciation, and to study the demographic history of an endangered species. In all of these studies, it is paramount to have accurate estimates of time-scales and substitution rates. Molecular ecological studies typically focus on intraspecific data that have evolved on genealogical scales, but often these studies inappropriately employ deep fossil calibrations or canonical substitution rates (e.g., 1% per million years for birds and mammals) for calibrating estimates of divergence times. These approaches can yield misleading estimates of molecular time-scales, with significant impacts on subsequent evolutionary and ecological inferences. We illustrate this calibration problem using three case studies: avian speciation in the late Pleistocene, the demographic history of bowhead whales, and the Pleistocene biogeography of brown bears. For each data set, we compare the date estimates that are obtained using internal and external calibration points. In all three cases, the conclusions are significantly altered by the application of revised, internally-calibrated substitution rates. Collectively, the results emphasise the importance of judicious selection of calibrations for analyses of recent evolutionary events. PMID:18286172

Ho, Simon Y. W.; Saarma, Urmas; Barnett, Ross; Haile, James; Shapiro, Beth

2008-01-01

123

Ecological stability of landscape - ecological infrastructure - ecological management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Field Workshop 'Ecological Stability of Landscape - Ecological Infrastructure - Ecological Management' was held within a State Environmental Programme financed by the Federal Committee for the Environment. The objectives of the workshop were to present Czech and Slovak approaches to the ecological stability of the landscape by means of examples of some case studies in the field, and to exchange ideas, theoretical knowledge and practical experience on implementing the concept of ecological infrastructure in landscape management. Out of 19 papers contained in the proceedings, 3 items were inputted to the INIS system. (Z.S.)

124

Ecological studies on the intermediate host snails and the relevance to schistosomiasis control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A detailed knoledge of distribution patterns schistosome intermediate hsts and their populations dynamics and factors affecting these patterns will provide useful information about the possibilities and desirability of conducting snail control measures in various transmission situations. On the basis of various case studies the association between the occurence of human water contacts and the presence of schistosome intermediate hosts or infections in the intermediate hosts is illustrated. Other parameters affecting snail distribution patterns and density fluctuations are discussed. It is concluded that ecological studies on the intermediate host are extremely relevant, either to optimally apply existing control measures or to develop alternative measures of snail control, such as ecological or biological control.

Henry Madsen

1992-01-01

125

Triazine herbicide exposure and breast cancer incidence: an ecologic study of Kentucky counties.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The incidence of breast cancer in the United States has steadily increased for the past three decades. Exposure to excess estrogen, in both natural and synthetic forms, has been implicated as a risk factor for the development of this disease. Considerable interest has been focused on organochlorines, such as the triazine herbicides, and their possible role in the initiation or promotion of human breast cancer. To explore this relationship, an ecologic study of Kentucky counties was designed. ...

Kettles, M. K.; Browning, S. R.; Prince, T. S.; Horstman, S. W.

1997-01-01

126

The Analysis of Social Ecology and Physical Development Process of Cities (Towns) Case Study: Alvand City  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims the analysis of immigration influence on Alvand city resident's economical and living situation and its subsequent effects on Alvand city's social structure and its ecology and even its adjacency to industrial Alborz city. This analysis focuses on Alvand city's physical development using the software techniques such as GIS and using population data resulted from immigration which effects its physical development. We have increasingly witnessed the job-looking based immigration...

Heshmati Ahmad; Marsousi Nafiseh; Farhoodi; Rahmat-o-allat; Ali Akbari, Esmail

2013-01-01

127

Women's empowerment and violent death among women and men in Europe : an ecological study.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background This study examined the association between mortality due to injury and poisoning among men and women in Europe and nine indicators of women's empowerment (i.e. women's challenging of existing power structures that subordinate women). Methods A cross-sectional ecological design was used, with 24 countries from the European Union plus two countries within the European Economic Area and Switzerland. Results Most of the nine indicators of women's empowerment were unre...

Stanistreet, D.; Swami, V.; Pope, D.; Bambra, C.; Scott-samuel, A.

2007-01-01

128

Diabetes mortality and environmental heavy metals in North Carolina counties: An ecological study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Arsenic, beryllium, cadmium and nickel have been associated with the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in populations exposed to these elements. However, diabetes mortality has not been evaluated. This ecological study correlated airborne concentrations of these metals with diabetes mortality in North Carolina counties. Methods: County level data were extracted from the 2000 US Census, the 1999 US Environmental Protection Agency National Air Toxins Assessment, and 2001-2005 diabet...

Spangler, John G.

2012-01-01

129

Field studies to determine the ecological effects of cleanup methods on oiled shorelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study identifies research needed to assess the ecological effects and efficiency of various spill cleanup methods for oiled salt marshes. This is part of a larger program with the goal of developing ecologically based cleanup methods for a variety of shoreline habitats using controlled shoreline oiling plus various cleanup methods, preceded and followed by ecological monitoring. The information provided by these experiments will strengthen the scientific base available to support decision makers during spills and provide a sound approach to spill response planners. The first phase of the program has involved the design of a proposed experiment and selection of a site. A literature review has been completed as well as an evaluation of state and federal permitting procedures for experimental shoreline oiling. Development of the field study, which has yet to be implemented, included the following components: Identified a Spartina marsh as the priority habitat for the first phase of the program; Selected a proposed experimental site in Louisiana; Proposed the treatment methods to be evaluated, such as flushing and vegetation cropping. Previous controlled oil spill experiments have provided valuable data on the effects and efficiency of different cleanup techniques in a variety of habitats. More can be learned by such experimental oilings, where pre-spill data, dosage, and pre- and post-spill monitoring are controlled, than it is possible to learn from studying spills of opportunity

130

A theoretical quantitative genetic study of negative ecological interactions and extinction times in changing environments  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid human-induced changes in the environment at local, regional and global scales appear to be contributing to population declines and extinctions, resulting in an unprecedented biodiversity crisis. Although in the short term populations can respond ecologically to environmental alterations, in the face of persistent change populations must evolve or become extinct. Existing models of evolution and extinction in changing environments focus only on single species, even though the dynamics of extinction almost certainly depend upon the nature of species interactions. Results Here, I use a model of quantitative trait evolution in a two-species community to show that negative ecological interactions, such as predation and competition, can produce unexpected results regarding time to extinction. Under some circumstances, negative interactions can be expected to hasten the extinction of species declining in numbers. However, under other circumstances, negative interactions can actually increase times to extinction. This effect occurs across a wide range of parameter values and can be substantial, in some cases allowing a population to persist for 40 percent longer than it would in the absence of the species interaction. Conclusion This theoretical study indicates that negative species interactions can have unexpected positive effects on times to extinction. Consequently, detailed studies of selection and demographics will be necessary to predict the consequences of species interactions in changing environments for any particular ecological community.

Jones Adam G

2008-04-01

131

Spatial variation in lake benthic macroinvertebrate ecological assessment: a synthesis of European case studies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper summarizes eight case studies that were analysed as part of the research theme ``lake benthic macroinvertebrates'' forming part of the EU-funded WISER project ``Water bodies in Europe: Integrative Systems to assess Ecological status and Recovery''. The relationships between lake benthic macroinvertebrate community composition and natural and human induced environmental variables (eutrophication, catchment land-use, and hydromorphological pressures) were studied. This was done in different lake habitats (the profundal, sublittoral, and littoral) in five regions of Europe (Alpine, Northern, Central Baltic, Atlantic, and Mediterranean). The goal of the papers was to assess the main environmental factors and how they affected benthic macroinvertebrate variation at different ecological scales and thus better our basic understanding of how changes in these environmental variables can be tracked using local invertebrate assemblages. In this issue we provide a contribution towards the understanding of basic sources of spatial variation of invertebrate assemblages in different European lake habitat types and their relationship with major human pressures. All papers have an obvious applied objective and our aim is to provide useful information for designing monitoring programs and invertebrate based ecological classification tools with the ultimate aim to improve a sound management of European lake ecosystems.

Sandin, Leif Leonard; Solimini, Angelo G.

2012-01-01

132

Fire Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

Forest fires have become a regular summertime occurrence in North America, sparking debate about the proper role of fire on the land. The following websites examine fires and fire ecology in different ecosystems, regions, and time periods. The first site (1), from the USGS-Western Ecological Research Center shares information about fire ecology research in the California shrublands, Sierra Nevada forests, and Mohave and Sonoran deserts. The second site (2) features the Fire Ecology Center at Texas Tech University. The Fire Ecology Center focuses on the role of fire in grassland ecosystems and their website contains information on current research, publications, managing pastures, managing problem plants, and more. The third site (3), from the USGS-Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center contains "an annotated bibliography on fire in North American wetland ecosystems and a subject index of all fire-related literature that has appeared in Wildlife Review." Hosted by Yellowstone National Park, the fourth site (4) addresses wildland fires in Yellowstone. The Park website presents brief sections on Fire Ecology, Fire Monitoring, Prescribed Fire, and Fire Effects -- to name a few. The fifth (5) site, from the Canadian Forest Service, provides information about forest fires in Canada including weekly fire statistics, fire research, daily fire maps, a fire database, and more. Part of a great site on the land use history of the Colorado Plateau from Northern Arizona University, the sixth site (6) offers a brief overview of wildfire history and ecology on the Plateau with links to information about ponderosa pine fire ecology, reintroduction of fire to forest ecosystems, and fire ecology research studies. The seventh site (7), from DiscoverySchool.com, contains a lesson plan on forest fire ecology for grade levels 9-12. The lesson spans two class periods and the site provides objectives, materials needed, discussion questions, academic standards, and more. The final (8) website, from the Why Files, "examines the role of fire in natural systems, and the role of science in understanding wildfires." The eleven-page website follows a kid-friendly narrative format and includes a bibliography and glossary.

133

Assessing the regional ecological security: methodology and a case study for the western Jilin Province, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological security can be investigated in both broad sense and narrow sense. Because of the wide area and regional discrepancy in influencing factors and ecological background, the investigation on regional environment hasn't been done systematically. Assessment on regional security in fragile region is important content of sustainable development. The western Jilin Province lines in the semi-arid agro-pastoral interweaving belt (APIB),within which agriculture and animal husbandry interplay or frequently alternate with each other. Study on the regional ecological security of this region offer the scientific support for protecting the regional environment and sustainability. This article set up the Pressure-State-Response model according to the interaction between human and environmental system, and assessed the ecological safety degree in the western part of Jilin Province in year 2000, using compound model and Grid method based on GIS and RS. The Ecological Security Index (ESI) was calculated by multilayer synthesis with liner weighting function method, which divided the area into the following five different conditions: highly damaged, moderately damaged, early stages of damage, relative safely, and safety, regarding change of environmental key point as the threshold value that varied under the stress of human activity. The results show that eco-environment in study area is at medial level. The early stage of damage and relative safely level occupies the largest area proportion accounting for 68.61%. Furthermore, the condition in the eastern part is better than that of the western part and the most serious degradation is found in the middle part of the study area. When talking about the ten counties in the region, highly damaged area accounts for a very small percentage. The county that has the widest area of relatively secured area is Qian'an, and that of the smallest is Da'an. The areas of highly damaged area in Tongyu, Zhenlai and Da'an have exceeded 10% and they become the region requiring urgent treatment. Regarding average security condition, sequence of the regions from the best to the worest is as follows: Qian'an, Qianguo, Zhenglai, Songyuan City, Changling, Baicheng City, Fuyu, Taonan, Da'an and Tongyu. In this study we also analysis the relationship between ESI and landuse change from 1980 to 2000 in order to find an improving method from landscape. The studying shows that decreasing of grassland is most import factor influencing the condition of the western Jilin province.

Li, Xiaoyan; Xue, Linfu; Wang, Xikui

2008-10-01

134

Trait transitions in explicit ecological and genomic contexts: plant mating systems as case studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants are astonishingly diverse in how they reproduce sexually, and the study of plant mating systems provides some of the most compelling cases of parallel and independent evolutionary transitions. In this chapter, we review how the massive amount of genomic data being produced is allowing long-standing predictions from ecological and evolutionary theory to be put to test. After a review of theoretical predictions about the importance of considering the genomic architecture of the mating system, we focus on a set of recent discoveries on how the mating system is controlled in a variety of model and non-model species. In parallel, genomic approaches have revealed the complex interaction between the evolution of genes controlling mating systems and genome evolution, both genome-wide and in the mating system control region. In several cases, major transitions in the mating system can be clearly associated with important ecological changes, hence illuminating an important interplay between ecological and genomic approaches. We also list a number of major unsolved questions that remain for the field, and highlight foreseeable conceptual developments that are likely to play a major role in our understanding of how plant mating systems evolve in Nature. PMID:24277293

Castric, Vincent; Billiard, Sylvain; Vekemans, Xavier

2014-01-01

135

Ecological Optimization and Parametric Study of an Irreversible Regenerative Modified Brayton Cycle with Isothermal Heat Addition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: An ecological optimization along with a detailed parametric study of an irreversible regenerative Brayton heat engine with isothermal heat addition have been carried out with external as well as internal irreversibilities. The ecological function is defined as the power output minus the power loss (irreversibility which is ambient temperature times the entropy generation rate. The external irreversibility is due to finite temperature difference between the heat engine and the external reservoirs while the internal irreversibilities are due to nonisentropic compression and expansion processes in the compressor and the turbine respectively and the regenerative heat loss. The ecological function is found to be an increasing function of the isothermal-, sink- and regenerative-side effectiveness, isothermal-side inlet temperature, component efficiencies and sink-side temperature while it is found to be a decreasing function of the isobaric-side temperature and effectiveness and the working fluid heat capacitance rate. The effects of the isobaric-side effectiveness are found to be more than those of the other parameters and the effects of turbine efficiency are found to be more than those of the compressor efficiency on all the performance parameters of the cycle.

Vivek Tiwari

2003-12-01

136

Ancient DNA from marine mammals : studying long-lived species over ecological and evolutionary timescales  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Marine mammals have long generation times and broad, difficult to sample distributions, which makes inferring evolutionary and demographic changes using field studies of extant populations challenging. However, molecular analyses from sub-fossil or historical materials of marine mammals such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an oppor- tunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have focused on detecting changes in genetic diversity following periods of exploitation and environmental change. To date, these studies have shown that even small sample sizes can provide useful information on historical genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also been used in investigations of changes in distribution and range of marine mammal species; we review these studies and discuss the limitations of such ‘presence only’ studies. Combining aDNA data with stable isotopes can provide further insights into changes in ecology and we review past studies and suggest future potential applications. We also discuss studies recon- structing inter- and intra-specific phylogenies from aDNA sequences and discuss how aDNA sequences could be used to estimate mutation rates. Finally, we highlight some of the problems of aDNA studies on marine mammals, such as obtaining sufficient sample sizes and calibrating for the marine reservoir effect when radiocarbon-dating such wide-ranging species.

Foote, Andrew David; Hofreiter, Michael

2012-01-01

137

Using stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon to study seabird ecology: applications in the Mediterranean seabird community  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[EN] The application of the stable isotope technique to ecological studies is becoming increasingly widespread. In the case of seabirds, stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon have been mainly used as dietary tracers. This approach relieson the fact that food web isotopic signatures are reflected in the tissues of the consumer. In addition to the study of trophic ecology, stable isotopes have been used to track the movement of seabirds across isotopic gradients, as individuals moving between ...

Forero, Manuela G.; Hobson, Keith A.

2003-01-01

138

Spatial epidemiology and spatial ecology study of worldwide drug-resistant tuberculosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB is a major public health problem caused by various factors. It is essential to systematically investigate the epidemiological and, in particular, the ecological factors of DR-TB for its prevention and control. Studies of the ecological factors can provide information on etiology, and assist in the effective prevention and control of disease. So it is of great significance for public health to explore the ecological factors of DR-TB, which can provide guidance for formulating regional prevention and control strategies. Methods Anti-TB drug resistance data were obtained from the World Health Organization/International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (WHO/UNION Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance, and data on ecological factors were collected to explore the ecological factors for DR-TB. Partial least square path modeling (PLS-PM, in combination with ordinary least squares (OLS regression, as well as geographically weighted regression (GWR, were used to build a global and local spatial regression model between the latent synthetic DR-TB factor ("DR-TB" and latent synthetic risk factors. Results OLS regression and PLS-PM indicated a significant globally linear spatial association between "DR-TB" and its latent synthetic risk factors. However, the GWR model showed marked spatial variability across the study regions. The "TB Epidemic", "Health Service" and "DOTS (directly-observed treatment strategy Effect" factors were all positively related to "DR-TB" in most regions of the world, while "Health Expenditure" and "Temperature" factors were negatively related in most areas of the world, and the "Humidity" factor had a negative influence on "DR-TB" in all regions of the world. Conclusions In summary, the influences of the latent synthetic risk factors on DR-TB presented spatial variability. We should formulate regional DR-TB monitoring planning and prevention and control strategies, based on the spatial characteristics of the latent synthetic risk factors and spatial variability of the local relationship between DR-TB and latent synthetic risk factors.

Yuan Zhongshang

2011-08-01

139

Possibilities of the Integration of the Method of the Ecologically Oriented Independent Scientific Research in the Study Process  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this paper is to analyse possibilities of the integration of the method of the ecologically oriented independent scientific research in the study process. In order to achieve the set aim, the following scientific research methods were used: analysis of the conceptual guidelines for the development of environmentally oriented entrepreneurship, interpretation of the experts' evaluation of the ecologically oriented management, analysis of the results of the students' ecologically oriented independent scientific research, as well as monographic and logically constructive methods. The results of the study give an opportunity to make conclusions and to develop conceptual recommendations on how to introduce future economics and business professionals with the theoretical and practical aspects of ecologically oriented management during the study process.

Grizans, Jurijs; Vanags, Janis

2010-01-01

140

Neutron-produced, short-term radiotracers and activable, stable tracers in ecological studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In three different experiments, Mn, Mo and La were used in a dual tracer system called double activation analysis (DAA), where stable elements and neutron-induced radioisotopes of that same element are combined for tracer studies in a stream mesocosm. DAA in ecological studies is successful in overcoming problems associated with the need of obtaining both immediate and long-term information in the same experiment. Analysis of the data suggests that roots growing in stream waters may serve as bioaccumulators of potentially polluting heavy metals. (author) 9 refs.; 5 figs

 
 
 
 
141

Trajectories of legitimate peripheral participation: Ethnographic case studies of learning ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

Current reform documents in education call for elementary and high school students to engage in "authentic" scientific practices. In the past several years a number of authors have suggested that science education research and curriculum development could benefit from insights gained by research in the social studies of science that documents and theorizes science as it is actually done. Yet, although practices of laboratory science are well understood and provide a foundation from which educational practices could be drawn, little is known about the practices of the science disciplines which deal with field research and how people are enculturated into those practices. This dissertation is constituted by a series of research papers on different (although inter-related) topics, in which I examine the enculturation into the practices of field ecology and the world-view that is associated with that enculturation. To better understand the practices of field ecology and how they develop, I conducted several projects: (i) a video ethnography of a second-year university ecology class and observations on research experiences undergraduates experience; (ii) ethnographic research with ecologists conducting field research; (iii) observations of graduate student and professional ecologists as they participated in conferences, engaged in interaction in their laboratory and social settings, and presented/discussed their findings in various settings; (iv) interviews with graduate student and professional ecologists discussing their field research experiences; (v) videotaped interviews with practicing researchers and under/graduate science and non-science students as they interpreted various ecology-related inscriptions; (vi) an analysis of the inscriptions and textual information present in the various texts (textbooks and journals) used to teach students about ecology; and, (vii) observations of elementary school students engaged in practices congruent with those of field ecologists. Collectively, these studies suggest that the way in which undergraduate students are taught about disciplines such as ecology which involve field research---generally lectures and structured laboratory research investigations---does not well prepare them to enact the practices common to research in the discipline such as designing and conducting research projects, summarizing and interpreting data in graphs, and making scientific knowledge claims. In addition, the formal texts (textbooks, lectures, and journal articles) used to enculturate students into disciplinary concerns and practices develop in students a reductionist, anthropocentric view of nature as opposed to the holisitic view which ecology ostensibly represents. Story-telling within the community was revealed as an important mechanism by which field research methods, almost unmentioned in the formal texts of the discipline, are learned and the community of ecologists established and maintained. These findings have implications for how we prepare student teachers to teach science, for merely encouraging them to take undergraduate science courses will develop attitudes about nature and approaches to teaching which are perhaps undesirable. On the basis of the study reported, I conclude that both teacher education and science curricula would be best served by engaging participants (either student teachers or public school students) in long-term research projects whose conclusions they can present and defend to peers and instructors in their education program. This would need to be coupled with a critically reflective component which encouraged these participants to examine the assumptions and implicit judgements made in the conduct of their work. By engaging in such a process students will learn about scientific practices and concepts as well as about the socially-mediated nature of scientific communities and knowledge.

Bowen, Gervase Michael Reynolds

1999-09-01

142

Simulation of regionally ecological land based on a cellular automation model: a case study of Beijing, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological land is like the "liver" of a city and is very useful to public health. Ecological land change is a spatially dynamic non-linear process under the interaction between natural and anthropogenic factors at different scales. In this study, by setting up natural development scenario, object orientation scenario and ecosystem priority scenario, a Cellular Automation (CA) model has been established to simulate the evolution pattern of ecological land in Beijing in the year 2020. Under the natural development scenario, most of ecological land will be replaced by construction land and crop land. But under the scenarios of object orientation and ecosystem priority, the ecological land area will increase, especially under the scenario of ecosystem priority. When considering the factors such as total area of ecological land, loss of key ecological land and spatial patterns of land use, the scenarios from priority to inferiority are ecosystem priority, object orientation and natural development, so future land management policies in Beijing should be focused on conversion of cropland to forest, wetland protection and prohibition of exploitation of natural protection zones, water source areas and forest parks to maintain the safety of the regional ecosystem. PMID:23066410

Xie, Hualin; Kung, Chih-Chun; Zhang, Yanting; Li, Xiubin

2012-08-01

143

Simulation of Regionally Ecological Land Based on a Cellular Automation Model: A Case Study of Beijing, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ecological land is like the “liver” of a city and is very useful to public health. Ecological land change is a spatially dynamic non-linear process under the interaction between natural and anthropogenic factors at different scales. In this study, by setting up natural development scenario, object orientation scenario and ecosystem priority scenario, a Cellular Automation (CA model has been established to simulate the evolution pattern of ecological land in Beijing in the year 2020. Under the natural development scenario, most of ecological land will be replaced by construction land and crop land. But under the scenarios of object orientation and ecosystem priority, the ecological land area will increase, especially under the scenario of ecosystem priority. When considering the factors such as total area of ecological land, loss of key ecological land and spatial patterns of land use, the scenarios from priority to inferiority are ecosystem priority, object orientation and natural development, so future land management policies in Beijing should be focused on conversion of cropland to forest, wetland protection and prohibition of exploitation of natural protection zones, water source areas and forest parks to maintain the safety of the regional ecosystem.

Xiubin Li

2012-08-01

144

Insights into population ecology from long-term studies of red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-term studies have been the backbone of population ecology. The red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus is one species that has contributed widely to this field since the 1950s. This paper reviews the trajectory and profound impact that these studies have had. Red grouse research has combined long-term studies of marked individuals with demographic studies over wide geographical areas and replicated individual- and population-level manipulations. A main focus has been on understanding the causes of population cycles in red grouse, and in particular the relative importance of intrinsic (behaviour) and extrinsic (climate, food limitation and parasite) mechanisms. Separate studies conducted in different regions initially proposed either the nematode parasite Trichostrongylus tenuis or changes in male aggressiveness in autumn as drivers of population cycles. More recent experiments suggest that parasites are not a necessary cause for cycles and have highlighted that behavioural and parasite-mediated mechanisms are interrelated. Long-term experiments show that parasites and aggressiveness interact. Two outstanding questions remain to be tested experimentally. First, what intrinsic mechanism causes temporal variation in patterns of male aggressiveness? The current favoured mechanism is related to patterns of kin structuring although there are alternative hypotheses. Second, how do the dual, interacting mechanisms, affect population dynamics? Red grouse studies have had an important impact on the field of population ecology, in particular through highlighting: (1) the impact of parasites on populations; (2) the role of intrinsic mechanisms in cyclic dynamics and (3) the need to consider multiple, interacting mechanisms. PMID:23800249

Martínez-Padilla, Jesus; Redpath, Steve M; Zeineddine, Mohammed; Mougeot, François

2014-01-01

145

Satellite Ecology (SATECO)-linking ecology, remote sensing and micrometeorology, from plot to regional scale, for the study of ecosystem structure and function.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a growing requirement for ecosystem science to help inform a deeper understanding of the effects of global climate change and land use change on terrestrial ecosystem structure and function, from small area (plot) to landscape, regional and global scales. To meet these requirements, ecologists have investigated plant growth and carbon cycling processes at plot scale, using biometric methods to measure plant carbon accumulation, and gas exchange (chamber) methods to measure soil respiration. Also at the plot scale, micrometeorologists have attempted to measure canopy- or ecosystem-scale CO(2) flux by the eddy covariance technique, which reveals diurnal, seasonal and annual cycles. Mathematical models play an important role in integrating ecological and micrometeorological processes into ecosystem scales, which are further useful in interpreting time-accumulated information derived from biometric methods by comparing with CO(2) flux measurements. For a spatial scaling of such plot-level understanding, remote sensing via satellite is used to measure land use/vegetation type distribution and temporal changes in ecosystem structures such as leaf area index. However, to better utilise such data, there is still a need for investigations that consider the structure and function of ecosystems and their processes, especially in mountainous areas characterized by complex terrain and a mosaic distribution of vegetation. For this purpose, we have established a new interdisciplinary approach named 'Satellite Ecology', which aims to link ecology, remote sensing and micrometeorology to facilitate the study of ecosystem function, at the plot, landscape, and regional scale. PMID:18958540

Muraoka, Hiroyuki; Koizumi, Hiroshi

2009-01-01

146

Ecological agriculture in South-India : an agro-economic comparison and study of transition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report describes two research programmes carried out on ecological agriculture in South-India. Experiences of twelve farmers in transition towards ecological agriculture are described and analysed. The comparative performance of seven farmer pairs, consisting of one ecological and one conventional reference farm, is analysed in relation to agronomic and economic performance

Jager, A.; Werf, E.

1992-01-01

147

Bioremediation in marine ecosystems: a computational study combining ecological modeling and flux balance analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The pressure to search effective bioremediation methodologies for contaminated ecosystems has led to the large-scale identification of microbial species and metabolic degradation pathways. However, minor attention has been paid to the study of bioremediation in marine food webs and to the definition of integrated strategies for reducing bioaccumulation in species. We propose a novel computational framework for analysing the multiscale effects of bioremediation at the ecosystem level, based on coupling food web bioaccumulation models and metabolic models of degrading bacteria. The combination of techniques from synthetic biology and ecological network analysis allows the specification of arbitrary scenarios of contaminant removal and the evaluation of strategies based on natural or synthetic microbial strains. In this study, we derive a bioaccumulation model of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Adriatic food web, and we extend a metabolic reconstruction of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 (iJN746) with the aerobic pathway of PCBs degradation. We assess the effectiveness of different bioremediation scenarios in reducing PCBs concentration in species and we study indices of species centrality to measure their importance in the contaminant diffusion via feeding links. The analysis of the Adriatic sea case study suggests that our framework could represent a practical tool in the design of effective remediation strategies, providing at the same time insights into the ecological role of microbial communities within food webs. PMID:25309577

Taffi, Marianna; Paoletti, Nicola; Angione, Claudio; Pucciarelli, Sandra; Marini, Mauro; Lio, Pietro

2014-01-01

148

Bioremediation in marine ecosystems: a computational study combining ecological modeling and flux balance analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pressure to search effective bioremediation methodologies for contaminated ecosystems has led to the large-scale identification of microbial species and metabolic degradation pathways. However, minor attention has been paid to the study of bioremediation in marine food webs and to the definition of integrated strategies for reducing bioaccumulation in species. We propose a novel computational framework for analysing the multiscale effects of bioremediation at the ecosystem level, based on coupling food web bioaccumulation models and metabolic models of degrading bacteria. The combination of techniques from synthetic biology and ecological network analysis allows the specification of arbitrary scenarios of contaminant removal and the evaluation of strategies based on natural or synthetic microbial strains. In this study, we derive a bioaccumulation model of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Adriatic food web, and we extend a metabolic reconstruction of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 (iJN746) with the aerobic pathway of PCBs degradation. We assess the effectiveness of different bioremediation scenarios in reducing PCBs concentration in species and we study indices of species centrality to measure their importance in the contaminant diffusion via feeding links. The analysis of the Adriatic sea case study suggests that our framework could represent a practical tool in the design of effective remediation strategies, providing at the same time insights into the ecological role of microbial communities within food webs. PMID:25309577

Taffi, Marianna; Paoletti, Nicola; Angione, Claudio; Pucciarelli, Sandra; Marini, Mauro; Liò, Pietro

2014-01-01

149

Introduction to Ecological Landscaping: A Holistic Description and Framework to Guide the Study and Management of Urban Landscape Parcels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urbanized ecosystems and urban human populations are expanding around the world causing many negative environmental effects. A challenge for achieving sustainable urban social-ecological systems is understanding how urbanized landscapes can be designed and managed to minimize negative outcomes. To this end, an interdisciplinary Ecological Landscaping conference was organized to examine the interacting sociocultural and ecological causes and consequences of landscaping practices and products. This special issue of Cities and the Environment contains a diverse set of articles arising from that conference. In this introductory paper, we describe the meaning of ecological landscaping and a new conceptual framework that helps organize the topic’s complex issues. The essence of ecological landscaping is a holistic systems-thinking perspective for understanding the interrelationships among physical-ecological and sociocultural variables that give rise to the patterns and processes of biodiversity, abiotic conditions, and ecosystem processes within and among individually-managed urban landscape parcels. This perspective suggests that 1 variables not considered part of traditional landscaping and 2 the effects of landscaping within an individual parcel on variables outside of it must both be considered when making design and management decisions about a parcel. To illustrate how these points help create a more holistic, ecological approach to landscaping, a traditional ecosystem model is used to create a framework for discussing how sociocultural and physical-ecological inputs to a landscape parcel affect its characteristics and outputs. As exemplified by papers in this issue, an integrated sociocultural-ecological approach to the study of urban landscaping practices and products is needed to 1 understand why and how humans design and mange urban landscape parcels, 2 describe how the combined characteristics and outputs of many parcels give rise to the emergent ecosystem properties of urbanized areas, and 3 develop effective educational programs that catalyze adoption of sustainable landscaping choices and practices. The paper concludes with a discussion of challenges for the future of ecological landscaping research and practice, and a list of preliminary guidelines for ecological landscaping. We hope that this special issue will increase understanding, visibility, and research about the value of an ecological approach to urban landscaping.

Parwinder Grewal

2008-01-01

150

Administrative Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

2007-01-01

151

Cavity types and microclimate: implications for ecological, evolutionary, and conservation studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The abiotic conditions of the immediate environment of organisms are key factors for a better understanding of ecological and evolutionary processes. Yet, information in this regard is biased towards some habitat types, landscapes, and organisms. Here, we present a 2-year comparative study of the microclimatic properties (temperature, relative humidity, and their fluctuation) of three cavity types (nest boxes, cavities in bridges, and burrows in sandy cliffs) in an arid environment. We found marked and consistent months-long differences in microclimate among the three cavity types. Nest boxes were colder than the other cavity types, with temperature oscillations being an order of magnitude higher than in other cavity types. In contrast, microclimate was very stable in burrows and cavities in bridges, the former being generally warmer and drier than the latter. We also discuss the biological implications of microclimatic conditions and its variation in different cavity types by presenting two case studies, namely the temperature-humidity index and water vapor pressure during the hatching period of an endotherm and the chilling period during the diapause of an ectotherm ectoparasite. We stress the need for comparative studies of the same organisms subjected to different microclimates given the important ecological, evolutionary, and conservation implications. PMID:24573376

Amat-Valero, M; Calero-Torralbo, M A; Václav, R; Valera, F

2014-11-01

152

How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bazdid Vahdati F, Saeidi Mehrvarz Sh, Naqinezhad A, Gholizadeh H. 2014. How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran. Biodiversitas 15: 29-36. Species diversity is one of the most important indices for evaluating the stability and productivity of forest ecosystems. The aim of this research was to recognize ecological species groups and to determine the relationship between environmental variables and the distribution of ecological species groups. For this purpose, 25 400-m2 relevés were sampled using the Braun-Blanquet method. Vegetation was classified using modified Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN and resulted in three ecological species groups. Different species diversity indices were applied to quantify diversity of these species groups. ANOVA and Duncan’s tests indicated that all species and environmental variables except altitude changed significantly across the species groups. The results also showed that the group located in the northern aspect and on low slopes had the highest diversity indices compared with groups located in dry aspects and on high slopes. In reality, abundant precipitation (northern aspect ( and soil enrichment (low slopes are principal factors that provide suitable conditions for plant growth and species diversity. Thus, the study of diversity changes in ecological species groups can result in an ecologically precise perspective for managing forest ecosystems.

FATEMEH BAZDID VAHDATI

2014-04-01

153

How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran. Biodiversitas 15: 31-38. Species diversity is one of the most important indices for evaluating the stability and productivity of forest ecosystems. The aim of this research was to recognize ecological species groups and to determine the relationship between environmental variables and the distribution of ecological species groups. For this purpose, 25 400-m2 relevés were sampled using the Braun-Blanquet method. Vegetation was classified using modified Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN and resulted in three ecological species groups. Different species diversity indices were applied to quantify diversity of these species groups. ANOVA and Duncan’s tests indicated that all species and environmental variables except altitude changed significantly across the species groups. The results also showed that the group located in the northern aspect and on low slopes had the highest diversity indices compared with groups located in dry aspects and on high slopes. In reality, abundant precipitation (northern aspect ( and soil enrichment (low slopes are principal factors that provide suitable conditions for plant growth and species diversity. Thus, the study of diversity changes in ecological species groups can result in an ecologically precise perspective for managing forest ecosystems.

FATEMEH BAZDID VAHDATI¹,

2014-11-01

154

“Real time” genetic manipulation: a new tool for ecological field studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary Field experiments with transgenic plants often reveal the functional significance of genetic traits important for plant performance in their natural environments. Until now, only constitutive overexpression, ectopic expression and gene silencing methods have been used to analyze gene-related phenotypes in natural habitats. These methods do not allow sufficient control over gene expression to study ecological interactions in real-time, genetic traits playing essential roles in development, or dose-dependent effects. We applied the sensitive dexamethasone (DEX)-inducible pOp6/LhGR expression system to the ecological model plant Nicotiana attenuata and established a lanolin-based DEX application method to facilitate ectopic gene expression and RNAi mediated gene silencing in the field and under challenging conditions (e.g. high temperature, wind and UV radiation). Fully established field-grown plants were used to silence phytoene desaturase and thereby cause photobleaching only in specific plant sectors, and to activate expression of the cytokinin (CK) biosynthesis gene isopentenyl transferase (ipt). We used ipt expression to analyze the role of CK’s in both the glasshouse and field to understand resistance to the native herbivore Tupiocoris notatus, which attack plants at small spatial scales. By spatially restricting ipt expression and elevating CK levels in single leaves, T. notatus damage increased, demonstrating CK’s role in this plant-herbivore interaction at a small scale. As the arena of most ecological interactions is highly constrained in time and space, these tools will advance the genetic analysis of dynamic traits that matter for plant performance in nature. PMID:23906159

Schäfer, Martin; Brütting, Christoph; Gase, Klaus; Reichelt, Michael; Baldwin, Ian; Meldau, Stefan

2014-01-01

155

'Real time' genetic manipulation: a new tool for ecological field studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Field experiments with transgenic plants often reveal the functional significance of genetic traits that are important for the performance of the plants in their natural environments. Until now, only constitutive overexpression, ectopic expression and gene silencing methods have been used to analyze gene-related phenotypes in natural habitats. These methods do not allow sufficient control over gene expression for the study of ecological interactions in real time, of genetic traits that play essential roles in development, or of dose-dependent effects. We applied the sensitive dexamethasone (DEX)-inducible pOp6/LhGR expression system to the ecological model plant Nicotiana attenuata and established a lanolin-based DEX application method to facilitate ectopic gene expression and RNA interference-mediated gene silencing in the field and under challenging conditions (e.g. high temperature, wind and UV radiation). Fully established field-grown plants were used to silence phytoene desaturase and thereby cause photobleaching only in specific plant sectors, and to activate expression of the cytokinin (CK) biosynthesis gene isopentenyl transferase (ipt). We used ipt expression to analyze the role of CKs in both the glasshouse and the field to understand resistance to the native herbivore Tupiocoris notatus, which attacks plants at small spatial scales. By spatially restricting ipt expression and elevating CK levels in single leaves, damage by T. notatus increased, demonstrating the role of CKs in this plant-herbivore interaction at a small scale. As the arena of most ecological interactions is highly constrained in time and space, these tools will advance the genetic analysis of dynamic traits that matter for plant performance in nature. PMID:23906159

Schäfer, Martin; Brütting, Christoph; Gase, Klaus; Reichelt, Michael; Baldwin, Ian; Meldau, Stefan

2013-11-01

156

Assessment of Regional Sustainability Based on Modified Ecological Footprint: A Case Study of Suzhou, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological Footprint (EF) is an effective method to measure quantitatively sustainable development. However original EF analysis of sustainability at the regional scale provides easily misinterpreted information, which could not reflect truly the pressure of the regional population on the local ecosystem due to the regional import and export. A regional ecosystem could support the local population consumption entirely depending on import, while shift the ecological pressure to other regions and the local ecosystems is thus well preserved. To assess sustainability of a region exactly, two concepts of the consumptive EF and productive EF were put forward. As we acknowledged that original EF only measures human demand for biological goods and services, and does not capture other aspects of social or economic sustainability. Therefore, to assess comprehensively regional sustainability, we attempted to combine several social indicators including unit GDP (Gross Domestic Product) EF, integrated development satisfaction, comprehensive pressure index with the indicator of EF. Also the application to a municipal was discussed. The time series of EF of study area were accounted and the sustainable development status were assessed from 1993 to 2002. Based on the result of EF analysis and the realities of study area, the feasibility of amendments proposed were assessed. Results showed that the amendments proposed were reasonable and feasible, and the resized model could better evaluate the sustainability of a region.

Yang, Haizhen; Li, Aimei; Ye, Tian

2010-11-01

157

[Ultrastructural study of liver cells from rooks living in ecologically unfavorable areas].  

Science.gov (United States)

The ultrastructure of liver cells was studied in rooks (Corvus frugilegus) living in radioactive and chemical contamination areas. The ultrastructure of liver cells from rook as well as jackdaw (Corvus monedula) and hooded crow (Corvus cornix) (Corvidae family) from a conventionally clean area was studied as control. Control hepatocytes proved to contain a great number of mitochondria, many of which were swollen and had clear matrix and disorganized cristae. The cristae nearly lacked glycogen and had abundant lipid droplets, which often tightly contacted mitochondria. The cytoplasm of hepatocytes in birds from both ecologically unfavorable areas had numerous mitochondria with the same ultrastructure. In contrast to control, the hepatocyte cytoplasm: (1) contained a lot of glycogen; (2) there were many lipid droplets, which directly contacted glycogen granules; and (3) had more abundant peroxisomes. In addition to normal erythrocytes, the sinusoids contained erythrocytes with mitochondria, vesicles, and lipid droplets in their cytoplasm. Analysis of many micrographs of lipid droplets contacting glycogen granules, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and cisterns of smooth endoplasmic reticulum allowed us to propose that glycogen is synthesized via gluconeogenesis from glycerol and products of fatty acid oxidation in the liver cell cytoplasm of rooks from ecologically unfavorable areas as distinct from control. PMID:16634429

Kalashnikova, M M; Fadeeva, E O

2006-01-01

158

The systemic amyloid precursor transthyretin (TTR) behaves as a neuronal stress protein regulated by HSF1 in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and APP23 Alzheimer's disease model mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased neuronal synthesis of transthyretin (TTR) may favorably impact on Alzheimer's disease (AD) because TTR has been shown to inhibit A? aggregation and detoxify cell-damaging conformers. The mechanism whereby hippocampal and cortical neurons from AD patients and APP23 AD model mice produce more TTR is unknown. We now show that TTR expression in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, primary hippocampal neurons and the hippocampus of APP23 mice, is significantly enhanced by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays demonstrated occupation of TTR promoter heat shock elements by HSF1 in APP23 hippocampi, primary murine hippocampal neurons, and SH-SY5Y cells, but not in mouse liver, cultured human hepatoma (HepG2) cells, or AC16 cultured human cardiomyocytes. Treating SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells with heat shock or the HSF1 stimulator celastrol increased TTR transcription in parallel with that of HSP40, HSP70, and HSP90. With both treatments, ChIP showed increased occupancy of heat shock elements in the TTR promoter by HSF1. In vivo celastrol increased the HSF1 ChIP signal in hippocampus but not in liver. Transfection of a human HSF1 construct into SH-SY5Y cells increased TTR transcription and protein production, which could be blocked by shHSF1 antisense. The effect is neuron specific. In cultured HepG2 cells, HSF1 was either suppressive or had no effect on TTR expression confirming the differential effects of HSF1 on TTR transcription in different cell types. PMID:24849358

Wang, Xin; Cattaneo, Francesca; Ryno, Lisa; Hulleman, John; Reixach, Natàlia; Buxbaum, Joel N

2014-05-21

159

Mesocosm soil ecological risk assessment tool for GMO 2nd tier studies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) of GMO is basically identical to ERA of chemical substances, when it comes to assessing specific effects of the GMO plant material on the soil ecosystem. The tiered approach always includes the option of studying more complex but still realistic ecosystem level effects in 2nd tier caged experimental systems, cf. the new GMO ERA guidance: EFSA Journal 2010; 8(11):1879. We propose to perform a trophic structure analysis, TSA, and include the trophic structure as an ecological endpoint to gain more direct insight into the change in interactions between species, i.e. the food-web structure, instead of relying only on the indirect evidence from population abundances. The approach was applied for effect assessment in the agro-ecosystem where we combined factors of elevated CO2, viz. global climate change, and GMO plant effects. A multi-species (Collembola, Acari and Enchytraeidae) mesocosm factorial experiment was set up in a greenhouse at ambient CO2 and 450 ppm CO2 with a GM barley variety and conventional varieties. The GM barley differed concerning the composition of amino acids in the grain (antisense C-hordein line). The fungicide carbendazim acted as a positive control. After 5 and 11 weeks, data on populations, plants and soil organic matter decomposition were evaluated. Natural abundances of stable isotopes, 13C and 15N, of animals, soil, plants and added organic matter (crushed maize leaves) were used to describe the soil food web structure.

D'Annibale, Alessandra; Maraldo, Kristine

160

Ecological assessments of surface water bodies at the river basin level: a case study from England.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological assessments of surface water bodies are essential in order to evaluate the level of degradation in freshwater ecosystems and to address the subsequent decline in services they provide. These assessments cover multiple aspects of the aquatic environment, particularly biological elements due to their ability to respond to all pressures within an ecosystem. Such assessments can enable the identification of the multiple pressures which threaten water bodies, facilitating sustainable decisions regarding their management to be identified. Here, the design requirements of the networks which facilitate ecological assessments are presented. A river basin district in England is used as a case study to investigate the number of elements monitored, the number of failing elements and the relationship between failing elements. Findings demonstrate the value of ensuring that monitoring networks are risk based and appropriately designed to meet their objectives. This therefore requires that monitoring is not only for the communicating of compliance but also for use iteratively so that the design of monitoring networks and ultimately management can be continually improved. PMID:25231022

Collins, Alexandra; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

2014-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

Exploring the implications of critical complexity for the study of social-ecological systems.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The complexity of social-ecological systems is well recognized (Berkes et al. 2003, Norberg and Cumming 2008. However, in the study of such systems, it is often the uncertainty that results from nonlinear interactions that forms the focus of discussion. Here, the normative implications of complexity for our knowledge of such systems are emphasised, by drawing largely on the work of Cilliers (1998, 2005a, who introduced the term "critical complexity." This perspective on complexity is distinct in bringing the value-based choices that frame our knowledge generation strategies to the fore. It is from this view that we investigate the implications of complexity for social-ecological systems research. Based on these implications, we propose a set of five key questions to guide the incorporation of insights from critical complexity into such research. We end with a brief application of the questions proposed to the National Freshwater Ecosystem Priority Areas (NFEPA project in South Africa, to illustrate their potential use in the context of resource management.

Michelle Audouin

2013-09-01

162

The (limited) political influence of ecological economics. A case study on Dutch environmental policies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the ecological economics (EE) discourse attempts to influence environmental policy, empirical studies have concluded that its success in this endeavour has been limited thus far. In the Netherlands, however, two EE-related policy concepts, Environmental Utilisation Space and Ecological Footprint, were strongly present in environmental policy during certain periods in time, but subsequently disappeared from the environmental agenda. The central question of this article is how these ups and downs of the EE concepts can be understood: which factors determine their rise on and fall from the policy agenda over time? To answer this question, this article offers a conceptual model informed by the approaches in political science on framing, agenda-setting and knowledge utilisation. We conclude that the interplay of concept-specific characteristics, the formation of coalitions around the concept and contextual variables explain the rise and fall of the aforementioned concepts. A match between the dominant policy frame and the core elements of the concept provides the opportunity for the two concepts to be pushed on the agenda. We observe the alternation of 'constraining' frames, which allows for EE concepts to survive, and 'reconciling' frames, which block agenda entrance for EE concepts. Furthermore, the alternation of these frames seems to correlate with economic and public environmental attention cycles in the Netherlands. (author)

163

The (limited) political influence of ecological economics. A case study on Dutch environmental policies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although the ecological economics (EE) discourse attempts to influence environmental policy, empirical studies have concluded that its success in this endeavour has been limited thus far. In the Netherlands, however, two EE-related policy concepts, Environmental Utilisation Space and Ecological Footprint, were strongly present in environmental policy during certain periods in time, but subsequently disappeared from the environmental agenda. The central question of this article is how these ups and downs of the EE concepts can be understood: which factors determine their rise on and fall from the policy agenda over time? To answer this question, this article offers a conceptual model informed by the approaches in political science on framing, agenda-setting and knowledge utilisation. We conclude that the interplay of concept-specific characteristics, the formation of coalitions around the concept and contextual variables explain the rise and fall of the aforementioned concepts. A match between the dominant policy frame and the core elements of the concept provides the opportunity for the two concepts to be pushed on the agenda. We observe the alternation of 'constraining' frames, which allows for EE concepts to survive, and 'reconciling' frames, which block agenda entrance for EE concepts. Furthermore, the alternation of these frames seems to correlate with economic and public environmental attention cycles in the Netherlands. (author)

Boezeman, Daan; Leroy, Pieter [Political Sciences of the Environment, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9108, 6500 HK Nijmegen (Netherlands); Maas, Rob; Kruitwagen, Sonja [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, P.O. Box 303, 3720 AH Bilthoven (Netherlands)

2010-07-15

164

Ecological validity and the study of publics: The case for organic public engagement methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

This essay argues for a method of public engagement grounded in the criteria of ecological validity. Motivated by what Hammersly called the responsibility that comes with intellectual authority: "to seek, as far as possible, to ensure the validity of their conclusions and to participate in rational debate about those conclusions" (1993: 29), organic public engagement follows the empirical turn in citizenship theory and in rhetorical studies of actually existing publics. Rather than shaping citizens into either the compliant subjects of the cynical view or the deliberatively disciplined subjects of the idealist view, organic public engagement instead takes Asen's advice that "we should ask: how do people enact citizenship?" (2004: 191). In short, organic engagement methods engage publics in the places where they already exist and through those discourses and social practices by which they enact their status as publics. Such engagements can generate practical middle-range theories that facilitate future actions and decisions that are attentive to the local ecologies of diverse publics. PMID:23887250

Gehrke, Pat J

2014-01-01

165

Effects of ionizing radiations on reticulated polymers associated to nuclear wastes. The HSF-SIMS technique contribution; Effets des radiations ionisantes sur les polymeres reticules associes aux dechets nucleaires. Apport de la technique HSF-SIMS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Among the materials used for confinement of nuclear wastes of low and medium level activity the epoxyde resins are known as matrices which preserve well their properties in an ionizing environment. This work is dedicated to the investigation of the modifications occurring in molecular structure of these materials as well as of the ion exchange resins they incorporate, irradiated in different conditions. The first part deals with the analysis of a commercial reticulated epoxyde resin submitted to a 2 MGy integral dose gamma irradiation under two different dose rate (51 and 900 Gy/h), and under two different environments (air and water). The results obtained with the techniques providing structure information (time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HSF-SIMS) and FT-IR spectrometry) confirm those obtained by techniques sensible to macroscopic properties of material (DMA, DSC), taking into account that no noticeable irradiation effect can be made evident inside the material. On the other hand, an irradiation carried out in air results in a superficial oxidation, due probably to the action of the air radiolysis products. The preliminary results of an ion irradiation followed by an in-situ HSF-SIMS analysis pointed out to a basic difference between the energy amount transferred by gamma photons and fast ions; the last ones being able to induce scissions of the nearby liaisons in the material. The second part of this work is concerned with the ion exchange resins of the type PS-DVB saturated in water and non-active ions, simulating real wastes, irradiated in the same conditions as the epoxyde resins. In contrast to the results on the last one, it appears that the irradiation of these materials results primarily in scissions of the functional groups on which the ions are attached. In addition to this finding it appears that the role of water as carrying outward the attached ions appears to be fundamental 175 refs.

Debre, O. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire

1997-06-30

166

Biodiversity and productivity of Rana Patap Sagar lake a thermo-ecological study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rana Pratap Sagar (RPS) in Rajasthan, is a man made fresh water reservoir and is balancing between Gandhi Sagar on upstream and Jawahar sagar on its down stream. On its eastern bank there exists Rawatbhata Site, comprising of multi -nuclear facilities. There are four PHWR units of Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) which are in operations, two are under construction and another two are under advanced stage of planning. In addition to nuclear power plants the Site also houses a Heavy Water Plant and other allied facilities such as cobalt facility and waste management facilities. RAPS draws water from RPS lake through a 300 m long conduit pipe located at lake bottom about 20 m below the surface. Duly treated low level radioactive liquid effluents from RAPS facilities are injected to the warmed condenser outlet and then allowed to discharge to RPS in a controlled manner. The warm water is likely to remain at the surface and get mixed with lake water and cooled due to dilutions, evaporation from lake surface and wind currents. The heat release to the RPS lake through condenser outlet may effect the microbiological and water quality parameters, planktonic biodiversity, fish productivity etc. and thus it is imperative to conduct the thermal ecological study to assess the extent of maturation of the water body to identify its present trophic status in terms of eutrophication. This presentation gives the details of thermal ecological studies carried out at Rana Pratap Sagaal studies carried out at Rana Pratap Sagar lake during 2002-2004 under DAE-BRNS project.. The study includes monitoring of several water quality parameters, biological and bacterial parameters and data on thermal stratification in respect of RPS reservoir. The data so obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. The probabilistic and possibilistic approaches have been applied to evaluate ecological risk. The study reveals that there is no adverse effect on RPS water quality owing to receive the warmed effluents from RAPS. Furthermore, it shows that RPS water is nearly homogeneous and shows weak thermocline and chemocline patterns. Based on monitoring data, the reservoir can be assigned mild eutrophic status. (author)

167

The integration of GPS, vegetation mapping and GIS in ecological and behavioural studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite navigation receivers are increasingly being used in ecological and behavioural studies to track the movements of animals in relation to the environments in which they live and forage. Concurrent recording of the animal's foraging behaviour (e.g. from jaw mov [...] ement recording) allows foraging locations to be determined. By combining the animal GPS movement and foraging data with habitat and vegetation maps using a Geographical Information System (GIS) it is possible to relate animal movement and foraging location to landscape and habitat features and vegetation types. This powerful approach is opening up new opportunities to study the spatial aspects of animal behaviour, especially foraging behaviour, with far greater precision and objectivity than before. Advances in GPS technology now mean that sub-metre precision systems can be used to track animals, extending the range of application of this technology from landscape and habitat scale to paddock and patch scale studies. As well as allowing ecological hypotheses to be empirically tested at the patch scale, the improvements in precision are also leading to the approach being increasing extended from large scale ecological studies to smaller (paddock) scale agricultural studies. The use of sub-metre systems brings both new scientific opportunities and new technological challenges. For example, fitting all of the animals in a group with sub-metre precision GPS receivers allows their relative inter-individual distances to be precisely calculated, and their relative orientations can be derived from data from a digital compass fitted to each receiver. These data, analyzed using GIS, could give new insights into the social behaviour of animals. However, the improvements in precision with which the animals are being tracked also needs equivalent improvements in the precision with which habitat and vegetation are mapped. This needs some degree of automation, as vegetation mapping at a fine spatial scale using the traditional manual approach is far too time consuming. This paper explores these issues, discussing new applications as well as approaches to overcoming some of the associated problems.

Steven Mark, Rutter.

2007-07-01

168

Giving Back: Collaborations with Others in Ecological Studies on the Nevada National Security Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Formerly named the Nevada Test Site, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) was the historical site for nuclear weapons testing from the 1950s to the early 1990s. The site was renamed in 2010 to reflect the diversity of nuclear, energy, and homeland security activities now conducted at the site. Biological and ecological programs and research have been conducted on the site for decades to address the impacts of radiation and to take advantage of the relatively undisturbed and isolated lands for gathering basic information on the occurrence and distribution of native plants and animals. Currently, the Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) oversees the radiological biota monitoring and ecological compliance programs on the NNSS. The top priority of these programs are compliance with federal and state regulations. They focus on performing radiological dose assessments for the public who reside near the NNSS and for populations of plants and animals on the NNSS and in protecting important species and habitat from direct impacts of mission activities. The NNSS serves as an invaluable outdoor laboratory. The geographic and ecological diversity of the site offers researchers many opportunities to study human influences on ecosystems. NNSA/NSO has pursued collaborations with outside agencies and organizations to be able to conduct programs and studies that enhance radiological biota monitoring and ecosystem preservation when budgets are restrictive, as well as to provide valuable scientific information to the human health and natural resource communities at large. NNSA/NSO is using one current collaborative study to better assess the potential dose to the off-site public from the ingestion of game animals, the most realistic pathway for off-site public exposure at this time from radionuclide contamination on the NNSS. A second collaborative study is furthering desert tortoise conservation measures onsite. It is the goal of NNSA/NSO to continue to develop such collaborations in the sharing of resources, such as personnel, equipment, expertise, and NNSS land access, with outside entities to meet mutually beneficial goals cost effectively.

Scott A. Wade (NFO); Kathryn S. Knapp (NFO); Cathy A. Wills (NSTec)

2013-02-24

169

Giving Back: Collaborations with Others in Ecological Studies on the Nevada National Security Site - 13058  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Formerly named the Nevada Test Site, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) was the historical site for nuclear weapons testing from the 1950's to the early 1990's. The site was renamed in 2010 to reflect the diversity of nuclear, energy, and homeland security activities now conducted at the site. Biological and ecological programs and research have been conducted on the site for decades to address the impacts of radiation and to take advantage of the relatively undisturbed and isolated lands for gathering basic information on the occurrence and distribution of native plants and animals. Currently, the Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) oversees the radiological biota monitoring and ecological compliance programs on the NNSS. The top priority of these programs are compliance with federal and state regulations. They focus on performing radiological dose assessments for the public who reside near the NNSS and for populations of plants and animals on the NNSS and in protecting important species and habitat from direct impacts of mission activities. The NNSS serves as an invaluable outdoor laboratory. The geographic and ecological diversity of the site offers researchers many opportunities to study human influences on ecosystems. NNSA/NSO has pursued collaborations with outside agencies and organizations to be able to conduct programs and studies that enhance radiological biota monitoring and ecosystem preservation when budgets are restrictive, as well as to provide valuable scientific information to the human health and natural resource communities at large. NNSA/NSO is using one current collaborative study to better assess the potential dose to the off-site public from the ingestion of game animals, the most realistic pathway for off-site public exposure at this time from radionuclide contamination on the NNSS. A second collaborative study is furthering desert tortoise conservation measures onsite. It is the goal of NNSA/NSO to continue to develop such collaborations in the sharing of resources, such as personnel, equipment, expertise, and NNSS land access, with outside entities to meet mutually beneficial goals cost effectively. (authors)

170

Methodological approaches for studying the microbial ecology of drinking water distribution systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of the microbial ecology of drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) has traditionally been based on culturing organisms from bulk water samples. The development and application of molecular methods has supplied new tools for examining the microbial diversity and activity of environmental samples, yielding new insights into the microbial community and its diversity within these engineered ecosystems. In this review, the currently available methods and emerging approaches for characterising microbial communities, including both planktonic and biofilm ways of life, are critically evaluated. The study of biofilms is considered particularly important as it plays a critical role in the processes and interactions occurring at the pipe wall and bulk water interface. The advantages, limitations and usefulness of methods that can be used to detect and assess microbial abundance, community composition and function are discussed in a DWDS context. This review will assist hydraulic engineers and microbial ecologists in choosing the most appropriate tools to assess drinking water microbiology and related aspects. PMID:25105587

Douterelo, Isabel; Boxall, Joby B; Deines, Peter; Sekar, Raju; Fish, Katherine E; Biggs, Catherine A

2014-11-15

171

Distribution of Brazilian dermatologists according to geographic location, population and HDI of municipalities: an ecological study*  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the geographic distribution of dermatologists in Brazilian municipalities in relation to the population, regions of the country and human development index. We conducted an ecological study based on data from the 2010 census, the 2010 human development index, and the records of the Brazilian Society of Dermatology. 5565 municipalities and 6718 dermatologists were surveyed. Only 504 (9.1%) municipalities had dermatologists, and accounted for 56.2% of the Brazilian population. The smallest population size and lowest HDI rate that best discriminated municipalities that did not have dermatologists were found to be 28,000 and 0.71, respectively. The average population density of dermatologists in cities was 1/23.000 inhabitants, and variations were independently associated with the HDI, the population of the municipalities and the region of the country. PMID:25387516

Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; Miot, Helio Amante

2014-01-01

172

Studies on Feeding Ecology of Sailfin Molly (Poecilia latipinna Dwelling in Wadi Haneefah Stream, Riyadh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Feeding ecology of sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna, an introduced fish species, was studied. Food items recovered from the stomach of fishes exclusively indicated that it is a herbivorous fish. And according to data obtained there is not much difference in the type of food consumed by the fishes of different size groups. Frequency of occurrence of different food items in the diet of fishes of various sizes was high. The value of vacuity index also showed variation throughout the study period. The diet overlap index was high which shows the sharing of food items among the fishes of different size groups. The diet breadth index also showed variations among the fishes of various sizes and in different seasons.

Hmoud Fares Alkahem

2007-01-01

173

Distribution of Brazilian dermatologists according to geographic location, population and HDI of municipalities: an ecological study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study investigated the geographic distribution of dermatologists in Brazilian municipalities in relation to the population, regions of the country and human development index. We conducted an ecological study based on data from the 2010 census, the 2010 human development index, and the records [...] of the Brazilian Society of Dermatology. 5565 municipalities and 6718 dermatologists were surveyed. Only 504 (9.1%) municipalities had dermatologists, and accounted for 56.2% of the Brazilian population. The smallest population size and lowest HDI rate that best discriminated municipalities that did not have dermatologists were found to be 28,000 and 0.71, respectively. The average population density of dermatologists in cities was 1/23.000 inhabitants, and variations were independently associated with the HDI, the population of the municipalities and the region of the country.

Juliano Vilaverde, Schmitt; Hélio Amante, Miot.

1013-10-01

174

Study on the Shortage and Reconstruction of Chinese Ecological Tax System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Guiding by the view of science-based development, the ecological tax system which also possesses the benefits of encouragement and financing capital should be gradually established, so the material benefits can stimulate and drive that the social pollution costs are translated into production costs and market price, and the policy and law objectives to control ecological pollution and improve ecological quality can be realized. According to the requirements of sustainable development, China p...

Min Niu; Liangliang He; Jie Jiang

2009-01-01

175

Ecological Based Planning of Forest Outdoor Recreation Case Study: Traditional Span of Mandj in Lordegan Forests-Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Forest is considered as one of the most important and most attractive recreation resources in nature which is the destination of most of the nature tourists. One of the most important ecologic usages of Zagros forests in west of Iran is outdoor recreation planning. In this study, using local multi criteria evaluation method, emphasizing on ecological criteria and combination of informational layers using Geographic Information System (GIS, forest based recreation planning in two forms of intensive and extensive in traditional span of Mandj in Lordegan city in Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari province is studied and outdoor recreation desirability of areas are determined using weighted method. Also cooling power method of Biker was used for time evaluation of planning. Six (6 criteria including climate, soil, forest structure, water sources, shape of land and landscape, 12 secondary criteria and 36 indices were used in order to evaluate outdoor recreation ecologic ability of region. According to this investigation, 7 forest areas with total area of 6.3 ha are suitable for intensive outdoor recreation and remaining areas of this region (2476 ha could be used for extensive outdoor recreation. Checking ecologic local criteria used in this study showed that water sources as a limiting factor, is a key exclusive factor in evaluating ecologic outdoor recreation power in this region. Also results showed months May, June, October, September, July and August are most suitable based on climate parameters.

Naghmeh Sharifi

2012-07-01

176

The need for an ecological approach within the study and comprehension of cognitive processes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los procesos cognitivos organizan y transforman inferencialmente la información sensorio-perceptiva del medio. La base de dichos procesos es ecológica. Se entiende como ecológica toda relación entre un organismo viviente y su medio para alcanzar los balances entre su medio interno y externo. Esas re [...] laciones permiten explicar las funciones preservadoras de la vida. La representación mental es una función preservadora de la vida. Cada especie desarrolla (como requisito de superviviencia) su propia representación holográfica del medio ambiente, pero esta representación adquiere la máxima complejidad cognitiva en la especie humana. Si un desbalance se perpetúa, lleva a la muerte del organismo y a la extinción de la especie. En esto reside la importancia del enfoque ecológico y la profundización del mismo. La explicación de los procesos cognitivos ha avanzado a través de un esquema ecológico tipo abajo/arriba, bottom-up, más que a través de esquemas formales - proposicionales de tipo teoricista arriba / abajo o top-down. Abstract in english Cognitive processes are information, meaning, structure organization and transformation processes, most of which are inferential. Then, an important question about cognitive processes is: What is their deepest basis? Where, when, how and at what level do they originate? Here, it is proposed that the [...] original and deepest basis of cognitive processes is essentially ecological and sustained on the permanent unity and relationship between the living organism and its environment. We understand as ecological the undecomposable union between a living organism and its environment, as well as every kind of immediate and stepwise relationship between them. The relationships between a living organism and its environment is held everyday and continuously in order to get its life-preserving resources and to adopt their adequate, best or most successful actions and reactions over the environment, as well as to reach its necessary internal and external balances with and within it. In these terms, the elementary perception and categorization are seen as basic cognitive processes originated in that permanent and whole ecological relationship. This way, representation systems and information processes as developed by each species are seen as basic preservation functions (life-preservation functions) in the teleonomic sense given by Pittendrigh (1958) and later used by Lorenz (1986) within his ethological approach. These arguments support the idea that any species, whatever simpler or complex it may be, whenever it is endowed of minimal sensors (elementary sensory perceptive receptors) for light (sight), odor (olfaction), sound (hearing), taste and tactile stimuli, etc., can form and must have a minimal representation of its immediate surroundings; and so that those living organisms can then count on or have at their own's disposal a minimal mental representation of the immediate and customary environment in which they live and survive along all their lifetime. Otherwise these living organisms will soon and easily die, and its species will be exposed to be extinguished soon too. So, all these argumentations are required and provided in order to analyze and explain the origin of cognitive processes within an ecological bottom-up direction. The main approaches adopted to sustain this ecological view originate in Gibson's (1979) studies on direct perception, in Rosch's (1978) approaches to natural and prototypical categorization of concept-formation, and, finally, it is also found in different attempts by Schank and Abelson (1977) and other authors to describe, for example, the formation of semantic primitives, or of schemata and scripts on alternative and ever changing areas of commonplace social experience and representations. One cue is to easily differentiate between the role and definition between defined attributes and characteristic or prototypical attributes when referring to concepts and their s

Alfredo Oscar, López Alonso; Ricardo, Minervino.

2007-12-01

177

Attitudes, Opinions and Behavior of Managers on Application of Ecological Marketing in their Business - Testing Hypotheses - Case Study:Brasov County  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents results of a quantitative research which studies the attitudes, opinions and behavior of managers of companies in Brasov on application of ecological marketing in their business. The research method used is a sample survey based. Research objectives are considering to determine the extent to which managers know and apply ecological marketing, reasons for which the ecological marketing application is a long-term strategy, views on the opportunity to apply ecological marketing etc. Conclusions drawn from testing of hypotheses of research show that, generally, managers of local firms consider ecological marketing as a long-term strategy of the company. The percentage of managers that applied ecological marketing in companies does not exceed 60%. A relatively small percentage of respondents believes that the application of ecological marketing within firms is a necessity, a social responsibility that can bring long-term benefits to companies.

Funaru, M.

2014-06-01

178

Effects of ionizing radiations on reticulated polymers associated to nuclear wastes. The HSF-SIMS technique contribution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among the materials used for confinement of nuclear wastes of low and medium level activity the epoxyde resins are known as matrices which preserve well their properties in an ionizing environment. This work is dedicated to the investigation of the modifications occurring in molecular structure of these materials as well as of the ion exchange resins they incorporate, irradiated in different conditions. The first part deals with the analysis of a commercial reticulated epoxyde resin submitted to a 2 MGy integral dose gamma irradiation under two different dose rate (51 and 900 Gy/h), and under two different environments (air and water). The results obtained with the techniques providing structure information (time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HSF-SIMS) and FT-IR spectrometry) confirm those obtained by techniques sensible to macroscopic properties of material (DMA, DSC), taking into account that no noticeable irradiation effect can be made evident inside the material. On the other hand, an irradiation carried out in air results in a superficial oxidation, due probably to the action of the air radiolysis products. The preliminary results of an ion irradiation followed by an in-situ HSF-SIMS analysis pointed out to a basic difference between the energy amount transferred by gamma photons and fast ions; the last ones being able to induce scissions of the nearby liaisons in the material. The second part of this work is concerned with the ion exchange resins of the type PS-DVB saturated in water and non-active ions, simulating real wastes, irradiated in the same conditions as the epoxyde resins. In contrast to the results on the last one, it appears that the irradiation of these materials results primarily in scissions of the functional groups on which the ions are attached. In addition to this finding it appears that the role of water as carrying outward the attached ions appears to be fundamental

179

Marine ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies on marine ecology included marine pollution; distribution patterns of Pu and Am in the marine waters, sediments, and organisms of Bikini Atoll and the influence of physical, chemical, and biological factors on their movements through marine biogeochemical systems; transfer and dispersion of organic pollutants from an oil refinery through coastal waters; transfer of particulate pollutants, including sediments dispersed during construction of offshore power plants; and raft culture of the mangrove oysters

180

Radio-ecological studies on the river Lippe (1982-1983)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1982 and 1983 the Laboratory for Radio-ecology of water bodies of the Federal Institute for Fishery performed radio-ecological studies on the river Lippe, on the Datteln-Hamm-Canal and on one section of the Rhine near the city of Wesel in order to enable expert examination of the population's exposure to radiation originating from effluents of the planned Hamm Nuclear Power Plant (HNP). The present-day distribution of artificial and natural radionuclides in water, fish, seston, sediment and in drill cores from the Lippe and the pastures lying within the flood area was examined using radio-chemical methods and the nuclear-radiation measurement technique. The contents of the stable elements of antimony, nickel, cobalt, zinc, manganese, iron, silver and phosphorus in water and fish were determined to obtain some suggestions concerning the behaviour of radionuclides which are expected in the waste water of the HNP but which cannot be found in the environment at present. Concerning uptake and incorporation of radioactive nuclides in the bodies of fish from the Lippe and the Rhine section studied, mean concentration factors could be calculated from the measured values for the state of equilibrium. One single-time emission with the cooling water of the Westfalen nuclear power plant was examined using the inactive tracer of Dysprosium in order to study the behaviour of the emission cloud when running off with the river water. With this examination, complete cross-mixing at 800 m downstream from the cooling-water re-entry building was found at a Lippe downstream flow rate of 22 cbm/s which corresponds to its annual mean. The down-stream flow graph could be described by a dispersion graph showing a marked trailing effect. The cloud-fail values which were higher compared with those of the graph, could possibly be explained by recirculation obtaining with cooling water influx. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
181

Integrating a DNA barcoding project with an ecological survey: a case study on temperate intertidal polychaete communities in Qingdao, China  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we integrated a DNA barcoding project with an ecological survey on intertidal polychaete communities and investigated the utility of CO1 gene sequence as a DNA barcode for the classification of the intertidal polychaetes. Using 16S rDNA as a complementary marker and combining morphological and ecological characterization, some of dominant and common polychaete species from Chinese coasts were assessed for their taxonomic status. We obtained 22 haplotype gene sequences of 13 taxa, including 10 CO1 sequences and 12 16S rDNA sequences. Based on intra- and inter-specific distances, we built phylogenetic trees using the neighbor-joining method. Our study suggested that the mitochondrial CO1 gene was a valid DNA barcoding marker for species identification in polychaetes, but other genes, such as 16S rDNA, could be used as a complementary genetic marker. For more accurate species identification and effective testing of species hypothesis, DNA barcoding should be incorporated with morphological, ecological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic information. The application of DNA barcoding and molecular identification in the ecological survey on the intertidal polychaete communities demonstrated the feasibility of integrating DNA taxonomy and ecology.

Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Zhinan; Chen, Haiyan; Sun, Renhua; Wang, Hui; Guo, Lei; Pan, Haijian

2010-07-01

182

Radio-ecological studies on the air-soil-vine-wine food chain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report summarizes the results of the first three years (1983-85) of the radio-ecological studies on wine which were performed on eight sites from major German wine-growing regions involving red and white wine varieties typical of their region. The radionuclides of tritium, carbon 14, strontium 90, cesium 137, radium 226 and sodium 40 were examined for their contents and presence in the food chain of air-soil-vine-wine in order to determine the pollution situation in grapes and wine and to gain information on their behaviour in the food chain. A number of soil parameters important for nutrient uptake were determined to describe the site. (orig./MG)

183

Conceptualizing and Estimating Process Speed in Studies Employing Ecological Momentary Assessment Designs: A Multilevel Variance Decomposition Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers have been making use of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and other study designs that sample feelings and behaviors in real time and in naturalistic settings to study temporal dynamics and contextual factors of a wide variety of psychological, physiological, and behavioral processes. As EMA designs become more widespread,…

Shiyko, Mariya P.; Ram, Nilam

2011-01-01

184

Association between mortality from suicide in England and antidepressant prescribing: an ecological study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Antidepressant prescribing has been increasing in England. Studies in other countries suggest that while this may be associated with reduced suicide rates, it may also be associated with increased fatal poisoning from antidepressant drugs. We therefore conducted an ecological study to assess the association between prescription rates for antidepressants and suicide or fatal antidepressant-related poisoning in England. Methods The Office for National Statistics provided information on the number of suicides, antidepressant-related poisoning deaths and populations for England between 1993 and 2002. The Department of Health supplied data on prescriptions for all antidepressants dispensed in England. Associations between prescriptions and deaths were assessed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results There were 46,747 suicides, 3,987 deaths involving tricyclic antidepressants and 430 involving selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and other antidepressants. Increased antidepressant prescribing was statistically associated with a fall in suicide rates (Spearman's rs = -0.73, p = 0.02 and fatal poisoning involving tricyclic antidepressants (rs = -0.64, p = 0.05. In contrast, increased prescribing of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and other antidepressants was statistically associated with an increase in fatal poisoning involving these drugs (rs = 0.99, p Conclusion Increased prescribing of antidepressants may indicate improved diagnosis and treatment of depression in primary care. Our analysis suggests that this was accompanied by lower suicide rates. A decrease in poisoning deaths involving tricyclic antidepressants may suggest a change in preference for using serotonin reuptake inhibitors and other antidepressant drugs for high-risk patients. This may also partially explain the increase in deaths involving these drugs. Due to the ecological nature of the design, we cannot say conclusively whether reduced suicide rates are a direct consequence of increased antidepressant prescribing rates. To confirm these associations, individual level data on prescribing and suicide is needed.

Majeed Azeem

2004-12-01

185

Data Explorations in Ecology: Salt Pollution as a Case Study for Teaching Data Literacy  

Science.gov (United States)

Does working with first- and second-hand ecological data improve students' knowledge of ecological ideas, motivation and engagement in science, data exploration, and citizenship skills (students' ability to make informed decisions)? We have been exploring this question with high school science teachers in New York State for the past year using a…

Harris, Cornelia; Berkowitz, Alan R.; Alvarado, Angelita

2012-01-01

186

Study on the Industrial Ecological Compensation in Inter-basin Regions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aiming at the inter-basin pollution of water sources, the meaning, the content, and the system of the industrial ecological compensation are proposed in this article and the corresponding inter-basin industrial ecological compensation institution is suggested to be established.

Yachen Liu

2010-02-01

187

Cranberry Extract Standardized for Proanthocyanidins Promotes the Immune Response of Caenorhabditis elegans to Vibrio cholerae through the p38 MAPK Pathway and HSF-1  

Science.gov (United States)

Botanicals are rich in bioactive compounds, and some offer numerous beneficial effects to animal and human health when consumed. It is well known that phytochemicals in cranberries have anti-oxidative and antimicrobial activities. Recently, an increasing body of evidence has demonstrated that cranberry phytochemicals may have potential benefits that promote healthy aging. Here, we use Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to show that water-soluble cranberry extract standardized to 4.0% proanthocyanidins (WCESP), a major component of cranberries, can enhance host innate immunity to resist against Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae; wild type C6706 (O1 El Tor biotype)) infection. Supplementation of WCESP did not significantly alter the intestinal colonization of V. cholerae, but upregulated the expression of C. elegans innate immune genes, such as clec-46, clec-71, fmo-2, pqn-5 and C23G10.1. Additionally, WCESP treatment did not affect the growth of V. cholerae and expression of the major bacterial virulence genes, and only slightly reduced bacterial colonization within C. elegans intestine. These findings indicate that the major components of WCESP, including proanthocyanidins (PACs), may play an important role in enhancing the host innate immunity. Moreover, we engaged C. elegans mutants and identified that the p38 MAPK signaling, insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS), and HSF-1 play pivotal roles in the WCESP-mediated host immune response. Considering the level of conservation between the innate immune pathways of C. elegans and humans, the results of this study suggest that WCESP may also play an immunity-promoting role in higher order organisms. PMID:25062095

Pederson, Daniel B.; Wang, Xiaoxia; Cao, Min; Dong, Yuqing

2014-01-01

188

Morphological, hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological changes and challenges in river restoration - the Thur River case study  

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River restoration can enhance river dynamics, environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity, but the underlying processes governing the dynamic changes need to be understood to ensure that restoration projects meet their goals, and adverse effects are prevented. In particular, we need to comprehend how hydromorphological variability quantitatively relates to ecosystem functioning and services, biodiversity as well as ground- and surface water quality in restored river corridors. This involves (i) physical processes and structural properties, determining erosion and sedimentation, as well as solute and heat transport behavior in surface water and within the subsurface; (ii) biogeochemical processes and characteristics, including the turnover of nutrients and natural water constituents; and (iii) ecological processes and indicators related to biodiversity and ecological functioning. All these aspects are interlinked, requiring an interdisciplinary investigation approach. Here, we present an overview of the recently completed RECORD (REstored CORridor Dynamics) project in which we combined physical, chemical, and biological observations with modeling at a restored river corridor of the perialpine Thur River in Switzerland. Our results show that river restoration, beyond inducing morphologic changes that reshape the river bed and banks, triggered complex spatial patterns of bank infiltration, and affected habitat type, biotic communities and biogeochemical processes. We adopted an interdisciplinary approach of monitoring the continuing changes due to restoration measures to address the following questions: How stable is the morphological variability established by restoration? Does morphological variability guarantee an improvement in biodiversity? How does morphological variability affect biogeochemical transformations in the river corridor? What are some potential adverse effects of river restoration? How is river restoration influenced by catchment-scale hydraulics and which feedbacks exist on the large scale? Beyond summarizing the major results of individual studies within the project, we show that these overarching questions could only be addressed in an interdisciplinary framework.

Schirmer, M.; Luster, J.; Linde, N.; Perona, P.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Barry, D. A.; Hollender, J.; Cirpka, O. A.; Schneider, P.; Vogt, T.; Radny, D.; Durisch-Kaiser, E.

2014-06-01

189

Specializations of birds that attend army ant raids: an ecological approach to cognitive and behavioral studies.  

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Tropical birds forage at army ant raids on several continents. Obligate foraging at army ant raids evolved several times in the Neotropical true antbird family (Thamnophilidae), and recent evidence suggests a diversity of bird species from other families specialize to varying degrees on army ant exploitation. Army ant raids offer access to high prey densities, but the ant colonies are mobile and widely spaced. Successful army ant exploitation requires solving a complex foraging problem because army ant raids are unpredictable in space and time. Birds can counteract the challenges posed by the ants by using strategies that raise their chances of detecting army ant raids, and birds can use additional strategies to track army ant colonies they have located. Some features of army ant biology, such as their conspicuous swarms and columns, above-ground activity, and regular cycles of behavior, provide opportunities for birds to increase their effectiveness at exploiting raids. Changes in sensory, cognitive and behavioral systems may all contribute to specialized army ant exploitation in a bird population. The combination of specializations that are employed may vary independently among bird species and populations. The degree of army ant exploitation by birds varies geographically with latitude and elevation, and with historical patterns such as centers of distribution of obligate thamnophilid antbirds. We predict the set of specializations a given bird population exhibits will depend on local ecology, as well as phylogenetic history. Comparative approaches that focus on these patterns may indicate ecological and evolutionary factors that have shaped the costs and benefits of this foraging strategy. The development of army ant exploitation in individual birds is poorly understood, and individual expression of these specializations may depend on a combination of genetic adaptation with cognitive plasticity, possibly including social and experiential learning. Future studies that measure developmental changes and quantify individual differences in army ant exploitation are needed to establish the mechanisms underlying this behavior. PMID:23036666

O'Donnell, Sean; Logan, Corina J; Clayton, Nicola S

2012-11-01

190

The Relationship between the Learning Ecology System and Students’ Engagement: A Case Study in Selangor  

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Full Text Available School engagement is a relatively new concept in education. However, studies have demonstrated that the concept is useful in predicting students’ academic achievement. The present study was conducted to examine Malaysian students’ school engagement status and to understand the factors that influenced their engagement. The survey method was used to collect data with a questionnaire measuring the level of students’ engagement in three psychological domains (cognitive, affective, and behavior. The influential factors were measured by learning about the ecological factors affecting the students’ academic engagement, including their teachers’ teaching practice and the support they received from teachers, peers, and parents. A total of 311 (male and female participants between the ages of 12 -16 years from form one, form two, form three, and form four in a school in Selangor were selected using a random sampling procedure. Data was analyzed using descriptive and correlational analyses. The results showed that male and female students exhibit significantly different levels of engagement. Female students have a higher level of engagement than males. Teachers’ teaching practices and the support students received from peers, parents, and teachers were positively correlated with students’ engagement level. Although the results of the study support the findings of previous studies, further studies are suggested to verify the present findings. Implications for schools and parenting practices are also discussed.

Amla Mohd Salleh

2013-08-01

191

Ecological baseline studies in Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons County of Los Alamos, New Mexico. A two-year study  

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During the summers of 1993 and 1994, the Biological Resource Evaluations Team (BRET) of the Environmental Protection Group (ESH-8) conducted baseline studies within two canyon systems, Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons. Biological data was collected within each canyon to provide background and baseline information for Ecological Risk models. Baseline studies included establishment of permanent vegetation plots within each canyon along the elevational gradient. Then, in association with the various vegetation types, surveys were conducted for ground dwelling insects, birds, and small mammals. The stream channels associated with the permanent vegetation plots were characterized and aquatic macroinvertebrates collected within the stream monthly throughout a six-month period. The Geographic Position System (GPS) in combination with ARC INFO was used to map the study areas. Considerable data was collected during these surveys and are summarized in individual chapters.

Foxx, T.S. [comp.

1995-11-01

192

ELF communications system ecological monitoring program: Litter decomposition and microflora studies  

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The U.S. Navy has completed a program monitoring flora, fauna, and ecological relationships for possible effects from electromagnetic fields produced by its Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System. This report documents studies of litter decomposition and soil microflora conducted near its transmitting antenna in Michigan. From 1982 through 1993 researchers from the Michigan Technological University (MTU) monitored overall litter decomposition, as well as microflora (bacteria and fungi) important both as processors of organic material and causative agents of tree disease. Studies were performed in areas near (treatment) and far (control) from the ELF antenna Study parameters included total number of streptomycete individuals and species; mass loss of maple, oak, and pine leaf litter; and frequency of red pine mortality from Armillaria root disease. The MTU research team used several statistical models; however, nested analysis of covariance was the most frequently used test. Based on the results of their study, MTU investigators conclude that the EM fields produced by the Naval Radio Transmitting Facility-Republic, Michigan did not affect soil bacteria populations or the spread of the root disease. Loss of foliar mass suggests a statistically significant, but modest, increase in the rate of litter decomposition, possibly associated with electromagnetic exposure.

Bruhn, Johann N.; Bagley, Susan T.; Pickens, James B.

1994-10-01

193

Gross Domestic Product (GDP and productivity of schizophrenia trials: an ecological study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The 5000 randomised controlled trials (RCTs in the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's database affords an opportunity to research for variables related to the differences between nations of their output of schizophrenia trials. Methods Ecological study – investigating the relationship between four economic/demographic variables and number of schizophrenia RCTs per country. The variable with closest correlation was used to predict the expected number of studies. Results GDP closely correlated with schizophrenia trial output, with 76% of the total variation about the Y explained by the regression line (r = 0.87, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.92, r2 = 0.76. Many countries have a strong tradition of schizophrenia trials, exceeding their predicted output. All nations with no identified trial output had GDPs that predicted zero trial activity. Several nations with relatively small GDPs are, nevertheless, highly productive of trials. Some wealthy countries seem either not to have produced the expected number of randomised trials or not to have disseminated them to the English-speaking world. Conclusions This hypothesis-generating study could not investigate causal relationships, but suggests, that for those seeking all relevant studies, expending effort searching the scientific literature of Germany, Italy, France, Brazil and Japan may be a good investment.

Fenton Mark

2003-12-01

194

Switching on and Switching off in Mathematics: An Ecological Study of Future Intent and Disengagement among Middle School Students  

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Prompted by international concerns about school and postschool participation in mathematics, the authors of the present study sought to investigate factors predicting "switching on" and "switching off" in mathematics, operationalized through measures of future intent and disengagement, respectively. They drew from Bronfenbrenner's ecological model…

Martin, Andrew J.; Anderson, Judy; Bobis, Janette; Way, Jennifer; Vellar, Rosemary

2012-01-01

195

Using Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory to Understand Community Partnerships: A Historical Case Study of One Urban High School  

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Although the value of school-community partnerships is unquestioned, the reasons for success and failure are not sufficiently understood. This mixed-methods case study examines 60 years of partnering at one urban high school, using Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory to better understand the effect on student development as measured by…

Leonard, Jack

2011-01-01

196

The Association between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement in Texas State House Legislative Districts: An Ecologic Study  

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Background: The association of physical fitness with cognitive function in children and adolescents is unclear. The purpose of this ecological study was to describe the association between academic achievement, body mass index (BMI), and cardiovascular fitness (CVF) in a large sample of elementary, middle, and high school students in Texas.…

Janak, Jud C.; Gabriel, Kelley P.; Oluyomi, Abiodun O.; Peréz, Adriana; Kohl, Harold W.; Kelder, Steven H.

2014-01-01

197

The Ecological Footprint as an Educational Tool for Sustainability: A Case Study Analysis in an Israeli Public High School  

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Education is widely acknowledged to be a means for advancing environmental sustainability. Many schools have recently introduced the idea of sustainability into their educational agenda and curriculum. This study uses an innovative method of communicating the principle of sustainability, the "Ecological Footprint" Analysis, which illustrates the…

Gottlieb, Dan; Vigoda-Gadot, Eran; Haim, Abraham; Kissinger, Meidad

2012-01-01

198

An ecological study of the relationship between social and environmental determinants of obesity. — Measures of the Food Environment  

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There is growing concern with the increasing prevalence of obesity in industrialised countries, a trend that is more apparent in the poor than in the rich. In an ecological study, the relationship between an area measure of socioeconomic status (SES) and the density of fast-food outlets was examined as one possible explanation for the phenomenon.

199

Revisiting the Affect Regulation Model of Binge Eating: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Using Ecological Momentary Assessment  

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The affect regulation model of binge eating, which posits that patients binge eat to reduce negative affect (NA), has received support from cross-sectional and laboratory-based studies. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves momentary ratings and repeated assessments over time and is ideally suited to identify temporal antecedents and…

Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

2011-01-01

200

Ecological study on mangrove forest in East Coast of North Sumatra  

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Full Text Available Ecological studies on mangrove forest in East Coast of North Sumatra have been carried out with field work in transect method and laboratory analyses. This study would be covered on floristic composition, abrasion, green belt, soil properties, and water quality of mangroves. Land system map and landsat TM imagery (year 1996 coverage as main material in this study were used and overlay to determine training area. Based on vegetation inventory found that 20 mangrove species and by vegetation analyses, we known that Avicennia marina was as dominant tree species of seedling and sapling stage. Tree stage was not found in the area, yet. Environment properties of the mangrove area were suitable for mangrove growth and rehabilitation with the exception of pyrite content in the mangrove soil. Average of mangrove green belt was 25 m with range from 10 to 80 m in KJP (Kajapah land system and 30 m with range 10 to 50 m in PTG (Putting land system. Abrasion rate in the area was very high, i.e. 6 m per year in KJP land system, and 10 m per year in PTG land system.

ONRIZAL

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Bladder cancer mortality and private well use in New England: An ecological study  

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Study objective: To investigate the possible relation between bladder cancer mortality among white men and women and private water use in New England, USA, where rates have been persistently raised and use of private water supplies (wells) common. Design: Ecological study relating age adjusted cancer mortality rates for white men and women during 1985-1999 and proportion of persons using private water supplies in 1970. After regressing mortality rates on population density, Pearson correlation coefficients were computed between residual rates and the proportion of the population using private water supplies, using the state economic area as the unit of calculation. Calculations were conducted within each of 10 US regions. Setting: The 504 state economic areas of the contiguous United States. Participants: Mortality analysis of 11 cancer sites, with the focus on bladder cancer. Main results: After adjusting for the effect of population density, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between residual bladder cancer mortality rates and private water supply use among both men and women in New England (men, r=0.42; women, r=0.48) and New York/New Jersey (men, r=0.49; women, r=0.62). Conclusions: Use of well water from private sources, or a close correlate, may be an explanatory variable for the excess bladder cancer mortality in New England. Analytical studies are underway to clarify the relation between suspected water contaminants, particularly arsenic, and raised bladder cancer rates in northern New England.

Ayotte, J. D.; Baris, D.; Cantor, K. P.; Colt, J.; Robinson, Jr. , G. R.; Lubin, J. H.; Karagas, M.; Hoover, R. N.; Fraumeni, Jr. , J. F.; Silverman, D. T.

2006-01-01

202

Baseline aquatic ecology: a case study of Dahanu thermal power station in west coast of India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Baseline ecological studies of three creeks surrounded to a 500 MW coal based thermal power station that has been installed at Dahanu in west coast of India have been studied. Water samples were collected in summer, post-monsoon and winter seasons from surface, middle and bottom of the water columns at left and right banks and centre of the creeks, during high tide and low tide, and also during day and night for characterization of physico-chemical (temperature, transparency, pH, salinity, dissolved solids, suspended solids, alkalinity, nutrients etc. including heavy metals), microbiological and biological (phytoplankton, primary productivity, zooplankton, meiobenthos and nekton, viz. macrobenthos, fish, prawn, molluscs etc.) parameters. Studies revealed that abiotic features of the creeks were comparable to other similar type of ecosystems in India. Besides detritus, the ecosystem comprised of five trophic levels, viz. producer and consumers 1 through 4. While computing biomass of each trophic level, semialternating pattern of pyramids were obtained. Meiobenthos, comprising of 25 parent of the total biomass of fauna, had a significant role in the ecosystem. Index of biotic integrity, incorporating 25 attributes, was employed to evaluate the impact of predicted rise (2.3 degC) of ambient water temperature on creek biota. Evaluation revealed a marginal positive impact of the project on the ecosystem. (author)

203

Ecological studies on Al-Khadoud Spring, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia.  

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Al-Khadoud spring is one of the most important water resources in Al-Hassa Governorate, Saudi Arabia. However, much of its biotic information is still unknown. This study presented preliminary ecological information of this aquatic body. Regarding to macrophytes, a total of eight species were observed along the study sites. These species include two submerged aquatic plants (Potamogeton pectinatus L. and Ceratophyllum demersum L.). The common distributed species are Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trimex Steud and Cyperus rotundus (L.). On the other hand, a total of 20 algal genera were recorded with 7 genera of Chlorophyceae, 8 of Bacillariophyceae, 4 of Cyanophyceae and one of Euglenophyceae. The common phytoplankton occurred in all three investigated sites were Chlorella vulgaris, Mougeotia sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Actinastrum sp. Regarding to the biotic fauna, different forms of unicellular zooplankton such as Paramecium and Amoeba were recorded. Invertebrates such as freshwater insects and some freshwater snails were documented in the study sites including Melanodies tuberculata, Melanopsis praemorsa and Lymnaea auricularia. As regard to vertebrates, one species of fish, Aphanius dispar, dominate the spring basin and its extended channels. PMID:19090280

Al-Kahtani, Mohammed A; Youssef, Ashraf M; Fathi, Adel A

2007-11-15

204

Ecological Studies on Al-Khadoud Spring, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Al-Khadoud spring is one of the most important water resources in Al-Hassa Governorate, Saudi Arabia. However, much of its biotic information is still unknown. This study presented preliminary ecological information of this aquatic body. Regarding to macrophytes, a total of eight species were observed along the study sites. These species include two submerged aquatic plants (Potamogeton pectinatus L. and Ceratophyllum demersum L.. The common distributed species are Phragmites australis (Cav. Trimex Steud and Cyperus rotundus (L.. On the other hand, a total of 20 algal genera were recorded with 7 genera of Chlorophyceae, 8 of Bacillariophyceae, 4 of Cyanophyceae and one of Euglenophyceae. The common phytoplankton occurred in all three investigated sites were Chlorella vulgaris, Mougeotia sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Actinastrum sp. Regarding to the biotic fauna, different forms of unicellular zooplankton such as Paramecium and Amoeba were recorded. Invertebrates such as freshwater insects and some freshwater snails were documented in the study sites including Melanodies tuberculata, Melanopsis praemorsa and Lymnaea auricularia. As regard to vertebrates, one species of fish, Aphanius dispar, dominate the spring basin and its extended channels.

Mohammed A. Al-Kahtani

2007-01-01

205

Mediator recruitment to heat shock genes requires dual Hsf1 activation domains and mediator tail subunits Med15 and Med16.  

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The evolutionarily conserved Mediator complex is central to the regulation of gene transcription in eukaryotes because it serves as a physical and functional interface between upstream regulators and the Pol II transcriptional machinery. Nonetheless, its role appears to be context-dependent, and the detailed mechanism by which it governs the expression of most genes remains unknown. Here we investigate Mediator involvement in HSP (heat shock protein) gene regulation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find that in response to thermal upshift, subunits representative of each of the four Mediator modules (Head, Middle, Tail, and Kinase) are rapidly, robustly, and selectively recruited to the promoter regions of HSP genes. Their residence is transient, returning to near-background levels within 90 min. Hsf1 (heat shock factor 1) plays a central role in recruiting Mediator, as indicated by the fact that truncation of either its N- or C-terminal activation domain significantly reduces Mediator occupancy, whereas removal of both activation domains abolishes it. Likewise, ablation of either of two Mediator Tail subunits, Med15 or Med16, reduces Mediator recruitment to HSP promoters, whereas deletion of both abolishes it. Accompanying the loss of Mediator, recruitment of RNA polymerase II is substantially diminished. Interestingly, Mediator antagonizes Hsf1 occupancy of non-induced promoters yet facilitates enhanced Hsf1 association with activated ones. Collectively, our observations indicate that Hsf1, via its dual activation domains, recruits holo-Mediator to HSP promoters in response to acute heat stress through cooperative physical and/or functional interactions with the Tail module. PMID:23447536

Kim, Sunyoung; Gross, David S

2013-04-26

206

Pluralism, Resilience, and the Ecology of Survival: Case Studies from the Pamir Mountains of Afghanistan  

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Full Text Available As resilience is observed under circumstances of systemic stress, the various ecological zones of the Pamir Mountains of Afghanistan and the cultural diversity contained within this milieu provide an appropriate setting from which to ask "How can a dynamic concept of pluralism inform adaptation, survival, and resilience in the face of dramatic socio-cultural and environmental change?" This paper asserts that understanding of resilience in coupled socio-cultural and ecological systems is enhanced by the concept of pluralism. The idea of ecological niche is enriched by sensitivity to culture, religion, ethnicity, lifestyle, and habitat. Facilitative relations between the ethnically diverse Kyrgyz and Wakhi, as well as the Pashtu and Shugni, contribute to their mutual survival and food sovereignty. The common good is achieved by harnessing ethnic, religious, and ecological diversity.

Karim-Aly S. Kassam

2010-06-01

207

Identification of ecologically significant habitats for urban nature conservation: a case study in Turkey.  

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Given the rapid urbanization of Turkey, sustained productivity of natural resources should be an integral part of any urban development policy. The biogeochemical cycles and ecosystem services link urban and rural ecosystems. It is, therefore, essential that ecologically significant habitats along urban-rural continuum be protected to secure public and environmental health. This necessitates their identification and the establishment of administrative and legal foundations for urban nature conservation in the management of urban habitats, should be established Ecological analysis of urban habitats of Kar?iyaka led to the identification of 19 ecologically significant habitats. Nature conservation priority was rated, using rarity, species richness, stratification, site age, and area of the habitats. Ecologically significant habitats made up about 54 ha of the total urban green space of 289 ha in Kar?iyaka. The total number of plant species was estimated to be 273. PMID:15259599

Evrendilek, Fatih

2003-07-01

208

A GIS APPLICATION AND RESOURCE TOOL FOR USE ON STUDIES OF THE LAKE TEXOMA ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM  

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Investigations are underway at Lake Texoma to develop tools and information needed to evaluate the transport and attenuation of contaminants and stressors in a lake ecosystem, and link them to observable ecological effects. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), ...

209

Ecotoxicogenomics to Support Ecological Risk Assessment: A Case Study with Bisphenol A in Fish  

Science.gov (United States)

Toxicogenomic approaches are being increasingly applied in the field of ecotoxicology. Given the growing availability of ecotoxicogenomic data, the Agency and the broader scientific community are actively engaged in considering how best to use those data to support ecological ris...

210

The benefit of sustainable industrial cooperation. Study on the economical and ecological benefits of industrial cooperatives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From scientific literature and policy memoranda it appears that sustainable industrial cooperatives result into economical and ecological benefits. However, little empirical data on practical results is available. Therefore, recently, an analysis has been carried out determining the benefit of industrial cooperation. The economical and ecological offer businesses a cost-effective option to reduce the environmental burden. Still, real implementation of such cooperatives is only realized yet by forerunners in the field of environmental management

211

Assessing the ecological security of the Tibetan plateau: methodology and a case study for Lhaze County.  

Science.gov (United States)

A system for assessing the ecological security of Lhaze County in China's Tibetan Autonomous Region was developed using a pressure-state-response model and the analytic hierarchy process. We then used this model to comprehensively evaluate the status of ecological security in Lhaze County. Our results showed that the ecological environment in Lhaze County has deteriorated from an 'early stages of damage status' in the 1980s to 'moderately damaged status' today. This deterioration has become a major barrier to local economic development and social advancement. Natural and social aspects related to the population explosion, resource exploitation, and climate change that led to this ecological deterioration are discussed. Furthermore, we have suggested proposals for improving the ecological environment that include controlling population growth and enhancing the system of laws that protect the environment, upgrading 3 882.6 ha of low-yield farmland, planting 2 425.8, 548.8, and 1 207.4 ha of shelter belts for farmland protection, soil and water conservation, and fuelwood, respectively, and seeding 2 358.1 ha of artificial grassland. In the meantime, we propose strengthening the controls that limit soil and water loss, and optimizing industrial sectors that aspire to achieve high-efficiency, ecologically responsible agriculture. PMID:16338056

Zhao, Yan-Zhi; Zou, Xue-Yong; Cheng, Hong; Jia, Hai-Kun; Wu, Yong-Qiu; Wang, Gui-Yong; Zhang, Chun-Lai; Gao, Shang-Yu

2006-07-01

212

Hydrology and ecology of pinyon-juniper woodlands: Conceptual framework and field studies  

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Pinyon-juniper woodlands represent an important ecosystem in the semiarid western United States. Concern over the sustainability of, and management approaches for, these woodlands is increasing. As in other semiarid environments, water dynamics and vegetation patterns in pinyon-juniper woodlands are highly interrelated. An understanding of these relationships can aid in evaluating various management strategies. In this paper we describe a conceptual framework designed to increase our understanding of water and vegetation in pinyon-juniper woodlands. The framework comprises five different scales, at each of which the landscape is divided into {open_quotes}functional units{close_quotes} on the basis of hydrologic characteristics. The hydrologic behavior of each unit and the connections between units are being evaluated using an extensive network of hydrological and ecological field studies on the Pajarito Plateau in northern New Mexico. Data from these studies, coupled with application of the conceptual model, have led to the development of a number of hypotheses concerning the interrelationships of water and vegetation in pinyon-juniper woodlands.

Wilcox, B.P.; Breshears, D.D.

1994-09-01

213

Radon in Drinking Water and Cancer Mortality: An Ecological Study in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is limited information on the health effects of radon in drinking water in spite of their potential exposures. We conducted an ecological study in a small town in Japan where the groundwater with high concentrations of radon is supplied as utilities. A total of 607 cancer deaths were ascertained by vital statistics in that town from 1972 to 1997. Standardized mortality ratios on the basis of national rates were 1.01 (95% confidence interval; 0.93-1.09) for all cancers, 1.10 (0.95-1.28) for stomach cancer, 0.88 (0.70-1.10) for lung cancer, and 1.14 (0.87-1.48) for liver cancer. Mortality from liver cancer was significantly higher than that of two surrounding control cities combined, with a relative risk of 1.40 (1.04-1.89) based on Poisson regression analysis. Lack of information on possible confounders including diet, alcohol drinking, smoking and hepatitis virus infection, is the main limitation of the study, which precludes the evaluation of causal associations

214

Medico-ecological study and health impact assessment of hydro-electric projects in Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of this studies were to determine i) if there was any potential health risks in terms of spread of vector-borne and other communicable diseases resulting from the changes in the environment due to creation of large bodies of water as consequence of the construction of dams, ii) diseases of public health importance in populations affected by such projects. Nine pre-impoundment studies had been carried out and potential impact of the change in environment on discases and health of the affected populations in each areas was evaluated. Risk of infections to the dam construction workers also assessed. Recommendations on mitigation measures were made for each situation so that adequate provisions could be made to improve the health conditions of these populations especially those who would be resettled as a result of impoundment . Prevention and control measures on transmission of infection, including vector control were proposed. The potential medico-ecological hazards encountered by immigrants and visitors to the area on completion of the hydro project were also envisaged

215

Pollination Ecology: Field Studies of Insect Visitation and Pollen Transfer Rates  

Science.gov (United States)

In this Experiment, students investigate questions related to the pollination ecology of the most common and accessible insect-pollinated flowers in bloom. Students start with natural history observations to answer common questions such as how long does the flower stay open, what are its major visitors, and how often is it visited by likely pollinators. They may then follow up the class study with their own questions, such as whether flowers that are in large clumps are more likely to be visited than more isolated flowers, how far the most frequent visitors fly between visits, how likely is it that the next visit will be to the same species of flower, and whether self pollen grows through the style more slowly than pollen from a different individual. Common techniques in pollination studies such as determination of flowering phenology, visitation rates, and identification of visitors and of pollen carried on visitors are used regardless of the question investigated. Spring flowers in the campus lawn, buckeye or crabapple flowers, horticultural plantings on campus, roadside goldenrods, or wildflowers in nearby natural areas should make it possible to complete this lab at almost any time in the growing season.

Parrish, Judy

2010-02-16

216

A clinical case study of the use of ecological momentary assessment in obsessive compulsive disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurate assessment of obsessions and compulsions is a crucial step in treatment planning for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). In this clinical case study, we sought to determine if the use of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) could provide additional symptom information beyond that captured during standard assessment of OCD. We studied three adults diagnosed with OCD and compared the number and types of obsessions and compulsions captured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) compared to EMA. Following completion of the Y-BOCS interview, participants then recorded their OCD symptoms into a digital voice recorder across a 12-h period in reply to randomly sent mobile phone SMS prompts. The EMA approach yielded a lower number of symptoms of obsessions and compulsions than the Y-BOCS but produced additional types of obsessions and compulsions not previously identified by the Y-BOCS. We conclude that the EMA-OCD procedure may represent a worthy addition to the suite of assessment tools used when working with clients who have OCD. Further research with larger samples is required to strengthen this conclusion. PMID:24860521

Tilley, P J Matt; Rees, Clare S

2014-01-01

217

Diabetes mortality and environmental heavy metals in North Carolina counties: An ecological study  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Arsenic, beryllium, cadmium and nickel have been associated with the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in populations exposed to these elements. However, diabetes mortality has not been evaluated. This ecological study correlated airborne concentrations of these metals with diabetes mortality in North Carolina counties. Methods: County level data were extracted from the 2000 US Census, the 1999 US Environmental Protection Agency National Air Toxins Assessment, and 2001-2005 diabetes mortality rates by county from the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics. Multivariable linear regression correlated airborne concentrations of each element with diabetes mellitus mortality rates in all 100 North Carolina counties controlling for county-level characteristics. Airborne concentrations were logarithmically transformed to normalize their distribution. Results: The lowest air concentrations detected were beryllium and cadmium, with nickel showing the highest concentration. Logarithmic concentrations spanned from 3.74 to 4.02 orders of magnitude. County-level diabetes mortality rates were negatively associated with median county income, but positively associated with county-level air concentrations of arsenic, beryllium, cadmium and nickel. Conclusions: These results support diabetes mortality effects of air pollution, and agree with other studies correlating arsenic, beryllium, cadmium and nickel with diabetes prevalence. Policy implications include regulating point source air pollution.

John G. Spangler

2012-11-01

218

Historical ecology provides new insights for ecosystem management : eastern Baltic cod case study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A recent historical marine ecological case study (cod in the eastern Baltic Sea) is used to show how long-term data and knowledge of fluctuations can contribute to revisions of fishery management policy. The case study first developed new longer analytical time series of spawner biomass and recruitment back to the 1920s, which extended knowledge of population dynamics into a time period when ecosystem state was characterized by temporally varying combinations of exploitation, climate-hydrographic conditions, marine mammal predation and eutrophication. Recovery of spatially resolved historical catch data from the late 1500s to early 1600s also contributed new perspectives to cod population dynamics under alternative ecosystem forcings. These new perspectives have contributed, and will likely continue to contribute to new management policies (e.g., revision of fishery management reference points), which should lead to higher sustainability of the population and fishery yields, and improved overall ecosystem health. These perspectives will likely continue to provide baseline information as ICES and the EU develop new policies based on maximum sustainable yield concepts.

Mackenzie, Brian Royce; Ojaveer, Henn

2011-01-01

219

Ecological Footprint  

Science.gov (United States)

Students explore their own Ecological Footprint in the context of how many Earths it would take if everyone used the same amount of resources they did. They compare this to the Ecological Footprint of individuals in other parts of the world and to the Ecological footprint of a family member when they were the student's age.

Education, Connecticut E.

220

PCR with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis specific primers: potential use in ecological studies  

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Full Text Available The precise microenvironment of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has not yet been discovered perhaps because the methods used are not sensitive enough. We applied to this purpose the polymerase chain reaction (PCR using three sets of specific primers corresponding to two P. brasiliensis genes. This fungus as well as several other fungi, were grown and their DNA obtained by mechanical disruption and a phenol chloroform isoamylalcohol-based purification method. The DNA served for a PCR reaction that employed specific primers from two P. brasiliensis genes that codify for antigenic proteins, namely, the 27 kDa and the 43 kDa. The lowest detection range for the 27 kDa gene was 3 pg. The amplification for both genes was positive only with DNA from P. brasiliensis; additionally, the mRNA for the 27 kDa gene was present only in P. brasiliensis, as indicated by the Northern analysis. The standardization of PCR technology permitted the amplification of P. brasiliensis DNA in artificially contaminated soils and in tissues of armadillos naturally infected with the fungus. These results indicate that PCR technology could play an important role in the search for P. brasiliensis? habitat and could also be used in other ecological studies.

DÍEZ S.

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Non invasive methods for genetic analysis applied to ecological and behavioral studies in Latino-America  

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Full Text Available Documenting the presence and abundance of the neotropical mammals is the first step for understanding their population ecology, behavior and genetic dynamics in designing conservation plans. The combination of field research with molecular genetics techniques are new tools that provide valuable biological information avoiding the disturbance in the ecosystems, trying to minimize the human impact in the process to gather biological information. The objective of this paper is to review the available non invasive sampling techniques that have been used in Neotropical mammal studies to apply to determine the presence and abundance, population structure, sex ratio, taxonomic diagnostic using mitochondrial markers, and assessing genetic variability using nuclear markers. There are a wide range of non invasive sampling techniques used to determine the species identification that inhabit an area such as searching for tracks, feces, and carcasses. Other useful equipment is the camera traps that can generate an image bank that can be valuable to assess species presence and abundance by morphology. With recent advances in molecular biology, it is now possible to use the trace amounts of DNA in feces and amplify it to analyze the species diversity in an area, and the genetic variability at intraspecific level. This is particularly helpful in cases of sympatric and cryptic species in which morphology failed to diagnose the taxonomic status of several species of brocket deer of the genus Mazama.

Susana González

2007-07-01

222

Non invasive methods for genetic analysis applied to ecological and behavioral studies in Latino-America  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Documenting the presence and abundance of the neotropical mammals is the first step for understanding their population ecology, behavior and genetic dynamics in designing conservation plans. The combination of field research with molecular genetics techniques are new tools that provide valuable biol [...] ogical information avoiding the disturbance in the ecosystems, trying to minimize the human impact in the process to gather biological information. The objective of this paper is to review the available non invasive sampling techniques that have been used in Neotropical mammal studies to apply to determine the presence and abundance, population structure, sex ratio, taxonomic diagnostic using mitochondrial markers, and assessing genetic variability using nuclear markers. There are a wide range of non invasive sampling techniques used to determine the species identification that inhabit an area such as searching for tracks, feces, and carcasses. Other useful equipment is the camera traps that can generate an image bank that can be valuable to assess species presence and abundance by morphology. With recent advances in molecular biology, it is now possible to use the trace amounts of DNA in feces and amplify it to analyze the species diversity in an area, and the genetic variability at intraspecific level. This is particularly helpful in cases of sympatric and cryptic species in which morphology failed to diagnose the taxonomic status of several species of brocket deer of the genus Mazama.

Susana, González; José Mauricio Barbanti, Duarte.

223

Social determinants of childhood asthma symptoms: an ecological study in urban Latin America.  

Science.gov (United States)

Asthma is an important public health problem in urban Latin America. This study aimed to analyze the role of socioeconomic and environmental factors as potential determinants of asthma symptoms prevalence in children from Latin American (LA) urban centers. We selected 31 LA urban centers with complete data, and an ecological analysis was performed. According to our theoretical framework, the explanatory variables were classified in three levels: distal, intermediate, and proximate. The association between variables in the three levels and prevalence of asthma symptoms was examined by bivariate and multivariate linear regression analysis weighed by sample size. In a second stage, we fitted several linear regression models introducing sequentially the variables according to the predefined hierarchy. In the final hierarchical model Gini Index, crowding, sanitation, variation in infant mortality rates and homicide rates, explained great part of the variance in asthma prevalence between centers (R(2) = 75.0 %). We found a strong association between socioeconomic and environmental variables and prevalence of asthma symptoms in LA urban children, and according to our hierarchical framework and the results found we suggest that social inequalities (measured by the Gini Index) is a central determinant to explain high prevalence of asthma in LA. PMID:24046215

Fattore, Gisel L; Santos, Carlos A T; Barreto, Mauricio L

2014-04-01

224

Diet and mortality from common cancers in Brazil: an ecological study  

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Full Text Available A prospective ecological evaluation of mortality from common malignancies with dietary risk factors and alcohol consumption was carried out among 10 state capitals of Brazil. Regression analysis was used to examine the association of dietary intake with mortality rates of the most common cancers among adults age 30 years and older. Age-adjusted cancer mortality rates varied 2.4 to 3.3 fold across the state capitals. A positive relationship was observed between energy intake and colon, lung, and esophageal cancer (p<=0.02 for each. Colon cancer mortality was positively associated with consumption of total fat, eggs, alcohol, mate tea, cereals, and vegetables (p<=0.01. Lung cancer was positively associated with mate and cereal intake (p<0.05. Stomach cancer was associated with consumption of eggs (p=0.04; and negatively associated with consumption of high fiber foods, fruits, and vitamin A and C (p<=0.05. Esophageal cancer was positively associated with fat intake, mate and cereals (p<=0.05 and negatively associated with vitamin A (p=0.02; prostate cancer was negatively associated with vitamin C (p=0.007. Breast cancer was not associated with any of the factors studied. The marked variation in cancer mortality rates in Brazil may be partially related to the high variation in dietary components or other diet associated factors.

Sichieri Rosely

1996-01-01

225

Stomach cancer incidence in Brazil: an ecologic study with selected risk factors  

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Full Text Available Contrary to many industrialized countries in which a sharp decline in stomach cancer incidence has been observed, Brazil still shows intermediate to high incidence rates. An ecologic analysis was performed to explore variables possibly associated with the development of stomach cancer. Cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and factor analysis were carried out with population data, including the following: stomach cancer incidence rates in the early 1990s obtained from population-based cancer registries in Porto Alegre, Campinas, Fortaleza, Belém, and Goiânia; and data from a Brazilian national survey on family expenditures (several diet consumption items and availability of home refrigerators carried out in 1974-75. The results suggested that past availability of a home refrigerator, i.e. food preservation, may have played an important role in currently observed differences in stomach cancer incidence among the various populations studied in Brazil. Differences in living standards among populations in these cities also appear to have played an important role in the observed incidence differences.

Koifman Sergio

1997-01-01

226

The role of homoploid hybridization in evolution: a century of studies synthesizing genetics and ecology.  

Science.gov (United States)

While homoploid hybridization was viewed as maladaptive by zoologists, the possibility that it might play a creative role in evolution was explored and debated by botanists during the evolutionary synthesis. Owing to his synthetic work on the ecological and genetic factors influencing the occurrence and effects of hybridization, G. Ledyard Stebbins' contributions to this debate were particularly influential. We revisit Stebbins' views on the frequency of hybridization, the evolution of hybrid sterility, and the evolutionary importance of transgressive segregation, introgression, and homoploid hybrid speciation in the context of contemporary evidence. Floristic surveys indicate that ?10% of plant species hybridize, suggesting that natural hybridization is not as ubiquitous as Stebbins argued. There is stronger support for his contention that chromosomal sterility is of greater importance in plants than in animals and that selection drives the evolution of hybrid sterility. Stebbins' assertions concerning the frequent occurrence of transgressive segregation and introgressive hybridization have been confirmed by contemporary work, but few studies directly link these phenomena to adaptive evolution or speciation. Stebbins proposed a mechanism by which chromosomal rearrangements partially isolate hybrid lineages and parental species, which spurred the development of the recombinational model of homoploid speciation. While this model has been confirmed empirically, the establishment of reproductively independent hybrid lineages is typically associated with the development of both intrinsic and extrinsic reproductive barriers. We conclude by reflecting on outcomes of hybridization not considered by Stebbins and on possible future research that may extend our understanding of the evolutionary role of hybridization beyond Stebbins' legacy. PMID:25156978

Yakimowski, Sarah B; Rieseberg, Loren H

2014-08-01

227

Ecological study of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in soil: growth ability, conidia production and molecular detection  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ecology is not completely understood, although several pieces of evidence point to the soil as its most probable habitat. The present study aimed to investigate the fungal growth, conidia production and molecular pathogen detection in different soil conditions. Methods Soils samples of clayey, sandy and medium textures were collected from ground surface and the interior of armadillo burrows in a hyperendemic area of Paracoccidioidomycosis. P. brasiliensis was inoculated in soil with controlled humidity and in culture medium containing soil extracts. The molecular detection was carried out by Nested PCR, using panfungal and species specific primers from the ITS-5.8S rDNA region. Results The soil texture does not affect fungus development and the growth is more abundant on/in soil saturated with water. Some soil samples inhibited the development of P. brasiliensis, especially those that contain high values of Exchangeable Aluminum (H+Al in their composition. Some isolates produced a large number of conidia, mainly in soil-extract agar medium. The molecular detection was positive only in samples collected from armadillo burrows, both in sandy and clayey soil. Conclusion P. brasiliensis may grow and produce the infectious conidia in sandy and clayey soil, containing high water content, mainly in wild animal burrows, but without high values of H+Al.

Richini-Pereira Virgínia

2007-10-01

228

Non invasive methods for genetic analysis applied to ecological and behavioral studies in Latino-America  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Documenting the presence and abundance of the neotropical mammals is the first step for understanding their population ecology, behavior and genetic dynamics in designing conservation plans. The combination of field research with molecular genetics techniques are new tools that provide valuable biol [...] ogical information avoiding the disturbance in the ecosystems, trying to minimize the human impact in the process to gather biological information. The objective of this paper is to review the available non invasive sampling techniques that have been used in Neotropical mammal studies to apply to determine the presence and abundance, population structure, sex ratio, taxonomic diagnostic using mitochondrial markers, and assessing genetic variability using nuclear markers. There are a wide range of non invasive sampling techniques used to determine the species identification that inhabit an area such as searching for tracks, feces, and carcasses. Other useful equipment is the camera traps that can generate an image bank that can be valuable to assess species presence and abundance by morphology. With recent advances in molecular biology, it is now possible to use the trace amounts of DNA in feces and amplify it to analyze the species diversity in an area, and the genetic variability at intraspecific level. This is particularly helpful in cases of sympatric and cryptic species in which morphology failed to diagnose the taxonomic status of several species of brocket deer of the genus Mazama.

Susana, González; José Mauricio Barbanti, Duarte.

2007-07-01

229

Costa Rican coffee and bananas : A social-ecological study of management practices and their effects on the environment  

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This thesis investigates the variability in management practices on coffee and banana farms in an attempt to identify practices that reduce the environmental impact of export crop production. Different banana production systems are studied to determine their level of environmental impact. Insect sampling and bird surveys are used to assess the level of ecological quality on banana farms and their surrounding environments. The first two studies are based on interview methods and focus more on ...

Sanderson Bellamy, Angelina

2011-01-01

230

Evaluation on Security of Planting Ecology: A Case Study of Shapingba District in Chongqing  

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Full Text Available Ecology security is the basis of regional sustainable development. The authors constructed planting eco-security evaluation indicator system, which included resources, environment, social and economic. Based on standardization of method, weighted function method and obstacle degree method, using analytic hierarchy process (AHP, this paper conformed the weighted coefficient comprehensive analyzed planting eco-security degree of Shapingba District in Chongqing. The results are following:1 from 1995 to 2010, the comprehensive index of planting ecology security increased from 0.272 2 to 0.647 7. 2 from 1995 to 2010, the obstacle degree of resources increased from 28.83% to 34.39%, but obstacle degree of environment declined from 46.37% to21.78%, obstacle degree of eco-security declined from 24.80 % to 9.68%. 3 to the ecology security of planting, there are some major limiting factors such as plough per capita, intensity of fertilizer using, intensity of pesticide using, intensity of film using and frequency of acid rain. Thus it can be seen that the security level of planting ecology is ascending year by year in Shapingba District since 1995. The security level of planting ecology will be increased by protecting resources, improving environmental governance and increasing infrastructure investment of agricultural.

BAN Rong-bo

2013-07-01

231

A Study of the Social Ecological Wisdom in H.W. Longfellow?s Poetry  

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Full Text Available Under eco-criticism springing up as a literary, cultural and social criticism, which aims at exploring the relationships between literature, culture, society and natural environment to find out the ecological wisdom in literary works so as to awaken the ecological consciousness of the contemporaries, the present article mainly focuses on the great American poet and intellectual thinker, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s poems on slavery to explore his social ecological wisdom. By reading Longfellow in the light of such eco-ethical ideas as everyman being equal: anti-slavery and the harmonious development between nature and human society: anti-anthropocentrism, it is not difficult to discover the legacy glittering with social ecological wisdom in Longfellow’s poetry. Such wisdom is highly connected with Longfellow’s “environmental niche”. Nowadays, with the increasing deterioration and decaying of the environment, and the smoldering social discrimination, the social ecological wisdom implied in Longfellow’s poetry is of tremendous significance.

Jingcheng Xu

2012-01-01

232

Sudbury soils study : human health and ecological risk assessment : a case study in science, process and perception  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation discussed the public relations and public opinion strategies used as part of a soils study conducted to assess the risk of mining activities in the Sudbury region to human health and the environment. The human health risk assessment (HHRA) study was conducted and administered by a multi-stakeholder technical committee attended by the public. The study was comprised of extensive soil collection and analysis; a review of historical soils data; and extensive human health and ecological risk assessments. Extensive sampling was also conducted on air, dust, and locally-produced foods. A public advisory committee was formed to disseminate scientific information to the community. Scientific data obtained in the study were reviewed by experts in various fields. Results of the study were also peer-reviewed by an independent expert review panel comprised of leading specialists in human health, toxicology, speciation, and risk assessment. The study showed that the identified risks were over-estimated in the interest of protecting human health. It was concluded that the HHRA's findings were generally accepted by the public. tabs., figs

233

Use of Isotopes for Investigating the Behaviour and Ecology of Insect Pests in Some Recent Studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigations into the ecology, behaviour, dispersal and longevity of insects have always provided challenges to the entomologist. The use of isotopes is an effective tool and the following is a report on some interesting problems solved by their application. Anopheles stephensi is the main vector o f malaria in southern Iran. On P32-labelled mosquitoes, the dispersal, behaviour, digestion of blood meal, maturation of ovaries and length of gonotrophic cycles were successfully worked out. It was found that in about 80% of the cases the mosquito needed two blood meals for the completion of the first cycle. The first cycle itself was completed in 4-5 d depending upon the temperature. Labelled mosquitoes which had emerged overnight were released in an isolated village. The ratio of active mosquitoes to total catch was worked out every day and thus, on the assumption that the natural population remained constant, the mortality rate, which was found to be exponential for the first six days, was worked out. The mating behaviour of the female was also studied by using normal females which had mated once with P32-labelled males. It was found that the female mates more than once and that after mating with an active male, the spermathead became active. Counts of up to twice the background (12 counts/min) were obtained by using males giving about 15 000 counts/min. Studies of the injection of saliva in glucose solution during feeding were also made on P32-labelled mosquitoes. Eurygaster integriceps is a serious pest of wheat in Iran, Pakistan and the Middle East. Using P32 activated wheat plants, the feeding behaviour of the first-instar nymph was investigated. Other foods, radioactively labelled, were also studied and it was found that feeding was essential for the first moult, even if the food consisted of water absorbed in a filter paper. (author)

234

Study on heavy metals and ecological risk assessment from Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia sections of the Yellow River, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Yellow River is the most important resource of water supply in northern China. The purpose of this work are to investigate the concentrations and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, the concentrations of eight heavy metals including As, Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn in filtered water and suspended particles from 12 sampling sites of Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia sections of the Yellow River of China were studied by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) and high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS) in this paper. The results implied that all heavy metals in filtered water were lower than the limit standards for drinking water except for Cr (56.9 approximately 71. 5 microg L-1 ). Water quality parameters such as total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and pH were also determined and the contents were low along the river except for TN at S1 (2.48) and S9 (2.38), which exceeded the maximum permitted concentration of Class V for the protection of surface water. In suspended particles, the concentrations of Hg, Cd, Pb and Zn were much higher than those in the background value of soil from local section. Cluster analysis (CA) indicated that same sources for Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn and Pb could be stainless steel and petrochemical industrial activities, while As, Cd and Hg derived from agrochemicals, fertilizers, mining, fuel and coal combustion, respectively. Ecological risk assessment was undertaken using risk index (RI) for sampling sites and ecological risk factor (Er) for heavy metals. Eleven suspension samples existed considerable ecological risk (300.6< RI< 508. 6), while S1 was moderate ecological risk (RI, 299.3). According to Er, Hg had considerable or high ecological risk in Inner Mongolia section, while very high ecological risk for Cd at S11 (396.0), S9 (384. 0) and S5 (373. 3), respectively, implied a high pollution in these sampling sites. The results could provide reliable experimental data and theoretical basis for the relevant departments. PMID:24611380

Liu, Jing-Jun; Liu, Ying

2013-12-01

235

Radio-ecological study of the Lodeve mining complex (France) 1981-1985  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radio-ecological study of the Lodeve mining complex (mine + uranium process plant) was carried out between 1981 and 1985. Four aquatic compartments -water, sediments, vegetals, fish- were studied in eight stations selected on the basis of the existence of two liquid wastes. The measurements essentially concerned radium 226 and uranium 238 but also lead 210 (1985), thorium 232, potassium 40 and cesium 137. Spectrometry ? Ge-Li, emanometry and fluorimetry were used. Only a small brook -Rivernoux- an affluent of the Lergue river, shows radium and uranium activity levels higher than those measured upstream of the site; and this for the four compartments. In water, radium is associated with the solved cationic fraction (66%) and with materials in suspension (21%), whereas uranium is essentially associated with the solved anionic fraction (84%); the radium migration potentialities are therefore lesser than that of uranium. Radium distribution in fish is as follows: flesh (5 to 15%), skeleton (12%), viscera (30%) and skin + fins (30%). Radium concentration (or exchange) factors are always higher than those corresponding to uranium. In general, they are more important in non-influenced zones than in influenced zones (Rivernoux); this implies that radium and uranium evacuated by the mining complex are, at least partly, in non bio-available forms. For water/fish exchange a concentration factor of 100 will be considered for radium. On the basis of this value a weekly consumption of 200 g of fried gudgeon gives an annual committed dose equivalent corresponding to 0.86% of the dose authorized for the public (5.10-3 Sv.an-1)

236

Periodical Ecological Study of Deliya Lake of Visnagar. At. Visnagar. Ta.Visnagar, Gujarat, India  

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Full Text Available Visnagar city is located in north Gujarat (72 30 n and 73 30 n 23 0 e and 23 35 e. Visnagar taluka is popularly known as ‘Shikshan Nagari’ and also known as Copper city. The climate of visnagar is tropical arid to marginal semi-arid. It is strongly periodic and seasonal. There are many fresh water bodies are situated at and arou Deliya lake is natural fresh water body having 19 hector area & circular in shape. It is located between latitude230 41’ 60’’N longitude720 32’ 60’’ E. it is oldest lake of visnagar. It is also known as hanuman temple talav. Constructed before 10’th century.nd Visnagar taluka. The present study deals with the physico-chemical status of deliya lake. This water bodies has dense growth of algae and planktons in its. Physico-chemical status of lakes belongs to Visnagar Taluka were studied in year 2011. The physico- chemical parameters show pH, Dissolve Oxygen, totol dissolved Solid, E.C., Chloride, Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Calcium, Calcium Hardness, Magnesium, Magnesium Hardness, Fluoride, Nitrate, COD, BOD, etc and water is essential for living organisms especially like flora and fauna observed through various field trips. Showing abundance of analytic species and spirulina species with many other members of chlorophyceae. Euglenophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and cyanophyceae, microbiological analysis shows positive results for E.Coli, Vibro sp. and many other pathogenic. An isolated area of the lake is totally infested with eicchornia Spe. The migratory and local bird like plegadis falcinellus, Ardea parpurea, Egretta intermediate. Ardeola grayli, Dendrocygna, jaranica (and many more have been observed. If the sewage and other waste are diverted to some appropriate area other than the lake water quality and ecology of the pond can be restored and will be used in drinking and agriculture by the people.

H.V.JOSHI , DR. R.S.PATEL

2013-05-01

237

Religious subgroups influencing vaccination coverage in the Dutch Bible belt: an ecological study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Netherlands has experienced epidemics of vaccine preventable diseases largely confined to the Bible belt, an area where -among others- orthodox protestant groups are living. Lacking information on the vaccination coverage in this minority, and its various subgroups, control of vaccine preventable diseases is focused on the geographical area of the Bible belt. However, the adequacy of this strategy is questionable. This study assesses the influence of presence of various orthodox protestant subgroups (orthodox protestant denominations, OPDs on municipal vaccination coverage in the Bible belt. Methods We performed an ecological study at municipality level. Data on number of inhabitants, urbanization level, socio-economical status, immigration and vaccination coverage were obtained from national databases. As religion is not registered in the Netherlands, membership numbers of the OPDs had to be obtained from church year books and via church offices. For all municipalities in the Netherlands, the effect of presence or absence of OPDs on vaccination coverage was assessed by comparing mean vaccination coverage. For municipalities where OPDs were present, the effect of each of them (measured as membership ratio, the number of members proportional to total number of inhabitants on vaccination coverage was assessed by bivariate correlation and multiple regression analysis in a model containing the determinants immigration, socio-economical status and urbanization as well. Results Mean vaccination coverage (93.5% ± 4.7 in municipalities with OPDs (n = 135 was significantly lower (p Conclusion As variance in municipal vaccination coverage in the Bible belt is largely explained by membership ratios of the various OPDs, control of vaccine preventable diseases should be focused on these specific risk groups. In current policy part of the orthodox protestant risk group is missed.

Knippenberg Hans

2011-02-01

238

Women and environment. A socio-ecological study for women on the reformation of the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study addresses the following issues: contributions to improve our environment; the impact of pollutants on our health; the pollution of food and water; water quality regulations. Protection of the environment is defined as the sum total of measures that safeguard woman's natural environment and maintain a biological equilibrium. The efficiency of technological solutions to protect the environment is strictly limited by ecological factors. The goal of environmental protection is to ensure the survival of womankind. Just like plants and animals, the human race is part of an ecosystem. Once this system is destroyed, there is nothing technical measures of environmental protection can do to reverse the process. Life on earth depends on the equilibrium between the oxygen produced by chlorophyllous plants and the oxygen consumed by human beings, animals and technological processes. My interviews with young women and children show that women could contribute very much to the melioration of the environment. The majority of women is trying to switch to non-chemically engineered products, which improves the quality of our water. Biological gardening is preferred by a small minority of women only, but many women take the separation of waste very seriously. However, individual actions can do little to solve the problem of pollution caused by road and air traffic. Life in the fast lane condemns us to the use of cars and airplanes. In the foreseeable future, this means more rathe foreseeable future, this means more rather than less pollution. With genetic engineering developing at a breathtaking rate, it seems impossible to avoid a large-scale modification of our food and agricultural produce. So far, many Austrian women fail to appreciate the trend towards genetic manipulation. Neither on the farm nor in the food products themselves is it possible to distinguish genetically engineered innovations. However, behind the consumer's back, this revolution of the food industry is pushed through at an ever greater speed. Because a majority of the population rejects such foodstuffs outright. Nevertheless, genetically engineered food products have already found their way into Austrian groceries stores, and this development is set to gather pace in years to come. This study gives priority to the question whether women can improve the environment. As I have mentioned before, women can indeed contribute to an improvement of the environment. However, only big ecological organizations can return nature to its pristine state, but any such efforts are currently foiled by the greed for profit of large corporations. As a conclusion of this study, it is fair to say that women can contribute to the reformation of the environment, for instance by reducing the toxic discharge into rivers and lakes, by separating waste and promoting recycled products, and by relying on biological products to promote a healthier lifestyle. The substitution of fossil fuels with electric power or natural gas for heating purposes clearly improves the quality of the air in one's own private environment. Green belts in residential areas and plants in the house are sources of oxygen that protect the respiratory system against damaging environmental influences. The survey also showed that women do not know enough about a healthy lifestyle, but they are eager to learn more about this issue. Several statements revealed interesting experiences. If women are increasingly interested in a healthy environment and turn to biologically farmed natural products, the soil will be able to regenerate, and this would clearly benefit the environment. (author)

239

Metabolic ecology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological theory that is grounded in metabolic currencies and constraints offers the potential to link ecological outcomes to biophysical processes across multiple scales of organization. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) has emphasized the potential for metabolism to serve as a unified theory of ecology, while focusing primarily on the size and temperature dependence of whole-organism metabolic rates. Generalizing metabolic ecology requires extending beyond prediction and application of standardized metabolic rates to theory focused on how energy moves through ecological systems. A bibliometric and network analysis of recent metabolic ecology literature reveals a research network characterized by major clusters focused on MTE, foraging theory, bioenergetics, trophic status, and generalized patterns and predictions. This generalized research network, which we refer to as metabolic ecology, can be considered to include the scaling, temperature and stoichiometric models forming the core of MTE, as well as bioenergetic equations, foraging theory, life-history allocation models, consumer-resource equations, food web theory and energy-based macroecology models that are frequently employed in ecological literature. We conclude with six points we believe to be important to the advancement and integration of metabolic ecology, including nomination of a second fundamental equation, complementary to the first fundamental equation offered by the MTE. PMID:24028511

Humphries, Murray M; McCann, Kevin S

2014-01-01

240

Assessment of ecological studies examining the risk of thyroid cancer in children through radiation exposure following the nuclear power plant disaster in Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiological studies can be divided into studies with an individual database (cohort studies, case control studies) and studies with aggregate data (ecological studies). The former have the advantage that they can make use of methods based on risk models and examine dose-effect curves with due consideration to potential confounders, but the drawback of being expensive. Studies based on aggregate data can take account of large case numbers at comparatively low cost. However, ecological studies are also associated with serious methodological problems, especially when the goal is to find causal links (''ecological bias''). Thus it is well known that variations in a confounding factor (such as smoking in a study on lung cancer through radon) can invalidate the results of studies based on aggregate data. On the other hand, the only studies to have produced quantitative results on the risk of acquiring thyroid cancer through 131I exposure during childhood in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl disaster happen to be based on aggregate data. The purpose of the present paper is to examine problems associated with ecological studies which have already been in the focus of many studies of epidemiological methodology in terms of whether they are relevant to studies investigating connections between thyroid cancer and 131I exposure. It also presents the results of several simulation studies which examine the degree of distortion associated with ecological of distortion associated with ecological analyses

 
 
 
 
241

Effects of urbanization expansion on landscape pattern and region ecological risk in Chinese coastal city: a case study of Yantai city.  

Science.gov (United States)

Applied with remote sensing, GIS, and mathematical statistics, the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics of urbanization expansion of Yantai city from 1974 to 2009 was studied. Based on landscape pattern metrics and ecological risk index, the landscape ecological risk from the landscape pattern dynamics was evaluated. The results showed that the area of urban land increased by 189.77 km(2) with average expansion area of 5.42 km(2) y(-1) from 1974 to 2009. The urbanization intensity index during 2004-2009 was 3.92 times of that during 1974-1990. The land use types of urban land and farmland changed greatly. The changes of landscape pattern metrics for land use patterns indicated that the intensity of human activities had strengthened gradually in study period. The landscape ecological risk pattern of Yantai city shaped half-round rings along the coastline. The ecological risk index decreased with increase of the distance to the coastline. The ratio of high ecological risk to subhigh ecological risk zones in 2009 was 2.23 times of that in 1990. The significant linear relationship of urbanization intensity index and regional ecological risk indicated that the anthropological economic activities were decisive factors for sustainable development of costal ecological environment. PMID:24983003

Zhou, Di; Shi, Ping; Wu, Xiaoqing; Ma, Jinwei; Yu, Junbao

2014-01-01

242

Toward A Conceptual Synthesis and Ecological Approach to Case Studies of Curricular Innovation Implementation and University Restructuring in Russian HE  

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Full Text Available This study addresses the methodological and conceptual challenges associated with the application of disconnected frameworks of organizational theory and case studies, focused on “efficiency, effectiveness, and economy” to investigate complex educational phenomena in post-Soviet higher education systems under the condition of restructuring. I use the example of university restructuring and institutional curricular innovation implementation in Russian higher education to test and validate an alternative model, which employs ecological principles as the guiding value system and utilizes conceptual synthesis at all stages of this case study. The resulting descriptive model comprises antecedents, processes, and contents of university restructuring under three broad categories: organization, environment, and relation. Elaborated with an ecological approach, this model enriches the current vision of curricular innovation implementation from lineal to the perspectives of emergence, networking, and self-organization principles of ecological science. In discussing the results of the study, I offer a new research model with its possible methodological constraints as well as its great potentials to advance the sub-field of educational policy and educational administration.

Tamara Savelyeva

2013-09-01

243

Ecological studies of relation between hospital policies on neonatal vitamin K administration and subsequent occurrence of childhood cancer.  

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OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible link between neonatal administration of intramuscular vitamin K and childhood cancer. DESIGN: Ecological studies comparing incidence of cancer in groups of children classified by the vitamin K policy in operation at their hospital of birth. SETTING: Selected large maternity units in England, Scotland, and Wales. SUBJECTS: Children born in these units in varying periods between 1966 and 1991. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cancer occurring among these children be...

Passmore, S. J.; Draper, G.; Brownbill, P.; Kroll, M.

1998-01-01

244

The quantitative study of marked individuals in ecology, evolution and conservation biology: a foreword to the EURING 2003 Conference  

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Few fields in modern ecology have developed as fast as the analysis of marked individuals in the study of wild animal populations (Seber & Schwarz, 2002). This is the topic of EURING Conferences, which from 1986 have been the premier forum for advances in capture–recapture methodology. In this sense, EURING Conferences still maintain the flavour that originally inspired scientific meetings: to disseminate the very last findings, ideas and results on the field. Traditionally, EURING Conferen...

Conroy, M. J.; Dhondt, A.; Senar, J. C.

2004-01-01

245

Factors associated with maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: an ecological study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal health is one of the major worldwide health challenges. Currently, the unacceptably high levels of maternal mortality are a common subject in global health and development discussions. Although some countries have made remarkable progress, half of the maternal deaths in the world still take place in Sub-Saharan Africa where little or no progress has been made. There is no single simple, straightforward intervention that will significantly decrease maternal mortality alone; however, there is a consensus on the importance of a strong health system, skilled delivery attendants, and women's rights for maternal health. Our objective was to describe and determine different factors associated with the maternal mortality ratio in Sub-Saharan countries. Methods An ecological multi-group study compared variables between many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa using data collected between 1997 and 2006. The dependent variable was the maternal mortality ratio, and Health care system-related, educational and economic indicators were the independent variables. Information sources included the WHO, World Bank, UNICEF and UNDP. Results Maternal mortality ratio values in Sub-Saharan Africa were demonstrated to be high and vary enormously among countries. A relationship between the maternal mortality ratio and some educational, sanitary and economic factors was observed. There was an inverse and significant correlation of the maternal mortality ratio with prenatal care coverage, births assisted by skilled health personnel, access to an improved water source, adult literacy rate, primary female enrolment rate, education index, the Gross National Income per capita and the per-capita government expenditure on health. Conclusions Education and an effective and efficient health system, especially during pregnancy and delivery, are strongly related to maternal death. Also, macro-economic factors are related and could be influencing the others.

Hernández Valentín

2009-12-01

246

Prodromal functioning of migraine patients relative to their interictal state--an ecological momentary assessment study.  

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Smartphones were used in an online Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) design to test prodromal functioning relative to the interictal state in migraine patients. Eighty-seven participants completed an electronic diary 4 times daily during 3-6 weeks to monitor their migraine attacks. Twice daily the diary additionally included 16 multi-answer questions covering physical symptoms (30 items), cognitive-affective functioning (25 items) and external factors (25 items). Eight clustered prodromal features were identified in the current study: sensory sensitivity, pain/stiffness, fatigue, cognitive functioning, positive affect, negative affect, effort spent and stressors encountered. Per feature, individual change scores with interictal control days--excluding 24-hour post-attack recovery--were computed for six 12-hour pre-attack time windows covering three prodromal days. Linear mixed model (fixed-effect) analysis established significant increases in sensory sensitivity, pain/stiffness and fatigue, and a tendency for increased negative affect, in the 12 hours prior to the attack. Positive affect and cognitive functioning were impaired both in the 25-36 hour and--more strongly--in the 12-hour time window before the attack. No effects were found for effort spent and stressors encountered. Exploratory (random effect) analysis revealed significant individual differences in the change scores in sensory sensitivity, pain/stiffness, fatigue and negative affect. It is concluded that the prodromal change in migraine--relative to interictal functioning--predominantly exists within the last 12 hours before attack onset. Individual diversity is large, however. Future research should zoom in to identify prodrome development within the 12 pre-attack hours as well as to isolate individual patterns. PMID:23977358

Houtveen, Jan H; Sorbi, Marjolijn J

2013-01-01

247

Urban green and its relation with air pollution: ecological studies in the Metropolitan area of Rome  

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Full Text Available Tropospheric ozone (O3 and Particulate Matter (PM have become a major concern in most European cities. In particular, in Italy the O3 concentrations exceed the limits established for the protection of both human health and vegetation. More integrative studies are revealing that urban trees could concretely help in improving air quality, not only because of their well known aesthetic and recreational benefit, but also for their capability to reduce air temperature and to remove air pollutants. This reduction takes place both directly, by dry deposition to plant surfaces and uptake through stomata, and indirectly, by mitigation of the urban heat island intensity by canopy transpiration and building shading, that lowers the activity of chemical reactions that led to the formation of photochemical pollutants in air. This is of particular importance especially for those cities located in the Mediterranean Basin, whose urban vegetation is often characterized by VOC-emitting species that can contribute significantly to the O3 formation and destruction dynamics. The aim of this paper is to present a short review of ecological research performed on vegetation of the metropolitan area of Rome, at different spatial and temporal scale, in order to evaluate the functional role of urban green to monitor and improve urban air quality. In the frame of the project HEREPLUS (EU FP7, all of this information, opportunely integrated with climatic and pollutant data, will be implemented in a GIS and, by the use of geo-statistical methods, the ameliorating effect of urban vegetation will be quantified and mapped.

Fausto Manes

2008-12-01

248

SOIL BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY  

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The term "Soil Biology", the study of organism groups living in soil, (plants, lichens, algae, moss, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, and arthropods), predates "Soil Ecology", the study of interactions between soil organisms as mediated by the soil physical environment. oil ...

249

Study on Ecological Balance of Chinese Higher Education in Popularization Stage  

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Since the beginning of Chinese higher education expansion in 1999, higher education in terms of scale, speed and structure has been rapid development and beyond the bearing capacity of its ecological balance, input and output of the unbalanced phenomenon between higher education and social environment, the unbalanced phenomenon also appear in…

Liu, Min; Gao, Hong-liang

2009-01-01

250

The Social Ecological Challenges of Rural Victim Advocacy: An Exploratory Study  

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This article re-centers an ecological model traditionally used to understand the experiences of interpersonal violence victims around the perceptions and experiences of victim advocates. We suggest that the development of such a model might shed light on rural-urban differences in the accessibility and availability of support services in rural…

McGrath, Shelly A.; Johnson, Melencia; Miller, Michelle Hughes

2012-01-01

251

Exploring the Mechanisms of Ecological Land Change Based on the Spatial Autoregressive Model: A Case Study of the Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone, China  

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Full Text Available Ecological land is one of the key resources and conditions for the survival of humans because it can provide ecosystem services and is particularly important to public health and safety. It is extremely valuable for effective ecological management to explore the evolution mechanisms of ecological land. Based on spatial statistical analyses, we explored the spatial disparities and primary potential drivers of ecological land change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone of China. The results demonstrated that the global Moran’s I value is 0.1646 during the 1990 to 2005 time period and indicated signi?cant positive spatial correlation (p < 0.05. The results also imply that the clustering trend of ecological land changes weakened in the study area. Some potential driving forces were identified by applying the spatial autoregressive model in this study. The results demonstrated that the higher economic development level and industrialization rate were the main drivers for the faster change of ecological land in the study area. This study also tested the superiority of the spatial autoregressive model to study the mechanisms of ecological land change by comparing it with the traditional linear regressive model.

Hualin Xie

2013-12-01

252

Exploring the mechanisms of ecological land change based on the spatial autoregressive model: a case study of the Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone, China.  

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Ecological land is one of the key resources and conditions for the survival of humans because it can provide ecosystem services and is particularly important to public health and safety. It is extremely valuable for effective ecological management to explore the evolution mechanisms of ecological land. Based on spatial statistical analyses, we explored the spatial disparities and primary potential drivers of ecological land change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone of China. The results demonstrated that the global Moran's I value is 0.1646 during the 1990 to 2005 time period and indicated signi?cant positive spatial correlation (p < 0.05). The results also imply that the clustering trend of ecological land changes weakened in the study area. Some potential driving forces were identified by applying the spatial autoregressive model in this study. The results demonstrated that the higher economic development level and industrialization rate were the main drivers for the faster change of ecological land in the study area. This study also tested the superiority of the spatial autoregressive model to study the mechanisms of ecological land change by comparing it with the traditional linear regressive model. PMID:24384778

Xie, Hualin; Liu, Zhifei; Wang, Peng; Liu, Guiying; Lu, Fucai

2014-01-01

253

General Ecology  

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This tutorial explains how environmental conditions and organism interactions determine animal and tree distribution and abundance. There are definitions of important ecological terms such as ecology, interactions, and abundance; descriptions of the environmental conditions needed for rainforests and how they provide habitat for many species; and an explanation of the spawning process. The tutorial also introduces food chain concepts and the unique ecology of riparian habitats. A quiz is also available.

254

Ecological economics  

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Ecological economics is a recently developed field, which sees the economy as a subsystem of a larger finite global ecosystem. Ecological economists question the sustainability of the economy because of its environmental impacts and its material and energy requirements, and also because of the growth of population. Attempts at assigning money values to environmental services and losses, and attempts at correcting macroeconomic accounting, are part of ecological economics, but its main thrust ...

Marti?nez Alier, Joan

2001-01-01

255

[Ecological service assessment of human-dominated freshwater ecosystem with a case study in Yangzhou Prefecture, China.  

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Freshwater ecosystems provide a host of services to humanity. These services are now rapidly being lost, not least because of the inability of making the impacts measurable. To overcome this obstacle, assessment frameworks for freshwater ecosystem services are needed. A simple water equivalent framework to assess the ecological services provided by freshwater ecosystems was developed in this study. It translated the occupation of freshwater ecosystem services into biologically freshwater volumes and then compares this consumption to the freshwater throughput, that is, the ecological capacity available in this region. In this way, we use the example of Yangzhou Prefecture, to account the main categories of human occupation of water ecosystem services. The result showed that there is a huge gap between the consumption and the supply of freshwater ecosystem services. This must encourage local government to make land-use and water management decisions both economically rational and environmentally sound. PMID:15559806

Ye, Ya-Ping; Wang, Ru-Song; Ren, Jing-Ming; Hu, Dan; Yuan, Shao-Jun; Wang, Min

2004-01-01

256

Ecological Footprint as a tool for local sustainability: The municipality of Piacenza (Italy) as a case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ecological Footprint is a synthetic index useful to assess sustainability of anthropic systems. Its operational use, however, has been hampered by some difficulties, especially at a local scale. Being conceived as a measure of the biologically productive area requested to sustain individual consumptions in a human community, it leaves out the impacts associated to economic activities. Accordingly, the index cannot contribute much to define local policies, whose target are economic activities, and only marginally affect citizens' behaviour. Ecological Footprint calculation scheme can be modified to include the depletion of natural capital due to local activities such as industry, agriculture, tertiary sector, transport, waste and water management. We provide here an approach which takes into account these different aspects, while we discuss its application to a municipal area as a case study

257

[Lake ecosystem services and their ecological valuation--a case study of Baoan Lake in Hubei province].  

Science.gov (United States)

Along with the maturation of estimation methods for biological resources, the studies on the services value of ecosystem become a hotspot in ecology. The studies on the services value of lake ecosystem were not been reported before this issue, and this issue firstly attempted to estimate the Baoan Lake ecosystem services and its indirect economic values on the basis of ecological function analysis and some economic methods. The results showed that the indirect economic value (in RMB) of organic matter production, CO2 fixation, O2 release, nutrient recycling, water conservancy and water supply and SO2 degradation were 1.51 x 10(7), 4.77 x 10(7), 3.63 x 10(7), 4.45 x 10(5), 1.10 x 10(8), 5.15 x 10(5) yuan.yr-1, respectively. The sum was about 2.24 x 10(8) yuan.yr-1. From the above incomplete estimation, it was known that the Baoan Lake ecosystem has great ecological and economic values. PMID:12557684

Pan, Wenbin; Tang, Tao; Deng, Hongbing; Cai, Qinghua

2002-10-01

258

Age adjustment in ecological studies: using a study on arsenic ingestion and bladder cancer as an example  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its limitations, ecological study design is widely applied in epidemiology. In most cases, adjustment for age is necessary, but different methods may lead to different conclusions. To compare three methods of age adjustment, a study on the associations between arsenic in drinking water and incidence of bladder cancer in 243 townships in Taiwan was used as an example. Methods A total of 3068 cases of bladder cancer, including 2276 men and 792 women, were identified during a ten-year study period in the study townships. Three methods were applied to analyze the same data set on the ten-year study period. The first (Direct Method applied direct standardization to obtain standardized incidence rate and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis. The second (Indirect Method applied indirect standardization to obtain standardized incidence ratio and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis instead. The third (Variable Method used proportions of residents in different age groups as a part of the independent variables in the multiple regression models. Results All three methods showed a statistically significant positive association between arsenic exposure above 0.64 mg/L and incidence of bladder cancer in men and women, but different results were observed for the other exposure categories. In addition, the risk estimates obtained by different methods for the same exposure category were all different. Conclusions Using an empirical example, the current study confirmed the argument made by other researchers previously that whereas the three different methods of age adjustment may lead to different conclusions, only the third approach can obtain unbiased estimates of the risks. The third method can also generate estimates of the risk associated with each age group, but the other two are unable to evaluate the effects of age directly.

Guo How-Ran

2011-10-01

259

Concern about passive smoking and tobacco control policies in European countries: An ecological study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the magnitude of the global tobacco epidemic, the World Health Organisation developed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC, an international legally binding treaty to control tobacco use. Adoption and implementation of specific tobacco control measures within FCTC is an outcome of a political process, where social norms and public opinion play important roles. The objective of our study was to examine how a country’s level of tobacco control is associated with smoking prevalence, two markers of denormalisation of smoking (social disapproval of smoking and concern about passive smoking, and societal support for tobacco control. Methods An ecological study was conducted, using data from two sources. The first source was the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS from 2011, which quantifies the implementation of tobacco control policies in European Union (EU countries. Data on smoking prevalence, societal disapproval of smoking, concern about passive smoking, and societal support for policy measures were taken from the Eurobarometer survey of 2009. Data from Eurobarometer surveys were aggregated to country level. Data from the 27 European Union member states were used. Results Smoking prevalence rates in 2009 were negatively associated with a country’s TCS 2011 score, although not statistically significant (r = ?.25; p = .21. Experience of societal disapproval was positively associated with higher TCS scores, though not significantly (r = .14; p = .48. The same was true for societal support for tobacco control (r = .27; p = .18. The TCS score in 2011 was significantly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .42; p =.03. Support for tobacco control measures was also strongly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .52, p = .006. Conclusions Smokers in countries with a higher TCS score were more concerned about whether their smoke harms others. Further, support for tobacco control measures is higher in countries that have more of these concerned smokers. Concerns about passive smoking seem central in the implementation of tobacco control measures, stressing the importance of continuing to educate the public about the harm from passive smoking.

Willemsen Marc C

2012-10-01

260

Ecological study of the fungal populations of the acidic Tinto River in southwestern Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

The characterization of the microbial ecology of the Tinto River, an extreme habitat with an extremely low pH and a high concentration of heavy metals, revealed an unexpected level of microbial richness. A variety of microbial eukaryotes was isolated, among them several fungal strains that were identified and their physiological characteristics studied. Ninety strains of yeast were isolated from the Tinto River. Fifty-two percent of them were capable of growth in vitro using medium amended with river water. They belong to 6 genera of basidiomycetes (Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus, Tremella, Holtermannia, Leucosporidium, and Mrakia) and 2 of ascomycetes (Candida and Williopsis). In addition, 349 strains of hyphomycetes belonging to 17 genera (most of them ascomycetes) were isolated and studied. Forty-four percent of the isolated filamentous fungi (154 strains) were capable of growing in vitro using medium amended with Tinto River water. Of this percentage, 19% (29 strains) belonged to the genus Penicillium (16 species) and 66% (102 strains) were included in the genera Scytalidium, Bahusakala, Phoma, and Heteroconium or showed dark sterile mycelia, which probably are of dematiaceous hyphomycetes. In addition, we characterized strains of the ascomycete genera Lecythophora and Acremonium and of the zygomycete genus Mortierella, all of them capable of growing in medium amended with river water. Statistical correlation of biological and physicochemical variables suggested a positive relationship between the dematiaceous hyphomycetes and the most extreme physicochemical conditions found in the Tinto River. Principal components analysis confirmed this relationship and also showed that the Acremonium and Lecythophora groups had environmental preferences similar to those of dematiaceous fungi. The spatial positions of the sampling sites were grouped in 2 main clusters: (i) sampling sites in the mine zone in which most of the dematiaceous, Acremonium, and Lecythophora strains were isolated and (ii) sites that were not in the mine zone and sampling station 5 from which were isolated mainly strains of fungi that were not capable of growing in the medium amended with river water and species of the Penicillium genus. PMID:15644909

López-Archilla, A I; González, A E; Terrón, M C; Amils, R

2004-11-01

 
 
 
 
261

Comparative transcriptome profiling analyses during the lag phase uncover YAP1, PDR1, PDR3, RPN4, and HSF1 as key regulatory genes in genomic adaptation to the lignocellulose derived inhibitor HMF for Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to adapt and in situ detoxify lignocellulose derived inhibitors such as furfural and HMF. The length of lag phase for cell growth in response to the inhibitor challenge has been used to measure tolerance of strain performance. Mechanisms of yeast tolerance at the genome level remain unknown. Using systems biology approach, this study investigated comparative transcriptome profiling, metabolic profiling, cell growth response, and gene regulatory interactions of yeast strains and selective gene deletion mutations in response to HMF challenges during the lag phase of growth. Results We identified 365 candidate genes and found at least 3 significant components involving some of these genes that enable yeast adaptation and tolerance to HMF in yeast. First, functional enzyme coding genes such as ARI1, ADH6, ADH7, and OYE3, as well as gene interactions involved in the biotransformation and inhibitor detoxification were the direct driving force to reduce HMF damages in cells. Expressions of these genes were regulated by YAP1 and its closely related regulons. Second, a large number of PDR genes, mainly regulated by PDR1 and PDR3, were induced during the lag phase and the PDR gene family-centered functions, including specific and multiple functions involving cellular transport such as TPO1, TPO4, RSB1, PDR5, PDR15, YOR1, and SNQ2, promoted cellular adaptation and survival in order to cope with the inhibitor stress. Third, expressed genes involving degradation of damaged proteins and protein modifications such as SHP1 and SSA4, regulated by RPN4, HSF1, and other co-regulators, were necessary for yeast cells to survive and adapt the HMF stress. A deletion mutation strain ?rpn4 was unable to recover the growth in the presence of HMF. Conclusions Complex gene interactions and regulatory networks as well as co-regulations exist in yeast adaptation and tolerance to the lignocellulose derived inhibitor HMF. Both induced and repressed genes involving diversified functional categories are accountable for adaptation and energy rebalancing in yeast to survive and adapt the HMF stress during the lag phase of growth. Transcription factor genes YAP1, PDR1, PDR3, RPN4, and HSF1 appeared to play key regulatory rules for global adaptation in the yeast S. cerevisiae.

Liu Z Lewis

2010-11-01

262

Floristical and Ecological Studies on Burned Blackpine (Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb Holmboe Forest Area at Central Anatolia  

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Full Text Available In the burned forest area between 1999-2002 the floristical and ecological studies were conducted. In this period, successional development of the area was observed. After the fire in 1995, new life forms migrated from unburned parts of Sundiken Mountains and occupied the burned area in 7-8 years. There were 133 plant taxa were collected at the first year of the study and during the successional development the number of plant taxa decreased to 75. The secondary succession of the area were determined between 1999-2002. After the fire the dominant plant species of the study area is Cistus laurifolius.

Atila Ocak

2007-01-01

263

The DAE-BRNS initiative on thermal ecological studies relevance and implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Industrial development has its costs and benefits and electric power generation is no exception. The costs include not only the financial burden but also the ecological impact on the environment and the appreciation of such costs is, slowly but surely, increasing globally. In several industrial processes involving generation or consumption of power, naturally occurring water bodies serve as heat sinks. Electric power production can lead to rise in temperatures in two distinct ways, namely (i) a direct heated water discharge, of (ii) indirect global warming through CO2 and other green house gases (GHGs). The dissipation of heat through the plant cooling water systems is the only heated effluents can effect the growth, development and distribution of flora and fauna in the surroundings, and if so to what extent, is an important issue of discussion at this meeting. DAE has taken an initiative to investigate the thermal ecology in the environment around an existing coastal (Kalpakkam) and inland (Kaiga) nuclear power plant

264

Case Studies of Ecological Integrative Information Systems: The Luquillo and Sevilleta Information Management Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The thirty-year-old United States Long Term Ecological Research Network has developed extensive metadata to document their scientific data. Standard and interoperable metadata is a core component of the data-driven analytical solutions developed by this research network Content management systems offer an affordable solution for rapid deployment of metadata centered information management systems. We developed a customized integrative metadata management system based on the Drupal content management system technology. Building on knowledge and experience with the Sevilleta and Luquillo Long Term Ecological Research sites, we successfully deployed the first two medium-scale customized prototypes. In this paper, we describe the vision behind our Drupal based information management instances, and list the features offered through these Drupal based systems. We also outline the plans to expand the information services offered through these metadata centered management systems. We will conclude with the growing list of participants deploying similar instances.

San Gil, Inigo; White, Marshall; Melendez, Eda; Vanderbilt, Kristin

265

Economic-Ecological Values of Non-Tidal Swamp Ecosystem: Case Study in Tapin District, Kalimantan, Indonesia  

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Full Text Available This article would like to describe the economic and ecological benefits, as well as analyzing the total economic value of non-tidal swamps. Non-tidal swamps in the District Tapin are interested to be studied because of the use of non-tidal swamp in this area for people, especially ethnic Banjar since over a hundred years ago. But since 2011 the South Kalimantan local government has set a palm oil plantation development plans (Elaeis guineensis on the area. Assessment has been conducted with a total valuation approach (total valuation. We found that the ecosystem has economic benefits in the form of functions of water supply for rice paddy (Oryza sativa, timber plants (Melaleca cajuputi, fisheries, Purun plants (Eleocharis dulcis, and functions as a source of domestic water. It has also ecological benefits in the form of biological functions such as: the provision of feed (feeding ground, where fish rearing, timber Galam (nursery ground, and hatchery fish (spawning ground, as storage and recycle of water, and function options (option value in the form of biodiversity. Based on the results of the assessment are known, the total economic value amounted to 22.7 million per hectare, with the ratio of the economic value of only 7.14% compared to the ecological value of 92.86%. Therefore non-tidal swamps conversion plan into another function not only the loss of economic value (direct benefits that had been in the swamp enjoy the surrounding community, but also a greater loss in the form of loss of ecological value (indirect benefits.

Hamdani Hamdani

2013-12-01

266

Report of the Study Group on Regiounal Scale Ecology of Small Pelagic Fish (SGRESP)  

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A component of the ecosystem approach to fisheries management is the understanding of the environment induced variability in fish stocks. To start making that component operational, SGRESP was concerned about building the means by which ecological knowledge can serve stock health diagnostic, recruitment projection and management strategy. A major result from SGRESP in 2004 was the recognition that the environment-population relationship was to be seen as an interaction between the population ...

ICES

2005-01-01

267

Non invasive methods for genetic analysis applied to ecological and behavioral studies in Latino-America  

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Documenting the presence and abundance of the neotropical mammals is the first step for understanding their population ecology, behavior and genetic dynamics in designing conservation plans. The combination of field research with molecular genetics techniques are new tools that provide valuable biological information avoiding the disturbance in the ecosystems, trying to minimize the human impact in the process to gather biological information. The objective of this paper is to review the avai...

Susana González; José Mauricio Barbanti Duarte

2007-01-01

268

Can Local Ecological Knowledge Contribute to Wildlife Management? Case Studies of Migratory Birds  

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Sound management of wildlife species, particularly those that are harvested, requires extensive information on their natural history and demography. For many global wildlife populations, however, insufficient scientific information exists, and alternative data sources may need to be considered in management decisions. In some circumstances, local ecological knowledge (LEK) can serve as a useful, complementary data source, and may be particularly valuable when managing wildlife populations tha...

Mark Mallory; Grant Gilchrist; Flemming Merkel

2005-01-01

269

Ecological Consultancy  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the first of a new regular feature on careers, designed to provide those who teach biology with some inspiration when advising their students. In this issue, two consultant ecologists explain how their career paths developed. It is a misconception that there are few jobs in ecology. Over the past 20 or 30 years ecological consultancy has…

Wilson, Scott McG.; Tattersfield, Peter

2004-01-01

270

Linking Ecological and Perceptual Assessments for Environmental Management: a Coral Reef Case Study  

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Full Text Available Integrating information from a range of community members in environmental management provides a more complete assessment of the problem and a diversification of management options, but is difficult to achieve. To investigate the relationship between different environmental interpretations, I compared three distinct measures of anchor damage on coral reefs: ecological measures, perceptual meanings, and subjective health judgments. The ecological measures identified an increase in the number of overturned corals and a reduction in coral cover, the perceptual meanings identified a loss of visual quality, and the health judgments identified a reduction in the health of the coral reef sites associated with high levels of anchoring. Combining the perceptual meanings and health judgments identified that the judgment of environmental health was a key feature that both scientific and lay participants used to describe the environment. Some participants in the survey were familiar with the coral reef environment, and others were not. However, they provided consistent judgment of a healthy coral reef, suggesting that these judgments were not linked to present-day experiences. By combining subjective judgments and ecological measures, the point at which the environment is deemed to lose visual quality was identified; for these coral reefs, if the level of damage rose above 10.3% and the cover of branching corals dropped below 17.1%, the reefs were described as unhealthy. Therefore, by combining the information, a management agency can involve the community in identifying when remedial action is required or when management policies are effectively maintaining a healthy ecosystem.

Elizabeth A. Dinsdale

2009-12-01

271

An ecological time-series study of heat-related mortality in three European cities  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Europe has experienced warmer summers in the past two decades and there is a need to describe the determinants of heat-related mortality to better inform public health activities during hot weather. We investigated the effect of high temperatures on daily mortality in three cities in Europe (Budapest, London, and Milan, using a standard approach. Methods An ecological time-series study of daily mortality was conducted in three cities using Poisson generalized linear models allowing for over-dispersion. Secular trends in mortality and seasonal confounding factors were controlled for using cubic smoothing splines of time. Heat exposure was modelled using average values of the temperature measure on the same day as death (lag 0 and the day before (lag 1. The heat effect was quantified assuming a linear increase in risk above a cut-point for each city. Socio-economic status indicators and census data were linked with mortality data for stratified analyses. Results The risk of heat-related death increased with age, and females had a greater risk than males in age groups ?65 years in London and Milan. The relative risks of mortality (per °C above the heat cut-point by gender and age were: (i Male 1.10 (95%CI: 1.07–1.12 and Female 1.07 (1.05–1.10 for 75–84 years, (ii M 1.10 (1.06–1.14 and F 1.08 (1.06–1.11 for ?85 years in Budapest (?24°C; (i M 1.03 (1.01–1.04 and F 1.07 (1.05–1.09, (ii M 1.05 (1.03–1.07 and F 1.08 (1.07–1.10 in London (?20°C; and (i M 1.08 (1.03–1.14 and F 1.20 (1.15–1.26, (ii M 1.18 (1.11–1.26 and F 1.19 (1.15–1.24 in Milan (?26°C. Mortality from external causes increases at higher temperatures as well as that from respiratory and cardiovascular disease. There was no clear evidence of effect modification by socio-economic status in either Budapest or London, but there was a seemingly higher risk for affluent non-elderly adults in Milan. Conclusion We found broadly consistent determinants (age, gender, and cause of death of heat related mortality in three European cities using a standard approach. Our results are consistent with previous evidence for individual determinants, and also confirm the lack of a strong socio-economic gradient in heat health effects currently in Europe.

Russo Antonio

2008-01-01

272

Study on the Response of Ecological Capacity to Land-Use/Cover Change in Wuhan City: A Remote Sensing and GIS Based Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

This research examined the spatiotemporal patterns of land-use/cover and the dynamics of ecological capacity in response to land-use/cover change in Wuhan city, central China. The data were derived from five years' remote-sensed images, that is, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. This paper used an integrated approach of remote sensing and GIS techniques, ecological capacity and the bilateral dynamic degree models. The results are as follows. (1) From 1990 to 2010, remarkable changes in land-use/cover have occurred within the studied area, and the most prominent characteristics of the changes were continuous decline of arable land and rapid increase of built-up land. (2) The total ecological capacity dropped from 450.55 × 104?ghm2 in 1990 to 447.35 × 104?ghm2 in 2010. The eastern, western, and southern parts had higher ecological capacity whereas the northwestern hilly areas and the central district had lower ecological capacity. (3) Due to the conversion from arable land to built-up land, the ecological capacity losses during 1990–1995, 1995–2000, 2000–2005, and 2005–2010 were 155.52 × 102?ghm2, 114.12 × 102?ghm2, 455.48 × 102?ghm2, and 325.26 × 102?ghm2, respectively. The study would contribute to better understanding of the effects of land-use dynamics and the evolution of ecological capacity, which can provide scientific basis for land management and environment protection.

Wang, Ying; Li, Xiangmei

2014-01-01

273

Development of a zoning-based environmental-ecological coupled model for lakes: a case study of Baiyangdian Lake in northern China  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental/ecological models are widely used for lake management as they provide a means to understand physical, chemical, and biological processes in highly complex ecosystems. Most research has focused on the development of environmental (water quality) and ecological models, separately. Limited studies were developed to couple the two models, and in these limited coupled models, a lake was regarded as a whole for analysis (i.e. considering the lake to be one well-mixed box), which is appropriate for small-scale lakes but is not sufficient to capture spatial variations within middle-scale or large-scale lakes. In response to this problem, this paper seeks to establish a zoning-based environmental-ecological coupled model for a lake. Hierarchical cluster analysis was adopted to determine the number of zones in a given lake based on hydrological, water quality, and ecological data analysis. The MIKE 21 model was used to construct 2-D hydrodynamics and water quality simulations. STELLA software was used to create a lake ecological model that can simulate the spatial variations of ecological condition based on flow field distribution results generated by MIKE 21. Baiyangdian Lake, the largest freshwater lake in northern China, was adopted as the study case. The results showed that the new model is promising for predicting spatial variations of ecological conditions in response to changes in lake water quantity and quality, and could be useful for lake management.

Zhao, Y. W.; Xu, M. J.; Xu, F.; Wu, S. R.; Yin, X. A.

2014-06-01

274

Terrestrial animal ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Animal Ecology project is an integral part of the terrestrial ecology program. For convenience, it is reported separately because of the specialized nature of its techniques. It includes studies to characterize faunal populations taxonomically and ecologically and to estimate density and biomass of important mammal, bird, herpetofauna, and invertebrate populations. Extensive studies of small mammal populations conducted in past years are being summarized for open literature publication. Methodology and techniques developed in the animal ecology program are expected to be vital to studies to be initiated under a newly funded 189 entitled Radioecology of Waste Management Zones. These kinds of supportive studies will be needed to determine dietary habits of important animals inhabiting waste management zones, construction of realistic food chain models, and estimating radioactivity doses to biota

275

?????????????—???????????? Development of Ecological Economy, Accelerate Wetland Conservation—The case study on West Dongting Lake Nature Reserve  

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Full Text Available ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Since established, the West Dongting Lake Nature Reserve has taken full advantage of ecological economics theories and system engineering methods to change the production and consumption patterns. This article expounds that the West Dongting Lake Nature Reserve makes the best of the wetland resources to develop ecological economy, such as ecological tourism, Organic Fisheries and so on within the ecological capacities, and effectively promotes the protection of the ecological environment, and offers reasonable proposals for the future development of the wetland ecological economy.

???

2013-04-01

276

Environmental exposure to mineral fibers in New Caledonia: an ecological study  

Science.gov (United States)

Inhalation of asbestos and other fibrous minerals causes lung cancer and other malignancies, specifically malignant mesothelioma (MM). MM is an aggressive pleural tumor that presents with a median latency period of 30-40 years from initial fiber exposure. Due to occupational exposure, MM incidence is 4-8 times higher in men as compared to women. In New Caledonia (NC), very high incidences of MM and lung cancer were observed in both men and women, suggesting an environmental origin of exposure. Although nickel mining and the traditional use of tremolite-containing whitewash were suspected causes of MM, numerous MM cases have been observed in areas lacking these risk factors. We carried out an ecological study of MM incidence in NC and identified a study area that included those counties having the highest MM incidences as well as counties lacking MM. We conducted epidemiological and environmental investigations for each of the 100 tribes living within this area. Residential history was assessed for each MM case, and samples of each quarry, road, and whitewash were analyzed to determine the nature of any mineral fibers. We analyzed the environmental determinants of MM, including geology, mineralogy, plant cover, land shape and human activities as well as use of whitewash, by using two univariate and multivariate statistical methods: 1) a logistic regression to compare tribes with and without MM cases and calculate the odds ratios, (OR) 2) the Poisson regression to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRR) for each factor. While most MM cases among Caucasians were observed in men with a mean age of 72, indicating occupational exposure, Melanesians exhibited elevated MM incidence in both men and women at a mean age of 60. A sex ratio close to 1 compounded with the relatively young ages of MM cases confirmed environmental causation within the Melanesian population. We found one significant and two secondary spatial clusters of MM in tribal areas. No temporal cluster was observed. We identified several natural sources of mineral fibers in the study area, including clay-like white soils containing tremolite-actinolite, fibrous antigorite deposits, and veins of chrysotile in peridotite massifs, in addition to multiple serpentinite quarries predominantly containing antigorite. Statistical analyses revealed that the use of serpentinite to pave roads was the greatest risk factor for MM (OR=495.0, 95%CI:46.2-4679.7; multivariate IRR=13.0, 95%CI:10.2-16.6). Other MM risk factors in order of importance were the presence of antigorite, proximity to serpentinite quarries, proximity to peridotite massifs, and presence of chrysotile. Dense vegetation and land slope were protective factors. Whitewash use was not related to MM incidence. Many natural fibrous minerals are not commercially used as asbestos and are therefore not regulated. However, our study demonstrated that non-regulated antigorite fibers are related to cancer, and that soils containing these minerals pose an environmental risk to the population when the fibers are released into the air by weathering or by human activities. Regulation of additional fibrous minerals is therefore suggested.

Baumann, F.; Ambrosi, J.

2013-05-01

277

The ecological economics: An ecological economics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ecological Economics arise as a scientific discipline aimed to integrate concepts of economics, ecology, thermodynamics, ethic and other natural and social sciences in order to incorporate a biophysical and integrated perspective of the inter dependences between economies and environment, from a plural conception and a methodology beyond disciplines. Ecological Economics studies the black box of economic processes usually excluded of the traditional economics: thermodynamics and ecology. Although it is relatively a new field of study, it has been strengthening its theoretical framework with scientific basis and analytic principles that lead to its identification as a new discipline that show a whole new paradigm. The scope of this article is to show the conceptual and methodological bases, the main founders, approaches and central debates of this new discipline. This brief introduction is a preamble to the papers of the meeting Ecological Economics: a perspective for Colombia included in this number, that took place on September 22 - 27 of 2007, at the National University of Colombia at Bogota. During tree days national and international experts, professors, researchers, workers of environmental sector and people interested on environmental issues joined together to know the conceptual and methodological achievements reached of this discipline; as well as to analyse and evaluate the environmental problems of the country, from the systemic, interdisciplinary and generathe systemic, interdisciplinary and general perspective that it promotes

278

AN APPROACH TO INTEGRATED ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF RESOURCE CONDITION: THE MID ATLANTIC ESTUARIES AS A CASE STUDY  

Science.gov (United States)

The complex and interconnected nature of ecological systems often makes it difficult to understand and prevent multiresource, multistressor problems. This article describes a process to assess ecological condition at regional scales. The article also describes how the approach wa...

279

Ecological Footprints  

Science.gov (United States)

Ever wondered what sort of impact your everyday existence has on the planet? The University of Texas at Austin offers this information as part of their training in Natural Resource Management. An ecological footprint is defined here as "the area on the surface of Earth that each person appropriates in order to live," including many kinds of ecological services -- from food, air, water, and living space, to the recycling of wastes. This site offers an introduction to the concept of Ecological Footprints, including links to spreadsheets for calculation, national footprints, and related scientific articles.

280

Testing hypotheses on the ecological patterns of rarity using a novel model of study: snake communities worldwide  

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Full Text Available The theoretical and empirical causes and consequences of rarity are of central importance for both ecological theory and conservation. It is not surprising that studies of the biology of rarity have grown tremendously during the past two decades, with particular emphasis on patterns observed in insects, birds, mammals, and plants. I analyse the patterns of the biology of rarity by using a novel model system: snake communities worldwide. I also test some of the main hypotheses that have been proposed to explain and predict rarity in species. I use two operational definitions for rarity in snakes: Rare species (RAR are those that accounted for 1% to 2% of the total number of individuals captured within a given community; Very rare species (VER account for ?1% of individuals captured. I analyse each community by sample size, species richness, continent, climatic region, habitat and ecological characteristics of the RAR and VER species. Positive correlations between total species number and the fraction of RAR and VER species and between sample size and rare species in general were found. As shownin previous insect studies, there is a clear trend for the percentage of RAR and VER snake species to increase in species-rich, tropical African and South American communities. This study also shows that rare species are particularly common in the tropics, although habitat type did not influence the frequency of RAR and VER species. This analysis also confirms the commonly accepted ecological hypothesis that body size and rarity are clearly and widely correlated in natural animal communities. However, in snake communities there is often an association between large and small species among the rare species, and a tendency for ophiophagous species to be rare. In addition, there was no support for the hypothesis that rare species should be typically phylogenetically primitive. The hypothesis that species with narrower realized ecological niches are more likely to be rare or very rare is supported by the evidence presented here on snake communities. In general, this study shows that snakes may make ”model organisms” for studies on the biology of rarity.

L. Luiselli

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

Ecological approach to the study of medicinal plants: Soil-plant relationship  

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Full Text Available A very important parameter for the utilization of medicinal plants is the quality of active substances. The quality of the plant active substances does not depend only on its physiological potential and condition, but also on the environmental factors. The status of microelements in the soil and the basic ecological indices of plants, as the site indicators, at two localities on Mt. Kosmaj are presented. It was concluded that these relationships are very complex, in most cases identical and in direct correlation with the representation of individual plant species. Medicinal plants were analyzed in the first place because of their potential exploitation.

Obratov-Petkovi? Dragica

2004-01-01

282

A short Study of Indigenouse Social Movments and the Political Ecology in Mexico and Latin America  

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Full Text Available

Struggles of traditional movements have become blurred in the face of globalization intersecting with new demands and causes revolving around globalization, such as indigenous, women and human rights, environment, etc. The internationalization of civil society refers to cross-border linkages established by social movement organizations in peace, human rights, and environmental, gender, and labor, indigenous and other social movements.

This paper aims to analyze the historical social approach and under the frame of indigenous political ecology of social movements for recognition of indigenous rights in contemporary Mexico.

 

José G. Vargas Hernández

2010-02-01

283

Higher tier field research in ecological risk assessment: a case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A newly developed basic procedure for site-specific ecological risk assessment in The Netherlands was followed in practice for the first time. In line with conventional Triade approaches, the procedure includes multidisciplinary parameters from environmental chemistry, toxicology and ecology to provide multiple weight of evidence. However, land use at the contaminated site and its vicinity is given more importance, and research parameters are selected in accordance to specific objectives for land use in order to test for harmful effects to underlying ecosystem services. Moreover, the approach is characterized by repetitive interactions between stakeholders and researching consultants, in particular with respect to the choice of parameters and criteria to assess the results. The approach was followed in an ecological risk assessment to test the assumptions underlying a soil management plant for a rural area in The Netherlands, called 'Krimpenerwaard'. Throughout this region some 5000 polder ditches have been filled with waste materials originating from local households, waterway sludge, industrial wastes, car shredders, and more. Several sites are severely polluted by heavy metals, cyanide, PAH or chlorinated hydrocarbons and require remediation or clean up. However, the exact distribution of these wastes over the entire region is scarcely known, and the Krimpenerwaard as a whole is treated as one case of serious soil pollution. A soil management plan was constructed by 13 stakeholding parties, aiming for a 'functional clean up' in view of land use, by means of covering 'suspected' categories of wastes with a 30-cm layer of local type soil. The ecological risk assessment aims to verify the assumptions in the soil management plan regarding the prevention of possible undesirable effects induced by the various waste materials. A tiered approach is followed, including a screening for bioavailable contaminants, a testing for general effects by use of standardized bioassays, and further testing and field inventories to survey specific effects of natural and agricultural ecosystem services. Moreover, site specific effects, if demonstrated in lower tiers, will be scaled up to the entire region in higher tiers. (orig.)

Faber, J. [Alterra, Wageningen (Netherlands)

2003-07-01

284

Ecological effects on streams from forest fertilization; literature review and conceptual framework for future study in the western Cascades  

Science.gov (United States)

Fertilization of forests with urea-nitrogen has been studied numerous times for its effects on water quality. Stream nitrogen concentrations following fertilization are typically elevated during winter, including peaks in the tens-of-thousands of parts per billion range, with summer concentrations often returning to background or near-background levels. Despite these increases, water-quality criteria for nitrogen have rarely been exceeded. However, such criteria are targeted at fish toxicity or human health and are not relevant to concentrations that could cause ecological disturbances.Studies of the responses of stream biota to fertilization have been rare and have targeted either immediate, toxicity-based responses or used methods insensitive to ongoing ecological processes. This report reviews water-quality studies following forest fertilizations, emphasizing Cascade streams in the Pacific Northwest and documented biological responses in those streams. A conceptual model predicting potential ecological response to fertilization, which includes effects on algal growth and primary production, is presented. In this model, applied fertilizer nitrogen reaching streams is mostly exported during winter. However, some nitrogen retained in soils or stream and riparian areas may become available to aquatic biota during spring and summer. Biological responses may be minimal in small streams nearest to application because of light limitation, but may be elevated downstream where light is sufficient to allow algal growth. Ultimately, algal response could be greatest in downstream reaches, although ambient nutrient concentrations remain low due to uptake and benthic nutrient recycling. Ground-water flow paths and hyporheic processing could be critical in determining the fate of applied nitrogen. A framework is provided for testing this response in the Little River watershed, a tributary to the North Umpqua River, Oregon, at basic and intensive levels of investigation.

Anderson, C. W.

2002-01-01

285

A Study on Remote Probing Method for Drawing Ecology/Nature Map and the Application (III) - Drawing the Swamp Classification Map around River  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The map of ecology/nature in the amended Natural Environment Conservation Act is the necessary data, which is drawn through assessing the national land with ecological factors, to execute the Korea's environmental policy. Such important ecology/nature map should be continuously revised and improved the reliability with adding several new factors. In this point of view, this study has the significance in presenting the improvement scheme of ecology/nature map. 'A Study on Remote Probing Method for Drawing Ecology/Nature Map and the Application' that has been performed for 3 years since 1998 has researched the drawing method of subject maps that could be built in a short time - a land-covering classification map, a vegetation classification map, and a swamp classification map around river - and the promoting principles hereafter. This study also presented the possibility and limit of classification by several satellite image data, so it would be a big help to build the subject map in the Government level. The land-covering classification map, a result of the first year, has been already being built by Ministry of Environment as a national project, and the improvement scheme of the vegetation map that was presented as a result of second year has been used in building the basic ecology/nature map. We hope that the results from this study will be applied as basic data to draw an ecology/nature map and contribute to expanding the understanding on the usefulness of the several ecosystem analysis methods with applying an ecology/nature map and a remote probe. 55 refs., 38 figs., 24 tabs.

Jeon, Seong Woo; Cho, Jeong Keon; Jeong, Hwi Chol [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

2000-12-01

286

Development of virtual research environment for regional climatic and ecological studies and continuous education support  

Science.gov (United States)

Volumes of environmental data archives are growing immensely due to recent models, high performance computers and sensors development. It makes impossible their comprehensive analysis in conventional manner on workplace using in house computing facilities, data storage and processing software at hands. One of possible answers to this challenge is creation of virtual research environment (VRE), which should provide a researcher with an integrated access to huge data resources, tools and services across disciplines and user communities and enable researchers to process structured and qualitative data in virtual workspaces. VRE should integrate data, network and computing resources providing interdisciplinary climatic research community with opportunity to get profound understanding of ongoing and possible future climatic changes and their consequences. Presented are first steps and plans for development of VRE prototype element aimed at regional climatic and ecological monitoring and modeling as well as at continuous education and training support. Recently developed experimental software and hardware platform aimed at integrated analysis of heterogeneous georeferenced data "Climate" (http://climate.scert.ru/, Gordov et al., 2013; Shulgina et al., 2013; Okladnikov et al., 2013) is used as a VRE element prototype and approach test bench. VRE under development will integrate on the base of geoportal distributed thematic data storage, processing and analysis systems and set of models of complex climatic and environmental processes run on supercomputers. VRE specific tools are aimed at high resolution rendering on-going climatic processes occurring in Northern Eurasia and reliable and found prognoses of their dynamics for selected sets of future mankind activity scenaria. Currently the VRE element is accessible via developed geoportal at the same link (http://climate.scert.ru/) and integrates the WRF and «Planet Simulator» models, basic reanalysis and instrumental measurements data and support profound statistical analysis of storaged and modeled on demand data. In particular, one can run the integrated models, preprocess modeling results data, using dedicated modules for numerical processing perform analysys and visualize obtained results. New functionality recently has been added to the statistical analysis tools set aimed at detailed studies of climatic extremes occurring in Northern Asia. The VRE element is also supporting thematic educational courses for students and post-graduate students of the Tomsk State University. In particular, it allow students to perform on-line thematic laboratory work cycles on the basics of analysis of current and potential future regional climate change using Siberia territory as an example (Gordova et al, 2013). We plan to expand the integrated models set and add comprehensive surface and Arctic Ocean description. Developed VRE element "Climate" provides specialists involved into multidisciplinary research projects with reliable and practical instruments for integrated research of climate and ecosystems changes on global and regional scales. With its help even a user without programming skills can process and visualize multidimensional observational and model data through unified web-interface using a common graphical web-browser. This work is partially supported by SB RAS project VIII.80.2.1, RFBR grant 13-05-12034, grant 14-05-00502, and integrated project SB RAS 131. References 1. Gordov E.P., Lykosov V.N., Krupchatnikov V.N., Okladnikov I.G., Titov A.G., Shulgina T.M. Computationaland information technologies for monitoring and modeling of climate changes and their consequences. Novosibirsk: Nauka, Siberian branch, 2013. - 195 p. (in Russian) 2. T.M. Shulgina, E.P. Gordov, I.G. Okladnikov, A.G., Titov, E.Yu. Genina, N.P. Gorbatenko, I.V. Kuzhevskaya,A.S. Akhmetshina. Software complex for a regional climate change analysis. // Vestnik NGU. Series: Information technologies. 2013. Vol. 11. Issue 1. P. 124-131. (in Russian) 3. I.G. Okladnikov, A.G. Titov, T.M. Shulgina,

Gordov, Evgeny; Lykosov, Vasily; Krupchatnikov, Vladimir; Bogomolov, Vasily; Gordova, Yulia; Martynova, Yulia; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander; Shulgina, Tamara

2014-05-01

287

The Electronically Steerable Flash Lidar: A NASA Facility Instrument for Ecological Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

The Electronically Steerable Flash Lidar (ESFL) is a lidar concept created at Ball Aerospace and developed in conjunction with NASA. It represents a new paradigm for airborne or spaceborne lidar remote sensing. Instead of the mechanical scanning common to airborne lidars, or the fixed beam approach found in spaceborne lidars, ESFL allows the number and position of transmitted beams to vary shot-to-shot. This is done using an acousto-optic beam deflector that splits a single laser beam into N output beams, where N and the position of beam N on the ground can be reconfigured in real time electronically. This transmitter concept is coupled with a Flash Focal Plane Array (FFPA), a pixilated detector where every pixel delivers a time-resolved intensity waveform, thus allowing lidar imaging. The ESFL enables several jumps in capability for remote sensing of ecosystems. Multiple spatial scales can be probed simultaneously or within the same flight transect because beam spacings can be varied in real time. This means contiguous beams can be applied to regions where smaller scale variability needs to be probed, and in areas where maximum across-track coverage is needed, those beams are spread out. Furthermore, each beam can be projected onto multiple pixels, allowing one to collect a waveform over multiple length scales simultaneously. The electronic interface with the AOBD means that the transmitted pattern can respond to any of a multitude of inputs. The ESFL can interface with another forward-looking sensor, such as a hyperspectral instrument or another lidar or a digital camera. The data from that second sensor could be used to direct the ESFL observation toward, for example, an area with a specific spectral signature, or an area free from clouds. The ESFL concept was designed with a path to space in mind, but an airborne version has been built and tested on aircraft. The work continues under a NASA Airborne Instrument Technology Transition (AITT) grant designed to improve the reliability of the instrument. The AITT work will culminate in the ESFL becoming a NASA facility instrument, so that time on ESFL can be proposed through NASA. This allows public access to ESFL and ideally a long-term stream of data to the ecological community. The overall flexibility of the transmitter pattern and ability to alter it to respond to a changing scene makes the ESFL well-suited for many applications such as forest science, but also to track rivers for hydrological studies. This poster will discuss recent analysis of ESFL data in forests to prove its applicability to estimate canopy height in airborne systems. Furthermore, we will discuss improvements to the ESFL that are underway as part of the AITT to improve data throughput, allow for higher altitude operation, and increase overall reliability of the instrument.

Ramond, T.; Weimer, C. S.; Lefsky, M. A.; Duong, H.

2011-12-01

288

Ecological studies on the diversity of terrestrial poisonous snakes "Proteroglyphous” of Jazan region Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Reptilia: Ophidia  

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Full Text Available The present work was carried out in Jazan region. The region of Jazan in being in the South-Western part of Saudi Arabia between longitudes 420 and 43.80 and latitudes 5, 16o and 17o, and is bounded on the south and east of the Republic of Yemen, Asir area in the north and the Red Sea in the west. The results showed that there are four families of poisonous snakes "Proteroglyphous" living in Jazan region. They are: Family Atractaspididae, Elapidae, Viperidae and Hydrophiidae . This work aimed to unveil ecological problems and throw light on diversity of poisonous snakes in Jazan region and the danger of these species to human life. Despite the fact that these snakes may be harmful to human life in some cases, it may also be useful to him in many aspects of life. Since there are no enough studies on the animal species in the region, this study came to identify the diversity of this animal group. There is no doubt that the study of these species and identifying them will provide some solutions that could make this group as an endless source of biodiversity and at the same time, this study provides information on the feasibility of protection of this species in this region. Discussion of ecological and geographical affinities of this taxa and taxonomic keys of different types in order to facilitate the process of identification will be provided

Mostafa F. Masood

2012-10-01

289

Ecology in Times of Scarcity  

Science.gov (United States)

In an energy-scarce future, ecosystem services will become more important in supporting the human economy. The primary role of ecology will be the sustainable management of ecosystems. Energy scarcity will affect ecology in a number of ways. Ecology will become more expensive, which will be justified by its help in solving societal problems, especially in maintaining ecosystem services. Applied research on highly productive ecosystems, including agroecosystems, will dominate ecology. Ecology may become less collegial and more competitive. Biodiversity preservation will be closely tied to preservation of productive ecosystems and provision of high ecosystem services. Restoration and management of rich natural ecosystems will be as important as protection of existing wild areas. Energy-intensive micromanagement of ecosystems will become less feasible. Ecotechnology and, more specifically, ecological engineering and self-design are appropriate bases for sustainable ecosystem management. We use the Mississippi River basin as a case study for ecology in times of scarcity.

John Day (Louisiana State University;Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences)

2009-04-01

290

Phytoplankton Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

This site describes phytoplankton ecology research by marine ecologists at Mote Marine Laboratory (MML), an independent, nonprofit research organization based in Sarasota, Florida. The emphasis of MML's phytoplankton ecology research is the photophysiology of marine algae -- with recent emphasis on the ability to predict and possibly mitigate blooms of the toxic marine dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium breve. The no-frills phytoplankton ecology homepage describes research and offers data (maps, figures, tables) from 1998 and 1999 projects on Red Tide transects, Nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations, and Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (ECOHAB) transect data, among several others. The site also offers general information on Red Tides, Red Tide conditions in Southwest Florida, a chronology of historic Red Tide events, and links to related resources.

291

Morphometric study of phylogenetic and ecologic signals in procyonid (mammalia: carnivora) endocasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endocasts provide a proxy for brain morphology but are rarely incorporated in phylogenetic analyses despite the potential for new suites of characters. The phylogeny of Procyonidae, a carnivoran family with relatively limited taxonomic diversity, is not well resolved because morphological and molecular data yield conflicting topologies. The presence of phylogenetic and ecologic signals in the endocasts of procyonids will be determined using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Endocasts of seven ingroup species and four outgroup species were digitally rendered and 21 landmarks were collected from the endocast surface. Two phylogenetic hypotheses of Procyonidae will be examined using methods testing for phylogenetic signal in morphometric data. In analyses of all taxa, there is significant phylogenetic signal in brain shape for both the morphological and molecular topologies. However, the analyses of ingroup taxa recover a significant phylogenetic signal for the morphological topology only. These results indicate support for the molecular outgroup topology, but not the ingroup topology given the brain shape data. Further examination of brain shape using principal components analysis and wireframe comparisons suggests procyonids possess more developed areas of the brain associated with motor control, spatial perception, and balance relative to the basal musteloid condition. Within Procyonidae, similar patterns of variation are present, and may be associated with increased arboreality in certain taxa. Thus, brain shape derived from endocasts may be used to test for phylogenetic signal and preliminary analyses suggest an association with behavior and ecology. Anat Rec, 297:2318-2330, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25066912

Ahrens, Heather E

2014-12-01

292

Integrated cytogenetic, ecological, and DNA barcode study reveals cryptic diversity in Simulium (Gomphostilbia) angulistylum (Diptera: Simuliidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

An integrated approach based on cytogenetics, molecular genetics, and ecology was used to examine diversity in the black fly Simulium angulistylum Takaoka & Davies in Thailand. Cytological analysis revealed three cytoforms (A, B, and C) of S. angulistylum differentiated by fixed chromosome inversions. Distributions of these cytoforms were associated with ecology. Cytoforms A and B were found in low-altitude habitats (1000 m above sea level). Mitochondrial DNA sequences of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcoding region revealed significant genetic differentiation among the cytoforms. The mitochondrial DNA haplotype network revealed divergent lineages within cytoforms, indicating additional hidden diversity. Therefore, integrated approaches are necessary for fully understanding black fly biodiversity. Population genetic analysis revealed high genetic structuring that could be due to the habitat preferences of S. angulistylum. Phylogeographic analyses indicated population demographic expansion at the mid-Pleistocene (900 000 years ago), which is older than for other black flies and insects in the Southeast Asian mainland. The high level of genetic structure and diversity, therefore, could also be due to the long demographic history of S. angulistylum. PMID:22663346

Pramual, Pairot; Kuvangkadilok, Chaliow

2012-06-01

293

Study on ecological awareness and performance of nursing personnel in dialysis units  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: When designing new hospital construction or refurbishment can be adopted green practices both in design and in construction and operation. Objective: To explore the ecological awareness and behavior of nursing staff in a dialysis unit. Methods: This survey involved 90 Registered Nurses and Nurses’ aides of General Hospitals in the Capital (Athens and in province of Greece (Region of Peloponnese. These individuals were given an overall anonymous self-completed questionnaire. Results: The most important finding is that 70.8% considered as mandatory an organized effort to protect the environment in their workplace. Nurses think that greater environmental awareness is obtained 37.1% by using guidelines, 23.6% with relative stimulation, and 20.2% with educational lectures, 10.1% using poster and 6.7% in view educational videos. Finally, the correlations of ecological awareness with demographic characteristics of the sample revealed that older nursing staff with more years of working experience knows about environmental management (p-value=0.012. At the same time, gender (p-value=0,030 and educational level of the nursing staff plays an important role in the knowledge of it (p-value=0,044. Conclusions: To control costs and environmental pollution guidelines for saving energy and water and the use of environmentally friendly materials should be implemented. Thus, hospitals can become more competitive by reducing the amount of natural resources used.  Normal 0 false false false EL X-NONE X-NONE

Sofia Zyga

2013-03-01

294

Campus Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

This website from the National Wildlife Federation showcases environmental conservation projects that have been successfully undertaken by various universities. The site features example projects and resources for doing your own campus project. Topics include building design, energy, environmental literacy, habitat restoration, water, transportation and waste reduction. Links to the online Campus Ecology Yearbook and the Campus Ecology Research Station and other resources are also included.

Federation, National W.

295

Research of land reclamation and ecological restoration in the resource-exhausting city : a case study of Huaibei in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eco-city construction is a strong tool which could move a city from traditional industrial civilization to ecological civilization. The city of Huaibet, located in China, has 50 years of coal mining history, and has been listed as a national resource-exhausting city. The city's sustainable development and ecological restoration is encountering extreme challenges. This study used time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in order to study the situation of evolution and distribution of subsidence in the area in Huaibet. The purpose of the study was to provide strategic recommendations to assist Huaibei city transform from a resource-exhausting city to an eco-city. Specifically, the paper discussed the direction of eco-reconstruction in Huaibei such as rural eco-agriculture; wetland park or suburban park; and mine park. It also presented a time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in Huaibet including the subsidence status of the main city of Huaibet and intensive use of land evaluation and land use measures of the main city of Huaibei. Land reclamation and eco-reconstruction of Huaibet was also examined in the paper. It was concluded that based on land use of all aspects of the evaluation area and city's development plan, an integrated tourism with full use of subsidence land could be developed. 10 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

296

Convergence of ecological footprint and emergy analysis as a sustainability indicator of countries: Peru as case study  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last decade, two scientific tools have been extensively used worldwide to measure the human impact on nature: ecological footprint (EF) and emergy analysis (EA). Papers trying to combine the strong points of EF and EA, and obtain more accurate results have appeared in scientific literature, in which Zhao's et al. (2005) [61] approach is an important one. Unfortunately, some weak points of the original methods still remain on the new approaches proposed. The aim of this present work is to discuss some weak points found in Zhao's approach, trying to overcome them through a new approach called emergetic ecological footprint (EEF). The main difference between Zhao's approach and EEF is that the last one accounted for the internal storage of capital natural in the biocapacity calculation. Besides that, soil loss and water for human consume were considered as additional categories in the footprint calculation. After discussing it through comparisons with other approaches, EEF was used to assess Peru as a case study, resulting in a biocapacity of 51.76 gha capita -1 and a footprint of 12.23 gha capita -1, with 2004 data; that resulted in an ecological surplus of 39.53 gha capita -1. The load capacity factor obtained was 4.23, meaning that Peru can support a population 4.23 times bigger considering the life style of 2004. The main limitations of the EEF are: (i) it is impossible to make comparisons between the biocapacity and footprint for each category; (ii) a need for a handbook with emergy intensity factors with good quality. On the other hand, the main positive points are: (i) its easiness of application in global and national scales; (ii) its final indicators account for all the previous energy (or emergy) used to make something; (iii) internal natural capital storage was accounted for in the biocapacity calculation, which can be a valid step towards the evaluation and assess of services provided by nature.

Siche, Raúl; Pereira, Lucas; Agostinho, Feni; Ortega, Enrique

2010-10-01

297

Ecological periodic tables for benthic macrofaunal usage of estuarine habitats: Insights from a case study in Tillamook Bay, Oregon, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

This study validates the ecological relevance of estuarine habitat types to the benthic macrofaunal community and, together with previous similar studies, suggests they can serve as elements in ecological periodic tables of benthic macrofaunal usage in the bioregion. We compared benthic macrofaunal Bray-Curtis similarity and the means of eight benthic macrofaunal community measures across seven habitat types in Tillamook Bay, Oregon, USA: intertidal eelgrass (Zostera marina), dwarf eelgrass (Zostera japonica), oyster (Crassostrea gigas) ground culture, burrowing mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), burrowing ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis), sand and subtidal. Benthic macrofaunal Bray-Curtis similarity differed among all the habitats except ghost shrimp and sand. The habitat rank order on mean benthic macrofaunal species richness, abundance and biomass was dwarf eelgrass ? oyster ? mud shrimp ? eelgrass > sand ? ghost shrimp ? subtidal. The benthic macrofaunal habitat usage pattern in Tillamook Bay was, with a few exceptions, similar to that in two other US Pacific Northwest estuaries. The exceptions indicate variants of eelgrass and ghost shrimp habitat that differ in benthic macrofaunal usage perhaps due to differences in the coarseness of the sand fraction of the sediments in which they live. The similarities indicate periodic benthic macrofaunal usage patterns across the other habitat types extend over a wider geographic scale and range of environmental conditions than previously known.

Ferraro, Steven P.; Cole, Faith A.

2012-05-01

298

Evaluation of agricultural ecological environment in determining the capable areas: A case study of city of Esfahan, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The nature of different activities in production, agriculture as well as distribution and consumption section, called as expansionist activities, largely influence the ability of the land. Production of consumable material, which is required for increasing population in various areas, and their attractions make it possible to earn more profit and it causes a significant pressure on soil and water resources and can threaten environmental pollution and human food security. A self-interested attitude on land resources has led to run short-term programs without considering the ecological capability of the land. These mentioned problems are, significantly intensified particularly in arid and semi-arid areas with severe limitations of water and soil quality and quantity. Therefore, land allocation based on ecological capability and self-purification indexes, used for land use planning, is an appropriate response to meet the deficiencies noted. This paper studies the agricultural capable lands based on land capability. The proposed study uses GIS software capabilities with application of the environmental ability evaluation model, as a holistic approach, to make sustainable development research in the region. The results indicate that suitable lands for agriculture in the whole area in different classes are widespread and with regards to dependency of more than 90 percent of people to agricultural activities, serious attention of authorities is required for providing the appropriate baseline and avoiding land use change to develop this activity.

Sedigheh Kiani Salmi

2013-02-01

299

Lake Restoration in Terms of Ecological Resilience: a Numerical Study of Biomanipulations under Bistable Conditions  

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Full Text Available An abstract version of the comprehensive aquatic simulation model (CASM is found to exhibit bistability under intermediate loading of nutrient input, supporting the alternative-stable-states theory and field observations for shallow lakes. Our simulations of biomanipulations under the bistable conditions reveal that a reduction in the abundance of zooplanktivorous fish cannot switch the system from a turbid to a clear state. Rather, a direct reduction of phytoplankton and detritus was found to be most effective to make this switch in the present model. These results imply that multiple manipulations may be effective for practical restorations of lakes. We discuss the present results of biomanipulations in terms of ecological resilience in multivariable systems or natural systems.

Kiminori Itoh

2005-12-01

300

The ecology of rape victimization: a case study of Buffalo, New York.  

Science.gov (United States)

Official crime report data gathered from the Buffalo Police Department for the year 1975 were used to analyze variations in risk of rape victimization. The ecological structuring of routine activities and the victimogenic factors possessed by rape victims were examined to account for observed differences in risk. The results showed that rape victimization is associated with the routine activities of victims in that women who are highly mobile (working women, students, and younger women in general) are at a much greater risk than women who are less mobile. The risk of rape varies with respect to location within the city, and nonwhite females are victimized more than their white female counterparts. Differential risk of rape victimization was accounted for by the routine activities of victims. Rape victimization requires the convergence in space and time of likely offenders, suitable targets, and the absence of capable guardians for preventing rape. PMID:3490418

Ploughman, P; Stensrud, J

1986-08-01

 
 
 
 
301

Local perceptions of changes in traditional ecological knowledge: a case study from Malekula island, Vanuatu.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) is a critical global resource that may be eroding amid social and environmental change. Here, we present data on local perceptions of TEK change from three communities on Malekula Island in Vanuatu. Utilizing a structured interview (n = 120), we find a common perception of TEK loss. Participants defined two key periods of TEK erosion (roughly 1940-1960 and 1980-present), and noted that TEK decline was driven both external (e.g., church) and internal (e.g., shifting values) processes. Erosion was perceived to more comprehensive in the worldview domain than in aspects of ethnobiological knowledge and practice. These data indicate the perceived fragility of TEK systems and the complexity of TEK change. TEK systems are critical to natural resource management, and data such as these will assist in designing nuanced responses to the ongoing loss of cultural knowledge and practice. PMID:23929459

McCarter, Joe; Gavin, Michael C

2014-04-01

302

[System construction of early warning for ecological security at cultural and natural heritage mixed sites and its application: a case study of Wuyishan Scenery District].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposed a new concept of ecological security for protection by a comprehensive analysis of the contents and standards of world heritage sites. A frame concept model named "Pressure-State-Control" for early warning of ecological security at world heritage mixed sites was constructed and evaluation indicators of this frame were also selected. Wuyishan Scenery District was chosen for a case study, which has been severely disturbed by natural and artificial factors. Based on the frame model of "Pressure-State-Control" and by employing extension analysis, the matter-element model was established to assess the ecological security status of this cultural and natural world heritage mixed site. The results showed that the accuracy of ecological security early warning reached 84%. Early warning rank was I level (no alert status) in 1997 and 2009, but that in 2009 had a higher possibility to convert into II level. Likewise, the early-warning indices of sensitive ranks were different between 1997 and 2009. Population density, population growth rate, area index for tea garden, cultivated land owned per capita, level of drought, and investment for ecological and environmental construction were the main limiting factors to hinder the development of ecological security from 2009 to future. In general, the status of Wuyishan Scenery District ecological security was relatively good and considered as no alert level, while risk conditions also existed in terms of a few early-warning indicators. We still need to pay more attention to serious alert indicators and adopt effective prevention and control measures to maintain a good ecological security status of this heritage site. PMID:25129949

You, Wei-Bin; He, Dong-Jin; Qin, De-Hua; Ji, Zhi-Rong; Wu, Li-Yun; Yu, Jian-An; Chen, Bing-Rong; Tan, Yong

2014-05-01

303

Identification of mixed lineage leukemia 1(MLL1) protein as a coactivator of heat shock factor 1(HSF1) protein in response to heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibition inhibits cancer cell proliferation through depleting client oncoproteins and shutting down multiple oncogenic pathways. Therefore, it is an attractive strategy for targeting human cancers. Several HSP90 inhibitors, including AUY922 and STA9090, show promising effects in clinical trials. However, the efficacy of HSP90 inhibitors may be limited by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1)-mediated feedback mechanisms. Here, we identify, through an siRNA screen, that the histone H3 lysine 4 methyltransferase MLL1 functions as a coactivator of HSF1 in response to HSP90 inhibition. MLL1 is recruited to the promoters of HSF1 target genes and regulates their expression in response to HSP90 inhibition. In addition, a striking combination effect is observed when MLL1 depletion is combined with HSP90 inhibition in various human cancer cell lines and tumor models. Thus, targeting MLL1 may block a HSF1-mediated feedback mechanism induced by HSP90 inhibition and provide a new avenue to enhance HSP90 inhibitor activity in human cancers. PMID:24831003

Chen, Yaoyu; Chen, Jinyun; Yu, Jianjun; Yang, Guizhi; Temple, Emilia; Harbinski, Fred; Gao, Hui; Wilson, Christopher; Pagliarini, Raymond; Zhou, Wenlai

2014-07-01

304

Ecological Studies in the Coastal Waters of Kalpakkam, Southeast Coast of India, in the Vicinity of a Nuclear Island  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ecological monitoring of the coastal waters at Kalpakkam, which presently harbour various nuclear facilities, has been in progress for the last four years to create a benchmark dataset on water quality, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fisheries, sedentary organisms and molluscan species diversity. Results indicated a significant impact of monsoonal rain and backwaters on the coastal water quality. About 325 phytoplankton, 140 zooplankton, 350 fish, 130 molluscs and 100 species of sedentary organisms have been catalogued. Two fish species, which are native to Indonesia, were recorded for the first time in Indian coastal water. The study indicated that the coastal water is rich in biodiversity. Similarly, results of studies on costal sediment characteristics indicated the influence of monsoonal rain and backwater discharge. Overall, the study indicated little impact of nuclear activity on coastal water biodiversity and water quality. (author)

305

Founding RGB ecology: The ecology of synthesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is an arising need to interpret an amount of ecological information that is more and more available. It is not only the pursuit of an easy handling of a large amount of data, but above all the quest for a deep and multivariate interpretation of many sources of ecological info. To this aim, I introduce here RGB ecology as a new branch of ecology devoted to the cartographic synthesis of ecological information. RGB ecology has the following properties: (1 it can not be separated from GIS cartography; (2 it can compact ecological information along space and time; (3 it can create a decision space for management decisions; (4 it can go beyond the third dimension by using compressive statistical techniques. RGB ecology can also be an effective flanker of several branches of ecology, such as landscape ecology, conservation ecology, urban ecology, forest ecology and so forth.

Alessandro Ferrarini

2012-06-01

306

[Calculation model of urban water resources ecological footprint and its application: a case study in Shenyang City of Northeast China].  

Science.gov (United States)

Water resources ecological footprint can directly reflect the pressure of human social and economic activities to water resources, and provide important reference for the rational utilization of water resources. Based on the existing ecological footprint models and giving full consideration of the water resources need of urban ecological system, this paper established a new calculation model of urban water resources ecological footprint, including domestic water account, process water account, public service water account, and ecological water requirement account. According to the actual situation of Shenyang City, the key parameters of the model were determined, and the water resources ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity of the City were calculated and analyzed. From 2000 to 2009, the water resources ecological footprint per capita of the City presented an overall decreasing trend, but still had an annual ecological deficit. As compared to that in 2000, the water resources ecological footprint per capita was decreased to 0.31 hm2 in 2005, increased slightly in 2006 and 2007, and remained stable in 2008 and 2009, which suggested that the sustainable utilization of water resources in Shenyang City had definite improvement, but was still in an unsustainable development situation. PMID:23189707

Wang, Jian; Zhang, Chao-Xing; Yu, Ying-Tan; Li, Fa-Yun; Ma, Fang

2012-08-01

307

Ontogenetic diet shifts and their incidence on ecological processes: a case study using two morphologically similar stoneflies (Plecoptera)  

Science.gov (United States)

Most ecological studies consider conspecific individuals as ecologically equivalent, assuming that inter-instar variation is weak and has a limited influence on functional processes. To test this assumption, we investigated the life history and trophic basis of production in two predatory stoneflies, Perlodes microcephalus and Isoperla acicularis, in a mountain stream. The variety of prey types increased with predator size. However, larvae started their development with a strictly phytophagous diet (3 months), then ingested both vegetal material and animal prey (2-3 months). Finally, larvae were strictly carnivorous when head width reached 1.1 mm. Young (herbivorous) I. acicularis larvae occurred from June to August. Young P. microcephalus larvae hatched in October, and were herbivorous until December, when I. acicularis larvae were omnivorous. Competition for animal prey was likely to occur in the spring, but P. microcephalus grew faster and emerged earlier. The cohort productions were mostly based on carnivory (78.7-90.7%), because most production occurred in later instars. Ontogenetic diet shifts could play a role in the structuring of species assemblages by adjusting species' requirements to the temporal dynamics of environmental conditions, including food availability and biotic interactions. However, their incidence on global processes is quantitatively limited, large individuals having the greatest impacts on the way energy flows.

Céréghino, Régis

2006-07-01

308

Traditional ecological knowledge trends in the transition to a market economy: empirical study in the Doñana natural areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers and conservation managers largely agree on the relevance of traditional ecological knowledge for natural resource management in indigenous communities, but its prevalence and role as societies modernize are contested. We analyzed the transmission of traditional knowledge among rural local people in communities linked to protected areas in Doñana, southwestern Spain. We studied changes in knowledge related to local practices in agriculture and livestock farming among 198 informants from three generations that cover the period in which the area transited from an economy strongly dependent on local ecosystem services to a market economy with intensified production systems. Our results suggest an abrupt loss of traditional agricultural knowledge related to rapid transformations and intensification of agricultural systems, but maintenance of knowledge of traditional livestock farming, an activity allowed in the protected areas that maintains strong links with local cultural identity. Our results demonstrate the potential of protected areas in protecting remaining bodies of traditional ecological knowledge in developed country settings. Nevertheless, we note that strict protection in cultural-landscape-dominated areas can disrupt transmission of traditional knowledge if local resource users and related practices are excluded from ecosystem management. PMID:20067484

Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Mingorría, Sara; Reyes-García, Victoria; Calvet, Laura; Montes, Carlos

2010-06-01

309

Ecological Biology (Program Description)  

Science.gov (United States)

... Environmental Biology Ecological Biology Description The Ecological Biology Cluster supports ... findings into new paradigms. The Ecological Biology Cluster funds research in the following areas ...

310

The Study on Ecological Treatment of Saline Lands to Mitigate the Effects of Climate Change  

Science.gov (United States)

The soil water and salt movement is influenced strongly by the frequent droughts, floods and climate change. Additionally, as continued population growth, large-scale reclaiming of arable land and long-term unreasonable irrigation, saline land is increasing at the rate of 1,000,000~15,000,000 mu each year all over the world. In the tradition management, " drainage as the main " measure has series of problem, which appears greater project, more occupation of land, harmful for water saving and downstream pollution. To response the global climate change, it has become the common understanding, which promote energy-saving and environment protection, reflect the current model, explore the ecological management model. In this paper, we take severe saline land—Lubotan in Shaanxi Province as an example. Through nearly 10 years harnessing practice and observing to meteorology, hydrology, soil indicators of climate, we analyze the influence of climate change to soil salinity movement at different seasons and years, then put forward and apply a new model of saline land harnessing to mitigate the Effects of Climate Change and self-rehabilitate entironment. This model will be changed "drainage" to "storage", through the establishment engineering of " storage as the main ", taken comprehensive measures of " project - biology - agriculture ", we are changing saline land into arable land. Adapted to natural changes of climate, rainfall, irrigation backwater, groundwater level, reduced human intervention to achieve system dynamic equilibrium. During the ten years, the salt of plough horizon has reduced from 0.74% to 0.20%, organic matter has increased from 0.7% to 0.92%, various indicators of soil is begining to go better. At the same time, reduced the water for irrigation, drainage pollution and investment costs. Through the model, reformed severe saline land 18,900 mu, increased new cultivated land 16,500 mu, comprehensive efficient significant, ensured the coordinated development of " water - biology - environment " in the region. Model application and promotion can treat saline-alkali and add cultivated land effectively, at the same time, ease the pressure for urban construction land, promote energy saving and emission reducting and ecological restoration, so we can construct a resource-saving and environment-friendly society, realize sustainable development of the population, resources and environment.

Xie, Jiancang; Zhu, Jiwei; Wang, Tao

2010-05-01

311

Three-Gorges-Dam: Studying the ecological impacts in a highly dynamic ecosystem  

Science.gov (United States)

The impoundment of the Yangtze River in 2003 by the Three-Gorges-Dam (TGD) evokes ecological impacts alongside the Yangtze and its major tributaries that appear to be unforesseable in their dimension and dynamic. The scheduled water level elevation to 176 m in 2009 and the seasonal water level fluctuations at the TGD for the purpose of hydro power generation and flood control will still foster the typical aftermaths such as slope instability, mass movements, soil erosion, the expansion of infrastructure and land reclamation for subsistence agriculture and cash crops distant to the inundated area. Together, geoscientists from China and Germany try to develop an integrated risk assessment system for landslides, soil erosion, diffuse sediment and matter fluxes into the reservoir and land-use vulnerability. Since April 2008 the research activities take place within the Sino-German YANGTZE project funded by the German BMBF and initiated by the German Research Centre Juelich. The project proceeds in close collaboration with the Ministry of Land and Resources of the People's Republic of China (MRL). In four subprojects located at the universities of Erlangen, Giessen, Potsdam and Tuebingen main focus lies on the analysis and assessment of the mechanisms and trigger of landslides, the mechanisms of soil erosion for different landscape morphologies and soil associations and the multi-temporal land-use classification and land-use dynamic on the meso-scale. The research area is the highly dynamic and mountainous Xiangxi catchment (3.100 km²) close to the TGD. Using multi-level approaches by means of GIS, field investigations and remote sensing the Yangtze project aims to assess the spatial and temporal varying risk potential of soil erosion and the landslide susceptibility and risk for the infrastructure, people and agriculture. Finally, high-resolution risk potential maps will serve as a base for decision making. In close collaboration with our Chinese partner projects (China University of Geosciences, Wuhan; Institute of Soil Sciences, CAS, Nanjing; Aero Geophysical Survey and Remote Sensing for Land and Resources, Beijing) we seek to enhance our understanding of the ecological consequences of large dam projects.

Scholten, T.; Behrens, T.; Kaufmann, H.; King, L.; Rohn, J.; Schönbrodt, S.; Subklew, G.; Xiang, W.

2009-04-01

312

Particulate air pollution and susceptibility to the development of pulmonary tuberculosis disease in North Carolina: an ecological study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), environmental factors may influence disease progression. Ecologic studies conducted in countries outside the USA with high levels of air pollution and PTB have suggested a link between active disease and ambient air pollution. The present investigation is the first to examine the ambient air pollution-PTB association in a country, where air pollution levels are comparatively lower. We used Poisson regression models to examine the association of outdoor air pollutants, PM10 and PM2.5 with rates of PTB in North Carolina residents during 1993-2007. Results suggest a potential association between long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and PTB disease. In view of the high levels of air pollution and high rates of PTB worldwide, a potential association between ambient air pollution and tuberculosis warrants further study. PMID:24387197

Smith, Genee S; Schoenbach, Victor J; Richardson, David B; Gammon, Marilie D

2014-04-01

313

A Basic Introduction to Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecology is the science that studies the interactions and relationships that exist among living organisms with each other and their environment. This selection offers tools necessary to define ecology, while gaining a better understanding of its application to real world experiences. It offers instruction in basic ecological terms, while explaining the meaning of the biotic and abiotic factors within an environment and presents examples of those influences. You will also find information necessary to identify the basic factors necessary for living.

Galle, Janet R.; Warren, Patricia A.

2005-01-01

314

Introduction to Ecological Landscaping: A Holistic Description and Framework to Guide the Study and Management of Urban Landscape Parcels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Urbanized ecosystems and urban human populations are expanding around the world causing many negative environmental effects. A challenge for achieving sustainable urban social-ecological systems is understanding how urbanized landscapes can be designed and managed to minimize negative outcomes. To this end, an interdisciplinary Ecological Landscaping conference was organized to examine the interacting sociocultural and ecological causes and consequences of landscaping practices and products. ...

Parwinder Grewal; Byrne, Loren B.

2008-01-01

315

Children's traditional ecological knowledge of wild food resources: a case study in a rural village in Northeast Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Consuming wild foods is part of the food ways of people in many societies, including farming populations throughout the world. Knowledge of non-domesticated food resources is part of traditional and tacit ecological knowledge, and is largely transmitted through socialization within cultural and household contexts. The context of this study, a small village in Northeast Thailand, is one where the community has experienced changes due to the migration of the parental generation, with the children being left behind in the village to be raised by their grandparents. A case study approach was used in order to gain holistic in-depth insight into children's traditional ecological knowledge as well as patterns of how children acquire their knowledge regarding wild food resources. Techniques used during field data collection are free-listing conducted with 30 village children and the use of a sub-sample of children for more in-depth research. For the sub-sample part of the study, wild food items consisted of a selection of 20 wild food species consisting of 10 species of plants and 10 species of animals. Semi-structured interviews with photo identification, informal interviews and participatory observation were utilized, and both theoretical and practical knowledge scored. The sub-sample covers eight households with boys and girls aged between 10–12 years old from both migrant families and non-migrant families. The knowledge of children was compared and the transmission process was observed. The result of our study shows that there is no observable difference among children who are being raised by grandparents and those being raised by their parents, as there are different channels of knowledge transmission to be taken into consideration, particularly grandparents and peers. The basic ability (knowledge for naming wild food species remains among village children. However, the practical in-depth knowledge, especially about wild food plants, shows some potential eroding.

Price Lisa

2007-10-01

316

Children's traditional ecological knowledge of wild food resources: a case study in a rural village in Northeast Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Consuming wild foods is part of the food ways of people in many societies, including farming populations throughout the world. Knowledge of non-domesticated food resources is part of traditional and tacit ecological knowledge, and is largely transmitted through socialization within cultural and household contexts. The context of this study, a small village in Northeast Thailand, is one where the community has experienced changes due to the migration of the parental generation, with the children being left behind in the village to be raised by their grandparents. A case study approach was used in order to gain holistic in-depth insight into children's traditional ecological knowledge as well as patterns of how children acquire their knowledge regarding wild food resources. Techniques used during field data collection are free-listing conducted with 30 village children and the use of a sub-sample of children for more in-depth research. For the sub-sample part of the study, wild food items consisted of a selection of 20 wild food species consisting of 10 species of plants and 10 species of animals. Semi-structured interviews with photo identification, informal interviews and participatory observation were utilized, and both theoretical and practical knowledge scored. The sub-sample covers eight households with boys and girls aged between 10-12 years old from both migrant families and non-migrant families. The knowledge of children was compared and the transmission process was observed. The result of our study shows that there is no observable difference among children who are being raised by grandparents and those being raised by their parents, as there are different channels of knowledge transmission to be taken into consideration, particularly grandparents and peers. The basic ability (knowledge) for naming wild food species remains among village children. However, the practical in-depth knowledge, especially about wild food plants, shows some potential eroding. PMID:17937791

Setalaphruk, Chantita; Price, Lisa Leimar

2007-01-01

317

[The role of conjugal relations in the abuse and neglect of children: towards an ecological study].  

Science.gov (United States)

The phenomenon of child abuse and neglect has always existed in Western society. Yet, it is only recently that clinicians and researchers have taken a serious look at these problems. This ever growing interest has come about from not only the stunning number of cases identified each year, but also by the extent and gravity of consequences observed among children. Several professionals interested by the issue have put forward a great number of etiological factors to try to explain abuse and neglect within the family unit. However, when assessing the proposed theoretical models (psychiatric/psychological, sociological, systemic), it appears that certain simple factors can play a large role, for instance the history behind parental development, the quality of marital relations, the child-parent relation, the stress and the extent of the social network, but none of these can clearly differentiate abusive families from non abusive families. It seems however that these different explicative factors would be even more valuable if they were considered in interaction rather than taken individually. Inspired by the ecological framework proposed by Bronfenbrenner (1977, 1979), Belsky (1980, 1984) as well as Cicchetti and Rizley (1981) have also developed a model that simultaneously takes into account all of these factors and their interaction. PMID:1932418

Dubé, J; Provost, M A

1991-06-01

318

The cultural and ecological impacts of aboriginal tourism: a case study on Taiwan's Tao tribe.  

Science.gov (United States)

We show that tourism activities severely impact the ecology of Orchid Island, its natural resources, and the culture of the Tao tribe. For example, highway widening, in response to the increased traffic volumes caused by tourism, required many Pandanus trees to be cut and removed, which has placed the coconut crabs in danger of extinction. To promote eco-tourism, observation trips to observe Elegant Scops owls and Birdwing butterflies have taken place, which has affected the breeding of these two protected species. The Elegant Scops owls- and Birdwing butterflies-related tourism activities also break the "evil spirits" taboo of the Tao people and have caused the disappearance of the specifications for using traditional natural resources, causing natural ecosystems to face the threat of excessive use. In addition to promoting and advocating aboriginal tourism of the Tao people on Orchid Island, the Taiwanese government should help the Tao people to develop a management model that combines traditional regulations and tourism activities. PMID:25089246

Liu, Tzu-Ming; Lu, Dau-Jye

2014-01-01

319

Ecological study for refrigerator use, salt, vegetable, and fruit intakes, and gastric cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

We used an ecological approach to determine the correlation between vegetable, fruit and salt intakes, refrigerator use, and gastric cancer mortality in Korean population. Information on fruit and vegetable intakes per capita from the National Health and Nutrition Survey, death certificate data from the National Statistical office, refrigerator per household data from Korean Statistical Information Service, and salt/sodium intake data from a cross-sectional survey were utilized. Correlation coefficients were calculated between vegetable and fruit intakes, refrigerator per household, and gastric cancer mortality and between salt and sodium intakes, and gastric cancer mortality and incidence in the four areas. With 5, 10, and 15 years lag time, refrigerator usage and fruit intake were negatively associated with gastric cancer mortality (p < 0.01), but vegetable intake was not associated with gastric cancer mortality. When estimates of salt/sodium intake evaluated by 24-h urine collection in four areas of Korea were compared to the gastric cancer mortality and incidence in these regions, positive correlation was shown between salt/sodium intake, and gastric cancer incidence and mortality. Negative associations between refrigerator use, fruit intake, and gastric cancer mortality and positive associations between salt/sodium intake and gastric cancer mortality and incidence were suggested. PMID:21805052

Park, Boyoung; Shin, Aesun; Park, Sue K; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Ma, Seung Hyun; Lee, Eun-Ha; Gwack, Jin; Jung, En-Joo; Cho, Lisa Y; Yang, Jae Jeong; Yoo, Keun-Young

2011-11-01

320

Chemo-ecological studies on hexactinellid sponges from the Southern Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

Hexactinellids (glass sponges) are an understudied class with syncytial organization and poor procariotic associations, thought to lack defensive secondary metabolites. Poriferans, though, are outstanding sources of bioactive compounds; nonetheless, a growing suspicion suggests that many of these chemicals could be symbiont-derived. In Polar latitudes, sponges are readily invaded by diatoms, which could provide natural products. Hexactinellids are typical of deep waters; but in Antarctica, they dominate the upper shelf providing shelter and food supply to many opportunistic mesograzers and macroinvertebrates, which exert strong ecological pressures on them. Aiming to examine the incidence of defensive activities of hexactinellids against consumption, feeding experiments were conducted using their lipophilic fractions. Antarctic hexactinellid and demosponge extracts were tested against the asteroid Odontaster validus and the amphipod Cheirimedon femoratus as putative sympatric, omnivorous consumers. Hexactinellids yielded greater unpalatable activities towards the amphipod, while no apparent allocation of lipophilic defenses was noted. After chemical analyses on the lipophilic fractions from these Antarctic glass sponges, quite similar profiles were revealed, and no peculiar secondary metabolites, comparable to those characterizing other poriferans, were found. Instead, the lipidic compounds 5?(H)-cholestan-3-one and two glycoceramides were isolated for their particular outspread presence in our samples. The isolated compounds were further assessed in asteroid feeding assays, and their occurrence was evaluated for chemotaxonomical purposes in all the Antarctic samples as well as in glass sponges from other latitudes by NMR and MS. Characteristic sphingolipids are proposed as chemical markers in Hexactinellida, with possible contributions to the classification of this unsettled class.

Núñez-Pons, Laura; Carbone, Marianna; Paris, Debora; Melck, Dominique; Ríos, Pilar; Cristobo, Javier; Castelluccio, Francesco; Gavagnin, Margherita; Avila, Conxita

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
321

Study on the response of ecological capacity to land-use/cover change in Wuhan city: a remote sensing and GIS based approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research examined the spatiotemporal patterns of land-use/cover and the dynamics of ecological capacity in response to land-use/cover change in Wuhan city, central China. The data were derived from five years' remote-sensed images, that is, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. This paper used an integrated approach of remote sensing and GIS techniques, ecological capacity and the bilateral dynamic degree models. The results are as follows. (1) From 1990 to 2010, remarkable changes in land-use/cover have occurred within the studied area, and the most prominent characteristics of the changes were continuous decline of arable land and rapid increase of built-up land. (2) The total ecological capacity dropped from 450.55 × 10(4) ghm(2) in 1990 to 447.35 × 10(4) ghm(2) in 2010. The eastern, western, and southern parts had higher ecological capacity whereas the northwestern hilly areas and the central district had lower ecological capacity. (3) Due to the conversion from arable land to built-up land, the ecological capacity losses during 1990-1995, 1995-2000, 2000-2005, and 2005-2010 were 155.52 × 10(2) ghm(2), 114.12 × 10(2) ghm(2), 455.48 × 10(2) ghm(2), and 325.26 × 10(2) ghm(2), respectively. The study would contribute to better understanding of the effects of land-use dynamics and the evolution of ecological capacity, which can provide scientific basis for land management and environment protection. PMID:25258734

Wang, Ying; Li, Xiangmei; Li, Jiangfeng

2014-01-01

322

Trash Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

A hands on activity involving density, frequency and biomass using transects, quadrats and a local good deed by cleaning up the neighborhood while practicing important techniques in ecology is detailed. The activity is designed for KCC-STEP, whose primary goal is to expand the scientific knowledge and research experiences of their students, who…

Lind, Georgia J.

2004-01-01

323

Ecological concepts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This volume contains three critical contributions on the application of modern technology from the ethical point of view. The peaceful use of nuclear power is rejected as a technical error, which is overwhelming humanity. Ethical bases of a preventive technological policy and ecological aims are developed for the 21st century, in economy, technology, politics, and consciousness. (HSCH)

324

Mössbauer and FTIR spectroscopic studies of iron anthranilates: coordination, structure and some ecological aspects of iron complexation  

Science.gov (United States)

The data on the coordination and structure of iron(II) and iron(III) anthranilates in the solid state and in aqueous medium are presented and discussed, as studied using Mössbauer (for solid products and frozen solutions) and FTIR spectroscopy (for solid samples). Whereas, in slightly acidic nitrate solutions under aerobic conditions ferric ions can still be gradually reduced by anthranilic ( o-aminobenzoic) acid, which may have some ecological significance, in circumneutral media this process is retarded. Mössbauer parameters calculated for iron(II) and iron(III) anthranilates, as well as characteristic vibration modes of certain functional groups involved in coordination with iron cations are discussed. The FTIR data obtained for ferrous anthranilates, as compared to anthranilic acid, definitely exhibit the direct involvement of both the carboxylic and the amino groups of anthranilic acid in coordination with iron.

Kamnev, A. A.; Kuzmann, E.; Perfiliev, Yu. D.; Vankó, Gy.; Vértes, A.

1999-05-01

325

Studies on Some Hexaploid Wheat Varieties (Triticum aestivum L. under the Agro-ecological Conditions of District Poonch, Azad Kashmir  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hexaploid wheat has the largest cultivation area among all other crop plants, due to its adaptability to different agro-climatic zones. To cater for the requirements of varied regional breeding programs a screening trial was conducted, in which six hexaploid wheat genotypes were executed for their adaptability under the agro-ecological environment of district Poonch, Azad Kashmir. Punjab-96, khyber-87 and pirsabak-91 have shown maximum plant height, number of spikelets/plant, spike length and 1000 grains weight. Increase in number of tillers/plant was only reported for variety Punjab-96. In this study only Punjab-96 was recommended for general cultivation in district Poonch, Azad Kashmir.

Muhammad Fareed Khan

2002-01-01

326

Hsp70-Hsp40 Chaperone Complex Functions in Controlling Polarized Growth by Repressing Hsf1-Driven Heat Stress-Associated Transcription  

Science.gov (United States)

How the molecular mechanisms of stress response are integrated at the cellular level remains obscure. Here we show that the cellular polarity machinery in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe undergoes dynamic adaptation to thermal stress resulting in a period of decreased Cdc42 activity and altered, monopolar growth. Cells where the heat stress-associated transcription was genetically upregulated exhibit similar growth patterning in the absence of temperature insults. We identify the Ssa2-Mas5/Hsp70-Hsp40 chaperone complex as repressor of the heat shock transcription factor Hsf1. Cells lacking this chaperone activity constitutively activate the heat-stress-associated transcriptional program. Interestingly, they also exhibit intermittent monopolar growth within a physiological temperature range and are unable to adapt to heat stress. We propose that by negatively regulating the heat stress-associated transcription, the Ssa2-Mas5 chaperone system could optimize cellular growth under different temperature regiments. PMID:24146635

Liu, Jianhua; Oliferenko, Snezhana

2013-01-01

327

Developing Ecological Footprint Scenarios on University Campuses: A Case Study of the University of Toronto at Mississauga  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The ecological footprint represents a simple way to assess the amount of materials consumed and waste produced by a given entity. The approach has been applied to countries, towns, households, and more recently university campuses. One of the challenges of using the ecological footprint at a university is the difficulty of determining how…

Conway, Tenley M.; Dalton, Chelsea; Loo, Jennifer; Benakoun, Laura

2008-01-01

328

Studies on the Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution of Palms (Arecaceae) with Focus on the Americas  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Palmefamilien (Arecaceae) bruges i stigende grad som model gruppe til at undersøge tropiske økosystemers evolution og økologi. Denne afhandling spænder over adskillige emner indenfor palmers synøkologi (community ecology), makroøkologi, biogeografi og fylogeni, med fokus på forbindelser mellem økologiske og evolutionære processer. (i) Ud fra litteraturen opsummeres hvordan de faktorer, der påvirker palmers udbredel-sesområder, artssammensætning, og artsrigdom, varierer som funktion af undersøgel-sernes rumlig skala. Forskellige aspekter af abiotisk miljø, biotiske interaktioner og spredning har tydeligvis varierende indflydelse på forskellig rumlig og tidslig skala. Historiske (inkl. evolutionære) faktorer har stor betydning. (ii) Stor-skala rumlige mønstre i palmers artsrigdom og fylogenetisk udskiftning (turnover) er undersøgt for hele Amerika. Sammenhængen mellem miljø og artsrigdom varierer rumligt: korrelatio-nen mellem vand og artsrigdom aftager med afstand fra ækvator, mens korrelationen mellem energi og artsrigdom tiltager. Dette antyder, at de forskellige afgørende faktorer påvirker hinanden på en kompleks måde. Undersøgelser af fylogenetisk udskiftning i regionale palmesamfund viser, at evolutionshistorien påvirker palmers udbredelse signi-fikant på kontinental skala. En ny metode beskrives til at skelne mellem effekterne af fylogenetisk niche-konservatisme og spredningsbegrænsning i evolutionær tid. (iii) Lokale palmesamfund i Amerika er undersøgt, i første omgang ved at opsummere information om deres diversitet og vækstform-sammensætning fra litteraturen. Palme-samfund fra det vestlige Amazonas er desuden undersøgt ved brug af nyindsamlede data. Habitatforskelle er stærkt afgørende for artsrigdom, vækstform-sammensætning og fylogenetisk struktur i palmesamfund. Artsrigdom afhænger også af klimatisk og biogeografisk historie, som også påvirker den fylogenetiske struktur af palmesamfund i det vestlige Amazonas. (iv) Diversificeringen af palme undertribus Bactridinae, som er endemisk for Amerika, blev undersøgt ved brug af nukleart DNA og kloroplast-DNA. Resultatet er en højt opløst og solidt understøttet fylogeni, der delvist modsiger tidligere klassifikationer og fylogenetiske hypoteser baseret på morfologisk information. Denne gruppes diversificering er tilsyneladende præget af Andesbjergenes dannelse og mulig¬vis klimaforandringer i Kænozoikum. Alt i alt, nuværende mønstre i palmers diversitet og udbredelse er tydeligvis påvirket af både nuværende økologiske processer og evolu-tionær dynamik (artsdannelse, uddøen, niche evolution, migration) som følge af for-tidige miljøforandringer og spredningsdynamik over evolutionær tid.

Eiserhardt, Wolf L.

2011-01-01

329

Ecological performance and possible origin of a ubiquitous but under-studied gastropod  

Science.gov (United States)

Invasions by non-indigenous species (NIS) have been suggested to alter local, regional and global biota on unprecedented scales. To manage NIS, it is pivotal to identify whether a species is introduced or native, but even today the geographical origin of thousands of species worldwide remain uncertain. Most of these 'cryptogenic species' are inconspicuous and rare, but in a few instances, they can also be abundant and conspicuous species, with large impacts on community structure. The identification of cryptogenic species, and summarizing information on their most likely origin, is an important task in invasion biology, and can highlight the need for research and management. Here, we document that the gastropod Batillaria australis in the Swan River estuary (Perth, Western Australia) is a conspicuous species of uncertain origin. A literature review combined with new survey data revealed that all evidence point to a recent human-mediated transfer; for example, it is absent from the fossil record, was first collected in 1954, has a low parasite diversity, has increased its population size dramatically in recent times, is separated by >3000 km from conspecifics, has no long-distance dispersal mechanisms, and existing ocean currents run against a natural range extension. Surprisingly, despite political and scientific focus on NIS hardly any ecological data have been published on this species from Western Australia. We show that B. australis is highly abundant in both seagrass beds (424 ± 29 ind m -2) and on unvegetated sand flats (92 ± 22 ind m -2) being orders of magnitudes more abundant than any native gastropod in the Swan River. Experiments showed that high resistance to predation and environmental stress potentially explains its success. From our survey data, we calculated that >3.6 billion invasive snails today occupy the Swan River. This large snail populations support other organisms; for example, almost 1 billion macroalgae are found attached to living B. australis and >100 million hermit crabs occupy its empty shells. Given Battilaria's high abundance, wide distribution, large size, persistent shells that support other organisms and bioturbating behavior, it seems inescapable that this potential invader has impacted the ecosystem functioning of the Swan River. We argue that the search for abundant species of uncertain origin should continue, and that these species generally should be treated with the same interest as high status invaders to mitigate impacts in already invaded systems and to avoid secondary spread into neighboring ecosystems.

Thomsen, Mad S.; Wernberg, Thomas; Tuya, Fernando; Silliman, Brian R.

2010-05-01

330

Ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was built on the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the mid-1980's. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 14 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Research conducted by the SREL has focused primarily on four questions related to these wetlands: (1) Prior to construction, what fauna and flora were present at the DWPF site and at similar, yet undisturbed, alternative sites? (2) By comparing the Carolina bay at the DWPF site (Sun Bay) with an undisturbed control Carolina bay (Rainbow Bay), what effect is construction having on the organisms that inhabited the DWPF site? (3) By comparing control streams with streams on the periphery of the DWPF site, what effect is construction having on the peripheral streams? (4) How effective have efforts been to lessen the impacts of construction, both with respect to erosion control measures and the construction of ''refuge ponds'' as alternative breeding sites for amphibians that formerly bred at Sun Bay? Through the long-term census-taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has begun to evaluate the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. Similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive Orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10 CFR 1022)

331

Landscape and soil regionalization in southern Brazilian Amazon and contiguous areas: methodology and relevance for ecological studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Soils of a large tropical area with differentiated landscapes cannot be treated uniformly for ecological applications. We intend to develop a framework based on physiography that can be used in regional applications. The study region occupies more than 1.1 million km² and is located at the junction [...] of the savanna region of Central Brazil and the Amazon forest. It includes a portion of the high sedimentary Central Brazil plateau and large areas of mostly peneplained crystalline shield on the border of the wide inner-Amazon low sedimentary plain. A first broad subdivision was made into landscape regions followed by a more detailed subdivision into soil regions. Mapping information was extracted from soil survey maps at scales of 1:250000-1:500000. Soil units were integrated within a homogenized legend using a set of selected attributes such as taxonomic term, the texture of the B horizon and the associated vegetation. For each region, a detailed inventory of the soil units with their area distribution was elaborated. Ten landscape regions and twenty-four soil regions were recognized and delineated. Soil cover of a region is normally characterized by a cluster composed of many soil units. Soil diversity is comparable in the landscape and the soil regions. Composition of the soil cover is quantitatively expressed in terms of area extension of the soil units. Such geographic divisions characterized by grouping soil units and their spatial estimates must be used for regional ecological applications.

Boris, Volkoff; Francisco Fujita de Castro, Mello; Stoécio Malta Ferreira, Maia; Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino, Cerri.

2012-06-01

332

Landscape and soil regionalization in southern Brazilian Amazon and contiguous areas: methodology and relevance for ecological studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Soils of a large tropical area with differentiated landscapes cannot be treated uniformly for ecological applications. We intend to develop a framework based on physiography that can be used in regional applications. The study region occupies more than 1.1 million km² and is located at the junction [...] of the savanna region of Central Brazil and the Amazon forest. It includes a portion of the high sedimentary Central Brazil plateau and large areas of mostly peneplained crystalline shield on the border of the wide inner-Amazon low sedimentary plain. A first broad subdivision was made into landscape regions followed by a more detailed subdivision into soil regions. Mapping information was extracted from soil survey maps at scales of 1:250000-1:500000. Soil units were integrated within a homogenized legend using a set of selected attributes such as taxonomic term, the texture of the B horizon and the associated vegetation. For each region, a detailed inventory of the soil units with their area distribution was elaborated. Ten landscape regions and twenty-four soil regions were recognized and delineated. Soil cover of a region is normally characterized by a cluster composed of many soil units. Soil diversity is comparable in the landscape and the soil regions. Composition of the soil cover is quantitatively expressed in terms of area extension of the soil units. Such geographic divisions characterized by grouping soil units and their spatial estimates must be used for regional ecological applications.

Boris, Volkoff; Francisco Fujita de Castro, Mello; Stoécio Malta Ferreira, Maia; Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino, Cerri.

333

Human and ecological risk assessment of a crop protection chemical: a case study with the azole fungicide epoxiconazole.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conventional risk assessments for crop protection chemicals compare the potential for causing toxicity (hazard identification) to anticipated exposure. New regulatory approaches have been proposed that would exclude exposure assessment and just focus on hazard identification based on endocrine disruption. This review comprises a critical analysis of hazard, focusing on the relative sensitivity of endocrine and non-endocrine endpoints, using a class of crop protection chemicals, the azole fungicides. These were selected because they are widely used on important crops (e.g. grains) and thereby can contact target and non-target plants and enter the food chain of humans and wildlife. Inhibition of lanosterol 14?-demethylase (CYP51) mediates the antifungal effect. Inhibition of other CYPs, such as aromatase (CYP19), can lead to numerous toxicological effects, which are also evident from high dose human exposures to therapeutic azoles. Because of its widespread use and substantial database, epoxiconazole was selected as a representative azole fungicide. Our critical analysis concluded that anticipated human exposure to epoxiconazole would yield a margin of safety of at least three orders of magnitude for reproductive effects observed in laboratory rodent studies that are postulated to be endocrine-driven (i.e. fetal resorptions). The most sensitive ecological species is the aquatic plant Lemna (duckweed), for which the margin of safety is less protective than for human health. For humans and wildlife, endocrine disruption is not the most sensitive endpoint. It is concluded that conventional risk assessment, considering anticipated exposure levels, will be protective of both human and ecological health. Although the toxic mechanisms of other azole compounds may be similar, large differences in potency will require a case-by-case risk assessment. PMID:24274332

Chambers, Janice E; Greim, Helmut; Kendall, Ronald J; Segner, Helmut; Sharpe, Richard M; Van Der Kraak, Glen

2014-02-01

334

Ecology, Complexity, and Metaphor  

Science.gov (United States)

This peer-reviewed article from Bioscience is about Ecology, Complexity and Metaphor.Complexity has recently risen to prominence in ecology as part of a broader interest that suggests its status is something more than just a scientific theory or property of reality. It may be helpful to consider complexity, and related terms such as "self-organization," as recent metaphors deployed to advance knowledge on fundamental questions in ecology, including the relationship between parts and wholes, and between order and disorder. Though not commonly viewed as such, metaphors are an indispensable component of science, and should not be appraised as true or false, but rather in terms of how they help or hinder knowledge. By understanding metaphor as a necessary ally and not a threat to ecological knowledge, we may enrich our contextual understanding of complexity while continuing to invoke it in useful ways. The special section introduced by this article features essays by two prominent experts in ecology, complexity, and metaphor: science studies scholar Evelyn Fox Keller and theoretical ecologist Simon Levin

JAMES D. PROCTOR and BRENDON M. H. LARSON (;)

2005-12-01

335

Development of a concept for a long-term ecological monitoring system on the river Rhine. Phase 1: bibliographic study. Annex 1. Chronological bibliography and materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This bibliographic study describes the ecological changes to which the ecosystem Rhine river/floodplain has been exposed from its historical state, free of anthropogenic impacts, to its present state, marked by strong anthropogenic impacts. By classifying these changes it is possible to define reference states of the river which should become the basis for the restoration of certain conditions of the ecosystem river/floodplain and to discuss related targets and actions. A comparison of historical and present states of the ecosystem allows proposals to be derived for measuring parameters for a future ecological monitoring programme for the river Rhine. Finally, gaps in knowledge are revealed, which at present hinder the ecological monitoring of the river, its shores and floodplains. Annex I lists the references arranged in the order of authors and years of publication, presents a list of experts, an overview on research projects, current measuring and observation programmes on the river Rhine and makes proposals for future monitoring sites. (orig.)

336

Is intensive measurement of body image reactive? A two-study evaluation using Ecological Momentary Assessment suggests not.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intensive assessment methods (e.g., Ecological Momentary Assessment [EMA]) are increasingly used to capture body image experiences in daily life. One concern with EMA is multiple assessments may increase reactivity to internal or external cues, potentially biasing measurement. Reactivity to EMA was evaluated in two studies (Study 1: N=63 female undergraduates, Study 2: N=131 women with high body dissatisfaction/disordered eating). Participants completed five daily surveys on handheld computers for 1-2 weeks and body image-related questionnaires at the start and end of each study. Results showed no systematic changes in pre- and post-EMA measures or momentary EMA reports, suggesting women were not reactive to the EMA protocols. Completing 1-2 weeks of EMA does not appear to affect body dissatisfaction, mood, or attitudes in non-clinical or at-risk samples of women. These studies provide evidence that EMA methods can be used to assess real-world body image experiences without undue concern about measurement reactivity. PMID:22999225

Heron, Kristin E; Smyth, Joshua M

2013-01-01

337

Is Intensive Measurement of Body Image Reactive? A Two-Study Evaluation Using Ecological Momentary Assessment Suggests Not  

Science.gov (United States)

Intensive assessment methods (e.g., Ecological Momentary Assessment [EMA]) are increasingly used to capture body image experiences in daily life. One concern with EMA is multiple assessments may increase reactivity to internal or external cues, potentially biasing measurement. Reactivity to EMA was evaluated in two studies (Study 1: N = 63 female undergraduates, Study 2: N = 131 women with high body dissatisfaction/disordered eating). Participants completed five daily surveys on handheld computers for 1–2 weeks and body image-related questionnaires at the start and end of each study. Results showed no systematic changes in pre- and post-EMA measures or momentary EMA reports, suggesting women were not reactive to the EMA protocols. Completing 1–2 weeks of EMA does not appear to affect body dissatisfaction, mood, or attitudes in non-clinical or at-risk samples of women. These studies provide evidence that EMA methods can be used to assess real-world body image experiences without undue concern about measurement reactivity. PMID:22999225

Heron, Kristin E.; Smyth, Joshua M.

2012-01-01

338

Studies of obtaining and stability in aqueous medium of new complex compounds of Ti(IV) and Zr(IV) used in ecological leather tanning  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the study of obtaining new coordination compounds of Ti(IV) and Zr(IV) using as ligand: D,L-?-iso-butyric acid, is presented. Also, the stability of these compounds in aqueous medium is studied. The studies of obtaining and of stability of the new compounds were accomplished in aqueous solutions using methods characteristic for coordination compounds: conductance and pH measurements. The combination ratios and the stability were determined with methods characteristic for studies in solutions. From experimental data resulted that the combination ratio of central metallic atoms with the ligand derived from D,L-?-iso-butyric acid was 1:2. From experimental data resulted that in strong acid and strong basic mediums, the coordination compounds could not be obtained. The optimal stability of the studied compounds is limited between 3-6, pH - values. This fact is in accordance with the conditions of using these compounds in ecological leather tanning. Of great importance is that these compounds were used with very good results in tanning processes of different types of leather. This fact evidenced that the ecological alternative of tanning is better than non-ecological tanning using chrome compounds. The importance of this paper consists in obtaining new coordination compounds that can be used in ecological leather tanning.

Crudu, Marian; Sibiescu, Doina; Rosca, Ioan; Sutiman, Daniel; Vizitiu, Mihaela

2009-01-01

339

Respuesta celular de línea de hepatoma humano (HepG2) al estrés hipotérmico con recuperación: Inducción de la expresión de Hsp60, Hsp70, y Hsf1 / Human hepatoma cell line (Hep G2) cellular response to hypothermic stress with recovery: Induction of Hsp70, Hsp60 and Hsf1 expression  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se analizó la respuesta celular de células HepG2 expuestas a hipotermia con posterior recuperación. Los hallazgos ultraestructurales en células sometidas a estrés hipotérmico incluyeron mitocondrias edematizadas, núcleos picnóticos, vacuolas y reorganización nucleolar en forma de ani [...] llo. Tales cambios están relacionados con diferencias significativas en la inducción de la expresión de Hsp60, Hsp70 inducible y Hsf 1 monomérico en todas las muestras tratadas, pero no de Hsc70. La respuesta celular a la hipotermia puede ser relacionada con la inducción sinergística de las Hsp Abstract in english The cell response of human HepG2 cells exposed to hypothermia with rewarming was analyzed. Ultrastructural findings in hypothermic stressed cells showed swollen mitochondria, dispersed chromatin, vacuoles and ring-shape nucleolar reorganization. These changes were coupled with significative differen [...] ces in the induction of Hsp60, inducible Hsp70 and monomeric Hsf1 in all treated samples, but not in Hsc 70 expression. Cellular response to hypothermia could be associated with the synergistic induction of Hsp expression

Alegna, Rada; Elizabeth, Merentes; Marianela, Rodríguez; Guillermo, Anselmi; Mirian, Strauss.

2010-12-01

340

Respuesta celular de línea de hepatoma humano (HepG2) al estrés hipotérmico con recuperación: Inducción de la expresión de Hsp60, Hsp70, y Hsf1 / Human hepatoma cell line (Hep G2) cellular response to hypothermic stress with recovery: Induction of Hsp70, Hsp60 and Hsf1 expression  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se analizó la respuesta celular de células HepG2 expuestas a hipotermia con posterior recuperación. Los hallazgos ultraestructurales en células sometidas a estrés hipotérmico incluyeron mitocondrias edematizadas, núcleos picnóticos, vacuolas y reorganización nucleolar en forma de ani [...] llo. Tales cambios están relacionados con diferencias significativas en la inducción de la expresión de Hsp60, Hsp70 inducible y Hsf 1 monomérico en todas las muestras tratadas, pero no de Hsc70. La respuesta celular a la hipotermia puede ser relacionada con la inducción sinergística de las Hsp Abstract in english The cell response of human HepG2 cells exposed to hypothermia with rewarming was analyzed. Ultrastructural findings in hypothermic stressed cells showed swollen mitochondria, dispersed chromatin, vacuoles and ring-shape nucleolar reorganization. These changes were coupled with significative differen [...] ces in the induction of Hsp60, inducible Hsp70 and monomeric Hsf1 in all treated samples, but not in Hsc 70 expression. Cellular response to hypothermia could be associated with the synergistic induction of Hsp expression

Alegna, Rada; Elizabeth, Merentes; Marianela, Rodríguez; Guillermo, Anselmi; Mirian, Strauss.

 
 
 
 
341

Application of the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean to Phytoplankton Ecology Studies in Monterey Bay, CA, USA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a demonstrator for technologies for the next generation of ocean color sensors, the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO provides enhanced spatial and spectral resolution that is required to understand optically complex aquatic environments. In this study we apply HICO, along with satellite remote sensing and in situ observations, to studies of phytoplankton ecology in a dynamic coastal upwelling environment—Monterey Bay, CA, USA. From a spring 2011 study, we examine HICO-detected spatial patterns in phytoplankton optical properties along an environmental gradient defined by upwelling flow patterns and along a temporal gradient of upwelling intensification. From a fall 2011 study, we use HICO’s enhanced spatial and spectral resolution to distinguish a small-scale “red tide” bloom, and we examine bloom expansion and its supporting processes using other remote sensing and in situ data. From a spectacular HICO image of the Monterey Bay region acquired during fall of 2012, we present a suite of algorithm results for characterization of phytoplankton, and we examine the strengths, limitations, and distinctions of each algorithm in the context of the enhanced spatial and spectral resolution.

John P. Ryan

2014-01-01

342

An Ecological Study of Community-Level Correlates of Suicide Mortality Rates in the Flemish Region of Belgium, 1996-2005  

Science.gov (United States)

An ecological study of age-standardized suicide rates in Belgian communities (1996-2005) was conducted using spatial regression techniques. Community characteristics were significantly related to suicide rates. There was mixed support for the social integration perspective: single person households were associated with higher suicide rates, while…

Hooghe, Marc; Vanhoutte, Bram

2011-01-01

343

The Role of Empowerment in Youth Development: A Study of Sociopolitical Control as Mediator of Ecological Systems' Influence on Developmental Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

Empowerment has become an influential concept and theoretical framework for social policy and practice. Still, relatively little is known about the roles that empowerment plays in the ecology of human development, particularly among young people. This article reports results of a study of psychological empowerment among young people, using data…

Christens, Brian D.; Peterson, N. Andrew

2012-01-01

344

Learning about Environmental Issues in Engineering Programmes: A Case Study of First-Year Civil Engineering Students' Contextualisation of an Ecology Course  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes how first-year civil engineering students interpreted the content and structure of an ecology course. Students' learning processes were analysed from an intentional perspective, i.e. a perspective that takes into account the students' educational aims and conceptions of the study situation. Interviews were carried out with six civil…

Lundholm, Cecilia

2004-01-01

345

A Semester Ecology Project  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a semester-long study of microorganisms in an aquarium as performed by a beginning microbiology class. Gives results and conclusions drawn by students utilizing many ecological principles to interpret the results. Similar projects could be used from beginning high school through advanced college biology. (EB)

Baskett, Russell C.

1969-01-01

346

History and Ecological Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the main objectives of ecohistory and sources of information for this study. Details five themes that are important for students to know about the history of ecology including the history of Earth, fauna and flora, the human species, human civilization, and changes in the human environment. (CW)

Cherif, Abour H.

1988-01-01

347

Comprehensive Transcriptome Study to Develop Molecular Resources of the Copepod Calanus sinicus for Their Potential Ecological Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Calanus sinicus Brodsky (Copepoda, Crustacea) is a dominant zooplanktonic species widely distributed in the margin seas of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. In this study, we utilized an RNA-Seq-based approach to develop molecular resources for C. sinicus. Adult samples were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. The sequencing data generated 69,751 contigs from 58.9 million filtered reads. The assembled contigs had an average length of 928.8?bp. Gene annotation allowed the identification of 43,417 unigene hits against the NCBI database. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway mapping analysis revealed various functional genes related to diverse biological functions and processes. Transcripts potentially involved in stress response and lipid metabolism were identified among these genes. Furthermore, 4,871 microsatellites and 110,137 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the C. sinicus transcriptome sequences. SNP validation by the melting temperature (Tm)-shift method suggested that 16 primer pairs amplified target products and showed biallelic polymorphism among 30 individuals. The present work demonstrates the power of Illumina-based RNA-Seq for the rapid development of molecular resources in nonmodel species. The validated SNP set from our study is currently being utilized in an ongoing ecological analysis to support a future study of C. sinicus population genetics. PMID:24982883

Yang, Qing; Sun, Fanyue; Yang, Zhi; Li, Hongjun

2014-01-01

348

Exploring Collaborative Training with Educational Computer Assisted Simulations in Health Care Education: An Empirical Ecology of Resources Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explores collaborative training with educational computer assisted simulations (ECAS in health care education. The use of simulation technology is increasing in health care education (Issenberg et al., 2005; Bradley, 2006, and research is addressing the techniques of its application. Calls have been made for informing the field with existing and future educational research (e.g. Issenberg et al., 2011. This study investigates and examines collaboration as a technique for structuring simulation training. Part of a larger research and development project (H?ll et al., 2011; H?ll & S?derstr?m, 2012, this paper primarily utilizes qualitative observation analysis of dentistry students learning radiology to investigate the challenges that screen-based simulation technology poses for collaborative learning. Grounded in Luckin’s ecology of resources framework (Luckin, 2010 and informed by computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL research, the study identifies some disadvantages of free collaboration that need to be dealt with for collaboration to be a beneficial technique for ECAS in health care education. The discussion focuses on the use of scripts (Weinberger et al., 2009 to filter the interactions between the learner and the more able partner, supporting the collaborative-learning activity and enhancing learning with ECAS in health care education.

Lars O. Hall

2012-10-01

349

Ecological transition towards a sustainable energy system. Case studies on biogas production and use in Germany and Peru. Study of the European Commission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The energy system - defined as the production, distribution and consumption of energy - plays an important role in sustainability because it is interlinked with economic development, environmental protection and also, in developing countries, with the basic need for a food supply. The energy system has to be studied in relation to the urgent global problems, such as increasing pollution, growing world population, deforestation, exploitation of nonrenewable resources etc. The study, therefore, has the following objectives: - Identification of basic needs by the definition of physical, economic and social indicators for sustainable development. - Definition of the energy system, in terms of processes from energy production to energy use, including actors and networks. -Identification of the main problem areas in industrialized and developing countries relating to the energy system, of necessary improvements and of activities which are essential for the fulfillment of basic needs. - Definition and description of the conventional energy system with its process chains and actors and of an ecological energy system. - Identification of technical and socioeconomic impacts of these systems and their relations to the sustainability indicators. - Analysis of barriers and promotion of measures for the ecological transi tion (actors, R and D, technology transfer, information, motivation, consultation, training, subsidies, and other policy implications). (orig./SR)implications). (orig./SR)

350

Proposed spatial framework to develop land use in an environmentally-sensitive area: Case study, El-Daba'a region, Egypt Part I: Ecological value assessment using GIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study is to assess the ecological characteristics of El-Daba'a area in Egypt using GIS as a first step for the development of an environmental management plan for the area. The absence of environmental planning in the process of land use development may cause many significant negative impacts on biodiversity, ecological value and the general environmental conditions and the therefore reducing such negative impacts will improve land use development. The first part of sequel of two papers, which is a part of a sustainable land use development research program, aims at designing a spatial framework to improve land use planning and development in an environmental context. The research program deals with the problem of land use planning and development in an arid coastal area under environmentally sensitive conditions. The study area is El-Daba'a region, located in the northwestern coast of Egypt, which can be described as a wild area. The approach used in this paper consists of studying the spatial ecological characteristics of El-Daba'a region using different spatial data including maps and land sat remote sensing data. These data are used to create a series of superimposed informative layers managed by a geographic information system (GIS) to describe the spatial ecological characteristics of the study area. The developed GIS allow decision makers to handle large amounts of information simultaneously such as geology, geomorphology, land cover, wild life ogy, geomorphology, land cover, wild life and many other different information layers. The system is designed to help decision makers to organize, relate, analyze and visualize the ecological data and information in the study area. The developed GIS system might be used to determine the probable effects of building a nuclear power station on the ecosystem. (author)

351

Ecological subsidies: a conceptual framework for integrating ecosystem and exposure studies in linked aquatic-terrestrial systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecology and ecotoxicology share common goals - tracing and quantifying material flux in the environment. Bridging these disciplines is challenging because their practitioners have slightly different methods, terminologies and objectives. For example, ecologists strive to identify...

352

The Principle of Ecological Culture Development Continuity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article deals with continuity principle features in ecological education in order to optimize ecological culture development process. Every man studies throughout life and the society has to provide such opportunity. Continuity principle must become one of the strategic lines of educational policy in order to form integral ecological culture

Kira Stetsyuk

2013-01-01

353

The significance of the default : A study in environmental law methodology with emphasis on ecological sustainability and international biodiversity law  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The legal operationalisation of ecological sustainability concerns all levels of legal control. The ensuring of full biodiversity is an indispensible component of ecological sustainability. At the same time, biodiversity losses continue to be a serious problem in many regions of the world. The international community has responded to this dilemma by strengthening international biodiversity law as well as agreeing upon a particular biodiversity target. The aim is to reduce biodiversity losses ...

Jo?hannsdo?ttir, Aðalheiður

2009-01-01

354

How to choose geographical units in ecological studies: proposal and application to campylobacteriosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In spatial epidemiology, the choice of an appropriate geographical unit of analysis is a key decision that will influence most aspects of the study. In this study, we proposed and applied a set of measurable criteria applicable for orienting the choice of geographical unit. Nine criteria were selected, covering many aspects such as biological relevance, communicability of results, ease of data access, distribution of exposure variables, cases and population, and shape of unit. These criteria were then applied to compare various geographical units derived from administrative, health services, and natural frameworks that could be used for the study of the spatial distribution of campylobacteriosis in the province of Quebec, Canada. In this study, municipality was the geographical unit that performed the best according to our assessment and given the specific objectives and time period of the study. Future research areas for optimizing the choice of geographical unit are discussed. PMID:24238078

Arsenault, Julie; Michel, Pascal; Berke, Olaf; Ravel, André; Gosselin, Pierre

2013-12-01

355

Suicídio e trabalho em metrópoles brasileiras: um estudo ecológico / Suicide and work in Brazilian metropolises: an ecological study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi relacionar a mortalidade por suicídio com indicadores de saúde e trabalho em seis metrópoles brasileiras: Porto Alegre, Recife, Salvador, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo. Estudo ecológico, cujo desfecho é o coeficiente de mortalidade por suicídio na série histó [...] rica de 2002 a 2010, e as variáveis independentes são os indicadores de atividade laboral e de sofrimento mental. Realizou-se associação estatística por meio do teste de Correlação de Pearson e as variáveis associadas ao suicídio (p Abstract in english The scope of this study was to correlate suicide mortality with health indicators and work in six Brazilian metropolises: Porto Alegre, Recife, Salvador, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. It was an ecological study, the outcome of which is the death rate from suicide in the historical se [...] ries from 2002 to 2010, and the independent variables are the indicators of occupational activity and mental suffering. Statistical association using the Pearson Correlation test was conducted and the variables associated with suicide (p

Roger Flores, Ceccon; Stela Nazareth, Meneghel; Juliana Petri, Tavares; Liana, Lautert.

356

Suicídio e trabalho em metrópoles brasileiras: um estudo ecológico / Suicide and work in Brazilian metropolises: an ecological study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi relacionar a mortalidade por suicídio com indicadores de saúde e trabalho em seis metrópoles brasileiras: Porto Alegre, Recife, Salvador, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo. Estudo ecológico, cujo desfecho é o coeficiente de mortalidade por suicídio na série histó [...] rica de 2002 a 2010, e as variáveis independentes são os indicadores de atividade laboral e de sofrimento mental. Realizou-se associação estatística por meio do teste de Correlação de Pearson e as variáveis associadas ao suicídio (p Abstract in english The scope of this study was to correlate suicide mortality with health indicators and work in six Brazilian metropolises: Porto Alegre, Recife, Salvador, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. It was an ecological study, the outcome of which is the death rate from suicide in the historical se [...] ries from 2002 to 2010, and the independent variables are the indicators of occupational activity and mental suffering. Statistical association using the Pearson Correlation test was conducted and the variables associated with suicide (p

Roger Flores, Ceccon; Stela Nazareth, Meneghel; Juliana Petri, Tavares; Liana, Lautert.

357

Fostering Ecological Literacy: A Case Study of the Saint John Harbour in Two High School English Language Arts Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrating environmental education into curriculum in a way that tackles the holistic and complicated nature of multi-dimensional issues continues to be a challenge for educators and administrators. There is potential in using ecological literacy to introduce local environmental case studies into English Language Arts high school classrooms. This research examines the experiences of two ELA classrooms in one Saint John, NB, high school with a two-week unit based on stakeholder relationships within the Saint John Harbour. Through presentations by guest speakers and research sourced from local community groups, students learned about the highly complex environmental issues that inform management decisions for the Harbour. Using these materials as background, students participated in a mock stakeholders meeting. Case study methodology was used to explore student learning in both a higher-level and a lower-level grade 10 ELA class. Data for the analysis included: cognitive mapping exercises; oral and written classroom assignments and activities; a videotape of the mock stakeholder meetings; a focus group interview with selected students; and researcher field notes. Data demonstrated significant student learning about environmental issues including increased sophistication in describing links between and among environmental issues affecting the harbour, and much more complex understandings of the positions and roles of the various stakeholder groups. Some important areas of resistance to new learning were also evident. Implications for practice and policy and recommendations for future research are discussed.

Douglas, Velta

358

Factors Associated with Dengue Mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean, 1995-2009: An Ecological Study  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we aimed to estimate the effect that environmental, demographic, and socioeconomic factors have on dengue mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean. To that end, we conducted an observational ecological study, analyzing data collected between 1995 and 2009. Dengue mortality rates were highest in the Caribbean (Spanish-speaking and non-Spanish-speaking). Multivariate analysis through Poisson regression revealed that the following factors were independently associated with dengue mortality: time since identification of endemicity (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] = 3.2 [for each 10 years]); annual rainfall (aRR = 1.5 [for each 103 L/m2]); population density (aRR = 2.1 and 3.2 for 20–120 inhabitants/km2 and > 120 inhabitants/km2, respectively); Human Development Index > 0.83 (aRR = 0.4); and circulation of the dengue 2 serotype (aRR = 1.7). These results highlight the important role that environmental, demographic, socioeconomic, and biological factors have played in increasing the severity of dengue in recent decades. PMID:22302870

Diaz-Quijano, Fredi Alexander; Waldman, Eliseu Alves

2012-01-01

359

Doctoral education in a successful ecological niche : A qualitative exploratory case study of the relationship between the microclimate and doctoral students' learning to become a researcher  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Scholarly communities are dependent on and often measured by their ability to attract and develop doctoral students. Recent literature suggests that most scholarly communities entail ecological niches in which the doctoral students learn the codes and practices of research. In this article, we explore the microclimate in an ecological niche of doctoral education. Based on a theoretical definition of microclimate as the emotional atmosphere that ties group members together and affects their actions, we conducted a case study that aimed to describe the key features of the microclimate in a successful ecological niche of doctoral education, and the ways in which the microclimate support the doctoral students’ learning. The methods we applied in the case study were based on short-term ethnographic fieldwork. The results reveal four key features of the emotional atmosphere in the microclimate: mutual appreciation, balancing seriousness and humor, desire, and ambition. These features constitute the shared emotionality that sets the scene for the microclimate, and affects and guides the doctoral students’ daily practices. Furthermore, the results indicate that the microclimate supports successful doctoral education because it: 1) fleshes out the professional attitude that is necessary for becoming a successful researcher in the department, 2) shapes and adapts the doctoral students’ desires to grasp and identify with the department’s practices, and 3) provides the doctoral students with access to flow zones that drive their education. These results may suggest practical implications for fostering and cultivating successful ecological niches in medical education at doctoral level.

Christensen, Mette Krogh; Lund, Ole

2014-01-01

360

Missing ecology: integrating ecological perspectives with the social-ecological system framework  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The social-ecological systems framework was designed to provide a common research tool for interdisciplinary investigations of social-ecological systems. However, its origin in institutional studies of the commons belies its interdisciplinary ambitions and highlights its relatively limited attention to ecology and natural scientific knowledge. This paper considers the biophysical components of the framework and its epistemological foundations as it relates to the incorporation of knowledge from the natural sciences. It finds that the mixture of inductive and deductive reasoning associated with socially-oriented investigations of these systems is lacking on the ecological side, which relies upon induction alone. As a result the paper proposes the addition of a seventh core sub-system to the social-ecological systems framework, ecological rules, which would allow scholars to explicitly incorporate knowledge from the natural sciences for deductive reasoning. The paper shows, through an instructive case study, how the addition of ecological rules can provide a more nuanced description of the factors that contribute to outcomes in social-ecological systems.

Graham Epstein

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
361

Side biases in humans ( Homo sapiens): three ecological studies on hemispheric asymmetries  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemispheric asymmetries and side biases have been studied in humans mostly in laboratory settings, and evidence obtained in naturalistic settings is scarce. We here report the results of three studies on human ear preference observed during social interactions in noisy environments, i.e., discotheques. In the first study, a spontaneous right-ear preference was observed during linguistic exchange between interacting individuals. This lateral bias was confirmed in a quasi-experimental study in which a confederate experimenter evoked an ear-orienting response in bystanders, under the pretext of approaching them with a whispered request. In the last study, subjects showed a greater proneness to meet an experimenter’s request when it was directly addressed to the right rather than the left ear. Our findings are in agreement both with laboratory studies on hemispheric lateralization for language and approach/avoidance behavior in humans and with animal research. The present work is one of the few studies demonstrating the natural expression of hemispheric asymmetries, showing their effect in everyday human behavior.

Marzoli, Daniele; Tommasi, Luca

2009-09-01

362

Summaries of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioecology and Ecology Program's waste management related studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research summaries briefly describe studies concerning the activities of small mammals on and in waste disposal sites, revegetation of waste disposal sites, and contamination of wildlife by radionuclides and the spread of radionuclides by wildlife

363

Baseline studies on the benthic ecology and thermal tolerance of some selected species from Kaiga environs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Baseline studies on distribution and abundance of benthic fauna and aquatic fungi of Kadra reservoir have been studied at nine stations from July 2000. The study revealed that Insecta formed the dominant component of benthos at all the stations, where Chironomus sp. and Chaoborus sp. formed the bulk of biomass. Molluscs were dominant at intake. 18 species of fungi and 20 species of aquatic hypomycetes were observed on woody litter and leaf litter respectively. Surface water temperature ranged from 26 deg to 36.8 degC from intake to discharge point. The sediment is largely muddy at most of the stations. It was rich in organic matter at intake and downstream stations with maximum value of 12.74%. Lethal temperature tolerance studies were performed on juveniles of fresh water shrimps (Macrobranchium sp.) for 96 hours. LT50 MOEL (maximum observed effect level) and NOEL (no observed effect level) for different time intervals have been obtained. (author)

364

Inequalities in public water supply fluoridation in Brazil: An ecological study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The literature is scarce on the social and geographic inequalities in the access to and implementation of the fluoridation of public water supplies. This study adds knowledge to the Brazilian experience of the chronic privation of water and wastewater policies, access to potable water and fluoridation in the country. Thus, the aim of this study was to verify possible inequalities in the population's access to fluoridated drinking water in 246 Brazilian mun...

Moysés Simone T; Olandoski Marcia; da Silva Wander J; Cl, Gabardo Marilisa; Moysés Samuel J

2008-01-01

365

Conservation biology of greater horseshoe bats - from field studies to molecolar ecology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Greater horseshoe bats have experienced a substantial range contraction in Britain over the past century, and are also endangered in many European countries. Our studies on the conservation biology of greater horseshoe bats have been running since 1987, and have ranged from simple field-based studies on diet, through radio-tracking studies of habitat use, to research on population genetics, paternity and genetic factors affecting survival. Initially, I described the diet of the species and this proved to be a useful predictor of habitat use. Habitat use was studied in detail by radio-tracking 67 bats at three sites, with further small-scale studies to investigate the generality of landscape use patterns. We also studied the development of foraging behaviour in juveniles to determine critical foraging habitats that may promote juvenile survival. In Britain, greater horseshoe bats feed frequently in winter, and the extent of winter activity has been quantified by acoustic surveys and telemetry of hibernating bats. Recent advances in molecular genetics have provided fascinating insights into the conservation biology of threatened populations of this species, for example illustrating genetic effects of population isolation, and how outbreeding influences survival.

Gareth Jones

2003-10-01

366

PROPOSAL OF A NEW METHOO OF ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF VEGETATION: THE CASE STUDY OF THE VEGETATION OF THE VENICE LAGOON LANDSCAPE ANO OF ITS SALT MARSHES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

In frequent case studies, the heterogeneity of vegetation formation is very high, because of the frequency of both natural and human disturbances. Consequently, the phytosociological approach .and the auto-ecological one are not completely adequate for the evaluation or the ecological state of this vegetation in a landscape.

So, this evaluation needs the integration with a landscape ecological method of vegetation survey through schedules, as indicated by Ingegnoli (2002. Each type of schedule has been designed to check the organisation level and to estimate the metastability of a tessera of a certain type of vegetation, considering both general ecological and landscape ecological characters: (A Landscape e1ement characters (e.g. tessera, corridor, (8 Plant, biomass above ground, (C Ecocoenotope pararneters. (D Relation among the elements and their landscape parameters. There are four evaluation classes, the weights per class depending on an evaluation model designed as shown later on. The principal aim of this research is to design a new schedule, available for the main coenosis of salt marshes vegetation, which allows to complete a preliminary study on the Venice lagoon landscape dynamics, based on its vegetation. The landscape of the Venice lagoon is very complex and articulated, its main vegetation formations are the following: Underwater, Salt marshes. Littoral. Reclamation colonisations, Wet areas. Wooded patches and corridors. Agricultural cultivations, Urban green. The most important typc of vegetation is represented by salt marshes prairies called "barene", especially by Limonietum venetum (Pignani. 1966, This association can be divided into three sub-associations, the first with three facies: but the reality presents a large quantity of tesserae in intermediate or ecotonal states, even mixed with other associations (e,g, Spartinetum maritimae. The design and control of the schedule, the first measure of the community plant biomasses are a part of this study, me results of which will be discussed in this work.

E. GIGLIO

2004-01-01

367

Silencing of the Hsf gene, the transcriptional regulator of A. gambiae male accessory glands, inhibits the formation of the mating plug in mated females and disrupts their monogamous behaviour  

Science.gov (United States)

Discovering the molecular factors that shape the mating behaviour and the fertility of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, the principal vector of human malaria, is regarded as critical to better understand its reproductive success as well as for identifying new leads for malaria control measures. In A. gambiae mating induces complex behavioural and physiological changes in the females, including refractoriness to subsequent mating and induction of egg-laying. In other insects including Drosophila a group of proteins named Accessory gland proteins (Acps), produced by males and transferred with sperm to the female reproductive tract, have been implicated in this post-mating response. Although Acps represent a set of promising candidates for unravelling the mating physiology, their role in inducing behavioural changes in mated A. gambiae females remains largely unknown. In this work, we demonstrate that a down-regulation of a large fraction of Acp genes via silencing of the Acp regulating transcription factor Hsf, abolishes the formation of mating plug in mated females and fails to induce refractoriness of mated female to subsequent inseminations. A significant fraction of females mated to Hsf silenced males (66%) failed to receive the mating plug though seminal fluid had been transferred as documented by the presence of spermatozoa in the female sperm storage organ. Furthermore, nearly all females (95%) mated to HSF-silenced males were re-inseminated when exposed to males carrying EGPF marked sperm. Our findings provide evidence showing that Acp genes regulated by the transcription factor HSF play a key role in the function of the male accessory glands. PMID:23265612

Dottorini, Tania; Persampieri, Tania; Palladino, Pietro; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Crisanti, Andrea

2012-01-01

368

Respiratory and mental health effects of wildfires: an ecological study in Galician municipalities (north-west Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background During the summer of 2006, a wave of wildfires struck Galicia (north-west Spain, giving rise to a disaster situation in which a great deal of the territory was destroyed. Unlike other occasions, the wildfires in this case also threatened farms, houses and even human lives, with the result that the perception of disaster and helplessness was the most acute experienced in recent years. This study sought to analyse the respiratory and mental health effects of the August-2006 fires, using consumption of anxiolytics-hypnotics and drugs for obstructive airway diseases as indicators. Methods We conducted an analytical, ecological geographical- and temporal-cluster study, using municipality-month as the study unit. The independent variable was exposure to wildfires in August 2006, with municipalities thus being classified into the following three categories: no exposure; medium exposure; and high exposure. Dependent variables were: (1 anxiolytics-hypnotics; and (2 drugs for obstructive airway diseases consumption. These variables were calculated for the two 12-month periods before and after August 2006. Additive models for time series were used for statistical analysis purposes. Results The results revealed a higher consumption of drugs for obstructive airway diseases among pensioners during the months following the wildfires, in municipalities affected versus those unaffected by fire. In terms of consumption of anxiolytics-hypnotics, the results showed a significant increase among men among men overall -pensioners and non-pensioners- in fire-affected municipalities. Conclusions Our study indicates that wildfires have a significant effect on population health. The coherence of these results suggests that drug utilisation research is a useful tool for studying morbidity associated with environmental incidents.

Taracido, Margarita

2011-05-01