WorldWideScience
1

Small Dendrobaena earthworms survive freezing better than large worms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dendrobaena octaedra is a freeze tolerant earthworm widely distributed in boreal regions. Specimens collected in Sweden were cold acclimated and then frozen at -7 degrees C to examine the influence of body mass on survival of freezing. Results showed that survival was negatively correlated to body mass. Glycogen content of the worms was variable and seemed to decrease with increasing body mass consistent with the hypothesis that freeze survival is dependent on the ability to rapidly break down glycogen and accumulate high concentrations of glucose. The results suggest that large worms (subadults and adults) invest energy in production of cocoons at the expense of glycogen storage for cryoprotectant production, whereas juvenile worms increase their survival chances by investing energy in glycogen storage at the expense of growth as a preparation for winter.

Holmstrup, Martin; Overgaard, Johannes

2007-01-01

2

Hatchling turtles survive freezing during winter hibernation.  

OpenAIRE

Hatchlings of the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta marginata) are unique as the only reptile and highest vertebrate life form known to tolerate the natural freezing of extracellular body fluids during winter hibernation. Turtles survived frequent exposures to temperatures as low as -6 degrees C to -8 degrees C in their shallow terrestrial nests over the 1987-1988 winter. Hatchlings collected in April 1988 had a mean supercooling point of -3.28 +/- 0.24 degrees C and survived 24 hr of freezing ...

Storey, K. B.; Storey, J. M.; Brooks, S. P.; Churchill, T. A.; Brooks, R. J.

1988-01-01

3

Trehalose levels and survival ratio of freeze-tolerant versus freeze-sensitive yeasts.  

OpenAIRE

Five freeze-tolerant yeast strains suitable for frozen dough were compared with ordinary commercial bakers' yeast. Kluyveromyces thermotolerans FRI 501 cells showed high survival ability after freezing when their resting cells were fermented for 0 to 180 min in modified liquid medium, and they grew to log and stationary phases. Among the freeze-tolerant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, FRI 413 and FRI 869 showed higher surviving and trehalose-accumulating abilities than other S. cerevisia...

Hino, A.; Mihara, K.; Nakashima, K.; Takano, H.

1990-01-01

4

Freeze-Thaw Tolerance and Clues to the Winter Survival of a Soil Community  

OpenAIRE

Although efforts have been made to sample microorganisms from polar regions and to investigate a few of the properties that facilitate survival at freezing or subzero temperatures, soil communities that overwinter in areas exposed to alternate freezing and thawing caused by Foehn or Chinook winds have been largely overlooked. We designed and constructed a cryocycler to automatically subject soil cultures to alternating freeze-thaw cycles. After 48 freeze-thaw cycles, control Escherichia coli ...

Walker, Virginia K.; Palmer, Gerald R.; Voordouw, Gerrit

2006-01-01

5

Repeated freezing induces oxidative stress and reduces survival in the freeze-tolerant goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Freeze tolerant insects must not only survive extracellular ice formation but also the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during oxygen reperfusion upon thawing. Furthermore, diurnal fluctuations in temperature place temperate insects at risk of being exposed to multiple freeze-thaw cycles, yet few studies have examined metrics of survival and oxidative stress in freeze-tolerant insects subjected to successive freezing events. To address this, we assessed survival in larvae of the goldenrod gall fly Eurosta solidaginis, after being subjected to 0, 5, 10, 20, or 30 diurnally repeated cold exposures (RCE) to -18°C or a single freeze to -18°C for 20days. In addition, we measured indicators of oxidative stress, levels of cryoprotectants, and total aqueous antioxidant capacity in animals exposed to the above treatments at 8, 32, or 80h after their final thaw. Repeated freezing and thawing, rather than time spent frozen, reduced survival as only 30% of larvae subjected to 20 or 30 RCE successfully pupated, compared to those subjected to fewer RCE or a single 20d freeze, of which 82% pupated. RCE had little effect on the concentration of the cryoprotectant glycerol (4.26±0.66?gglycerol·ngprotein(-1) for all treatments and time points) or sorbitol (18.8±2.9?gsorbitol·mgprotein(-1) for all treatments and time points); however, sorbitol concentrations were more than twofold higher than controls (16.3±2.2?gsorbitol·mgprotein(-1)) initially after a thaw in larvae subjected to a single extended freeze, but levels returned to values similar to controls at 80h after thaw. Thawing likely produced ROS as total aqueous antioxidant capacities peaked at 1.8-fold higher than controls (14.7±1.6mmoltrolox·ngprotein(-1)) in animals exposed to 5, 10, or 20 RCE. By contrast, aqueous antioxidant capacities were similar to controls in larvae subjected to 30 RCE or the single 20d freeze regardless of time post final thaw, indicating these animals may have had an impaired ability to produce primary antioxidants. Larvae lacking an antioxidant response also had elevated levels of oxidized proteins, nearly twice that of controls (21.8±3.2mmolchloramine-T·mgprotein(-1)). Repeated freezing also lead to substantial oxidative damage to lipids that was independent of aqueous antioxidant capacity; peroxides were, on average, 5.6-fold higher in larvae subjected to 10, 20 or 30 RCE compared to controls (29.1±7.3mmolTMOP·?gprotein(-1)). These data suggest that oxidative stress due to repeated freeze-thaw cycles reduces the capacity of E. solidaginis larvae to survive freezing. PMID:24910457

Doelling, Adam R W; Griffis, Nicole; Williams, Jason B

2014-08-01

6

The oatmeal nematode Panagrellus redivivus survives moderately low temperatures by freezing tolerance and cryoprotective dehydration.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cold tolerance abilities of only a few nematode species have been determined. This study shows that the oatmeal nematode, Panagrellus redivivus, has modest cold tolerance with a 50% survival temperature (S (50)) of -2.5°C after cooling at 0.5°C min(-1) and freezing for 1 h. It can survive low temperatures by freezing tolerance and cryoprotective dehydration; although freezing tolerance appears to be the dominant strategy. Freezing survival is enhanced by low temperature acclimation (7 days at 5°C), with the S (50) being lowered by a small but significant amount (0.42°C). There is no cold shock or rapid cold hardening response under the conditions tested. Cryoprotective dehydration enhances the ability to survive freezing (the S (50) is lowered by 0.55°C, compared to the control, after 4 h freezing at -1°C) and this effect is in addition to that produced by acclimation. Breeding from survivors of a freezing stress did not enhance the ability to survive freezing. The cold tolerance abilities of this nematode are modest, but sufficient to enable it to survive in the cold temperate environments it inhabits. PMID:21153645

Hayashi, Masakazu; Wharton, David A

2011-04-01

7

Survival of yeasts stored after freeze-drying or liquid-drying.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the survival mechanisms of freeze-dried or liquid-dried (L-dried) yeast cells in ampoules. Type strains of various yeasts were freeze-dried or L-dried and sealed in ampoules under high vacuum (osmotolerant, and to be able to utilize many kinds of carbohydrates. L-dried cells of most Candida strains had stable survival rates regardless of the vacuum pressure. In basidiomycetous yeasts, strains forming extracellular polysaccharides had markedly lower survival. PMID:20513958

Miyamoto-Shinohara, Yukie; Nozawa, Fumie; Sukenobe, Junji; Imaizumi, Takashi

2010-04-01

8

The effects of mercuric chloride on survival, growth, reproduction, burrowing speed and glutathione concentrations in the earthworm species Eisenia fetida Savigny  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The common compost earthworm Eisenia fetida was used for toxicity testing of mercury, in a well-characterized agricultural soil obtained from a local field (Ås, Norway). Groups of five or ten clitellate earthworms were exposed to various concentrations of mercury in soil, added in the form of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) in distilled water. The effects on survival, burrowing behaviour, reproduction, growth, and glutathione levels were recorded. Very low mercury concentration (0.22 m...

Gudbrandsen, Marius

2005-01-01

9

Effects of a constructed Technosol on mortality, survival and reproduction of earthworms  

Science.gov (United States)

Soils, whose properties and pedogenesis are dominated by artificial materials or transported materials, are classified as Technosols. Some of these Technosols are used in soil engineering, which is the voluntary action to combine technical materials in a given objective to restore an ecosystem. Primary by products that are used to build these Technosols need to be assessed on an ecotoxicological point of view. The following study aims to assess the effects of a constructed Technosol made from different primary by-products on the mortality, survival and reproductions of two earthworm species. The model of Technosol used here is a combination of green-waste compost (GWC) and papermill sludge (PS) mixed with thermally treated industrial soil (TIS). OECD soil is used as a control soil. Three different experiments have been managed: i) the first, to assess the potential toxicity effect on Eisenia foetida biomass (28 days) and reproduction (56 days), ii) the second to assess the short-term effect (7 days) on Lumbricus terrestris biomass, iii) and the third to assess the medium-term effect (30 days) on L. terrestris biomass. Reproduction of E. foetida is enhanced with high proportions of GWC. For biomass, GWC seems to improve body mass contrary to other materials which lead to losses of body mass. Thus, for E. foetida, GWC seems to be a high-quality and long-term source of food. Body mass of L. terrestris decreased with GWC and OECD. At short-term only, TIS/PS leads to a gain of body mass. Only equilibrium of 25% GWC - 75% TIS/PS allows a gain of body mass at medium term. TIS/PS appears to be a low-quality and short-term food resource but an excellent water tank. It can be concluded that the constructed Technosol is not toxic for fauna but some differences appear between different tested material combinations, depending on nature, proportion and trophic properties of materials.

Pey, Benjamin; Cortet, Jerome; Capowiez, Yvan; Mignot, Lenaic; Nahmani, Johanne; Watteau, Francoise; Schwartz, Christophe

2010-05-01

10

Cold tolerance of an Antarctic nematode that survives intracellular freezing: comparisons with other nematode species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Panagrolaimus davidi is an Antarctic nematode with very high levels of cold tolerance. Its survival was compared with that of some other nematodes (P. rigidus, Rhabditophanes sp., Steinernema carpocapsae, Panagrellus redivivus and Ditylenchus dipsaci) in both unacclimated samples and those acclimated at 5 degrees C. Levels of recrystallization inhibition in homogenates were also compared, using the splat-cooling assay. The survival of P. davidi after the freezing of samples was notably higher than that of the other species tested, suggesting that its survival ability is atypical compared to other nematodes. In general, acclimation improved survival. Levels of recrystallization inhibition were not associated with survival but such a relationship may exist for those species that are freezing tolerant. PMID:17712562

Smith, T; Wharton, D A; Marshall, C J

2008-01-01

11

Effects of petroleum and metal contaminated soil on plants and earthworms: Survival and bioaccumulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Earthworms, Eisenia foetida, and bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon, were used in the laboratory to test the toxicity of contaminated sediment taken from a small fresh water lake in North Carolina. This work was part of an investigation to determine the potential effects of upland disposal of this sediment. The contaminated sediment contained As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, Zn and petroleum hydrocarbons at concentrations much greater than nearby soils. Test cylinders were planted with bermudagrass; earthworms were added 30 days later. Both species were harvested at 60 days, weighed and submitted for chemical analyses. Cynodon was affected by the contaminated sediment but grew well in the mixtures of sediment and upland soil. Similar results were obtained with the Eisenia. These species did not accumulate hydrocarbons from the sediment with the possible exception of pyrene. The metals Cd, Pb, and Zn were elevated in plants exposed to the contaminated sediment. Earthworms exposed to this sediment accumulated Pb to concentrations greater than animals exposed to the manure control. This work demonstrated that a contaminated freshwater sediment was not toxic to plants or earthworms and that most petroleum hydrocarbons were not accumulated. The only metal that may be of some concern was Pb

12

Survival of freezing by hydrated tardigrades inhabiting terrestrial and freshwater habitats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The seasonality and unpredictability of environmental conditions at high altitudes and latitudes govern the life cycle patterns of organisms, giving rise to stresses that cause death or development of specific adaptations. Ice formation is a major variable affecting the survival of both freshwater fauna and fauna inhabiting lichens, mosses and leaf litter. Tardigrades occupy a wide range of niches in marine, freshwater and terrestrial environments. The highest number of species is found in terrestrial habitats thanks to their ability to enter anhydrobiosis and cryobiosis. The cryobiotic ability of tardigrade species from polar regions is well known. Consequently, we focused our research on the ability to survive freezing in the active hydrated state using seven tardigrade species differing in phylogenetic position and collected at various altitudes and from different habitats in a temperate area. Specimens were cooled at different cooling rates (from 0.31° C min(-1) to 3.26° C min(-1)). Even though the final survival and the time required by animals to recover to active life were both inversely related to the cooling rate, highly significant interspecific differences were found. Species survival ability ranged from excellent to none. Species living in xeric habitats withstood freezing better than those living in hygrophilous habitats, while true limnic species did not exhibit any cryobiotic ability. The ability to withstand freezing seems linked to the anhydrobiotic ability. The differences in cryptobiotic performance among tardigrade species seem more influenced by selective pressures linked to local adaptation to habitat characteristics than by phylogenetic relationships. PMID:21429723

Guidetti, Roberto; Altiero, Tiziana; Bertolani, Roberto; Grazioso, Pasqualina; Rebecchi, Lorena

2011-04-01

13

Survival and Growth of Epidemically Successful and Nonsuccessful Salmonella enterica Clones after Freezing and Dehydration.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The spread of epidemically successful nontyphoidal Salmonella clones has been suggested as the most important cause of salmonellosis in industrialized countries. Factors leading to the emergence of success clones are largely unknown, but their ability to survive and grow after physical stress may contribute. During epidemiological studies, a mathematical model was developed that allowed estimation of a factor (q) accounting for the relative ability of Salmonella serovars with different antimicrobial resistances to survive in the food chain and cause human disease. Based on this q-factor, 26 Salmonella isolates were characterized as successful or nonsuccessful. We studied the survival and growth of stationary- and exponential-phase cells of these isolates after freezing for up to 336 days in minced meat. We also investigated survival and growth after dehydration at 10°C and 82% relative humidity (RH) and 25°C and 49% RH for 112 days. Stationary-phase cells were reduced by less than 1 log unit during 1 year of freezing, and growth was initiated with an average lag phase of 1.7 h. Survival was lower in exponentialphase cells, but lag phases tended to be shorter. High humidity and low temperature were less harmful to Salmonella than were low humidity and high temperature. Tolerance to adverse conditions was highest for Salmonella Infantis and one Salmonella Typhimurium U292 isolate and lowest for Salmonella Derby and one Salmonella Typhimurium DT170 isolate. Dehydration, in contrast to freezing, was differently tolerated by the Salmonella strains in this study, but tolerance to freezing and dehydration does not appear to contribute to the emergence of successful Salmonella clones.

Müller, Karoline; Aabo, SØren

2012-01-01

14

Effects of pentachlorophenol on survival of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) and phagocytosis by their immunoactive coelomocytes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris, exposed for 96 h to filter paper saturated with five nominal concentrations of pentachlorophenol, exhibited a 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of 25.0 {micro}g PCP/cm{sup 2} and corresponding whole worm body burden-based 50% lethal dose (LD50) of 877.7 {micro}g PCP/g dry mass. Linear regression modeling showed that worms increased body concentrations (BC = {micro}g PCP/g dry tissue mass) with increasing exposure concentrations (EC) according to BC = 113.5 + 29.5EC. Phagocytosis of yeast cells by immunoactive coelomocytes was suppressed only at body concentrations (863.3 {micro}g PCP/g dry mass) that approximated the calculated LD50 and overlapped those demonstrating lethality, indicating a sharp transition between sublethal and lethal toxicity. An exposure concentration of 15 {micro}g PCP/cm{sup 2} produced significant suppression of phagocytosis of yeast cells by immunoactive coelomocytes. However, the average measured body burden from this group approximated the estimated LD50, indicating a sharp toxic response slope. Exposure to 10 {micro}g PCP/cm{sup 2} with a corresponding body concentration of 501.3 {micro}g PCP/g dry mass did not affect phagocytosis. The importance of body burden data is emphasized.

Giggleman, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Venables, B.J. [TRAC Labs., Denton, TX (United States)

1998-12-01

15

Earthworm survival and behavior results from a Clark Fork River Superfund site: Grant-Kohrs Ranch N.H.S., Montana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concentrations of heavy metals in sediments and soils deposited along the floodplain of the Clark Fork River, within the boundaries of the Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site, have exceeded those typically found in uncontaminated soils. Upstream mining activities along the Clark Fork River in the Deer Lodge Valley, Montana, have produced substantial quantities of mine waste which have been deposited throughout the watershed. Releases and re-releases of these contaminated substances continue to occur, and appear to be preventing the germination and establishment of critical riparian plant species and depressing soil microbe activity. Slickens, bare spots devoid of all vegetation, occur frequently in the floodplain along the Clark Fork River. This research investigates the toxicity of slicken soils using a series of earthworm (Eisenia foetida andrei) survival and behavior tests. In dilution tests, earthworm survival was reduced significantly in as little as 12.5% slicken soil. Results from earthworm behavior tests currently being conducted using non-lethal slicken soil dilutions will also be presented.

Rader, B.R.; Nimmo, D.R.; Chapman, P.L. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1995-12-31

16

Effect of various growth media upon survival during storage of freeze-dried Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus durans  

OpenAIRE

The effects of three different growth media (MRS, M17 and Lee’s) on survival during freeze-drying and subsequent storage of six strains of Enterococcus faecalis and two strains of E. durans were investigated. Methods and Results: Distinct Enterococcus spp. strains were grown on M17, MRS and Lee’s broth, freeze-dried and stored at 20 C in air under darkness. At regular intervals throughout storage, freeze-dried samples were rehydrated and then plated on M17 agar. Conclusions: A hi...

Carvalho, A. S.; Silva, J.; Ho, P.; Teixeira, P.; Malcata, F. X.; Gibbs, P.

2003-01-01

17

Water sorption properties, molecular mobility and probiotic survival in freeze dried protein-carbohydrate matrices.  

Science.gov (United States)

The moisture uptake and molecular mobility of freeze-dried powders containing whey protein isolate-carbohydrate matrices (1WPI:2maltodextrin; 1WPI:1maltodextrin:1d-glucose; and 1WPI:1maltodextrin:1l-glucose) and encapsulated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) in these matrices were investigated at 25 °C and 33% and 70% relative humidity (RH). The inactivation rate constant for probiotics in freeze-dried matrices were positively correlated (R(2) = 0.98) to moisture uptake and molecular mobility measured by NMR relaxometry. The stability of probiotics in glassy protein-carbohydrate matrices was dependent on the composition of the matrix. The partial substitution of maltodextrin with glucose (d- or l-) which improved microbial survival at 33% RH was related to the reduced molecular mobility and lower water uptake of the matrix. This study suggests that moisture uptake properties and molecular mobility of the matrix composition, as opposed to the relative humidity of the environment, are better determinants of probiotic viability during storage. Dynamic vapour sorption and NMR relaxometry are promising tools to assist in the selection of protein-carbohydrate matrices for enhancing probiotic viability during storage. PMID:23851914

Hoobin, Pamela; Burgar, Iko; Zhu, ShouChuang; Ying, DanYang; Sanguansri, Luz; Augustin, Mary Ann

2013-09-01

18

Influence of Serum and Glucose Additives on Survival of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Aerosolized from the Freeze-Dried State  

OpenAIRE

Serum and/or glucose added to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae suspensions before freeze-drying significantly increased survival rates of bacteria in aerosols. Aerosols with predictable numbers of viable bacteria can be made as required in an aerosol infection model. Sucrose supplementation of impinger fluids increased recovery of viable A. pleuropneumoniae.

Hensel, Andreas

1994-01-01

19

Caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK enhances the freeze-thaw survival rate of human embryonic stem cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous study demonstrated that the low survival of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) under conventional slow-cooling cryopreservation protocols is predominantly due to apoptosis rather than cellular necrosis. Hence, this study investigated whether a synthetic broad-spectrum irreversible inhibitor of caspase enzymes, Z-VAD-FMK can be used to enhance the post-thaw survival rate of hESC. About 100 mM Z-VAD-FMK was supplemented into either the freezing solution, the post-thaw culture media or both. Intact and adherent hESC colonies were cryopreserved so as to enable subsequent quantitation of the post-thaw cell survival rate through the MTT assay, which can only be performed with adherent cells. Exposure to 100 mM Z-VAD-FMK in the freezing solution alone did not significantly enhance the post-thaw survival rate (10.2% vs. 9.9%, p > 0.05). However, when 100 mM Z-VAD-FMK was added to the post-thaw culture media, there was a significant enhancement in the survival rate from 9.9% to 14.4% (p Z-VAD-FMK was also added to the freezing solution as well (p cryopreservation was assessed by morphological observations under bright-field microscopy, and by immunocytochemical staining for the pluripotency markers SSEA-3 and TRA-1-81. The results demonstrated that exposure to Z-VAD-FMK did not significantly enhance the spontaneous differentiation of hESC within post-thaw culture. PMID:17594512

Heng, Boon Chin; Clement, Marie Veronique; Cao, Tong

2007-10-01

20

The effect of cryogenic freezing and gamma irradiation on the survival of Salmonella on frozen shrimp  

Science.gov (United States)

Unfortunately, contraction of foodborne illness due to consumption of contaminated seafood, including shrimp, is an occasional occurrence. Cryogenic freezing and gamma irradiation are safe and effective technologies that can be used to control and inactivate pathogenic bacteria in foods. In this stu...

21

Transport, motility, biofilm forming potential and survival of Bacillus subtilis exposed to cold temperature and freeze-thaw.  

Science.gov (United States)

In cold climate regions, microorganisms in upper layers of soil are subject to low temperatures and repeated freeze-thaw (FT) conditions during the winter. We studied the effects of cold temperature and FT cycles on the viability and survival strategies (namely motility and biofilm formation) of the common soil bacterium and model pathogen Bacillus subtilis. We also examined the effect of FT on the transport behavior of B. subtilis at two solution ionic strengths (IS: 10 and 100 mM) in quartz sand packed columns. Finally, to study the mechanical properties of the bacteria-surface bond, a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) was used to monitor changes in bond stiffness when B. subtilis attached to a quartz substrate (model sand surface) under different environmental conditions. We observed that increasing the number of FT cycles decreased bacterial viability and that B. subtilis survived for longer time periods in higher IS solution. FT treatment decreased bacterial swimming motility and the transcription of flagellin encoding genes. Although FT exposure had no significant effect on the bacterial growth rate, it substantially decreased B. subtilis biofilm formation and correspondingly decreased the transcription of matrix production genes in higher IS solution. As demonstrated with QCM-D, the bond stiffness between B. subtilis and the quartz surface decreased after FT. Moreover, column transport studies showed higher bacterial retention onto sand grains after exposure to FT. This investigation demonstrates how temperature variations around the freezing point in upper layers of soil can influence key bacterial properties and behavior, including survival and subsequent transport. PMID:24768703

Asadishad, Bahareh; Olsson, Adam L J; Dusane, Devendra H; Ghoshal, Subhasis; Tufenkji, Nathalie

2014-07-01

22

Survival of Campylobacter species after cryogenic freezing in ground turkey patties treated with polyphosphates  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of polyphosphate-based marinades in the processing of poultry has been previously shown to increase the survival of Campylobacter species present in the exudates derived from these products. This study investigates the effects that some of the same polyphosphates have on the survival of Cam...

23

Freeze tolerance and accumulation of cryoprotectants in the enchytraeid Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta) from Greenland and Europe  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The freeze tolerance and accumulation of cryoprotectants was investigated in three geographically different populations of the enchytraeid Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta). E. albidus is widely distributed from the high Arctic to temperate Western Europe. Our results show that E. albidus is freeze tolerant, with freeze tolerance varying extensively between Greenlandic and European populations. Two populations from sub Arctic (Nuuk) and high Arctic Greenland (Zackenberg) survived freezing at -15 degrees C, whereas only 30% of a German population survived this temperature. When frozen, E. albidus responded by catabolising glycogen to glucose, which likely acted as a cryoprotectant. The average glucose concentrations were similar in the three populations when worms were frozen at -2 degrees C, approximately 50 microg glucose mg(-1) tissue dry weight (DW). At -14 degrees C the glucose concentrations increased to between 110 and 170 microg mg(-1) DW in worms from Greenland. The average glycogen content of worms from Zackenberg and Nuuk were about 300 microg mg(-1) DW, but only 230 microg mg(-1) DW in worms from Germany showing that not all glycogen was catabolised during the experiment. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR) was used to screen for other putative cryoprotectants. Proline, glutamine and alanine were up regulated in frozen worms at -2 degrees C but only in relatively small concentrations suggesting that they were of little significance for freeze survival. The present study confirms earlier reports that freeze tolerant enchytraeids, like other freeze tolerant oligochaete earthworms, accumulate high concentrations of glucose as a primary cryoprotectant.

Slotsbo, Stine; Maraldo, Kristine

2008-01-01

24

Effect of NaHCO3, MgSO4, Sodium Ascorbate, Sodium Glutamate, Phosphate Buffer on Survival of Lactobacillus bulgaricus During Freeze-drying  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, the experiments were investigated the effects of different concentrations of cryoprotective agents, such as NaHCO3, MgSO4, sodium ascorbate, sodium glutamate, phosphate buffer, respectively, which used on survival of Lactobacillus bulgaricus during freeze drying. The number of viable cells and survival ratio were measured by the plate count method. The results were as follows: cryoprotective agents played important roles in survival of Lactobacillus bulgaricus during freeze drying. When the relative volume of phosphate buffer was 1.5 (v/v, the number of viable cells was highest, while the survival ratio reached highest, the concentration of sodium ascorbate was 4.5%.

He Chen

2013-06-01

25

The effect of protective ingredients on the survival of immobilized cells of Streptococcus thermophilus to air and freeze-drying  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Streptococcus thermophilus cultures were grown either on trehalose or lactose, immobilized in alginate beads, dipped in various protective solutions and dried by either convection air-drying (CAD) or freeze-drying (FD). Immobilized cultures dipped in the 0.1% peptone solution did not show good survi [...] val to CAD or FD, as mortality was over 99%. There was no significant difference in mortality levels, in both methods of drying, when lactose or trehalose were used as protective ingredients. The highest survival levels (50 to 98%) were with a whey-sucrose protective medium, but this was potentially related to a higher pH and solids of the solution. Mortality levels were higher in FD than CAD, and this did not appear to be related to the fact that FD cultures had lower residual moisture contents than those dried under CAD. Cells grown on lactose had slightly higher survival rates to drying than those obtained from CAD. Trehalose-positive and trehalose-negative cultures of S. thermophilus did not show different mortality patterns to CAD or FD.

Claude P., Champagne; Nancy J., Gardner.

2001-12-15

26

Fermentation conditions influence the fatty acid composition of the membranes of Lactobacillus reuteri I5007 and its survival following freeze-drying.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lactobacillus reuteri I5007 has well-documented adhesion properties and health benefits. Future industrial use of Lact. reuteri I5007 will require the development of effective fermentation procedures and high bacterial survival following drying. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the impact of altering fermentation pH and temperature on the fatty acid composition of the bacterial membranes and subsequent survival of Lact. reuteri I5007 following freeze-drying. Initially, a response surface methodology was used to determine the optimal fermentation pH (5·7) and temperature (37°C), with regard to producing the maximum number of Lact. reuteti I5007 cells. However, when subjected to the optimal fermentation pH and temperature (control treatment), the subsequent survival of Lact. reuteri I5007 following freeze-drying was only 12·95%. Growth at a higher temperature (47°C) or at a neutral pH (pH 6·7) significantly increased the survival of Lact. reuteri I5007 following freeze-drying compared with the control. In contrast, an acidic pH (pH 4·7), or cold (27°C) and extremely cold (4°C) temperatures during fermentation significantly reduced Lact. reuteri I5007 survival following freeze-drying. The fatty acid composition of the membranes of Lact. reuteri I5007 was altered by the different fermentation conditions tested. An increase in the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) to saturated fatty acids (SFA) in the bacterial membrane was associated with higher survival of Lact. reuteri I5007. In conclusion, it appears that the use of a higher temperature (47°C) or neutral pH (6·7) during fermentation resulted in increased survival of Lact. reuteri I5007 following freeze-drying. Significance and impact of the study: In this study, we found that a higher fermentation temperature or a neutral pH, rather than cold or acidic conditions, leads to increased survival of Lact. reuteri I5007 during subsequent freeze-drying. This finding has important implications for the future industrial production of this probiotic strain. PMID:24888635

Liu, X T; Hou, C L; Zhang, J; Zeng, X F; Qiao, S Y

2014-10-01

27

Earthworms (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) and mycobacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study was to define the role of earthworms in the survival of mycobacteria in animal populations. In 13 sampling sites mycobacteria were detected in 53 (5.5%) samples of faeces and parenchymatous tissues from animals, in 25 (7.3%) environmental and in nine (8.2%) earthworm samples. In cattle and goat farms affected by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) of IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) type B-C1 was isolated from 37 (4.6%) faecal samples, three (1.4%) environmental and one (3.1%) earthworm sample. Investigations of aviaries affected by avian tuberculosis detected M. avium of genotype IS901+ and IS1245+ in six (7.9%) bird's faecal and in four (4.4%) environmental samples. M. avium (genotype IS901- and IS1245+) was detected in four (4.4%) and M. abscessus in one (1.1%) environmental sample. M. avium of genotype IS901- and IS1245+ and M. gastri were isolated from three (6.4%) earthworm samples. In pig farm with mycobacteriosis M. avium of genotype IS901- and IS1245+ was detected in five (20.0%) faecal samples from pigs and in four (12.9%) environmental samples. M. scrofulaceum was isolated in one (4.6%) sample of Lumbricus rubellus. In laboratory experiments identical RFLP types of M. paratuberculosis were isolated from bodies and faeces of earthworms 1-2 days after the last contact with the faeces contaminated with the same RFLP type of M. paratuberculosis. The results suggest that earthworms may become vectors of mycobacteria. PMID:12477646

Fischer, O A; Matlova, L; Bartl, J; Dvorska, L; Svastova, P; du Maine, R; Melicharek, I; Bartos, M; Pavlik, I

2003-02-25

28

Identification of Sigma Factor ?B-Controlled Genes and Their Impact on Acid Stress, High Hydrostatic Pressure, and Freeze Survival in Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e  

OpenAIRE

The gene encoding the alternative sigma factor ?B in Listeria monocytogenes is induced upon exposure of cells to several stresses. In this study, we investigated the impact of a sigB null mutation on the survival of L. monocytogenes EGD-e at low pH, during high-hydrostatic-pressure treatment, and during freezing. The survival of ?sigB mutant exponential-phase cells at pH 2.5 was 10,000-fold lower than the survival of EGD-e wild-type cells. Moreover, the ?sigB mutant failed to show an acid ...

Wemekamp-kamphuis, Henrike H.; Wouters, Jeroen A.; Leeuw, Patrick P. L. A.; Hain, Torsten; Chakraborty, Trinad; Abee, Tjakko

2004-01-01

29

Survival, Pb-uptake and behaviour of three species of earthworm in Pb treated soils determined using an OECD-style toxicity test and a soil avoidance test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mature (clitellate) Eisenia andrei Bouche (ultra epigeic), Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister (epigeic), and Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny) (endogeic) earthworms were placed in soils treated with Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} to have concentrations in the range 1000 to 10 000 mg Pb kg{sup -1}. After 28 days LC50{sub -95%confidencelimit}{sup +95%confidencelimi}= {sup t} values were E. andrei5824{sub -361}{sup +898} mg Pb kg{sup -1}, L. rubellus2867{sub -193}{sup +145} mg Pb kg{sup -1} and A. caliginosa2747{sub -304}{sup +239} mg Pb kg{sup -1} and EC50s for weight change were E. andrei2841{sub -68}{sup +150} mg Pb kg{sup -1}, L. rubellus1303{sub -201}{sup +240} mg Pb kg{sup -1} and A. caliginosa1208{sub -206}{sup +212} mg Pb kg{sup -1}. At any given soil Pb concentration, Pb tissue concentrations after 28 days were the same for all three earthworm species. In a soil avoidance test there was no difference between the behaviour of the different species. The lower sensitivity to Pb exhibited by E. andrei is most likely due to physiological adaptations associated with the modes of life of the earthworms, and could have serious implications for the use of this earthworm as the species of choice in standard toxicological testing.

Langdon, Caroline J. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: clangdon@uclan.ac.uk; Hodson, Mark E. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: m.e.hodson@reading.ac.uk; Arnold, Rebecca E. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Black, Stuart [Department of Archaeology, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6AB (United Kingdom)

2005-11-15

30

Impact of different cryoprotectants on the survival of freeze-dried Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei/paracasei during long-term storage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The production of long shelf-life highly concentrated dried probiotic/starter cultures is of paramount importance for the food industry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of glucose, lactose, trehalose, and skim milk applied alone or combined upon the survival of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679, Lactobacillus casei/paracasei CTC1677 and L. casei/paracasei CTC1678 during freeze-drying and after 39 weeks of storage at 4 and 22 °C. Immediately after freeze-drying, the percentage of survivors was very high (?94%) and only slight differences were observed among strains and cryoprotectants. In contrast, during storage, survival in the dried state depended on the cryoprotectant, temperature and strain. For all the protectants assayed, the stability of the cultures was remarkably higher when stored under refrigeration (4 °C). Under these conditions, skim milk alone or supplemented with trehalose or lactose showed the best performance (reductions ?0.9 log units after 39 weeks of storage). The lowest survival was observed during non-refrigerated storage and with glucose and glucose plus milk; no viable cells left at the end of the storage period. Thus, freeze-drying in the presence of appropriate cryoprotectants allows the production of long shelf-life highly concentrated dried cultures ready for incorporation in high numbers into food products as starter/potential probiotic cultures. PMID:25380798

Jofré, A; Aymerich, T; Garriga, M

2014-11-01

31

Earthworms and Soil Pollutants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short review, we describe recent studies concerning the relationship between earthworms and soil pollutants, and discuss the possibility of using the earthworm as a bio-monitoring organism for soil pollution.

Kazuyoshi Tamae

2011-11-01

32

Earthworms and Soil Pollutants  

OpenAIRE

Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short...

Kazuyoshi Tamae; Takeshi Hirano

2011-01-01

33

Determination of multi-walled carbon nanotube bioaccumulation in earthworms measured by a microwave-based detection technique  

Science.gov (United States)

Reliable quantification techniques for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are limited. In this study, a new procedure was developed for quantifying multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) based on freeze drying and microwave-induced heating. Specifically, earthw...

34

Earthworms as vectors of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soil and vermicomposts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Survival and movement of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in both soil and vermicompost is of concern with regards to human health. Whilst it is accepted that E. coli O157:H7 can persist for considerable periods in soils, it is not expected to survive thermophilic composting processes. However, the natural behavior of earthworms is increasingly utilized for composting (vermicomposting), and the extent to which earthworms promote the survival and dispersal of the bacterium within such systems is unknown. The faecal material produced by earthworms provides a ready supply of labile organic substrates to surrounding microbes within soil and compost, thus promoting microbial activity. Earthworms can also cause significant movement of organisms through the channels they form. Survival and dispersal of E. coli O157:H7 were monitored in contaminated soil and farmyard manure subjected to earthworm digestion over 21 days. Our findings lead to the conclusion that anecic earthworms such as Lumbricus terrestris may significantly aid vertical movement of E. coli O157 in soil, whereas epigeic earthworms such as Dendrobaena veneta significantly aid lateral movement within compost. Although the presence of earthworms in soil and compost may aid proliferation of E. coli O157 in early stages of contamination, long-term persistence of the pathogen appears to be unaffected. PMID:16958908

Williams, A Prysor; Roberts, Paula; Avery, Lisa M; Killham, Ken; Jones, David L

2006-10-01

35

Exposure to extremely low frequency (50 Hz electromagnetic field changes the survival rate and morphometric characteristics of neurosecretory neurons of the earthworm Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta under illumination stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An in vivo model was set up to establish the behavioral stress response (rate of survival and morphometric characteristics of A1 protocerebral neurosecretory neurons (cell size of Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta as a result of the synergetic effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF - 50 Hz, 50 ?T, 17 V/m and 50 Hz, 150 ?T, 17 V/m, respectively and constant illumination (420-450 lux. If combined, these two stressors significantly (p<0.05 increased the survival rate of E. foetida in the 150 ?T-exposed animals, because of delayed caudal autotomy reflex, an indicator of stress response. In addition, morphometric analysis indicated that there were changes in the protocerebral neurosecretory cells after exposure to the ELF-EMF. The present data support the view that short-term ELF-EMF exposure in “windows” of intensity is likely to stimulate the immune and neuroendocrine response of E. foetida.

Banova?ki Zorana

2013-01-01

36

Exposure to extremely low frequency (50 Hz) electromagnetic field changes the survival rate and morphometric characteristics of neurosecretory neurons of the earthworm Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta) under illumination stress  

OpenAIRE

An in vivo model was set up to establish the behavioral stress response (rate of survival) and morphometric characteristics of A1 protocerebral neurosecretory neurons (cell size) of Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta) as a result of the synergetic effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF - 50 Hz, 50 ?T, 17 V/m and 50 Hz, 150 ?T, 17 V/m, respectively) and constant illumination (420-450 lux). If combined, these two stressors significantly (p<0.05) increased the sur...

Banova?ki Zorana; Matavulj Milica

2013-01-01

37

Freezing induces a loss of freeze tolerance in an overwintering insect.  

OpenAIRE

Cold-hardy insects overwinter by one of two main strategies: freeze tolerance and freeze avoidance by supercooling. As a general model, many freeze-tolerant species overwinter in extreme climates, freeze above -10 degrees C via induction by ice-nucleating agents, and once frozen, can survive at temperatures of up to 40 degrees C or more below the initial freezing temperature or supercooling point (SCP). It has been assumed that the SCP of freeze-tolerant insects is unaffected by the freezing ...

Brown, C. L.; Bale, J. S.; Walters, K. F. A.

2004-01-01

38

Impact of Parthenium weeds on earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae) during vermicomposting.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of Parthenium-mediated compost on Eudrilus eugeniae during the process of vermicomposting. Nine different concentrations of Parthenium hysterophorus and cow dung mixtures were used to assess toxicity. The earthworms' growth, fecundity and antioxidant enzyme levels were analysed every 15 days. The antioxidant activities of enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)], considered as biomarkers, indicate the biochemical and oxidative stresses due to the toxin from Parthenium weeds. The earthworms' growth, biomass gain, cocoon production and antioxidant enzymes were in a low level in a high concentration of P. hysterophorus (without cow dung). The results clearly indicated that appropriate mixing of P. hysterophorus quantity is an essential factor for the survival of earthworms without causing any harm. PMID:24938809

Rajiv, P; Rajeshwari, Sivaraj; Rajendran, Venckatesh

2014-11-01

39

Impact of a changed inundation regime caused by climate change and floodplain rehabilitation on population viability of earthworms in a lower River Rhine floodplain  

OpenAIRE

River floodplains are dynamic and fertile ecosystems where soil invertebrates such as earthworms can reach high population densities. Earthworms are an important food source for a wide range of organisms including species under conservation such as badgers. Flooding, however, reduces earthworm numbers. Populations recover from cocoons that survive floods. If the period between two floods is too short such that cocoons cannot develop into reproductive adults, populations cannot sustain themsel...

Thonon, I.; Klok, C.

2007-01-01

40

Effect of enzyme producing microorganisms on the biomass of epigeic earthworms (eisenia fetida) in vermicompost.  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyzed the bacterial community structure of the intestines of earthworms and determined the effect of enzyme producing microorganisms on the biomass of earthworms in vermicompost. Fifty-seven bacterial 16S rDNA clones were identified in the intestines of earthworms by using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis. Entomoplasma somnilux and Bacillus licheniformis were the dominant microorganisms; other strains included Aeromonas, Bacillus, Clostridium, Ferrimonas, and uncultured bacteria. Among these strains, Photobacterium ganghwense, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Paenibacillus motobuensis were enzyme-producing microorganisms. In the mixtures that were inoculated with pure cultures of A. hydrophila WA40 and P. motobuensis WN9, the highest survival rate was 100% and the average number of earthworms, young earthworms, and cocoons were 10, 4.00-4.33, and 3.00-3.33, respectively. In addition, P. motobuensis WN9 increased the growth of earthworms and production of casts in the vermicompost. These results show that earthworms and microorganisms have a symbiotic relationship. PMID:21421302

Hong, Sung Wook; Lee, Ju Sam; Chung, Kun Sub

2011-05-01

41

Effects of antimicrobial coatings and cryogenic freezing on survival and growth of Listeria innocua on frozen ready-to-eat shrimp during thawing  

Science.gov (United States)

Foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes could pose a health risk for frozen ready-to-eat (RTE) shrimp as the pathogen can grow following thawing. In this study, antimicrobial coating treatments alone, or in combination with cryogenic freezing, were evaluated for their ability to inhibit t...

42

New methodology for determining chronic effects on the earthworm, Eisenia foetida  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study design incorporates the exposure of two generations of earthworms, Eisenia foetida, and includes the sensitive developmental stage following emergence from the cocoon. Adult earthworms (F{sub 0} generation) were exposed to nominal concentrations of 16, 31, 63, 125 and 250 mg A.I. copper sulfate/kg in composted cattle manure for 14 days. Cocoons were collected six times throughout the F{sub 0} generation exposure. Upon collection, individual cocoons were weighed and transferred to separate aliquots of treated and untreated exposure manure and were allowed to hatch. Hatched F{sub 1} earthworms were allowed to mature for 21 days before being counted and individually weighed. Parameters monitored and statistically analyzed were: F{sub 0} burrowing time at initiation, F{sub 0} survival following 7 and 14 days of exposure, cocoon production, cocoon weight, cocoon viability, number and weight of F{sub 1} earthworms at 21 days post-hatch. The following endpoints clearly demonstrated chronic effects in at least the highest exposure concentration: cocoon production, mean cocoon weight, sum of cocoon weights, cocoon viability, number and weight of surviving earthworms (F{sub 1}) at 21 days post-hatch, mean and total earthworm (F{sub 1}) biomass at 21 days post-hatch. Although the acute LC50 of copper sulfate to Eisenia foetida was previously determined to be 1,100 {+-} 380 mg copper sulfate/kg, this methodology indicates that chronic toxicity effects can be observed at substantially lower concentrations.

Garvey, N.A. [Springborn Labs., Inc., Wareham, MA (United States)

1994-12-31

43

Prevalence of Bacillus anthracis-Like Organisms and Bacteriophages in the Intestinal Tract of the Earthworm Eisenia fetida? †  

OpenAIRE

Stable infection of Bacillus anthracis laboratory strains with environmental bacteriophages confers survival phenotypes in soil and earthworm intestinal niches (R. Schuch and V. A. Fischetti, PLoS One 4:e6532, 2009). Here, the natural occurrence of two such B. anthracis-infective bacteriophages, Wip1 and Wip4, was examined in the intestines of Eisenia fetida earthworms as part of a 6-year longitudinal study at a Pennsylvania forest site. The Wip1 tectivirus was initially dominant before being...

Schuch, R.; Pelzek, A. J.; Kan, S.; Fischetti, V. A.

2010-01-01

44

Comparison of earthworm responses to petroleum hydrocarbon exposure in aged field contaminated soil using traditional ecotoxicity endpoints and 1H NMR-based metabolomics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1H NMR metabolomics and conventional ecotoxicity endpoints were used to examine the response of earthworms exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in soil samples collected from a site that was contaminated with crude oil from a pipeline failure in the mid-1990s. The conventional ecotoxicity tests showed that the soils were not acutely toxic to earthworms (average survival ?90%), but some soil samples impaired reproduction endpoints by >50% compared to the field control soil. Additionally, metabolomics revealed significant relationships between earthworm metabolic profiles (collected after 2 or 14 days of exposure) and soil properties including soil PHC concentration. Further comparisons by partial least squares regression revealed a significant relationship between the earthworm metabolomic data (collected after only 2 or 14 days) and the reproduction endpoints (measured after 63 days). Therefore, metabolomic responses measured after short exposure periods may be predictive of chronic, ecologically relevant toxicity endpoints for earthworms exposed to soil contaminants. -- Highlights: •Earthworm response to petroleum hydrocarbon exposure in soil is examined. •Metabolomics shows significant changes to metabolic profile after 2 days. •Significant relationships observed between metabolomic and reproduction endpoints. •Metabolomics may have value as a rapid screening tool for chronic toxicity. -- Earthworm metabolomic responses measured after 2 and 14 days are compared to traditional earthworm ecotoxicity endpoints (survival and reproduction) in petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil

45

Effects of glyphosate and 2,4-D on earthworms (Eisenia foetida) in laboratory tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Laboratory tests were conducted to compare the effects of various concentrations of glyphosate and 2,4-D on earthworms (Eisenia foetida) cultured in Argissol during 56 days of incubation. The effects on earthworm growth, survival, and reproduction rates were verified for different exposure times. Earthworms kept in glyphosate-treated soil were classified as alive in all evaluations, but showed gradual and significant reduction in mean weight (50%) at all test concentrations. For 2,4-D, 100% mortality was observed in soil treated with 500 and 1,000 mg/kg. At 14 days, 30%-40% mortality levels were observed in all other concentrations. No cocoons or juveniles were found in soil treated with either herbicide. Glyphosate and 2,4-D demonstrated severe effects on the development and reproduction of Eisenia foetida in laboratory tests in the range of test concentrations. PMID:20658223

Correia, F V; Moreira, J C

2010-09-01

46

New earthworm records from Bulgaria (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Elaboration of a small earthworm material collected in different parts of Bulgaria resulted in recording altogether 15 species. Surprisingly, the peregrine Dendrobaena veneta veneta proved to be new to the fauna of Bulgaria and with this, the present list of Bulgarian earthworms consists of 42 confirmed species and subspecies.

Szederjesi, T.

2013-06-01

47

Earthworm introduction on calcareous minesoils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Burrowing activity of the nightcrawler, Lumbricus terrestis (L.t.), incorporates organic matter into mineral soil while creating long-lasting macropores. Thus L.t. has potential as a biological means of improving physical and chemical properties of surface mined areas. Efforts to establish L.t. population on forested acidic or calcareous minesoils have been successful, but thus far have not been able to establish L.t. in grassland ecosystems on calcareous minesoils. In May, 1989, the authors put 11 clitellate L.t. under sphagnum moss on calcareous gray cast overburden on standard graded topsoil, or on ripped and disked topsoil. All soils had cover of agronomic grasses and legumes. They found no L.t. at the 24 points of inoculation during sampling in fall of 1990 with formalin extractant, although smaller species, Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrobaena spp., were found. At another location, in May, 1990, they put 25 clitellate L.t. at 16 points in grasslands growing on gray cast overburden. Using formalin extraction, they found no L.t. in May 1992 at these locations. Working in this same area in November, 1992, they released 10 clitellate L.t. at 16 points under 10 cm of moist Alnus glutinosa leaf litter. Careful examination of the surface inoculation points in spring and fall of 1993 did not show obvious signs of earthworm activity. Their next step will be to use Earthworm Inoculation Units (earthworm-minesoil microcosms containing L.t. adults, immatures, and cocoons) as g L.t. adults, immatures, and cocoons) as the source of the new populations

48

Variation in seedling freezing response is associated with climate in Larrea  

OpenAIRE

Variation in freezing severity is hypothesized to have influenced the distribution and evolution of the warm desert evergreen genus Larrea. If this hypothesis is correct, performance and survival of species and populations should vary predictably along gradients of freezing severity. If freezing environment changes in the future, the ability of Larrea to adapt will depend on the structure of variation for freezing resistance within populations. To test whether freezing responses vary among an...

Medeiros, Juliana S.; Marshall, Diane L.; Maherali, Hafiz; Pockman, William T.

2012-01-01

49

Earthworms – good indicators for forest disturbance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In temperate forests, formation of canopy gaps by windthrow is a characteristic natural disturbance event. Little work has been done on the effects of canopy gaps on soil properties and fauna, especially earthworms as ecosystem engineers. We conducted a study to examine the reaction of earthworms (density/biomass and different soil properties (i.e., soil moisture, pH, organic matter, total N, and available Ca to different canopy gap areas in 25-ha areas of Liresar district beech forest located in a temperate forest of Mazandaran province in the north of Iran. Soil samples were taken at 0-15, 15-30 and 30-45 cm depths from gap center, gap edge and closed canopy using core soil sampler with 81 cm2 cross section. The earthworms were collected simultaneously with the soil sampling by hand sorting method. Our study supports that the canopy gap will create a mosaic of environmental conditions. Earthworm's density and biomass tended to be higher in small canopy gaps compared with the other canopy gap areas. Earthworm's population showed decreasing trend from closed canopy to disturbed sites (gap edge and gap center. The top soil was more appropriate to presence of earthworms although ecological groups have occupied different soil layers. As a conclusion, earthworms can be introduced as good bio-indicator of environmental changes that occur by disturbance.

YAHYA KOOCH

2014-08-01

50

Autofluorescence in eleocytes of some earthworm species.  

OpenAIRE

Immunocompetent cells of earthworms, coelomocytes, comprise adherent amoebocytes and granular eleocytes (chloragocytes). Both cell populations can be expelled via dorsal pores of adult earthworms by exposure to an electric current (4.5 V) for 1 min. Analysis by phase contrast/fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry demonstrated that eleocyte population of several species exhibits a strong autofluorescence. A high percentage (11-35%) of autofluorescent eleocytes was recorded in Allolobophor...

Barbara P?ytycz; John Morgan, A.; Sta?z?rzenbaum, Stephen R.; Reilly, Michael O.; Feeney, Graham P.; Justyna Cholewa

2006-01-01

51

Biochemical diversity of betaines in earthworms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: ? We develop a method for rapid untargetted analysis of betaines. ? We profile betaines in a comparative study of ten earthworm species. ? Earthworms contain a surprisingly high number of different betaine metabolites. ? Earthworms contain betaines normally seen only in plants or marine animals. -- Abstract: The ability to accumulate osmoprotectant compounds, such as betaines, is an important evolutionary feature in many organisms. This is particularly the case for organisms that live in variable environments, which may have fluctuations in moisture and salinity levels. There is, surprisingly, very little known about betaines in soil invertebrates in general, and there is almost no information about earthworms – a group that are important ‘ecosystem engineers’ and key indicators of soil health. Here, we describe a fast and reliable {sup 1}H–{sup 13}C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) 2D NMR approach for the metabolic profiling of a series of betaines and related metabolites in tissue extracts, and list {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C chemical shifts for the trimethylammonium signal for 23 such compounds. The analysis of ten different species from three different families (Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Glossoscolecidae) showed an unexpected diversity of betaines present in earthworms. In total ten betaines were identified, including hydroxyproline-betaine, proline-betaine, taurine-betaine, GABA-betaine and histidine-betaine, and a further eleven as-yet unassigned putative betaine metabolites detected. The findings clearly indicate a hitherto-unappreciated important role for betaine metabolism in earthworms.

Liebeke, Manuel [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bundy, Jacob G., E-mail: j.bundy@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2013-01-25

52

Biochemical diversity of betaines in earthworms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We develop a method for rapid untargetted analysis of betaines. ? We profile betaines in a comparative study of ten earthworm species. ? Earthworms contain a surprisingly high number of different betaine metabolites. ? Earthworms contain betaines normally seen only in plants or marine animals. -- Abstract: The ability to accumulate osmoprotectant compounds, such as betaines, is an important evolutionary feature in many organisms. This is particularly the case for organisms that live in variable environments, which may have fluctuations in moisture and salinity levels. There is, surprisingly, very little known about betaines in soil invertebrates in general, and there is almost no information about earthworms – a group that are important ‘ecosystem engineers’ and key indicators of soil health. Here, we describe a fast and reliable 1H–13C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) 2D NMR approach for the metabolic profiling of a series of betaines and related metabolites in tissue extracts, and list 1H and 13C chemical shifts for the trimethylammonium signal for 23 such compounds. The analysis of ten different species from three different families (Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Glossoscolecidae) showed an unexpected diversity of betaines present in earthworms. In total ten betaines were identified, including hydroxyproline-betaine, proline-betaine, taurine-betaine, GABA-betaine and histidine-betaine, and a further eleven as-yet unassigned putative betaine metabolites detected. The findings clearly indicate a hitherto-unappreciated important role for betaine metabolism in earthworms

53

Ponds Freeze in Winter -- Why Doesn't the Ocean?  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners explore how salt water freezes in comparison to fresh water. Use this experiment to consider how pond animals survive cold winters in comparison to animals that live in the ocean. This resource includes information about freezing points as well as examples of how different animals respond to the winter cold.

New England Aquarium

2011-01-01

54

COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF TEN ORGANIC CHEMICALS TO FOUR EARTHWORM SPECIES  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten organic chemicals were tested for toxicity to four earthworm species: Allolobophora tuberculata, Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae and Perionyx excavatus, using the European Economic Community's (EEC) earthworm artificial soil and contact testing procedure. The phenols were t...

55

Correlations between Lumbricus terrestris survival and gut microbiota  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The interplay between diet, gut bacteria and health still remain enigmatic. Here, we addressed this issue through the investigation of the effect of crystalline cellulose on the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris gut microbiota composition and survival. Methods : Earthworm gut contents were analyzed after 14 days of feeding using a mixed 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach, in addition to direct measurements of cellulase activity. The survival of earthworms was followed each week for 17 weeks. Results : We found a tendency that the crystalline cellulose fed earthworms survived better than the high energy fed earthworms (p=0.08. Independent of feeding we found that the bacterial group related to Ferrimonadaceae was correlated to an increased lifespan (p=0.01. We also found a positive correlation between Ruminococcaceae related bacteria and cellulase activity in the earthworm gut (p=0.05. Surprisingly, however, the cellulase activity was not correlated to the feeding regime. Conclusion : Taken together, the interactions between diet, gut microbiota and lifespan seem complex.

Knut Rudi

2012-04-01

56

Earthworm responses to metal contamination : tools for soil quality assessment  

OpenAIRE

Responses of earthworms to soil metal contamination were studied in field and laboratory experiments. In the field, earthworm communities and metal bioavailability to earthworms along contamination gradients were surveyed in three areas located close to metal industry in Finland. In the laboratory, toxicity tests and experiments using field soil simultaneously contaminated with Cu and Zn, and with different earthworm species and populations with different exposure histories were established t...

Lukkari, Tuomas

2004-01-01

57

The 2007 California Citrus Freeze: Vulnerability, Poverty, and Unemployment Issues of Farmworkers  

Science.gov (United States)

In January of 2007, freezing temperatures destroyed citrus and vegetable crops in California. By May 2007, more than 9,000 freeze-related unemployment applications had been fled. Through face-to-face interviews, this study documents the experience of 63 farmworkers to find out how they survived the freeze and accessed services. Findings revealed…

Orozco, Graciela Leon

2010-01-01

58

Sugar, Starch, and Proline in Peach Trees Exposed to Freezing Temperatures during Dehardening  

OpenAIRE

Freezing temperatures cause different levels of freezing injury and change biochemical components of trees. In this study, the range of survival temperature and variation in electrolyte leakage, and in concentrations of sugar, starch, and proline were determined in peach twigs (Jinmi, Changhowonhwangdo, and Kawanakajima Hakuto) exposed to artificially controlled freezing temper...

Seok Kyu Yun; Haejin Bae; Kyung-Ho Chung; Ik Koo Yoon; Eun Young Nam; Jung Hyun Kwon; Ji Hae Jun

2014-01-01

59

Percolation with constant freezing  

OpenAIRE

We introduce and study a model of percolation with constant freezing (PCF) where edges open at constant rate 1, and clusters freeze at rate \\alpha independently of their size. Our main result is that the infinite volume process can be constructed on any amenable vertex transitive graph. This is in sharp contrast to models of percolation with freezing previously introduced, where the limit is known not to exist. Our interest is in the study of the percolative properties of th...

Mottram, Edward

2013-01-01

60

Response of Different Strains of Enterococcus faecalis to UV Inactivation after Freezing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Response of two strains of Enterococcus faecalis bacteria, ATCC strain 29212 and ATCC strain 51299 (vancomycin resistant to UV inactivation after survived freezing treatment was examined. The test microorganisms were frozen at -7 °C, -15 °C or -30 °C with one, three or five freeze and thaw cycles prior to UV irradiation to investigate the effect of freezing temperature and freeze thaw cycles on the efficacy of UV inactivation. Experimental results suggest that freezing influenced the response of Enterococcus faecalis cells to UV irradiation. Freezing treated cells behaved differently compared to those had not frozen.

W. Gao

2013-06-01

61

Extracellular freezing-induced mechanical stress and surface area regulation on the plasma membrane in cold-acclimated plant cells  

OpenAIRE

Freezing tolerance is an important feature for plant survival during winter. In plants, extracellular freezing occurs at subzero temperatures, resulting in dehydration and mechanical stresses upon the plasma membrane. However, many plants can acquire enhanced freezing tolerance by exposure to non-freezing temperatures, which is referred to as cold acclimation. The plasma membrane is the primary site of freezing injury. During cold acclimation, the lipid composition in the plasma membrane chan...

Yamazaki, Tomokazu; Kawamura, Yukio; Uemura, Matsuo

2009-01-01

62

Autofluorescence in eleocytes of some earthworm species.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Immunocompetent cells of earthworms, coelomocytes, comprise adherent amoebocytes and granular eleocytes (chloragocytes. Both cell populations can be expelled via dorsal pores of adult earthworms by exposure to an electric current (4.5 V for 1 min. Analysis by phase contrast/fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry demonstrated that eleocyte population of several species exhibits a strong autofluorescence. A high percentage (11-35% of autofluorescent eleocytes was recorded in Allolobophora chlorotica, Dendrodrilus rubidus, Eisenia fetida, and Octolasion sp. (O. cyaneum, O. tyrtaeum tyrtaeum and O. tyrtaeum lacteum. In contrast, autofluorescent coelomocytes were exceptionally scarce (less than 1% in representative Aporrectodea sp. (A. caliginosa and A. longa and Lumbricus sp. (L. castaneus, L. festivus, L. rubellus, L. terrestris. Thus, this paper for the first time describes profound intrinsic fluorescence of eleocytes in some--but not all--earthworm species. The function (if any and inter-species differences of the autofluorescent coelomocytes still remain elusive.

Barbara P?ytycz

2006-04-01

63

The Freezing Bomb  

Science.gov (United States)

The extreme pressures that are generated when water freezes were traditionally demonstrated by sealing a small volume in a massive cast iron "bomb" and then surrounding it with a freezing mixture of ice and salt. This vessel would dramatically fail by brittle fracture, but no quantitative measurement of bursting pressure was available. Calculation…

Mills, Allan

2010-01-01

64

Productivity Potentials and Nutritional Values of Semi-arid Zone Earthworm (Hyperiodrilus euryaulos; Clausen, 1967 Cultured in Organic Wastes as Fish Meal Supplement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study 60 Adult Earthworms (H. euryaulos of weight and length range 1.7-3.0 g (mean-2.34±0.91 g and 13.0-28.0 cm (mean-21.5±5.8 cm, respectively were cultured for 12 weeks. The productivity potential and nutrient composition of earthworm (H. euryaulos cultured in two rearing substrata (Cellulose Substrate (Control - Coded Hs1 and Dry Neem and leaves and soil Substrate - Coded Hs2 were assessed using six wooden boxes stocked in triplicates at the rate of 92.7 g earthworms per box. The higher total final weight, weekly weight gain, relative growth rate, specific growth rate and survival of 400.6 g kg-1 of substrate, 25.7 g/week/substrate, 332.5, 0.76/day and 99.0% while the lower of 367.5 g kg-1 of substrate, 22.9 g/week, 296.4, 0.71/day and 98.0% were recorded in earthworm cultured in cellulose substrate and the soil substrate respectively. The proximate analyses, mineral compositions and amino acids indices were comparable to those of conventional fish meal. Based on the results of this study, the utilization of cellulose substrate is recommended for the culture of earthworm and the inclusion of the earthworm meal is guarantee as a reliable and nutritional dependable fish meal supplement.

A.O. Sogbesan

2007-01-01

65

Freeze drying apparatus  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

2001-01-01

66

Freeze drying method  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

1999-01-01

67

Freeze drying method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser

68

Acute and chronic toxicity testing of TPH-contaminated soils with the earthworm, Eisenia foetida  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Responses of Eisenia foetida to petroleum-contaminated soils are being assessed using a 21-day test described previously. The authors prepared dilutions of two soils, referred to as A and B, using their reference-soil counterparts, collected from near the contaminated sites. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of each soil was measured by latroscan before the dilutions were prepared. References for the A and B soils contained 167 and 1,869 ppm of TPH, respectively. Thus, neither reference soil was pristine. Dilutions of the A soil tested with E. foetida contained from 179 to 305 ppm TPH; dilutions of the B soil contained from 1,875 to 1,950 ppm TPH. E foetida survival was 100% in both dilution series. Mean growth of Eisenia in dilutions of the A soil ranged from 48 to 74 mg dry-weight growth per pair of worms; these values were lower than those in any dilution of the B soil series. Lipid levels of worms in higher concentrations of the A and B soils were similar to one another and to published values, suggesting little inhibition of feeding in either dilution series. Earthworm reproduction was zero in the A series, but moderately high in the B series. Thus, the A soil apparently contained materials other than TPH that inhibited earthworm growth and reproduction. This study shows that (1) TPH at concentrations as high as 1,800 ppm may not always be inhibitor to earthworm growth or reproduction and (2) that earthworm survival, as a test endpoint, is much less sensitive than either growth or reproduction.

Stewart, A.J.; Wicker, L.F.; Nazerias, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-12-31

69

Acute and chronic toxicity testing of TPH-contaminated soils with the earthworm, Eisenia foetida  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Responses of Eisenia foetida to petroleum-contaminated soils are being assessed using a 21-day test described previously. The authors prepared dilutions of two soils, referred to as A and B, using their reference-soil counterparts, collected from near the contaminated sites. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of each soil was measured by latroscan before the dilutions were prepared. References for the A and B soils contained 167 and 1,869 ppm of TPH, respectively. Thus, neither reference soil was pristine. Dilutions of the A soil tested with E. foetida contained from 179 to 305 ppm TPH; dilutions of the B soil contained from 1,875 to 1,950 ppm TPH. E foetida survival was 100% in both dilution series. Mean growth of Eisenia in dilutions of the A soil ranged from 48 to 74 mg dry-weight growth per pair of worms; these values were lower than those in any dilution of the B soil series. Lipid levels of worms in higher concentrations of the A and B soils were similar to one another and to published values, suggesting little inhibition of feeding in either dilution series. Earthworm reproduction was zero in the A series, but moderately high in the B series. Thus, the A soil apparently contained materials other than TPH that inhibited earthworm growth and reproduction. This study shows that (1) TPH at concentrations as high as 1,800 ppm may not always be inhibitor to earthworm growth or reproduction and (2) that earthworm survival, as a test endpoint, is much less srvival, as a test endpoint, is much less sensitive than either growth or reproduction

70

Basic Research Tools for Earthworm Ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Earthworms are responsible for soil development, recycling organic matter and form a vital component within many food webs. For these and other reasons earthworms are worthy of investigation. Many technologically-enhanced approaches have been used within earthworm-focused research. These have their place, may be a development of existing practices or bring techniques from other fields. Nevertheless, let us not overlook the fact that much can still be learned through utilisation of more basic approaches which have been used for some time. New does not always equate to better. Information on community composition within an area and specific population densities can be learned using simple collection techniques, and burrowing behaviour can be determined from pits, resin-insertion or simple mesocosms. Life history studies can be achieved through maintenance of relatively simple cultures. Behavioural observations can be undertaken by direct observation or with low cost we became usage. Applied aspects of earthworm research can also be achieved through use of simple techniques to enhance population development and even population dynamics can be directly addressed with use of relatively inexpensive, effective marking techniques. This paper seeks to demonstrate that good quality research in this sphere can result from appropriate application of relatively simple research tools.

71

Freeze-drying of lactic acid bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lactic acid bacteria are of great importance for the food and biotechnology industry. They are widely used as starters for manufacturing food (e.g., yogurt, cheese, fermented meats, and vegetables) and probiotic products, as well as for green chemistry applications. Freeze-drying or lyophilization is a convenient method for preservation of bacteria. By reducing water activity to values below 0.2, it allows long-term storage and low-cost distribution at suprazero temperatures, while minimizing losses in viability and functionality. Stabilization of bacteria via freeze-drying starts with the addition of a protectant solution to the bacterial suspension. Freeze-drying includes three steps, namely, (1) freezing of the concentrated and protected cell suspension, (2) primary drying to remove ice by sublimation, and (3) secondary drying to remove unfrozen water by desorption. In this chapter we describe a method for freeze-drying of lactic acid bacteria at a pilot scale, thus allowing control of the process parameters for maximal survival and functionality recovery. PMID:25428024

Fonseca, Fernanda; Cenard, Stéphanie; Passot, Stéphanie

2015-01-01

72

Freezing in Halide Salts  

Science.gov (United States)

The static criterion that the amplitude of the principal peak of the liquid structure factor has a constant value along the freezing line and the onset of freezing are studied from the structure factors and the static dielectric functions of halide salts interacting via the effective pair potentials through the hypernetted-chain approximation. It is observed that the criterion above is restricted to the effective charge difference. The critical value of plasma parameter at freezing is affected by the mobility and number concentration of anions and cations. The distribution of the value of the static dielectric function closest to the wave number axis in the negative region is also determined by the charge difference and the ordering of ions and related to the onset of freezing.

Akdere, ?.; Y?lmaz, M.; Kavanoz, H. B.; Ta?seven, Ç.

2008-06-01

73

Activity of earthworm in latosol under simulated Acid rain stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acid rain is still an issue of environmental concerns. This study investigated the impacts of simulated acid rain (SAR) upon earthworm activity from the Latosol (acidic red soil). Laboratory experiment was performed by leaching the soil columns grown with earthworms (Eisenia fetida) at the SAR pH levels ranged from 2.0 to 6.5 over a 34-day period. Results showed that earthworms tended to escape from the soil and eventually died for the SAR at pH = 2.0 as a result of acid toxicity. The catalase activity in the earthworms decreased with the SAR pH levels, whereas the superoxide dismutases activity in the earthworms showed a fluctuate pattern: decreasing from pH 6.5 to 5.0 and increasing from pH 5.0 to 4.0. Results implied that the growth of earthworms was retarded at the SAR pH ? 3.0. PMID:25351717

Zhang, Jia-En; Yu, Jiayu; Ouyang, Ying

2015-01-01

74

Effects of cadmium and lead on the life-cycle parameters of juvenile earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

Science.gov (United States)

Juveniles Eisenia fetida were exposed to cadmium (1-500µgCdg(-1)) and lead (20-2500µgPbg(-1)) for fourteen weeks in order to evaluate the impact on life-cycle parameters (survival, growth, sexual maturation, and cocoon production) and lipid peroxidation (expressed as concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA)). Both metals were found to significantly affect survival of the juveniles (fourteen-week LC50 296±125µgCdg(-1) and 911±164µgPbg(-1)) and alter their development. Cd and Pb severely affected the weight of the juveniles, prolonged the time to sexual maturation (at the highest concentrations, earthworms did not reach sexual maturity at all), and reduced cocoon production. LC50 significantly decreased with the time of earthworm exposure, indicating that chronic exposure to the same levels of contaminants in the soil may have more detrimental consequences than short-term exposure. A survival model showed that the survival probability for the juveniles decreased significantly with time and the concentration of metals in the soil. The metals induced a significant increase in MDA concentration (2.98-fold and 1.54-fold at 250µgCdg(-1) and 2500µgPbg(-1), respectively), and the content of MDA was negatively related to the weight of the juveniles and the percentage of mature individuals (p<0.05). PMID:24561241

Žaltauskait?, J?rat?; Sodien?, Inga

2014-05-01

75

Diversity of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) in Sofia Plain, Bulgaria  

OpenAIRE

A rich earthworm material from 47 different localities in Sofia Plain has been elaborated. During the investigations between the years 2010 and 2013, thirteen earthworm species and subspecies were collected altogether, belonging to seven genera. Among them, three new records are reported. Aporrectodea longa (Ude, 1885), Eisenia lucens (Waga, 1857) and Octodrilus transpadanus (Rosa, 1884) proved to be new to the earthworm fauna of Sofia plain.

Hristo; Valchovski

2014-01-01

76

Freeze-drying of filamentous fungi and yeasts  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this thesis was to optimize the freeze-drying protocol for fungi in general and for those genera that do not survive this preservation method, in particular. To this end, the influence of the cooling rate, the lyoprotectant and the drying process itself was examined. Since most fungi belong to the Basidiomycota and Ascomycota, this thesis focused on freeze-drying of spores that belong to these phyla.

Tan, C. S.

2011-01-01

77

Dynamics of earthworms in some Colombian Andean hillsides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Samples were taken from 40 year old forest and from Pennisetum clandestinum pastures in hillside soil, with the aim of determining the temporal dynamics of earthworm diversity, abundance and biomass. The methodology consisted in manually taking two soil samples per week of a volume of 1 x 1 x 0.6 m each. The parameters vary depending on land use and time of sampling. In total 17 earthworm species were found in the soil. Earthworm diversity and biomass were higher in S+40 years than in P. clandestinum (11 vs 9), while earthworm density was higher in P. clandestinum

78

Microbial Environment Affects Innate Immunity in Two Closely Related Earthworm Species Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida  

Science.gov (United States)

Survival of earthworms in the environment depends on their ability to recognize and eliminate potential pathogens. This work is aimed to compare the innate defense mechanisms of two closely related earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida, that inhabit substantially different ecological niches. While E. andrei lives in a compost and manure, E. fetida can be found in the litter layer in forests. Therefore, the influence of environment-specific microbiota on the immune response of both species was followed. Firstly, a reliable method to discern between E. andrei and E. fetida based on species-specific primers for cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and stringent PCR conditions was developed. Secondly, to analyze the immunological profile in both earthworm species, the activity and expression of lysozyme, pattern recognition protein CCF, and antimicrobial proteins with hemolytic function, fetidin and lysenins, have been assessed. Whereas, CCF and lysozyme showed only slight differences in the expression and activity, fetidin/lysenins expression as well as the hemolytic activity was considerably higher in E. andrei as compared to E. fetida. The expression of fetidin/lysenins in E. fetida was not affected upon the challenge with compost microbiota, suggesting more substantial changes in the regulation of the gene expression. Genomic DNA analyses revealed significantly higher level of fetidin/lysenins (determined using universal primer pairs) in E. andrei compared to E. fetida. It can be hypothesized that E. andrei colonizing compost as a new habitat acquired an evolutionary selection advantage resulting in a higher expression of antimicrobial proteins. PMID:24223917

Dvo?ák, Ji?í; Man?íková, Veronika; Pižl, Václav; Elhottová, Dana; Šilerová, Marcela; Roubalová, Radka; Škanta, František; Procházková, Petra; Bilej, Martin

2013-01-01

79

Reproductive responses of the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) to antiparasitic albendazole exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Albendazole (ABZ) is a veterinary drug with a high efficiency against helminths. Here reproductive responses of earthworms Eisenia fetida to ABZ exposure (0, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12mgkg(-1) soil dry weight) were investigated for 56d in chronic reproduction test, and deformed sperm were counted and morphological alterations in the seminal vesicles were qualitatively assessed by light and transmission electron microscopy. Results have showed that cocoon number of earthworms was more sensitive to low concentrations of ABZ than cocoon hatching success and hatching survival, showing a significant dose-related decrease in cocoon number at 3, 6, 9 and 12mgkg(-1). In short-time exposure of 14d, the sperm deformity (%) of earthworms increased at 6, 9 and 12mgkg(-1), and the microstructural alteration in seminal vesicles was also observed at these concentrations, whereas ultrastructural alteration of germ cells, particularly morphology of mitochondria, was observed at 3mgkg(-1) and above, suggesting the high sensitivity of germ cell ultrastructure to low concentrations of ABZ in short-time exposure. The results can provide important information for prediction of ecologically significant toxic effects. PMID:25462294

Gao, Yuhong; Li, Xuemei; Guo, Jianjun; Sun, Xinsheng; Sun, Zhenjun

2014-06-13

80

PEM Fuel Cell Freeze Durability and Cold Start Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

UTC has taken advantage of the unique water management opportunities inherent in micro-porous bipolar-plates to improve the cold-start performance of its polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). Diagnostic experiments were used to determine the limiting factors in micro-porous plate PEFC freeze performance and the causes of any performance decay. Alternative cell materials were evaluated for their freeze performance. Freeze-thaw cycling was also performed to determine micro-porous plate PEFC survivability. Data from these experiments has formed the basis for continuing development of advanced materials capable of supporting DOE's cold-start and durability objectives.

Patterson, T.; O' Neill, Jonathan

2008-01-02

81

Gene Expression Analysis of CL-20-induced Reversible Neurotoxicity Reveals GABAA Receptors as Potential Target in the Earthworm Eisenia fetida  

OpenAIRE

The earthworm Eisenia fetida is one of the most used species in standardized soil ecotoxicity tests. Endpoints such as survival, growth and reproduction are eco-toxicologically relevant but provide little mechanistic insight into toxicity pathways, especially at the molecular level. Here we applied a toxicogenomic approach to investigate the mode of action underlying the reversible neurotoxicity of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), a cyclic nitroamine explosives compound. We developed an...

Gong, Ping; Guan, Xin; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Liang, Chun; Perkins, Edward J.

2012-01-01

82

Ecological transfer of radionuclides and metals to free-living earthworm species in natural habitats rich in NORM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transfer of radionuclides ({sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U) and associated metals (As, Cd, Pb and Cr) from soil to free-living earthworm species was investigated in a thorium ({sup 232}Th) rich area in Norway. Sampling took place within former mining sites representing the technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM), at undisturbed site with unique bedrock geology representing the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and at site outside the {sup 232}Th rich area taken as reference Background site. Soil analysis revealed the elevated levels of investigated elements at NORM and TENORM sites. Based on sequential extraction, uranium ({sup 238}U) and cadmium (Cd) were quite mobile, while the other elements were strongly associated with mineral components of soil. Four investigated earthworm species (Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Dendrodrilus rubidus and Lumbricus rubellus) showed large individual variability in the accumulation of radionuclides and metals. Differences in uptake by epigeic and endogeic species, as well as differences within same species from the NORM, TENORM and Background sites were also seen. Based on total concentrations in soil, the transfer factors (TF) were in ranges 0.03-0.08 and 0.09-0.25, for {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, respectively. TFs for lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) were low (less than 0.5), while TFs for Cd were higher (about 10). Using the ERICA tool, the estimated radiation exposure dose rate of the earthworms ranged from 2.2 to 3.9 {mu}Gy/h. The radiological risk for investigated earthworms was low (0.28). The obtained results demonstrated that free-living earthworm species can survive in soil containing elevated {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, as well As, Cd, Pb and Cr levels, although certain amount of radionuclides was accumulated within their bodies. The present investigation contributes to general better understanding of complex soil-to-biota transfer processes of radionuclides and metals and to assessment of risk for non-human species in the ecosystem with multiple contaminants. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transfer of radionuclides ({sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U) and metals (As, Cr, Cd and Pb) from soil to earthworms was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Individual organisms' variability and species specific accumulation were demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results suggested that earthworms could survive in habitats with multiple contaminants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estimated radiological risk was not significant despite high soil concentrations of radionuclides.

Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena, E-mail: jelena.mrdakovic.popic@umb.no; Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis

2012-01-01

83

Earthworm Egg Capsules as Vectors for the Environmental Introduction of Biodegradative Bacteria  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworm egg capsules (cocoons) may acquire bacteria from the environment in which they are produced. We found that Ralstonia eutropha (pJP4) can be recovered from Eisenia fetida cocoons formed in soil inoculated with this bacterium. Plasmid pJP4 contains the genes necessary for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) degradation. In this study we determined that the presence of R. eutropha (pJP4) within the developing earthworm cocoon can influence the degradation and toxicity of 2,4-D and 2,4-DCP, respectively. The addition of cocoons containing R. eutropha (pJP4) at either low or high densities (102 or 105 CFU per cocoon, respectively) initiated degradation of 2,4-D in nonsterile soil microcosms. Loss of 2,4-D was observed within the first week of incubation, and respiking the soil with 2,4-D showed depletion within 24 h. Microbial analysis of the soil revealed the presence of approximately 104 CFU R. eutropha (pJP4) g?1 of soil. The toxicity of 2,4-DCP to developing earthworms was tested by using cocoons with or without R. eutropha (pJP4). Results showed that cocoons containing R. eutropha (pJP4) were able to tolerate higher levels of 2,4-DCP. Our results indicate that the biodegradation of 2,4-DCP by R. eutropha (pJP4) within the cocoons may be the mechanism contributing to toxicity reduction. These results suggest that the microbiota may influence the survival of developing earthworms exposed to toxic chemicals. In addition, cocoons can be used as inoculants for the introduction into the environment of beneficial bacteria, such as strains with biodegradative capabilities. PMID:10347016

Daane, L. L.; Häggblom, M. M.

1999-01-01

84

Contact tests for pentachlorophenol toxicity to earthworms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The standardized contact filter paper test (EEC and OECD) provides an effective screening test for toxicity to earthworms in a laboratory setting. A need exists for a reliable and inexpensive technique for non-laboratory settings where screening is desired, but facilities cannot provide for the acquisition and maintenance of the glass vials required by the standardized test. This study evaluated two modifications of the standardized test using clear polyethylene bags, with and without filter paper, with Eisenia fetida and domesticated surface-feeding earthworms. The tests were conducted according to EEC and OECD guidelines. Results of the modified tests corresponded in dose and effect to the standardized contact filter paper test indicating the usefulness of the modified tests.

Spontak, D.A. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

1994-12-31

85

Effects of historic metal(loid) pollution on earthworm communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of metal(loid)s (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, As and Sb) from atmospheric fallout on earthworm communities were investigated in a fallow meadow located close to a 60-year-old lead recycling factory. We examined abundance and species diversity as well as the ratio of adult-to-juvenile earthworms, along five 140m parallel transects. The influence of soil pollution on the earthworm community at the plot scale was put in context by measuring some physico-chemical soil characteristics (OM content, N content, pH), as well as total and bioavailable metal(loid) concentrations. Earthworms were absent in the highly polluted area (concentration from 30,000 to 5000mgPb·kg(-1) of dried soil), just near the factory (0-30m area). A clear and almost linear relationship was observed between the proportion of juvenile versus mature earthworms and the pollution gradient, with a greater proportion of adults in the most polluted zones (only adult earthworms were observed from 30 to 50m). Apporectodea longa was the main species present just near the smelter (80% of the earthworms were A. longa from 30 to 50m). The earthworm density was found to increase progressively from five individuals·m(-2) at 30m to 135individuals·m(-2) at 140m from the factory. On average, metal(loid) accumulation in earthworm tissues decreased linearly with distance from the factory. The concentration of exchangeable metal(loid)s in earthworm surface casts was higher than that of the overall soil. Finally, our field study clearly demonstrated that metal(loid) pollution has a direct impact on earthworm communities (abundance, diversity and proportion of juveniles) especially when Pb concentrations in soil were higher than 2050mg·kg(-1). PMID:25616191

Lévêque, Thibaut; Capowiez, Yvan; Schreck, Eva; Mombo, Stéphane; Mazzia, Christophe; Foucault, Yann; Dumat, Camille

2015-04-01

86

Polymerization with freezing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Irreversible aggregation processes involving reactive and frozen clusters are investigated using the rate equation approach. In aggregation events, two clusters join irreversibly to form a larger cluster; additionally, reactive clusters may spontaneously freeze. Frozen clusters do not participate in merger events. Generally, freezing controls the nature of the aggregation process, as demonstrated by the final distribution of frozen clusters. The cluster mass distribution has a power-law tail, F{sub k}{approx}k{sup -{gamma}}, when the freezing process is sufficiently slow. Different exponents, {gamma} = 1 and 3, are found for the constant and the product aggregation rates, respectively. For the latter case, the standard polymerization model, either no gels, or a single gel, or even multiple gels, may be produced.

Ben-Naim, E [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Krapivsky, P L [Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

2005-12-14

87

Polymerization with freezing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irreversible aggregation processes involving reactive and frozen clusters are investigated using the rate equation approach. In aggregation events, two clusters join irreversibly to form a larger cluster; additionally, reactive clusters may spontaneously freeze. Frozen clusters do not participate in merger events. Generally, freezing controls the nature of the aggregation process, as demonstrated by the final distribution of frozen clusters. The cluster mass distribution has a power-law tail, Fk?k-?, when the freezing process is sufficiently slow. Different exponents, ? = 1 and 3, are found for the constant and the product aggregation rates, respectively. For the latter case, the standard polymerization model, either no gels, or a single gel, or even multiple gels, may be produced

88

Polymerization with freezing  

Science.gov (United States)

Irreversible aggregation processes involving reactive and frozen clusters are investigated using the rate equation approach. In aggregation events, two clusters join irreversibly to form a larger cluster; additionally, reactive clusters may spontaneously freeze. Frozen clusters do not participate in merger events. Generally, freezing controls the nature of the aggregation process, as demonstrated by the final distribution of frozen clusters. The cluster mass distribution has a power-law tail, Fk~k-?, when the freezing process is sufficiently slow. Different exponents, ? = 1 and 3, are found for the constant and the product aggregation rates, respectively. For the latter case, the standard polymerization model, either no gels, or a single gel, or even multiple gels, may be produced.

Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.

2005-12-01

89

Ultrasound-Assisted Freezing  

Science.gov (United States)

Freezing is a well-known preservation method widely used in the food industry. The advantages of freezing are to a certain degree counterbalanced by the risk of damage caused by the formation and size of ice crystals. Over recent years new approaches have been developed to improve and control the crystallization process, and among these approaches sonocrystallization has proved to be very useful, since it can enhance both the nucleation rate and the crystal growth rate. Although ultrasound has been successfully used for many years in the evaluation of various aspects of foods and in medical applications, the use of power ultrasound to directly improve processes and products is less popular in food manufacturing. Foodstuffs are very complex materials, and research is needed in order to define the specific sound parameters that aid the freezing process and that can later be used for the scale-up and production of commercial frozen food products.

Delgado, A. E.; Sun, Da-Wen

90

Earthworm Effects without Earthworms: Inoculation of Raw Organic Matter with Worm-Worked Substrates Alters Microbial Community Functioning  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with soil microorganisms. They enhance decomposition rates through the joint action of direct effects (i.e. effects due to direct earthworm activity such as digestion, burrowing, etc) and indirect effects (i.e. effects derived from earthworm activities such as cast ageing). Here we test whether indirect earthworm effects affect microbial community functioning in the substrate, as when earthworms are present (i. e., direct effects). Methodology/Principal Findings To address these questions we inoculated fresh organic matter (pig manure) with worm-worked substrates (vermicompost) produced by three different earthworm species. Two doses of each vermicompost were used (2.5 and 10%). We hypothesized that the presence of worm-worked material in the fresh organic matter will result in an inoculum of different microorganisms and nutrients. This inoculum should interact with microbial communities in fresh organic matter, thus promoting modifications similar to those found when earthworms are present. Inoculation of worm-worked substrates provoked significant increases in microbial biomass and enzyme activities (?-glucosidase, cellulase, phosphatase and protease). These indirect effects were similar to, although lower than, those obtained in pig manure with earthworms (direct and indirect earthworm effects). In general, the effects were not dose-dependent, suggesting the existence of a threshold at which they were triggered. Conclusion/Significance Our data reveal that the relationships between earthworms and microorganisms are far from being understood, and suggest the existence of several positive feedbacks during earthworm activity as a result of the interactions between direct and indirect effects, since their combination produces stronger modifications to microbial biomass and enzyme activity. PMID:21298016

Aira, Manuel; Domínguez, Jorge

2011-01-01

91

Noninducibility of cytochrome P-450 in the earthworm Dendrobaena veneta.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cytochrome P-450 has been measured in the earthworm Dendrobaena veneta (Rosa) in a direct spectrophotometric procedure. The P-450 was found not in the dense microsomal fraction, but in the less dense overlying fraction often referred to as buffy coat. Earthworm P-450 was not induced by 3-methylcholanthrene or phenobarbitol. PMID:2877809

Milligan, D L; Babish, J G; Neuhauser, E F

1986-01-01

92

Modeling soil freezing dynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

Seasonally frozen soil strongly influences runoff and erosion on large areas of land around the world. In many areas, rain or snowmelt on seasonally frozen soil is the single leading cause of severe runoff and erosion events. As soils freeze, ice blocks the soil pores, greatly diminishing the permea...

93

Gene Expression Analysis of CL-20-induced Reversible Neurotoxicity Reveals GABAA Receptors as Potential Target in the Earthworm Eisenia fetida  

Science.gov (United States)

The earthworm Eisenia fetida is one of the most used species in standardized soil ecotoxicity tests. Endpoints such as survival, growth and reproduction are eco-toxicologically relevant but provide little mechanistic insight into toxicity pathways, especially at the molecular level. Here we applied a toxicogenomic approach to investigate the mode of action underlying the reversible neurotoxicity of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), a cyclic nitroamine explosives compound. We developed an E. fetida-specific shotgun microarray targeting 15119 unique E. fetida transcripts. Using this array we profiled gene expression in E. fetida in response to exposure to CL-20. Eighteen earthworms were exposed for 6 days to 0.2 ?g/cm2 of CL-20 on filter paper, half of which were allowed to recover in a clean environment for 7 days. Nine vehicle control earthworms were sacrificed at day 6 and 13, separately. Electrophysiological measurements indicated that the conduction velocity of earthworm medial giant nerve fiber decreased significantly after 6-day exposure to CL-20, but was restored after 7 days of recovery. Total RNA was isolated from the four treatment groups including 6-day control, 6-day exposed, 13-day control and 13-day exposed (i.e. 6-day exposure followed by 7-day recovery), and was hybridized to the 15K shot-gun oligo array. Statistical and bioinformatic analyses suggest that CL-20 initiated neurotoxicity by non-competitively blocking the ligand-gated GABAA receptor ion channel, leading to altered expression of genes involved in GABAergic, cholinergic, and Agrin-MuSK pathways. In the recovery phase, expression of affected genes returned to normality, possibly as a result of autophagy and CL-20 dissociation/metabolism. This study provides significant insights into potential mechanisms of CL-20-induced neurotoxicity and the recovery of earthworms from transient neurotoxicity stress. PMID:22191394

Gong, Ping; Guan, Xin; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Liang, Chun; Perkins, Edward J.

2012-01-01

94

Physical and chemical characterization of earthworms and humus obtained by vertical vermicomposting  

OpenAIRE

Earthworms culture are usually made horizontally and it is necessary a lot of area. In order to minimize the size of earthworms culture and the possibility to be applied in residences, this paper proposed evaluate conditions for vertical vermicomposting. For this, were purchased vertical boxes and organic matter. The earthworms of species Eisenia andrei, california red earthworms, were used. There were evaluated the adaptation of earthworms and physical and chemical chara...

Lucélia Hoehne; Rosecler Ribeiro; Wagner Manica Carlesso; Eduardo Miranda Ethur; Simone Stülp

2013-01-01

95

Metabolic changes during estivation in the common earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The common earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa survives drought by forming estivation chambers in the topsoil under even very slight reductions in soil water activity. We induced estivation in a soil of a consistency that allowed the removal of intact soil estivation chambers containing a single worm. These estivation chambers were exposed to 97% relative humidity for 30 d to simulate the effect of a severe summer drought. Gas exchange, body fluid osmolality, water balance, urea, and alanine were quantified, and whole-body homogenates were screened for changes in small organic molecules via (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Formation of estivation chambers was associated with a dramatic increase in body fluid osmolality, from 175 to 562 mOsm kg(-1), accompanied by a 20% increase in water content. Dehydration for 1 mo caused a further increase to 684 mOsm kg(-1), while the worms lost 50% of their water content. Gas exchange was depressed by 50% after worms entered estivation and by 80% after a further 30 d of dehydration. Urea concentrations increased from 0.3 to 1 micromol g(-1) dry mass during this time. Although (1)H-NMR did not provide the identity of the osmolytes responsible for the initial increase in osmolality after estivation, it showed that alanine increased to more than 80 mmol L(-1) in the long-term-estivation group. We propose that alanine functions as a nitrogen depot during dehydration and is not an anaerobe product in this case.

Bayley, Mark; Overgaard, Johannes

2011-01-01

96

Multi-element analyses of earthworms for radioecology and ecotoxicology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Increasing concern about environmental radiation protection has raised awareness that more information is required on the transfer and accumulation of radionuclides in the biological compartments of ecosystems. ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) selected earthworm as one of the reference organisms in their radiation protection recommendations. Earthworms play an important role in ecosystems, and might be a good indicator of soil contamination and its effect on the ecosystem. The elemental composition of earthworms gives useful information on background levels and possible accumulation of metals as well as related radionuclides. In addition, a change of the elemental composition itself might be a possible indicator of the effect on the earthworm and/or ecosystem. However, data for the elemental composition of earthworms are limited except for some specific heavy metals such as Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. In this study, earthworms and their growth media were analyzed for more than 30 elements, including radionuclide related elements such as Cs, Sr, Th and U, in order to obtain the basic information on the transfer parameters of the elements. The earthworms analyzed were fed in the laboratory or collected in the environment. The concentrations and transfer factors of the elements were determined both for laboratory and natural conditions. The controlling factors on the transfer parameters such as the bioavailability of the elements in the soils will also be discussed. (author)

97

Slow desiccation improves dehydration tolerance and accumulation of compatible osmolytes in earthworm cocoons (Dendrobaena octaedra Savigny)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra, is a common species in temperate and subarctic regions of the northern hemisphere. The egg capsules ('cocoons') of D. octaedra are deposited in the upper soil layers where they may be exposed to desiccation. Many previous studies on desiccation tolerance in soil invertebrates have examined acute exposure to harsh desiccating conditions, however, these animals are often more likely to be exposed to a gradually increasing drought stress. In the present study we slowly desiccated D. octaedra cocoons to simulate ecologically realistic drought conditions and the results clearly demonstrate that gradually dehydrated cocoons show an increased tolerance of extreme drought compared with acutely dehydrated cocoons. NMR spectroscopic analysis of compatible osmolytes revealed the presence of sorbitol, glucose, betaine, alanine and mannitol in dehydrated embryos. The superior drought survival of gradually desiccated embryos could partly be attributed to a higher accumulation of osmolytes (especially sorbitol). Thus, gradually and acutely desiccated embryos accumulated approximately 2 mol l(-1) and 1 mol l(-1) total osmolytes, respectively. However, in addition to osmolyte accumulation, the gradually desiccated cocoons also tolerated a higher degree of water loss, demonstrating that gradually dehydrated D. octaedra cocoons are able to survive loss of approximately 95% of the original water content. Although D. octaedra embryos can probably not be categorized as a truly anhydrobiotic organism we propose that they belong in a transition zone between the desiccation sensitive and the truly anhydrobiotic organisms. Clearly, these earthworm embryos share many physiological traits with anhydrobiotic organisms.

Petersen, Christina R; Holmstrup, Martin

2008-01-01

98

Freeze crystallization of imipenem.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work is a study of the freeze crystallization process developed for the production of a rapidly soluble and stable crystalline form of imipenem, an antibiotic. The objective is to understand the relationship between process conditions and the product crystallinity during the freeze crystallization. Solutions of imipenem and sodium bicarbonate, a drug stabilizer, were crystallized in acetone-water solvent systems at various ratios and temperatures. The degree of crystallinity of the resulting products was measured using an X-ray powder diffraction analysis technique. The acetone-water S-L phase diagram was used to correlate the resulting degrees of crystallinity of imipenem products and equilibrium properties of the system. It was discovered that the conversion of amorphous imipenem to crystalline products was directly related to the percentage of equilibrium liquid during the freeze crystallization. Solubility data indicated that imipenem is virtually insoluble in these equilibrium liquid phases. This suggests that the phase transition from the amorphous state to the crystalline state is mediated by the presence of the liquid phase. PMID:8683444

Connolly, M; Debenedetti, P G; Tung, H H

1996-02-01

99

Vermicomposting of Taro (Colocasia esculenta) with two epigeic earthworm species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bioconversion potential of two epigeic species (Eisenia foetida Sav. and Eudrilus eugeniae Kinberg) of earthworms was assessed in terms of efficiency and sustainability of vermicomposting of Taro (Colocasia esculenta (Linn) Schott in Schott and Endl). In different vermireactors, each run in triplicates with one of the two species of earthworms, and 60 g of 6:1 Colocasia:cowdung as feed, vermicasts were produced with steadily increasing output in all the reactors. E. eugeniae was found to be more efficient producer of vermicasts than E. foetida. In all reactors, the earthworms grew well, increasing their weights and number. PMID:16051486

Kurien, J; Ramasamy, E V

2006-07-01

100

Importance of freeze-thaw events in low temperature ecotoxicology of cold tolerant enchytraeids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Due to global warming it is predicted that freeze-thaw cycles will increase in Arctic and cold temperate regions. The effects of this variation becomes of particular ecological importance to freeze-tolerant species when it is combined with chemical pollutants. We compared the effect of control temperature (2 °C), daily freeze-thaw cycles (2 to -4 °C) and constant freezing (-2 °C) temperatures on the cold-tolerance of oligochaete worms (Enchytraeus albidus) and tested how survival was influenced by pre-exposure to 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), a common nonionic detergent found in sewage sludge amended soils. Results showed that combined effect of 4-NP and daily freeze-thaw cycles can cause higher mortality to worms as compared with sustained freezing or control temperature. Exposure to 4-NP caused a substantial depletion of glycogen reserves which is catabolized during freezing to produce cryoprotective concentrations of free glucose. Further, exposure to freeze-thaw cycles resulted in higher concentrations of 4-NP inworm tissues as compared to constant freezing or control temperature (2 °C). Thus, worms exposed to combined effect of freeze-thaw cycles and 4-NP suffer higher consequences, with the toxic effect of the chemical potentiating the deleterious effects of freezing and thawing.

Patrício Silva, Ana L; Enggrob, Kirsten

2014-01-01

101

The value of a freeze  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on the rapid increase in public support for a nuclear-freeze agreement---that is, a mutual freeze on the testing, production and further deployment of nuclear weapons---which has been a remarkable political phenomenon. In less than a year, support has grown from a few volunteers collecting signatures on petitions to a congressional vote in which supporters of a freeze very nearly prevailed. This fall, eight states and the District of Columbia will vote on freeze referendums. Already Wisconsin voters have overwhelmingly voted yes in such a referendum. There are many reasons for this strong support for a freeze, including fear of nuclear war, resistance to high levels of military spending and opposition to particular military policies of the Reagan administration. But to most supporters, the chief purpose of a freeze is simple: it is to help stop an immense, continuing, dangerous and incredibly costly arms race between the two superpowers

102

Competitive freezing in gold nanoparticles  

Science.gov (United States)

We use molecular dynamics simulations to study the freezing of gold nanoparticles in a size range of N = 309-923 gold atoms and find the clusters freeze to a variety of structures, including icosahedra, decahedra and face-centered cubic type structures. Measurements of the rate of freezing for the different structures reveal that the icosahedral clusters form an order ofmagnitude faster than the remaining structures over the entire range of cluster sizes studied. An analysis of the structural evolution of the icosahedral and decahedral clusters during freezing events suggests that, despite the vast difference in freezing rates, the two structures both initially form the same five-fold symmetric cap, constructed from tetrahedral sub-units of face-centered cubic packed atoms. The slow rate of decahedron freezing may be caused introduction of strain into the structure as it grows along the five-fold symmetric axis of the cluster and the need to form high energy facets.

Asuquo, Cletus C.; Bowles, Richard K.

2013-05-01

103

Identification and Classification of Earthworm Species in Guyana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Earthworms are very important organisms, they are both environmentally and economically beneficial and hence their correct identification and classification is very vital. Taxonomy aims to classify organisms based on their similarities and differences. The present study was carried out during the year 2006-2007 at University of Guyana, Georgetown focusing on identification and classification of local earthworm species of Guyana and comparison with a known non-native species (California red. The earthworms were collected (using hand sorting method, cultured and then carefully examined (worms were washed with water, preserved in 10% formalin solution. The two species studied were identified based on their external morphology and internal anatomy as well as their ecological features. The California red earthworm was grouped under the family Lumbricidae and identified as Eisenia foetida, while the local species was grouped under the family Eudrilidae and identified as Eudrilus eugenia.

Preeta Saywack

2011-01-01

104

Comparative toxicity of ten organic chemicals to four earthworm species  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ten organic chemicals were tested for toxicity to four earthworm species: Allolobophora tuberculata, Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae and Perionyx excavatus, using the European Economic Community's (EEC) earthworm artificial soil and contact testing procedure. The phenols were the most toxic chemicals tested, followed by the amine, substituted benzenes, halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and phthalate as the least toxic chemical tested. Correlations among species within each type of test for a given chemical were extremely high, suggesting that the selection of earthworm test species does not markedly affect the assessment of a chemical's toxicity. The correlation between the two tests was low for all test species. The contact test LC50 for a given chemical cannot be directly correlated to an artificial soil test LC50 for the same earthworm species.

Neuhauser, E.F.; Durkin, P.R.; Malecki, M.R.; Anatra, M.

1986-01-01

105

Freeze-Tolerant Condensers  

Science.gov (United States)

Two condensers designed for use in dissipating heat carried by working fluids feature two-phase, self-adjusting configurations such that their working lengths automatically vary to suit their input power levels and/or heat-sink temperatures. A key advantage of these condensers is that they can function even if the temperatures of their heat sinks fall below the freezing temperatures of their working fluids and the fluids freeze. The condensers can even be restarted from the frozen condition. The top part of the figure depicts the layout of the first condenser. A two-phase (liquid and vapor) condenser/vapor tube is thermally connected to a heat sink typically, a radiatively or convectively cooled metal panel. A single-phase (liquid) condensate-return tube (return artery) is also thermally connected to the heat sink. At intervals along their lengths, the condenser/vapor tube and the return artery are interconnected through porous plugs. This condenser configuration affords tolerance of freezing, variable effective thermal conductance (such that the return temperature remains nearly constant, independently of the ultimate sink temperature), and overall pressure drop smaller than it would be without the porous interconnections. An additional benefit of this configuration is that the condenser can be made to recover from the completely frozen condition either without using heaters, or else with the help of heaters much smaller than would otherwise be needed. The second condenser affords the same advantages and is based on a similar principle, but it has a different configuration that affords improved flow of working fluid, simplified construction, reduced weight, and faster recovery from a frozen condition.

Crowley, Christopher J.; Elkouhk, Nabil

2004-01-01

106

Menadione enhances oxyradical formation in earthworm extracts: vulnerability of earthworms to quinone toxicity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase activities have been determined in the earthworms, L. rubellus and A. chlorotica, extracts. Menadione (0.35 mM, maximum concentration tested) was found to stimulate the rates of NADPH- and NADH-dependent cytochrome c reduction by three- and twofold, respectively. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibited completely this menadione-mediated stimulation, suggesting that ·O2- is involved in the redox cycling of menadione. However, SOD had no effect on the basal activity (activity in the absence of quinone) in the case of NADH-dependent cytochrome c reduction, whereas it partially inhibited the basal activity of NADPH-cytochrome c reduction. This indicates direct electron transfer in the former case and the formation of superoxide anion in the latter. DT-diaphorase, measured as the dicumarol-inhibitable part of menadione reductase activity, was not detectable in the earthworms' extracts. In contrast, it was found that DT-diaphorase represents about 70% of the menadione reductase activities in the freshwater mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. The results of this work suggest that earthworms, compared with mussels, could be more vulnerable to oxidative stress from quinones due to lack, or very low level of DT-diaphorase, an enzyme considered to play a significant role in the detoxification of quinones. On the contrary, mussels have efficient DT-diaphorase, which catalyzes two-electron reduction of menadione directly to hydroquinoneion of menadione directly to hydroquinone, thus circumventing the formation of semiquinone

107

Menadione enhances oxyradical formation in earthworm extracts: vulnerability of earthworms to quinone toxicity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase activities have been determined in the earthworms, L. rubellus and A. chlorotica, extracts. Menadione (0.35 mM, maximum concentration tested) was found to stimulate the rates of NADPH- and NADH-dependent cytochrome c reduction by three- and twofold, respectively. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibited completely this menadione-mediated stimulation, suggesting that {center_dot}O{sub 2}{sup -} is involved in the redox cycling of menadione. However, SOD had no effect on the basal activity (activity in the absence of quinone) in the case of NADH-dependent cytochrome c reduction, whereas it partially inhibited the basal activity of NADPH-cytochrome c reduction. This indicates direct electron transfer in the former case and the formation of superoxide anion in the latter. DT-diaphorase, measured as the dicumarol-inhibitable part of menadione reductase activity, was not detectable in the earthworms' extracts. In contrast, it was found that DT-diaphorase represents about 70% of the menadione reductase activities in the freshwater mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. The results of this work suggest that earthworms, compared with mussels, could be more vulnerable to oxidative stress from quinones due to lack, or very low level of DT-diaphorase, an enzyme considered to play a significant role in the detoxification of quinones. On the contrary, mussels have efficient DT-diaphorase, which catalyzes two-electron reduction of menadione directly to hydroquinone, thus circumventing the formation of semiquinone.

Osman, A.M.; Besten, P.J. den; Noort, P.C.M. van

2003-10-08

108

Freezing Human ES Cells  

OpenAIRE

Here we demonstrate how our lab freezes HuES human embryonic stem cell lines. A healthy, exponentially expanding culture is washed with PBS to remove residual media that could otherwise quench the Trypsin reaction. Warmed 0.05% Trypsin-EDTA is then added to cover the cells, and the plate allowed to incubate for up to 5 mins at room temperature. During this time cells can be observed rounding, and colonies lifting off the plate surface. Gentle repeated pipetting will remove cells and colon...

Trish, Erin; Dimos, John; Eggan, Kevin

2006-01-01

109

Water Freezing in Nanopores  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The structure and dynamics of supercooled liquid water and of amorphous ice is a very active area of current research. Confinement induces new phenomena such as melting point suppression, and in some cases, water seems even not to freeze at all, as shown in recent differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. Micelle-templated porous silica materials, such as SBA-15 and MCM-41represent ideal model systems for studying water in nano-confinement. The pores of these materials are perfectly ordered on a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice with lattice parameter of a few Nanometers, making these materials ideal for investigations with small-angle X-ray (SAXS) and neutron (SANS) scattering methods. We performed Synchrotron-SAXS and SANS measurement on water-filled MCM-41 and SBA-15 porous materials with pore diameters ranging from 2 nm - 9 nm. The advantages of the two complementary scattering techniques, SAXS and SANS are ideally applied to our system. The high brilliance synchrotron radiation makes strain effects in the order of 10-3 resolvable. The phase contrast variation in neutron scattering allows a detailed investigation of density change of water by using a proper H2O/D2O. Two phenomena could be observed during freezing and melting of confined water. First, the water density change during phase transformation results in change of the scattering contrast and therefore changes the scattering intensity. Second, the str the scattering intensity. Second, the strain-induced contraction and expansion of the pore lattice during water phase transformation leads to a shift of the Bragg-Peak position. Both effects are observed for water in large pores exactly at the phase transition temperatures predicted by DSC. Moreover, these effects are present even for water confined in pores below 2,5 nm where water is assumed not to freeze. Additionally, we performed cooling and heating cycles on samples with different pore filling fractions. Different number of the few water layers on pore walls show different freezing and melting behaviour which is discussed together with the results from fully-filled pores with different diameters. (author)

110

Disposal of dredged sediments in tropical soils: ecotoxicological effects on earthworms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The upper limit concentrations of metals established by international legislations for dredged sediment disposal and soil quality do not take into consideration the properties of tropical soils (generally submitted to more intense weathering processes) on metal availability and ecotoxicity. Aiming to perform an evaluation on the suitability of these threshold values in tropical regions, the ecotoxicity of metal-contaminated dredged sediment from the Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) was investigated. Acute and avoidance tests with Eisenia andrei were performed with mixtures of dredged sediment with a ferralsol (0.00, 6.66, 13.12, 19.98, and 33.30 %) and a chernosol (0.00, 6.58, 13.16, 19.74, and 32.90 %). Mercury, lead, nickel, chromium, copper, and zinc concentrations were measured in test mixtures and in tissues of surviving earthworms from the acute tests. While ferralsol test mixtures provoked significant earthworm avoidance response at concentrations ?13.31 %, the chernosol mixtures showed significant avoidance behavior only at the 19.74 % concentration. The acute tests showed higher toxicity in ferralsol mixtures (LC50?=?9.9 %) compared to chernosol mixtures (LC50?=?16.5 %), and biomass increased at the lowest sediment doses in treatments of both test soils. Most probably, the expansive clay minerals present in chernosol contributed to reduce metal availability in chernosol mixtures, and consequently, the ecotoxicity of these treatments. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) for zinc and copper were lower with increasing concentrations of the dredged sediment, indicating the existence of internal regulating processes. Although the BCF for mercury also decreased with the increasing test concentrations, the known no biological function of this metal in the earthworms metabolism lead to suppose that Hg measured was not present in bioaccumulable forms. BCFs estimated for the other metals were generally higher in the highest dredged sediment doses. PMID:24122142

Cesar, Ricardo; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo; Colonese, Juan; Bidone, Edison; Castilhos, Zuleica; Egler, Silvia; Polivanov, Helena

2014-03-01

111

Earthworms lost from pesticides application in potato crops  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioturbation from earthworm's activity contributes to soil creep and soil carbon dynamics, and provide enough aeration conditions for agricultural practices all over the world. In developing countries where there is a long term misuse of pesticides for agricultural purposes, lost of these benefits from earthworms activity might already yielded negative effects in the current crop production. Little research has been performed on earthworms avoidance to pesticides in developing countries located in the tropics. Furthermore, the complete avoidance reaction (from attraction to 100% avoidance) from earthworms to most of the pesticides used in potato cultivation in developing countries like Colombia is incomplete as yet. Hence the aim of this study is to assess the lost of earthworm on the soils caused by different concentrations of pesticides and associated agricultural impacts caused by a lost in the soil bioturbation. As a first stage, we have studied earthworm's avoidance to pesticide concentration in a potato agricultural area located in Colombia. Local cultivated Eisenia fetida were exposed to four of the most frequent applied active ingredients in potato crops i.e. carbofuran, mancozeb, methamidophos and chlorpyriphos. Adult earthworm toxicity experiments were carried out in two soils, untreated grasslands under standard (ISO guidelines) and undisturbed conditions, and exposed to six different concentrations of the active ingredients. The results of the avoidance reaction on the standard soils were significant for carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos. For each of the three active ingredients, we found i) overuse of pesticide, ii) applied dose of carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos by the farmers potentially caused 20%, 11% and 9% of earthworms avoidance on the cultivated soils, respectively.

Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Forrer, Karin; Binder, Claudia R.

2010-05-01

112

Identification and Classification of Earthworm Species in Guyana  

OpenAIRE

Earthworms are very important organisms, they are both environmentally and economically beneficial and hence their correct identification and classification is very vital. Taxonomy aims to classify organisms based on their similarities and differences. The present study was carried out during the year 2006-2007 at University of Guyana, Georgetown focusing on identification and classification of local earthworm species of Guyana and comparison with a known non-native species (California red). ...

Preeta Saywack; Abdullah Adil Ansari

2011-01-01

113

Greenhouse-gas emissions from soils increased by earthworms  

OpenAIRE

Earthworms play an essential part in determining the greenhouse-gas balance of soils worldwide, and their influence is expected to grow over the next decades. They are thought to stimulate carbon sequestration in soil aggregates, but also to increase emissions of the main greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. Hence, it remains highly controversial whether earthworms predominantly affect soils to act as a net source or sink of greenhouse gases. Here, we provide a quantitative revi...

Lubbers, I. M.; Groenigen, K. J.; Fonte, S. J.; Six, J.; Brussaard, L.; Groenigen, J. W.

2013-01-01

114

Earthworm (Eisenia andrei) Avoidance of Soils Treated with Cypermethrin  

OpenAIRE

The pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin is used for agricultural and public health campaigns. Its residues may contaminate soils and the beneficial soil organisms, like the earthworms, that may ingest the contaminated soil particles. Due to its ecological relevance, earthworms Eisenia andrei/fetida have been used in different ecotoxicological tests. The avoidance of soils treated with cypermethrin by compost worms Eisenia andrei was studied here as a bioindicator of the influence of treatment...

Andre?a, Mara M.; Sousa, Ana Paula A.

2011-01-01

115

Transmission of Nephridial Bacteria of the Earthworm Eisenia fetida  

OpenAIRE

The lumbricid earthworms (annelid family Lumbricidae) harbor gram-negative bacteria in their excretory organs, the nephridia. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing of bacteria associated with the nephridia of several earthworm species has shown that each species of worm harbors a distinct bacterial species and that the bacteria from different species form a monophyletic cluster within the genus Acidovorax, suggesting that there is a specific association resulting from radiation from a common b...

Davidson, Seana K.; Stahl, David A.

2006-01-01

116

Earthworm (Eisenia andrei Avoidance of Soils Treated with Cypermethrin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin is used for agricultural and public health campaigns. Its residues may contaminate soils and the beneficial soil organisms, like the earthworms, that may ingest the contaminated soil particles. Due to its ecological relevance, earthworms Eisenia andrei/fetida have been used in different ecotoxicological tests. The avoidance of soils treated with cypermethrin by compost worms Eisenia andrei was studied here as a bioindicator of the influence of treatment dosage and the pesticide formulation in three different agricultural soils indicated by the Brazilian environmental authorities for ecotoxicological tests. This earthworms’ behavior was studied here as a first attempt to propose the test for regulation purposes. The two-compartment test systems, where the earthworms were placed for a two-day exposure period, contained samples of untreated soil alone or together with soil treated with technical grade or wettable powder formulation of cypermethrin. After 48 h, there was no mortality, but the avoidance was clear because all earthworms were found in the untreated section of each type of soil (p < 0.05. No differences were found by the Fisher’s exact test (p ? 1.000 for each soil and treatment, demonstrating that the different soil characteristics, the cypermethrin concentrations and formulation, as well as the smaller amounts of soil and earthworms did not influence the avoidance behavior of the earthworms to cypermethrin. The number and range of treatments used in this study do not allow a detailed recommendation of the conditions applied here, but to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported attempt to identify the avoidance of pesticide treated tropical soils by earthworms.

Mara M. de Andréa

2011-11-01

117

Studies on Freezing RAM Semen in Absence of Glycerol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glycerol is widely used as a major cryoprotective agent for freezing spermatozoa of almost all species. However, it reduces fertility of sheep inseminated cervically compared with intrauterine insemination. Studies were conducted to develop a method and procedure for freezing ram semen in the absence of glycerol. Post -thaw survival of ram spermatozoa frozen in the absence of glycerol was affected by time and temperature after collection and before dilution and time after dilution and before freezing. Increase in time at 5^ circC before or after dilution and before freezing increased both post-thaw motility and number of cells passing through Sephadex filter. A cold dilution method was developed. Slow cooling of fresh ram semen and diluting at 5^circ C 2-3 hr. after collection, then freezing 1 hr. after dilution improved both post-thaw motility and number of cells passing through Sephadex filter compared with immediate dilution at 30-37^circC after collection and freezing 3-4 hr. later (P osmotic pressure of 375-400 mOsm/kg, containing 25-30% (v/v) egg yolk and 10% (v/v) maltose. A special device (boat) for freezing was constructed to insure the same height of the sample above LN _2 and thus the same freezing rate from freeze to freeze. Freezing of semen in 0.25cc straws at 5-10 cm above LN_2 (73.8 to 49.5 ^circC/min) yielded higher post-thaw motility than the rates resulted from freezing at 15 cm above LN_2 or 1 cm above LN _2. Faster Thawing in 37^ circC water for 30 sec. (7.8^ circC/sec.) increased post-thaw motility compared with slower thawing in 5 or 20^circ C water (P < 0.05). A lambing rate of 52.2% was obtained in one fertility trial conducted with ram semen frozen without glycerol and 17.1% in a second trial. One injection (IM) of 15 mg PGF_{2alpha}/ewe for estrus synchronization during breeding season resulted in higher heat response and lambing rate than two injections given 10 days apart.

Abdelnaby, Abdelhady Abdelhakeam

1988-12-01

118

Freeze-drying wet digital prints: An option for salvage?  

Science.gov (United States)

On the occasion of the collapse of the Historical Archive of the City of Cologne in March 2009 and the ensuing salvage effort, questions were raised about the use of freeze-drying for soaked digital prints, a technique that has not yet been evaluated for these materials. This study examines the effects of immersion, air-drying, drying in a blotter stack, freezing and freeze-drying on 35 samples of major digital printing processes. The samples were examined visually before, during and after testing; evaluation of the results was qualitative. Results show that some prints were already damaged by immersion alone (e.g. bleeding inks and soluble coatings) to the extent that the subsequent choice of drying method made no significant difference any more. For those samples that did survive immersion, air-drying proved to be crucial for water-sensitive prints, since any contact with the wet surface caused serious damage. Less water-sensitive prints showed no damage throughout the entire procedure, regardless of drying method. Some prints on coated media suffered from minor surface disruption up to total delamination of the surface coating due to the formation of ice crystals during shock-freezing. With few exceptions, freeze-drying did not cause additional damage to any of the prints that hadn't already been damaged by freezing. It became clear that an understanding of the process and materials is important for choosing an appropriate drying method.

Jürgens, M. C.; Schempp, N.

2010-06-01

119

Freeze-drying wet digital prints: An option for salvage?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the occasion of the collapse of the Historical Archive of the City of Cologne in March 2009 and the ensuing salvage effort, questions were raised about the use of freeze-drying for soaked digital prints, a technique that has not yet been evaluated for these materials. This study examines the effects of immersion, air-drying, drying in a blotter stack, freezing and freeze-drying on 35 samples of major digital printing processes. The samples were examined visually before, during and after testing; evaluation of the results was qualitative. Results show that some prints were already damaged by immersion alone (e.g. bleeding inks and soluble coatings) to the extent that the subsequent choice of drying method made no significant difference any more. For those samples that did survive immersion, air-drying proved to be crucial for water-sensitive prints, since any contact with the wet surface caused serious damage. Less water-sensitive prints showed no damage throughout the entire procedure, regardless of drying method. Some prints on coated media suffered from minor surface disruption up to total delamination of the surface coating due to the formation of ice crystals during shock-freezing. With few exceptions, freeze-drying did not cause additional damage to any of the prints that hadn't already been damaged by freezing. It became clear that an understanding of the process and materials is important for choosing an appropriate drying method.

Juergens, M C [Photograph Conservator, Schumacherstr. 98, 22767 Hamburg (Germany); Schempp, N, E-mail: post@martinjuergens.ne [Schempp Bestandserhaltung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 12, 70806 Kornwestheim (Germany)

2010-06-01

120

Freeze-drying wet digital prints: An option for salvage?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the occasion of the collapse of the Historical Archive of the City of Cologne in March 2009 and the ensuing salvage effort, questions were raised about the use of freeze-drying for soaked digital prints, a technique that has not yet been evaluated for these materials. This study examines the effects of immersion, air-drying, drying in a blotter stack, freezing and freeze-drying on 35 samples of major digital printing processes. The samples were examined visually before, during and after testing; evaluation of the results was qualitative. Results show that some prints were already damaged by immersion alone (e.g. bleeding inks and soluble coatings) to the extent that the subsequent choice of drying method made no significant difference any more. For those samples that did survive immersion, air-drying proved to be crucial for water-sensitive prints, since any contact with the wet surface caused serious damage. Less water-sensitive prints showed no damage throughout the entire procedure, regardless of drying method. Some prints on coated media suffered from minor surface disruption up to total delamination of the surface coating due to the formation of ice crystals during shock-freezing. With few exceptions, freeze-drying did not cause additional damage to any of the prints that hadn't already been damaged by freezing. It became clear that an understanding of the process and materials is important for choosing an appropriate drying method.drying method.

121

Multi-element analyses of earthworms for radioecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Increasing attention on the environmental radiation protection realizes that more information is required on the transfer and accumulation of radionuclides in the biological compartments of the ecosystems. Earthworms play an important role in ecosystems, and might be a good indicator of soil contamination and its effect on the ecosystem. The elemental composition of earthworms gives useful information on background levels and possible accumulation of metals as well as related radionuclides. However, data for the elemental composition of earthworms are limited except for some specific heavy metals such as Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. In this study, earthworms and their growth media were analyzed for 35 elements, including radionuclide related elements such as Cs, Sr, Th and U, in order to obtain the basic information on the transfer parameters of the elements. The earthworms analyzed were fed in the laboratory or collected in the environment. The concentrations and transfer factors (TFs) of the elements were determined both for laboratory and natural conditions. Relatively high TFs were observed for Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Mo and Cd. The TFs for Al, Sc, Ti, Y, Nb and lanthanide elements were low. The TFs of Cs were different depending on the medium (soil type), indicating that bioavailability of Cs in the medium might be one of the important controlling factors of Cs concentration in earthworm. (author)

122

Toxicity and bioaccumulation of ethofumesate enantiomers in earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworms represent an important food source for many vertebrates and as a result, predators may encounter toxic effects via the food chain from consumption of contaminated worms. Therefore, including an assessment of xenobiotic to worms in risk assessment procedures is advisable. Here we studied the acute toxicity, bioaccumulation and elimination of ethofumesate enantiomers in earthworm, Eisenia fetida, in a soil. A slight difference in toxicity to earthworm between two enantiomers was found, and the calculated LC50 values for (+)-, rac- and (-)-ethofumesate were 4.51, 5.93 and 7.98 ?g/cm(2), respectively, indicating that the acute toxicity of ethofumesate enantiomers was enantioselective. Earthworm can uptake ethofumesate but the bioaccumulation curve did not reach the steady state. In the elimination experiment, the concentrations of ethofumesate in earthworm declined following a first-order decay model with a short half life of 1.8d. The bioaccumulation and elimination of ethofumesate in earthworm were both nonenantioselective. In combination with other studies, a linear relationship between Log BSAFs and Log Kow was observed, and the Log BSAFs increased with increasing Log Kow. But the elimination rate did not show any correlation with the Kow value. PMID:25048902

Xu, Peng; Wang, Yinghuan; Zhang, Yanfeng; Li, Jianzhong; Wang, Huili

2014-10-01

123

Recycled water sources influence the bioavailability of copper to earthworms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Re-use of wastewaters can overcome shortfalls in irrigation demand and mitigate environmental pollution. However, in an untreated or partially treated state, these water sources can introduce inorganic contaminants, including heavy metals, to soils that are irrigated. In this study, earthworms (Eisenia fetida) have been used to determine copper (Cu) bioavailability in two contrasting soils irrigated with farm dairy, piggery and winery effluents. Soils spiked with varying levels of Cu (0-1,000 mg/kg) were subsequently irrigated with recycled waters and Milli-Q (MQ) water and Cu bioavailability to earthworms determined by mortality and avoidance tests. Earthworms clearly avoided high Cu soils and the effect was more pronounced in the absence than presence of recycled water irrigation. At the highest Cu concentration (1,000 mg/kg), worm mortality was 100% when irrigated with MQ-water; however, when irrigated with recycled waters, mortality decreased by 30%. Accumulation of Cu in earthworms was significantly less in the presence of recycled water and was dependent on CaCl2-extractable free Cu(2+) concentration in the soil. Here, it is evident that organic carbon in recycled waters was effective in decreasing the toxic effects of Cu on earthworms, indicating that the metal-organic complexes decreased Cu bioavailability to earthworms. PMID:23122192

Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Bolan, Nanthi S; Naidu, Ravi; Kim, Won-Il

2013-10-15

124

Transcript expression of the freeze responsive gene fr10 in Rana sylvatica during freezing, anoxia, dehydration, and development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Freeze tolerance is a critical winter survival strategy for the wood frog, Rana sylvatica. In response to freezing, a number of genes are upregulated to facilitate the survival response. This includes fr10, a novel freeze-responsive gene first identified in R. sylvatica. This study analyzes the transcriptional expression of fr10 in seven tissues in response to freezing, anoxia, and dehydration stress, and throughout the Gosner stages of tadpole development. Transcription of fr10 increased overall in response to 24 h of freezing, with significant increases in expression detected in testes, heart, brain, and lung when compared to control tissues. When exposed to anoxia; heart, lung, and kidney tissues experienced a significant increase, while the transcription of fr10 in response to 40 % dehydration was found to significantly increase in both heart and brain tissues. An analysis of the transcription of fr10 throughout the development of the wood frog showed a relatively constant expression; with slightly lower transcription levels observed in two of the seven Gosner stages. Based on these results, it is predicted that fr10 has multiple roles depending on the needs and stresses experienced by the wood frog. It has conclusively been shown to act as a cryoprotectant, with possible additional roles in anoxia, dehydration, and development. In the future, it is hoped that further knowledge of the mechanism of action of FR10 will allow for increased stress tolerance in human cells and tissues. PMID:25280399

Sullivan, K J; Biggar, K K; Storey, K B

2015-01-01

125

Performance Characteristics of an Isothermal Freeze Valve  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document discusses performance characteristics of an isothermal freeze valve. A freeze valve has been specified for draining the DWPF melter at the end of its lifetime. Two freeze valve designs have been evaluated on the Small Cylindrical Melter-2 (SCM-2). In order to size the DWPF freeze valve, the basic principles governing freeze valve behavior need to be identified and understood.

Hailey, A.E.

2001-08-22

126

Heavy metal concentrations in soil and earthworms in a floodplain grassland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We determined accumulated heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) of earthworms in moderately contaminated floodplain soils. Both soil and mature earthworms were sampled before and after flooding and earthworm species were identified to understand species specific differences in bioconcentration. Accumulated metal concentrations in floodplain earthworms differed before and after flooding. Differences in uptake and elimination mechanisms, in food choice and living habitat of the different earthworm species and changes in speciation of the heavy metals are possible causes for this observation. Regression equations taken from literature, that relate metal accumulation by earthworms in floodplains as a function of metal concentration in soil, performed well when all species specific data were combined in an average accumulation, but did not address differences in accumulation between earthworm species. - The accumulation of metals by earthworms is species dependent and affected by flooding

127

Soil and elemental mixing rates across an earthworm invasion chronosequence  

Science.gov (United States)

Burrowing soil fauna significantly contribute to earth surface processes. In particular, earthworms are well known for their ability to move large masses of soil through ingestion and burrowing activities. Over the past decades, humans have increased the geographic range of earthworms through agricultural and recreational activities, exacerbating their invasion into soils devoid of native earthworms since the Last Glacial Maximum. Invasive earthworms, by mixing soils, have substantially altered forest floor ecology and soil morphology. Though the depth extent of mixing can be inferred from altered soil horizonation, mixing rates of various elements in earthworm invaded soils have not previously been calculated. The earthworm invasion chronosequence in a sugar maple forest in Northern Minnesota provides an ideal outdoor laboratory to understand the relationships between dynamics of invasive earthworm populations and soil elemental mixing rates. In this study we used 137-Cs as a tracer for soil mixing due to its strong adsorption to clays and organic matter and its atmospheric origin. Least invaded soils show high 137-Cs activity in the upper 5 centimeters which quickly disappears with depth, while heavily invaded soils show a greater depth reach and homogenized depth profiles of 137-Cs activity. Along the invasion gradient, the depth profiles of many elements are consistent with 137-Cs activities. Currently, a mass balance equation is being combined with 137-Cs activities and total elemental chemistry to determine mixing rates of major elements: Fe, Si, Al and biologically important: Ca, Mg, and P. It is also evident that mixing alone cannot explain the invasive earthworms' impacts on depth profiles of several elements. Geochemical mass balance calculations show a reduction of Ca, Mg, and K in 0-7cm depths. The loss of Ca from the biologically active zone may have ecological consequences. In contrast, we found greater contents of Fe and Al and dithionite-citrate extractable Fe and Al, which may help stabilize organic matter and may impede chemical weathering of minerals by coating their reactive surfaces. We expect that the behavior of a given element will be based upon its biological demand, complexation with organic matter, and hydrological mobility. Understanding how quickly and what extent various elements are mixed by invasive earthworms will help determine the magnitude of invasive earthworms' impact on the future nutrient cycles in hardwood forests.

Resner, K. E.; Yoo, K.; Lyttle, A.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Sebestyen, S. D.

2012-12-01

128

Freezing resistance of antifreeze-deficient larval Antarctic fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antarctic notothenioids, along with many other polar marine fishes, have evolved biological antifreeze proteins (AFPs) to survive in their icy environments. The larvae of Antarctic notothenioid fish hatch into the same frigid environment inhabited by the adults, suggesting that they must also be protected by sufficient AFPs, but this has never been verified. We have determined the contribution of AFPs to the freezing resistance of the larvae of three species: Gymnodraco acuticeps, Pagothenia borchgrevinki and Pleuragramma antarcticum. Of the three, only P. borchgrevinki larvae are protected by high, adult levels of AFPs. Hatchling G. acuticeps and P. antarcticum have drastically inadequate AFP concentrations to avoid freezing at the ambient seawater temperature (-1.91 degrees C). We raised G. acuticeps larvae and measured the AFP levels in their blood for approximately 5 months post hatching. Larval serum freezing point was -1.34+/-0.04 degrees C at the time of hatch; it began to decrease only after 30 days post hatch (d.p.h.), and finally reached the adult value (-2.61+/-0.03 degrees C) by 147 d.p.h. Additionally, AFP concentrations in their intestinal fluids were very low at hatching, and did not increase with age throughout a sampling period of 84 d.p.h. Surviving in a freezing environment without adequate AFP protection suggests that other mechanisms of larval freezing resistance exist. Accordingly, we found that G. acuticeps hatchlings survived to -3.6+/-0.1 degrees C while in contact with external ice, but only survived to -1.5+/-0.0 degrees C when ice was artificially introduced into their tissues. P. antarcticum larvae were similarly resistant to organismal freezing. The gills of all three species were found to be underdeveloped at the time of hatch, minimizing the risk of ice introduction through these delicate structures. Thus, an intact integument, underdeveloped gill structures and other physical barriers to ice propagation may contribute significantly to the freezing resistance and survival of these larval fishes in the icy conditions of the Southern Ocean. PMID:16424091

Cziko, Paul A; Evans, Clive W; Cheng, Chi-Hing C; DeVries, Arthur L

2006-02-01

129

Generalized structural theory of freezing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first-principles order parameter theory of freezing, proposed in an earlier work, has been successful in yielding quantitative agreement with known freezing parameters for monoatomic liquids forming solids with one atom per unit cell. A generalization of this theory is presented here to include the effects of a basis set of many atoms per unit cell. The basic equations get modified by the 'density structure factors' fsub(i) which arise from the density variations within the unit cell. Calculations are presented for the important case of monoatomic liquids freezing into hexagonal close packed solids. It is concluded that all freezing transitions can be described by using structural correlations in the liquid instead of the pair potential; and that the three body correlations are important in deciding the type of solid formed after freezing. (author)

130

Earthworms Use Odor Cues to Locate and Feed on Microorganisms in Soil  

OpenAIRE

Earthworms are key components of temperate soil ecosystems but key aspects of their ecology remain unexamined. Here we elucidate the role of olfactory cues in earthworm attraction to food sources and document specific chemical cues that attract Eisenia fetida to the soil fungi Geotrichum candidum. Fungi and other microorganisms are major sources of volatile emissions in soil ecosystems as well as primary food sources for earthworms, suggesting the likelihood that earthworms might profitably u...

Zirbes, Lara; Mark, Mescher; Vrancken, Ve?ronique; Wathelet, Jean-paul; Verheggen, Franc?ois; Thonart, Philippe; Haubruge, Eric

2011-01-01

131

UO2 flow freezing processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transient freezing of molten UO2 and UO2-steel mixtures in steel channels is an important functional heat transfer process which occurs in the course of Liquid Metal-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accidents (HCDA). Fuel freezing processes can influence both the transient overpower (TOP) and transient undercooling (TUC) accidents. In the absence of freezing, either fuel sweepout or continuous fuel removal can lead to shutdown with a largely coolable geometry in the TOP case and greatly reduce concerns over recriticality in the TUC case. However, with fuel freezing either case may lead to a temporarily ''bottled-up core'' condition which is relieved by melting of the initially formed plugs. Whether further freezing occurs in either the upward or downward direction through the core support structure is of interest in determining the decay heat level for Post-Accident Heat Removal (PAHR). Attention is focused on the freezing of ceramic fuel in steel channels. A discussion of the conduction-controlled and bulk freezing mechanisms is given first. A fuel crust stability criterion is proposed, and an explicit formula providing a rough estimate of critical fuel crust disintegration conditions is developed. A comparison of the crust stability criterion with a number of explanatory experimental results is made. A steel ablation-fuel freezing mechanism is identified. If the conditions in the fuel flow are such to prevent fues in the fuel flow are such to prevent fuel crust growth, then the steel wall melting can become catastrophic. Steel ablation rapidly leads to fuel freezing in a bulk manner via turbulent mixing between the relatively ''cold'' molten steel and hot molten fuel. Based on this ablation-freezing concept, simple equations are developed for molten fuel penetration into steel channels. Comparison of the equations with the available experimental results proves favorable

132

Freeze. How you can help prevent nuclear war  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In their book the Senators Kennedy and Hatfield prove that the United States will not be able to survive a nuclear war. The report on the freeze movement is followed by a chapter on the history of the efforts for disarmament which had been abruptly ended by President Reagan's call for the enhanced modernization of nuclear arms. But ''we have reached the unique moment in the history of the atomic age where it is possible and where it must be tried to freeze nuclear armament'', as Kennedy and Hatfield write, for ''the present nuclear balance is relatively stable''. Only by freezing the standard of armament can this balance which decides on worldwide peace be granted. (orig.)

133

Cold tolerance and freeze-induced glucose accumulation in three terrestrial slugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cold tolerance and metabolic responses to freezing of three slug species common in Scandinavia (Arion ater, Arion rufus and Arion lusitanicus) are reported. Autumn collected slugs were cold acclimated in the laboratory and subjected to freezing conditions simulating likely winter temperatures in their habitat. Slugs spontaneously froze at about -4 °C when cooled under dry conditions, but freezing of body fluids was readily induced at -1 °C when in contact with external ice crystals. All three species survived freezing for 2 days at -1 °C, and some A. rufus and A. lusitanicus also survived freezing at -2 °C. (1)H NMR spectroscopy revealed that freezing of body fluids resulted in accumulation of lactate, succinate and glucose. Accumulation of lactate and succinate indicates that ATP production occurred via fermentative pathways, which is likely a result of oxygen depletion in frozen tissues. Glucose increased from about 6 to 22 ?g/mg dry tissue upon freezing in A. rufus, but less so in A. ater and A. lusitanicus. Glucose may thus act as a cryoprotectant in these slugs, although the concentrations are not as high as reported for other freeze tolerant invertebrates. PMID:22248916

Slotsbo, Stine; Hansen, Lars Monrad; Jordaens, Kurt; Backeljau, Thierry; Malmendal, Anders; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Holmstrup, Martin

2012-04-01

134

Cold tolerance and freeze-induced glucose accumulation in three terrestrial slugs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cold tolerance and metabolic responses to freezing of three slug species common in Scandinavia (Arion ater, Arion rufus and Arion lusitanicus) are reported. Autumn collected slugs were cold acclimated in the laboratory and subjected to freezing conditions simulating likely winter temperatures in their habitat. Slugs spontaneously froze at about -4°C when cooled under dry conditions, but freezing of body fluids was readily induced at -1°C when in contact with external ice crystals. All three species survived freezing for 2days at -1°C, and some A. rufus and A. lusitanicus also survived freezing at -2°C. (1)H NMR spectroscopy revealed that freezing of body fluids resulted in accumulation of lactate, succinate and glucose. Accumulation of lactate and succinate indicates that ATP production occurred via fermentative pathways, which is likely a result of oxygen depletion in frozen tissues. Glucose increased from about 6 to 22?g/mg dry tissue upon freezing in A. rufus, but less so in A. ater and A. lusitanicus. Glucose may thus act as a cryoprotectant in these slugs, although the concentrations are not as high as reported for other freeze tolerant invertebrates.

Slotsbo, Stine; Hansen, Lars Monrad

2012-01-01

135

Earthworm species influence on carbon-mineral association in a sugar maple forest in northern Minnesota  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-native European earthworms are invading previously earthworm-free hardwood forests in the northern Great Lakes Region. Whereas earthworms' impacts on soil morphology and geochemical properties have been well documented in agricultural settings, the role of earthworms in biogeochemical cycles of undisturbed forests remains poorly understood. The forest soils that were recently invaded by exotic earthworms, therefore, provide a unique opportunity to understand how and how much earthworms contribute to biogeochemistry of non-agricultural environments. Increased degree and extent of soil mixing is one of the better known consequences of the earthworm invasion. Our hypothesis is that invasive earthworms positively affect carbon (C) stabilization by enhancing contacts between organic matter and minerals. We are studying C-mineral complexation along a well-established earthworm chronosequence in a sugar maple forest in northern Minnesota. We have observed changes in total earthworm biomass, A horizon C storage, and total specific surface area (SSA) of minerals as the invasion progresses. Because each earthworm species has different feeding and dwelling habits, biogeochemical imprints of the invasion reflect not only earthworms' biomass but also their species composition. All earthworm species show an increase in their biomass with greater time length since the invasion, though epigeic earthworms tend to be the pioneer species. As the total earthworm biomass increases, we find greater incorporation of organic C into the A horizon; the O horizon thickness decreases from 8 to 0 cm as the A horizon thickens from ~5 cm to ~12 cm. While leaf litter biomass is negatively correlated with total earthworm biomass, dramatic decreases in litter biomass are coupled with considerable increases in the biomass of epi-endogeic species. Despite the general decrease in C storage in the A horizon with greater degree of invasion, the storages fluctuate along the transect because earthworms affect not only C concentration but also soil bulk density and A horizon thickness. Mineral's SSA in the A and E is significantly larger and greater portions of the mineral SSA are coated with C in soils with greater earthworm biomass. These results show that both mineral's capacity to complex C and the actual complexation are enhanced by earthworm invasion presumably because earthworms' ability to vertically mix soils. This growing data set will ultimately elucidate how soils' capacity to stabilize C is influenced by exotic earthworm species.

Lyttle, A.; Yoo, K.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Hale, C. M.; Sebestyen, S. D.

2011-12-01

136

Surviving the cold: molecular analyses of insect cryoprotective dehydration in the Arctic springtail Megaphorura arctica (Tullberg  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Insects provide tractable models for enhancing our understanding of the physiological and cellular processes that enable survival at extreme low temperatures. They possess three main strategies to survive the cold: freeze tolerance, freeze avoidance or cryoprotective dehydration, of which the latter method is exploited by our model species, the Arctic springtail Megaphorura arctica, formerly Onychiurus arcticus (Tullberg 1876. The physiological mechanisms underlying cryoprotective dehydration have been well characterised in M. arctica and to date this process has been described in only a few other species: the Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi, an enchytraied worm, the larvae of the Antarctic midge Belgica antarctica and the cocoons of the earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra. There are no in-depth molecular studies on the underlying cold survival mechanisms in any species. Results A cDNA microarray was generated using 6,912 M. arctica clones printed in duplicate. Analysis of clones up-regulated during dehydration procedures (using both cold- and salt-induced dehydration has identified a number of significant cellular processes, namely the production and mobilisation of trehalose, protection of cellular systems via small heat shock proteins and tissue/cellular remodelling during the dehydration process. Energy production, initiation of protein translation and cell division, plus potential tissue repair processes dominate genes identified during recovery. Heat map analysis identified a duplication of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS gene in M. arctica and also 53 clones co-regulated with TPS, including a number of membrane associated and cell signalling proteins. Q-PCR on selected candidate genes has also contributed to our understanding with glutathione-S-transferase identified as the major antioxdidant enzyme protecting the cells during these stressful procedures, and a number of protein kinase signalling molecules involved in recovery. Conclusion Microarray analysis has proved to be a powerful technique for understanding the processes and genes involved in cryoprotective dehydration, beyond the few candidate genes identified in the current literature. Dehydration is associated with the mobilisation of trehalose, cell protection and tissue remodelling. Energy production, leading to protein production, and cell division characterise the recovery process. Novel membrane proteins, along with aquaporins and desaturases, have been identified as promising candidates for future functional analyses to better understand membrane remodelling during cellular dehydration.

Popovi? Željko D

2009-07-01

137

QTL mapping of freezing tolerance: links to fitness and adaptive trade-offs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Local adaptation, defined as higher fitness of local vs. nonlocal genotypes, is commonly identified in reciprocal transplant experiments. Reciprocally adapted populations display fitness trade-offs across environments, but little is known about the traits and genes underlying fitness trade-offs in reciprocally adapted populations. We investigated the genetic basis and adaptive significance of freezing tolerance using locally adapted populations of Arabidopsis thaliana from Italy and Sweden. Previous reciprocal transplant studies of these populations indicated that subfreezing temperature is a major selective agent in Sweden. We used quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping to identify the contribution of freezing tolerance to previously demonstrated local adaptation and genetic trade-offs. First, we compared the genomic locations of freezing tolerance QTL to those for previously published QTL for survival in Sweden, and overall fitness in the field. Then, we estimated the contributions to survival and fitness across both field sites of genotypes at locally adaptive freezing tolerance QTL. In growth chamber studies, we found seven QTL for freezing tolerance, and the Swedish genotype increased freezing tolerance for five of these QTL. Three of these colocalized with locally adaptive survival QTL in Sweden and with trade-off QTL for overall fitness. Two freezing tolerance QTL contribute to genetic trade-offs across environments for both survival and overall fitness. A major regulator of freezing tolerance, CBF2, is implicated as a candidate gene for one of the trade-off freezing tolerance QTL. Our study provides some of the first evidence of a trait and gene that mediate a fitness trade-off in nature. PMID:25039860

Oakley, Christopher G; Ågren, Jon; Atchison, Rachel A; Schemske, Douglas W

2014-09-01

138

Effects of anesthetic compounds on responses of earthworms to electrostimulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworms play an important role in biomedical research, and some surgical procedures require anesthesia. Anesthetic treatments used so far usually induce convulsive body movements connected with extrusion of coelomocyte-containing coelomic fluid that may affect experimental results. Extensive movements connected with the expulsion of coelomic fluid are exploited by immunologists as a method of harvesting immunocompetent coelomocytes from worms subjected to mild electrostimulation (4.5V). The aim of the investigations was to find anesthetic drugs without unintentional coelomocyte depletion. Experiments were performed on adult specimens of Dendrobaena veneta, the coelomocytes of which consist of amoebocytes and riboflavin-storing eleocytes. Earthworm mobility was filmed and extrusion of coelomocytes was quantified by detection of eleocyte-derived riboflavin in immersion fluid. Treatments included earthworms (1) immersed either in physiological saline (controls) or in a solution of one of the tested anesthetic drugs; (2) electrostimulated immediately after anesthesia, and (3) electrostimulated a second time after a 1-hour recovery period. The well-established fish and amphibian anesthetic agent MS-222 induced coelomocyte expulsion. In contrast, solutions of the mammalian local anesthetic drug, prilocaine hydrochloride (0.25-0.5%, 5-10 min) caused temporal earthworm immobilization followed by recovery, thus showing utility as an efficient earthworm anesthetic. PMID:25134346

Podolak-Machowska, Agnieszka; Kostecka, Joanna; Librowski, Tadeusz; Santocki, Michal; Bigaj, Janusz; Plytycz, Barbara

2014-01-01

139

Genotoxic effects of glyphosate or paraquat on earthworm coelomocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential genotoxicity (nuclear anomalies, damage to single-strand DNA) and pinocytic adherence activity of two (glyphosate-based and paraquat-based) commercial herbicides to earthworm coelomocytes (immune cells in the coelomic cavity) were assessed. Coelomocytes were extracted from earthworms (Pheretima peguana) exposed to concentrations glyphosate-based or paraquat-based herbicides on filter paper for 48 h. Three assays were performed: Micronucleus (light microscopy count of micronuclei, binuclei, and trinuclei), Comet (epifluorescent microscope and LUCIA image analyzer measure of tail DNA %, tail length, and tail moment), and Neutral Red (to detect phagocytic or pinocytic activity). The LC50 value for paraquat was 65-fold lower than for glyphosate indicating that paraquat was far more acutely toxic to P. peguana. There were significant (P glyphosate at 25 × 10(-1) (10(-3) LC50) and paraquat at 39 × 10(-5) (10(-4) LC50) ?g cm(-2) filter paper. In earthworms exposed to glyphosate, no differences in tail DNA%, tail length, and tail moment of coelomocytes were detected. In contrast, for paraquat at 10(-1) LC50 concentration, there were significant (P glyphosate or paraquat at 10(-3) LC50 concentration. This study showed that, at concentrations well below field application rates, paraquat induces both clastogenic and aneugenic effects on earthworm coelomocytes whereas glyphosate causes only aneugenic effects and therefore does not pose a risk of gene mutation in this earthworm. PMID:22644885

Muangphra, Ptumporn; Kwankua, Wimon; Gooneratne, Ravi

2014-06-01

140

Gene expression analysis of CL-20-induced reversible neurotoxicity reveals GABA(A) receptors as potential targets in the earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

Science.gov (United States)

The earthworm Eisenia fetida is one of the most used species in standardized soil ecotoxicity tests. End points such as survival, growth, and reproduction are eco-toxicologically relevant but provide little mechanistic insight into toxicity pathways, especially at the molecular level. Here we apply a toxicogenomic approach to investigate the mode of action underlying the reversible neurotoxicity of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), a cyclic nitroamine explosives compound. We developed an E. fetida-specific shotgun microarray targeting 15119 unique E. fetida transcripts. Using this array we profiled gene expression in E. fetida in response to exposure to CL-20. Eighteen earthworms were exposed for 6 days to 0.2 ?g/cm(2) of CL-20 on filter paper, half of which were allowed to recover in a clean environment for 7 days. Nine vehicle control earthworms were sacrificed at days 6 and 13, separately. Electrophysiological measurements indicated that the conduction velocity of earthworm medial giant nerve fiber decreased significantly after 6-day exposure to CL-20, but was restored after 7 days of recovery. Total RNA was isolated from the four treatment groups including 6-day control, 6-day exposed, 13-day control, and 13-day exposed (i.e., 6-day exposure followed by 7-day recovery), and was hybridized to the 15K shotgun oligo array. Statistical and bioinformatic analyses suggest that CL-20 initiated neurotoxicity by noncompetitively blocking the ligand-gated GABA(A) receptor ion channel, leading to altered expression of genes involved in GABAergic, cholinergic, and Agrin-MuSK pathways. In the recovery phase, expression of affected genes returned to normality, possibly as a result of autophagy and CL-20 dissociation/metabolism. This study provides significant insights into potential mechanisms of CL-20-induced neurotoxicity and the recovery of earthworms from transient neurotoxicity stress. PMID:22191394

Gong, Ping; Guan, Xin; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Liang, Chun; Perkins, Edward J

2012-01-17

141

TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ENGINEERED NANOPARTICLES ON EARTHWORMS (LUMBRICUS RUBELLUS IN SHORT EXPOSURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs types diffused into the environment are increasing, giving potential damages to terrestrial ecosystems. In this work we investigated the nanoparticles toxicity as pure metal and two oxides (Co, SnO2 and CeO2 on earthworm survival (Lumbricus rubellus. A concentration of 5000 mg kg-1 dry soil of each NP was compared to the chronic dose of 10 mg kg-1. The interaction between NPs and soil microbial biomass was also studied in 7 days length incubation. No mortality was observed at the end of the experiment, but high concentration of Co was found in the 5000 kg-1 dry soil treated. Despite low solubility of all NPs (solid-liquid partition coefficient > 2.8 log l kg-1 pure metal NPs were (Co more soluble than the metal oxides nanoparticles (SnO2 and CeO2.

Livia Vittori Antisari

2012-07-01

142

Interactions between residue placement and earthworm ecological strategy affect aggregate turnover and N2O dynamics in agricultural soil  

OpenAIRE

Previous laboratory studies using epigeic and anecic earthworms have shown that earthworm activity can considerably increase nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from crop residues in soils. However, the universality of this effect across earthworm functional groups and its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The aims of this study were (i) to determine whether earthworms with an endogeic strategy also affect N2O emissions; (ii) to quantify possible interactions with epigeic earthworms; and (iii) ...

Giannopoulos, G.; Pulleman, M. M.; Groenigen, J. W.

2010-01-01

143

Combined effects of oxytetracycline and Pb on earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

Science.gov (United States)

Combined effects of oxytetracycline (OTC) and Pb on lysosomal membrane stability and coelomocyte apoptosis of earthworm were studied in the paper. Compared with control, the lysosomal membrane stability decreased and coelomocyte apoptosis increased in the treatments of single OTC and Pb contamination. As for compound pollution, combined effect of (5 mg/kg OTC+50 mg/kg Pb) treatment on earthworm lysosomal was synergistic (except 28 d). However, it was antagonistic at higher concentration of (10 mg/kg OTC+50 mg/kg Pb) and (20 mg/kg OTC+50 mg/kg Pb) treatment. In addition, coelomocyte apoptosis of earthworm decreased significantly compared with single OTC, indicating an antagonistic reaction. And joint toxicity of OTC and Pb decreased significantly with the increasing OTC concentration. PMID:24607684

Gao, Minling; Zhou, Qian; Song, Wenhua; Ma, Xiaojun

2014-03-01

144

FREEZE DRYING PROCESS: A REVIEW  

OpenAIRE

Among the various methods of drying, this article has mentioned only one most important method, “Freeze drying”. This method is mainly used for the drying of thermo labile materials. This method works on the principle of sublimation. This method is divided into 3 steps for its better understanding; these are Freezing, Primary drying, and secondary drying. There are many advantages and disadvantages of this method, but still this is the most useful drying method nowadays.

Soham Shukla

2011-01-01

145

FREEZE DRYING PROCESS: A REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among the various methods of drying, this article has mentioned only one most important method, “Freeze drying”. This method is mainly used for the drying of thermo labile materials. This method works on the principle of sublimation. This method is divided into 3 steps for its better understanding; these are Freezing, Primary drying, and secondary drying. There are many advantages and disadvantages of this method, but still this is the most useful drying method nowadays.

Soham Shukla

2011-12-01

146

Comparative toxicity of chemicals to earthworms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concentration-response (mortality) relationships of four species of earthworms, Eisenia fetida (Savigny), Allolobophora tuberculata (Eisen), Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg), and Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) are summarized for 62 chemicals and two test protocols. A Weibull function is used to summarize these data for each chemical in terms of sensitivity and toxicity, in addition to the LC50. The estimation of the Weibull parameters a and k summarize the entire concentration-response relationship. This technique should be applicable to a variety of testing protocols with different species whenever the goal is summarizing the shape of the concentration-response curves to fully evaluate chemical impact on organisms. In some cases for these data four orders of magnitude separate LC50s of the soil test and the contact test for the same chemical and species. All four species appear to be similar in range of toxicity and tolerance to these chemicals, suggesting that Eisenia fetida and may be representative of these four species and these chemicals.

Callahan, C.A.; Shirazi, M.A. (Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States)); Neuhauser, E.F. (Niagara Mohawk Power Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States))

1994-02-01

147

Earthworm bioturbation influences the phytoavailability of metals released by particles in cultivated soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of earthworm activity on soil-to-plant metal transfer was studied by carrying out six weeks mesocosms experiments with or without lettuce and/or earthworms in soil with a gradient of metal concentrations due to particles fallouts. Soil characteristics, metal concentrations in lettuce and earthworms were measured and soil porosity in the mesocosms was determined. Earthworms increased the soil pH, macroporosity and soil organic matter content due to the burying of wheat straw provided as food. Earthworm activities increased the metals concentrations in lettuce leaves. Pb and Cd concentrations in lettuce leaves can increase up to 46% with earthworm activities … These results and the low correlation between estimated by CaCl2 and EDTA and measured pollutant phytoavailability suggest that earthworm bioturbation was the main cause of the increase. Bioturbation could affect the proximity of pollutants to the roots and soil organic matter. PMID:24858803

Leveque, Thibaut; Capowiez, Yvan; Schreck, Eva; Xiong, Tiantian; Foucault, Yann; Dumat, Camille

2014-08-01

148

Ecological transfer of radionuclides and metals to free-living earthworm species in natural habitats rich in NORM.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transfer of radionuclides ((232)Th and (238)U) and associated metals (As, Cd, Pb and Cr) from soil to free-living earthworm species was investigated in a thorium ((232)Th) rich area in Norway. Sampling took place within former mining sites representing the technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM), at undisturbed site with unique bedrock geology representing the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and at site outside the (232)Th rich area taken as reference Background site. Soil analysis revealed the elevated levels of investigated elements at NORM and TENORM sites. Based on sequential extraction, uranium ((238)U) and cadmium (Cd) were quite mobile, while the other elements were strongly associated with mineral components of soil. Four investigated earthworm species (Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Dendrodrilus rubidus and Lumbricus rubellus) showed large individual variability in the accumulation of radionuclides and metals. Differences in uptake by epigeic and endogeic species, as well as differences within same species from the NORM, TENORM and Background sites were also seen. Based on total concentrations in soil, the transfer factors (TF) were in ranges 0.03-0.08 and 0.09-0.25, for (232)Th and (238)U, respectively. TFs for lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) were low (less than 0.5), while TFs for Cd were higher (about 10). Using the ERICA tool, the estimated radiation exposure dose rate of the earthworms ranged from 2.2 to 3.9 ?Gy/h. The radiological risk for investigated earthworms was low (0.28). The obtained results demonstrated that free-living earthworm species can survive in soil containing elevated (232)Th and (238)U, as well As, Cd, Pb and Cr levels, although certain amount of radionuclides was accumulated within their bodies. The present investigation contributes to general better understanding of complex soil-to-biota transfer processes of radionuclides and metals and to assessment of risk for non-human species in the ecosystem with multiple contaminants. PMID:22115612

Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena; Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis

2012-01-01

149

Surviving the cold: molecular analyses of insect cryoprotective dehydration in the Arctic springtail Megaphorura arctica (Tullberg)  

OpenAIRE

Background: Insects provide tractable models for enhancing our understanding of the physiological and cellular processes that enable survival at extreme low temperatures. They possess three main strategies to survive the cold: freeze tolerance, freeze avoidance or cryoprotective dehydration, of which the latter method is exploited by our model species, the Arctic springtail Megaphorura arctica, formerly Onychiurus arcticus (Tullberg 1876). The physiological mechanisms underlying cryoprotectiv...

Clark, Melody S.; Thorne, Michael A. S.; Purac?, Jelena; Burns, Gavin; Hillyard, Guy; Popovic?, Z?eljko D.; Grubor-lajs?ic?, Gordana; Worland, Michael Roger

2009-01-01

150

Recrystallization in a Freezing Tolerant Antarctic Nematode, Panagrolaimus davidi, and a Alpine Weta, Hemideina maori (Orthoptera; Stenopelmatidae)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The ability of haemolymph from the freezing tolerant weta,Hemideina maori,and supernatant from homogenates of the freezing tolerant nematodePanagrolaimus davidito inhibit the recrystallization of ice was examined using the “splat freezing” technique and annealing on a cryomicroscope stage. There was no recrystallization inhibition in weta haemolymph or in insect ringer controls. Recrystallization inhibition was present in the nematode supernatant but this was destroyed by heating and was absent in controls.P. davidisurvives intracellular freezing and recrystallization inhibition may be important for the survival of this stress.

RamlØv, Hans; Wharton, David A.

1996-01-01

151

Viability of Bifidobacterium Pseudocatenulatum G4 after Spray-Drying and Freeze-Drying  

OpenAIRE

Viability of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 following spray-drying and freeze-drying in skim milk was evaluated. After spray-drying, the strain experienced over 99% loss in viability regardless of the air outlet temperature (75 and 85 °C) and the heat-adaptation temperature (45 and 65 °C, 30 min). The use of heat-adaptation treatment to improve the thermotolerance of this strain was ineffective. On the other hand, the strain showed a superior survival at 71.65%–82.07% after freeze-d...

Stephenie Wong; Barka Mohammed Kabeir; Shuhaimi Mustafa; Rosfarizan Mohamad; Anis Shobirin Meor Hussin; Mohd Yazid Manap

2010-01-01

152

Mode of action of the COR15a gene on the freezing tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana  

OpenAIRE

Constitutive expression of the cold-regulated COR15a gene of Arabidopsis thaliana results in a significant increase in the survival of isolated protoplasts frozen over the range of ?4.5 to ?7°C. The increased freezing tolerance is the result of a decreased incidence of freeze-induced lamellar-to-hexagonal II phase transitions that occur in regions where the plasma membrane is brought into close apposition with the chloroplast envelope as a result of freeze-induced dehydration. Moreover, ...

Steponkus, Peter L.; Uemura, Matsuo; Joseph, Raymond A.; Gilmour, Sarah J.; Thomashow, Michael F.

1998-01-01

153

Wood frog adaptations to overwintering in Alaska: new limits to freezing tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the ecological physiology and behavior of free-living wood frogs [Lithobates (Rana) sylvaticus] overwintering in Interior Alaska by tracking animals into natural hibernacula, recording microclimate, and determining frog survival in spring. We measured cryoprotectant (glucose) concentrations and identified the presence of antifreeze glycolipids in tissues from subsamples of naturally freezing frogs. We also recorded the behavior of wood frogs preparing to freeze in artificial hibernacula, and tissue glucose concentrations in captive wood frogs frozen in the laboratory to -2.5°C. Wood frogs in natural hibernacula remained frozen for 193 ± 11 consecutive days and experienced average (October-May) temperatures of -6.3°C and average minimum temperatures of -14.6 ± 2.8°C (range -8.9 to -18.1°C) with 100% survival (N=18). Mean glucose concentrations were 13-fold higher in muscle, 10-fold higher in heart and 3.3-fold higher in liver in naturally freezing compared with laboratory frozen frogs. Antifreeze glycolipid was present in extracts from muscle and internal organs, but not skin, of frozen frogs. Wood frogs in Interior Alaska survive freezing to extreme limits and durations compared with those described in animals collected in southern Canada or the Midwestern United States. We hypothesize that this enhancement of freeze tolerance in Alaskan wood frogs is due to higher cryoprotectant levels that are produced by repeated freezing and thawing cycles experienced under natural conditions during early autumn. PMID:24737762

Larson, Don J; Middle, Luke; Vu, Henry; Zhang, Wenhui; Serianni, Anthony S; Duman, John; Barnes, Brian M

2014-06-15

154

Arsenic resistance and cycling in earthworms residing at a former gold mine in Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Earthworms (Lumbricus castaneous and Dendrodrilus rubidus), their host soils and leaf litter were collected from a former gold mine with widespread arsenic (As) contamination in Nova Scotia, Canada and determined for total and speciated As. Resistance to As toxicity was investigated by measurement of DNA damage in exposed earthworm populations using the comet assay. Arsenobetaine (AB) was observed at low concentration in the earthworms but not in the host soil or leaf litter. Several different organoarsenic species were observed in the leaf litter and only inorganic As was found in the host soils. The results suggest that 1) adaptation to As toxicity in earthworms is widespread and not particular to a single species, 2) AB originates in the earthworm and not the consumed soil or leaf litter and 3) as previously hypothesised (), biotransformation of inorganic As to AB is not likely involved in the adaptation. - Highlights: ? Adaptation to toxicity and cycling of arsenic in earthworms investigated at Canadian gold mine. ? Earthworms resistant to highly contaminated, genotoxic soils. ? Arsenobetaine present in earthworms but not soil or leaf litter. ? Arsenic resistance in earthworms is widespread and not species specific. - Adaptation of earthworms to arsenic contaminated soils is widespread and not species specific.

155

Earthworm's immunity in the nanomaterial world: new room, future challenges  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Since the advent of the nanotechnology era, the environmental sink has been continuously receiving engineered nanomaterials as well as their derivatives. Our current understanding of the potential impact of nanomaterials on invertebrate immunity is limited to only a handful of initial studies including those on earthworms. Recently, we reported selective accumulation of silver nanoparticles in the amoebocyte population of Eisenia fetida coelomocytes in vitro. In this review, we give an overview of available literature on the life-history impacts on earthworms, and what we have learnt of the immune responses to nanoparticles with references to other invertebrate species and vertebrate counterparts. We discuss the significant contribution of amoebocytes as nanoparticle scavengers and suggest a possibility of studying inter-cellular communications in coelomocytes. Implications from the leading researches in vertebrate models tell us that study of the nanoparticle recognition involved in cellular uptake as well as sub- and inter-cellular events may uncover further intriguing insights into earthworm’s immunity in the nanomaterial world.

Hayashi, Yuya; Engelmann, Péter

2013-01-01

156

Earthworm toxicity during chemical oxidation of diesel-contaminated sand.  

Science.gov (United States)

An ecotoxicity test with Eisenia fetida was performed to monitor the removal of diesel and toxicity variation during the ozonation process. The three-dimensional (3-D) cell test was introduced for the monitoring of the ozonation process, and the removal rate based on total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) mass was about 95% near the ozone inlet ports. This high removal rate might be caused by the low soil organic matter (SOM) content and low water content of sand. The use of a fiber-optic transflection dip probe (FOTDP) demonstrated that more than half of the injected ozone was consumed by reactions with diesel or natural ozone-consuming materials. The earthworm toxicity test using Eisenia fetida demonstrated that diesel concentrations in soil exceeding 10,000 mg/kg caused a dose-dependent weight loss in earthworms and increased mortality. Toxic effects were reduced greatly or eliminated after ozonation, and the degradation products of the ozonation were not toxic to the earthworms at the concentrations tested. One specific result was that the sublethal test on the earthworm might be more sensitive for the evaluation of the quality of contaminated soil, for some samples, which did not result in mortality and produced an adverse effect on weight. PMID:16152963

Shin, Kyung-Hee; Jung, Haeryong; Chang, Peichun; Choi, Heechul; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

2005-08-01

157

TOXICITY OF METALS TO THE EARTHWORM 'EISENIA FETIDA'  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of methods to measure the effect of man's residuals on soil ecosystems is desirable. Earthworms, as one of the largest and most easily obtained components of the soil biota, are suitable for evaluating perturbations to soil ecosystems. The impact of five metals (Cd, C...

158

Freezing singularities in water drops  

CERN Document Server

In this fluid dynamics video we show how a drop of water freezes into a singular shape when deposited on a cold surface. The process of solidification can be observed very clearly due to the change in refraction when water turns into ice. The drop remains approximately spherical during most of the process, with a freezing front moving upwards and smoothly following the interface. However, at the final stage of freezing, when the last cap of liquid turns into ice, a singular tip develops spontaneously. Interestingly, the sharp tip of the ice drop acts as a preferential site for deposition of water vapour, and a beautiful "tree" of ice crystals develops right at the tip. The tip singularity attracts the vapour in analogy to a sharp lightning rod attracting lightning.

Enriquez, Oscar R; Winkels, Koen G; Snoeijer, Jacco H

2011-01-01

159

Freeze Protection in Gas Holders  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In cold weather, the water seals of gasholders need protection from freez- ing to avoid compromising the seal. These holders have a large reservoir of “tank water” at the base which is below ground. At present freeze- protection is achieved by external heating of the seal water which is in a slotted channel called a cup. Electrical heating or circulation of heated tank water to the cup are examples of systems presently used. The tank water has a large thermal capacity and National Grid wishes to inves- tigate whether circulation of the tank water without external heating could provide su?cient energy input to avoid freezing. Only tanks in which the tank water is below ground are investigated in the report. The soil temperature under the reservoir at depth of 10m and lower is almost constant.

Hjorth, Poul G.; Duursma, Gail

2008-01-01

160

[Chemical composition of earthworm (Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus rubellus) silages].  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus rubellus) were ensiled with ground sorghum and molasses in the following proportions: 1) 60% earthworms, 40% sorghum; 2) 60% earthworms, 40% sorghum, adjusting pH to 4.0 with HCl; 3) 60% earthworms, 20% sorghum, 20% molasses; 4) 60% earthworms, 20% sorghum, 20% molasses, adjusting pH to 4.0 with HCl. These mixtures were allowed to ferment for 15 days at 18 degrees C. pH, proximate chemical analyses, digestible protein, true protein, ammonia nitrogen, acetic, propionic and butyric acid, lactic acid and gross energy were analyzed in the ensiled mixtures. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and orthogonal contrasts. No differences (P > 0.0001) were found in the percentage of moisture, ether extract, crude fiber and crude protein (52.22, 2.96, 1.15, 22.00, 51.76, 3.48, 1.28, 20.17; 53.89, 3.23, 0.95, 20.63; 54.87, 2.99, 1.03, 21.14, for treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively). Neither there was any difference (P > 0.0001) for true protein and gross energy (7.57, 4.37; 6.92, 4.41; 5.45, 4.37; 6.38, 4.30, for treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively). Ash content (P molasses (3.80, 70.09; 3.60, 71.47; 6.08, 69.11; 6.63, 68.21, for treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively). Digestible protein was also different (P ensiling, adding a source of carbohydrates, such as sorghum or molasses. Not being necessary the addition of acids to have an adequate fermentation. PMID:9429616

Ortega Cerrilla, M E; Reyes Ortigoza, A L; Mendoza Martínez, G

1996-12-01

161

Earthworm ecotoxicological assessments of pesticides used to treat seeds under tropical conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecotoxicological laboratory tests (lower-tier tests) are fundamental tools for assessing the toxicity of pesticides to soil organisms. In this study, using these tests under tropical conditions, we quantified the impact of the insecticides imidacloprid, fipronil, and thiametoxam, and the fungicides captan and carboxin+thiram, all of which are used in the chemical treatment of crop seeds, on the survival, reproduction, and behavior of Eisenia andrei (Oligochaeta). With the exception of imidacloprid, none of the pesticides tested caused mortality in E. andrei in artificial soils. The LC(50) of imidacloprid was estimated as 25.53 mg active ingredient kg(-1) of dry soil. Earthworm reproduction rates were reduced by imidacloprid (EC(50)=4.07 mgkg(-1)), fipronil (EC(20)=23.16 mgkg(-1)), carboxin+thiram (EC(50)=56.38 mgkg(-1)), captan (EC(50)=334.84 mgkg(-1)), and thiametoxam (EC(50)=791.99 mgkg(-1)). Avoidance behavior was observed in the presence of imidacloprid (AC(50)=0.11 mgkg(-1)), captan (AC(50)=33.54 mgkg(-1)), carboxin+thiram (AC(50)=60.32 mgkg(-1)), and thiametoxam (AC(50)=>20 mgkg(-1)). Earthworms showed a preference for soils with the insecticide fipronil. Imidacloprid was the most toxic of the substances tested for E. andrei. The avoidance test was the most sensitive test for most pesticides studied, but results varied between pesticides. These results offer new insights on the toxicity of pesticides used to treat seeds in tropical regions. However, they should be complemented with higher-tier tests in order to reduce the uncertainties in risk assessment. PMID:23261124

Alves, Paulo Roger L; Cardoso, Elke J B N; Martines, Alexandre M; Sousa, José Paulo; Pasini, Amarildo

2013-03-01

162

Potential utilization of bagasse as feed material for earthworm Eisenia fetida and production of vermicompost.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present work bagasse (B) i.e waste of the sugar industry, was fed to Eisenia fetida with cattle dung (CD) support as feed material at various ratios (waste: CD) of 0:100 (B0), 25:75 (B25), 50:50 (B50), 75:25 (B75) and 100:0 (B100) on dry weight basis. Co-composting with cattle dung helped to improve their acceptability for E. fetida and also improved physico-chemical characteristics. Best appropriate ratio for survival, maximum growth and population buildup of E. fetida was determined by observing population buildup, growth rate, biomass, mortality and cocoon formation. Minimum mortality and highest population size of worms was observed in 50:50 (B50) ratio. Increasing concentrations of wastes significantly affected the growth and reproduction of worms. Nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and sodium increased from pre-vermicompost to post-vermicompost, while organic carbon, and C:N ratio decreased in all the end products of post-vermicomposting. Heavy metals decreased significantly from initial except zinc, iron and manganese which increased significantly. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to recognize the changes in texture in the pre and post-vermicomposted samples. The post-vermicomposted ratios in the presence of earthworms validate more surface changes that prove to be good manure. The results observed from the present study indicated that the earthworm E. fetida was able to change bagasse waste into nutrient-rich manure and thus play a major role in industrial waste management. PMID:25625035

Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

2015-01-01

163

Effects of low voltage electrolysis and freezing on coliform content of contaminated water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A sewage sample was mixed with drinking water and subjected to low voltage (15V) electrolysis in the presence of 1% NaCl. The prepared sample was also kept in freezer with and without the presence of sodium chloride for 4-hours. Among these treatments the electrolysis proved to kill the coliforms, while the freezing reduced the bacterial content. Antibiotics sensitivity patterns revealed that certain of the coliform strains survived the freezing and thawing shocks. Nature of such surviving bacteria and need to study chemical parameters of electrolyzed water are discussed. (author)

164

Heavy Metals Bioaccumulation by Iranian and Australian Earthworms (Eisenia fetida in the Sewage Sludge Vermicomposting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vermicomposting of organic waste has an important part to play in an integrated waste management strategy. In this study, the possibility of heavy metals accumulation with two groups of Iranian and Australian earthworms in sewage sludge vermicompost was investigated. Eisenia fetida was the species of earthworms used in the vermicomposting process. The bioaccumulation of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn as heavy metals by Iranian and Australian earthworms was studied. The results indicated that heavy metals concentration decreased with increasing vermicomposting time. Comparison of the two groups of earthworms showed that the Iranian earthworms consumed higher quantities of micronutrients such as Cu and Zn comparing with the Australian earthworms, while the bioaccumulation of non-essential elements such as Cr, Cd, and Pb by the Australian group was higher. The significant decrease in heavy metal concentrations in the final vermicompost indicated the capability of both Iranian and Australian E.fetida species in accumulating heavy metals in their body tissues.

MR Shahmansouri, H Pourmoghadas, AR Parvaresh, H Alidadi

2005-01-01

165

Earthworm responses to Cd and Cu under fluctuating environmental conditions: a comparison with results from laboratory exposures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laboratory toxicity tests are usually conducted under stable ambient conditions, while exposures in ecosystems occur in a fluctuating climate. To assess how climate influences the toxicity of Cu and Cd for the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus, this study compared effects for life-cycle parameters (survival, reproduction), cellular status (lysosomal membrane stability), gene expression (transcript of the metal binding protein metallothionein-2) and tissue metal concentration measured under outdoor conditions, with the same responses under constant conditions as measured by Spurgeon et al. [Spurgeon, D.J., Svendsen, C., Weeks, J.M., Hankard, P.K., Stubberud, H.E., Kammenga, J.E., 2003. Quantifying copper and cadmium impacts on intrinsic rate of population increase in the terrestrial oligochaete Lumbricus rubellus. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22, 1465-1472]. Both metals were found to significantly influence earthworm reproduction, compromise lysosomal membrane stability and induce MT-2 gene expression in the outdoor system. Comparison with physiological and life-cycle responses in the laboratory indicated similar response patterns and effect concentrations for Cu. For Cd, lysosomal membrane stability and MT-2expression showed comparable responses in both exposures. Juvenile production rate, however, gave different dose response relationships, with the EC-50 in the outdoor test approximately half that in the laboratory test. A difference in Cd accumulatiratory test. A difference in Cd accumulation was also seen. Overall, however, the comparison indicated only a marginal effect of environmental fluctuations typical for northern temperate Europe on earthworm sensitivity to the two metals. - Comparative analysis of life-cycle, physiological and molecular responses to Cu and Cd indicate similar responses under static and fluctuating climate regimes

166

Earthworm and belowground competition effects on plant productivity in a plant diversity gradient  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Diversity is one major factor driving plant productivity in temperate grasslands. Although decomposers like earthworms are known to affect plant productivity, interacting effects of plant diversity and earthworms on plant productivity have been neglected in field studies. We investigated in the field the effects of earthworms on plant productivity, their interaction with plant species and functional group richness, and their effects on belowground plant competition. In the f...

Eisenhauer, Nico; Milcu, Alexandru; Nitschke, Norma; Sabais, Alexander C. W.; Scherber, Christoph; Scheu, Stefan

2009-01-01

167

Earthworms Dilong: Ancient, Inexpensive, Noncontroversial Models May Help Clarify Approaches to Integrated Medicine Emphasizing Neuroimmune Systems  

OpenAIRE

Earthworms have provided ancient cultures with food and sources of medicinal cures. Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and practices in Japan, Vietnam, and Korea have focused first on earthworms as sources of food. Gradually fostering an approach to potential beneficial healing properties, there are renewed efforts through bioprospecting and evidence-based research to understand by means of rigorous investigations the mechanisms of action whether earthworms are used as food and/or ...

Cooper, Edwin L.; Mariappan Balamurugan; Chih-Yang Huang; Tsao, Clara R.; Jesus Heredia; Mila Tommaseo-Ponzetta; Paoletti, Maurizio G.

2012-01-01

168

Soil Organic Matter Particle and Presence of Earthworm Under Different Tillage Systems  

OpenAIRE

The objective of the present research was to study the particle of organic matter and the presence of earthworm under conservation and traditional tillage during winter and spring seasons. The sampling site was experimental field of FIRA in Villadiego, Guanajuato. The soil and earthworm sampling was carried out in monoliths of 25x25x30 cm (sidexsidexdepth), dividing the depth into strata: 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm. An earthworm species was identified namely Phoenicodrilus taste un...

Hortensia Brito-Vega; David Espinosa-Victoria; Carlos Fragoso; Daniel Mendoza; Nancy De la Cruz Landero; Angel Alderete-Chavez

2009-01-01

169

The freeze-thaw stress response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is growth phase specific and is controlled by nutritional state via the RAS-cyclic AMP signal transduction pathway.  

OpenAIRE

The ability of cells to survive freezing and thawing is expected to depend on the physiological conditions experienced prior to freezing. We examined factors affecting yeast cell survival during freeze-thaw stress, including those associated with growth phase, requirement for mitochondrial functions, and prior stress treatment(s), and the role played by relevant signal transduction pathways. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was frozen at -20 degrees C for 2 h (cooling rate, less than 4 degr...

Park, J. I.; Grant, C. M.; Attfield, P. V.; Dawes, I. W.

1997-01-01

170

Stabilization of freeze dried protein formulations  

OpenAIRE

The broad objective of this study was to gain a better understanding of the effects of formulation and processing conditions on integrity of proteins after freeze drying and the stabilization of freeze dried protein products during long term storage. Catalase, $\\beta$-galactosidase, and lactate dehydrogenase were chosen as model proteins. In the absence of protective solutes, all three proteins exhibited a concentration dependent loss of activity after freezing and freeze drying, with signifi...

Jiang, Shan

1998-01-01

171

Heavy Metal-Induced Oxidative DNA Damage in Earthworms: A Review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Earthworms can be used as a bio-indicator of metal contamination in soil, Earlier reports claimed the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in earthworm tissues, while the metal-induced mutagenicity reared in contaminated soils for long duration. But we examined the metal-induced mutagenicity in earthworms reared in metal containing culture bedding. In this experiment we observed the generation of 8-oxo guanine (8-oxo-Gua) in earthworms exposed to cadmium and nickel in soil. 8-oxo-Gua is a major pre mutagenic form of oxidative DNA damage that induces GC-to-TA point mutations, leading to carcinogenesis.

172

Accumulation of mercury and methylmercury by mushrooms and earthworms from forest soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accumulation of total and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms was studied in thirty-four natural forest soils strongly varying in soil physico-chemical characteristics. Tissue Hg concentrations of both receptors did hardly correlate with Hg concentrations in soil. Both total and methyl-Hg concentrations in tissues were species-specific and dependent on the ecological groups of receptor. Methyl-Hg was low accounting for less than 5 and 8% of total Hg in tissues of mushrooms and earthworms, respectively, but with four times higher concentrations in earthworms than mushrooms. Total Hg concentrations in mushrooms averaged 0.96 mg Hg kg-1 dw whereas litter decomposing mushrooms showed highest total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations. Earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations (1.04 mg Hg kg-1 dw) whereas endogeic earthworms accumulated highest amounts of Hg and methyl-Hg. - Highlights: ? Hg and MeHg concentrations in mushrooms and earthworms at unpolluted forest soils. ? Mushrooms and earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations. ? MeHg was present in traces but four times higher in earthworms than in mushrooms. ? Ecophysiological group influenced Hg and MeHg concentration in both receptors. - Accumulation of Hg and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms is species- and ecophysiological group dependent.

173

Accumulation of mercury and methylmercury by mushrooms and earthworms from forest soils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accumulation of total and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms was studied in thirty-four natural forest soils strongly varying in soil physico-chemical characteristics. Tissue Hg concentrations of both receptors did hardly correlate with Hg concentrations in soil. Both total and methyl-Hg concentrations in tissues were species-specific and dependent on the ecological groups of receptor. Methyl-Hg was low accounting for less than 5 and 8% of total Hg in tissues of mushrooms and earthworms, respectively, but with four times higher concentrations in earthworms than mushrooms. Total Hg concentrations in mushrooms averaged 0.96 mg Hg kg{sup -1} dw whereas litter decomposing mushrooms showed highest total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations. Earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations (1.04 mg Hg kg{sup -1} dw) whereas endogeic earthworms accumulated highest amounts of Hg and methyl-Hg. - Highlights: > Hg and MeHg concentrations in mushrooms and earthworms at unpolluted forest soils. > Mushrooms and earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations. > MeHg was present in traces but four times higher in earthworms than in mushrooms. > Ecophysiological group influenced Hg and MeHg concentration in both receptors. - Accumulation of Hg and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms is species- and ecophysiological group dependent.

Rieder, Stephan R. [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Institute for Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zuerich, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Brunner, Ivano [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Horvat, Milena [Jozef Stefan Institute, 1001 Ljubliana (Slovenia); Jacobs, Anna [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Department of Environmental Chemistry, University of Kassel, 37213 Witzenhausen (Germany); Frey, Beat, E-mail: beat.frey@wsl.ch [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

2011-10-15

174

Effect of temperature and season on reproduction, neutral red retention and metallothionein responses of earthworms exposed to metals in field soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study investigated the short-term survival, reproduction and physiological (lysosomal membrane stability, metallothionein transcript copy number, body tissue metal concentrations) responses of Lumbricus rubellus exposed to metal contaminated field soils under different laboratory temperatures (10, 15 and 20 oC) and physiological responses of earthworms collected from the field in three different seasons (spring, autumn, winter). In the laboratory, metal contaminated soils had significant effects on reproduction (p < 0.001), metallothionein-2 (MT-2) expression (p = 0.033) and earthworm As (p = 0.003), Cd (p = 0.001), Pb (p < 0.001) and Zn (p < 0.001) concentration, but not lysosomal membrane stability and tissue Hg and Cu. No effect of temperature was found for any parameter. Principal component analysis of extractable and tissue metal concentrations indicated PC1 as a measure of metal stress. Both cocoon production (r = - 0.75) and MT-2 induction (r = 0.41) were correlated with PC1. A correlation was also found between cocoon production and MT-2 expression (r = - 0.41). Neutral red retention and MT-2 measurements in worms collected from the field sites in three seasons confirmed the absence of a temperature effect on these responses. - Laboratory and field studies demonstrate metal effects on earthworm life-cycle and biochemical responses are not influenced by temperature regime

175

A case study on stress preconditioning of a Lactobacillus strain prior to freeze-drying.  

Science.gov (United States)

Freeze-drying of bacterial cells with retained viability and activity after storage requires appropriate formulation, i.e. mixing of physiologically adapted cell populations with suitable protective agents, and control of the freeze-drying process. Product manufacturing may alter the clinical effects of probiotics and it is essential to identify and understand possible factor co-dependencies during manufacturing. The physical solid-state behavior of the formulation and the freeze-drying parameters are critical for bacterial survival and thus process optimization is important, independent of strain. However, the maximum yield achievable is also strain-specific and strain survival is governed by e.g. medium, cell type, physiological state, excipients used, and process. The use of preferred compatible solutes for cross-protection of Lactobacilli during industrial manufacturing may be a natural step to introduce robustness, but knowledge is lacking on how compatible solutes, such as betaine, influence formulation properties and cell survival. This study characterized betaine formulations, with and without sucrose, and tested these with the model lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus coryniformis Si3. Betaine alone did not act as a lyo-protectant and thus betaine import prior to freeze-drying should be avoided. Differences in protective agents were analyzed by calorimetry, which proved to be a suitable tool for evaluating the characteristics of the freeze-dried end products. PMID:22266474

Bergenholtz, Åsa Schoug; Wessman, Per; Wuttke, Anne; Håkansson, Sebastian

2012-06-01

176

Soil Aggregate Stability in the Presence of Earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) and Different Organic Materials in a Calcareous Soil  

OpenAIRE

Although the crucial function of earthworms in improvement of soil physical properties is well -know, but very little is known of the interactive influence of earthworms and organic materials on soil properties such as soil aggregate stability, particularly in arid and semi-arid soils. The low organic matter content and the significant role of earthworms in improving physical properties of arid and semi-arid soils necessitate studying the interactive effects of organic materials and earthworm...

Moosavi, F. S.; Raiesi, F.

2011-01-01

177

Using flow cytometry to measure phagocytic uptake in earthworms.  

Science.gov (United States)

This laboratory module familiarizes students with flow cytometry while acquiring quantitative reasoning skills during data analysis. Leukocytes, also known as coelomocytes (including hyaline and granular amoebocytes, and chloragocytes), from Eisenia hortensis (earthworms) are isolated from the coelomic cavity and used for phagocytosis of fluorescent Escherichia coli. Students learn how to set up in vitro cellular assays and become familiar with theoretical principles of flow cytometry. Histograms based on fluorescence and scatter properties combined with gating options permit students to restrict their analyses to particular subsets of coelomocytes when measuring phagocytosis, a fundamentally important innate immune mechanism used in earthworms. Statistical analysis of data is included in laboratory reports which serve as the primary assessment instrument. PMID:23653715

Fuller-Espie, Sheryl L

2010-01-01

178

Using Flow Cytometry to Measure Phagocytic Uptake in Earthworms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This laboratory module familiarizes students with flow cytometry while acquiring quantitative reasoning skills during data analysis. Leukocytes, also known as coelomocytes (including hyaline and granular amoebocytes, and chloragocytes, from Eisenia hortensis (earthworms are isolated from the coelomic cavity and used for phagocytosis of fluorescent Escherichia coli. Students learn how to set up in vitro cellular assays and become familiar with theoretical principles of flow cytometry. Histograms based on fluorescence and scatter properties combined with gating options permit students to restrict their analyses to particular subsets of coelomocytes when measuring phagocytosis, a fundamentally important innate immune mechanism used in earthworms. Statistical analysis of data is included in laboratory reports which serve as the primary assessment instrument.

Sheryl L. Fuller-Espie

2010-10-01

179

Using Flow Cytometry to Measure Phagocytic Uptake in Earthworms  

Science.gov (United States)

This laboratory module familiarizes students with flow cytometry while acquiring quantitative reasoning skills during data analysis. Leukocytes, also known as coelomocytes (including hyaline and granular amoebocytes, and chloragocytes), from Eisenia hortensis (earthworms) are isolated from the coelomic cavity and used for phagocytosis of fluorescent Escherichia coli. Students learn how to set up in vitro cellular assays and become familiar with theoretical principles of flow cytometry. Histograms based on fluorescence and scatter properties combined with gating options permit students to restrict their analyses to particular subsets of coelomocytes when measuring phagocytosis, a fundamentally important innate immune mechanism used in earthworms. Statistical analysis of data is included in laboratory reports which serve as the primary assessment instrument. PMID:23653715

Fuller-Espie, Sheryl L.

2010-01-01

180

Riboflavin content in autofluorescent earthworm coelomocytes is species-specific.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have recently shown that a large proproportion of earthworm coelomocytes exhibit strong autofluorescence in some species (Dendrobaena veneta, Allolobophora chlorotica, Dendrodrilus rubidus, Eisenia fetida, and Octolasion spp.), while autofluorescent coelomocytes are very scarce in representatives of Lumbricus spp. and Aporrectodea spp. Riboflavin (vitamin B2) was identified as a major fluorophore in Eisenia jetida coelomocytes. The main aim of the present experiments was to quantify riboflavin content in autofluorescent coelomocytes (eleocytes) from several earthworm species through a combination of flow cytometric and spectrofluorometric measurements. Spectrofluorometry of coelomocyte lysates showed that riboflavin was non-detectable in the coelomocytes of Aporrectodea spp. and Lumbricus spp., but was a prominent constituent of lysates from species with autofluorescent eleocytes. In the latter case, riboflavin content was the highest in E. fetida, followed by Octolasion spp. > A. chlorotica > D. rubidus. The riboflavin content of coelomocytes correlates positively with eleocyte autofluorescence intensity measured by flow cytometry and visible with fluorescence microscopy. PMID:17219722

P?ytycz, Barbara; Homa, Joanna; Kozio?, Beata; Rózanowska, Ma?gorzata; Morgan, A John

2006-01-01

181

Riboflavin content in autofluorescent earthworm coelomocytes is species-specific.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have recently shown that a large proproportion of earthworm coelomocytes exhibit strong autofluorescence in some species (Dendrobaena veneta, Allolobophora chlorotica, Dendrodrilus rubidus, Eisenia fetida, and Octolasion spp., while autofluorescent coelomocytes are very scarce in representatives of Lumbricus spp. and Aporrectodea spp. Riboflavin (vitamin B2 was identified as a major fluorophore in Eisenia jetida coelomocytes. The main aim of the present experiments was to quantify riboflavin content in autofluorescent coelomocytes (eleocytes from several earthworm species through a combination of flow cytometric and spectrofluorometric measurements. Spectrofluorometry of coelomocyte lysates showed that riboflavin was non-detectable in the coelomocytes of Aporrectodea spp. and Lumbricus spp., but was a prominent constituent of lysates from species with autofluorescent eleocytes. In the latter case, riboflavin content was the highest in E. fetida, followed by Octolasion spp. > A. chlorotica > D. rubidus. The riboflavin content of coelomocytes correlates positively with eleocyte autofluorescence intensity measured by flow cytometry and visible with fluorescence microscopy.

Joanna Homa

2007-01-01

182

Earthworms newly from Mongolia (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae, Eisenia)  

OpenAIRE

Two new megadrile earthworms from the steppes, the first species wholly from Outer Mongolia, are ascribed to the partially parthenogenetic Eisenia nordenskioldi (Eisen, 1879) species-complex. Taxonomic justification of sympatric Eisenia nordenskioldi mongol and Eisenia nordenskioldi onon ssp. n. are supported by mtDNA COI barcodes. The unreliability of molecular differentiation based on voucher names compared to definitive types is again demonstrated, as pertains to the ultimate Eisenia an...

Robert Blakemore

2013-01-01

183

Escape and avoidance learning in the earthworm Eisenia hortensis  

OpenAIRE

Interest in instrumental learning in earthworms dates back to 1912 when Yerkes concluded that they can learn a spatial discrimination in a T-maze. Rosenkoetter and Boice determined in the 1970s that the “learning” that Yerkes observed was probably chemotaxis and not learning at all. We examined a different form of instrumental learning: the ability to learn both to escape and to avoid an aversive stimulus. Freely moving “master” worms could turn off an aversive white light by increasi...

Jeffrey Wilson, W.; Ferrara, Nicole C.; Blaker, Amanda L.; Giddings, Charisa E.

2014-01-01

184

Riboflavin content in autofluorescent earthworm coelomocytes is species-specific.  

OpenAIRE

We have recently shown that a large proproportion of earthworm coelomocytes exhibit strong autofluorescence in some species (Dendrobaena veneta, Allolobophora chlorotica, Dendrodrilus rubidus, Eisenia fetida, and Octolasion spp.), while autofluorescent coelomocytes are very scarce in representatives of Lumbricus spp. and Aporrectodea spp. Riboflavin (vitamin B2) was identified as a major fluorophore in Eisenia jetida coelomocytes. The main aim of the present experiments was to quantify ribofl...

Joanna Homa; Barbara P?ytycz; Beata Kozio?; Ma?gorzata Rózanowska; John Morgan, A.

2007-01-01

185

PREDICTION OF BIOAVAILABILITY OF CHLORPYRIFOS RESIDUES IN SOIL TO EARTHWORMS  

OpenAIRE

An incubation test was conducted to investigate the effect of aging on bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil and to assess the feasibility of chemical extraction techniques for predicting bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil. Chlorpyrifos was spiked into sterilized soil and aged in microcosms for up to 120 days. The earthworms were incubated in the spiked soils, at 0, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 120 days after spiking, for a period of 7 days. After exposure, chlorpyrifos concentrations in the ear...

Wu, X. M.; Yu, Y. L.; Li, M.; Long, Y. H.; Fang, H.; Li, S. N.

2011-01-01

186

Earthworm-mycorrhiza interactions can affect the diversity, structure and functioning of establishing model grassland communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important ecosystem engineers co-occurring in temperate grasslands. However, their combined impacts during grassland establishment are poorly understood and have never been studied. We used large mesocosms to study the effects of different functional groups of earthworms (i.e., vertically burrowing anecics vs. horizontally burrowing endogeics) and a mix of four AMF taxa on the establishment, diversity and productivity of plant communities after a simulated seed rain of 18 grassland species comprising grasses, non-leguminous forbs and legumes. Moreover, effects of earthworms and/or AMF on water infiltration and leaching of ammonium, nitrate and phosphate were determined after a simulated extreme rainfall event (40 l m(-2)). AMF colonisation of all three plant functional groups was altered by earthworms. Seedling emergence and diversity was reduced by anecic earthworms, however only when AMF were present. Plant density was decreased in AMF-free mesocosms when both anecic and endogeic earthworms were active; with AMF also anecics reduced plant density. Plant shoot and root biomass was only affected by earthworms in AMF-free mesocosms: shoot biomass increased due to the activity of either anecics or endogeics; root biomass increased only when anecics were active. Water infiltration increased when earthworms were present in the mesocosms but remained unaffected by AMF. Ammonium leaching was increased only when anecics or a mixed earthworm community was active but was unaffected by AMF; nitrate and phosphate leaching was neither affected by earthworms nor AMF. Ammonium leaching decreased with increasing plant density, nitrate leaching decreased with increasing plant diversity and density. In order to understand the underlying processes of these interactions further investigations possibly under field conditions using more diverse belowground communities are required. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that belowground-aboveground linkages involving earthworms and AMF are important mediators of the diversity, structure and functioning of plant communities. PMID:22216236

Zaller, Johann G; Heigl, Florian; Grabmaier, Andrea; Lichtenegger, Claudia; Piller, Katja; Allabashi, Roza; Frank, Thomas; Drapela, Thomas

2011-01-01

187

Freeze Technology for Nuclear Applications - 13590  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Freezing of soil materials is a complicated process of a number of physical processes: - freezing of pore water in a thermal gradient, - cryogenic suction causing water migration and - ice formation expanding pores inducing frost heave. Structural changes due to increase of effective stress during freezing also take place. The over consolidation gives a powerful dewatering/drying effect and the freeze process causes separation of contaminates. Artificial ground freezing (AGF is a well established technique first practiced in south Wales, as early as 1862. AGF is mostly used to stabilize tunnels and excavations. During the last ten years underwater applications of freeze technologies based on the AGF have been explored in Sweden. The technology can, and has been, used in many different steps in a remediation action. Freeze Sampling where undisturbed samples are removed in both soft and hard sediment/sludge, Freeze Dredging; retrieval of sediment with good precision and minimal redistribution, and Freeze Drying; volume reduction of contaminated sludge/sediment. The application of these technologies in a nuclear or radioactive environment provides several advantages. Sampling by freezing gives for example an advantage of an undisturbed sample taken at a specified depth, salvaging objects by freezing or removal of sludges is other applications of this, for the nuclear industry, novel technology. (authors)

Rostmark, Susanne C.; Knutsson, Sven [Lulea University of Technology (Sweden); Lindberg, Maria [Studsvik Nuclear AB, 611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden)

2013-07-01

188

Freeze Technology for Nuclear Applications - 13590  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Freezing of soil materials is a complicated process of a number of physical processes: - freezing of pore water in a thermal gradient, - cryogenic suction causing water migration and - ice formation expanding pores inducing frost heave. Structural changes due to increase of effective stress during freezing also take place. The over consolidation gives a powerful dewatering/drying effect and the freeze process causes separation of contaminates. Artificial ground freezing (AGF is a well established technique first practiced in south Wales, as early as 1862. AGF is mostly used to stabilize tunnels and excavations. During the last ten years underwater applications of freeze technologies based on the AGF have been explored in Sweden. The technology can, and has been, used in many different steps in a remediation action. Freeze Sampling where undisturbed samples are removed in both soft and hard sediment/sludge, Freeze Dredging; retrieval of sediment with good precision and minimal redistribution, and Freeze Drying; volume reduction of contaminated sludge/sediment. The application of these technologies in a nuclear or radioactive environment provides several advantages. Sampling by freezing gives for example an advantage of an undisturbed sample taken at a specified depth, salvaging objects by freezing or removal of sludges is other applications of this, for the nuclear industry, novel technology. (authors)

189

PREDICTION OF BIOAVAILABILITY OF CHLORPYRIFOS RESIDUES IN SOIL TO EARTHWORMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An incubation test was conducted to investigate the effect of aging on bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil and to assess the feasibility of chemical extraction techniques for predicting bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil. Chlorpyrifos was spiked into sterilized soil and aged in microcosms for up to 120 days. The earthworms were incubated in the spiked soils, at 0, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 120 days after spiking, for a period of 7 days. After exposure, chlorpyrifos concentrations in the earthworm tissues were determined. Change in chemical extractability of soil-chlorpyrifos was measured using a several solvent systems including methanol, methanol-water (9:1, acetone-water (5:3, and water. The results show that chemical extractability and earthworm bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil decreased with aging. The amount of aged and unaged chlorpyrifos recovered from soil varied with the individual chemical extractant and extraction method. Concentrations of chlorpyrifos in Eisenia foetida were significantly higher than in Allolobophora caliginosa, suggesting that the bioavailability of chlorpyrifos was a species-dependent process. The extractability of chlorpyrifos by chemical solvents was significantly correlated with bioavailability fraction of E. foetida and A. caliginosa, showing that these extraction techniques may be efficient for predicting bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil.

X.M Wu

2011-01-01

190

PREDICTION OF BIOAVAILABILITY OF CHLORPYRIFOS RESIDUES IN SOIL TO EARTHWORMS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english An incubation test was conducted to investigate the effect of aging on bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil and to assess the feasibility of chemical extraction techniques for predicting bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil. Chlorpyrifos was spiked into sterilized soil and aged in microcosms f [...] or up to 120 days. The earthworms were incubated in the spiked soils, at 0, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 120 days after spiking, for a period of 7 days. After exposure, chlorpyrifos concentrations in the earthworm tissues were determined. Change in chemical extractability of soil-chlorpyrifos was measured using a several solvent systems including methanol, methanol-water (9:1), acetone-water (5:3), and water. The results show that chemical extractability and earthworm bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil decreased with aging. The amount of aged and unaged chlorpyrifos recovered from soil varied with the individual chemical extractant and extraction method. Concentrations of chlorpyrifos in Eisenia foetida were significantly higher than in Allolobophora caliginosa, suggesting that the bioavailability of chlorpyrifos was a species-dependent process. The extractability of chlorpyrifos by chemical solvents was significantly correlated with bioavailability fraction of E. foetida and A. caliginosa, showing that these extraction techniques may be efficient for predicting bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil.

X.M, Wu; Y.L, Yu; M, Li; Y.H, Long; H, Fang; S.N, Li.

191

Toxicity of selected organic chemicals to the earthworm Eisenia fetida  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A number of methods recently have been developed to biologically evaluate the impact of man's activities on soil ecosystems. Two test methods, the 2-d contact test and the 14-d artificial soil test, were used to evaluate the impact of six major classes of organic chemicals on the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny). Of the organic chemicals tested, phenols and amines were the most toxic to the worms, followed in descending order of toxicity by the substituted aromatics, halogenated aliphatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and phthalates. No relationship was found between earthworm toxicity as determined by the contact test and rat, Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout and mouse, Mus musculus L. LD/sub 50/ values. The physicochemical parameters of water solubility, vapor pressure, and octanol/water partition coefficient for the chemicals tested in the contact test did not show a significant relationship to the E. fetida LC/sub 50/ values. These studies indicate that: (i) earthworms can be a suitable biomonitoring tool to assist in measuring the impact of organic chemicals in wastes added to soils and (ii) contact and artificial soil tests can be useful in measuring biological impacts.

Neuhauser, E.F.; Loehr, R.C.; Malecki, M.R.; Milligan, D.L.; Durkin, P.R.

192

Comparative Genomics of Symbiotic Bacteria in Earthworm Nephridia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The excretory and osmoregulatory organs (nephridia) of lumbricid earthworms are densely colonized by extracellular bacterial symbionts belonging to the newly established betaproteobacterial genus Verminephrobacter. The nephridial symbiont of the earthworm Eisenia fetida was subjected to full genome sequencing along with two of its closest relatives; the plant pathogenic Acidovorax avena subsp. citrulli and the free-living Acidovorax sp. JS42. In addition, the genome of the nephridial symbiont of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata was partially sequenced. In order to resolve the functional and evolutionary basis of the symbiosis we annotated and compared the genomes. The genomes ranged in size from 4.4 to 5.6 Mbp, the E. fetida symbiont genome being the largest. The symbiont genomes showed no evidence of gene-loss related to any particular type of functional gene category. In contrast, genes predicted to be involved in transport processes were highly overrepresented in the symbiont genomes due to massive paralogous expansion of genes encoding ABC-type amino acid and peptide uptake systems. Thus, symbionts seem well-adapted to the nephridial environment being able to profit from proteinaceous excretion products. Gene order was highly conserved between the genomes of Acidovorax avena and Acidovorax sp. JS42, whereas the E. fetida symbiont genome held very little conservation of gene order compared to either of the latter two. Repetitive sequences were excessively abundant throughout the genomes of both symbionts. Together, this is indicative of high recombinatorial frequency in the symbiont genomes the function of which is presently poorly understood.

Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Pinel, Nicolas

193

Freezing and thawing or freezing, thawing, and aging effects on beef tenderness.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of freezing and thawing or freezing and thawing with an additional aging period after frozen storage on the tenderness of longissimus lumborum (LL) and semitendinosus (ST) steaks relative to aged, fresh steaks. Left-side LL and ST (n = 35 each) were obtained from U.S. Select carcasses classified at the grading stand by the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center visible and near-infrared spectroscopy tenderness system to have predicted slice shear force greater than 16.5 kg at 14 d postmortem. At 2 d postmortem, 2.54 cm thick steaks were cut from each muscle and assigned to 1 of the following treatments: 2 d fresh (2FRESH), 2 d freeze + thaw (2FREEZE), 2 d freeze + thaw + 12 d age (2FREEZE+12AGE), 14 d fresh (14FRESH), 14 d freeze + thaw (14FREEZE), 14 d freeze + thaw + 14 d age (14FREEZE+14AGE), and 28 d fresh (28FRESH). Steaks assigned to a freezing treatment were frozen at -26°C for 30 d before thawing/cooking or thawing with an additional aging period at 2°C. Slice shear force for LL and ST was lower (P 0.05) between 2FREEZE (21.0%) and 2FRESH (14.6%) or between 14FREEZE (40.4%) and 14FRESH (38.4%); however, desmin degradation was higher (P 0.05) between 14FREEZE+14AGE (15.0%) and 28FRESH (14.3%). Freezing and thawing or a combination of freezing, thawing, and aging resulted in increased tenderness for LL and ST steaks when compared to fresh steaks with the same aging time. These results indicate freezing could be incorporated into normal commercial product distribution processes to improve the consistency of meat tenderness. Researchers who freeze steaks before tenderness assessment should be aware and acknowledge that freezing affects tenderness data. PMID:24671601

Grayson, A L; King, D A; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Wheeler, T L

2014-06-01

194

Freezing of Simple Liquid Metals  

OpenAIRE

Freezing of simple liquid metals and the relative stabilities of competing crystalline solids are investigated using thermodynamic perturbation theory, the interactions between ions being modeled by effective pair potentials derived from pseudopotential theory. The ionic free energy of the solid phase is calculated, to first order in the perturbation potential, using classical density-functional theory and an accurate approximation to the hard-sphere radial distribution func...

Denton, A. R.; Kahl, G.; Hafner, J.

1999-01-01

195

Study on the Effect of Pickled Cabbage using Freeze-drying Protective Agent  

OpenAIRE

The protective effect of pickled cabbage using biological material was researched in the study. Firstly, the research determined the centrifugal condition of bacterial sludge and then detected the influence of various protective agents on the survival rate of lactobacillus. The final test result can show the influence degree of various protective agents on the survival rate of the freeze-drying lactobacillus was sodium glutamate>skim milk>mannitol>sucrose>glycerol>maltose. The best formula of...

Xing Long; Xu Jian-Jun; Yan Li-Mei

2013-01-01

196

Freezing Around a Vertical Cylinder  

Science.gov (United States)

Water in a vertical annulus is frozen from the inner cylinder wall. The outer cylinder wall is insulated. The water is initially kept at a uniform temperature. Experiments and numerical analysis of this freezing process were carried out under the various temperature conditions. In the experiments, the water was 150 mm high and the diameters of the inner and outer cylinders were 20 mm and 100 mm, respectively. In the present analysis, a boundary fixing method was used and the two-dimensional unsteady natural convection in the liquid phase with density inversion was calculated. The analytical results of the time-wise changes of the freezing front and the temperature distribution agreed well with the experimental results. The effects of the density inversion on the temperature distribution in the liquid phase were shown clearly by the analytical results. Furthermore a one-dimensional approximate analysis was carried out, where the appropriate heat-transfer coefficient on the freezing front was given. It was shown that the approximate analysis as well as the present analysis was able to obtain the time-wise changes of the frozen volume and the total thermal energy storage.

Okada, Masashi; Nakamura, Susumu

197

Distribution of bacteria and fungi in the earthworm Libyodrillus violaceous (Annelida: Oligochaeta, a native earthworm from Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Earthworms are soil invertebrates that play a key role in recycling organic matter in soils.In Nigeria, earthworms include Libyodrillus violaceous. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial counts, as well as fungal counts of viable microorganisms in soils and gut sections, were made on twenty L. violaceous collected from different sites on the campus of the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. The samples were collected between April and November, 2002. Numbers of microorganisms were higher in castings and gut sections than in uningested soil samples. The guts and their contents also had higher moisture and total nitrogen contents than the uningested soils. Bacteria and fungi isolated from the samples were identified by standard microbiological procedures on the bases of their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Isolated bacteria were identified as Staphylococcus, Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus mutans, Clostridium, Spirocheata spp., Azotobacter spp., Micrococcus lylae, Acinetobacter spp., Halobacterium for bacteria. Yeast isolates were identified as Candida spp., Zygosaccharomyces spp., Pichia spp., and Saccharomyces spp while molds were identified as, Aspergillus spp., Pytium spp., Penicillium spp., Fusarium spp and Rhizopus spp. Of the five locations examined, the refuse dump area had the highest numbers of both aerobic and anaerobic organisms, followed by the arboretum while the cultivated land area recorded the lowest counts. The higher numbers of microorganisms observed in the gut sections and casts of the earthworms examined in this work reinforce the general concept that the gut and casts of earthworms show higher microbial diversity and activity than the surrounding soil. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (1: 49-58. Epub 2006 Mar 31.

A. B Idowu

2006-03-01

198

Distribution of bacteria and fungi in the earthworm Libyodrillus violaceous (Annelida: Oligochaeta), a native earthworm from Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in english Earthworms are soil invertebrates that play a key role in recycling organic matter in soils.In Nigeria, earthworms include Libyodrillus violaceous. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial counts, as well as fungal counts of viable microorganisms in soils and gut sections, were made on twenty L. violaceous c [...] ollected from different sites on the campus of the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. The samples were collected between April and November, 2002. Numbers of microorganisms were higher in castings and gut sections than in uningested soil samples. The guts and their contents also had higher moisture and total nitrogen contents than the uningested soils. Bacteria and fungi isolated from the samples were identified by standard microbiological procedures on the bases of their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Isolated bacteria were identified as Staphylococcus, Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus mutans, Clostridium, Spirocheata spp., Azotobacter spp., Micrococcus lylae, Acinetobacter spp., Halobacterium for bacteria. Yeast isolates were identified as Candida spp., Zygosaccharomyces spp., Pichia spp., and Saccharomyces spp while molds were identified as, Aspergillus spp., Pytium spp., Penicillium spp., Fusarium spp and Rhizopus spp. Of the five locations examined, the refuse dump area had the highest numbers of both aerobic and anaerobic organisms, followed by the arboretum while the cultivated land area recorded the lowest counts. The higher numbers of microorganisms observed in the gut sections and casts of the earthworms examined in this work reinforce the general concept that the gut and casts of earthworms show higher microbial diversity and activity than the surrounding soil. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (1): 49-58. Epub 2006 Mar 31.

A. B, Idowu; M. O, Edema; A. O, Adeyi.

2006-03-01

199

Influence of earthworm mucus and amino acids on tomato seedling growth and cadmium accumulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects on the growth of tomato seedlings and cadmium accumulation of earthworm mucus and a solution of amino acids matching those in earthworm mucus was studied through a hydroponic experiment. The experiment included four treatments: 5 mg Cd L-1 (CC), 5 mg Cd L-1 + 100 mL L-1 earthworm mucus (CE), 5 mg Cd L-1 + 100 mL L-1 amino acids solution (CA) and the control (CK). Results showed that, compared with CC treatment, either earthworm mucus or amino acids significantly increased tomato seedling growth and Cd accumulation but the increase was much higher in the CE treatment compared with the CA treatment. This may be due to earthworm mucus and amino acids significantly increasing the chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement uptake and transport in the tomato seedlings. The much greater increase in the effect of earthworm mucus compared with amino acid treatments may be due to IAA-like substances in earthworm mucus. - Earthworm mucus increased tomato seedlings growth and Cd accumulation through increasing chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement accumulation.

200

Phagocytosis in earthworms: An environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess immunotoxic potential of contaminated soils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Phagocytosis, a host-defense mechanism phylogenetically conserved throughout the animal kingdom, by earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) coelomocytes has potential as a surrogate for vertebrates to be used as an environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess sublethal immunotoxic risks of contaminated soils to environmental (eg. higher wildlife) and public health. Coelomocytes can be exposed in vivo to complex contaminated parent soils by placing earthworms in situ at hazardous waste sites (HWS) or into soil samples and their dilutions with artificial soil (AS) in the laboratory, or in vitro to soil extracts and their fractionations. Here the authors report on phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils from a wood treatment HWS, PCP-spiked AS and PCP treated filter paper (FP). HWS soil was diluted to 25% with AS to a sublethal concentration (ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) and earthworms exposed for 14d at 10 C under light conditions. AS was spiked at ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1} PCP and earthworms were similarly exposed. Controls for both consisted of earthworms exposed to 100% AS. Earthworms were exposed to FP treated with a sublethal PCP concentration (15 {micro}g cm{sup {minus}2}) at 10 C under dark conditions for 96H. Controls were similarly exposed without PCP. Phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to HWS soil, spiked AS and treated FP was suppressed 37, 41 and 29%, respectively. Results are discussed in terms of PCP body burdens and exposure protocols.

Giggleman, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Venables, B.J. [TRAC Labs., Inc., Denton, TX (United States); Callahan, C.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, San Francisco, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

201

Temperature-dependent alterations in metabolic enzymes and proteins of three ecophysiologically different species of earthworms  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The effects of varying temperatures (12 - 44° C) on the specific activity of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase ((cMDH), mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of some earthworms (Metaphire posthuma, Perionyx sansibaricus and Lampito mauritii) were studied. The effec [...] ts of different temperatures on supernatant and mitochondrial protein contents were also investigated. The specific activities of cMDH, mMDH and LDH of the earthworms decreased gradually as a function of increasing temperature from 12 to 44°C. Higher metabolic energy was needed to maintain the activity at low temperatures. Hence, the earthworms showed increased enzyme specific activity at low temperatures. However, the protein content increased upto 28°C. Afterwards, with the increase in the temperature from 28 to 42°C, the proteins in the earthworms showed a significant decrease. The temperature-associated changes in the protein content could be explained by the fact that protein synthesizing capacity was hampered above and below the optimum temperature range. The most pronounced effects of varying temperatures were on P. sansibaricus. It might be due to the epigeic nature of the earthworm species. Then minimum effect was on the endogeic earthworm M. posthuma. Virtually, the differences in the enzymes physiology were associated with the differences in the ecological categories of the earthworms. This clearly demonstrate a possible link between the physiology and ecology at aerobic (cMDH, mMDH) and anaerobic (LDH) levels in the tropical earthworms.

G, Tripathi; N., Kachhwaha; I., Dabi; N., Bandooni.

2011-08-01

202

Physiological and molecular responses of the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) to soil chlortetracycline contamination.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to evaluate toxic effects of exposure to chlortetracycline (CTC) in soil on reproductive endpoints (juvenile counts and cocoon counts), biochemical responses, and genotoxic potentials of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Results showed that juvenile counts and cocoon counts of the tested earthworms were reduced after exposure to CTC. The effective concentrations (EC(50) values) for juvenile and cocoon counts were 96.1 and 120.3 mg/kg, respectively. Treatment of earthworms with CTC significantly changed the activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). An increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) indicated that CTC could cause cellular lipid peroxidation in the tested earthworms. The percentage of DNA in the tail of single-cell gel electrophoresis of coelomocytes as an indication of DNA damage increased after treatment with different doses of CTC, and a dose-dependent DNA damage of coelomocytes was found. In conclusion, CTC induces physiological responses and genotoxicity on earthworms. PMID:22868346

Lin, Dasong; Zhou, Qixing; Xu, Yingming; Chen, Chun; Li, Ye

2012-12-01

203

Arsenic resistance and cycling in earthworms residing at a former gold mine in Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworms (Lumbricus castaneous and Dendrodrilus rubidus), their host soils and leaf litter were collected from a former gold mine with widespread arsenic (As) contamination in Nova Scotia, Canada and determined for total and speciated As. Resistance to As toxicity was investigated by measurement of DNA damage in exposed earthworm populations using the comet assay. Arsenobetaine (AB) was observed at low concentration in the earthworms but not in the host soil or leaf litter. Several different organoarsenic species were observed in the leaf litter and only inorganic As was found in the host soils. The results suggest that 1) adaptation to As toxicity in earthworms is widespread and not particular to a single species, 2) AB originates in the earthworm and not the consumed soil or leaf litter and 3) as previously hypothesised (Button et al., 2010), biotransformation of inorganic As to AB is not likely involved in the adaptation. PMID:22683483

Button, Mark; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

2012-10-01

204

The importance of glucose for the freezing tolerance/intolerance of the anuran amphibians Rana catesbeiana and Bufo paracnemis  

OpenAIRE

Several species of terrestrially hibernating frogs, turtles and insects have developed mechanisms, such as increased plasma glucose, anti-freeze proteins and antioxidant enzymes that resist to freezing, for survival at subzero temperatures. In the present study, we assessed the importance of glucose to cryoresistance of two anuran amphibians: the frog Rana catesbeiana and the toad Bufo paracnemis. Both animals were exposed to -2ºC for measurements of plasma glucose levels, liver and muscle g...

Steiner, A. A.; Petenusci, S. O.; Brentegani, L. G.; Branco, L. G. S.

2000-01-01

205

Putrescine is involved in Arabidopsis freezing tolerance and cold acclimation by regulating Abscisic acid levels in response to low temperature  

OpenAIRE

The levels of endogenous polyamines have been shown to increase in plant cells challenged with low temperature; however, the functions of polyamines in the regulation of cold stress responses are unknown. Here, we show that the accumulation of putrescine under cold stress is essential for proper cold acclimation and survival at freezing temperatures because Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants defective in putrescine biosynthesis (adc1, adc2) display reduced freezing tolerance compared ...

Cuevas, Juan Cruz; Lo?pez-cobollo, Rosa Mari?a; Alcazar, Rube?n; Zarza, Xavier; Koncz, Csaba S.; Altabella, Teresa; Salinas, Julio; Tiburcio, Antonio Ferna?ndez; Ferrando, Alejandro

2008-01-01

206

Synchrotron X-Ray Visualisation of Ice Formation in Insects during Lethal and Non-Lethal Freezing  

OpenAIRE

Although the biochemical correlates of freeze tolerance in insects are becoming well-known, the process of ice formation in vivo is subject to speculation. We used synchrotron x-rays to directly visualise real-time ice formation at 3.3 Hz in intact insects. We observed freezing in diapausing 3rd instar larvae of Chymomyza amoena (Diptera: Drosophilidae), which survive freezing if it occurs above ?14°C, and non-diapausing 3rd instar larvae of C. amoena and Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: ...

Sinclair, Brent J.; Gibbs, Allen G.; Lee, Wah-keat; Rajamohan, Arun; Roberts, Stephen P.; Socha, John J.

2009-01-01

207

Characteristics of sugar surfactants in stabilizing proteins during freeze-thawing and freeze-drying.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugar surfactants with different alkyl chain lengths and sugar head groups were compared for their protein-stabilizing effect during freeze-thawing and freeze-drying. Six enzymes, different in terms of tolerance against inactivation because of freeze-thawing and freeze-drying, were used as model proteins. The enzyme activities that remained after freeze-thawing and freeze-drying in the presence of a sugar surfactant were measured for different types and concentrations of sugar surfactants. Sugar surfactants stabilized all of the tested enzymes both during freeze-thawing and freeze-drying, and a one or two order higher amount of added sugar surfactant was required for achieving protein stabilization during freeze-drying than for the cryoprotection. The comprehensive comparison showed that the C10-C12 esters of sucrose or trehalose were the most effective through the freeze-drying process: the remaining enzyme activities after freeze-thawing and freeze-drying increased at the sugar ester concentrations of 1-10 and 10-100 ?M, respectively, and increased to a greater extent than for the other surfactants at higher concentrations. Results also indicate that, when a decent amount of sugar was also added, the protein-stabilizing effect of a small amount of sugar ester through the freeze-drying process could be enhanced. PMID:24797557

Imamura, Koreyoshi; Murai, Katsuyuki; Korehisa, Tamayo; Shimizu, Noriyuki; Yamahira, Ryo; Matsuura, Tsutashi; Tada, Hiroko; Imanaka, Hiroyuki; Ishida, Naoyuki; Nakanishi, Kazuhiro

2014-06-01

208

How insects survive the cold: molecular mechanisms - a review  

OpenAIRE

Insects vary considerably in their ability to survive low temperatures. The tractability of these organisms to experimentation has lead to considerable physiology-based work investigating both the variability between species and the actual mechanisms themselves. This has highlighted a range of strategies including freeze tolerance, freeze avoidance, protective dehydration and rapid cold hardening, which are often associated with the production of specific chemicals such as antifreezes and pol...

Clark, Melody S.; Worland, M. Roger

2008-01-01

209

Updating freeze: aligning animal and human research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Freezing is widely used as the main outcome measure for fear in animal studies. Freezing is also getting attention more frequently in human stress research, as it is considered to play an important role in the development of psychopathology. Human models on defense behavior are largely based on animal models. Unfortunately, direct translations between animal and human studies are hampered by differences in definitions and methods. The present review therefore aims to clarify the conceptualization of freezing. Neurophysiological and neuroanatomical correlates are discussed and a translational model is proposed. We review the upcoming research on freezing in humans that aims to match animal studies by using physiological indicators of freezing (bradycardia and objective reduction in movement). Finally, we set the agenda for future research in order to optimize mutual animal-human translations and stimulate consistency and systematization in future empirical research on the freezing phenomenon. PMID:25108035

Hagenaars, Muriel A; Oitzl, Melly; Roelofs, Karin

2014-11-01

210

Freeze-drying of mammalian sperm.  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-term preservation of mammalian sperm at suprazero temperatures is desired to save storage and space costs as well as to facilitate transport of preserved samples. This can be accomplished by the freeze-drying of sperm samples. Although freeze-drying results in immotile and membrane-compromised sperm, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can be used to introduce such an immotile sperm into an oocyte and thus start the fertilization process. So far, it has been shown that improved freeze-drying protocols preserve chromosomal integrity and oocyte-activating factor(s) at 4 °C for several years and at ambient temperature for approximately 1 month, which permits shipping freeze-dried samples at ambient temperature. This chapter concisely reviews freeze-drying of mammalian sperm first and then presents a simple freeze-drying protocol. PMID:25428025

Keskintepe, Levent; Eroglu, Ali

2015-01-01

211

Dynamical freeze-out in hydrodynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In hydrodynamical modeling of the ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions the freeze-out is typically performed at a constant temperature. In this work we introduce a dynamical freeze-out criterion, which compares the hydrodynamical expansion rate with the pion scattering rate. We present hadron spectra and elliptic flow calculated using (3+1)-dimensional ideal hydrodynamics, and show the differences between constant temperature and dynamical freeze-out criteria. First we discuss the systematics of the dynamical freeze-out, and for simplicity these calculations have been performed using smooth initial states. Finally dynamical freeze-out condition is applied to event-by-event calculations to evaluate v2. We find that the differences caused by different freeze-out criteria are small in all studied cases.

212

Comparison of heavy-metal uptake by Eisenia foetida with that of other common earthworms. Final technical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Earthworms have been used in the field to indicate levels of soil pollution and in the laboratory for the ecotoxicological testing of industrial chemicals. An earthworm bioassay procedure developed at the Waterways Experiment Station (Vicksburg, Mississippi) was modified and evaluated as a method of providing information on heavy-metal bioavailability in contaminated soils and sediments from Europe. Eight soils/sediments containing elevated levels of a least one of the elements Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb were selected as well as a control and a reference soil. Six species of earthworm, including the WES bioassay earthworm E. foetida, and five field species were grown in the soils/sediments for periods of 15, 28 or 56 days. Concentrations of the elements Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb present in the earthworm samples (corrected for the presence of soil-derived metals within the earthworm gut) were compared between earthworm species from the same soil and for each earthworm species from a range of metal contaminated soils/sediments. A close linear relationship between metal uptake by E.foetida and the field species of earthworm emerged and good correlation between total (HNO3/HC104) soil Pb and Cd levels and earthworm tissue concentrations and between DTPA extractable soil Cu and Cc levels and earthworm tissue concentrations was observed.

Stafford, E.A.; Edwards, C.A.

1986-01-01

213

Hot big bang or slow freeze?  

OpenAIRE

We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze - a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple "crossover model" without a big bang singularit...

Wetterich, C.

2014-01-01

214

Predicting freezing for some repulsive potentials.  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose a simple method to approximately predict the freezing (fluid-solid) phase transition in systems of particles interacting via purely repulsive potentials. The method is based on the striking universality of the freezing curve for the model Yukawa and inverse-power-law interactions. This method is applied to draw an exemplary phase diagram of complex plasmas. We suggest that it can also be used to locate freezing transition in other substances with similar properties of interaction. PMID:20366260

Khrapak, S A; Morfill, G E

2009-12-18

215

When hot water freezes before cold  

CERN Document Server

I suggest that the origin of the Mpemba effect (the freezing of hot water before cold) is freezing-point depression by solutes, either gaseous or solid, whose solubility decreases with increasing temperature so that they are removed when water is heated. They are concentrated ahead of the freezing front by zone refining in water that has not been heated, reduce the temperature of the freezing front, and thereby reduce the temperature gradient and heat flux, slowing the progress of the front. I present a simple calculation of this effect, and suggest experiments to test this hypothesis.

Katz, J I

2006-01-01

216

Breeding of Freeze-tolerant Yeast and the Mechanisms of Stress-tolerance  

Science.gov (United States)

Frozen dough method have been adopted in the baking industry to reduce labor and to produce fresh breads in stores. New freeze-tolerant yeasts for frozen dough preparations were isolated from banana peel and identified. To obtain strains that have fermentative ability even after several months of frozen storage in fermented dough, we attempted to breed new freeze-tolerantstrain. The hybrid between S.cerevisiae, which is a isolated freeze-tolerant strain, and a strain isolated from bakers' yeast with sexual conjugation gave a good quality bread made from frozen dough method. Freeze-tolerant strains showed higher surviving and trehalose accumulating abilities than freeze-sensitive strains. The freeze tolerance of the yeasts was associated with the basal amount of intracellular trehalose after rapid degradation at the onset of the prefermentation period. The complicated metabolic pathway and the regulation system of trehalose in yeast cells are introduced. The trehalose synthesis may act as a metabolic buffer system which contribute to maintain the intracellular inorganic phosphate and as a feedback regulation system in the glycolysis. However, it is not known enough how the trehalose protects yeast cells from stress.

Hino, Akihiro

217

Predicting Arabidopsis Freezing Tolerance and Heterosis in Freezing Tolerance from Metabolite Composition  

OpenAIRE

Heterosis, or hybrid vigor, is one of the most important tools in plant breeding and has previously been demonstrated for plant freezing tolerance. Freezing tolerance is an important trait because it can limit the geographical distribution of plants and their agricultural yield. Plants from temperate climates increase in freezing tolerance during exposure to low, non-freezing temperatures in a process termed ‘cold acclimation’. Metabolite profiling has indicated a major reprogramming of p...

Korn, Marina; Ga?rtner, Tanja; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Selbig, Joachim; Hincha, Dirk K.

2010-01-01

218

The influence of freezing rates on bovine pericardium tissue Freeze-drying  

OpenAIRE

The bovine pericardium has been used as biomaterial in developing bioprostheses. Freeze-drying is a drying process that could be used for heart valve's preservation. The maintenance of the characteristics of the biomaterial is important for a good heart valve performance. This paper describes the initial step in the development of a bovine pericardium tissue freeze-drying to be used in heart valves. Freeze-drying involves three steps: freezing, primary drying and secondary drying. The freezin...

Camila Figueiredo Borgognoni; Virgilio Tattini Junior; Ana Maria Irene Bartolomeu Ayrosa; Bronislaw Polakiewicz; Adolfo Alberto Leirner; Marina Junko Shiotsu Maizato; Olga Zazuco Higa; Marisa Masumi Beppu; Ronaldo Nogueira de Moraes Pitombo

2009-01-01

219

Bioconversion of herbal industry waste into vermicompost using an epigeic earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of bioconversion of industrial herbal waste to vermicompost using Eudrilus eugeniae. Vermibeds were made using a mixture of herbal waste and cowdung (1?:?1) in comparison with the use of cowdung alone as substrate, resulting in vermicomposts 1 and 2, respectively. Different parameters were studied and it was observed that the nutrient profile of vermicompost 1 strongly influenced the growth of pea (Pisum sativum) and marigold plant (Tagetus erectus). The dry and fresh weight of shoots and roots, number of flowers, total yield in terms of fruit showed significant increase with vermicompost 1. Furthermore, vermicompost 1 (herbal waste and cow dung as substrate) resulted in a significant reduction in TOC by 58% in comparison with vermicompost 2 (cowdung as substrate). The C?:?N ratio was less than 20 in vermicompost 1 as well as in vermicompost 2, which indicated an advanced degree of stabilization and mineralization. The ability of earthworms to survive, grow and breed in the vermibed fed with the herbal waste indicates the sustainability and efficiency of a heterogeneous kind of organic waste. The results of the study suggested that bulk industrial herbal waste can be utilized as a substrate for vermicomposting and this can be proposed as an alternative for waste disposal in a clean green manner, promoting the concept of organic farming. PMID:20952444

Kumari, Mamta; Kumar, Sudhir; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh; Ravikanth, K

2011-11-01

220

Metabolic changes during estivation in the common earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The common earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa survives drought by forming estivation chambers in the topsoil under even very slight reductions in soil water activity. We induced estivation in a soil of a consistency that allowed the removal of intact soil estivation chambers containing a single worm. These estivation chambers were exposed to 97% relative humidity for 30 d to simulate the effect of a severe summer drought. Gas exchange, body fluid osmolality, water balance, urea, and alanine were quantified, and whole?body homogenates were screened for changes in small organic molecules via 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Formation of estivation chambers was associated with a dramatic increase in body fluid osmolality, from 175 to 562 mOsm kg-1, accompanied by a 20% increase in water content. Dehydration for 1 mo caused a further increase to 684 mOsm kg-1, while the worms lost 50% of their water content. Gas exchange was depressed by 50% after worms entered estivation and by 80% after a further 30 d of dehydration. Urea concentrations increased from 0.3 to 1 ?mol g-1 dry mass during this time. Although 1H?NMR did not provide the identity of the osmolytes responsible for the initial increase in osmolality after estivation, it showed that alanine increased to more than 80 mmol L-1 in the long?term?estivation group. We propose that alanine functions as a nitrogen depot during dehydration and is not an anaerobe product in this case.

Bayley, Mark; Overgaard, Johannes

2010-01-01

221

Freezing Out Early Dark Energy  

CERN Document Server

A phenomenological model of dark energy that tracks the baryonic and cold dark matter at early times but resembles a cosmological constant at late times is explored. In the transition between these two regimes, the dark energy density drops rapidly as if it were a relic species that freezes out, during which time the equation of state peaks at +1. Such an adjustment in the dark energy density, as it shifts from scaling to potential-domination, could be the signature of a trigger mechanism that helps explain the late-time cosmic acceleration. We show that the non-negligible dark energy density at early times, and the subsequent peak in the equation of state at the transition, leave an imprint on the cosmic microwave background anisotropy pattern and the rate of growth of large scale structure. The model introduces two new parameters, consisting of the present-day equation of state and the redshift of the freeze-out transition. A Monte Carlo Markov Chain analysis of a ten-dimensional parameter space is performe...

Bielefeld, Jannis; Caldwell, Robert R; Dore, Olivier

2013-01-01

222

Selective recruitment of bacteria during embryogenesis of an earthworm.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworms of the family Lumbricidae harbor specific and stable populations of Acidovorax-like bacteria within their excretory organs, the nephridia. The symbionts of Eisenia foetida are deposited into the egg capsules during mating and the nephridia of the juveniles are colonized before they hatch. The timing and mechanisms governing bacterial recruitment and colonization are unknown for the earthworm-Acidovorax association. This study examined the process of colonization of the symbiotic organ during development of the embryos within the egg capsules. Bacteria associated with the developing embryos were visualized using in situ hybridization to bacterial cells and laser scanning confocal microscopy. Bacterial cells were associated with earthworm embryos during the earliest stages of development-the ova through to hatching. Three-dimensional examination of stages of development revealed an embryonic duct that recruits the Acidovorax-like symbiont cells. As each segment matures, Acidovorax-like symbiotic bacteria are recruited into this duct, excluding most other bacterial types, and remain there for a period of days prior to migration into the nephridium. After colonization of the nephridial ampulla, the canal remains bacteria-free. In addition to the known Acidovorax-like bacteria, multiple types of bacteria interact with the embryos externally and internally during the full course of development, and ultimately fill the gut lumen near the end of development prior to hatching. Colonization of the correct tissues by specific bacteria during differentiation and maturation of the organs must involve selective host defenses and signaling between the two partners to prevent over growth of nascent tissues. PMID:18273064

Davidson, Seana K; Stahl, David A

2008-05-01

223

La fecundidad de las lombrices rojas – (Fecundity of red earthworms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ResumenDesde fines de la década del 80 se ha ampliado sustancialmente elconocimiento acerca de la biología reproductiva de Eisenia fetida y Eisenia andrei, permitiendo optimizar las estrategias de conducción de los lombricultivos. La fecundidad es uno de los parámetros reprobiológicos que más allá de las fluctuaciones esperadas (0-9 lombrices / cocón ha generado discusión.SummarySince the late 1980s, knowledge about the reproductive biology of Eisenia fetida and Eisenia andrei has been applied to optimize management strategies in vermiculture. Among the reproductive biological parameters, fecundity, expected to fluctuate between 0-9 earthworms/cocoon, has generated much discussion.

Schuldt, Miguel

2010-10-01

224

Impact of earthworms on trace element solubility in contaminated mine soils amended with green waste compost  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The common practice of remediating metal contaminated mine soils with compost can reduce metal mobility and promote revegetation, but the effect of introduced or colonising earthworms on metal solubility is largely unknown. We amended soils from an As/Cu (1150 mgAs kg-1 and 362 mgCu kg-1) and Pb/Zn mine (4550 mgPb kg-1 and 908 mgZn kg-1) with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% compost and then introduced Lumbricus terrestris. Porewater was sampled and soil extracted with water to determine trace element solubility, pH and soluble organic carbon. Compost reduced Cu, Pb and Zn, but increased As solubility. Earthworms decreased water soluble Cu and As but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. The effect of the earthworms decreased with increasing compost amendment. The impact of the compost and the earthworms on metal solubility is explained by their effect on pH and soluble organic carbon and the environmental chemistry of each element. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Compost reduced the mobility of Cu, Pb and Zn. ? Compost increased the mobility of As. ? Earthworms decreased water soluble As and Cu but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. ? These effects are explained by the impact of the earthworms and compost on pH and DOC. - The effect of earthworms on metal solubility was due to changes in dissolved organic carbon and pH but was reduced with increasing compost amendments.

225

Earthworm-microorganism interactions: a strategy to stabilize domestic wastewater sludge.  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance of a conventional biofilter (BF) and a vermifilter containing the earthworm, Eisenia foetida, (VF) for the treatment of domestic wastewater sludge were compared with the earthworm-microorganism interaction mechanisms involved in sludge stabilization. The results revealed that the presence of earthworms in the VF led to significant stabilization of the sludge by enhancing the reduction in volatile suspended solids (VSS) by 25.1%. Digestion by earthworms and the earthworm-microorganism interactions were responsible for 54% and 46% of this increase, respectively. Specifically, earthworms in the VF were capable of transforming insoluble organic materials to a soluble form and then selectively digesting the sludge particles of 10-200 microm to finer particles of 0-2 microm, which led to the further degradation of organic materials by the microorganisms in the reactor. Additionally, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles showed that there was an intensified bacterial diversity in the vermifilter due to the presence of earthworms, especially in response to the nutrients in their casts. PMID:20144838

Zhao, Limin; Wang, Yayi; Yang, Jian; Xing, Meiyan; Li, Xiaowei; Yi, Danghao; Deng, Dehan

2010-04-01

226

Antioxidant defense system responses and DNA damage of earthworms exposed to Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of earthworms as a sublethal endpoint has significantly contributed to the ecological risk assessment of contaminated soils. Few studies have focused on the potential toxicity of PFOS to earthworms in the soil. In this work, artificial soils were tested, and contact filter paper studies were used. The results showed that earthworm growth was generally inhibited. The antioxidant activities of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were initially activated and then inhibited. Reduced glutathione content was observed, and malondialdehyde content was elevated over the duration of the exposure. These results suggested that PFOS induced oxidative stress in earthworms. In addition, the values of olive tail moment, tail DNA% and tail length using SCGE showed similar frequency distributions and increased with increases in the PFOS concentration. These results suggest that all concentrations of PFOS cause DNA damage. Highlights: ? We studied the potential ecotoxicity of PFOS to earthworm in soil. ? Eisenia foetida was used as a model organism and its growth was generally inhibited. ? Antioxidant enzyme activities were initially activated and then inhibited. ? Reduced glutathione content was observed and malondialdehyde content was elevated. ? PFOS induced DNA damage in earthworms. -- Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in earthworms

227

The Role of Earthworms in Tropics with Emphasis on Indian Ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper highlights the research carried out by different scientists in India on aspects of earthworm population dynamics and species diversity, associated with other soil fauna and microflora. It also deals with the importance of earthworm activity on physicochemical properties of soil with reference to India and other tropical countries. Stress is laid on the earthworm plant association and importance of the secretions of earthworms as plant growth stimulators. Moreover, the earthworm species reported and being utilized for vermicomposting in India are discussed, since vermicomposting is the ultimate technology which renders for the improvement of soil fertility status and plant growth. Earthworms serve as indicators of soil status such as the level of contamination of pollutants: agrochemicals, heavy metals, toxic substances, and industrial effluents; human-induced activities: land-management practices and forest degradation. In all these fields there is lacuna with respect to contributions from India when compared to the available information from other tropical countries. There is lot of scope in the field of research on earthworms to unravel the importance of these major soil macro fauna from holistic ecological studies to the molecular level.

228

Warming shifts `worming': effects of experimental warming on invasive earthworms in northern North America  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future warming is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, warming-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field warming experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental warming effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by warming-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of warming effects depended on the current average SWC: warming had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that warming limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless warming is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration.

Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B.

2014-11-01

229

A review of studies performed to assess metal uptake by earthworms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Earthworms perform a number of essential functions in soil; the impacts of metals on earthworms are often investigated. In this review we consider the range of earthworm species, types of soil and forms of metal for which metal uptake and accumulation have been studied, the design of these experiments and the quantitative relationships that have been derived to predict earthworm metal body burden. We conclude that there is a need for more studies on earthworm species other than Eisenia fetida in order to apply the large existing database on this earthworm to other, soil dwelling species. To aid comparisons between studies agreement is needed on standard protocols that define exposure and depuration periods and the parameters, such as soil solution composition, soil chemical and physical properties to be measured. It is recommended that more field or terrestrial model ecosystem studies using real contaminated soil rather than metal-amended artificial soils are performed. - We review species, soil and experimental designs used to study metal uptake and accumulation by earthworms and suggest priorities for further studies

230

A review of studies performed to assess metal uptake by earthworms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Earthworms perform a number of essential functions in soil; the impacts of metals on earthworms are often investigated. In this review we consider the range of earthworm species, types of soil and forms of metal for which metal uptake and accumulation have been studied, the design of these experiments and the quantitative relationships that have been derived to predict earthworm metal body burden. We conclude that there is a need for more studies on earthworm species other than Eisenia fetida in order to apply the large existing database on this earthworm to other, soil dwelling species. To aid comparisons between studies agreement is needed on standard protocols that define exposure and depuration periods and the parameters, such as soil solution composition, soil chemical and physical properties to be measured. It is recommended that more field or terrestrial model ecosystem studies using real contaminated soil rather than metal-amended artificial soils are performed. - We review species, soil and experimental designs used to study metal uptake and accumulation by earthworms and suggest priorities for further studies.

Nahmani, Johanne [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Berkshire, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: j.y.nahmani@reading.ac.uk; Hodson, Mark E. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Berkshire, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: m.e.hodson@reading.ac.uk; Black, Stuart [Department of Archaeology, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Whiteknights, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

2007-01-15

231

Effect of radiation and freezing on [3H]DNA of Yersinia enterocolitica.  

OpenAIRE

Freezing of the enteropathogenic bacterium Yersinia enterocolitica to -18 and -75 degrees C caused 7 and 42% cell death, respectively, and 0.329 and 0.588 single-strand breaks per 10(8) daltons of DNA, respectively, while radiation to one D10 dose (10% cell survival) combined with freezing to 2 to 0, -18, and -75 degrees C induced 0.05, 0.75, and 5.04 single-strand breaks, respectively. The increase in the effectiveness of radiation with respect to the yield of single-strand breaks at -18 and...

Grecz, N.; El-zawahry, Y. A.

1984-01-01

232

Effects of metals on life cycle parameters of the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to field-contaminated, metal-polluted soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two control and eight field-contaminated, metal-polluted soils were inoculated with Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826). Three, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days after inoculation, earthworm survival, body weight, cocoon production and hatching rate were measured. Seventeen metals were analysed in E. fetida tissue, bulk soil and soil solution. Soil organic carbon content, texture, pH and cation exchange capacity were also measured. Cocoon production and hatching rate were more sensitive to adverse conditions than survival or weight change. Soil properties other than metal concentration impacted toxicity. The most toxic soils were organic-poor (1-10 g C kg-1), sandy soils (c. 74% sand), with intermediate metal concentrations (e.g. 7150-13,100 mg Pb kg-1, 2970-53,400 mg Zn kg-1). Significant relationships between soil properties and the life cycle parameters were determined. The best coefficients of correlation were generally found for texture, pH, Ag, Cd, Mg, Pb, Tl, and Zn both singularly and in multivariate regressions. Studies that use metal-amended artificial soils are not useful to predict toxicity of field multi-contaminated soils. - Soil pH, organic carbon content and texture can exert a greater influence on earthworm life cycle parameters than soil metal concentrations at metal-contaminated sites

233

Rapid bioassessment methods for assessing the toxicity of terrestrial waste sites at the Savannah River Site using the earthworm, Eisenia foetida  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Studies were conducted to assess the feasibility of using the earthworm, Eisenia foetida, to evaluate the toxicity of contaminated soils at the Savannah River Site. Survival was assessed in several uncontaminated soils, including sandy loams and clayey loams, as well as in soils contaminated with coal fines, ash, diesel fuel, and heavy metals. In addition, behavior responses, changes in biomass, and bioaccumulation of heavy metals were assessed as sublethal indicators of toxicity. The results indicate excellent survival of Eisenia foetida in uncontaminated sandy and clayey soils. No amendment of these uncontaminated soils or addition of food was necessary to sustain the worms for the 14-day test period. In contaminated soils, no significant mortality was observed, except in soils which have very low pH (< 3). However, sublethal responses were observed in earthworms exposed to several of the contaminated soils. These responses included worms clumping on the surface of the soil, worms clumping between the sides of the test container and the soil, increased burrowing times, reductions in biomass, and elevated concentrations of heavy metals in worm tissue.

Specht, W.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Sydow, S.N. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

1995-08-01

234

Rapid bioassessment methods for assessing the toxicity of terrestrial waste sites at the Savannah River Site using the earthworm, Eisenia foetida  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies were conducted to assess the feasibility of using the earthworm, Eisenia foetida, to evaluate the toxicity of contaminated soils at the Savannah River Site. Survival was assessed in several uncontaminated soils, including sandy loams and clayey loams, as well as in soils contaminated with coal fines, ash, diesel fuel, and heavy metals. In addition, behavior responses, changes in biomass, and bioaccumulation of heavy metals were assessed as sublethal indicators of toxicity. The results indicate excellent survival of Eisenia foetida in uncontaminated sandy and clayey soils. No amendment of these uncontaminated soils or addition of food was necessary to sustain the worms for the 14-day test period. In contaminated soils, no significant mortality was observed, except in soils which have very low pH (< 3). However, sublethal responses were observed in earthworms exposed to several of the contaminated soils. These responses included worms clumping on the surface of the soil, worms clumping between the sides of the test container and the soil, increased burrowing times, reductions in biomass, and elevated concentrations of heavy metals in worm tissue

235

Effects of metals on life cycle parameters of the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to field-contaminated, metal-polluted soils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two control and eight field-contaminated, metal-polluted soils were inoculated with Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826). Three, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days after inoculation, earthworm survival, body weight, cocoon production and hatching rate were measured. Seventeen metals were analysed in E. fetida tissue, bulk soil and soil solution. Soil organic carbon content, texture, pH and cation exchange capacity were also measured. Cocoon production and hatching rate were more sensitive to adverse conditions than survival or weight change. Soil properties other than metal concentration impacted toxicity. The most toxic soils were organic-poor (1-10 g C kg{sup -1}), sandy soils (c. 74% sand), with intermediate metal concentrations (e.g. 7150-13,100 mg Pb kg{sup -1}, 2970-53,400 mg Zn kg{sup -1}). Significant relationships between soil properties and the life cycle parameters were determined. The best coefficients of correlation were generally found for texture, pH, Ag, Cd, Mg, Pb, Tl, and Zn both singularly and in multivariate regressions. Studies that use metal-amended artificial soils are not useful to predict toxicity of field multi-contaminated soils. - Soil pH, organic carbon content and texture can exert a greater influence on earthworm life cycle parameters than soil metal concentrations at metal-contaminated sites.

Nahmani, Johanne [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: nahmani@univ-metz.fr; Hodson, Mark E. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: m.e.hodson@reading.ac.uk; Black, Stuart [Department of Archaeology, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Whiteknights, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

2007-09-15

236

Acute toxicity of virgin and used engine oil enriched with copper nano particles in the earthworm  

Science.gov (United States)

In spite of development of nanotechnology and creation of new opportunities for industry, new applications and products initiated by this technology may cause harmful effects on human health and environment. Unfortunately, there is no sufficient information on the harmful effects caused by application of some nano materials; the current knowledge in this field is limited solely to the nano particles but not the final products. Nano cupper particles, as one of the common materials produced in industrial scale is widely used as additives into engine oil to reduce friction and improve lubrication. However, the difference between the effects of virgin and used conventional engine oil (CEO) and the engine oil containing cupper nano particles (NEO) on the environment is not known. Earthworm, as a one of the species which could live and survive in different sorts of earth and has a certain role in protecting the soil structure and fertility, was used in this experiment. In accordance with the recommended method of OECD.1984, Filter Paper test in 24 and 48 h based on 8 concentrations in the range of 3×10-3 - 24×10-3 ml/cm2 and Artificial Soil test in 7 and 14 days based on 7 concentrations in the range of 0.1 mg/kg - 100 g/kg were carried out to study earthworms in terms of lifetime (LC50), morphology and pathology. It was shown that the 48 h LC50 for virgin CEO, virgin NEO, used CEO(8000 km) and used NEO (8000 km) were 6×10-3, 23×10-3, 24×10-3 and 16×10-3 ml/cm2 respectively. Furthermore, 14-day LC50 in artificial soil for all cases were above 100 g/kg. It is concluded that virgin CEO is more toxic than virgin NEO. Meanwhile, the CEO shows significant reduction in toxicity after consumption and the used NEO shows more toxicity in comparison to virgin product. It seems that more investigations on the effects of final products specifically after consumption is necessary because the products after consumption have the most contact with environment and subsequently human health.

Khodabandeh, M.; Koohi, M. K.; Roshani, A.; Shahroziyan, E.; Badri, B.; Pourfallah, A.; Shams, Gh; Hobbenaghi, R.; Sadeghi-Hashjin, G.

2011-07-01

237

Acute toxicity of virgin and used engine oil enriched with copper nano particles in the earthworm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In spite of development of nanotechnology and creation of new opportunities for industry, new applications and products initiated by this technology may cause harmful effects on human health and environment. Unfortunately, there is no sufficient information on the harmful effects caused by application of some nano materials; the current knowledge in this field is limited solely to the nano particles but not the final products. Nano cupper particles, as one of the common materials produced in industrial scale is widely used as additives into engine oil to reduce friction and improve lubrication. However, the difference between the effects of virgin and used conventional engine oil (CEO) and the engine oil containing cupper nano particles (NEO) on the environment is not known. Earthworm, as a one of the species which could live and survive in different sorts of earth and has a certain role in protecting the soil structure and fertility, was used in this experiment. In accordance with the recommended method of OECD.1984, Filter Paper test in 24 and 48 h based on 8 concentrations in the range of 3x10-3 - 24x10-3 ml/cm2 and Artificial Soil test in 7 and 14 days based on 7 concentrations in the range of 0.1 mg/kg - 100 g/kg were carried out to study earthworms in terms of lifetime (LC50), morphology and pathology. It was shown that the 48 h LC50 for virgin CEO, virgin NEO, used CEO(8000 km) and used NEO (8000 km) were 6x10-3, 23x1NEO (8000 km) were 6x10-3, 23x10-3, 24x10-3 and 16x10-3 ml/cm2 respectively. Furthermore, 14-day LC50 in artificial soil for all cases were above 100 g/kg. It is concluded that virgin CEO is more toxic than virgin NEO. Meanwhile, the CEO shows significant reduction in toxicity after consumption and the used NEO shows more toxicity in comparison to virgin product. It seems that more investigations on the effects of final products specifically after consumption is necessary because the products after consumption have the most contact with environment and subsequently human health.

238

Co-Speciation of Earthworms and their nephridial symbionts, Acidovorax Spp  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Earthworms (Annelida; Lumbricidae) harbour species-specific symbiotic bacteria in their nephridia (excretory organs) where the symbionts densely colonize a specific part of the nephridia called the ampulla [1]. The symbiosis is universal among earthworms, the symbionts form a monophyletic cluster within the genus Acidovorax [2], and they are transmitted vertically [3]. For these reasons, we suggest that the earthworm-Acidovorax association has evolved by co-speciation. This hypothesis was tested by a comparative study of earthworm and symbiont phylogeny. Different earthworm species were collected in Denmark and DNA was extracted from their nephridia. Earthworm phylogeny was resolved on the basis of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) by direct PCR amplification and sequencing from the nephridial DNA extract. Symbiont 16S rRNA gene sequences were retrieved by cloning and sequencing the extracted DNA. The presence of the symbionts in the ampulla was verified by performing fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on all worm species using an Acidovorax-specific probe. Earthworm and symbiont phylogeny was largely congruent, indicating that host and symbiont have indeed co-evolved since the initial bacterial colonization of an ancestral lumbricid worm. However, the association is complicated by the recent discovery of additional, putative symbiotic bacteria which have been detected in the ampulla of several earthworms by FISH. Identity, distribution among earthworms, and function of these non-Acidovorax symbionts are still to be investigated. [1] Knop, J. 1926. Z Morph Ökol Tiere, 6(3):588-624. [2] Schramm, A. et al. 2003. Environ Microbiol 5(9):804-809. [3] Davidson, S.K. & Stahl, D.A. 2006. Appl Environ Microbiol 72(1):769-775.

Lund, Marie Braad; Fritz, Michael

2006-01-01

239

Surviving Winter  

Science.gov (United States)

In this lesson designed to enhance literacy skills, students learn about the varied physical and behavioral adaptations that animals rely on to help them survive changing environmental conditions, such as the arrival of winter.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2010-12-13

240

Influence of the freezing process on the properties of freeze-dried powders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Freeze-drying is a favoured technique to prepare fine-grained ceramic precursor materials. Not only the comosition of starting solutions or of precipitated wet products but also the freezing process influence the properties of freeze-dried powders. The influence of the freezing rate is demonstrated for the granulometric properties and for the sinterability of tetragonal ZrO2. The effect of the freezing rate on the homogenity is shown for two multicomponent systems (doped zinc oxide and Bi2CaSr2Cu2Ox). (orig./MM)

241

The principles of freeze-drying.  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter provides an up-to-date overview of freeze-drying (lyophilization) with particular relevance to stabilizing live cells or viruses for industrial applications as vaccines or seed culture. The chapter discusses the importance of formulation, cycle development, validation, and the need to satisfy pharmaceutical regulatory requirements necessary for the commercial exploitation of freeze-dried products. PMID:25428004

Adams, Gerald D J; Cook, Isobel; Ward, Kevin R

2015-01-01

242

Repeatability and randomness in heterogeneous freezing nucleation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is aimed at clarifying the relative importance of the specific character of the nuclei and of the duration of supercooling in heterogeneous freezing nucleation by immersed impurities. Laboratory experiments were carried out in which sets of water drops underwent multiple cycles of freezing and melting. The drops contained suspended particles of mixtures of materials; the resulting freezing temperatures ranged from ?6°C to ?24°C. Rank correlation coefficients between observed freezing temperatures of the drops in successive runs were >0.9 with very high statistical significance, and thus provide strong support for the modified singular model of heterogeneous immersion freezing nucleation. For given drops, changes in freezing temperatures between cycles were relatively small (<1°C for the majority of the events. These frequent small fluctuations in freezing temperatures are interpreted as reflections of the random nature of embryo growth and are associated with a nucleation rate that is a function of a temperature difference from the characteristic temperatures of nuclei. About a sixth of the changes were larger, up to ±5°C, and exhibited some systematic patterns. These are thought to arise from alterations of the nuclei, some being permanent and some transitory. The results are used to suggest ways of describing ice initiation in cloud models that account for both the temperature and the time dependence of freezing nucleation.

G. Vali

2008-08-01

243

Repeatability and randomness in heterogeneous freezing nucleation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is aimed at clarifying the relative importance of the specific character of the nuclei and of the duration of supercooling in heterogeneous freezing nucleation by immersed impurities. Laboratory experiments were carried out in which sets of water drops underwent multiple cycles of freezing and melting. The drops contained suspended particles of mixtures of materials; the resulting freezing temperatures ranged from ?6°C to ?24°C. Rank correlation coefficients between observed freezing temperatures of the drops in successive runs were >0.9 with very high statistical significance, and thus provide strong support for the modified singular model of heterogeneous immersion freezing nucleation. For given drops, changes in freezing temperatures between cycles were relatively small (<1°C for the majority of the events. These frequent small fluctuations in freezing temperatures are interpreted as reflections of the random nature of embryo growth and are associated with a nucleation rate that is a function of a temperature difference from the characteristic temperatures of nuclei. About a sixth of the changes were larger, up to ±5°C, and exhibited some systematic patterns. These are thought to arise from alterations of the nuclei, some being permanent and some transitory. The results are used to suggest ways of describing ice initiation in cloud models that account for both the temperature and the time dependence of freezing nucleation.

G. Vali

2008-02-01

244

The binding interactions of imidacloprid with earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, several studies were conducted to elucidate the binding mechanism of earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme (EFE) with imidocloprid (IMI) by using theoretical calculation, fluorescence, UV-vis, circular dichroism spectroscopy and an enzymatic inhibition assay. The spectral data showed that the binding interactions existed between IMI and EFE. The binding constants, binding site, thermodynamic parameters and binding forces were analyzed in detail. The results indicate a single class of binding sites for IMI in EFE and that this binding interaction is a spontaneous process with the estimated enthalpy and entropy changes being 2.195 kJ mol-1 and 94.480 J mol-1 K-1, respectively. A single class of binding site existed for IMI in EFE. The tertiary or secondary structure of EFE was partly destroyed by IMI. The visualized binding details were also exhibited by the theoretical calculation and the results indicated that the interaction between IMI and Phe (Tyr, or Trp) or EFE occurred. Combining the experimental data with the theoretical calculation data, we showed that the binding forces between IMI and EFE were mainly hydrophobic force accompanied by hydrogen binding, and ?-? stacking. In addition, IMI did not obviously influence the activity of EFE. In a word, the above analysis offered insights into the binding mechanism of IMI with EFE and could provide some important information for the molecular toxicity of IMI for earthworms.

Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Chen, Tao

2014-08-01

245

Biosynthesis of luminescent quantum dots in an earthworm  

Science.gov (United States)

The synthesis of designer solid-state materials by living organisms is an emerging field in bio-nanotechnology. Key examples include the use of engineered viruses as templates for cobalt oxide (Co3O4) particles, superparamagnetic cobalt-platinum alloy nanowires and gold-cobalt oxide nanowires for photovoltaic and battery-related applications. Here, we show that the earthworm's metal detoxification pathway can be exploited to produce luminescent, water-soluble semiconductor cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots that emit in the green region of the visible spectrum when excited in the ultraviolet region. Standard wild-type Lumbricus rubellus earthworms were exposed to soil spiked with CdCl2 and Na2TeO3 salts for 11 days. Luminescent quantum dots were isolated from chloragogenous tissues surrounding the gut of the worm, and were successfully used in live-cell imaging. The addition of polyethylene glycol on the surface of the quantum dots allowed for non-targeted, fluid-phase uptake by macrophage cells.

Stürzenbaum, S. R.; Höckner, M.; Panneerselvam, A.; Levitt, J.; Bouillard, J.-S.; Taniguchi, S.; Dailey, L.-A.; Khanbeigi, R. Ahmad; Rosca, E. V.; Thanou, M.; Suhling, K.; Zayats, A. V.; Green, M.

2013-01-01

246

Earthworm coelomocytes as nanoscavenger of ZnO NPs  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworms can `biotransform' or `biodegrade' chemical contaminants, rendering them harmless in their bodies, and can bioaccumulate them in their tissues. They `absorb' the dissolved chemicals through their moist `body wall' due to the interstitial water and also ingest by `mouth' while soil passes through the gut. Since the advent of the nanotechnology era, the environmental sink has been continuously receiving engineered nanomaterials as well as their derivatives. Our current understanding of the potential impact of nanomaterials and their natural scavenger is limited. In the present investigation, we studied the cellular uptake of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) by coelomocytes especially by chloragocytes of Eisenia fetida and their role as nanoscavenger. Results from exposure to 100- and 50-nm ZnO NPs indicate that coelomocytes of the earthworm E. fetida show no significant DNA damage at a dose lower than 3 mg/l and have the potential ability to uptake ZnO NPs from the soil ecosystem and transform them into microparticles.

Gupta, Shruti; Kushwah, Tanuja; Yadav, Shweta

2014-05-01

247

FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIONS ARE ESTABLISHED BETWEEN GIANT NERVE FIBERS IN GRAFTED EARTHWORMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Giant fiber interconnections were examined in successful grafts between two posterior portions of earthworms (Eisenia foetida). Electrophysiological and histological results indicated that cell-specific interanimal connections were formed between the medial giant fibers (MGF) in ...

248

Earthworm Casts (Pheretema sp. Nutrient Contents of Nampong Soil Series (Ustoxic Quartzipsamment in Northeast Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This earthworm cast experiment was carried out at four different sites of Nampong soil series (Ustoxic quartzipsamment namely dipterocarp forest, tamarind orchard farm, grazing pasture, and sugarcane plantation. The results showed that earthworm casts of the four locations contented different levels of nutrients. The highest nutrient contents were found with Tamarind orchard farm followed by Dipterocarp forest, grazing pasture, and sugarcane plantation, respectively. Data on nutrient contents (NPK, Ca, Mg, and Na of earthworm casts of each location were much higher than that of their respective soils. Earthworm casts could help to improve soil properties particularly Nampong soil series, which contented low level of soil fertility. This may help to improve crop yield for sustainable agriculture.

T. Chuasavathi

2001-01-01

249

Glyphosate herbicide affects belowground interactions between earthworms and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi in a model ecosystem  

Science.gov (United States)

Herbicides containing glyphosate are widely used in agriculture and private gardens, however, surprisingly little is known on potential side effects on non-target soil organisms. In a greenhouse experiment with white clover we investigated, to what extent a globally-used glyphosate herbicide affects interactions between essential soil organisms such as earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We found that herbicides significantly decreased root mycorrhization, soil AMF spore biomass, vesicles and propagules. Herbicide application and earthworms increased soil hyphal biomass and tended to reduce soil water infiltration after a simulated heavy rainfall. Herbicide application in interaction with AMF led to slightly heavier but less active earthworms. Leaching of glyphosate after a simulated rainfall was substantial and altered by earthworms and AMF. These sizeable changes provide impetus for more general attention to side-effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on key soil organisms and their associated ecosystem services.

Zaller, Johann G.; Heigl, Florian; Ruess, Liliane; Grabmaier, Andrea

2014-07-01

250

Inhibition effect of glyphosate on the acute and subacute toxicity of cadmium to earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

Science.gov (United States)

The acute and subacute toxicities of cadmium (Cd) to earthworm Eisenia fetida in the presence and absence of glyphosate were studied. Although Cd is highly toxic to E. fetida, the presence of glyphosate markedly reduced the acute toxicity of Cd to earthworm; both the mortality rate of the earthworms and the accumulation of Cd decreased with the increase of the glyphosate/Cd molar ratio. The subcellular distribution of Cd in E. fetida tissues showed that internal Cd was dominant in the intact cells fraction and the heat-stable proteins fraction. The presence of glyphosate reduced the concentration of Cd in all fractions, especially the intact cells. During a longer period of exposure, the weight loss of earthworm and the total Cd absorption was alleviated by glyphosate. Thus, the herbicide glyphosate can reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cd in the soil ecosystems at both short- and long-term exposures. PMID:25043609

Zhou, Chui-Fan; Wang, Yu-Jun; Sun, Rui-Juan; Liu, Cun; Fan, Guang-Ping; Qin, Wen-Xiu; Li, Cheng-Cheng; Zhou, Dong-Mei

2014-10-01

251

Toxicological responses of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) exposed to metal-contaminated soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicological responses of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) induced by field-contaminated, metal-polluted soils. Biochemical responses and DNA damage of earthworm exposed to two multi-metal-contaminated soils in a steel industry park and a natural reference soil in Zijin Mountain for 2, 7, 14, and 28 days were studied. Results showed that three enzyme activities, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and cellulase, in earthworm in metal-contaminated soils were significantly different from those of the reference soil. Cellulase and AChE were more sensitive than SOD to soil contamination. The Olive tail moment of the comet assay after 2-day exposure increased 56.5 and 552.0 % in two contaminated soils, respectively, compared to the reference soil. Our findings show that cellulase and DNA damage levels can be used as potential biomarkers for exposure of earthworm to metal-polluted soils. PMID:23589267

Zheng, Kai; Liu, ZhengTao; Li, YaJie; Cui, YiBin; Li, Mei

2013-12-01

252

Earthworm Ecology in the Northern Part of Iran: With an Emphasis on Compost Worm Eisenia fetida  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, Northern part of Iran was chosen as study area. Four hundred samples of earthworms were collected by three methods (hand-sorting, chemical and heat extraction of which 352 and 20 were mature and immature earthworms, respectively from different parts of the area. Following the method introduced by Graff the earthworms were placed in formaldehyde (5 and 10% and ethyl alcohol (60%. The morphological observations showed the presence of eight species including seven specimens of Lumbricidae: A. caliginosa, A. kaznakovi, A. jassyensis, A. rosea, D. veneta, D. byblica, E. fetida and a specimen of Megascolecidae: P. indica. The abundance of E. fetida was 18.1% with large distribution over the area that makes this species an easily available earthworm in rearing industry and in organic waste management.

G.A. Omrani

2005-01-01

253

Toxicological responses of the earthworm Eisenia fetida to 18-crown-6 under laboratory conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The earthworm Eisenia fetida was exposed to artificial soil supplemented with 18-crown-6 (1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaoxacyclooctadecane) to investigate its effects on earthworm mortality, growth, avoidance, burrowing behavior and respiration. The results revealed that 18-crown-6 had the potential to negatively affect the behavior of earthworms. The 7-d LC50 was 585 mg kg(-1) soil. Avoidance behavior was the most sensitive endpoint, with a 48-h EC50 of 120 mg kg(-1) soil. Growth, burrow length and respiration showed general decreases with increasing 18-crown-6 concentrations. Behavioral endpoints and respiration may be regarded as sensitive parameters in evaluating the toxicity of this chemical to earthworms. PMID:25100182

Du, Yongtao; Rao, Pinhua; Li, Yinsheng; Qiu, Jiangping; Qiu, Weiguo; Tang, Hao; Potter, Murray A

2014-10-01

254

Acute and sublethal effects of sequential exposure to the pesticide azinphos-methyl on juvenile earthworms (Eisenia andrei).  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of organophosphate pesticides is an integral part of commercial farming activities and these substances have been implicated as a major source of environmental contamination and may impact on a range of non-target fauna. The extent to which soil dwelling non-target organisms are affected by exposure to the organophosphate azinphos-methyl was investigated through monitoring selected biomarker responses and life cycle effects under laboratory conditions in the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Standard acute toxicity tests were conducted followed by a sequential exposure regime experiment, in order to assess the effects of multiple pesticide applications on biomarker (cholinesterase activity and neutral red retention time), life-cycle (growth and reproduction) and behaviour (avoidance and burrowing activity) responses. The present study indicates that the time between exposure events was a more important variable than concentration and that a longer interval between exposures may mitigate the effects of pesticide exposure provided that the exposure concentration is low. Additionally, it was shown that E. andrei was unable to avoid the presence of azinphos-methyl in soil, even at concentrations as high as 50% of the LC(50) value, indicating that the presence of azinphos-methyl in the soil pose a realistic threat to earthworms and other soil dwelling organisms. The ChE inhibition test showed a high percentage inhibition of the enzyme in all exposure groups that survived and NRR times of exposed organisms were lower than that of the controls. The present study yielded important results that contribute to the understanding of biological impacts of pesticide pollution on the environment. Extrapolating these results can aid in optimising pesticide application regimes to mitigate the environmental effects thereof and thus ensuring sustained soil biodiversity in agricultural areas. PMID:22086221

Jordaan, Martine S; Reinecke, Sophié A; Reinecke, Adriaan J

2012-04-01

255

Exploring the Nature of Contact Freezing  

Science.gov (United States)

The freezing of supercooled water droplets upon contact with aerosol particles (contact nucleation of ice) is the least understood mechanism of ice formation in atmospheric clouds. Although experimental evidences suggest that some aerosols can be better IN in the contact than in the immersion mode (that is, triggering ice nucleation at higher temperature), no final explanation of this phenomena currently exists. On the other hand, the contact freezing is believed to be responsible for the enhanced rate of secondary ice formation occasionally observed in LIDAR measurements in the cold mixed phase clouds. Recently we have been able to show that the freezing of supercooled droplets electrodynamically levitated in the laminar flow containing mineral dust particles (kaolinite) is a process solely governed by a rate of collisions between the supercooled droplet and the aerosol particles. We have shown that the probability of droplet freezing on a single contact with aerosol particle may differ over an order of magnitude for kaolinite particles having different genesis and morphology. In this presentation we extend the study of contact nucleation of ice and compare the IN efficiency measured for DMA-selected kaolinite, illite and hematite particles. We show that the freezing probability increases towards unity as the temperature decreases and discuss the functional form of this temperature dependence. We explore the size dependence of the contact freezing probability and show that it scales with the surface area of the particles, thus resembling the immersion freezing behavior. However, for all minerals investigated so far, the contact freezing has been shown to dominate over immersion freezing on the short experimental time scales. Finally, based on the combined ESEM and electron microprobe analysis, we discuss the significance of particle morphology and variability of chemical composition on its IN efficiency in contact mode.

Kiselev, A. A.; Hoffmann, N.; Duft, D.; Leisner, T.

2012-12-01

256

Temperature-dependent alterations in metabolic enzymes and proteins of three ecophysiologically different species of earthworms  

OpenAIRE

The effects of varying temperatures (12 - 44° C) on the specific activity of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase ((cMDH), mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of some earthworms (Metaphire posthuma, Perionyx sansibaricus and Lampito mauritii) were studied. The effects of different temperatures on supernatant and mitochondrial protein contents were also investigated. The specific activities of cMDH, mMDH and LDH of the earthworms decreased gradually as a func...

Tripathi, G.; Kachhwaha, N.; Dabi, I.; Bandooni, N.

2011-01-01

257

Organochlorine pesticide residues in woodcock, soils and earthworms in Louisiana, 1965  

Science.gov (United States)

Woodcock (Philohela minor), earthworms, and soil samples were collected from January-March 1965, from fields in southeastern Louisiana approximately 3 years after discontinuance of areal treatments with heptachlor in this region. Heptachlor epoxide residues in woodcock averaged 0.42 ppm (dry weight), conspicuously lower than in 1961 and 1962. Residues of DDE in woodcock averaged 3.62 pprn, higher than in birds taken in the same area in 1961-62. Earthworms and soils contained traces of several organochlorine pesticides.

McLane, M.A.R.; Stickel, L.F.; Newsom, J.D.

1971-01-01

258

Earthworm communities in alluvial forests: Influence of altitude, vegetation stages and soil parameters  

OpenAIRE

In many terrestrial ecosystems, soil parameters usually regulate the distribution of earthworm communities.In alluvial ecosystems, few studies have investigated the impact of periodic floods and alluvium deposition on soil fauna. In this context, we assumed that earthworm communities may vary depending on altitude (alpine, subalpine, mountain and hill levels), forest successional stage (post-pioneer to mature forests) and some soil parameters. Our results demonstrated that the composition of ...

Salome?, Cle?mence; Guenat, Claire; Bullinger-weber, Ge?raldine; Gobat, Jean-michel; Le Bayon, Rene?e-claire

2011-01-01

259

Identification of Earthworms species in Sari Township in Northern Iran, 2007-2008  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study is identification of earthworm species gathered from the geographic regions of Sari Township. Samples gathered from different regions of Sari Township fixed by formaldehyde and alcohol solution in several stages and placed into formalin tubes (5%), in addition to providing sample characteristics tabled by Graff identification key, fixed earthworms are recognized. After recognition, analysis obtained data from geographical information of sampling regions and from original...

Yousefi, Z.; Ramezani, M.; Kh Akbari Mohamadi, S.; Mohammadpour, R. A.; Nemati, A.

2009-01-01

260

Plasmid Transfer between Spatially Separated Donor and Recipient Bacteria in Earthworm-Containing Soil Microcosms  

OpenAIRE

Most gene transfer studies have been performed with relatively homogeneous soil systems in the absence of soil macrobiota, including invertebrates. In this study we examined the influence of earthworm activity (burrowing, casting, and feeding) on transfer of plasmid pJP4 between spatially separated donor (Alcaligenes eutrophus) and recipient (Pseudomonas fluorescens) bacteria in nonsterile soil columns. A model system was designed such that the activity of earthworms would act to mediate cell...

Daane, L. L.; Molina, J.; Sadowsky, M. J.

1997-01-01

261

Influence of ground cover on earthworm communities in an unmanaged beech forest: linear gradient studies  

OpenAIRE

Micro-scale changes in earthworm communities and ground cover types were studied along five transect lines in an unmanaged beech forest (Fontainebleau forest, France). Spatial patterns were interpreted in the light of interactions between earthworm species and forest architecture, ground vegetation and quantity as well as quality of litter. The anecic Lumbricus terrestris was associated with patches of the grass Melica uniflora, with poor litter cover, while most epigeic species were favoured...

Campana, Cyril; Gauvin, Ste?phanie; Ponge, Jean-franc?ois

2002-01-01

262

Reversible inhibition of reproduction during regeneration of cerebral ganglia and celomocytes in the earthworm Dendrobaena veneta  

OpenAIRE

Earthworms may be subjected to mechanical/chemical stimuli and/or sub-lethal predator attacks leading to the extrusion of celomocytes and/or loss of body parts; thus, regeneration of cells, tissues and organs has adaptive value. The aim of present study on the lumbricid earthworm Dendrobaena veneta was to determine the interactive effects of celomocytes and the brain on the regeneration of either system after experimental depletion or extirpation, and to assess the effects of such treatments ...

Okrzesik, J.; Kachamakova-trojanowska, N.; Jozkowicz, A.; Aj, Morgan; Plytycz, B.

2013-01-01

263

Earthworms and management affect organic matter incorporation and microaggregate formation in agricultural soils  

OpenAIRE

Through their feeding activities and cast production, earthworms influence both aggregate turnover and soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics. We studied the impact of earthworm activity on soil macro- and microaggregation and SOM incorporation in different farming systems. Dry-sieved aggregates (4¿12.5 mm) of a permanent pasture (PP), a conventional arable field (CA) and an organic arable field (OA) (0¿10 and 10¿20 cm depth) were separated into different aggregate fractions, which were analyz...

Pulleman, M. M.; Six, J.; Uyl, A.; Marinissen, J. C. Y.; Jongmans, A. G.

2005-01-01

264

Endogeic earthworms shape bacterial functional communities and affect organic matter mineralization in a tropical soil  

OpenAIRE

Priming effect (PE) is defined as a stimulation of the mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) following a supply of fresh organic matter. This process can have important consequences on the fate of SOM and on the management of residues in agricultural soils, especially in tropical regions where soil fertility is essentially based on the management of organic matter. Earthworms are ecosystem engineers known to affect the dynamics of SOM. Endogeic earthworms ingest large amounts of soil an...

Bernard, Laetitia; Chapuis-lardy, Lydie; Razafimbelo, Tantely; Razafindrakoto, Malalatiana; Pablo, Anne-laure; Legname, Elvire; Poulain, Julie; Bru?ls, Thomas; O Donohue, Michael; Brauman, Alain; Chotte, Jean-luc; Blanchart, Eric

2011-01-01

265

Invasive earthworms in Indiana old-growth and second-growth forests  

OpenAIRE

Temperate and boreal forests in Canada and the northeastern United States are susceptible to attacks by multiple invasive species, including European earthworms (family Lumbricidae) and plant species such as garlic mustard ( Alliaria petiolata [M. Bieb] Cavara & Grande) and multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora Thunb.). Old-growth forests are considered less susceptible to invasion by introduced plant species than secondary growth forests but the ability of introduced earthworms to invade old-grow...

Quackenbush, Patricia Mary

2011-01-01

266

Soil organic matter distribution as influenced by enchytraeid and earthworm activity  

OpenAIRE

Loam and sandy soils, and the earthworm casts produced with 14C-labelled plant material in both soils, were incubated in airtight glass vessels with and without enchytraeids to evaluate the effects of soil fauna on the distribution and fragmentation of organic matter. After 1, 3, and 6 weeks, the amount of C mineralised was determined in soils and earthworm casts, and the soil was fractionated into particulate organic matter (POM), the most active pool of soil organic matter, after complete p...

Koutika, L. S.; Didden, W. A. M.; Marinissen, J. C. Y.

2001-01-01

267

Earthworms - role in soil fertility to the use in medicine and as a food  

OpenAIRE

Earthworms are important regulators of soil structure and dynamics of soil organic matter. They are a major component of soil fauna communities in most ecosystems and comprise a large proportion of macro fauna biomass. Their activities are beneficial because they can enhance soil nutrient cycling through the rapid incorporation of detritus into mineral soil. However, mucus production associated with water excretion in earthworm guts also enhances the activity of other beneficial soil microorg...

Grdis?a, M.; Grs?ic?, K.; Md, Grdis?a

2013-01-01

268

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-polluted dredged peat sediments and earthworms: a mutual interference  

OpenAIRE

In lowland areas of the Netherlands, any peat sediments will gradually become enriched with anthropogenically derived Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Due to Dutch policy standards these (anaerobic) sediments are not allowed to be dredged and placed onto land. Under aerobic conditions, however, biodegradation of PAH is greatly enhanced. This degradation is further stimulated by colonisation of the sediments by earthworms. Laboratory experiments show that although earthworms do not avoid PAH-...

Eijsackers, H. J. P.; Gestel, C. A. M.; Jonge, S.; Muijs, B.; Slijkerman, D. M. E.

2001-01-01

269

Presence of Culturable Bacteria in Cocoons of the Earthworm Eisenia fetida†  

OpenAIRE

Viable bacteria were found to coexist with developing embryos in egg capsules (cocoons) of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Earthworms were reared under standardized conditions, and bacterial densities were measured in distinct batches of cocoons collected weekly for 10 weeks. Cocoons weighing 12 mg contained a mean viable bacterial population of approximately 108 CFU/g of cocoons. No difference was found in viable counts obtained from cocoons incubated at 15°C and cocoons incubated at 24°C. V...

Zachmann, Joseph E.; Molina, J. A. E.

1993-01-01

270

Self-Assemblage and Quorum in the Earthworm Eisenia fetida (Oligochaete, Lumbricidae)  

OpenAIRE

Despite their ubiquity and ecological significance in temperate ecosystems, the behavioural ecology of earthworms is not well described. This study examines the mechanisms that govern aggregation behaviour specially the tendency of individuals to leave or join groups in the compost earthworm Eisenia fetida, a species with considerable economic importance, especially in waste management applications. Through behavioural assays combined with mathematical modelling, we provide the first evidence...

Zirbes, Lara; Brostaux, Yves; Mescher, Mark; Jason, Maxime; Haubruge, Eric; Deneubourg, Jean-louis

2012-01-01

271

Verminephrobacter eiseniae type IV pili and flagella are required to colonize earthworm nephridia  

OpenAIRE

The bacterial symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae colonizes nephridia, the excretory organs, of the lumbricid earthworm Eisenia fetida. E. fetida transfers V. eisenia into the egg capsule albumin during capsule formation and V. eiseniae cells migrate into the earthworm nephridia during embryogenesis, where they bind and persist. In order to characterize the mechanistic basis of selective tissue colonization, methods for site-directed mutagenesis and colonization competence were developed and ...

Dulla, Glenn F. J.; Go, Ruth A.; Stahl, David A.; Davidson, Seana K.

2012-01-01

272

An efficient deep freeze tunnel; Zuinige diepvriestunnel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The freezing of vegetables requires cooling to far below the zero point (-18 to -20{sup o}C). As a result, the energy consumption and the energy expenses of freeze tunnels are high. Accurate adjustment of the operational parameters of the freeze tunnel can result in up to 20% energy savings. A brief overview is given of the VITO study on the most important parameters that influence the energy consumption and the energy saving options at `Stevens Koeltechniek` and `Compufreez` in Ieper, Belgium. 2 ills.

Van Bael, J. [Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek VITO, Mol (Belgium)

1997-11-01

273

Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycerol/H+ symporter Stl1p is essential for cold/near-freeze and freeze stress adaptation. A simple recipe with high biotechnological potential is given  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Freezing is an increasingly important means of preservation and storage of microbial strains used for many types of industrial applications including food processing. However, the yeast mechanisms of tolerance and sensitivity to freeze or near-freeze stress are still poorly understood. More knowledge on this regard would improve their biotechnological potential. Glycerol, in particular intracellular glycerol, has been assigned as a cryoprotectant, also important for cold/near-freeze stress adaptation. The S. cerevisiae glycerol active transporter Stl1p plays an important role on the fast accumulation of glycerol. This gene is expressed under gluconeogenic conditions, under osmotic shock and stress, as well as under high temperatures. Results We found that cells grown on STL1 induction medium (YPGE and subjected to cold/near-freeze stress, displayed an extremely high expression of this gene, also visible at glycerol/H+ symporter activity level. Under the same conditions, the strains harbouring this transporter accumulated more than 400 mM glycerol, whereas the glycerol/H+ symporter mutant presented less than 1 mM. Consistently, the strains able to accumulate glycerol survive 25-50% more than the stl1? mutant. Conclusions In this work, we report the contribution of the glycerol/H+ symporter Stl1p for the accumulation and maintenance of glycerol intracellular levels, and consequently cell survival at cold/near-freeze and freeze temperatures. These findings have a high biotechnological impact, as they show that any S. cerevisiae strain already in use can become more resistant to cold/freeze-thaw stress just by simply adding glycerol to the broth. The combination of low temperatures with extracellular glycerol will induce the transporter Stl1p. This solution avoids the use of transgenic strains, in particular in food industry.

Ferreira Célia

2010-11-01

274

Dynamics of the earthworm communities in organic farming fields. Modeling of the population dynamics of Aporrectodea caliginosa.  

OpenAIRE

The earthworms fulfil, in the agroecosystems, many services, crucial for the production and proper functioning of the soil. Therefore, it is necessary to deepen our understanding of the drivers of the changes with time of the density and the specific diversity of earthworms communities. Indeed such a knowledge is necessary to predict the effects of the agricultural practices on soil macrofauna and to design cropping systems in organic farming, beneficial to the earthworm abundance. The purpos...

Oliveira, Tatiana

2012-01-01

275

Earthworm-induced N2O emissions in a sandy soil with surface-applied crop residues  

OpenAIRE

Earlier research with endogeic and epigeic earthworm species in loamy arable soil has shown that both earthworm groups can increase nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, provided that crop residue placement matches the feeding strategy of the earthworm ecological group(s). However, it is not yet clear whether these effects also occur in sandy soils which typically contain less soil organic matter and have low soil aggregation levels. Here, we aimed to quantify N2O emissions as affected by endogeic a...

Giannopoulos, G.; Groenigen, J. W.; Pulleman, M. M.

2011-01-01

276

Effects of chlorpyrifos and lead (Pb) on the earthworm Eisenia fetida :a biomarker comparison and a characterisation of recovery  

OpenAIRE

Cholinesterase (ChE) activity is a recognised biomarker of organophosphorus (OP) insecticide exposure. It is frequently applied to earthworms in the field of agriculturally linked ecotoxicology, because of the use of OP insecticides on crops, and the exposure of earthworms due to their inhabiting the soil. The ubiquitously occurring metal lead (Pb) has previously been shown to both influence and not influence ChE activity in earthworms, therefore it was of interest to investigate the influenc...

Aamodt, Solveig

2005-01-01

277

Macropores and earthworm species affected by agronomic intensification  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Soil ecosystem services depend on water regulation both to retain soil moisture and to eliminate water excess without harmful loss of particles and nutrients. As such the combination of soil physical properties that support soil hydrological functioning is a well-recognized service delivered by soil. There is widespread recognition of soil biodiversity and biological activities that are needed to sustain soil structural properties. The detrimental consequences of a weakened functionality have been stressed in the EU Soil Strategy and hydrology in particular is related to all soil threats. Biopores and soil aggregate formation have been shown to be crucial results of soil macroorganism activities contributing to soil hydrology. In collaboration between the French “Observatoire de Recherche en Environnement – Agro-écosystèmes, Cycles Biogéochimiques et Biodiversité” (ORE-ACBB) and the FP7 EU project EcoFINDERS we investigated the relationsship between earthworm biodiversity, macropores and three agricultural landuse types. A field campaign was conducted in October-November 2011. Earthworm burrow distribution was quantified at 10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 20 cm horizontal layer intervals down the soil profile to 1 meter depth and correlated with the earthworm community consisting of 12 species dominated by the endogeics Aporrectodea caliginosa and Aporrectodea chlorotica and the anecics Aporrectodea longa and Lumbricus centralis. Medium-small macropores in the ploughing layer with diameters (Ø) less than 5 mm were significantly more abundant in permanent grassland compared to conventional rotation system with annual crops. An intermediate system with 3 year grass and 3 years with annuals was also intermediate between the two other systems. At 30 cm's depth we found no large macropores, Ø >7 mm, in the system with annuals, but increasingly more in rotations with grass. Addition of frequencies of macropores with Ø>7 mm retains the significant difference between annual and the permanent grass system. Moreover, all the large burrows, >5 mm Ø, follow this pattern and are significantly more numerous in permanent grass to annuals (P<3%). At depth 100 cm total number of macropores were more abundant in the annual crops compared with permanent grass (P=5%), due to a larger number of macropores <7 mm. We present an interpretation of the macropore patterns in relation to the anecic and endogeic lifeforms and their established role in creating burrows of different spatial distribution and density.

Krogh, Paul Henning; Pérès, Guénola

278

Enantioselective toxicity, bioaccumulation and degradation of the chiral insecticide fipronil in earthworms (Eisenia feotida).  

Science.gov (United States)

The enantioselective acute toxicity to earthworms of racemic fipronil and its individual enantiomers was studied. R-(-)-fipronil was approximately 1.5 times more toxic than the racemate and approximately 2 times more toxic than S-(+)-fipronil after 72 and 96 h of exposure, respectively. Assays of fipronil enantiomer bioaccumulation and degradation in earthworms were conducted. The bio-concentration factors (BCFs) were slightly different between the two enantiomers. The enantiomeric fraction (EF) values in earthworms in the bioaccumulation period were approximately 0.5, which indicated there was no enantioselective bioaccumulation. In contrast, the degradation of fipronil in earthworms was enantioselective: the t1/2 values for R- and S-fipronil were 3.3 and 2.5 days, respectively, in natural soil, and 2.1 and 1.4 days, respectively, in artificial soil. The results of soil analyses showed that the degradation of fipronil was not enantioselective, which suggested that the enantioselectivity of fipronil in earthworms results from the organism's metabolism. The study also demonstrated that the presence of earthworms could accelerate the degradation of fipronil in soil. PMID:24742550

Qu, Han; Wang, Peng; Ma, Rui-xue; Qiu, Xing-xu; Xu, Peng; Zhou, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Dong-hui

2014-07-01

279

Can we predict How Earthworm Effects on Plant Growth Vary with Soil Properties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Earthworms are usually assumed to enhance plant growth through different mechanisms which are now clearly identified. It is however difficult to determine their relative importance, and to predict a priori the strength and direction of the effects of a given earthworm species on a given plant. Soil properties are likely to be very influential in determining plant responses to earthworm activities. They are likely to change the relative strength of the various mechanisms involved in plant-earthworm interactions. In this paper, we review the different rationales used to explain changes in earthworm effect due to soil type. Then, we systematically discuss the effect of main soil characteristics (soil texture, OM, and nutrient contents) on the different mechanisms allowing earthworm to influence plant growth. Finally, we identify the main shortcomings in our knowledge and point out the new experimental and meta-analytical approaches that need to be developed. An example of such a meta-analysis is given and means to go further are suggested. The result highlights a strong positive effect size in sandy soil and a weakly negative effect in clayey soil.

280

Earthworms: Charles Darwin’s ‘Unheralded Soldiers of Mankind’: Protective & Productive for Man & Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Earthworms promises to provide cheaper solutions to several social, economic and environmental problems plaguing the human society. Earthworms can safely manage all municipal and industrial organic wastes including sewage sludge and divert them from ending up in the landfills. Their body work as a ‘biofilter’ and they can ‘purify’ and also ‘disinfect’ and ‘detoxify’ municipal and several industrial wastewater. They reduce the BOD & COD loads and the TDSS of wastewater significantly. They can even remove the EDCs (endocrine disrupting chemicals from sewage which is not removed by the conventional sewage treatments plants. Earthworms can bio-accumulate and bio-transform many chemical contaminants including heavy metals and organic pollutants in soil and clean-up the contaminated lands for re-development. Earthworms restore & improve soil fertility by their secretions (growth hormones and excreta (vermicast with beneficial soil microbes & boost ‘crop productivity’. They have potential to replace the environmentally destructive chemical fertilizers from farm production. The ‘protein rich’ earthworm biomass is being used for production of ‘nutritive feed materials’ for fishery, dairy & poultry industries. They are also being used as ‘raw materials’ for rubber, lubricant and detergent industries. The bioactive compounds isolated from earthworms are finding new uses in production of ‘life saving medicines’ for cardiovascular diseases and cancer cure.

Rajiv K. Sinha

2010-09-01

281

Enantioselective kinetics of ?-hexachlorocyclohexane in earthworm (Eisenia fedtia) and forest soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The enantioselective bioaccumulation and elimination behaviors of ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH) enantiomers in earthworm and soil were investigated by chiral gas chromatography. Enantiomer fraction values were calculated as indicators of the enantioselectivity. The mature earthworms were exposed to 0.10 µg g(-1)(wwt) (0.14 µg g(-1)(dwt)) spiked soil continuously for the bioaccumulation, and the elimination was conducted after an enrichment period in the soil. The results showed that both the bioaccumulation and elimination processes followed monophasic kinetics, body residues of ?-HCH in earthworm increased to high level at the fifth day, and enantioselectivity was found in the bioaccumulation process with the rate constant (k) of 0.80 d(-1) for (+)-?-HCH and 0.74 d(-1) for (-)-?-HCH. The half life (t(1/2)) of the enantiomers obtained in the elimination process was within one day. The bioaccumulation factors of steady state of ?-HCH enantiomers were 2.82 for (+)-?-HCH and 2.75 for (-)-?-HCH. The enantiomer fractions of earthworm and soil obviously below 0.5 during uptake and elimination processes indicate significant enantioselectivity and preferential depuration of (+)-?-HCH in earthworm. However, earthworms do not have a great capacity for getting rid of ?-HCH in polluted soil shown by a contradistinctive experiment. PMID:22674802

Zhou, Gaoxin; Liu, Donghui; Ma, Ruixue; Li, Jindong; Sun, Mingjing; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Peng

2012-08-01

282

Response of Nitrous Oxide Flux to Addition of Anecic Earthworms to an Agricultural Field  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The burrowing and feeding activities of earthworms may have a strong effect on the flux of N2O from agricultural soils. As such, shifts to agricultural management practices that increase the number of earthworms require an understanding of the role of earthworms in N2O dynamics. We conducted a field experiment to examine the effects of addition of anecic earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris on N2O flux in a field previously planted with corn (Zea mays in southern Rhode Island, USA. Plots were amended with (15NH42SO4 and either 0 (CTL or 48 L. terrestris m-2 (EW. The flux of N2O, 15N2O and 15N2 was measured over 28 days between October and November 2008. The EW treatment had a significantly higher flux of N2O and 15N2O 1 - 3 days after 15NH4 addition. No treatment effects were observed on 15N2 flux. The addition of earthworms significantly increased (Day 1 and decreased (Day 12 the mole fraction of N2O relative to the CTL. Our results suggest that anecic earthworm additions can increase N2O flux from inorganic fertilizer N amendments, but the effects appear to short-lived.

José A. Amador

2013-05-01

283

Physical and chemical characterization of earthworms and humus obtained by vertical vermicomposting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Earthworms culture are usually made horizontally and it is necessary a lot of area. In order to minimize the size of earthworms culture and the possibility to be applied in residences, this paper proposed evaluate conditions for vertical vermicomposting. For this, were purchased vertical boxes and organic matter. The earthworms of species Eisenia andrei, california red earthworms, were used. There were evaluated the adaptation of earthworms and physical and chemical characterization of the humus. Results showed that there was a good adaptation of earthworms in this configuration, minimizing the space required, and it is one technique for environmentally friendly recycling of organic waste, creating a bio-product wich can used as fertilizers.Resumo Minhocários são normalmente feitoshorizontalmente sendo necessária uma área grande. A fim de minimizar o tamanho da cultura de minhocas e a possibilidade de ser aplicado em residências, este trabalho propõe avaliar as condições de vermicompostagem vertical. Para isso, foram adquiridas caixas verticais e matéria orgânica. Foram usadas minhocas da espécie Eisenia andrei, minhocas vermelhas da califórmia. Foi avaliada a adaptação das minhocas e caracterização físico-química do húmus gerado. Os resultados mostraram que houve uma boa adaptação das minhocas nesta configuração, minimizando o espaço utilizado, e é uma técnica de reciclagem ecológica de resíduos orgânicos, a criação de umbioproduto o qual pode ser usado como adubo.

Lucélia Hoehne

2013-01-01

284

Physiological and molecular responses of the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) to soil chlortetracycline contamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aims to evaluate toxic effects of exposure to chlortetracycline (CTC) in soil on reproductive endpoints (juvenile counts and cocoon counts), biochemical responses, and genotoxic potentials of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Results showed that juvenile counts and cocoon counts of the tested earthworms were reduced after exposure to CTC. The effective concentrations (EC50 values) for juvenile and cocoon counts were 96.1 and 120.3 mg/kg, respectively. Treatment of earthworms with CTC significantly changed the activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). An increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) indicated that CTC could cause cellular lipid peroxidation in the tested earthworms. The percentage of DNA in the tail of single-cell gel electrophoresis of coelomocytes as an indication of DNA damage increased after treatment with different doses of CTC, and a dose-dependent DNA damage of coelomocytes was found. In conclusion, CTC induces physiological responses and genotoxicity on earthworms. - Highlights: ? Reproductive endpoints were assessed for Eisenia fetida exposed to chlortectracyline (CTC). ? CTC may induce physiological and molecular responses in E. fetida. ? A clear relationship was observed between CTC doses and DNA damage of coelomocytes. - Chlortetracycline in soil could induce physiological responses and genotoxicity on earthworms at realistic environmental concentrations.entrations.

285

Invasive earthworms interact with abiotic conditions to influence the invasion of common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica).  

Science.gov (United States)

Common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L.) is one of the most abundant and ecologically harmful non-native plants in forests of the Upper Midwest United States. At the same time, European earthworms are invading previously glaciated areas in this region, with largely anecdotal evidence suggesting they compound the negative effects of buckthorn and influence the invasibility of these forests. Germination and seedling establishment are important control points for colonization by any species, and manipulation of the conditions influencing these life history stages may provide insight into why invasive species are successful in some environments and not others. Using a greenhouse microcosm experiment, we examined the effects of important biotic and abiotic factors on the germination and seedling establishment of common buckthorn. We manipulated light levels, leaf litter depth and earthworm presence to investigate the independent and interactive effects of these treatments on buckthorn establishment. We found that light and leaf litter depth were significant predictors of buckthorn germination but that the presence of earthworms was the most important factor; earthworms interacted with light and leaf litter to increase the number and biomass of buckthorn across all treatments. Path analysis suggested both direct and moisture-mediated indirect mechanisms controlled these processes. The results suggest that the action of earthworms may provide a pathway through which buckthorn invades forests of the Upper Midwest United States. Hence, researchers and managers should consider co-invasion of plants and earthworms when investigating invasibility and creating preemptive or post-invasion management plans. PMID:25481818

Roth, Alexander M; Whitfeld, Timothy J S; Lodge, Alexandra G; Eisenhauer, Nico; Frelich, Lee E; Reich, Peter B

2014-12-01

286

Aporrectodea caliginosa, a suitable earthworm species for field based genotoxicity assessment?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is a growing interest for the application of biomakers to field-collected earthworms. Therefore we have evaluated the usability of native populations of endogeic, widely distributed earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa in the assessment of soil genotoxicity using the Comet assay. Validation of the Comet assay on earthworm coelomocytes has been established using commercially available Eisenia fetida exposed to copper, cadmium, and pentachlorophenol, along with A. caliginosa exposed to copper in a filter paper contact test. Neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay was conducted on copper exposed and field-collected earthworms. Significant DNA and lysosomal damage was measured using Comet and NRRT assays in native populations of A. caliginosa sampled from the polluted soils in the urban area in comparison to the earthworms from the reference site. The results of this study confirm the employment of A. caliginosa as a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Research highlights: > Native A. caliginosa has shown significant biological effect measured by the Comet and NRRT assays. > The Comet assay on A. caliginosa and E. fetida has shown to be of similar sensitivity as the NRRT assay. > A. caliginosa is a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Native populations of endogeic earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa can be successfully applied in the genotoxicity field surveys using Comet assay.

Klobucar, Goeran I.V., E-mail: gklobuca@zg.biol.pmf.hr [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Stambuk, Anamaria; Srut, Maja [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Husnjak, Ivana [Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction, Ulica Republike Austrije 14, Zagreb (Croatia); Merkas, Martina [Croatian Institute for Brain Research, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Salata 12, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Traven, Luka [Department of Environmental Medicine, Medical Faculty, University of Rijeka, Brace Branchetta 20a, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Teaching Institute of Public Health of the Primorsko-goranska County, Kresimirova 52a, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Cvetkovic, Zelimira [Department of Ecology, Institute of Public Health, Mirogojska c. 16, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

2011-04-15

287

Aporrectodea caliginosa, a suitable earthworm species for field based genotoxicity assessment?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a growing interest for the application of biomakers to field-collected earthworms. Therefore we have evaluated the usability of native populations of endogeic, widely distributed earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa in the assessment of soil genotoxicity using the Comet assay. Validation of the Comet assay on earthworm coelomocytes has been established using commercially available Eisenia fetida exposed to copper, cadmium, and pentachlorophenol, along with A. caliginosa exposed to copper in a filter paper contact test. Neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay was conducted on copper exposed and field-collected earthworms. Significant DNA and lysosomal damage was measured using Comet and NRRT assays in native populations of A. caliginosa sampled from the polluted soils in the urban area in comparison to the earthworms from the reference site. The results of this study confirm the employment of A. caliginosa as a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Research highlights: ? Native A. caliginosa has shown significant biological effect measured by the Comet and NRRT assays. ? The Comet assay on A. caliginosa and E. fetida has shown to be of similar sensitivity as the NRRT assay. ? A. caliginosa is a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Native populations of endogeic earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa can be successfully applied in the genotoxicity field surveys using Comet assaicity field surveys using Comet assay.

288

Survival Analysis  

CERN Document Server

A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

Miller, Rupert G

2011-01-01

289

Ice crystallization and freeze tolerance in embryonic stages of the tardigrade Milnesium tardigradum.  

Science.gov (United States)

In tardigrades, tolerance to low temperature is well known and allows them to cope with subzero temperatures in their environment. Although the ability to tolerate freezing body water has been demonstrated in some tardigrades, freeze tolerance of embryonic stages has been little studied, although this has ecological significance. In this study, we evaluated the subzero temperature survival of five different developmental stages of the eutardigrade species Milnesium tardigradum after freezing to -30 degrees C. Embryos were exposed to five different cooling rates between room temperature and -30 degrees C at 1 degrees C/h, 3 degrees C/h, 5 degrees C/h, 7 degrees C/h, and 9 degrees C/h followed by a warming period at 10 degrees C/h. The results showed that the developmental stage and the cooling rate have a significant effect on the hatching rate. Less developed embryonic stages were more sensitive to freezing at higher freezing rates than more developed stages. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to determine the temperature of crystallization (Tc) in single embryos of the different developmental stages and revealed no differences between the stages. Based on the calorimetric data, we also conclude that the ice nucleation is homogeneous in embryonic stages in tardigrades, as also recently shown for fully developed tardigrades, and not triggered by nucleating agents. PMID:20116441

Hengherr, S; Reuner, A; Brümmer, F; Schill, R O

2010-05-01

290

Neural substrates underlying fear-evoked freezing: the periaqueductal grey–cerebellar link  

Science.gov (United States)

The central neural pathways involved in fear-evoked behaviour are highly conserved across mammalian species, and there is a consensus that understanding them is a fundamental step towards developing effective treatments for emotional disorders in man. The ventrolateral periaqueductal grey (vlPAG) has a well-established role in fear-evoked freezing behaviour. The neural pathways underlying autonomic and sensory consequences of vlPAG activation in fearful situations are well understood, but much less is known about the pathways that link vlPAG activity to distinct fear-evoked motor patterns essential for survival. In adult rats, we have identified a pathway linking the vlPAG to cerebellar cortex, which terminates as climbing fibres in lateral vermal lobule VIII (pyramis). Lesion of pyramis input–output pathways disrupted innate and fear-conditioned freezing behaviour. The disruption in freezing behaviour was strongly correlated to the reduction in the vlPAG-induced facilitation of ?-motoneurone excitability observed after lesions of the pyramis. The increased excitability of ?-motoneurones during vlPAG activation may therefore drive the increase in muscle tone that underlies expression of freezing behaviour. By identifying the cerebellar pyramis as a critical component of the neural network subserving emotionally related freezing behaviour, the present study identifies novel neural pathways that link the PAG to fear-evoked motor responses. PMID:24639484

Koutsikou, Stella; Crook, Jonathan J; Earl, Emma V; Leith, J Lianne; Watson, Thomas C; Lumb, Bridget M; Apps, Richard

2014-01-01

291

Neural substrates underlying fear-evoked freezing: the periaqueductal grey-cerebellar link.  

Science.gov (United States)

The central neural pathways involved in fear-evoked behaviour are highly conserved across mammalian species, and there is a consensus that understanding them is a fundamental step towards developing effective treatments for emotional disorders in man. The ventrolateral periaqueductal grey (vlPAG) has a well-established role in fear-evoked freezing behaviour. The neural pathways underlying autonomic and sensory consequences of vlPAG activation in fearful situations are well understood, but much less is known about the pathways that link vlPAG activity to distinct fear-evoked motor patterns essential for survival. In adult rats, we have identified a pathway linking the vlPAG to cerebellar cortex, which terminates as climbing fibres in lateral vermal lobule VIII (pyramis). Lesion of pyramis input-output pathways disrupted innate and fear-conditioned freezing behaviour. The disruption in freezing behaviour was strongly correlated to the reduction in the vlPAG-induced facilitation of ?-motoneurone excitability observed after lesions of the pyramis. The increased excitability of ?-motoneurones during vlPAG activation may therefore drive the increase in muscle tone that underlies expression of freezing behaviour. By identifying the cerebellar pyramis as a critical component of the neural network subserving emotionally related freezing behaviour, the present study identifies novel neural pathways that link the PAG to fear-evoked motor responses. PMID:24639484

Koutsikou, Stella; Crook, Jonathan J; Earl, Emma V; Leith, J Lianne; Watson, Thomas C; Lumb, Bridget M; Apps, Richard

2014-05-15

292

[Monitoring freeze stress levels on winter wheat from hyperspectral reflectance data using principal component analysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to detect the freeze injury stress level of winter wheat growing in natural environment fast and accurately, the present paper takes winter wheat as experimental object. First winter wheat canopy hyperspectral data were treated with resampling smooth Second hyperspectral data were analyzed based on principal components analysis (PCA), a freeze injury inversion model was established, stems survival rate was dependent, and principal components of spectral data were chosen as independent variables. Third, the precision of the model was testified. The result showed that the freeze injury inversion model based on 6 principal components can estimate the winter wheat freeze injury accurately with the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0. 697 5, root mean square error (RMSE) of 0. 184 2, and the accuracy of 0. 697 5. And the model was verified. It can be concluded that the PCA technology has been shown to be very promising in detecting winter wheat freeze injury effectively, and provide important reference for detecting other stress on crop. PMID:25095438

Wang, Hui-Fang; Wang, Ji-Hua; Dong, Ying-Ying; Gu, Xiao-He; Huo, Zhi-Guo

2014-05-01

293

The anti-cell death FNK protein protects cells from death induced by freezing and thawing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The FNK protein, constructed from anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL with enhanced activity, was fused with the protein transduction domain (PTD) of the HIV/Tat protein to mediate the delivery of FNK into cells. The fusion protein PTD-FNK was introduced into chondrocytes in isolated articular cartilage-bone sections, cultured neurons, and isolated bone marrow mononuclear cells to evaluate its ability to prevent cell death induced by freezing and thawing. PTD-FNK protected the cells from freeze-thaw damage in a concentration-dependent manner. Addition of PTD-FNK with conventional cryoprotectants (dimethyl sulfoxide and hydroxyethyl starch) increased surviving cell numbers around 2-fold compared with controls treated only with the cryoprotectants. Notably, PTD-FNK allowed CD34+ cells among bone marrow mononuclear cells to survive more efficiently (12-fold more than the control cells) from two successive freeze-thaw cycles. Thus, PTD-FNK prevented cell death induced by freezing and thawing, suggesting that it provides for the successful cryopreservation of biological materials

294

A practical method for the restoration of clogged rural vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment using earthworm.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a simple method for the restoration of clogged vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland by earthworm. Since clogging always takes place at the top layer, epigeic earthworm is suitable for restoration of the clogged wetland. Earthworm can not only loosen the substrate, but also transform 80?90% of undissolved organic particles into dissolved matters. Accordingly, the accumulated solids in substrate with earthworm are 50% less than the one without earthworm. The wetland with earthworm removed 2?5 percentage points more nitrogen and 12 percentage points more phosphorous for its better ventilation conditions, while 2 percentage points less COD because the generation of dissolved organic matter from undissolved organic particles by earthworm. In general, the influence of earthworm on the effluent quality of the wetland could be ignored. Hydrology of six full-scale clogged wetlands was restored by Eisenia foetida. The optimal strength of earthworm addition is 0.5 kg/m2, which spend RMB six yuan/m2, less than € 0.75/m2. No specific training is required for the staffs on this method; it takes 10 days to restore the clogged wetland. PMID:21252432

Li, Huaizheng Z; Wang, Sheng; Ye, Jianfeng F; Xu, Zuxin X; Jin, Wei

2011-01-01

295

Lethal critical body residues as measures of Cd, Pb, and Zn bioavailability and toxicity in the earthworm Eisenia fetida  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background. Earthworm heavy metal concentrations (critical body residues, CBRs) may be the most relevant measures of heavy metal bioavailability in soils and may be linkable to toxic effects in order to better assess soil ecotoxicity. However, as earthworms possess physiological mechanisms to secrete and/or sequester absorbed metals as toxicologically inactive forms, total earthworm metal concentrations may not relate well with toxicity. Objective. The objectives of this research were to: i) develop LD{sub 50}s (total earthworm metal concentration associated with 50% mortality) for Cd, Pb, and Zn; ii) evaluate the LD{sub 50} for Zn in a lethal Zn-smelter soil; iii) evaluate the lethal mixture toxicity of Cd, Pb, and Zn using earthworm metal concentrations and the toxic unit (TU) approach; and iv) evaluate total and fractionated earthworm concentrations as indicators of sublethal exposure. Methods. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida (Savigny)) were exposed to artificial soils spiked with Cd, Pb, Zn, and a Cd-Pb-Zn equitoxic mixture to estimate lethal CBRs and mixture toxicity. To evaluate the CBR developed for Zn, earthworms were also exposed to Zn-contaminated field soils receiving three different remediation treatments. Earthworm metal concentrations were measured using a procedure devised to isolate toxicologically active metal burdens via separation into cytosolic and pellet fractions. (orig.)

Conder, J.M.; Lanno, R.P. [Oklahoma State Univ., Dept. of Zoology, Stillwater, OK (United States)

2003-07-01

296

Bioaccumulation of total and methyl mercury in three earthworm species (Drawida sp., Allolobophora sp., and Limnodrilus sp.).  

Science.gov (United States)

We determined total and methyl mercury contents in soil, three earthworm species and their vomitus to study the species-specific differences of mercury bioconcentration in Huludao City, a heavily polluted region by chlor-alkali and nonferrous metal smelting industry in Liaoning Province, northeast China. Total and methyl mercury contents were 7.20 mg/kg and 6.94 ng/g in soil, 1.43 mg/kg and 43.03 ng/g in Drawida sp., 2.80 mg/kg and 336.52 ng/g in Alolobophora sp., respectively. Total mercury contents were 0.966 mg/kg in Drawida sp. vomitus and 4.979 mg/kg in Alolobophora sp. vomitus, respectively. Total mercury contents in earthworms and their vomitus were significantly species-specific different and were both in decreasing with earthworms body lengths, which might due to the growth dilution. Among the soil, earthworms and their vomitus, total mercury contents were in the order of soil > earthworms > earthworm vomitus. Methyl mercury was about 3.01% of total mercury in Drawida sp., 12.02% of total mercury in Alolobophora sp., respectively. It suggested that mercury was mostly in inorganic forms in earthworms. Bioaccumulation factors of methyl mercury from soil to earthworms were much higher than those of total mercury, which suggested that methyl mercury might be more easily absorbed by and accumulated in earthworms because of its lipid solubility. PMID:19779655

Zhang, Zhong Sheng; Zheng, Dong Mei; Wang, Qi Chao; Lv, Xian Guo

2009-12-01

297

Freeze concentration beats the heat  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports on freeze concentration (FC) which saves energy and money in packaging, shipping, and storing food products. FC---in contrast to existing heat-evaporation processes---retains volatile flavor and aroma compounds in food products so that no additives are required to restore the taste and smell of the original product. In recent tests on orange, grapefruit, and pineapple juices, reconstituted FC juices were found to be superior in taste to juices produced by evaporation and similar to the original pasteurized juices. The dairy industry, which is the largest user of energy for concentration in the food sector, is looking to FC for new products such as frozen concentrated milk as well as better use of the milk by-products of cheese production. The biggest potential for new FC applications is in those industries that consume large amounts of energy for separation processing, according to a 1987 report prepared for EPRI. In the food industry, this includes milk, vinegar, and beer producers. Potential applications also abound in the pulp and paper, pharmaceutical, chemical, and petroleum industries. FC separates substances via crystallization at substantial energy savings.

Rosen, J.

1990-12-01

298

Glutathione Protects Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis against Freeze-Thawing, Freeze-Drying, and Cold Treatment?  

OpenAIRE

Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DSM20451 cells containing glutathione (GSH) displayed significantly higher resistance against cold stress induced by freeze-drying, freeze-thawing, and 4°C cold treatment than those without GSH. Cells containing GSH were capable of maintaining their membrane structure intact when exposed to freeze-thawing. In addition, cells containing GSH showed a higher proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in cell membranes upon long-term cold treatment. Subsequent studies r...

Zhang, Juan; Du, Guo-cheng; Zhang, Yanping; Liao, Xian-yan; Wang, Miao; Li, Yin; Chen, Jian

2010-01-01

299

Freeze-out Conditions from Lattice QCD  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe a procedure for determination of freeze-out parameters of heavy–ion collisions through direct comparisons between experimentally measured higher order cumulants of charge fluctuations and first principle (lattice) QCD calculations.

Mukherjee, Swagato

2013-05-02

300

Freeze-out Conditions from Lattice QCD  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe a procedure for determination of freeze-out parameters of heavy–ion collisions through direct comparisons between experimentally measured higher order cumulants of charge fluctuations and first principle (lattice) QCD calculations

301

Freeze-out Conditions from Lattice QCD  

CERN Document Server

We describe a procedure for determination of freeze-out parameters of heavy-ion collisions through direct comparisons between experimentally measured higher order cumulants of charge fluctuations and first principle (lattice) QCD calculations.

Mukherjee, Swagato

2012-01-01

302

9 CFR 590.536 - Freezing operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

... FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.536 Freezing...

2010-01-01

303

9 CFR 590.534 - Freezing facilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

... FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.534 Freezing...

2010-01-01

304

Earthworms newly from Mongolia (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae, Eisenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two new megadrile earthworms from the steppes, the first species wholly from Outer Mongolia, are ascribed to the partially parthenogenetic Eisenia nordenskioldi (Eisen, 1879 species-complex. Taxonomic justification of sympatric Eisenia nordenskioldi mongol and E. nordenskioldi onon ssp. n. are supported by mtDNA COI barcodes. The unreliability of molecular differentiation based on voucher names compared to definitive types is again demonstrated, as pertains to the ultimate Eisenia andrei Bouché, 1972 synonym of the E. fetida (Savigny, 1826 sibling species-complex composed of more than a dozen prior names. Similar species described from Northeast China [formerly Manchuria] and North Korea are briefly considered, albeit they are intermittently held in synonymy of cosmopolitan Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826 along with many other taxa including some exotic lumbricids initially found in India. Japanese and North American lumbricids are also mentioned. Distributions are discussed and an annotated checklist of all nine Siberian/sub-arctic E. nordenskioldi ssp. is appended.

Robert Blakemore

2013-04-01

305

Escape and avoidance learning in the earthworm Eisenia hortensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Interest in instrumental learning in earthworms dates back to 1912 when Yerkes concluded that they can learn a spatial discrimination in a T-maze. Rosenkoetter and Boice determined in the 1970s that the “learning” that Yerkes observed was probably chemotaxis and not learning at all. We examined a different form of instrumental learning: the ability to learn both to escape and to avoid an aversive stimulus. Freely moving “master” worms could turn off an aversive white light by increasing their movement; the behavior of yoked controls had no effect on the light. We demonstrate that in as few as 12 trials the behavior of the master worms comes under the control of this contingency.

W. Jeffrey Wilson

2014-01-01

306

Escape and avoidance learning in the earthworm Eisenia hortensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interest in instrumental learning in earthworms dates back to 1912 when Yerkes concluded that they can learn a spatial discrimination in a T-maze. Rosenkoetter and Boice determined in the 1970s that the "learning" that Yerkes observed was probably chemotaxis and not learning at all. We examined a different form of instrumental learning: the ability to learn both to escape and to avoid an aversive stimulus. Freely moving "master" worms could turn off an aversive white light by increasing their movement; the behavior of yoked controls had no effect on the light. We demonstrate that in as few as 12 trials the behavior of the master worms comes under the control of this contingency. PMID:24498578

Wilson, W Jeffrey; Ferrara, Nicole C; Blaker, Amanda L; Giddings, Charisa E

2014-01-01

307

Earthworms newly from Mongolia (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae, Eisenia)  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Two new megadrile earthworms from the steppes, the first species wholly from Outer Mongolia, are ascribed to the partially parthenogenetic Eisenia nordenskioldi (Eisen, 1879) species-complex. Taxonomic justification of sympatric Eisenia nordenskioldi mongol and Eisenia nordenskioldi onon ssp. n. are supported by mtDNA COI barcodes. The unreliability of molecular differentiation based on voucher names compared to definitive types is again demonstrated, as pertains to the ultimate Eisenia andrei Bouché, 1972 synonym of the Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826) sibling species-complex composed of more than a dozen prior names. Similar species described from Northeast China [formerly Manchuria] and North Korea are briefly considered, albeit they are intermittently held in synonymy of cosmopolitan Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) along with many other taxa including some exotic lumbricids initially found in India. Japanese and North American lumbricids are also mentioned. Distributions are discussed and an annotated checklist of all nine Siberian/sub-arctic Eisenia nordenskioldi ssp. is appended. PMID:23798894

Blakemore, Robert J.

2013-01-01

308

OPTIMISATION OF PRODUCTION, FREEZE-DRYING AND STORAGE OF Pseudomonas fluorescens BTP1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The optimisation of production and freeze-drying of P. fluorescens used as a bio-control agent was investigated. P. fluorescens BTP1 was produced in a bioreactor with different against-pressure value (0.1 and 0.3 bar for bioreactor 1 and 2 respectively and cells were harvested during the stationary phase (2Hrs. and 4Hrs. for bioreactor 1 and 2 respectively. A mixture of protective compounds were tested for freeze-drying, and the highest result was found for glycerol and maltodextrine (26% followed by glycerol, maltodextrine and ascorbic acid (18.9% and glycerol with ascorbic acid (8.5%. We observed that the survival rate is better at 4°C than at room temperature and those powders with protective compounds have a survival rate greater than the powder without protective compounds during storage.

MPUTU K.J.

2013-03-01

309

Freeze-fracture cytochemistry in cell biology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The term freeze-fracture cytochemistry embraces a series of techniques which share the goal of chemical identification of the structural components viewed in freeze-fracture replicas. As one of the major features of freeze fracture is its ability to provide planar views of membranes, a major emphasis in freeze-fracture cytochemistry is to identify integral membrane proteins, study their spatial organization in the membrane plane, and examine their role in dynamic cellular processes. Effective techniques in freeze-fracture cytochemistry, of wide application in cell biology, are now available. These include fracture-label, label fracture, and the freeze-fracture replica immunolabeling technique (FRIL). In fracture-label, samples are frozen and fractured, thawed for labeling, and finally processed for viewing either by critical-point drying and platinum-carbon replication or by thin-section electron microscopy. Label-fracture involves immunogold labeling a cell suspension, processing as for standard freeze-fracture replication, and then examining the replica without removal of the cellular components. Of greatest versatility, however, is the FRIL technique, in which samples are frozen, fractured, and replicated with platinum-carbon as in standard freeze fracture, and then carefully treated with sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) to remove all the biological material except a fine layer of molecules attached to the replica itself. Immunogold labeling of these molecules permits the distribution of identified components to be viewed superimposed upon high resolution planar views of replicated membrane structure, for both the plasma membrane and intracellular membranes in cells and tissues. Examples of how these techniques have contributed to our understanding of cardiovascular cell function in health and disease are discussed. PMID:18617035

Severs, Nicholas J; Robenek, Horst

2008-01-01

310

Recombination of vesicles during freeze-drying  

OpenAIRE

Concentrated dispersions of nanometric lipid vesicles (mean diameter 20 nm) in water/maltose solutions have been freeze-dried, and then redispersed in water, yielding again dispersions of lipid vesicles. At each stage of the freeze-drying process, the organization of the vesicles in the dispersion and their size distribution were examined through Small Angle Neutron Scattering and Gel Permeation Chromatography. It was found that the osmotic deswelling of the vesicles caused them to recombine ...

Cabane, Bernard; Blanchon, Sylve?ne; Neves, Carole

2006-01-01

311

Continuous decoupling and freeze-out  

CERN Document Server

The decoupling and freeze-out of energetic nuclear collisions is analysed in terms of transparent semi-classical decoupling formulae. They provide a smooth transition and generalise frequently employed instantaneous freeze-out procedures. Simple relations between the damping width and the duration of the decoupling process are presented and the implications on various physical phenomena arising from the expansion and decay dynamics of the highly compressed hadronic matter generated in high energy nuclear collisions are discussed.

Knoll, Joern

2009-01-01

312

Immersion freezing of birch pollen washing water  

OpenAIRE

In the present study, the immersion freezing behavior of birch pollen, i.e. its ice nucleating active (INA) macromolecules, was investigated at the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). For that, washing water of two different birch pollen samples with different regional origin (Northern birch and Southern birch) were used. The immersion freezing of droplets generated from the pollen washing water was already observed at temperatures higher than ?20 °C, for bo...

Augustin, S.; Hartmann, S.; Pummer, B.; Grothe, H.; Niedermeier, D.; Clauss, T.; Voigtla?nder, J.; Tomsche, L.; Wex, H.; Stratmann, F.

2012-01-01

313

Theory of freezing in simple systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transition parameters for the freezing of two one-component liquids into crystalline solids are evaluated by two theoretical approaches. The first system considered is liquid sodium which crystallizes into a body-centered-cubic (bcc) lattice; the second system is the freezing of adhesive hard spheres into a face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattice. Two related theoretical techniques are used in this evaluation: One is based upon a recently developed bifurcation analysis; the other is based upon the theory of freezing developed by Ramakrishnan and Yussouff. For liquid sodium, where experimental information is available, the predictions of the two theories agree well with experiment and each other. The adhesive-hard-sphere system, which displays a triple point and can be used to fit some liquids accurately, shows a temperature dependence of the freezing parameters which is similar to Lennard-Jones systems. At very low temperature, the fractional density change on freezing shows a dramatic increase as a function of temperature indicating the importance of all the contributions due to the triplet direction correlation function. Also, we consider the freezing of a one-component liquid into a simple-cubic (sc) lattice by bifurcation analysis and show that this transition is highly unfavorable, independent of interatomic potential choice. The bifurcation diagrams for the three lattices considered are compared and found to be strikingly different. Finally, a new stability analysdifferent. Finally, a new stability analysis of the bifurcation diagrams is presented

314

RAPD and freezing resistance in Eucalyptus globulus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Eucalyptus globulus is the second most important forest species in Chile, after Pinus radiata. The main advantages of E. globulus are its fast growth (25 m³/ha/year) and its excellent wood quality for kraft pulp production. On the negative side, its low freezing tolerance has been an obstacle for th [...] e expansion of plantations, specifically on the foothills of the Andes. The difference in the freezing resistance between clones of E. globulus has a genetic base and, therefore, it could be detected through DNA molecular markers. Fifteen clones of E. globulus, eight classified as freezing resistant and seven as freezing sensitive were analyzed using the technique of RAPD, in order to obtain molecular markers that could differentiate between freezing sensitive and resistant clones. Eighteen primers amplified reproducible bands. Three bands were only present in freezing resistant clones, two bands of 768 bp, 602 bp obtained with UBC 218 primer and one band of 248 bp obtained with UBC 237 primer. The preliminary results indicate that polymorphism can be observed with the primers employed, but it is not possible to associate the bands with the cold resistance or susceptibility in E. globulus.

Marta, Fernández R.; Sofía, Valenzuela A.; Claudio, Balocchi L..

2006-06-01

315

Increased susceptibility to repeated freeze-thaw cycles in Escherichia coli following long-term evolution in a benign environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to study the dynamics of evolutionary change, 12 populations of E. coli B were serially propagated for 20,000 generations in minimal glucose medium at constant 37°C. Correlated changes in various other traits have been previously associated with the improvement in competitive fitness in the selective environment. This study examines whether these evolved lines changed in their ability to tolerate the stresses of prolonged freezing and repeated freeze-thaw cycles during adaptation to a benign environment. Results All 12 lines that evolved in the benign environment for 20,000 generations are more sensitive to freeze-thaw cycles than their ancestor. The evolved lines have an average mortality rate of 54% per daily cycle, compared to the ancestral rate of 34%. By contrast, there was no significant difference between the evolved lines and their ancestor in mortality during prolonged freezing. There was also some variability among the evolved lines in susceptibility to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Those lines that had evolved higher competitive fitness in the minimal glucose medium at 37°C also had higher mortality during freeze-thaw cycles. This variability was not associated, however, with differences among lines in DNA repair functionality and mutability. Conclusion The consistency of the evolutionary declines in freeze-thaw tolerance, the correlation between fitness in glucose medium at 37°C and mortality during freeze-thaw cycles, and the absence of greater declines in freeze-thaw survival among the hypermutable lines all indicate a trade-off between performance in minimal glucose medium at 37°C and the capacity to tolerate this stress. Analyses of the mutations that enhance fitness at 37°C may shed light on the physiological basis of this trade-off.

Lenski Richard E

2006-12-01

316

Effects of freezing on soil temperature, freezing front propagation and moisture redistribution in peat: laboratory investigations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are not many studies that report water movement in freezing peat. Soil column studies under controlled laboratory settings can help isolate and understand the effects of different factors controlling freezing of the active layer in organic covered permafrost terrain. In this study, four peat Mesocosms were subjected to temperature gradients by bringing the Mesocosm tops in contact with sub-zero air temperature while maintaining a continuously frozen layer at the bottom (proxy permafrost. Soil water movement towards the freezing front (from warmer to colder regions was inferred from soil freezing curves, liquid water content time series and from the total water content of frozen core samples collected at the end of freezing cycle. A substantial amount of water, enough to raise the upper surface of frozen saturated soil within 15 cm of the soil surface at the end of freezing period appeared to have moved upwards during freezing. Diffusion under moisture gradients and effects of temperature on soil matric potential, at least in the initial period, appear to drive such movement as seen from analysis of freezing curves. Freezing front (separation front between soil zones containing and free of ice propagation is controlled by latent heat for a long time during freezing. A simple conceptual model describing freezing of an organic active layer initially resembling a variable moisture landscape is proposed based upon the results of this study. The results of this study will help in understanding, and ultimately forecasting, the hydrologic response of wetland-dominated terrain underlain by discontinuous permafrost.

R. M. Nagare

2012-02-01

317

Soil Aggregate Stability in the Presence of Earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L. and Different Organic Materials in a Calcareous Soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although the crucial function of earthworms in improvement of soil physical properties is well -know, but very little is known of the interactive influence of earthworms and organic materials on soil properties such as soil aggregate stability, particularly in arid and semi-arid soils. The low organic matter content and the significant role of earthworms in improving physical properties of arid and semi-arid soils necessitate studying the interactive effects of organic materials and earthworms. Thus, the main objective of this study was to identify the interactive effects of anecic earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris L. and various organic residues (including alfalfa, compost, mixture of alfalfa and compost and cow dung on soil aggregate stability expressed as the Mean Weight Diameter (MWD, Geometric Mean Diameter (GMD and Aggregation Ratio (AR, and furthermore soil Ca and Mg contents. The experiment consisted of a 2×5 factorial treatment organized in a completely randomized design with four replications under controlled greenhouse conditions, lasted for 150 days. Results showed that earthworm inoculation and organic materials addition alone increased significantly all the indices of soil aggregation and aggregate stability, and Ca and Mg contents. However, the combined use of earthworms and organic residues resulted in more stable aggregates. Results indicated that earthworm inoculation in the presence of organic materials resulted in 39, 58, 2, 67, 43 and 74% increases, respectively in MWD, AR, GMD, Ca, Mg and macroaggregates whereas microaggregates were reduced by 13.5% in earthworm-worked soils. We observed a significant relationship (R2=0.945 between soil Ca content and MWD, demonstrating that earthworms apparently excrete calcite that helps bonding clay particles and soil organic matter via cationic (Ca+2 bridging. In summary, results of this study show that the simultaneous applications of anecic earthworms and organic materials may considerably help in improving the structure of arid and semi-arid soils with low carbon level.

F. S. Moosavi

2011-01-01

318

The toxic effects of ionic liquids on the activities of acetylcholinesterase and cellulase in earthworms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The earthworm Eisenia foetida was exposed to different concentrations of imidazolium ionic liquids with varying chain lengths according to the method of OECD [OECD, 1984. (The Current Organization of Economic and Cooperative Development Acute Earthworm Toxicity Test) Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, No. 207. Earthworm Acute Toxicity Tests]. The acute and subchronic toxic effects of [C(8)mim]Br on the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and cellulase in earthworms were determined under an artificial soil condition. Using filter paper contact tests, the 48 h-LC(50) values of [C(4)mim]Br, [C(6)mim]Br, [C(8)mim]Br, [C(10)mim]Br and [C(12)mim]Br on the earthworm were 73.33, 28.25, 2.69, 0.37 and 0.02 microg cm(-2), respectively. The 7 d-LC(50) of [C(8)mim]Br was 206.8 mg kg(-1) artificial soil (dry weight) and the 14 d-LC(50) was 159.4 mg kg(-1) artificial soil (dry weight), under the condition of artificial soil. After 1 d and 3 d of acute exposure, the activity of AChE was markedly inhibited when compared to the control, while it was increased at 7d. The cellulase activity was elevated significantly in the treatment groups of 20-160 mg kg(-1) after 3 and 7d of acute exposure. The activity of cellulase was also promoted under the subchronic exposure condition in the 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) groups. The experimental results suggest that [C(8)mim]Br may interfere with the nervous function of the earthworms and increase their cellulase activity. These results indicate that [C(8)mim]Br-exposure can affect the metabolized enzyme activity of earthworms at low concentrations and can even cause worm death at high doses, both of which have potential impacts on the soil environment. PMID:19682724

Luo, Yan-Rui; Wang, San-Hu; Yun, Mi-Xia; Li, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Jian-Ji; Sun, Zhen-Jun

2009-10-01

319

Plant genetic variation mediates an indirect ecological effect between belowground earthworms and aboveground aphids  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Interactions between aboveground and belowground terrestrial communities are often mediated by plants, with soil organisms interacting via the roots and aboveground organisms via the shoots and leaves. Many studies now show that plant genetics can drive changes in the structure of both above and belowground communities; however, the role of plant genetic variation in mediating aboveground-belowground interactions is still unclear. We used an earthworm-plant-aphid model system with two aphid species (Aphis fabae and Acyrthosiphon pisum) to test the effect of host-plant (Vicia faba) genetic variation on the indirect interaction between the belowground earthworms (Eisenia veneta) on the aboveground aphid populations. Results Our data shows that host-plant variety mediated an indirect ecological effect of earthworms on generalist black bean aphids (A. fabae), with earthworms increasing aphid growth rate in three plant varieties but decreasing it in another variety. We found no effect of earthworms on the second aphid species, the pea aphid (A. pisum), and no effect of competition between the aphid species. Plant biomass was increased when earthworms were present, and decreased when A. pisum was feeding on the plant (mediated by plant variety). Although A. fabae aphids were influenced by the plants and worms, they did not, in turn, alter plant biomass. Conclusions Previous work has shown inconsistent effects of earthworms on aphids, but we suggest these differences could be explained by plant genetic variation and variation among aphid species. This study demonstrates that the outcome of belowground-aboveground interactions can be mediated by genetic variation in the host-plant, but depends on the identity of the species involved. PMID:25331082

2014-01-01

320

Plant genetic variation mediates an indirect ecological effect between belowground earthworms and aboveground aphids.  

Science.gov (United States)

BackgroundInteractions between aboveground and belowground terrestrial communities are often mediated by plants, with soil organisms interacting via the roots and aboveground organisms via the shoots and leaves. Many studies now show that plant genetics can drive changes in the structure of both above and belowground communities; however, the role of plant genetic variation in mediating aboveground-belowground interactions is still unclear. We used an earthworm-plant-aphid model system with two aphid species (Aphis fabae and Acyrthosiphon pisum) to test the effect of host-plant (Vicia faba) genetic variation on the indirect interaction between the belowground earthworms (Eisenia veneta) on the aboveground aphid populations.ResultsOur data shows that host-plant variety mediated an indirect ecological effect of earthworms on generalist black bean aphids (A. fabae), with earthworms increasing aphid growth rate in three plant varieties but decreasing it in another variety. We found no effect of earthworms on the second aphid species, the pea aphid (A. pisum), and no effect of competition between the aphid species. Plant biomass was increased when earthworms were present, and decreased when A. pisum was feeding on the plant (mediated by plant variety). Although A. fabae aphids were influenced by the plants and worms, they did not, in turn, alter plant biomass.ConclusionsPrevious work has shown inconsistent effects of earthworms on aphids, but we suggest these differences could be explained by plant genetic variation and variation among aphid species. This study demonstrates that the outcome of belowground-aboveground interactions can be mediated by genetic variation in the host-plant, but depends on the identity of the species involved. PMID:25331082

Singh, Akanksha; Braun, Julia; Decker, Emilia; Hans, Sarah; Wagner, Agnes; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Zytynska, Sharon E

2014-10-21

321

A role for SENSITIVE TO FREEZING2 in protecting chloroplasts against freeze-induced damage in Arabidopsis.  

OpenAIRE

SUMMARY: The sensitive to freezing2 (SFR2) gene has an important role in freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that homologous genes are present, and expressed, in a wide range of terrestrial plants, including species not able to tolerate freezing. Expression constructs derived from the cDNAs of a number of different plant species, including examples not tolerant to freezing, are able to complement the freezing sensitivity of the Arabidopsis sfr2 mutant. In Arabidopsis the SFR2 ...

Fourrier, N.; Be?dard, J.; Lopez-juez, E.; Barbrook, A.; Bowyer, J.; Jarvis, P.; Warren, G.; Thorlby, G.

2008-01-01

322

Aquaporin Expression Correlates with Freeze Tolerance in Baker's Yeast, and Overexpression Improves Freeze Tolerance in Industrial Strains  

OpenAIRE

Little information is available about the precise mechanisms and determinants of freeze resistance in baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genomewide gene expression analysis and Northern analysis of different freeze-resistant and freeze-sensitive strains have now revealed a correlation between freeze resistance and the aquaporin genes AQY1 and AQY2. Deletion of these genes in a laboratory strain rendered yeast cells more sensitive to freezing, while overexpression of the respective genes...

Tanghe, An; Dijck, Patrick; Dumortier, Franc?oise; Teunissen, Aloys; Hohmann, Stefan; Thevelein, Johan M.

2002-01-01

323

Cryoprotectants for freeze drying of drug nano-suspensions: effect of freezing rate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drug nanoparticles are often prepared in a liquid medium, and a drying method such as freeze drying is used to convert them to an oral solid dosage form. When the dried form is reconstituted in an aqueous system, it may be redispersed to achieve its original particle size. The redispersibility of dried nanoparticles depends on the parameters of the freeze drying process. In this study, an apparatus with a freezing rate gradient was used to systematically investigate the effect of cryoprotectants on the redispersibility of nanoparticles as a function of freezing rate. Sucrose, lactose, mannitol, and polyethylene glycol were used as cryoprotectants for a naproxen nano-suspension. A fast freezing rate and a high cryoprotectant concentration were generally favored. However, under certain conditions, a slower freezing rate resulted in better redispersibility. This is probably because slow freezing can produce a more cryo-concentrated liquid phase, and the concentrated cryoprotectant in the liquid phase can more effectively protect the nanoparticles. An irreversible aggregation map was constructed as a function of the freezing rate and the cryoprotectant concentration, and shows both the favorable and unfavorable effects of cryoprotectants. PMID:19475555

Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Min Young; Kim, Sujung; Lee, Jonghwi

2009-12-01

324

Effects of metal pollution on earthworm communities in a contaminated floodplain area: Linking biomarker, community and functional responses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects on earthworms in the contaminated floodplain area the Biesbosch, the Netherlands, were determined at different levels of organization using a combination of field and laboratory tests. The species Lumbricus rubellus, collected from different polluted sites in the Biesbosch, showed reduced values for the biomarker neutral red retention time (NRRT), mainly explained by high metal concentrations in the soil and the resulting high internal copper concentrations in the earthworms. Organic pollutant levels in earthworms were low and did not explain reduced NRRTs. Earthworm abundance and biomass were not correlated with pollutant levels in the soil. Litterbag decomposition and bait-lamina feeding activity, measures of the functional role of earthworms, were not affected by metal pollution and did not show any correlation with metal concentrations in soil or earthworms nor with NRRT. Effects at the biochemical level therefore did not result in a reduced functioning of earthworm communities. - Metal pollution in floodplain soils does affect earthworm biomarker response but not their activity in decomposition processes

325

Mutual impacts of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and earthworms (Eisenia fetida) on the bioavailability of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wheat and earthworms were exposed individually and together to soils contaminated with 11 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Wheat accumulated PFASs from soil with root concentration factors and bioconcentration factors that decreased as the number of perfluorinated carbons in the molecule increased. Earthworms accumulated PFASs from soil with biota-to-soil accumulation factors that increased with the number of carbons. Translocation factors (TF) of perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) in wheat peaked at perfluorohexanoic acid and decreased significantly as the number of carbons increased or decreased. Perfluorohexane sulfonate produced the greatest TF of the three perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) examined. Wheat increased the bioaccumulation of all 11 PFASs in earthworms and earthworms increased the bioaccumulation in wheat of PFCAs containing seven or less perfluorinated carbons, decreased bioaccumulation of PFCAs with more than seven carbons, and decreased bioaccumulation of PFSAs. In general, the co-presence of wheat and earthworms enhanced the bioavailability of PFASs in soil. -- Highlights: • PFASs can be taken up by root of wheat from soil and translocated to shoot. • The RCFs and BCFs of PFASs in wheat decreased with perfluorinated carbon chain length. • PFHxA had the highest TF, which decreased exponentially with the carbon chain length. • The BSAFs in earthworm increased with carbon chain length. • The co-presence of wheat and earthworm enhanced the bioavailability of PFASs in soil. -- PFASs can be uptake by root of wheat from soil and translocated to shoot and co-presence of wheat and earthworm enhance the bioavailability of PFASs in soil

326

The influence of the earthworm Lampito mauritii (Kinberg) on the activity of selected soil enzymes in cadmium-amended soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of cadmium (CdCl2·7H2O) on cellulase, urease, amylase, invertase and phosphatase were assessed for a period of 45 days in the presence and absence of earthworms [Lampito mauritii (Kinberg)] in alfisol soil. The activities of all enzymes significantly increased with longer incubation times (45 days) under laboratory conditions in both control and Cd-amended soils (both with and without earthworm incubation). However, the activities of all enzymes decreased with increasing Cd concentrations under laboratory conditions, both in the presence and absence of earthworms. In the presence of earthworms, cellulase, urease, invertase and amylase activities increased. However, phosphatase activity was lower in most of the Cd-amended soils in the presence of earthworms compared to its activity levels in soils lacking earthworms. These results show that earthworms modulated the stress imposed by Cd by providing suitable substrates, which in turn acted as stimulants for extracellular enzyme secretion by microbes, and by removing Cd through its accumulation in the tissues of the earthworms. PMID:25647789

Sivakumar, S; Prabha, D; Barathi, S; Nityanandi, D; Subbhuraam, C V; Lakshmipriya, T; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan; Jang, S H; Yi, P I

2015-03-01

327

Assessing ecotoxicity and uptake of metals and metalloids in relation to two different earthworm species (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to diffuse atmospheric fallouts of process particles enriched by metals and metalloids, polluted soils concern large areas at the global scale. Useful tools to assess ecotoxicity induced by these polluted soils are therefore needed. Earthworms are currently used as biotest, however the influence of specie and earthworm behaviour, soil characteristics are poorly highlighted. Our aim was therefore to assess the toxicity of various polluted soils with process particles enriches by metals and metalloids (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, As and Sb) collected from a lead recycling facility on two earthworm species belonging to different ecological types and thus likely to have contrasted behavioural responses (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris). The combination of behavioural factors measurements (cast production and biomass) and physico-chemical parameters such as metal absorption, bioaccumulation by earthworms and their localization in invertebrate tissues provided a valuable indication of pollutant bioavailability and ecotoxicity. Soil characteristics influenced ecotoxicity and metal uptake by earthworms, as well as their soil bioturbation. -- Highlights: •Historically polluted soils collected from a lead recycling facility were studied. •Cast production is a sensitive parameter to assess ecotoxicity on earthworms. •Both soil parameters, like organic matter content and pH and earthworm specie influence metal uptake and ecotoxicity. -- Behavioural factors and inorganic pollutant uptake by earthworms provide a valuable indication of bioavailability and ecotoxicity

328

Spawn viability in edible mushrooms after freezing in liquid nitrogen without a cryoprotectant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five strains of edible mushrooms (Lentinula boryana, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus djamor, Pleurotus pulmonarius, and Volvariella volvacea) were studied. Spawn were prepared from sorghum seeds and then incubated for 14 days under optimum conditions for each species. Once covered by mycelia, the sorghum seeds were placed in polycarbonate vials for freezing in liquid nitrogen. The effect of adding a cryoprotective solution before freezing (either 10% glycerol v/v or 5% dimethylsulfoxide v/v) was evaluated as a function of mycelial growth and percent viability. Three main treatments were undertaken: (1) freezing with a glycerol or dimethylsulfoxide cryoprotectant, (2) freezing with water and (3) freezing without cryoprotectant or water. Samples were maintained frozen for a week, after which time they were thawed (10 min at 30 degrees C) and the seeds placed in Petri dishes with a culture medium. A recovery rate of 96.8% was obtained for the total number of samples summed over all strains and treatments. In contrast, 99.2% of the samples frozen without cryoprotectant were recovered. The recovery of frozen mycelia was delayed with respect to a control group, which was not frozen. However, no difference was observed in percent recovery and mycelial diameter when a new series of spawn was prepared from mycelia that had been previously frozen. Results obtained from this experiment demonstrate that an adequate recovery of mycelia can be obtained without using a cryoprotectant. This capacity might enable large quantities of commercial mushroom strains to be handled at reduced production costs. It is suggested that the mycelia survived freezing without cryoprotectants because they were embedded and protected within the sorghum seeds used to elaborate the spawn. PMID:12963408

Mata, Gerardo; Pérez-Merlo, Rosalía

2003-08-01

329

Biomarker responses in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) to soils contaminated with di-n-butyl phthalates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Di-n-butyl phthalates (DBP) are recognized as ubiquitous contaminants in soil and adversely impact the health of organisms. Changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and levels of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were used as biomarkers to evaluate the impact of DBP on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) after exposure to DBP for 28 days. DBP was added to artificial soil in the amounts of 0, 5, 10, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) of soil. Earthworm tissues exposed to each treatment were collected on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day of the treatment. We found that superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels were significantly inhibited in the 100 mg kg(-1) treatment group on day 28. After 21 days of treatment, GST activity in 10-50 mg kg(-1) treatment groups was markedly stimulated compared to the control group. MDA content in treatment groups was higher than in the control group throughout the exposure time, suggesting that DBP may lead to lipid peroxidation (LPO) in cells. GSH content increased in the treatment group that received 50 mg kg(-1) DBP from 7 days of exposure to 28 days. These results suggest that DBP induces serious oxidative damage on earthworms and induce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in earthworms. However, DBP concentration in current agricultural soil in China will not constitute any threat to the earthworm or other animals in the soil. PMID:25328097

Du, Li; Li, Guangde; Liu, Mingming; Li, Yanqiang; Yin, Suzhen; Zhao, Jie

2014-10-21

330

Enantioselective bioaccumulation and toxic effects of metalaxyl in earthworm Eisenia foetida.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge about the enantioselective bioavailability of chiral pesticides in soil invertebrates facilitates more accurate interpretation of their environmental behaviors. In this study, the acute toxicities of R-metalaxyl and rac-metalaxyl to earthworm (Eisenia foetida) were assayed by filter paper contact test. After 48 h of exposure, the calculated LC(50) values for R- and rac-metalaxyl were 0.052 and 0.022 mg cm(-2), respectively, resulting in a two fold difference in toxicity. For uptake experiment, earthworms were exposed in soil at two dose levels (10 and 50 mg kg(dwt)(-1)). The concentrations of two enantiomers in soil and earthworm were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography based on cellulose tri-(3,5-dimethylphenyl-carbamate) chiral stationary phase. The results showed that metalaxyl was taken up by earthworm rapidly, and the bioaccumulation of metalaxyl in earthworm was enantioselective with preferential accumulation of S-enantiomer. In addition, biota to soil accumulation factor (BSAF) used to express the bioaccumulation of metalaxyl enantiomers was investigated, and significant difference was observed between rac-metalaxyl and R-metalaxyl. PMID:21315406

Xu, Peng; Diao, Jinling; Liu, Donghui; Zhou, Zhiqiang

2011-05-01

331

Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs) by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Earthworms were exposed to artificially contaminated soils with ten perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). PFASs with longer perfluorinated carbon chain displayed higher uptake rate coefficients (ku), longer half-life (t1/2) and time to steady-state (tss) but lower elimination rate coefficients (ke) than the shorter ones. Similarly, perfluorosulfonates acids (PFSAs) displayed higher ku, longer t1/2 and tss but lower ke than perflurocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) with the same perfluorinated chain length. All the studied PFASs, including those with seven or less perfluorinated carbons, were bioaccumulated in the earthworms and the biota-to-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) increased with perfluorinated carbon chain length and were greater for PFSAs than for PFCAs of equal perfluoroalkyl chain length. The BSAFs were found to be dependent on the concentrations of PFASs in soil and decreased as the level of PFASs in soil increased. -- Highlights: •PFASs with seven or less perfluoroalkyl carbons were bioaccumulated in earthworm. •The BSAFs of PFASs in earthworm increased with perfluoroalkyl chain length. •The BSAFs of PFSAs were greater than PFCAs of equal perfluoroalkyl chain length. •The ku increased with perfluorinated chain length while ke decreased. •The BSAFs of PFASs decreased as their concentrations in soil increased. -- Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) can be effectively bioaccumulated in earthworms including those with seven or less perfluoroalkyl carbon chain length

332

[Single and binary-combined toxicity of methamidophos, acetochlor and Cu on earthworm Eisenia foetida].  

Science.gov (United States)

A population of earthworm Eisenia foetida was exposed to single and binary-combined contamination of phaeozem by methamidophos, acetochlor and Cu. The result showed that one of three test chemicals had its toxicity on the earthworm population, and the single toxic sequence of the chemicals was acetochlor > methamidophos > Cu. The values of their LD50 were 0.307, 0.708 and 118.70 mg.kg-1, respectively. The difference was depended on the biological mechanisms of the earthworm population. Acetochlor and Cu in soil could be absorbed by the earthworm population through penetrating through the skin of an earthworm. The result also showed that Cu could swell the toxicity of methamidophos, whether it was in low or high concentration by the binary-combined toxic effect test. Cu in low concentration could decrease the toxicity of acetochlor, but in high concentration, Cu could increase the acetochlor toxicity in soil. Therefore, these three pollutants were dangerous to the ecological security of soil ecosystem and soil-health quality. Furthermore, when the chemicals in same soil environment act one another, they could boost up the potential danger of soil ecosystem contaminated by the three pollutants. The joint toxic effects of various chemicals were in relation to their different concentration combinations in soil. PMID:12920910

Liang, Jidong; Zhou, Qixing

2003-04-01

333

Subacute toxicity of copper and glyphosate and their interaction to earthworm (Eisenia fetida)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Glyphosate (GPS) and copper (Cu) are common pollutants in soils, and commonly co-exist. Due to the chemical structure of GPS, it can form complexes of heavy metals and interface their bioavailability in soil environment. In order to explore the interactions between GPS and Cu, subacute toxicity tests of Cu and GPS on soil invertebrate earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were conducted. The relative weight loss and whole-worm metal burdens increased significantly with the increasing exposure concentration of Cu, while the toxicity of GPS was insignificant. The joint toxicity data showed that the relative weight loss and the uptake of Cu, as well as the superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde activities, were significantly alleviated in the present of GPS, which indicated that GPS could reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cu in the soil because of its strong chelating effects. Highlights: •Cu markedly increased the weight loss ratio of earthworm. •Cu decreased the cocoon production of earthworm. •The toxicity of GPS on earthworm was insignificant. •The presence of GPS could reduce the toxicity of Cu on earthworm. -- The presence of glyphosate could reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cu in the soil because of its strong chelating effects

334

Role of Earthworms in Soil Fertility Maintenance through the Production of Biogenic Structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The soil biota benefits soil productivity and contributes to the sustainable function of all ecosystems. The cycling of nutrients is a critical function that is essential to life on earth. Earthworms (EWs) are a major component of soil fauna communities in most ecosystems and comprise a large proportion of macro fauna biomass. Their activity is beneficial because it can enhance soil nutrient cycling through the rapid incorporation of detritus into mineral soils. In addition to this mixing effect, mucus production associated with water excretion in earthworm guts also enhances the activity of other beneficial soil microorganisms. This is followed by the production of organic matter. So, in the short term, a more significant effect is the concentration of large quantities of nutrients (N, P, K, and Ca) that are easily assimilable by plants in fresh cast depositions. In addition, earthworms seem to accelerate the mineralization as well as the turnover of soil organic matter. Earthworms are known also to increase nitrogen mineralization, through direct and indirect effects on the microbial community. The increased transfer of organic C and N into soil aggregates indicates the potential for earthworms to facilitate soil organic matter stabilization and accumulation in agricultural systems, and that their influence depends greatly on differences in land management practices. This paper summarises information on published data on the described subjects. described subjects.

335

Stimulating effect of earthworm excreta on the mineralization of nitrogen compounds in soil  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of excreta of earthworm species Aporrectodea caliginosa and Eisenia fetida on the mineralization of nitrogen compounds in soils has been studied. A single application of excreta obtained from three earthworms in one day increased the formation of nitrate nitrogen compounds in the soil by 10 50%. The application of ammonium nitrogen (in the form of NH4Cl) in amounts equivalent to the ammonium nitrogen content in the daily excreta of three earthworms had the same effect on the mineralization of nitrogen compounds. The effect of earthworm excreta, as well as the effect of ammonium nitrogen, on the nitrification process was an order of magnitude higher than their contribution to the formation of nitrates due to the oxidation of the introduced ammonium. Hence, ammonium—an important component of the earthworm excreta—can exert a stimulating effect on nitrification processes in the soil and produce long-term cumulative effects that are much more significant than the direct effect of this nitrogen compound.

Bityutskii, N. P.; Solov'eva, A. N.; Lukina, E. I.; Oleinik, A. S.; Zavgorodnyaya, Yu. A.; Demin, V. V.; Byzov, B. A.

2007-04-01

336

Remediation of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil by using a combination of ryegrass, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and earthworms.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, a laboratory experiment was performed to investigate the influences of inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus caledoniun L. and/or epigeic earthworms (Eisenia foetida) on phytoremediation of a PCB-contaminated soil by ryegrass grown for 180d. Planting ryegrass, ryegrass inoculated with earthworms, ryegrass inoculated with AMF, and ryegrass co-inoculated with AMF and earthworms decreased significantly initial soil PCB contents by 58.4%, 62.6%, 74.3%, and 79.5%, respectively. Inoculation with AMF and/or earthworms increased the yield of plants, and the accumulation of PCBs in ryegrass. However, PCB uptake by ryegrass accounted for a negligible portion of soil PCB removal. The number of soil PCB-degrading populations increased when ryegrass was inoculated with AMF and/or earthworms. The data show that fungal inoculation may significantly increase the remedial potential of ryegrass for soil contaminated with PCBs. PMID:24457052

Lu, Yan-Fei; Lu, Mang; Peng, Fang; Wan, Yun; Liao, Min-Hong

2014-07-01

337

Assessing ecotoxicity and uptake of metals and metalloids in relation to two different earthworm species (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris).  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to diffuse atmospheric fallouts of process particles enriched by metals and metalloids, polluted soils concern large areas at the global scale. Useful tools to assess ecotoxicity induced by these polluted soils are therefore needed. Earthworms are currently used as biotest, however the influence of specie and earthworm behaviour, soil characteristics are poorly highlighted. Our aim was therefore to assess the toxicity of various polluted soils with process particles enriches by metals and metalloids (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, As and Sb) collected from a lead recycling facility on two earthworm species belonging to different ecological types and thus likely to have contrasted behavioural responses (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris). The combination of behavioural factors measurements (cast production and biomass) and physico-chemical parameters such as metal absorption, bioaccumulation by earthworms and their localization in invertebrate tissues provided a valuable indication of pollutant bioavailability and ecotoxicity. Soil characteristics influenced ecotoxicity and metal uptake by earthworms, as well as their soil bioturbation. PMID:23688736

Leveque, Thibaut; Capowiez, Yvan; Schreck, Eva; Mazzia, Christophe; Auffan, Mélanie; Foucault, Yann; Austruy, Annabelle; Dumat, Camille

2013-08-01

338

PCR-DGGE analysis of earthworm gut bacteria diversity in stress of Escherichia coli O157:H7  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to test if the intestinal bacteria play an important role in antibacterial ability of earthworm, we chose Escherichia coli O157:H7, an anthropozoonosis pathogen, as a biological stressor and studied the change of intestinal bacteria community of earthworm by PCR-DGGE analysis. Results showed that the pathogen merely existed 1 - 3 days, then almost disappeared after through the earthworm’s gut. In this period, the diversity and abundance index of intestinal bacteria increased first, then decreased, and finally kept stably after 7 days. The result demonstrated that the intestinal bacteria of earthworm had ability of adjust community structure to eliminate the pathogen E. coli O157:H7, and the amount of bacteria Bacillus increased significantly, which might be the positive antagonism to E. coli O157:H7.

Zhenjun Sun

2013-03-01

339

Mutual impacts of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and earthworms (Eisenia fetida) on the bioavailability of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wheat and earthworms were exposed individually and together to soils contaminated with 11 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Wheat accumulated PFASs from soil with root concentration factors and bioconcentration factors that decreased as the number of perfluorinated carbons in the molecule increased. Earthworms accumulated PFASs from soil with biota-to-soil accumulation factors that increased with the number of carbons. Translocation factors (TF) of perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) in wheat peaked at perfluorohexanoic acid and decreased significantly as the number of carbons increased or decreased. Perfluorohexane sulfonate produced the greatest TF of the three perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) examined. Wheat increased the bioaccumulation of all 11 PFASs in earthworms and earthworms increased the bioaccumulation in wheat of PFCAs containing seven or less perfluorinated carbons, decreased bioaccumulation of PFCAs with more than seven carbons, and decreased bioaccumulation of PFSAs. In general, the co-presence of wheat and earthworms enhanced the bioavailability of PFASs in soil. PMID:24158108

Zhao, Shuyan; Fang, Shuhong; Zhu, Lingyan; Liu, Li; Liu, Zhengtao; Zhang, Yahui

2014-01-01

340

Experiences with novel approaches in earthworm testing alternatives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Goal, Scope and Background. The earthworm avoidance test is a sensitive screening test. Currently, two test designs, a two-chamber system and a six-chamber system, are under standardization. In the scope of the present study, the two test systems are compared. To assess the results, two procedures are applied, which are based on a threshold value and a statistical method. Moreover, the sensitivity of the avoidance test is compared with the sensitivity of the reproduction test. Methods. The avoidance behaviour of E. fetida towards five chemicals (Cd, Cu, PCP, TBT, TNT) was tested in a sandy and a loamy soil. The ecotoxicological test was performed according to the draft guideline ISO/DIS 17512-1. The results were compared with the number of offspring determined in the reproduction test carried out according to ISO 11268-2. Results and Discussion. The results demonstrate that the avoidance behaviour towards organic chemicals and heavy metals is a suitable screening method showing first tendencies of a chemical's effects on the habitat function of soils. Effects caused by chemical substances become visible at low concentrations and within short test periods. The sensitivity of the reproduction test and the avoidance test is principally comparable; in some cases, the avoidance test showed more sensitive reactions. The dose-response-relationships were more pronounced in the two-chamber test than in the six-chamber-system. Recommendation and Outlook. The two-chamber-system proved to be more feasible than the six-chamber-system. As the sensitivity of the avoidance test and the reproduction test is comparable, the avoidance test can be considered as a suitable screening test. A possible field of application may be the selection of soil samples for which the reproduction assay seems necessary. To assess contaminated or remediated soils, the earthworm reproduction test is recommended as an indicator for the habitat function of the soils. To reduce costs, the avoidance test and the reproduction test could be used as a stepwise system. Thereby, the labour-intensive, but environmentally more relevant reproduction test is carried out only for samples that have already been indicated as toxic in the avoidance test. (orig.)

Hund-Rinke, K.; Lindemann, M.; Simon, M. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology, Schmallenberg (Germany)

2005-11-01

341

Freezing precipitation in Russia and the Ukraine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conditions for freezing precipitation (FP, including freezing rain (FR and freezing drizzle (FZ for 8 airports in Russia and 4 in the Ukraine are studied on the basis of 10 to 20-year series of surface observations, radiosonde and objective analysis data. Statistical characteristics are presented of the FP episode durations and of occurrence frequency dependences on surface air temperature, wind direction and speed and cloud base height. From the radiosonde data, it is found that the "classical mechanism" of FP generation (for which, stratification of "warm nose" type in the cloud layer is necessary is not frequent: most of FP cases are associated with "all cold" conditions in the lower 3-km layer, that is, with negative temperatures in and below the clouds.

A. A. Zavyalova

2007-04-01

342

Directional freezing for large volume cryopreservation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryopreservation is currently the method of choice when it comes to long-term preservation of viable biological samples. The process, and consequently the volume of the sample, however, is limited by the ability to achieve homogenous and efficient heat removal. When this cannot be properly managed, ice crystals will grow uncontrollably resulting in extensive damage to the cryopreserved cells or tissues. Directional freezing is a technique that can be used to precisely control heat dissipation and ice crystal growth and morphology even when freezing large volumes. The technique has been used over the years to cryopreserve spermatozoa, oocytes, embryos, tissue slices and whole organs from a wide variety of domestic and wild species. In this chapter a protocol for directional freezing of spermatozoa is described and its benefits and shortcomings are discussed. PMID:25428019

Saragusty, Joseph

2015-01-01

343

UltraViolet Freeze-in  

CERN Document Server

If dark matter is thermally decoupled from the visible sector, the observed relic density can potentially be obtained via freeze-in production of dark matter. Typically in such models it is assumed that the dark matter is connected to the thermal bath through feeble renormalisable interactions. Here, rather, we consider the case in which the hidden and visible sectors are coupled only via non-renormalisable operators. This is arguably a more generic realisation of the dark matter freeze-in scenario, as it does not require the introduction of diminutive renormalisable couplings. We examine general aspects of freeze-in via non-renormalisable operators in a number of toy models and present several motivated implementations in the context of Beyond the Standard Model physics. Specifically, we study models related to the Peccei-Quinn mechanism and Z' portals.

Elahi, Fatemeh; Unwin, James

2014-01-01

344

Hot big bang or slow freeze?  

CERN Document Server

We confront the hot big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze - a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the slow freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The slow freeze and hot big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple three-parameter "crossover model" without a "big bang singularity". In the infinite past space-time is flat. Our model is compatible with all present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy dominated universe.

Wetterich, C

2014-01-01

345

Reproducing Black's experiments: freezing point depression and supercooling of water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We carried out two historical experiments referred to by Joseph Black, one on freezing mixtures of salted water with ice and another on freezing supercooled pure water by a small disturbance. The results confirm thermodynamical predictions for the depression of the freezing point of salted water and for the latent heat of freezing of supercooled water respectively, which came after Black. The depression of the freezing point can hardly be fitted in the framework of the caloric theory of heat, which was taken for granted by Black, and the instantaneous freezing of supercooled water also poses some difficulties for that theory. (author)

346

An Investigation into the Anti-microbial and Anti-fungal Properties of Earthworm Powder Obtained from Eisenia fetida  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present study was carried out during the year 2006-2007 on dried earthworm powder collected from culture of Eisenia fetida in vermicomposting units and focused on the effect of the dried earthworm on microbes determining the anti-microbial and anti-fungal properties of the worms, as well as the chemical composition of worms obtain from vermicomposting units. The earthworm powder was also subjected to analysis of nitrogen and potassium using standard procedures. Antimicrobial disc diffusion suspecting tests were carried out against Bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as the fungus Candida albicans with the following treatments: Control, earthworm powder in water (1:1, earthworm powder in water (1:2 and earthworm powder in acetone (1:2. The technique involves using disk diffusion susceptibility testing where disks from both the pure and diluted honey as well as the antibiotic disk erythromycin (control were impregnated onto the surface of the Mueller Hinton agar. The study conclusively proved that the earthworm powder (all dilutions has antifungal properties which would be effective in treating fungal infections, such as candidosis whereas did not indicate the anti-microbial properties which may be attributed to different composition of elements in earthworm powder obtained from vermicomposting unit rather than garden soil. ANOVA analysis (Single factor at p = 0.05, proved that differences between the different concentrations of earthworm powder treatment containing colonies of C. albicans was significant, indicating the effect of earthworm powder by inhibiting the growth of the fungus C. albicans.

Abdullah Adil Ansari

2011-01-01

347

The influence of freezing rates on bovine pericardium tissue Freeze-drying  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O pericárdio bovino é um material utilizado na fabricação de biopróteses. A liofilização é um método de secagem que vem sendo estudado para a conservação de válvulas cardíacas. A preservação das características do biomaterial é de fundamental importância no bom funcionamento das válvulas. Este artig [...] o é a primeira etapa do desenvolvimento do ciclo de liofilização do pericárdio bovino. Liofilização é o processo de secagem no qual a água é removida do material congelado por sublimação e desorção da água incongelável, sob pressão reduzida. O congelamento influencia o tamanho do cristal de gelo e, consequentemente, a secagem primária e secundária. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência das taxas de congelamento nos parâmetros de liofilização do pericárdio bovino. Determinou-se a temperatura de transição vítrea e o comportamento estrutural do pericárdio bovino liofilizado. Determinou-se o tempo da secagem primária e secundária. O protocolo de liofilização utilizando-se congelamento lento com annealing apresentou os melhores resultados. Abstract in english The bovine pericardium has been used as biomaterial in developing bioprostheses. Freeze-drying is a drying process that could be used for heart valve's preservation. The maintenance of the characteristics of the biomaterial is important for a good heart valve performance. This paper describes the in [...] itial step in the development of a bovine pericardium tissue freeze-drying to be used in heart valves. Freeze-drying involves three steps: freezing, primary drying and secondary drying. The freezing step influences the ice crystal size and, consequently, the primary and secondary drying stages. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of freezing rates on the bovine pericardium tissue freeze-drying parameters. The glass transition temperature and the structural behaviour of the lyophilized tissues were determined as also primary and secondary drying time. The slow freezing with thermal treatment presented better results than the other freeze-drying protocols.

Camila Figueiredo, Borgognoni; Virgilio, Tattini Junior; Ana Maria Irene Bartolomeu, Ayrosa; Bronislaw, Polakiewicz; Adolfo Alberto, Leirner; Marina Junko Shiotsu, Maizato; Olga Zazuco, Higa; Marisa Masumi, Beppu; Ronaldo Nogueira de Moraes, Pitombo.

1493-15-01

348

The influence of freezing rates on bovine pericardium tissue Freeze-drying  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The bovine pericardium has been used as biomaterial in developing bioprostheses. Freeze-drying is a drying process that could be used for heart valve's preservation. The maintenance of the characteristics of the biomaterial is important for a good heart valve performance. This paper describes the initial step in the development of a bovine pericardium tissue freeze-drying to be used in heart valves. Freeze-drying involves three steps: freezing, primary drying and secondary drying. The freezing step influences the ice crystal size and, consequently, the primary and secondary drying stages. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of freezing rates on the bovine pericardium tissue freeze-drying parameters. The glass transition temperature and the structural behaviour of the lyophilized tissues were determined as also primary and secondary drying time. The slow freezing with thermal treatment presented better results than the other freeze-drying protocols.O pericárdio bovino é um material utilizado na fabricação de biopróteses. A liofilização é um método de secagem que vem sendo estudado para a conservação de válvulas cardíacas. A preservação das características do biomaterial é de fundamental importância no bom funcionamento das válvulas. Este artigo é a primeira etapa do desenvolvimento do ciclo de liofilização do pericárdio bovino. Liofilização é o processo de secagem no qual a água é removida do material congelado por sublimação e desorção da água incongelável, sob pressão reduzida. O congelamento influencia o tamanho do cristal de gelo e, consequentemente, a secagem primária e secundária. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência das taxas de congelamento nos parâmetros de liofilização do pericárdio bovino. Determinou-se a temperatura de transição vítrea e o comportamento estrutural do pericárdio bovino liofilizado. Determinou-se o tempo da secagem primária e secundária. O protocolo de liofilização utilizando-se congelamento lento com annealing apresentou os melhores resultados.

Camila Figueiredo Borgognoni

2009-12-01

349

[Organic waste treatment by earthworm vermicomposting and larvae bioconversion: review and perspective].  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a growing attention on the environmental pollution and loss of potential regeneration of resources due to the poor handling of organic wastes, while earthworm vermicomposting and larvae bioconversion are well-known as two promising biotechnologies for sustainable wastes treatments, where earthworms or housefly larvae are employed to convert the organic wastes into humus like material, together with value-added worm product. Taken earthworm ( Eisenia foetida) and housefly larvae ( Musca domestica) as model species, this work illustrates fundamental definition and principle, operational process, technical mechanism, main factors, and bio-chemical features of organisms of these two technologies. Integrated with the physical and biochemical mechanisms, processes of biomass conversion, intestinal digestion, enzyme degradation and microflora decomposition are comprehensively reviewed on waste treatments with purposes of waste reduction, value-addition, and stabilization. PMID:23914515

Zhang, Zhi-jian; Liu, Meng; Zhu, Jun

2013-05-01

350

Pollutant-induced alterations of granulocyte morphology in the earthworm Eisenia foetida.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworms are considered convenient indicators of land use and soil fertility. Recently the use of biomarkers in earthworms has been increasingly investigated. The aim of this work was to study possible pollutant-induced morphometric alterations in Eisenia foetida granulocytes in view of future applications as a sensitive, simple, and quick biomarker for soil monitoring and assessment applications. Results showed consistent enlargement of earthworm granulocytes induced by exposure to either copper sulfate or methiocarb. The increase of cellular size was time-dependent and was about 100% after 14 days of exposure for both treatments. In order to verify the applicability of morphometric granulocyte alteration, a battery of standardized biomarkers such as lysosomal membrane stability, metallothionein induction, or acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition were also determined. We recommend the use of morphometric alterations of granulocytes as a suitable biomarker of pollutant effect to be included in a multibiomarker strategy including responses at different levels of biological organization. PMID:19410293

Calisi, Antonio; Lionetto, Maria Giulia; Schettino, Trifone

2009-07-01

351

Vermicomposting of solid waste generated from leather industries using epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida.  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal fleshing (ANFL) generated as solid waste from tannery industries was vermicomposted using the epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida. The mixing ratio of ANFL with cow dung and agricultural residues as feed mixtures was maintained to be 3:1:1 respectively during the vermicomposting experiments for 50 days. Vermicomposting resulted in the reduction of pH 6.74 and C:N ratio 15.5 compared to the control sample. A notable increase in earthworm biomass was also observed in the vermin bioreactor. The germination index of 84% for tomato seedlings (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. PKM1) was observed for the vermicomposted soil. Scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were recorded to identify the changes in surface morphology and functional groups in the control and vermicomposted samples. The results obtained from the present study indicated that the earthworm E. foetida was able to convert ANFL into nutrient-enriched products. PMID:18509607

Ravindran, B; Dinesh, S L; Kennedy, L John; Sekaran, G

2008-12-01

352

Earthworm avoidance test for soil assessments. An alternative for acute and reproduction tests  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For ecotoxicological assessments of contaminated or remediated soils pointing to the habitat function of soils for biocenoses, standardized tests with earthworms (acute test, reproduction test) are available among others. Tests used for routine applications should be sensitive and indicate impacts on test organisms after short test periods. The usually applied earthworm tests do not satisfactorily fulfil these criteria. Therefore, in the present work, a behavioural test with earthworms (test criterion: avoidance) was investigated in detail using uncontaminated, artificially contaminated and originally contaminated soils. It was demonstrated that the avoidance behaviour is primarily determined by pollutants, and not by chemical-physical soil properties. The sensitivity of the presented test reaches the sensitivity of established tests. For waste sites, a considerably higher sensitivity was determined. An avoidance behaviour of at least 80% of the worms leaving the soil to be assessed is proposed as a criterion for toxicity. (orig.)

Hund-Rinke, K.; Wiechering, H. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Umweltchemie und Oekotoxikologie, Schmallenberg (Germany)

2001-07-01

353

Effects of Pesticides on the Growth and Reproduction of Earthworm: A Review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scientific literature addressing the influence of pesticides on the growth and reproduction of earthworm is reviewed. Earthworms are considered as important bio indicators of chemical toxicity in the soil ecosystem. Studies on this aspect are important because earthworms are the common prey of many terrestrial vertebrate species such as birds and small mammals, and thus they play a key role in the bio magnification process of several soil pollutants. Majority of the studies have used mortality as an endpoint rather than subtler endpoints such as reproductive output. It is now emphasized that, whereas higher concentrations of a pollutant can easily be assessed with the acute (mortality) test, contaminated soils with lower (sublethal) pollutant concentrations require more sensitive test methods such as reproduction test in their risk assessment.

354

DNA Repair Inhibition by Mercuric Chloride in Earthworms after Exposure to Radiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

All organisms are being exposed to harmful factors present in the environment. Ionizing radiation can damage DNA through a series of molecular events depending on the radiation energy. The biological effects due to the combined action of ionizing radiation with the other factor are hard to estimate and predict in advance. Recently International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) requires the effect data of ionizing radiation on non-human biota for the radiological protection of the environment. Earthworms have been identified by the ICRP as one of the reference animals and plants to be used in environmental radiation protection. Particularly, the earthworm Eisenia fetida can be used as a bio-indicator of pollution in soil. This study was performed to investigate the acute genotoxic effects of radiation and the synergistic effects between radiation and mercury in earthworm, E. fetida

Ryu, Tae Ho; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nili, Mohammad [Dawnesh Radiation Research Institute, Barcelona (Spain); An, Kwang Guk [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2011-10-15

355

Soil physical ambient and its relation ships with the earthworm's biomass in some Colombian Andean hillsides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work presented here describes on the one hand the relationship between diversity, density and biomass of the earthworm's side and humidity, total porosity and resistance to penetration in the hillsides soils (secondary forest, Inceptisol and Pennsisetum clandestinum pastured, Andisol) on the other hand side. Results indicate that there were significant differences between sites for density and biomass of earthworms, and that their presence was affected by the physical parameters. Resistance to soil penetrability and humidity were significantly different only in the first 20 cm; while in deeper soil layers these were no such difference between sites, this is of importance, since the surface of the soil suffers changes due to the management, thus affecting the conditions that regulate the earthworm populations

356

Bioaccumulation and biological effects in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to natural and depleted uranium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The accumulations of both natural (U) and depleted (DU) uranium in the earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were studied to evaluate corresponding biological effects. Concentrations of metals in the experimental soil ranged from 1.86 to 600 mg kg{sup -1}. Five biological endpoints: mortality, animals' weight increasing, lysosomal membrane stability by measuring the neutral red retention time (the NRRT), histological changes and genetic effects (Comet assay) were used to evaluate biological effects in the earthworms after 7 and 28 days of exposure. No effects have been observed in terms of mortality or weight reduction. Cytotoxic and genetic effects were identified at quite low U concentrations. For some of these endpoints, in particular for genetic effects, the dose (U concentration)-effect relationships have been found to be non-linear. The results have also shown a statistically significant higher level of impact on the earthworms exposed to natural U compared to depleted U.

Giovanetti, Anna, E-mail: anna.giovanetti@enea.i [ENEA, Institute of Radiation Protection, CR Casaccia Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Fesenko, Sergey [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Cozzella, Maria L. [ENEA, National Institute for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation, CR Casaccia Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Asencio, Lisbet D. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales, Carretera a Castillo de Jagua, CP. 59350 C. Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Sansone, Umberto [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

2010-06-15

357

Bioaccumulation and biological effects in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to natural and depleted uranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accumulations of both natural (U) and depleted (DU) uranium in the earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were studied to evaluate corresponding biological effects. Concentrations of metals in the experimental soil ranged from 1.86 to 600 mg kg-1. Five biological endpoints: mortality, animals' weight increasing, lysosomal membrane stability by measuring the neutral red retention time (the NRRT), histological changes and genetic effects (Comet assay) were used to evaluate biological effects in the earthworms after 7 and 28 days of exposure. No effects have been observed in terms of mortality or weight reduction. Cytotoxic and genetic effects were identified at quite low U concentrations. For some of these endpoints, in particular for genetic effects, the dose (U concentration)-effect relationships have been found to be non-linear. The results have also shown a statistically significant higher level of impact on the earthworms exposed to natural U compared to depleted U.

358

DNA Repair Inhibition by Mercuric Chloride in Earthworms after Exposure to Radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All organisms are being exposed to harmful factors present in the environment. Ionizing radiation can damage DNA through a series of molecular events depending on the radiation energy. The biological effects due to the combined action of ionizing radiation with the other factor are hard to estimate and predict in advance. Recently International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) requires the effect data of ionizing radiation on non-human biota for the radiological protection of the environment. Earthworms have been identified by the ICRP as one of the reference animals and plants to be used in environmental radiation protection. Particularly, the earthworm Eisenia fetida can be used as a bio-indicator of pollution in soil. This study was performed to investigate the acute genotoxic effects of radiation and the synergistic effects between radiation and mercury in earthworm, E. fetida

359

Soil Organic Matter Particle and Presence of Earthworm Under Different Tillage Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to study the particle of organic matter and the presence of earthworm under conservation and traditional tillage during winter and spring seasons. The sampling site was experimental field of FIRA in Villadiego, Guanajuato. The soil and earthworm sampling was carried out in monoliths of 25x25x30 cm (sidexsidexdepth, dividing the depth into strata: 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm. An earthworm species was identified namely Phoenicodrilus taste under conservation and conventional tillage. P. taste showed a population of 328 individuals m-2 during the spring season under conservation tillage. This data coincided with the particle of soil organic matter in the 2 ?m category, high organic carbon content (5, 3 y 2%, total nitrogen (0.3, 0.2 y 0.1% and the depths of 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm, respectively.

Hortensia Brito-Vega

2009-01-01

360

Survival strategies of freshwater insects in cold environments  

OpenAIRE

At high latitudes and altitudes, ice formation is a major variable affecting survival of freshwater fauna and hence the abundance and composition of invertebrate communities. Freezing, but also desiccation and anoxia, are lethal threats to all life stages of aquatic insects, from the eggs to the adults. During cold periods, the aquatic stages commonly remain in or move to a portion of the water body that will not freeze or dry (e.g., deep waters of lakes, springs and hyporheic zone) where the...

Lencioni, Valeria

2004-01-01

361

Comparison of conventional and directional freezing for the cryopreservation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM:To compare conventional slow equilibrium cooling and directional freezing (DF by gauze package for cryopreservation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs.METHODS: HUVECs were randomly assigned to conventional freezing (CF and DF by gauze package group. The two groups of HUVECs were incubated with a freezing liquid consisting of 10% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, 60% fetal bovine serum(FBS and 30% Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium(DMEM and then put into cryopreserved tubes. CF group, slow equilibrium cooling was performed with the following program:precool in 4? for 30min, -20? for 1h, and then immersion in -80? refrigerator. DF group, the tubes were packaged with gauze and then directional freezing in -80? refrigerator straightly. One month later, the vitality of HUVECs were calculated between two groups.RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the survival rate and growth curve between CF and DF groups. The DF group was significantly better than CF group in adherent rates, morphological changes and proliferative ability.CONCLUSION:In the conventional cryopreserved method, cells are slow equilibrium cooling by steps (4?, -20? and finally -80?, which is a complicated and time-consuming process. But the improved DF by gauze package method is better than conventional method, for which is convenient and easy to operate.

Bing Qi

2014-10-01

362

Rock phosphate solubilizing and cellulolytic actinomycete isolates of earthworm casts  

Science.gov (United States)

Four microbial isolates, OP2, OP3, OP6, and OP7, of earthworm casts of Pontoscolex corethrurus were found to be acid tolerant actinomycetes and efficient rock phosphate (RP) solubilizers that could grow fast on NH4Cl-enriched or N-free carboxymethyl cellulose or glucose as sole carbon source. CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose) induced production of extracellular cellulase enzyme and the production of reducing sugar in all the isolates. RP solubilizing power was observed to be inversely related to glucose consumption. The most efficient RP solubilizer was found to consume the least glucose. Growth was faster on cellulose than on glucose media. N-free CMC induced greater glucose production than NH4Cl-enriched CMC medium. Both CMC and glucose media were acidified by all the isolates, however, RP solubilizing power decreased with acidification. Solubilization power was greatest with isolate OP7, which also produced the greatest amount of reducing sugar per gram CMC. Both RP solubilizing power and the cellulolytic efficiency varied among isolates. A minimum of 631 µg P/0.1 g RP and a maximum of 951.4 µg P/0.1 g RP was recorded.

Mba, Caroline C.

1994-03-01

363

Activity and immunodetection of lysozyme in earthworm Dendrobaena veneta (Annelida).  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, lysozyme-like activity against Micrococcus luteus was detected in the coelomic fluid, the extract from coelomocytes, intestine and in the homogenates from cocoons of Dendrobaena veneta. Four hours after immunization with Escherichia coli, the lysozyme activity in the coelomic fluid increased about three times and in the extract of coelomocytes - four times, in comparison to the control. In three cases: of the coelomic fluid, the homogenates from cocoons and the extract from coelomocytes, the antibody against HEWL (hen egg white lysozyme) recognized only one protein with a molecular mass of about 14.4 kDa. In the coelomic fluid, apart from the protein with molecular mass of 14.4 kDa the antibody directed against human lysozyme recognized an additional protein of 22 kDa. Using the bioautography technique after electrophoretic resolution of native proteins in acidic polyacrylamide gels, two lytic zones of M. luteus were observed in the case of the coelomic fluid and three after the analysis of the extract of coelomocytes and the egg homogenates. The results indicated the existence of several forms of lysozyme with a different electric charge in the analyzed D. veneta samples. The highest lysozyme activity in the intestine of D. veneta was observed in the midgut. The antibody directed against human lysozyme indicated a strong positive signal in epidermal and midgut cells of earthworm. PMID:22019387

Fio?ka, Marta J; Zagaja, Miros?aw P; Hu?as-Stasiak, Monika; Wielbo, Jerzy

2012-01-01

364

Unravelling some Kinki earthworms (Annelida: Oligochaeta: Megadrili: Megascolecidae - Part II  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Metaphire tanbode sp. nov. is found in rice paddy in Kinki plain at Lake Biwa and Amynthas yamade sp. nov. isfrom Hira range to the West. M. tanbode belongs to the M. hilgendorfi / A. tokioensis species-complex, while montane A. yamadeis comparable to both Amynthas aeruginosus-group and Duplodicodrilus schmardae-group. Genetic barcoding (mtDNA COI viatypes is attempted. Taxonomic ‘housekeeping’ requires replacement of invalid homonyms: e.g. Pheretima montana Ishizuka, 1999(non type-species P. montana Kinberg, 1867 is renamed Amynthas nonmontanus; others are A. nonsilvestris, A. noninvisus, A.nonmonticolus and A. nonsetosus, noms. et combs. novae. Thus Pheretima Kinberg, 1867 s. stricto remains unrecorded from Japanwhile prior Amynthas Kinberg, 1867, and its derivative Metaphire Sims & Easton, 1972, are abundant and diverse. Family andgeneric level definition and placement of Oriental pheretimoids are restated for the benefit of current workers and for novicefield-ecologists. Surveys of below-ground biodiversity of rice paddy in Lake Biwa is compared to more natural habitats aroundLake Pedder in Western Tasmanian Wilderness Area, and co-incidentally, both have 21 recorded earthworm species. Thus claimsfrom various countries of less than six species per location are contraindicated by thorough eco-taxonomic methods yieldingmore representative results.

Blakemore, R.J.

2010-10-01

365

Building the Method to Determine the Rate of Freezing Water in Penaeus monodon of the Freezing Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The method of determination the rate of freezing water in Penaeus monodon of freezing process was established on base the equation of energy balance in warming up process Penaeus monodon after freezing to determine specific heat of Penaeus monodon. The result obtained was built the mathematical model (19 to determine the rate of freezing water according to the freezing temperature of Penaeus monodon. The results indicated that when water was completely frozen (? = 1 or 100%, the optimal freezing temperature of Penaeus monodon was-22.00°C.

Nguyen Tan Dzung

2012-10-01

366

Balkanized Research in Ecological Engineering Revealed by a Bibliometric Analysis of Earthworms and Ecosystem Services  

Science.gov (United States)

Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically-based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evolution of the association of "earthworms" and other terms such as ecosystem services (primary production, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, soil structure, and pollution remediation), "ecological engineering" or "biodiversity," to assess their convergence or divergence through time. In this aim, we calculated the similarity index, an indicator of the paradigmatic proximity defined in applied epistemology, for each year between 1900 and 2009. We documented the scientific fields and the geographical origins of the studies, as well as the land uses, and compare these characteristics with a 25 years old review on earthworm management. The association of earthworm related keywords with ecosystem services related keywords was increasing with time, reflecting the growing interest in earthworm use in biodiversity and ecosystem services management. Conversely, no significant increase in the association between earthworms and disciplines such as ecological engineering or restoration ecology was observed. This demonstrated that general ecologically-based approaches have yet to emerge and that there is little exchange of knowledge, methods or concepts among balkanized application realms. Nevertheless, there is a strong need for crossing the frontiers between fields of application and for developing an umbrella discipline to provide a framework for the use of organisms to manage ecosystem services.

Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

2013-08-01

367

Impact of land protection in soil quality properties and in earthworm biomass in Venezuelan savannas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english We studied soil parameters and the earthworm biomass and density in a protected savanna (PS) from fire and cattle raising for more than forty years located at Estación Biológica de los Llanos, Venezuela (EBLL), and an adjacent non-protected savanna (NS) under frequent burning and agricultural activi [...] ties, located less than 1 km apart. Earthworm sampling was carried out at the end of the dry season (April), and at the peak of the wet season (July-August) using a hand sorting extraction method. In each plot, five to seven sampling units were selected corresponding to soil monoliths of 25x25x30 cm. The main physical, chemical, microbial (biomass) and enzymatic activities of soils in both systems were estimated. Thepresence of an abundant litter layer under the tree canopies in the PS have increased the soil water retention capacity, the organic-C, C-microbial biomass, dehydrogenase activity and fertility levels respect NS. This may allow for an increase in the density and biomass of earthworms in the PS compared with the adjacent NS. The systems were characterized by abundance in juvenile individuals belonging to the Glossoscolecidae family; two different morphotypes of the genus Aicodrilus were registered. Earthworms found were located in an endo-anecic ecological category. Results suggest that, agricultural management in savannas by modification of physical and biochemical soil properties can decrease an important fraction of pedofauna, particularly their earthworm communities. However, earthworm populations and soil quality indicators can be restored after long-term protection.

D, López-Hernández; L, Hernández; A, Ojeda; E, Quintero; S, Caipo.

368

Impact of land protection in soil quality properties and in earthworm biomass in Venezuelan savannas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english We studied soil parameters and the earthworm biomass and density in a protected savanna (PS) from fire and cattle raising for more than forty years located at Estación Biológica de los Llanos, Venezuela (EBLL), and an adjacent non-protected savanna (NS) under frequent burning and agricultural activi [...] ties, located less than 1 km apart. Earthworm sampling was carried out at the end of the dry season (April), and at the peak of the wet season (July-August) using a hand sorting extraction method. In each plot, five to seven sampling units were selected corresponding to soil monoliths of 25x25x30 cm. The main physical, chemical, microbial (biomass) and enzymatic activities of soils in both systems were estimated. Thepresence of an abundant litter layer under the tree canopies in the PS have increased the soil water retention capacity, the organic-C, C-microbial biomass, dehydrogenase activity and fertility levels respect NS. This may allow for an increase in the density and biomass of earthworms in the PS compared with the adjacent NS. The systems were characterized by abundance in juvenile individuals belonging to the Glossoscolecidae family; two different morphotypes of the genus Aicodrilus were registered. Earthworms found were located in an endo-anecic ecological category. Results suggest that, agricultural management in savannas by modification of physical and biochemical soil properties can decrease an important fraction of pedofauna, particularly their earthworm communities. However, earthworm populations and soil quality indicators can be restored after long-term protection.

D, López-Hernández; L, Hernández; A, Ojeda; E, Quintero; S, Caipo.

2014-12-01

369

The Earthworm Gut: an Ideal Habitat for Ingested N2O-Producing Microorganisms  

OpenAIRE

The in vivo production of nitrous oxide (N2O) by earthworms is due to their gut microbiota, and it is hypothesized that the microenvironment of the gut activates ingested N2O-producing soil bacteria. In situ measurement of N2O and O2 with microsensors demonstrated that the earthworm gut is anoxic and the site of N2O production. The gut had a pH of 6.9 and an average water content of approximately 50%. The water content within the gut decreased from the anterior end to the posterior end. In co...

Horn, Marcus A.; Schramm, Andreas; Drake, Harold L.

2003-01-01

370

Gene expression of TLR homologues identified by genome-wide screening of the earthworm Dendrobaena veneta.  

Science.gov (United States)

TLRs represent one of the most important components of innate immunity. Currently, these receptors have been extensively studied in vertebrates and insects, but our knowledge for annelids is very limited. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify earthworm TLR homologs by genome-wide screening, and to determine the expression of candidate genes as a response to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Using a combination of deep pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR we found six candidate genes, for which all were expressed in Dentrobaena veneta. Two of the candidates showed significant response to bacterial exposure. In conclusion, TLRs seem to have a role in earthworm immunology. PMID:24574024

Fjøsne, Trine F; Stenseth, Else-Berit; Myromslien, Frøydis; Rudi, Knut

2014-02-26

371

Space-time dynamics in situ of earthworm casts under temperate cultivated soils  

OpenAIRE

Soil does not always benefit from disturbance by earthworms. We investigated whether (under a temperate climate and in maize growing in rows running down-hill) earthworm casts could contribute to soil erosion and losses of nutrients in runoff water. Observations of casts were made in compacted (wheel-tracks) and non-compacted (untrafficked) inter-rows, for a 2-month period in spring. Estimates of surface-cast production in a temperate maize crop ranged between 2.5 to 3.2 kg (d.w soil) m?...

Binet, Franc?oise; Le Bayon, Rene?e-claire

2009-01-01

372

Earthworm Egg Capsules as Vectors for the Environmental Introduction of Biodegradative Bacteria  

OpenAIRE

Earthworm egg capsules (cocoons) may acquire bacteria from the environment in which they are produced. We found that Ralstonia eutropha (pJP4) can be recovered from Eisenia fetida cocoons formed in soil inoculated with this bacterium. Plasmid pJP4 contains the genes necessary for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) degradation. In this study we determined that the presence of R. eutropha (pJP4) within the developing earthworm cocoon can influence the degrad...

Daane, L. L.; Ha?ggblom, M. M.

1999-01-01

373

Hyperprolinemic larvae of the drosophilid fly, Chymomyza costata, survive cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen  

OpenAIRE

The larva of the drosophilid fly, Chymomyza costata, is probably the most complex metazoan organism that can survive submergence in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C) in a fully hydrated state. We examined the associations between the physiological and biochemical parameters of differently acclimated larvae and their freeze tolerance. Entering diapause is an essential and sufficient prerequisite for attaining high levels of survival in liquid nitrogen (23% survival to adult stage), although cold acc...

Kos?ta?l, Vladimi?r; Zahradni?c?kova?, Helena; S?imek, Petr

2011-01-01

374

Fundamental aspects of the freezing of cells, with emphasis on mammalian ova and embryos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The problem in cryobiology is how to cool cells to -196/sup 0/C and return them to normal temperatures without killing them. One important factor is the presence of a protective additive like glycerol or dimethyl sulfoxide. Mammalian cells rarely survive freezing to below -40/sup 0/C in its absence. In the presence of an additive, survival is critically dependent on the cooling rate. Supraoptimal rates and suboptimal rates are both damaging. Death at supraoptimal rates is the result of the formation of intracellular ice and its recrystallization during warming. Death at suboptimal rates is a consequence of the major alterations in aqueous solutions produced by ice formation. The chief effects are a major reduction in the fraction of the solution remaining unfrozen at a given temperature and a major increase in the solute concentration of that fraction. The introduction of molar concentrations of additive greatly reduces both the fraction frozen and the concentration of electrolytes in the unfrozen channels and in the cell interior. Usually, freezing either kills cells outright or it results in survivors that retain full capacity to function. But there is the possibility that in some cases survivors may in fact be impaired genetically or physiologically. All evidence indicates that genetic damage does not occur. But there are clear examples in which freezing does induce nonlethal physiological damage. (ERB)

Mazur, P.

1980-01-01

375

Evolutionary adaptation to freeze-thaw-growth cycles in Escherichia coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fifteen populations of Escherichia coli were propagated for 150 freeze-thaw-growth (FTG) cycles in order to study the phenotypic and genetic changes that evolve under these stressful conditions. Here we present the phenotypic differences between the evolved lines and their progenitors as measured by competition experiments and growth curves. Three FTG lines evolved from an ancestral strain that was previously used to start a long-term evolution experiment, while the other 12 FTG lines are derived from clones that had previously evolved for 20,000 generations at constant 37 degrees C. Competition experiments indicate that the former FTG group improved their mean fitness under the FTG regime by about 90% relative to their progenitor, while the latter FTG group gained on average about 60% relative to their own progenitors. These increases in fitness result from both improved survival during freezing and thawing and more rapid recovery to initiate exponential growth after thawing. This shorter lag phase is specific to recovery after freezing and thawing. Future work will seek to identify the mutations responsible for evolutionary adaptation to the FTG environment and use them to explore the physiological mechanisms that allow increased survival and more rapid recovery. PMID:17508333

Sleight, Sean C; Lenski, Richard E

2007-01-01

376

FREEZE-FRAME: Fast Action Stress Relief.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent scientific research has proven that we can, not only manage our stress, we can even prevent it. Ways to achieve stress management are presented in this book. It details a method called FREEZE-FRAME, a process in which individuals mentally stop the chaos that surrounds them and then calmly contemplate their situation. The text opens with an…

Childre, Doc Lew

377

Renormalization, Freezing Phase Transitions and Fibonacci Quasicrystals  

OpenAIRE

We examine the renormalization operator determined by the Fibonacci substitution. We exhibit a fixed point and determine its stable leaf (under iteration of the operator). Then, we study the thermodynamic formalism for po- tentials in this stable leaf, and prove they have a freezing phase transition, with ground state supported on the attracting quasi-crystal associated to the Fibonacci substitution

Bruin, Henk; Leplaideur, Renaud

2013-01-01

378

Sysnthesis of powders by freeze-drying  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The freeze-drying method of synthesizing powders of the superconducting oxide YBa2Cu3O7 - ? is described. This process produces homogeneous, submicron powders of high purity. The effects of salt selection, solution concentration and pH on the process are described. Some evaluation of the sintering behavior and the effects on critical current density are included

379

A bilateral nuclear-weapon freeze  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In many of the current elections in the U.S. there is a referendum on whether to urge a halt in the production of new nuclear weapons and delivery systems. The nature of such a freeze is discussed here. (orig.)

380

Snow Melting and Freezing on Older Townhouses  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The snowy winter of 2009/2010 in Scandinavia prompted many newspaper articles on icicles falling from buildings and the risk this presented for people walking below. The problem starts with snow melting on the roof due to heat loss from the building. Melt water runs down the roof and some of it will freeze on the overhang. The rest of the water will either run off or freeze in gutters and downpipes or turn into icicles. This paper describes use of a model for the melting and freezing of snow on roofs. Important parameters are roof length, overhang length, heat resistance of roof and overhang, outdoor and indoor temperature, snow thickness and thermal conductivity. If the snow thickness is above a specific limit value – the snow melting limit- some of the snow will melt. Another interesting limit value is the dripping limit. All the melt water will freeze on the overhang, if the snow thickness is between the two limit values. Only if the snow thickness is above the dripping limit, will we get icicles. The model is used on an old townhouse without much thermal insulation and compared with newer townhouses. A discussion on attic temperatures is included. The results show that better thermal insulation or ventilation with outdoor air is the best way to reduce the risk of icicles.

Nielsen, Anker; Claesson, Johan

2011-01-01

381

Freezing in the Antarctic limpet, Nacella concinna.  

Science.gov (United States)

The process of organismal freezing in the Antarctic limpet, Nacella concinna, is complicated by molluscan biology. Internal ice formation is, in particular, mediated by two factors: (a) the provision of an inoculative target for ice formation in the exposed mucus-secreting foot; and (b) osmoconformity to the marine environment. With regard to the first, direct observations of the independent freezing of pedal mucus support the hypothesis that internal ice formation is delayed by the mucal film. As to the second, ice nucleation parametrics of organismal tissue (head, midgut, gonad, foot) and mucus in both inter- and subtidal populations were characterized by high melting points (range=-4.61 to -6.29 degrees C), with only c.50% of a given sample osmotically active. At this stage it would be premature to ascribe a cryo-adaptive function to the mucus as the protective effects are more readily attributed to the physical properties of the secretion (i.e. viscosity) and their corresponding effects on the rate of heat transfer. As it is difficult to thermally distinguish between the freezing of mucus and the rest of the animal, the question as to whether it is tolerant of internal as well as external ice formation remains problematic, although it may be well suited to the osmotic stresses of organismal freezing. PMID:20599885

Hawes, T C; Worland, M R; Bale, J S

2010-08-01

382

Freeze-drying of ibuprofen by using organic solvent  

OpenAIRE

The main objective of this work was the study and the optimization of the freeze-drying process of ibuprofen with aqueous and/or organic based formulations. A detailed comparative study was realized at different steps of the ibuprofen freeze-drying process for both types of investigated formulations. This comparative study was realized at the succesives stages of freezing, sublimation and desorption and also concerned some properties of the final freeze-dried product (humidity, rehydratabilit...

Bogdani, Eni

2011-01-01

383

Effects of freezing on soil temperature, freezing front propagation and moisture redistribution in peat: laboratory investigations  

OpenAIRE

There are not many studies that report water movement in freezing peat. Soil column studies under controlled laboratory settings can help isolate and understand the effects of different factors controlling freezing of the active layer in organic covered permafrost terrain. In this study, four peat Mesocosms were subjected to temperature gradients by bringing the Mesocosm tops in contact with sub-zero air temperature while maintaining a continuously frozen layer at the bottom (proxy permafrost...

Nagare, R. M.; Schincariol, R. A.; Quinton, W. L.; Hayashi, M.

2012-01-01

384

Freeze-drying microscopy in mathematical modeling of a biomaterial freeze-drying  

OpenAIRE

Transplantation brings hope for many patients. A multidisciplinary approach on this field aims at creating biologically functional tissues to be used as implants and prostheses. The freeze-drying process allows the fundamental properties of these materials to be preserved, making future manipulation and storage easier. Optimizing a freeze-drying cycle is of great importance since it aims at reducing process costs while increasing product quality of this time-and-energy-consuming process. Math...

Camila Figueiredo Borgognoni; Joyce da Silva Bevilacqua; Ronaldo Nogueira de Moraes Pitombo

2012-01-01

385

Intensification of the freeze drying process by the control of both freezing and primary drying steps  

OpenAIRE

The problem of optimization of freeze-drying cycles is addressed, with emphasis in both freezing and primary drying steps. In particular, this study shows that the control of the nucleation event produces more uniform batches (as ice nucleation is induced in all the vials of batch almost at the same time and temperature) and allows a marked reduction in the duration of the optimized cycle (if compared to cycles carried out with conventional stochastic nucleation)

Pisano, Roberto; Oddone, Irene; Barresi, Antonello

2013-01-01

386

Aquaporin-Mediated Improvement of Freeze Tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Restricted to Rapid Freezing Conditions  

OpenAIRE

Previous observations that aquaporin overexpression increases the freeze tolerance of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) without negatively affecting the growth or fermentation characteristics held promise for the development of commercial baker's yeast strains used in frozen dough applications. In this study we found that overexpression of the aquaporin-encoding genes AQY1-1 and AQY2-1 improves the freeze tolerance of industrial strain AT25, but only in small doughs under laboratory co...

Tanghe, An; Dijck, Patrick; Colavizza, Didier; Thevelein, Johan M.

2004-01-01

387

Uptake and retention of radio-caesium in earthworms cultured in soil contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand the effects of radionuclides on non-human biota and the environment, it is essential to study the intake and metabolism of radio-isotopes in earthworms which are among the most important soil organisms, and Eisenia fetida, which were used in this study, are known to be sufficiently sensitive to chemicals and representative of common earthworms. In this study, we assessed the concentration ratios, uptake and retention, absorbed dose rate, and distribution of radio-caesium in earthworms. The concentration ratios of (137)Cs (i.e., the concentrations of radio-caesium in earthworms relative to those in dry soil) were higher early in the culturing period and decreased gradually over the experimental period. (137)Cs taken up by E. fetida was cleared rapidly after the worms were cultured in radio-caesium-free soil, suggesting that the metabolism of radio-caesium in earthworms is very rapid. Autoradiography demonstrated that the concentration of radio-caesium within the digestive tract was as high as that in the soil, while radio-caesium in the body tissue was lower than radio-caesium in the soil and was almost uniformly distributed among earthworm tissues. The highest absorbed dose rate of total exposure to radio-caesium ((137)Cs + (134)Cs) was calculated to be 1.9 × 10(3) (?Gy/day) in the earthworms. PMID:25464049

Fujiwara, K; Takahashi, T; Nguyen, P; Kubota, Y; Gamou, S; Sakurai, S; Takahashi, S

2015-01-01

388

Effectivity of the Earthworms Pheretima hupiensis, Eudrellus sp. and Lumbricus sp. on the Organic Matter Decomposition Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The earthworms are the one of soil fauna component in soil ecosystem have an important role in organic matter decomposition procces. The earthworm feed plant leaf and plant matter up to apart and dissolved. Earthworm metabolisms produce like faeces that mixed with decomposed organic matter mean vermicompost. The vermicompost fertility varies because of some kind of earthworm differ in “niche” and attitude. The experiment was to study the effectivity of earthworm on organic matter decomposition which has been conducted in Soil Biological and Healthy Laboratory and Green House of Soil Research Institute Bogor, during 2006 Budget Year. The three kind of earthworms i.e Pheretima hupiensis, Lumbricus sp. and Eudrellus sp. combined with three kind of organic matter sources i.e rice straw, trash and palm oil plant waste (compost heap. The result shows that the Lumbricus sp. are the most effective decomposer compared to Pheretima hupiensis and Eudrellus sp. and the organic matter decomposed by Lumbricus sp. as followed: market waste was decomposed of 100%, palm oil empty fruit bunch (compost heap 95.8 % and rice straw 84.9%, respectively. Earthworm effectively decreased Fe, Al, Mn, Cu dan Zn.

Ea Kosman Anwar

2009-05-01

389

Comparing effects of freezing at -196 ºC and -20 ºC on the viability of mastitis pathogens  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cryopreservation at approximately -196 ºC in liquid nitrogen (N) and freezing at approximately -20 ºC in a freezer, on the viability and survival of eight different mastitogenic bacteria inoculated in milk. Bacteria were frozen at approximately -20 [...] ºC in a freezer and cryopreserved at approximately -196 ºC in liquid nitrogen. An effective preservation method was needed for follow-up samples from cows identified in the South African National Milk Recording Scheme (NMRS) with somatic cell counts above 250 000 cells/mL milk. The organisation responsible for sample collection of the NMRS milk samples also provides producers with liquid nitrogen for their semen flasks at the collection sites. This existing mode of storage and transport could therefore be utilised. Ten samples of each organism were thawed and cultured bi-weekly until week 18 for both temperature treatments. An additional sampling was performed at week 30 for samples frozen at approximately -20 ºC. Freezing and cryopreservation did not impair subsequent isolation of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus (STH) (phage type lytic group III) or Sta. aureus (STA) (phage typed, other than lytic group III). Survival was indicated by the isolation of bacteria from samples, and viability by the strength of growth of the bacteria isolated. The survival of Streptococcus agalactiae decreased after week 12 and Escherichia coli after week 16 of freezing, but both organisms survived under cryogenic preservation until week 18. Coagulase-negative staphylococci survived until week 18 for both freezing and cryogenic preservation. Both storage methods could thus contribute to the improvement of a pro-active approach towards udder health management in South African dairy herds.

Inge-Marie, Petzer; Joanne, Karzis; Theodorus J., van der Schans; Johanna C., Watermeyer; Norman, Mitchell-Innes; Stephanie, Eloff; Geoffrey T., Fosgate.

390

Study on the Effect of Pickled Cabbage using Freeze-drying Protective Agent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The protective effect of pickled cabbage using biological material was researched in the study. Firstly, the research determined the centrifugal condition of bacterial sludge and then detected the influence of various protective agents on the survival rate of lactobacillus. The final test result can show the influence degree of various protective agents on the survival rate of the freeze-drying lactobacillus was sodium glutamate>skim milk>mannitol>sucrose>glycerol>maltose. The best formula of the protective agent was: the skim milk, sucrose, glycerol, maltose and sodium glutamate shall be 6% and the mannitol shall be 4%. The survival rate of the lactobacillus after using the sodium glutamate with the best protection effect can reach 65.5%. The experience proved that these protective agents and ratio can guarantee the nutrients in the pickled cabbage not destroyed.

Xing Long

2013-10-01

391

Radiocesium concentrations in epigeic earthworms at various distances from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant 6 months after the 2011 accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigated the concentrations of radiocesium in epigeic earthworms, litter, and soil samples collected from forests in Fukushima Prefecture 6 months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011. Radiocesium concentrations in litter accumulated on the forest floor were higher than those in the soil (0–5 cm depth). The highest average 134+137Cs concentrations in earthworms (approximately 19 Bq g?1 of wet weight with gut contents and 108 Bq g?1 of dry weight without gut contents) were recorded from a plot that experienced an air dose rate of 3.1 ?Sv h?1, and earthworm concentrations were found to increase with litter and/or soil concentrations. Average 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations (with or without gut contents) were intermediate between accumulated litter and soil. Different species in the same ecological groups on the same plots had similar concentrations because of their use of the same habitats or their similar physiological characteristics. The contribution of global fallout 137Cs to earthworms with gut contents was calculated to be very low, and most 137Cs in earthworms was derived from the Fukushima accident. Transfer factors from accumulated litter to earthworms, based on their dry weights, ranged from 0.21 to 0.35, in agreement with previous field studies. -- Highlights: • Radiocesium concentrations in earthworms were intermediate between litter and soil. • Three earthworm species in epigeic groups had similar radiocesium concentrations. • Transfer factors from accumulated litter to earthworms ranged from 0.21 to 0.35

392

The effects of freeze drying and freeze drying additives on the prothrombin time and the international sensitivity index.  

OpenAIRE

AIM: To determine whether freezing, freeze drying protective additives, or freeze drying of plasma samples from patients on coumarin treatment and from normal individuals affects prothrombin times or the international sensitivity index (ISI) calibration. METHODS: The effect of the addition of the protective additives singly and combined on the prothrombin time of coumarin samples and normal samples before and after freeze drying was observed using high and low ISI reference thromboplastins. I...

Poller, L.; Keown, M.; Shepherd, S. A.; Shiach, C. R.; Tabeart, S.

1999-01-01

393

Effects of non-native earthworms on on below- and aboveground processes in the Mid-Atlantic region  

Science.gov (United States)

Many biotic and abiotic disturbances have shaped the structure of the deciduous forests in the Mid-Atlantic region. One major anthropogenic factor is land use history. Agricultural practices in the past undoubtedly facilitated non-native earthworm colonization and establishment. Today most secondary forests are dominated by European lumbricid earthworms, although native species also occur in some habitats. To investigate how earthworm community composition and abundance affect belowground processes and tree seedling growth we set up a field manipulation experiment at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, MD. A total of 66 experimental plots were set up in successional (70 yrs) and mature (150 yrs) Tulip-poplar-Oak associations. We manipulated earthworm abundance and leaf litter input, and planted seedlings of Tulip poplar, Red maple, Red oak, and American beech. The experiment lasted for two years during which we regularly monitored density, biomass and species composition of earthworm assemblages and measured soil respiration. Soil moisture, temperature and air temperature were also continuously monitored using a wireless sensor network. At harvest, soil bulk density, pH, N pools, C:N ratio, potential N-mineralization rates, and enzyme activity were determined. We used quantitative PCR to assess the community composition of soil fungi. We also determined the extent of mycorrhizal colonization and biomass of roots, shoots and leaves. We conducted likelihood ratio tests for random and fixed effects based on mixed model analyses of variance. Differences between soil depths and among sites and plots accounted for a large portion of the variation in many soil properties. Litter quality affected soil pH and N mineralization. Earthworm densities affected bulk density, inorganic N content, and N mineralization. Both mycorrhizal groups were more abundant in mature than in successional forests. Both ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and arbuscular (AM) fungi were less abundant in the earthworm removal plots. There was a significant positive earthworm effect on the rate and thermal sensitivity of soil respiration. Soil respiration was consistently higher in plots with tulip poplar litter than those with beech litter, indicating a strong influence of plant residue quality. However, the differences were smaller in the second year than in the first one indicating an adaptation of the soil system. Oak and beech seedlings were smaller in high density earthworm plots, while the reverse was true for maple and tulip poplar seedlings. Non-native earthworms affect below- and aboveground processes, however, these effects depend on forest type and land use history. The earthworm effects also appear to be dynamic, as witnessed by a recent invasion of an Asian earthworm species in one of our forest stands.

Szlavecz, K. A.; McCormick, M. K.; Xia, L.; Pitz, S.; O'Neill, J.; Bernard, M.; Chang, C.; Whigham, D. F.

2011-12-01

394

Survival strategies in arctic ungulates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arctic ungulates usually neither freeze nor starve to death despite the rigours of winter. Physiological adaptations enable them to survive and reproduce despite long periods of intense cold and potential undernutrition. Heat conservation is achieved by excellent insulation combined with nasal heat exchange. Seasonal variation in fasting metabolic rate has been reported in several temperate and sub-arctic species of ungulates and seems to occur in muskoxen. Surprisingly, there is no evidence for this in reindeer. Both reindeer and caribou normally maintain low levels of locomotor activity in winter. Light foot loads are important for reducing energy expenditure while walking over snow. The significance and control of selective cooling of the brain during hard exercise (e.g. escape from predators is discussed. Like other cervids, reindeer and caribou display a pronounced seasonal cycle of appetite and growth which seems to have an intrinsic basis. This has two consequences. First, the animals evidently survive perfectly well despite enduring negative energy balance for long periods. Second, loss of weight in winter is not necessarily evidence of undernutrition. The main role of fat reserves, especially in males, may be to enhance reproductive success. The principal role of fat reserves in winter appears to be to provide a supplement to, rather than a substitute for, poor quality winter forage. Fat also provides an insurance against death during periods of acute starvation.

N. J. C. Tyler

1990-09-01

395

Cryopreservation of human failed-matured oocytes followed by in vitro maturation: vitrification is superior to the slow freezing method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Oocyte cryopreservation is an important method used in a number of human fertility circumstances. Here, we compared the survival, in vitro maturation, fertilization, and early embryonic development rates of frozen-thawed human immature oocytes using two different cryopreservation methods. Methods A total of 454 failed-matured oocytes [germinal vesicle (GV and metaphase I (MI stages] were collected from 135 patients (mean age 33.84 +/- 5.0 y who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles between February 2009 and December 2009 and randomly divided into a slow freezing group [1.5 mol/L-1, 2-propanediol (PROH + 0.2 mol/l sucrose] and vitrification group [20% PROH + 20% ethylene glycol (EG + 0.5 mol/l sucrose]. Results The vitrification protocol yielded a better survival rate than the slow freezing protocol at each maturation stage assessed. Regardless of the maturation stage (GV + MI, the slow freezing protocol had a significantly lower survival rate than the vitrification protocol (p in vitro maturation (21.2 vs. 54.0%, respectively; p 0.05. For the GV-matured oocytes, no fertilized eggs were obtained in the slow-freezing group, while a 19.0% (4/21 fertilization rate was observed in the vitrification group. For the MI-matured oocytes, fertilization rates for the slow freezing and vitrified groups were 36% and 61.1%, respectively, but no significant difference was found between the two groups (PIn the Methods section in the MS, all procedures were compliant with ethical guidelines, i.e. approved by the Ethical Committee of our university and Informed Consent signed by each patient. > 0.05. In the GV vitrification group, no embryo formed; however, in the MI slow freezing group, 12 oocytes were fertilized, but only two achieved cleavage and were subsequently blocked at the 2-cell stage. In the MI vitrification group, a total of 22 embryos were obtained, five of which developed to the blastocyst stage. Conclusions Vitrification is superior to the slow freezing method in terms of the survival and developmental rates for the cryopreservation of human failed-matured oocytes. In addition, GV oocytes appeared to be more resistant than MI oocytes to the low temperature and cryoprotectant used during cryopreservation.

Zhang ZhiGuo

2011-12-01

396

Continuous Production of Lime Juice by Vacuum Freeze Drying  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experimental dryer was developed to determine the characteristics of lime juice powder that produced from freeze-drying processes on continuous production. The experimental process consists of two processes, freezing process (the air blast freezer type and freeze-drying process (tray method with heating plate type. NaHCO3 (2% by weight of lime juice was dissolved in lime juice as solid aid. The result was found that this experimental dryer can produce lime juice powder which has the similar properties to lime juice. Combining two processes, freezing process and freeze-drying process, the experimental dryer on continuous production can efficiently achieve the sensible result.

Wasan Theansuwan

2008-01-01

397

The freezing and supercooling of garlic (Allium sativum L.)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work shows that peeled garlic cloves demonstrate significant supercooling during freezing under standard conditions and can be stored at temperatures well below their freezing point (-2.7 C) without freezing. The nucleation point or 'metastable limit temperature' (the point at which ice crystal nucleation is initiated) of peeled garlic cloves was found to be between -7.7 and -14.6 C. Peeled garlic cloves were stored under static air conditions at temperatures between -6 and -9 C for up to 69 h without freezing, and unpeeled whole garlic bulbs and cloves were stored for 1 week at -6 C without freezing. (author)

James, Christian; Seignemartin, Violaine; James, Stephen J. [Food Refrigeration and Process Engineering Research Centre (FRPERC), University of Bristol, Churchill Building, Langford, Bristol BS40 5DU (United Kingdom)

2009-03-15

398

Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antioxidant activities of the earthworms extract  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Earthworms are the major biomass in soil. They have been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. However, in the past few decades with the development of biochemical technologies the research on the pharmaceutical effects of earthworms has been commencement.Aims: Experiments were conducted to recognize the therapeutic properties such as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antioxidant activities of biologically active extract isolated from two species of earthworm (Pheretima hawayana Rosa and Allolobophora caliginosa Savigny.Materials and methods: inflammation in the hind paw of albino rat, Rattus rattus, was induced by histamine, pyrexia was induced by Escherichia coli in rats and liver damage was induced by injection of rats with CCl4. Anti-inflammatory drug - indomethacin, anti-pyretic drug - paracetamol and antioxidant drug - silymarin plus were used as standard drug for comparison.Results: Administration of Eearthworms extract (100 mg/kg and indomethacin (10 mg/kg, paracetamol (150 mg/kg, silymarin plus (150 mg/kg as standard drugs reduced and restored to normal the changes that induced by histamine, Escherichia coli and CCl4 in rats.Conclusions: The present study conclude that both extract of earthworms gave result as anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic similar to the standard drugs. The extract of the two species showed various responds as antioxidants against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity.

Hossam El-Din Mohamed Omar

2012-01-01

399

Characterization of the organic fraction of earthworm humus and composts taken place starting from different substrates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to evaluate the quality and the humification degree of different composted materials, the organic fraction of earthworm humus obtained from kitchen and farm residues, coffee pulp, biodegradable garbage and roses residues and of composts from roses and carnation residues were characterized chemically. Thus, determination and analysis of the C/N ratio, as well as the fractionation of the organic matter and the purification and characterization of the humic acids by C, H, N, 0 elemental analysis, UV-VIS spectroscopy were done and different humification parameters were found. The fractionation of the organic matter showed a low content of extracted carbon with respect to the normal content found in the soil humus. The elemental analysis data of the humic acids from the composts and the earthworm humus did not reveal important differences between these materials, while the E4/E6 ratio provided more evident changes. The results showed that the C/N ratio is not an absolute indicative of the Maturity State of the studied materials. The best parameters to estimate the maturity degree of the composts and the earthworm humus turned out to be the polymerization ratio, the humification index and the extracted carbon/non extracted carbon ratio. Among the evaluated materials, the earthworm of roses residues showed the best conditions with respect to content and quality of the organic matter to be added to a soil

400

Verminephrobacter eiseniae gen. nov., sp. nov., a nephridial symbiont of the earthworm Eisenia foetida (Savigny).  

Science.gov (United States)

A Gram-negative, flagellated, heterotrophic, catalase-negative, rod-shaped bacterium previously identified as an earthworm symbiont was isolated from nephridia of the earthworm Eisenia foetida. Comparisons of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated its relatedness to the betaproteobacterial genus Acidovorax and the novel isolates shared 92-94% sequence similarity with recognized species of this genus. Gene sequence phylogenies revealed that the group of earthworm symbionts formed a cohesive and independent clade. The DNA G+C content was 67.0+/-0.2 mol%. Major fatty acids were C(16:0), C(16:1)omega7c and C(17:0) cyclo. While capable of growing in fully aerated media, all isolates favoured low oxygen concentrations and all required biotin or a mix of amino acids in order to grow on defined mineral media. Based on phylogenies inferred from three housekeeping gene sequences (gap, recA and rpoC), DNA-DNA hybridization values, the unique ecology and the distinct physiology of the novel strains, the new genus Verminephrobacter gen. nov. is proposed for the earthworm nephridial symbionts. The name Verminephrobacter eiseniae sp. nov. is proposed for the type species with strain EF01-2(T) (=ATCC BAA-1489(T)=DSM 19286(T)) as the type strain of the type species. PMID:18768621

Pinel, Nicolás; Davidson, Seana K; Stahl, David A

2008-09-01

401

A better method for assessing sublethal effects of soils to the earthworm Eisenia foetida  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors have developed and tested a procedure which allows quantification of growth and reproductive effects of contaminated soils to the earthworm, Eisenia foetida. The procedure monitors isolated pairs of earthworms and generates a higher ratio of data per organism than other commonly used procedures which require larger numbers of earthworms per experimental unit. The procedure also incorporates an accurate technique for measuring adult growth. The method has high sensitivity and is cost-effective. The method was applied to a variety of soil-testing problems to demonstrate its versatility and provide validation. A food-and-substrate trial demonstrated the sensitivity of the method and the need for food supplementation in OECD artificial soil to stimulate earthworm reproduction. A trial to examine a soil bioremediation technology revealed the advantage of measuring both growth and reproduction and highlighted the usefulness of a single integrated measure of these two responses. The method then was applied as a fast-screening method for field soils in a large-scale ecological risk assessment. Finally, a reference toxicant, applied in dilution series, demonstrated that responses of Eisenia foetida to their method are similar to their responses to the OECD artificial soil test. Collectively, results of this study indicate that their procedure can be used both for regulatory and compliance needs within the framework of ecological risk assessment.

Gibbs, M.H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wicker, L.F.; Stewart, A.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-12-31

402

Effect on enzymes and histopathology in earthworm (Eisenia foetida) induced by triazole fungicides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworms are an ideal biological model in toxicity assays and environment monitoring studies, especially for the toxicity of pesticides on soil ecosystem. However, There are very little data on the toxicity of triazoles on earthworms despite the fact that such data are critical in assessing their fate and potential toxic effects in soil organisms. To address this issue, earthworms were exposed to triazoles (triadimefon, triadimenol, difenoconazole and propiconazole) to study biochemical and histopathological examination. The results showed protein content significantly increased in treatment of difenoconazole compared to control. There were no significant differences between controls and triadimefon treated groups, while the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity is significantly lower than control. Other triazoles also had an inhibitory effect on GSH-Px activity at higher concentration. The histopathological examination showed the epidermis and the epidermis cell of earthworm was ruined at lower triazoles concentration. The arrangement of smooth muscle layer disordered, and some cell disintegrated with concentration increasing of pesticides. Cell pyknosis, cytoplasm deep stained, nucleus concentrations were observed in the treated group with propiconazole. PMID:23474400

Gao, Minling; Song, Wenhua; Zhang, Jinyang; Guo, Jing

2013-05-01

403

Earthworm symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae mediates natural transformation within host egg capsules using type IV pili  

Science.gov (United States)

The dense microbial communities commonly associated with plants and animals should offer many opportunities for horizontal gene transfer through described mechanisms of DNA exchange including natural transformation (NT). However, studies of the significance of NT have focused primarily on pathogens. The study presented here demonstrates highly efficient DNA exchange by NT in a common symbiont of earthworms. The obligate bacterial symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae is a member of a microbial consortium of the earthworm Eisenia fetida that is transmitted into the egg capsules to colonize the embryonic worms. In the study presented here, by testing for transformants under different conditions in culture, we demonstrate that V. eiseniae can incorporate free DNA from the environment, that competency is regulated by environmental factors, and that it is sequence specific. Mutations in the type IV pili of V. eiseniae resulted in loss of DNA uptake, implicating the type IV pilus (TFP) apparatus in DNA uptake. Furthermore, injection of DNA carrying antibiotic-resistance genes into egg capsules resulted in transformants within the capsule, demonstrating the relevance of DNA uptake within the earthworm system. The ability to take up species-specific DNA from the environment may explain the maintenance of the relatively large, intact genome of this long-associated obligate symbiont, and provides a mechanism for acquisition of foreign genes within the earthworm system. PMID:25400622

Davidson, Seana K.; Dulla, Glenn F.; Go, Ruth A.; Stahl, David A.; Pinel, Nicolás

2014-01-01

404

Integrated assessment of oxidative stress and DNA damage in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to azoxystrobin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Azoxystrobin has been widely used in recent years. The present study investigated the oxidative stress and DNA damage effects of azoxystrobin on earthworms (Eisenia fetida). Earthworms were exposed to different azoxystrobin concentrations in an artificial soil (0, 0.1, 1, and 10mg/kg) and sampled on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured by an ultraviolet spectrophotometer to determine the antioxidant responses and lipid peroxidation. Single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) was used to detect DNA damage in the coelomocytes. Compared with these in the controls, earthworms exposed to azoxystrobin had excess ROS accumulation and greater SOD, POD, and GST activity while the opposite trend occurred for CAT activity. MDA content increased after 14-day exposure, and DNA damage was enhanced with an increase in the concentration of azoxystrobin. In conclusion, azoxystrobin caused oxidative stress leading to lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in earthworms. PMID:25011117

Han, Yingnan; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Xie, Hui; Zhang, Shumin

2014-09-01

405

Vermiremediation of dyeing sludge from textile mill with the help of exotic earthworm Eisenia fetida Savigny.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of present study was for the vermiremediation of dyeing sludge from textile mill into nutrient-rich vermicompost using earthworm Eisenia fetida. The dyeing sludge was mixed with cattle dung in different ratios, i.e., 0:100 (D0), 25:75 (D25), 50:50 (D50), 75:25 (D75), and 100:0 (D100) with earthworms, and 0:100 (S0), 25:75 (S25), 50:50 (S50), 75:25 (S75), and 100:0 (S100) without earthworms. Minimum mortality and maximum population build-up were observed in a 25:75 mixture. Nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium, and pH increased from the initial to the final products with earthworms, while electrical conductivity, C/N ratio, organic carbon, and potassium declined in all the feed mixtures. Vermicomposting with E. fetida was better for composting to change this sludge into nutrient-rich manure. PMID:23508537

Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

2013-09-01

406

Detrimental Influence of Invasive Earthworms on North American Cold-Temperate Forest Soils  

Science.gov (United States)

The topic of invasive earthworms is a timely concern that goes against many preconceived notions regarding the positive benefits of all worms. In the cold-temperate forests of North America invasive worms are threatening forest ecosystems, due to the changes they create in the soil, including decreases in C:N ratios and leaf litter, disruption of…

Enerson, Isabel

2012-01-01

407

Bioremediation of polluted soil through the combined application of plants, earthworms and organic matter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two plant species (Paulownia tomentosa and Cytisus scoparius), earthworms (Eisenia fetida), and organic matter (horse manure) were used as an ecological approach to bioremediate a soil historically contaminated by heavy metals and hydrocarbons. The experiment was carried out for six months at a mesoscale level using pots containing 90 kg of polluted soil. Three different treatments were performed for each plant: (i) untreated planted soil as a control (C); (ii) planted soil + horse manure (20:1 w/w) (M); (iii) planted soil + horse manure + 15 earthworms (ME). Both the plant species were able to grow in the polluted soil and to improve the soil's bio-chemical conditions, especially when organic matter and earthworms were applied. By comparing the two plant species, few significant differences were observed in the soil characteristics; Cytisus scoparius improved soil nutrient content more than Paulownia tomentosa, which instead stimulated more soil microbial metabolism. Regarding the pollutants, Paulownia tomentosa was more efficient in reducing the heavy metal (Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni) content, while earthworms were particularly able to stimulate the processes involved in the decontamination of organic pollutants (hydrocarbons). This ecological approach, validated at a mesoscale level, has recently been transferred to a real scale situation to carry out the bioremediation of polluted soil in San Giuliano Terme Municipality (Pisa, Italy). PMID:22911348

Macci, Cristina; Doni, Serena; Peruzzi, Eleonora; Ceccanti, Brunello; Masciandaro, Grazia

2012-10-26

408

NOVEL MODEL DESCRIBING TRACE METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN THE EARTHWORM, EISENIA ANDREI: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

Science.gov (United States)

NRMRL-CIN-1707 Sake, J.K., Impellitteri**, C.A., Peijnenburg, W., and Allen, H.E. Novel Model Describing Trace Metal Concentrations in the Earthworm, Eisenia andrei. Environmental Science & Technology (American Chemical Society) 35 (22):4522-4529 (2001). EPA/600/J-01/364. 12/12/2...

409

Earthworms facilitate carbon sequestration through unequal amplification of carbon stabilization compared with mineralization  

Science.gov (United States)

A recent review concluded that earthworm presence increases CO2 emissions by 33% but does not affect soil organic carbon stocks. However, the findings are controversial and raise new questions. Here we hypothesize that neither an increase in CO2 emission nor in stabilized carbon...

410

APPLICATION OF PLANT AND EARTHWORM BIOASSAYS TO EVALUATE REMEDIATION OF A LEAD-CONTAMINATED SOIL  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworm acute toxicity, plant seed germination/root elongation (SG/RE) and plant genotoxicity bioassays were employed to evaluate the remediation of a lead-contaminated soil. The remediation involved removal of heavy metals by a soil washing/soil leaching treatment process. A p...

411

Chlorpyrifos causes decreased organic matter decomposition by suppressing earthworm and termite communities in tropical soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of pesticides on structural and functional properties of ecosystems are rarely studied under tropical conditions. In this study litterbag and earthworm field tests were performed simultaneously at the same tropical field site sprayed with chlorpyrifos (CPF). The recommended dose of CPF (0.6 kg a.i. ha-1) and two higher doses (4.4-8.8 kg a.i. ha-1) significantly decreased litter decomposition during the first 3 months after application, which could be explained from lower earthworm and termite abundances during this period. Species-specific effects of CPF on organism abundance and biomass were observed, with termites being mostly affected followed by the earthworm Perionyx excavatus; the earthworm Megascolex sp. was least affected. Recovery was completed within 6 months. Decomposition in the controls and lowest two treatments was completed within 4 months, which suggests the need for modification of standard test guidelines to comply with faster litter degradation under tropical conditions. - Effects of chlorpyrifos on functional and structural endpoints in soil.

412

Chlorpyrifos causes decreased organic matter decomposition by suppressing earthworm and termite communities in tropical soil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Effects of pesticides on structural and functional properties of ecosystems are rarely studied under tropical conditions. In this study litterbag and earthworm field tests were performed simultaneously at the same tropical field site sprayed with chlorpyrifos (CPF). The recommended dose of CPF (0.6 kg a.i. ha{sup -1}) and two higher doses (4.4-8.8 kg a.i. ha{sup -1}) significantly decreased litter decomposition during the first 3 months after application, which could be explained from lower earthworm and termite abundances during this period. Species-specific effects of CPF on organism abundance and biomass were observed, with termites being mostly affected followed by the earthworm Perionyx excavatus; the earthworm Megascolex sp. was least affected. Recovery was completed within 6 months. Decomposition in the controls and lowest two treatments was completed within 4 months, which suggests the need for modification of standard test guidelines to comply with faster litter degradation under tropical conditions. - Effects of chlorpyrifos on functional and structural endpoints in soil.

De Silva, P. Mangala C.S., E-mail: msilva@falw.vu.n [Department of Animal Ecology, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Ruhuna, Matara (Sri Lanka); Pathiratne, Asoka [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Kelaniya, Kelaniya (Sri Lanka); Straalen, Nico M. van; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Department of Animal Ecology, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2010-10-15

413

Some Guides to Discovery About Elm Trees, Owls, Cockroaches, Earthworms, Cement and Concrete.  

Science.gov (United States)

The introduction emphasizes the need for environmental and conservation education, and advocates an inquiry approach. Outdoor resources available to every school are listed. Detailed suggestions are made for investigating cement and concrete, cockroaches, earthworms, elm trees, and owls. In each case general background information and a list of…

Busch, Phyllis S.

414

GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION OF THE EARTHWORM 'EISENIA FETIDA' AFTER EXPOSURE TO SUBLETHAL CONCENTRATIONS OF METALS  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of land for the treatment and disposal of various wastes has resulted in a desire for more information concerning the effects of these materials on the soil ecosystem. Earthworms are often studied as a representative organism of the soil biota that may be affected by chan...

415

Can commonly measurable traits explain differences in metal accumulation and toxicity in earthworm species?  

Science.gov (United States)

There is no clear consensus in the literature on the metal accumulation pattern and sensitivity of different earthworm species. In the present study, accumulation and toxicity of Cu, Cd, Ni, and Zn in the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus (epigeic), Aporrectodea longa (anecic), and Eisenia fetida (ultra-epigeic) were determined after 28 days exposure in two soils. Metal accumulation and sensitivity were interpreted using the specific traits of different earthworm species. Results showed that for all four metals tested L. rubellus was the most sensitive species, followed by A. longa and E. fetida. At the same exposure concentration, internal concentrations followed the order: L. rubellus > E. fetida > A. longa for Cu and Ni, L. rubellus ? E. fetida ? A. longa for Cd, and L. rubellus > A. longa > E. fetida for Zn. Langmuir isotherms were used to model metal accumulation at both nontoxic and toxic exposure concentrations. The Cu, Cd, and Zn concentrations in E. fetida generally leveled off at high exposure concentrations but not for the other two species. A. longa showed a high capability of regulating internal Ni concentrations. The traits-based approaches suggested that most likely a group of earthworm traits together determined (differences in) metal accumulation and sensitivity. More research is needed in this respect to build up solid relationships between species-specific responses and traits, enabling cross-species extrapolation of accumulation and toxicity data. PMID:24193403

Qiu, Hao; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Vijver, Martina G

2014-01-01

416

Toxicological effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes adsorbed with nonylphenol on earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

Science.gov (United States)

The high surface area of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) tends to adsorb a large variety of toxic chemicals, which may enhance the toxicity of both MWCNTs and chemicals to organisms. In order to evaluate the combined toxicity of nonylphenol (NP) and MWCNTs to the earthworm Eisenia fetida in soil, artificial soil systems containing distilled water, 0.1 g kg(-1) MWCNTs, 1 g kg(-1) MWCNTs, 1 g kg(-1) MWCNTs absorbed 5 mg kg(-1) NP, and 10 mg kg(-1) NP alone were prepared and exposed to earthworms for 7 days. Antioxidative responses, and activities of cellulase, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (TChE) as well as DNA damage were chosen as toxicological endpoints. The results showed that 1 g kg(-1) MWCNTs adsorbed 5 mg kg(-1) NP from the soil which caused much more adverse effects on the earthworms than each chemical alone, evident from the responses of cellulase, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and comet assay. This study indicated that MWCNTs facilitated the bioavailability of NP to the earthworm and increased the harmful effects of NP. PMID:24104387

Hu, Changwei; Cai, Yun; Wang, Weili; Cui, Yibin; Li, Mei

2013-10-01

417

The influence of earthworms on the mobility of microelements in soil and their availability for plants  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of earthworms ( Aporrectodea caliginosa, Lumbricus rubellus, L. terrestris, and Eisenia fetida) on the mobility of microelements and their availability for plants was studied. The contents of water-soluble Fe and Mn compounds extracted from the coprolites were 5-10 times higher than that in the soil (enriched in calcium carbonate and dried) consumed by the earthworms. This digestion-induced effect became higher with the age of the coprolites (up to 9 days) and took place under their alkalization. In the excreta (surface + enteric) of earthworms, the Fe concentration exceeded those of Mn and Zn by many times. Iron and manganese were mostly concentrated (>80% and >60%, respectively) in the organic part of the excrements. In the tests with hydroponics, the excreta were found to be a source of iron compounds available for plants that were similar to Fe2(SO4)3 or Fe-citrate by their physiological effect in the case when the Fe concentration in the excretions was above 0.7 ?M. However, the single application of excreta of different earthworm species into the CaCO3 enriched soil did not significantly affect the plant (cucumber) nutrition. The analysis of the transport of microelements with xylem sap showed that this fact appeared to be due to the absence of an Fe deficit in the cucumber plants because of their high capability for the absorption of weakly soluble iron compounds.

Bityutskii, N. P.; Kaidun, P. I.

2008-12-01

418

Toxicity and bioaccumulation of chlorophenols in earthworms, in relation to bioavailability in soil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The acute toxicity of five chlorophenols for two earthworm species was determined in two sandy soils differing in organic matter content and the results were compared with adsorption data. Adsorption increased with increasing organic matter content of the soils, but for tetra- and pentachlorophenol was also influenced by soil pH. Earthworm toxicity was significantly higher in the soil with a low level of organic matter. This difference disappeared when LC50 values were recalculated to concentrations in soil solution using adsorption data. Eisenia fetida andrei showed LC50 values lower than those of Lumbricus rubellus although bioaccumulation was generally higher in the latter species. Toxicity and bioaccumulation based on soil solution concentrations increased with increasing lipophilicity of the chlorophenols. The present results indicate that the toxicity and bioaccumulation and therefore the bioavailability of chlorophenols in soil to earthworms are dependent on the concentration in soil solution and can be predicted on the basis of adsorption data. Both the toxicity of and bioaccumulation data on chlorophenols in earthworms demonstrated surprisingly good agreement with those on chlorophenols in fish.

van Gestel, C.A.; Ma, W.C.

1988-06-01

419

COMPARISON OF THREE EARTHWORM BIOASSAY PROCEDURES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES CONTAINING HAZARDOUS WASTES  

Science.gov (United States)

Three different laboratory earthworm protocols for assessing the potential toxicity of environmental samples were evaluated using Eisenia fetida. The 48-h Contact Test (CT) is a short test and may indicate the presence of water-soluble chemicals. The 14-day Soil Test (ST) is best...