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Sample records for earthworms survive freezing

  1. Small Dendrobaena earthworms survive freezing better than large worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Overgaard, Johannes; Bayley, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Dendrobaena octaedra is a freeze tolerant earthworm widely distributed in boreal regions. Specimens collected in Sweden were cold acclimated and then frozen at -7 degrees C to examine the influence of body mass on survival of freezing. Results showed that survival was negatively correlated to body mass. Glycogen content of the worms was variable and seemed to decrease with increasing body mass consistent with the hypothesis that freeze survival is dependent on the ability to rapidly break down g...

  2. Small Dendrobaena earthworms survive freezing better than large worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Overgaard, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    Dendrobaena octaedra is a freeze tolerant earthworm widely distributed in boreal regions. Specimens collected in Sweden were cold acclimated and then frozen at -7 degrees C to examine the influence of body mass on survival of freezing. Results showed that survival was negatively correlated to body mass. Glycogen content of the worms was variable and seemed to decrease with increasing body mass consistent with the hypothesis that freeze survival is dependent on the ability to rapidly break down glycogen and accumulate high concentrations of glucose. The results suggest that large worms (subadults and adults) invest energy in production of cocoons at the expense of glycogen storage for cryoprotectant production, whereas juvenile worms increase their survival chances by investing energy in glycogen storage at the expense of growth as a preparation for winter.

  3. Dual roles of glucose in the freeze-tolerant earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra: cryoprotection and fuel for metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderon, Sofia; Holmstrup, Martin; Westh, Peter; Overgaard, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Ectothermic animals inhabiting the subarctic and temperate regions have evolved strategies to deal with periods of continuous frost during winter. The earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra is freeze tolerant and accumulates large concentrations of glucose upon freezing. The present study investigates the roles of glucose accumulation for long-term freeze tolerance in worms kept frozen at -2 degrees C for 47 days. During this period, worms were sampled periodically for determination of survival and for ...

  4. Hatchling turtles survive freezing during winter hibernation.

    OpenAIRE

    Storey, K B; Storey, J M; Brooks, S.P.; Churchill, T A; Brooks, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Hatchlings of the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta marginata) are unique as the only reptile and highest vertebrate life form known to tolerate the natural freezing of extracellular body fluids during winter hibernation. Turtles survived frequent exposures to temperatures as low as -6 degrees C to -8 degrees C in their shallow terrestrial nests over the 1987-1988 winter. Hatchlings collected in April 1988 had a mean supercooling point of -3.28 +/- 0.24 degrees C and survived 24 hr of freezing ...

  5. Freezing of body fluids induces metallothionein gene expression in earthworms (Dendrobaena octaedra)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Karina Vincents; Holmstrup, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms activated by environmental contaminants and natural stressors such as freezing need to be investigated in order to better understand the mechanisms of interaction and potential effects that combined stressors may have on organisms. Using the freeze tolerant earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra as model species, we exposed worms to freezing and exposure to sublethal copper in a factorial design and investigated the transcription of candidate genes for metal and cold stress. We hypothesized that both freezing and copper would induce transcription of genes coding for heat shock proteins (hsp10 and hsp70), metallothioneins (mt1 and mt2) and glutathione-S-transferase (gst), and that the combined effects of these two stressors would be additive. The gene transcripts hsp10, hsp70 and gst were significantly upregulated by freezing, but only hsp10 was upregulated by copper. We found that copper at the time of sampling had no effect on transcription of two metallothionein genes whereas transcription was strongly upregulated by freezing. Moreover there was a significant interaction causing more than additive transcription rates of mt1 in the copper/freezing treatment suggesting that freeze-induced cellular dehydration increases the concentration of free copper ions in the cytosol. This metallothionein response to freezing is likely adaptive and possibly provides protection against freeze-induced elevated metal concentrations in the cytosol and excess ROS levels due to hypoxia during freezing.

  6. Dual roles of glucose in the freeze-tolerant earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra: cryoprotection and fuel for metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderon, Sofia; Holmstrup, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Ectothermic animals inhabiting the subarctic and temperate regions have evolved strategies to deal with periods of continuous frost during winter. The earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra is freeze tolerant and accumulates large concentrations of glucose upon freezing. The present study investigates the roles of glucose accumulation for long-term freeze tolerance in worms kept frozen at -2 degrees C for 47 days. During this period, worms were sampled periodically for determination of survival and for measurements of glucose, glycogen, lactate, alanine and succinate. In addition we performed calorimetric measurements to assess metabolic rate of frozen and unfrozen worms. Long-term freezing was associated with a gradual depletion of glucose and worms that succumbed during this period were always characterised by low glucose and glycogen levels. The anaerobic waste products lactate and alanine increased slightly whereas succinate levels remained constant. However, it is argued that other waste products (particularly propionate) could be the primary end product of a continued anaerobic metabolism. Calorimetric measures of the metabolic rate of frozen worms were in accord with values calculated from the reduction in glucose assuming that most (similar to 90%) glucose was metabolised anaerobically. Both estimates of metabolic rate demonstrated a 10-fold metabolic depression associated with freezing. Thus, in addition to the suspected role of glucose as cryoprotectant, the present study demonstrates that glucose accumulation is vital to ensure substrate for long-term anaerobic metabolism in frozen worms. On the basis of the estimated metabolite levels, we calculate that the combined effect of metabolic depression and large glucose stores enables a projected 3 months survival of freezing at -2 degrees C of the 'average' D. octaedra. Such conditions are very likely to occur in the northern distribution ranges of this stress-tolerant earthworm.

  7. Survival of freeze-dried Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, A. Sofia; Silva, Joana; Ho, Peter; Teixeira, Paula; Malcata, F. Xavier; Gibbs, Paul

    2002-01-01

    No significant differences were observed in the viability of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus cells during freeze-drying in the presence or absence of inositol, sorbitol, fructose, trehalose, monosodium glutamate and propyl gallate. However, survival was higher during storage when drying took place in the presence of these compounds. Sorbitol produced more significant effects than the other compounds toward maintaining viability of freeze-dried L. plantarum and ...

  8. Survival differences among freeze-dried genetically engineered and wild-type bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Israeli, E; Shaffer, B. T.; Hoyt, J A; Lighthart, B; Ganio, L M

    1993-01-01

    Because the death mechanisms of freeze-dried and air-dried bacteria are thought to be similar, freeze-drying was used to investigate the survival differences between potentially airborne genetically engineered microorganisms and their wild types. To this end, engineered strains of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas syringae were freeze-dried and exposed to air, visible light, or both. The death rates of all engineered strains were significantly higher than those of their parental strains. Light...

  9. Effects of petroleum and metal contaminated soil on plants and earthworms: Survival and bioaccumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earthworms, Eisenia foetida, and bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon, were used in the laboratory to test the toxicity of contaminated sediment taken from a small fresh water lake in North Carolina. This work was part of an investigation to determine the potential effects of upland disposal of this sediment. The contaminated sediment contained As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, Zn and petroleum hydrocarbons at concentrations much greater than nearby soils. Test cylinders were planted with bermudagrass; earthworms were added 30 days later. Both species were harvested at 60 days, weighed and submitted for chemical analyses. Cynodon was affected by the contaminated sediment but grew well in the mixtures of sediment and upland soil. Similar results were obtained with the Eisenia. These species did not accumulate hydrocarbons from the sediment with the possible exception of pyrene. The metals Cd, Pb, and Zn were elevated in plants exposed to the contaminated sediment. Earthworms exposed to this sediment accumulated Pb to concentrations greater than animals exposed to the manure control. This work demonstrated that a contaminated freshwater sediment was not toxic to plants or earthworms and that most petroleum hydrocarbons were not accumulated. The only metal that may be of some concern was Pb

  10. Survival and recovery of Phaeocystis antarctica (Prymnesiophyceae) from prolonged darkness and freezing

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Kam W.; Smith, Walker O.; Shields, Amy R; Elliott, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The colony-forming haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica is an important primary producer in the Ross Sea, and must survive long periods of darkness and freezing temperature in this extreme environment. We conducted experiments on the responses of P. antarctica-dominated phytoplankton assemblages to prolonged periods of darkness and freezing. Chlorophyll and photosynthetic capacity of the alga declined nonlinearly and independently of each other in the dark, and darkness alone would potentially r...

  11. Antifreeze proteins enable plants to survive in freezing conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ravi Gupta; Renu Deswal

    2014-12-01

    Overwintering plants secrete antifreeze proteins (AFPs) to provide freezing tolerance. These proteins bind to and inhibit the growth of ice crystals that are formed in the apoplast during subzero temperatures. Antifreeze activity has been detected in more than 60 plants and AFPs have been purified from 15 of these, including gymnosperms, dicots and monocots. Biochemical characterization of plant antifreeze activity, as determined by the high ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activities and low thermal hysteresis (TH) of AFPs, showed that their main function is inhibition of ice crystal growth rather than the lowering of freezing temperatures. However, recent studies showed that antifreeze activity with higher TH also exists in plants. Calcium and hormones like ethylene and jasmonic acid have been shown to regulate plant antifreeze activity. Recent studies have shown that plant AFPs bind to both prism planes and basal planes of ice crystals by means of two flat ice binding sites. Plant AFPs have been postulated to evolve from the OsLRR-PSR gene nearly 36 million years ago. In this review, we present the current scenario of plant AFP research in order to understand the possible potential of plant AFPs in generation of freezing-tolerant crops.

  12. Formulations for freeze-drying of bacteria and their influence on cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessman, Per; Håkansson, Sebastian; Leifer, Klaus; Rubino, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Cellular water can be removed to reversibly inactivate microorganisms to facilitate storage. One such method of removal is freeze-drying, which is considered a gentle dehydration method. To facilitate cell survival during drying, the cells are often formulated beforehand. The formulation forms a matrix that embeds the cells and protects them from various harmful stresses imposed on the cells during freezing and drying. We present here a general method to evaluate the survival rate of cells after freeze-drying and we illustrate it by comparing the results obtained with four different formulations: the disaccharide sucrose, the sucrose derived polymer Ficoll PM400, and the respective polysaccharides hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), on two strains of bacteria, P. putida KT2440 and A. chlorophenolicus A6. In this work we illustrate how to prepare formulations for freeze-drying and how to investigate the mechanisms of cell survival after rehydration by characterizing the formulation using of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), surface tension measurements, X-ray analysis, and electron microscopy and relating those data to survival rates. The polymers were chosen to get a monomeric structure of the respective polysaccharide resembling sucrose to a varying degrees. Using this method setup we showed that polymers can support cell survival as effectively as disaccharides if certain physical properties of the formulation are controlled. PMID:23963171

  13. The Effects of Acid Substances under The Freezing Process on The Survival of Plant Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Hidetoshi; Fujikawa, Seizo; Arakawa, Keita

    The objective of this study was to clarify the mechanism of injury caused by acid snow stress in wintering plants. In this study, influence of simulated acid snow stress on leaf tissues of wintering plant was conveniently estimated by extracellular freezing tests under acid conditions in vitro. The survival rates of leaf tissues after freeze-thawing with 0.3 ml of sulfuric acid solution of pH 2.0 were significantly decreased, compared with the survival rates under acid condition of pH 3.0 or pure water. In this study, the initial volume of sulfuric acid solutions was the same in the treatments. Therefore, it is thought that the more acidic the initial pH of sulfuric acid solution becomes, the greater the volume of residual unfrozen solution with concentrated sulfuric acid in the extracellular part at a subzero temperature would be, consequently, the survival rate of leaf tissues were decreased. When leaf tissues were freeze-thawed with a large volume of sulfuric acid solution of pH 3.0, the survival rate of leaf tissues was comparable to the survival rate using pH 2.0. These results suggest that an increase in the volume of acid meltwater derived from snow cover will enhance the damage to wintering plants even the mild acidity of the acid snow.

  14. Survival and Growth of Epidemically Successful and Nonsuccessful Salmonella enterica Clones after Freezing and Dehydration.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Karoline; Aabo, SØren

    2012-01-01

    The spread of epidemically successful nontyphoidal Salmonella clones has been suggested as the most important cause of salmonellosis in industrialized countries. Factors leading to the emergence of success clones are largely unknown, but their ability to survive and grow after physical stress may contribute. During epidemiological studies, a mathematical model was developed that allowed estimation of a factor (q) accounting for the relative ability of Salmonella serovars with different antimicrobial resistances to survive in the food chain and cause human disease. Based on this q-factor, 26 Salmonella isolates were characterized as successful or nonsuccessful. We studied the survival and growth of stationary- and exponential-phase cells of these isolates after freezing for up to 336 days in minced meat. We also investigated survival and growth after dehydration at 10°C and 82% relative humidity (RH) and 25°C and 49% RH for 112 days. Stationary-phase cells were reduced by less than 1 log unit during 1 year of freezing, and growth was initiated with an average lag phase of 1.7 h. Survival was lower in exponentialphase cells, but lag phases tended to be shorter. High humidity and low temperature were less harmful to Salmonella than were low humidity and high temperature. Tolerance to adverse conditions was highest for Salmonella Infantis and one Salmonella Typhimurium U292 isolate and lowest for Salmonella Derby and one Salmonella Typhimurium DT170 isolate. Dehydration, in contrast to freezing, was differently tolerated by the Salmonella strains in this study, but tolerance to freezing and dehydration does not appear to contribute to the emergence of successful Salmonella clones.

  15. Survival after cryogenic freezing of Campylobacter species in ground Turkey patties treated with polyphosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther Iv, Nereus W; Rajkowski, Kathleen T; Sommers, Christopher

    2015-02-01

    The use of polyphosphate-based marinades in the processing of poultry has been previously shown to increase the survival of Campylobacter species present in the exudates derived from these products. This study investigates the effects that some of the same polyphosphates have on the survival of Campylobacter species within a ground turkey product subjected to cryogenic freezing. Ground turkey patties with two different polyphosphate formulations added in two different concentrations were artificially contaminated with known concentrations of Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. The patties were cryogenically frozen at -80°F (-62.2°C) with liquid nitrogen vapor and held at -20°C for 7 or 33 days, after which the number of Campylobacter surviving in the patties was determined. On average the cryogenic freezing resulted in a 2.5-log decrease in the survival of C. jejuni cells and a 2.9-log decrease in C. coli cells present in the turkey patties. Additionally, the presence of polyphosphates in the turkey patties had no effect on Campylobacter survival up to the maximum allowed concentration (0.5%) for polyphosphates in poultry marinades. Finally, it was determined that the added polyphosphates had little effect on the pH of the ground turkey meat; an effect which previously had been implicated in the enhancement of Campylobacter survival due to the presence of polyphosphates. PMID:25710161

  16. Effects of pentachlorophenol on survival of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) and phagocytosis by their immunoactive coelomocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giggleman, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Venables, B.J. [TRAC Labs., Denton, TX (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris, exposed for 96 h to filter paper saturated with five nominal concentrations of pentachlorophenol, exhibited a 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of 25.0 {micro}g PCP/cm{sup 2} and corresponding whole worm body burden-based 50% lethal dose (LD50) of 877.7 {micro}g PCP/g dry mass. Linear regression modeling showed that worms increased body concentrations (BC = {micro}g PCP/g dry tissue mass) with increasing exposure concentrations (EC) according to BC = 113.5 + 29.5EC. Phagocytosis of yeast cells by immunoactive coelomocytes was suppressed only at body concentrations (863.3 {micro}g PCP/g dry mass) that approximated the calculated LD50 and overlapped those demonstrating lethality, indicating a sharp transition between sublethal and lethal toxicity. An exposure concentration of 15 {micro}g PCP/cm{sup 2} produced significant suppression of phagocytosis of yeast cells by immunoactive coelomocytes. However, the average measured body burden from this group approximated the estimated LD50, indicating a sharp toxic response slope. Exposure to 10 {micro}g PCP/cm{sup 2} with a corresponding body concentration of 501.3 {micro}g PCP/g dry mass did not affect phagocytosis. The importance of body burden data is emphasized.

  17. Effects of sugar alcohol and proteins on the survival of Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 during freeze drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 is a bacterium which was selected in the commercial yoghurt with high angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activity. Preparation of concentrated starter cultures via freeze drying is of practical importance to dairy and food industries. Material and methods. We optimized the optimal sugar alcohol and proteins for Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 during the process of freeze drying using a Plackett-Burman design. In our initial tests survival rate and the number of viable cells were associated with the type of lyoprotectant used and so our optimization protocol focused on increasing survival rate. Substances that had previously had a protective effect during freeze drying were investigated, for example: mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol, meso-erythritol, lactitol, whey protein isolate 90, bovine serum albumin, and whey protein concentrate 80 and soy protein isolate 70. Results. We found that the optimum sugar alcohol and proteins for survival of Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 were whey protein concentrate (p = 0.0040 for survival rate, xylitol (p = 0.0067 for survival rate and sorbitol (p = 0.0073 for survival rate, they showed positive effect (whey protein concentrate and sorbitol or negative effect (xylitol. Discussion. The effectiveness of three chosen sugar alcohols and protein implied that they could be used as lyoprotectant for Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 in the further research, the optimal composition of sugar alcohol and protein for the lyoprotectant use must be established.

  18. Repeated freeze–thaw cycles reduce the survival rate of osteocytes in bone-tendon constructs without affecting the mechanical properties of tendons

    OpenAIRE

    Suto, Kaori; Urabe, Ken; Naruse, Kouji; Uchida, Kentaro; Matsuura, Terumasa; Mikuni-Takagaki, Yuko; Suto, Mitsutoshi; Nemoto, Noriko; Kamiya, Kentaro; Itoman, Moritoshi

    2010-01-01

    Frozen bone-patellar tendon bone allografts are useful in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction as the freezing procedure kills tissue cells, thereby reducing immunogenicity of the grafts. However, a small portion of cells in human femoral heads treated by standard bone-bank freezing procedures survive, thus limiting the effectiveness of allografts. Here, we characterized the survival rates and mechanisms of cells isolated from rat bones and tendons that were subjected to freeze–thaw trea...

  19. Earthworm Protease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alimentary tract of earthworm secretes a group of proteases with a relative wide substrate specificity. In 1983, six isozymes were isolated from earthworm with fibrinolytic activities and called fibrinolytic enzymes. So far, more isozymes have been found from different earthworm species such as Lumbricus rubellus and Eisenia fetida. For convenience, the proteases are named on the basis of the earthworm species and the protein function, for instance, Eisenia fetida protease (EfP). The proteases have the abilities not only to hydrolyze fibrin and other protein, but also activate pro enzymes such as plasminogen and prothrombin. In the light of recent studies, eight of the EfPs contain oligosaccharides chains which are thought to support the enzyme structure. Interestingly, EfP-II has a broader substrate specificity presenting alkaline trypsin, chymotrypsin and elastase activities, but EfP-III-1 has a stricter specificity. The protein crystal structures show the characteristics in their specificities. Earthworm proteases have been applied in several areas such as clinical treatment of clotting diseases, anti-tumor study, environmental protection and nutritional production. The current clinical utilizations and some potential new applications of the earthworm protease will be discussed in this paper.

  20. INFLUENCE OF THE FREEZING RATE ON THE SURVIVAL OF STRAINS Saccharomyces cerevisiae AFTER CRYOGENIC PRESERVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Tsonka Uzunova-Doneva and Todor Donev

    2002-01-01

    Experiments for determination of the influence of the freezing rate on the viability preservation of brewery yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae were made. Six freezing rates were studied (0.3, 0.6, 1.0, 10, 30 and 300 ° C x min -1 ranging from 20 ° C to minus 196 ° C) and subsequent thawing at three different temperature values – 20, 27 and 37 ° C was performed. It was established that the investigated strains 179, 181, 184 had maximum preserved their viability by freezing rate of 0.6 ° Cxmin ...

  1. Soil salinity increases survival of freezing in the enchytraeid Enchytraeus albidus.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Patrício Silva, A. L.; Holmstrup, M.; Koš?ál, Vladimír; Amorim, M. J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 216, ?. 14 (2013), s. 2732-2740. ISSN 0022-0949 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ice content * freeze tolerance * osmolality Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.002, year: 2013

  2. Earthworm Immunity.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bilej, Martin; Procházková, Petra; Šilerová, Marcela; Josková, Radka

    New York : Landes Biosciences and Springer Science + Business Media, 2010 - (Söderhäll, K.), 66-79 ISBN 978-1-4419-8058-8. - (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 708) R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/07/0378; GA AV ?R IAA600200704; GA MŠk 2B06155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : earthworms * immunity Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  3. Inflorescences of alpine cushion plants freeze autonomously and may survive subzero temperatures by supercooling

    OpenAIRE

    Hacker, Jürgen; Ladinig, Ursula; Wagner, Johanna; Neuner, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    Freezing patterns in the high alpine cushion plants Saxifraga bryoides, Saxifraga caesia, Saxifraga moschata and Silene acaulis were studied by infrared thermography at three reproductive stages (bud, anthesis, fruit development). The single reproductive shoots of a cushion froze independently in all four species at every reproductive stage. Ice formation caused lethal damage to the respective inflorescence. After ice nucleation, which occurred mainly in the stalk or the base of the reproduct...

  4. Anatomical regulation of ice nucleation and cavitation helps trees to survive freezing and drought stress

    OpenAIRE

    A. Lintunen; Hölttä, T.; Kulmala, M.

    2013-01-01

    Water in the xylem, the water transport system of plants, is vulnerable to freezing and cavitation, i.e. to phase change from liquid to ice or gaseous phase. The former is a threat in cold and the latter in dry environmental conditions. Here we show that a small xylem conduit diameter, which has previously been shown to be associated with lower cavitation pressure thus making a plant more drought resistant, is also associated with a decrease in the temperature required for ice nucleation in t...

  5. Role of cold climate and freeze-thaw on the survival, transport, and virulence of Yersinia enterocolitica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadishad, Bahareh; Ghoshal, Subhasis; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2013-12-17

    Surface and near-surface soils in cold climate regions experience low temperature and freeze-thaw (FT) conditions in the winter. Microorganisms that are of concern to groundwater quality may have the potential to survive low temperature and FT in the soil and aqueous environments. Although there is a body of literature on the survival of pathogenic bacteria at different environmental conditions, little is known about their transport behavior in aquatic environments at low temperatures and after FT. Herein, we studied the survival, transport, and virulence of a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen, Yersinia enterocolitica, when subjected to low temperature and several FT cycles at two solution ionic strengths (10 and 100 mM) in the absence of nutrients. Our findings demonstrate that this bacterium exhibited higher retention on sand after exposure to FT. Increasing the number of FT cycles resulted in higher bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity and impaired the swimming motility and viability of the bacterium. Moreover, the transcription of flhD and fliA, the flagellin-encoding genes, and lpxR, the lipid A 3'-O-deacylase gene, was reduced in low temperature and after FT treatment while the transcription of virulence factors such as ystA, responsible for enterotoxin production, ail, attachment invasion locus gene, and rfbC, O-antigen gene, was increased. Y. enterocolitica tends to persist in soil for long periods and may become more virulent at low temperature in higher ionic strength waters in cold regions. PMID:24283700

  6. Freeze tolerance and accumulation of cryoprotectants in the enchytraeid Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta) from Greenland and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slotsbo, Stine; Maraldo, Kristine

    2008-01-01

    The freeze tolerance and accumulation of cryoprotectants was investigated in three geographically different populations of the enchytraeid Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta). E. albidus is widely distributed from the high Arctic to temperate Western Europe. Our results show that E. albidus is freeze tolerant, with freeze tolerance varying extensively between Greenlandic and European populations. Two populations from sub Arctic (Nuuk) and high Arctic Greenland (Zackenberg) survived freezing at -15 degrees C, whereas only 30% of a German population survived this temperature. When frozen, E. albidus responded by catabolising glycogen to glucose, which likely acted as a cryoprotectant. The average glucose concentrations were similar in the three populations when worms were frozen at -2 degrees C, approximately 50 microg glucose mg(-1) tissue dry weight (DW). At -14 degrees C the glucose concentrations increased to between 110 and 170 microg mg(-1) DW in worms from Greenland. The average glycogen content of worms from Zackenberg and Nuuk were about 300 microg mg(-1) DW, but only 230 microg mg(-1) DW in worms from Germany showing that not all glycogen was catabolised during the experiment. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR) was used to screen for other putative cryoprotectants. Proline, glutamine and alanine were up regulated in frozen worms at -2 degrees C but only in relatively small concentrations suggesting that they were of little significance for freeze survival. The present study confirms earlier reports that freeze tolerant enchytraeids, like other freeze tolerant oligochaete earthworms, accumulate high concentrations of glucose as a primary cryoprotectant.

  7. Survival, Pb-uptake and behaviour of three species of earthworm in Pb treated soils determined using an OECD-style toxicity test and a soil avoidance test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mature (clitellate) Eisenia andrei Bouche (ultra epigeic), Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister (epigeic), and Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny) (endogeic) earthworms were placed in soils treated with Pb(NO3)2 to have concentrations in the range 1000 to 10 000 mg Pb kg-1. After 28 days LC50-95%confidencelimit+95%confidencelimit values were E. andrei5824-361+898 mg Pb kg-1, L. rubellus2867-193+145 mg Pb kg-1 and A. caliginosa2747-304+239 mg Pb kg-1 and EC50s for weight change were E. andrei2841-68+150 mg Pb kg-1, L. rubellus1303-201+240 mg Pb kg-1 and A. caliginosa1208-206+212 mg Pb kg-1. At any given soil Pb concentration, Pb tissue concentrations after 28 days were the same for all three earthworm species. In a soil avoidance test there was no difference between the behaviour of the different species. The lower sensitivity to Pb exhibited by E. andrei is most likely due to physiological adaptations associated with the modes of life of the earthworms, and could have serious implications for the use of this earthworm as the species of choice in standard toxicological testing.

  8. The effect of protective ingredients on the survival of immobilized cells of Streptococcus thermophilus to air and freeze-drying

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claude P., Champagne; Nancy J., Gardner.

    2001-12-15

    Full Text Available Streptococcus thermophilus cultures were grown either on trehalose or lactose, immobilized in alginate beads, dipped in various protective solutions and dried by either convection air-drying (CAD) or freeze-drying (FD). Immobilized cultures dipped in the 0.1% peptone solution did not show good survi [...] val to CAD or FD, as mortality was over 99%. There was no significant difference in mortality levels, in both methods of drying, when lactose or trehalose were used as protective ingredients. The highest survival levels (50 to 98%) were with a whey-sucrose protective medium, but this was potentially related to a higher pH and solids of the solution. Mortality levels were higher in FD than CAD, and this did not appear to be related to the fact that FD cultures had lower residual moisture contents than those dried under CAD. Cells grown on lactose had slightly higher survival rates to drying than those obtained from CAD. Trehalose-positive and trehalose-negative cultures of S. thermophilus did not show different mortality patterns to CAD or FD.

  9. Earthworms and Soil Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Tamae

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short review, we describe recent studies concerning the relationship between earthworms and soil pollutants, and discuss the possibility of using the earthworm as a bio-monitoring organism for soil pollution.

  10. Identification of Sigma Factor ?B-Controlled Genes and Their Impact on Acid Stress, High Hydrostatic Pressure, and Freeze Survival in Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e

    OpenAIRE

    Wemekamp-Kamphuis, Henrike H.; Wouters, Jeroen A.; de Leeuw, Patrick P. L. A.; Hain, Torsten; Chakraborty, Trinad; Abee, Tjakko,

    2004-01-01

    The gene encoding the alternative sigma factor ?B in Listeria monocytogenes is induced upon exposure of cells to several stresses. In this study, we investigated the impact of a sigB null mutation on the survival of L. monocytogenes EGD-e at low pH, during high-hydrostatic-pressure treatment, and during freezing. The survival of ?sigB mutant exponential-phase cells at pH 2.5 was 10,000-fold lower than the survival of EGD-e wild-type cells. Moreover, the ?sigB mutant failed to show an acid tol...

  11. Earthworms and Soil Pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuyoshi Tamae; Takeshi Hirano

    2011-01-01

    Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short...

  12. The survival and persistence in the human gastrointestinal tract of five potential probiotic lactobacilli consumed as freeze-dried cultures or as probiotic sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingberg, Trine Danø; Budde, Birgitte Bjørn

    2006-05-25

    Among five lactobacilli (L. plantarum MF1291, MF1298, DC13, L. pentosus MF1300 and L. salivarius DC5) which were administrated as freeze-dried cultures for 17 volunteers, MF1298 and DC13 were the most frequently reisolated strains in faeces demonstrating the human gastric survival of these strains. Furthermore, MF1298 and DC13 persisted in the same volunteer after ended intake, suggesting host-specific persistence behaviour. When MF1298 was administrated as sausage fermented with this strain, the number of volunteers harbouring MF1298 increased from 4 to 10 indicating that the sausage matrix protects the survival through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). PMID:16504324

  13. Determination of arsenic compounds in earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiszinger, A.; Goessler, W.; Kuehnelt, D.; Kosmus, W. [Karl-Franzens-Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. for Analytical Chemistry; Francesconi, K. [Odense Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Biology

    1998-08-01

    Earthworms and soil collected from six sites in Styria, Austria, were investigated for total arsenic concentrations by ICP-MS and for arsenic compounds by HPLC-ICP-MS. Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 3.2 to 17.9 mg/kg dry weight in the worms and from 5.0 to 79.7 mg/kg dry weight in the soil samples. There was no strict correlation between the total arsenic concentrations in the worms and soil. Arsenic compounds were extracted from soil and a freeze-dried earthworm sample with a methanol/water mixture (9:1, v/v). The extracts were evaporated to dryness, redissolved in water, and chromatographed on an anion- and a cation-exchange column. Arsenic compounds were identified by comparison of the retention times with known standards. Only traces of arsenic acid could be extracted from the soil with the methanol/water (9:1, v/v) mixture. The major arsenic compounds detected in the extracts of the earthworms were arsenous acid and arsenic acid. Arsenobetaine was present as a minor constituent, and traces of dimethylarsinic acid were also detected. Two dimethylarsinoyltribosides were also identified in the extracts by co-chromatography with standard compounds. This is the first report of the presence of dimethylarsinoylribosides in a terrestrial organism. Two other minor arsenic species were present in the extract, but their retention times did not match with the retention times of the available standards.

  14. Interaction of plant and earthworm during primary succession in heaps after coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubí?ková, Alena; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    These results of field manipulation experiment show that earthworms can remarkably influence vegetation succession on spoil heaps, namely promoting grasses and late succession species. This is in agreement with concurrent appearance of earthworms and some plant species typical for late-succession communities of meadows and forests aren't purely coincidental. On the other hand, facilitation of soil conditions by plant communities during succession is an important factor in earthworm distribution on the spoil heaps; earthworms showed a low survival on sites with sparse vegetation cover and thin litter layer, which means that their occurrence in certain stages of succession isn't determined only by migration abilities or passive dispersal. More field experiments are needed to test if earthworms could be used in directed succession management practices to speed up the natural rate of succession. Preliminary results from an experiment with introduction earthworms to a 20- year old, earthworm-free site indicate that colonization of this site from a single deposition of about 100 specimen of epigeic and 100 endogeic earthworms is slow and not very efficient. Results show that interaction between earthworm and vegetation are important in ecosystem development in post mining sites.

  15. Correlations between Lumbricus terrestris survival and gut microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Knut Rudi; Knut Olav Strætkvern

    2012-01-01

    Background: The interplay between diet, gut bacteria and health still remain enigmatic. Here, we addressed this issue through the investigation of the effect of crystalline cellulose on the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris gut microbiota composition and survival. Methods : Earthworm gut contents were analyzed after 14 days of feeding using a mixed 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach, in addition to direct measurements of cellulase activity. The survival of earthworms was followed each week for 17...

  16. Removal of mercury from soil with earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorfman, D. [Monmouth Coll., West Long Branch, NJ (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Earthworms can live in soils containing high quantities of mercury, lead, and zinc. The worms (Lumbricus terrestris) concentrate these heavy metals in their tissues. The use of these worms to reduce the quantities of mercury and other heavy metals in soils may be practical. In July, 1993, a preliminary study was made using earthworms and soils with differing amounts of mercury, The quantities were 0.0 grams, 0.5 grams, and 1.0 grams of mercury as mercuric chloride. Earthworms were placed into these soils for two or more weeks, then harvested. The worms were rinsed with deionized water, then dissolved in nitric acid. Each sample was prepared for analysis with the addition of HNO{sub 3}, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, potassium permanganate, and hydrozylamine hydrochloride. A Jerome Instrument gold foil analyzer was used to determine levels of mercury after volatilizing the sample with stannous chloride. Worms exposed to contaminated soils remove 50 to 1,400 times as much mercury as do worms in control soils. In a hypothetical case, a site contaminated with one pound of mercury, 1,000 to 45,000 worms would be required to reduce mercury levels to background levels in the soil (about 250 ppb). After harvesting worms in contaminated soil they could be dried (90% of their weight is water), and the mercury regained by chemical processes. Soil conducive to earthworm survival is required. This includes a well aerated loamy soil, proper pH (7.0), and periodic watering and feeding. There are several methods of harvesting worms, including flooding and electricity. Large numbers of worms can be obtained from commercial growers.

  17. Cryoprotectants are metabolic fuels during long term frost exposure in the earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    C. JØrgensen, Sofia; Overgaard, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Ectothermic animals that live in the subarctic and temperate regions must have strategies to deal with periods of frost during winter. The earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra is a freeze tolerant species that accumulates large concentrations of the cryoprotectant glucose upon ice formation in the extracellular fluid. This study investigates if D. octaedra metabolizes its primary cryoprotectant as an energy source when frozen for longer periods. In this study D. octaedra were exposed to frost at 2 °C for 47 days. The results clearly demonstrate a gradual decrease in the level of glucose and simultaneously an accumulation of lactate, alanine and succinate as a result of the continuous anaerobic metabolism. Freeze mortality (~ 30%) did not increase with time suggesting that the accumulation of waste products were not toxic to the worms. Instead dead worms were always characterised by low glucose and glycogen levels indicating that depletion of fermentable resources was the primary cause of death. Calorimetric measurements of metabolic rate showed a 15-fold metabolic depression in frozen versus unfrozen worms and this reduction in metabolic rate is clearly of importance for long term survival of frozen worms. On the basis of metabolic rate measurements we calculated that the “average” worms would be able to survive for a total of 83 days before the glucose storage becomes exhausted. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the large accumulations of glucose during frost may be more important as anaerobic fuel source than as a cryoprotectant.

  18. Production and utilization of earthworms as feeds for broilers in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barcelo P., M.

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the production of earthworms was conducted using a 50 : 50 by volume of animal manures in combination with Leucaena leucocephala. A combination of sawdust, rice hull and rice bran at a proportion of 55, 35 and 10 respectively was also used as a substrate. The earthworms in each box were supplemented with either 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 g kitchen scraps. On harvesting, hand picking the earthworms from the castings and arranging the contents of the box in a pyramid were tested. Blanching, direct heating, freezing and using an oven-drier were likewise tested on "killing" earthworms prior to drying. On broiler utilization, eighty four one-day old broiler chicks were fed with the six rations formulated where in 6 %, 10 % and 14 % levels of vermimeal and fish meal were used with the commercial mash as the control. Results revealed that goat manure in combination with Leucaena leucocephala with 100 to 400g feed supplement produced the highest gain and largest population. The pyramid method for harvesting and freezing for processing earthworms were found to be the best. Commercial broiler mash was significantly better than the home-mixed rations. In the home-mixed rations, 10 to 14 % levels of vermimeal were comparable to 6 % vermimeal and 6-10 % fish meal.

  19. Some Earthworm Records from Anatolia (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae)

    OpenAIRE

    MISIRLIO?LU, Mete

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to provide additional data on the poorly known earthworm fauna of Anatolia. During the study earthworms from 16 different localities were identified, which resulted in a list of 11 species belonging to 7 genera.

  20. Earthworms-microfungi interactions in vermicultures.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav; Nováková, Alena

    Cardiff : Cardiff University, 2002. s. 383. [International Symposium on Earthworm Ecology /7./. 01.09.2002-06.09.2002, Cardiff] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : earthworms -microfungi interactions Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  1. Ketahanan dan viabilitas probiotik bakteri asam laktat selama proses pembuatan kultur kering dengan metode freeze dan spray drying [Survival and Viability of Lactid Acid Bacteria Probiotic during production of Dried Culture Using Freeze and Spray Drying Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erni Harmayani 1

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Selection on 36 lactid aid bacteria isolate from various source (dadih, sausage, infant faces, gato, chinese leaf pickle, growol and yoghurt has been carried out based on their potency to reduce choresterol. Based on their ability to assimilate choresterol, conjugate bile solt, restency on bile salt and low pH, three isolates i.e. Lactobacillus sp. Dad 13, L. asidophillus D2 and L. plantarum Mut 7 have been chosen for further study. Viability of selected cultures during biomass production using coconut water with addition of 0.5% yeast extract, and during production of dried starter culture using freeze and spray dried were investigated. The results show that the growth patern of the three isolates selected were almost similar i.e. reaching maximum amount after 16 hours fermentation at 37°C. biomass production using coconut water produced 109 cfu/ml after 16-18 hours incubation at 37°C. decrease on viability after drying using freeze drier ranged between 0.5-2 log cycles, while that of storage of freeze dried culture during 4 weeks at -20°C caused descreasing in viability of 26-56%.

  2. Mapping earthworm communities in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutgers, Michiel; Orgiazzi, Alberto

    Existing data sets on earthworm communities in Europe were collected, harmonized, modelled and depicted on a soil biodiversity map of Europe. Digital Soil Mapping was applied using multiple regressions relating relatively low density earthworm community data to soil characteristics, land use, vegetation and climate factors (covariables) with a greater spatial resolution. Statistically significant relationships were used to build habitat-response models for constructing earthworm maps with abundance, species richness, and diversity data. While a good number of environmental predictors were significant in our multiple regressions, geographical factors alone seem to be less relevant than climatic factors. Despite differing sampling protocols, land use and geological history were the most relevant factors determining the demography and diversity of the earthworms across Europe. Case studies from country-specific data sets (France, Germany, Ireland and The Netherlands) demonstrated the importance and efficiency oflarge databases for the detection of large spatial patterns that could be subsequently applied at smaller (local) scales. After the first set of maps, additional datasets were used to improve the regressions and maps and to extent the area depicting earthworm predictions (e.g. Portugal, Italy, England, Finland, Austria and some countries from Eastern Europe). The improved maps will be submitted for publication in the Global Soil Biodiversity Atlas.

  3. Effects of antimicrobial coatings and cryogenic freezing on survival and growth of Listeria innocua on frozen ready-to-eat shrimp during thawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes could pose a health risk for frozen ready-to-eat (RTE) shrimp as the pathogen can grow following thawing. In this study, antimicrobial coating treatments alone, or in combination with cryogenic freezing, were evaluated for their ability to inhibit t...

  4. New records of earthworms (Oligochaeta) from Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Razafindrakoto, M.; Csuzdi, Cs; Rakotofiringa, S.; Blanchart, E.

    2010-01-01

    New records of earthworms from Madagascar are presented. This is the first taxonomic report on the earthwormfauna of Madagascar since the last paper of Michaelsen (1931). Altogether data on 14 peregrine earthworm species belonging tofive families are summarized. Together with the native taxa, 33 valid earthworm species have so far been recorded fromMadagascar of which 18 (55%) are endemic in the Island and 15 (45%) introduced.

  5. New records of earthworms (Oligochaeta from Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razafindrakoto, M.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available New records of earthworms from Madagascar are presented. This is the first taxonomic report on the earthwormfauna of Madagascar since the last paper of Michaelsen (1931. Altogether data on 14 peregrine earthworm species belonging tofive families are summarized. Together with the native taxa, 33 valid earthworm species have so far been recorded fromMadagascar of which 18 (55% are endemic in the Island and 15 (45% introduced.

  6. Legacy of earthworms' engineering effects enlarges the actual effects of earthworms on plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrák, Obd?ej; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Earthworms were recognized as key factor responsible for changes from early to late successional plant communities. They incorporate organic matter into the soil and creates there persistent structures, which improves conditions for plant growth. Earthworm activity might be therefore expected to be more important in early stages of the succession, when earthworm colonization of previously earthworm free soil starts, than in the late stages of the succession, where the soil was previously modified by earthworms. However, earthworms affect plants also via other effects such as increase of nutrient availability. The relative importance of soil structure modification and other earthworm effects on plants is poorly known, despite it is important for both theoretical and applied ecology. To test the effect of earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa) on plants we performed microcosm laboratory experiment, where earthworms were affecting early successional (Poa compressa, Medicago lupulina, and Daucus carota) and late successional (Arrhenatherum elatius, Lotus corniculatus, and Plantago laceolata) plat species in soil previously unaffected by earthworms and in soil with previous long term effect of earthworms. These soils were taken from the early and late successional monitoring sites of the Sokolov coal mining district with known history. Earthworms increased plant biomass proportionally more in late successional soil. It was mainly because they increased availability of nutrients (nitrate and potassium) and plants get higher advantage out of this in late successional soil. Earthworms increased plant biomass of both early and late successional species, but late successional species suppressed early successional species in competition. This suppression was more intensive in presence of earthworms and in late successional soil. We therefore found multiplicative effect between earthworm soil engineering activity and their other effects, which might be responsible for changes in plant communities during the succession.

  7. Do alterations in mesofauna community affect earthworms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvarov, Alexei V; Karaban, Kamil

    2015-11-01

    Interactions between the saprotrophic animal groups that strongly control soil microbial activities and the functioning of detrital food webs, such as earthworms and mesofauna, are not well understood. Earthworm trophic and engineering activities strongly affect mesofauna abundance and diversity through various direct and indirect pathways. In contrast, mesofauna effects on earthworm populations are less evident; however, their importance may be high, considering the keystone significance of earthworms for the functioning of the soil system. We studied effects of a diverse mesofauna community of a deciduous forest on two earthworm species representing epigeic (Lumbricus rubellus) and endogeic (Aporrectodea caliginosa) ecological groups. In microcosms, the density of total mesofauna or its separate groups (enchytraeids, collembolans, gamasid mites) was manipulated (increased) and responses of earthworms and soil systems were recorded. A rise in mesofauna density resulted in a decrease of biomass and an increased mortality in L. rubellus, presumably due to competition with mesofauna for litter resources. In contrast, similar mesofauna manipulations promoted reproduction of A. caliginosa, suggesting a facilitated exploitation of litter resources due to increased mesofauna activities. Changes of microcosm respiration rates, litter organic matter content and microbial activities across the manipulation treatments indicate that mesofauna modify responses of soil systems in the presence of earthworms. However, similar mesofauna manipulations could induce different responses in soil systems with either epigeic or endogeic lumbricids, which suggests that earthworm/mesofauna interactions are species-specific. Thus, mesofauna impacts should be treated as a factor affecting the engineering activities of epigeic and endogeic earthworms in the soil. PMID:26188519

  8. Enzyme activities of earthworm lysozyme.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Josková, Radka; Šilerová, Marcela; Kohlerová, Petra; Bilej, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 10, ?. 2 (2008), s. 141-141. ISSN 1212-3536. [Sjezd ?eských a slovenských alergolog? a klinických imunolog? /25./ a Kongres ?eských a slovenských imunolog? s mezinárodní ú?astí /12./. 29.10.2008-1.11.2008, Praha] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA600200704 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : earthworm Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  9. New earthworm records from Bulgaria (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Szederjesi, T.

    2013-01-01

    Elaboration of a small earthworm material collected in different parts of Bulgaria resulted in recording altogether 15 species. Surprisingly, the peregrine Dendrobaena veneta veneta proved to be new to the fauna of Bulgaria and with this, the present list of Bulgarian earthworms consists of 42 confirmed species and subspecies.

  10. Metal accumulation in earthworms inhabiting floodplain soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijver, Martina G. [Institute of Ecological Science, Dept. Animal Ecology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands) and Institute for Inland Water Management and Waste Water Treatment (RIZA), Dept. Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Lelystad (Netherlands)]. E-mail: vijver@cml.leidenuniv.nl; Vink, Jos P.M. [Institute for Inland Water Management and Waste Water Treatment (RIZA), Dept. Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Lelystad (Netherlands); Miermans, Cornelis J.H. [Institute for Inland Water Management and Waste Water Treatment (RIZA), Dept. Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Lelystad (Netherlands); Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Institute of Ecological Science, Dept. Animal Ecology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-07-15

    The main factors contributing to variation in metal concentrations in earthworms inhabiting floodplain soils were investigated in three floodplains differing in inundation frequency and vegetation type. Metal concentrations in epigeic earthworms showed larger seasonal variations than endogeic earthworms. Variation in internal levels between sampling intervals were largest in earthworms from floodplain sites frequently inundated. High and low frequency flooding did not result in consistent changes in internal metal concentrations. Vegetation types of the floodplains did not affect metal levels in Lumbricus rubellus, except for internal Cd levels, which were positively related to the presence of organic litter. Internal levels of most essential metals were higher in spring. In general, no clear patterns in metal uptake were found and repetition of the sampling campaign will probably yield different results. - Metal levels in earthworms show large variation among sites, among seasons and among epigeic and endogeic species.

  11. Cryoprotectants are metabolic fuels during long term frost exposure in the earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    C. Jørgensen, Sofia; Overgaard, Johannes; Holmstrup, Martin; Westh, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Ectothermic animals that live in the subarctic and temperate regions must have strategies to deal with periods of frost during winter. The earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra is a freeze tolerant species that accumulates large concentrations of the cryoprotectant glucose upon ice formation in the extracellular fluid. This study investigates if D. octaedra metabolizes its primary cryoprotectant as an energy source when frozen for longer periods. In this study D. octaedra were exposed to frost at 2 °C ...

  12. Earthworms – good indicators for forest disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAHYA KOOCH

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In temperate forests, formation of canopy gaps by windthrow is a characteristic natural disturbance event. Little work has been done on the effects of canopy gaps on soil properties and fauna, especially earthworms as ecosystem engineers. We conducted a study to examine the reaction of earthworms (density/biomass and different soil properties (i.e., soil moisture, pH, organic matter, total N, and available Ca to different canopy gap areas in 25-ha areas of Liresar district beech forest located in a temperate forest of Mazandaran province in the north of Iran. Soil samples were taken at 0-15, 15-30 and 30-45 cm depths from gap center, gap edge and closed canopy using core soil sampler with 81 cm2 cross section. The earthworms were collected simultaneously with the soil sampling by hand sorting method. Our study supports that the canopy gap will create a mosaic of environmental conditions. Earthworm's density and biomass tended to be higher in small canopy gaps compared with the other canopy gap areas. Earthworm's population showed decreasing trend from closed canopy to disturbed sites (gap edge and gap center. The top soil was more appropriate to presence of earthworms although ecological groups have occupied different soil layers. As a conclusion, earthworms can be introduced as good bio-indicator of environmental changes that occur by disturbance.

  13. Earthworm introduction on calcareous minesoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrowing activity of the nightcrawler, Lumbricus terrestis (L.t.), incorporates organic matter into mineral soil while creating long-lasting macropores. Thus L.t. has potential as a biological means of improving physical and chemical properties of surface mined areas. Efforts to establish L.t. population on forested acidic or calcareous minesoils have been successful, but thus far have not been able to establish L.t. in grassland ecosystems on calcareous minesoils. In May, 1989, the authors put 11 clitellate L.t. under sphagnum moss on calcareous gray cast overburden on standard graded topsoil, or on ripped and disked topsoil. All soils had cover of agronomic grasses and legumes. They found no L.t. at the 24 points of inoculation during sampling in fall of 1990 with formalin extractant, although smaller species, Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrobaena spp., were found. At another location, in May, 1990, they put 25 clitellate L.t. at 16 points in grasslands growing on gray cast overburden. Using formalin extraction, they found no L.t. in May 1992 at these locations. Working in this same area in November, 1992, they released 10 clitellate L.t. at 16 points under 10 cm of moist Alnus glutinosa leaf litter. Careful examination of the surface inoculation points in spring and fall of 1993 did not show obvious signs of earthworm activity. Their next step will be to use Earthworm Inoculation Units (earthworm-minesoil microcosms containing L.t. adults, immatures, and cocoons) as the source of the new populations

  14. Accumulation of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.

    1996-01-01

    Chlorinated benzenes are widespread in the environment. Hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene and all isomers of dichlorobenzenes, trichlorobenzenes, and tetrachlorobenzenes, have been detected in fish, water, and sediments from the Great Lakes. This paper describes a long-term (26 week) experiment relating the concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 1) the length of exposure, and it describes three 8-week experiments relating concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 2) their concentration in soil 3) the soil organic matter content and, 4) the degree of chlorination. In the 26-week experiment, the concentration of 1,2,4 - trichlorobenzene in earthworms fluctuated only slightly about a mean of 0.63 ppm (Fig. 1). Although a statistically significant decrease can be demonstrated over the test (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = -0.62 p < 0.05), the decrease was minor. Hexachlorobenzene in earthworms showed a cyclical trend that coincided with replacement of the media, and a slight but statistically significant tendency to increase from about 2 to 3 ppm over the 26 weeks (r = 0.55, p < 0.05). Concentrations of both trichlorobenzene and hexachlorobenzene in earthworms increased as the concentrations in the soil increased (Fig. 2), but leveled off at the highest soil concentrations. The most surprising result of this study was the relatively low concentrations in earthworms compared to those in soils. The average concentration of each of the six isomers of trichlorobenzene and tetrachlorobenzene in earthworms was only about 1 ppm (Table 2); the isomeric structure did not affect accumulation. The concentration of organic matter in soil had a prominent effect on hexachlorobenzene concentrations in earthworms (Fig. 3). Hexachlorobenzene concentrations decreased steadily from 9.3 ppm in earthworms kept in soil without any peat moss added to about 1 ppm in soil containing 16 or 32% organic matter.

  15. Carbohydrate and lipid dynamics in wheat crown tissue in response to mild freeze-thaw treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freezing tolerance resulting from cold hardening is critical to survival of fall-planted crops such as winter wheat. Exposure of winter wheat plants to cycles of freeze-thaw at temperatures just below, and just above freezing results in incremental improvements of freezing tolerance. Defining the ph...

  16. A SMA Actuated Earthworm-Like Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. K.; Song, C. N.; Wang, Z. L.; Guo, C.; Tan, Q. Y.

    Inspired by locomotion principle of earworms, a shape memory alloy (SMA) actuated earthworm-like robot is designed and developed in this paper. Four groups of SMA wires as actuator and one spring as accumulator were introduced. The SMA wires and spring play a role in contraction and extension of an earthworm muscle respectively. For temporal position stopping control, two groups of electromagnets were used as setae of earthworm. By SMA wires were driven independently or simultaneity according to defined movement patterns, the all-round movement of the artificial earthworm freely to different directions was realized. A series of experiments on the self-developed robot moving and turning with different actuation frequencies were carried out. The results showed the validity of the locomotion mobility of the SMA actuated earworm-like robot.

  17. Unique metabolites protect earthworms against plant polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebeke, Manuel; Strittmatter, Nicole; Fearn, Sarah; Morgan, A John; Kille, Peter; Fuchser, Jens; Wallis, David; Palchykov, Vitalii; Robertson, Jeremy; Lahive, Elma; Spurgeon, David J; McPhail, David; Takáts, Zoltán; Bundy, Jacob G

    2015-01-01

    All higher plants produce polyphenols, for defence against above-ground herbivory. These polyphenols also influence the soil micro- and macro-fauna that break down plant leaf litter. Polyphenols therefore indirectly affect the fluxes of soil nutrients and, ultimately, carbon turnover and ecosystem functioning in soils. It is unknown how earthworms, the major component of animal biomass in many soils, cope with high-polyphenol diets. Here, we show that earthworms possess a class of unique surface-active metabolites in their gut, which we term 'drilodefensins'. These compounds counteract the inhibitory effects of polyphenols on earthworm gut enzymes, and high-polyphenol diets increase drilodefensin concentrations in both laboratory and field populations. This shows that drilodefensins protect earthworms from the harmful effects of ingested polyphenols. We have identified the key mechanism for adaptation to a dietary challenge in an animal group that has a major role in organic matter recycling in soils worldwide. PMID:26241769

  18. Earthworms – good indicators for forest disturbance

    OpenAIRE

    YAHYA KOOCH; KATAYOUN HAGHVERDI

    2014-01-01

    In temperate forests, formation of canopy gaps by windthrow is a characteristic natural disturbance event. Little work has been done on the effects of canopy gaps on soil properties and fauna, especially earthworms as ecosystem engineers. We conducted a study to examine the reaction of earthworms (density/biomass) and different soil properties (i.e., soil moisture, pH, organic matter, total N, and available Ca) to different canopy gap areas in 25-ha areas of Liresar district beech forest loca...

  19. Biochemical diversity of betaines in earthworms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We develop a method for rapid untargetted analysis of betaines. ? We profile betaines in a comparative study of ten earthworm species. ? Earthworms contain a surprisingly high number of different betaine metabolites. ? Earthworms contain betaines normally seen only in plants or marine animals. -- Abstract: The ability to accumulate osmoprotectant compounds, such as betaines, is an important evolutionary feature in many organisms. This is particularly the case for organisms that live in variable environments, which may have fluctuations in moisture and salinity levels. There is, surprisingly, very little known about betaines in soil invertebrates in general, and there is almost no information about earthworms – a group that are important ‘ecosystem engineers’ and key indicators of soil health. Here, we describe a fast and reliable 1H–13C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) 2D NMR approach for the metabolic profiling of a series of betaines and related metabolites in tissue extracts, and list 1H and 13C chemical shifts for the trimethylammonium signal for 23 such compounds. The analysis of ten different species from three different families (Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Glossoscolecidae) showed an unexpected diversity of betaines present in earthworms. In total ten betaines were identified, including hydroxyproline-betaine, proline-betaine, taurine-betaine, GABA-betaine and histidine-betaine, and a further eleven as-yet unassigned putative betaine metabolites detected. The findings clearly indicate a hitherto-unappreciated important role for betaine metabolism in earthworms

  20. Biochemical diversity of betaines in earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebeke, Manuel [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bundy, Jacob G., E-mail: j.bundy@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: ? We develop a method for rapid untargetted analysis of betaines. ? We profile betaines in a comparative study of ten earthworm species. ? Earthworms contain a surprisingly high number of different betaine metabolites. ? Earthworms contain betaines normally seen only in plants or marine animals. -- Abstract: The ability to accumulate osmoprotectant compounds, such as betaines, is an important evolutionary feature in many organisms. This is particularly the case for organisms that live in variable environments, which may have fluctuations in moisture and salinity levels. There is, surprisingly, very little known about betaines in soil invertebrates in general, and there is almost no information about earthworms – a group that are important ‘ecosystem engineers’ and key indicators of soil health. Here, we describe a fast and reliable {sup 1}H–{sup 13}C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) 2D NMR approach for the metabolic profiling of a series of betaines and related metabolites in tissue extracts, and list {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C chemical shifts for the trimethylammonium signal for 23 such compounds. The analysis of ten different species from three different families (Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Glossoscolecidae) showed an unexpected diversity of betaines present in earthworms. In total ten betaines were identified, including hydroxyproline-betaine, proline-betaine, taurine-betaine, GABA-betaine and histidine-betaine, and a further eleven as-yet unassigned putative betaine metabolites detected. The findings clearly indicate a hitherto-unappreciated important role for betaine metabolism in earthworms.

  1. Rediscovery of Fimoscolex sporadochaetus Michaelsen 1918 (Clitellata: Glossoscolecidae, and considerations on the endemism and diversity of Brazilian earthworms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel W. JAMES

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil hosts approximately 305 earthworm species, of which 260 (85% are native and 46 (15% exotic. Most of the native species (80% are known from only one or a few sites, and two species were considered as extinct by the Ministry of Environment of Brazil in 2003, due to lack of sightings, habitat destruction and a limited prior known distribution (endemism. One of these, Fimoscolex spora-dochaetus Michaelsen, 1918 was recently found in a forest reserve (Parque Estadual do Itacolomi, near the reservoir Bacio do Custódio in Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais. With this finding, and based on earthworm collection data in Brazil up to now, we believe that the endangered and "extinct" species should have their status reviewed, and that further collecting efforts are urgently necessary to adequately determine the extent of earthworm biodiversity in Brazil and the present level of threat to their survival.

  2. Earthworms and their Nephridial Symbionts: Co-diversification and Maintenance of the Symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie Braad; Holmstrup, Martin

    Earthworms harbor in their nephridia (excretory organs) symbiotic bacteria which densely colonize a specific part of the nephridia, called the ampulla [1]. The symbiosis is species-specific and the symbionts form their own monophyletic genus Verminephrobacter (?-proteobacteria) [2] and are vertically transmitted [3]. For these reasons we hypothesized that the earthworm-Verminephrobacter association evolved by co-diversification. This hypothesis was investigated by a comparison of earthworm and symbiont phylogenies. The earthworm phylogeny was based on Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and Histone H3 and the symbiont phylogeny was based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and RNA polymerase ? subunit (rpoB). The phylogenies were found to be largely congruent, however, leaving possibility for horizontal symbiont transfer events. In addition symbiont losses have occurred. The overall congruency suggests that the symbiosis has been stably maintained over evolutionary time dating back to the last common lumbricid earthworm ancestor. How this evolutionarily stable association is maintained is unknown; symbiont-free worms can be reared in lab culture and therefore the symbionts are not essential to the survival of the worms, but at the same time the symbionts are consistently found in almost all Lumbricid worm species. The symbionts have been hypothesized to be proteolytically active during excretion, thereby enhancing the earthworm’s absorption of nitrogenous compounds otherwise lost in the urine; such protein recycling should therefore increase worm fitness under nitrogen-limited conditions [4]. To test this hypothesis we conducted a comparative fitness study of worms with and without symbionts; the worms were grown in soil and fed with either a nitrogen-rich or a nitrogen-poor diet. The experiment showed no significant differences in growth rate and fecundity between symbiotic and aposymbiotic worms. Thus the symbionts do not appear to have an effect on worm fitness, under growth conditions tested. The underlying functional and maintaining mechanisms of this symbiosis remain a conundrum. [1] Knop,J. 1926. Z Morph Ökol Tiere, 6(3):588-624. [2] Schramm,A. et al. 2003. Environ Microbiol 5(9):804-809. [3] Davidson,S.K. & Stahl,D.A. 2006. Appl Environ Microbiol 72(1):769-775. [4] Pandazis,G. 1931. Zentralbl Bakteriol 120:440-453.

  3. Cryopreservation of rabbit semen: comparing the effects of different cryoprotectants, cryoprotectant-free vitrification, and the use of albumin plus osmoprotectants on sperm survival and fertility after standard vapor freezing and vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, Maria Pina; Iaffaldano, Nicolaia

    2013-02-01

    This study was designed to improve current freezing protocols for rabbit sperm by examining: (1) the toxicity of different permeable cryoprotectants (CPAs) used for standard vapor freezing (conventional freezing); (2) the feasibility of ultrarapid nonequilibrium freezing (vitrification) of sperm in the absence of permeating CPAs; and (3), the addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA), alone or with sucrose or trehalose as osmoprotectants. First, we evaluated the effects on sperm motility of the incubation time (5 to 60 minutes) with different final concentrations (5% to 20%) of glycerol, N-N-dimethylacetamide, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, and methanol. N-N-dimethylacetamide (5%) and DMSO (5% and 10%) showed the least toxic effects; the use of 10% DMSO producing the best postthaw sperm motility and membrane integrity results (P pregnant, though no kids were delivered. The conclusions to be drawn from our study are: (1) incubation times and concentration toxicities established for the main permeable CPAs used for conventional freezing of rabbit sperm indicated that DMSO 10% was the least damaging; (2) CPA-free vitrification of rabbit semen led to a low or null sperm cryosurvival; and (3) enriching the freezing medium with BSA plus adequate amounts of sucrose or trehalose can improve the cryosurvival of rabbit sperm after conventional freezing or vitrification. In our working conditions, BSA/sucrose was more effective than BSA/trehalose at preserving the in vivo fertilization capacity of rabbit sperm cryopreserved using the standard procedure. PMID:23218394

  4. Correlation of lethal concentrations of heavy metals with tissue levels of earthworms. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gal, J.Y.; Bouche, M.B.

    1988-08-01

    The objectives of this research are: To establish the LC50 of the heavy metals cadmium, copper, arsenic, and mercury as well as a Cu/Cd mixture in a ratio equal to LC50 Cd/LC50 Cu, employing a chemically defined medium such as Aristol; To improve procedures for heavy-metal bioavailability studies in the field; To improve/develop test procedures using a chemically defined medium and food in 28-day uptake studies; To analyze the tissues of the surviving test earthworms as well as those from media of lesser concentrations, blanks, and background worm stock; To relate the LC50 concentrations of contaminants with the tissue-contaminant levels in the earthworms utilized in the toxicity test; and To develop first-generation interpretations relating soil-contaminant levels and bioavailability, and to interpret the fate and transport of heavy-metal contaminants.

  5. Earthworms as biomarkers for detecting soil pollution around swine farms in Timi? County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crina L. Mo?neang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available By using several samples collected from different farms distances it can be determined the degree of farms pollution and their effects on ecosystems. In order to avoid any error the soil samples were tested in comparison with a control soil sample, used as a reference, considered animal waste pollution free. The registration of survival rate for each testing recipient and for each soil along five repeats was a critical control point of testing. The 11 identified soil types were tested in comparison with a clean reference soil, by using 275 test earthworms and 55 control earthworms. According to normality Kolmogorov- Smirnov test the mortality was analyzed and results were significant (p=0.046.

  6. Freezing resistance improvement of Lactobacillus reuteri by using cell immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsen, Jen-Horng; Huang, Hui-Ying; Lin, Yeu-Pyng; King, V An-Erl

    2007-09-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri shows certain beneficial effects to human health and is recognized as a probiotic. However, its application in frozen foods is still not popular because of its low survival during freezing and frozen storage. Cell immobilization technique could effectively exert protection effects to microbial cells in order to enhance their endurance to unfavorable environmental conditions as well as to improve their viability and cell concentration. Ca-alginate and kappa-carrageenan were used to immobilize L. reuteri in this research, and the immobilized cells were exposed to different freezing temperatures, i.e. -20 degrees C, -40 degrees C, -60 degrees C, -80 degrees C, and stored at -40 degrees C and -80 degrees C for 12 weeks. The objectives were to study the protection effects of cell immobilization against the adverse conditions of freezing and frozen storage, and the effects of freezing temperatures to the immobilized cells. Cell immobilization was used to raise the survival of L. reuteri during freezing and frozen storage in order to develop frozen foods with the probiotic effects of L. reuteri. Results indicated that immobilized L. reuteri possessed better survival in both freezing and frozen storage. The survival of immobilized L. reuteri was higher than that of free cells, and the effects of lower freezing temperature were better than higher freezing temperature. The immobilization effects of Ca-alginate were found to be superior to kappa-carrageenan. Cell immobilized L. reuteri exhibits potential to be used in frozen foods. PMID:17617480

  7. Earthworm excreta attract soil springtails: laboratory experiments on Heteromurus nitidus (Collembola : Entomobryidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Salmon, Sandrine; Ponge, Jean-François

    2001-01-01

    Microarthropods are often found more abundantly in soils with earthworms than in soils without. Earthworms probably create a favourable environment for microarthropods but few studies have aimed to explain this earthworm effect. The soil collembolan (Hexapoda) Heteromurus nitidus, living in soils at pH > 5 only and thus rich in earthworms, is particularly attracted by earthworms in humus cores. The effect of earthworms on the distribution of H. nitidus can be mediated either by direct contact...

  8. Basic Research Tools for Earthworm Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earthworms are responsible for soil development, recycling organic matter and form a vital component within many food webs. For these and other reasons earthworms are worthy of investigation. Many technologically-enhanced approaches have been used within earthworm-focused research. These have their place, may be a development of existing practices or bring techniques from other fields. Nevertheless, let us not overlook the fact that much can still be learned through utilisation of more basic approaches which have been used for some time. New does not always equate to better. Information on community composition within an area and specific population densities can be learned using simple collection techniques, and burrowing behaviour can be determined from pits, resin-insertion or simple mesocosms. Life history studies can be achieved through maintenance of relatively simple cultures. Behavioural observations can be undertaken by direct observation or with low cost we became usage. Applied aspects of earthworm research can also be achieved through use of simple techniques to enhance population development and even population dynamics can be directly addressed with use of relatively inexpensive, effective marking techniques. This paper seeks to demonstrate that good quality research in this sphere can result from appropriate application of relatively simple research tools.

  9. Earthworms (Lumbricidae) of the Bohemian Forest.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav

    2002-01-01

    Ro?. 8, - (2002), s. 143-148. ISSN 1211-7420 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/99/1410; GA ?R GA206/99/1416; GA MŽP SE/610/10/00 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : soil fauna * earthworms * Šumava Mts. Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  10. Interactions between soil algae and earthworms.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukešová, Alena; Pižl, Václav

    ?eské Bud?jovice : Institute of Soil Biology BC AS CR, 2009. s. 49. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /10./. 21.04.2009-24.04.2009, ?eské Bud?jovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : earthworms * soil algae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  11. The association between the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris and giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) in agricultural fields across the eastern U.S. Corn Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research indicated that secondary seed dispersal by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris can improve giant ragweed seed survival and influence seedling spatial structure at the quadrat (m2) scale. Here, we examine the association between L. terrestris and giant ragweed at plant neighborhood, ...

  12. Bacterial Diversity in the Digestive Tract of Earthworms (Oligochaeta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hortensia Brito-Vega

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Anecic, epigeous and endogeous earthworms stimulate or inhibit the growth of bacteria of agricultural importance inside their digestive tracts. It is possible that these bacteria establish a mutual symbiosis within the digestive tract of the earthworm. The bacterial species reported within the intestines of the earthworms belong to the genuses Bacillus, Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Nocardia, Gordonia, Vibrio, Clostridium, Proteus, Serratia, Mycobacterium, Klebsiella, Azotobacte and Enterobacter. These bacteria inhabit the soil and develop considerably when there are easily degradable organic soil nutrients. The bacterial community inside the digestive tract of earthworms pertains to at least four physiological groups: plant growth promoters, free-living nitrogen fixers, biocides and phosphate solubilizers. The diversity of bacterial communities within the digestive tracts of earthworms depends on climate, soil type and organic matter. The objective of this present study was to analyze the state of art on the bacterial diversity within the digestive tracts of earthworms.

  13. Activity of earthworm in Latosol under simulated acid rain stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-En; Yu, Jiayu; Ouyang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Acid rain is still an issue of environmental concerns. This study investigated the impacts of simulated acid rain (SAR) upon earthworm activity from the Latosol (acidic red soil). Laboratory experiment was performed by leaching the soil columns grown with earthworms (Eisenia fetida) at the SAR pH levels ranged from 2.0 to 6.5 over a 34-day period. Results showed that earthworms tended to escape from the soil and eventually died for the SAR at pH = 2.0 as a result of acid toxicity. The catalase activity in the earthworms decreased with the SAR pH levels, whereas the superoxide dismutases activity in the earthworms showed a fluctuate pattern: decreasing from pH 6.5 to 5.0 and increasing from pH 5.0 to 4.0. Results implied that the growth of earthworms was retarded at the SAR pH ? 3.0. PMID:25351717

  14. The 2007 California Citrus Freeze: Vulnerability, Poverty, and Unemployment Issues of Farmworkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Graciela Leon

    2010-01-01

    In January of 2007, freezing temperatures destroyed citrus and vegetable crops in California. By May 2007, more than 9,000 freeze-related unemployment applications had been fled. Through face-to-face interviews, this study documents the experience of 63 farmworkers to find out how they survived the freeze and accessed services. Findings revealed…

  15. Diversity of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae in Sofia Plain, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A rich earthworm material from 47 different localities in Sofia Plain has been elaborated. During the investigations between the years 2010 and 2013, thirteen earthworm species and subspecies were collected altogether, belonging to seven genera. Among them, three new records are reported. Aporrectodea longa (Ude, 1885, Eisenia lucens (Waga, 1857 and Octodrilus transpadanus (Rosa, 1884 proved to be new to the earthworm fauna of Sofia plain.

  16. Do earthworms increase N2O emissions in ploughed grassland?

    OpenAIRE

    Bertora, C.; Vliet, P.C.J.; Hummelink, E.W.J.; van Groenigen, J. W.

    2007-01-01

    Earthworm activity has been reported to lead to increased production of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). This is due to emissions from worms themselves, their casts and drilosphere, as well as to general changes in soil structure. However, it remains to be determined how important this effect is on N2O fluxes from agricultural systems under realistic conditions in terms of earthworm density, soil moisture, tillage activity and residue loads. We quantified the effect of earthworm presen...

  17. Earthworm eco-physiological characteristics and quantification of earthworm feeding in vermifiltration system for sewage sludge stabilization using stable isotopic natural abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Earthworm growth biomass and activity decreased with the VF depth. • Earthworm gut microbial communities were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. • ?15N and ?13C in earthworms decreased with time, and increased with the VF depth. • Effect of earthworm feeding in enhanced VSS reduction was analyzed quantitatively. • Earthworm feeding had low contribution to the enhanced VSS reduction. - Abstract: Previous studies showed that the presence of earthworm improves treatment performance of vermifilter (VF) for sewage sludge stabilization, but earthworm eco-physiological characteristics and effects in VF were not fully investigated. In this study, earthworm population, enzymatic activity, gut microbial community and stable isotopic abundance were investigated in the VF. Results showed that biomass, average weight, number and alkaline phosphatase activity of the earthworms tended to decrease, while protein content and activities of peroxidase and catalase had an increasing tendency as the VF depth. Earthworm gut microbial communities were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, and the percentages arrived to 76–92% of the microbial species detected. 15N and 13C natural abundance of the earthworms decreased with operation time, and increased as the VF depth. Quantitative analysis using ?15N showed that earthworm feeding and earthworm–microorganism interaction were responsible for approximately 21% and 79%, respectively, of the enhanced volatile suspended solid reduction due to the presence of earthworm. The finding provides a quantitative insight into how earthworms influence on sewage sludge stabilization in vermifiltration system

  18. Earthworm eco-physiological characteristics and quantification of earthworm feeding in vermifiltration system for sewage sludge stabilization using stable isotopic natural abundance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaowei; Xing, Meiyan, E-mail: lixiaowei419@163.com; Yang, Jian; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Earthworm growth biomass and activity decreased with the VF depth. • Earthworm gut microbial communities were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. • ?{sup 15}N and ?{sup 13}C in earthworms decreased with time, and increased with the VF depth. • Effect of earthworm feeding in enhanced VSS reduction was analyzed quantitatively. • Earthworm feeding had low contribution to the enhanced VSS reduction. - Abstract: Previous studies showed that the presence of earthworm improves treatment performance of vermifilter (VF) for sewage sludge stabilization, but earthworm eco-physiological characteristics and effects in VF were not fully investigated. In this study, earthworm population, enzymatic activity, gut microbial community and stable isotopic abundance were investigated in the VF. Results showed that biomass, average weight, number and alkaline phosphatase activity of the earthworms tended to decrease, while protein content and activities of peroxidase and catalase had an increasing tendency as the VF depth. Earthworm gut microbial communities were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, and the percentages arrived to 76–92% of the microbial species detected. {sup 15}N and {sup 13}C natural abundance of the earthworms decreased with operation time, and increased as the VF depth. Quantitative analysis using ?{sup 15}N showed that earthworm feeding and earthworm–microorganism interaction were responsible for approximately 21% and 79%, respectively, of the enhanced volatile suspended solid reduction due to the presence of earthworm. The finding provides a quantitative insight into how earthworms influence on sewage sludge stabilization in vermifiltration system.

  19. ECOTOXICOLOGICAL BIOASSAYS OF THE EARTHWORMS ALLOLOBOPHORA CALIGINOSA SAVIGNY AND PHERETIMA HAWAYANA ROSA TREATED WITH ARSENATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmonem Mohamed Khalil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Little research has been carried out on the effect of arsenate on earthworms. Ecotoxicological laboratory tests are fundamental tools for assessing the toxicity of arsenate to soil organisms. In this study, the impact of arsenate on the survival, reproduction and behaviour of the endogenic earthworms Allolobophora caliginosa and the anecic earthworms Pheretima hawayana has been quantified. The 96-h LC 50 of arsenate was estimated as 233.43 mg arsenate Kg-1 soil. d.w. for P. hawayana which is significantly higher than that of A. caliginosa 147.24±27.16 mg arsenate kg-1 soil d.w. The number of juveniles of P. hawayana was significantly higher than that of A. caliginosa at the arsenate concentrations 180, 240 and 400 mg kg-1 soil dry weight. With the exception of the control (6.5 mg arsenate kg-1 soil.d.w., P. hawayana showed an avoidance behaviour for soils treated with all tested concentrations. A. caliginosa preferred soils treated with 6.5, 60, 110, 180 mg arsenate kg-1 soil d.w., while the avoidance behaviour has been recorded only at 240 and 400 mg arsenate kg-1 soil. d.w. This means that A. caliginosa individuals feed less when exposed to arsenate. On the contrary, the P. hawayana worms could be escaped into their deep vertical burrows when exposed to arsenate.

  20. Earthworm mucus stimulates oviposition in a predatory fly (Diptera: Anthomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, D E; Pivnick, K A

    1991-11-01

    Coenosia tigrina larvae feed on earthworms. We hypothesized that earthworm mucus contains a kairomone that stimulates oviposition behavior in adultC. tigrina females, thus minimizing the search area in the soil required for newly eclosed larvae to find earthworms. In bioassays, adult females responded with extension of the ovipositor 25-43% of the time to earthworm-mucus-soaked filter paper disks compared to 6-7% in response to water-soaked disks. Ovipositor extension on mucus-soaked disks was followed by egg-laying 29% of the time and 0% of the time on water-soaked disks. Egg-laying byC. tigrina followed a diurnal periodicity, with most eggs laid in the latter half of the photophase even in the absence of earthworm mucus. More eggs were deposited from 1600 to 1800 hr by females given access to earthworm mucus during that period than were deposited by females not given access. There was no difference in the number of eggs deposited from 0600 to 0800 hr, by females given access to earthworm mucus or not. This is a time of day when few eggs are normally laid. This paper is the first report of an earthworm-produced kairomone in an insect-earthworm interaction. The kairomone may have potential for enhancing biological control of the onion maggot,Delia antiqua, which is a prey of adultC. tigrina. PMID:24258588

  1. Impact of a changed inundation regime caused by climate change and floodplain rehabilitation on population viability of earthworms in a lower River Rhine floodplain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonon, Ivo; Klok, Chris

    2007-01-01

    River floodplains are dynamic and fertile ecosystems where soil invertebrates such as earthworms can reach high population densities. Earthworms are an important food source for a wide range of organisms including species under conservation such as badgers. Flooding, however, reduces earthworm numbers. Populations recover from cocoons that survive floods. If the period between two floods is too short such that cocoons cannot develop into reproductive adults, populations cannot sustain themselves. Both climate change and floodplain rehabilitation change the flooding frequency affecting earthworm populations. The present paper estimates the influence of climate change and floodplain rehabilitation on the viability of earthworm populations in a Dutch floodplain; the Afferdensche and Deestsche Waarden along the River Waal. This floodplain will be part of major river rehabilitation plans of the Dutch government. In those plans, the floodplain will experience the construction of a secondary channel and the removal of part of its minor embankment. To estimate the impact of these plans and climate change, we used a dataset of daily discharges for 1900-2003 for the River Rhine at the Dutch-German border. We perturbed this dataset to obtain two new datasets under climate change scenarios for 2050 and 2100. From the original and two projected datasets we derived the frequency distributions for the annual periods without inundations for the studied floodplain. We subsequently compared the duration of these inundation-free (dry) periods with the maturation age distribution for L. rubellus as derived from a Dynamic Energy Budget model. This comparison yielded in which parts of our study area and under which climate conditions the populations would still be viable, be able to adapt or become extinct. The results show that climate change has almost no adverse effect on earthworm viability. This is because climate change reduces the flooding frequency during the earthworms growing season. Floodplain rehabilitation, on the other hand, reduces the part of the floodplain area where populations can sustain themselves. Before rehabilitation, only 12% of the floodplain area cannot sustain a viable earthworm population. After rehabilitation, this increases to 59%, 28% of which is due to more frequent flooding. Enhanced exposure to soil contaminants may further suppress earthworm viability. This could frustrate further nature development and the viability of earthworm-dependent species such as the badger (Meles meles) or little owl (Athene noctua vidalli species), which is an objective of the river rehabilitation plans in the Netherlands. PMID:17140641

  2. Importance of freeze-thaw events in low temperature ecotoxicology of cold tolerant enchytraeids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrício Silva, Ana L; Enggrob, Kirsten; Slotsbo, Stine; Amorim, Mónica J B; Holmstrup, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Due to global warming it is predicted that freeze-thaw cycles will increase in Arctic and cold temperate regions. The effects of this variation becomes of particular ecological importance to freeze-tolerant species when it is combined with chemical pollutants. We compared the effect of control temperature (2 °C), daily freeze-thaw cycles (2 to -4 °C) and constant freezing (-2 °C) temperatures on the cold-tolerance of oligochaete worms (Enchytraeus albidus) and tested how survival was influenced ...

  3. Effects of historic metal(loid) pollution on earthworm communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévêque, Thibaut; Capowiez, Yvan; Schreck, Eva; Mombo, Stéphane; Mazzia, Christophe; Foucault, Yann; Dumat, Camille

    2015-04-01

    The effects of metal(loid)s (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, As and Sb) from atmospheric fallout on earthworm communities were investigated in a fallow meadow located close to a 60-year-old lead recycling factory. We examined abundance and species diversity as well as the ratio of adult-to-juvenile earthworms, along five 140 m parallel transects. The influence of soil pollution on the earthworm community at the plot scale was put in context by measuring some physico-chemical soil characteristics (OM content, N content, pH), as well as total and bioavailable metal(loid) concentrations. Earthworms were absent in the highly polluted area (concentration from 30,000 to 5000 mg Pb·kg(-1) of dried soil), just near the factory (0-30 m area). A clear and almost linear relationship was observed between the proportion of juvenile versus mature earthworms and the pollution gradient, with a greater proportion of adults in the most polluted zones (only adult earthworms were observed from 30 to 50 m). Apporectodea longa was the main species present just near the smelter (80% of the earthworms were A. longa from 30 to 50 m). The earthworm density was found to increase progressively from five individuals·m(-2) at 30 m to 135 individuals·m(-2) at 140 m from the factory. On average, metal(loid) accumulation in earthworm tissues decreased linearly with distance from the factory. The concentration of exchangeable metal(loid)s in earthworm surface casts was higher than that of the overall soil. Finally, our field study clearly demonstrated that metal(loid) pollution has a direct impact on earthworm communities (abundance, diversity and proportion of juveniles) especially when Pb concentrations in soil were higher than 2050 mg·kg(-1). PMID:25616191

  4. Contact tests for pentachlorophenol toxicity to earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spontak, D.A. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The standardized contact filter paper test (EEC and OECD) provides an effective screening test for toxicity to earthworms in a laboratory setting. A need exists for a reliable and inexpensive technique for non-laboratory settings where screening is desired, but facilities cannot provide for the acquisition and maintenance of the glass vials required by the standardized test. This study evaluated two modifications of the standardized test using clear polyethylene bags, with and without filter paper, with Eisenia fetida and domesticated surface-feeding earthworms. The tests were conducted according to EEC and OECD guidelines. Results of the modified tests corresponded in dose and effect to the standardized contact filter paper test indicating the usefulness of the modified tests.

  5. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara; Wiegand, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from conventional cultivation to organic pasture. Soil multiresidual pesticide analysis revealed up to 9 molecules including atrazine up to 2.4 ng g -1 dry soil. Exposure history of endogeic Aporrectodea cali...

  6. Earthworm communities in central European beech forests.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav

    ?eské Bud?jovice : ISB BC AS CR, 2007, s. 103-107. ISBN 978-80-86525-08-2. [Contributions to Soil Zoology in Central Europe II. Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /8./. ?eské Bud?jovice (CZ), 20.04.2005-22.04.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : earthworms * communities * beech forests Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  7. Freeze drying apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  8. Freeze drying method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  9. Effect of Soil Physical State on the Earthworms in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungarian authors have long been discussing the role of earthworms in improving soil productivity. Earthworm counts in our higher quality soils are similar to those found in soils where more attention is paid to earthworm activity. Negative impacts that are independent of farming such as sustained dry spells in the summer also affect earthworm counts. Negative impacts that definitely depend on farming include land use causing soil moisture loss, deep stubble treatment leaving the soil without cover, and ploughing in the summer without subsequent pressing. The climate change is having both positive and negative impacts. Weather patterns are causing losses but adopting climate mitigating tillage are generating benefits. In the trials results so far show that tillage focusing on preserving soil moisture, structure, and organic materials, covering the surface in the critical months as well as adequate soil loosening are fundamental pre-requisites for making the soil a favourable habitat for earthworms.

  10. Microscale interactions between earthworms and microorganisms: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zirbes, L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are well adapted to their soil microhabitat where they live together in consortia, interacting with other living members, including earthworms. This literature review consists of four sections that focus on microscale interactions between earthworms and microorganisms. The first part is devoted to nephridia symbiosis. Recent discoveries show that Verminephrobacter spp. is present as a symbiont in earthworm nephridia. The second section deals with earthworm food preference and focuses on the major hypotheses of foraging strategies. The third section presents evidence of gut symbionts and highlights the need for additional studies in this field. The last section of this review explains why microorganism activities are enhanced in burrows and casts of earthworms.

  11. Comparative efficacy of three epigeic earthworms under different deciduous forest litters decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, M C; Jha, S; Ghosh, P K; Acharya, C L

    2003-07-01

    An experiment was conducted during 1998-1999, in a deciduous forest located in the semi-arid tropics of central India, to evaluate the suitability of different forest litters as food material for the tropical epigeic earthworms i.e. Eisenia fetida (Savigny), Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) and Dicogaster bolaui (michaelsen). The aim was to examine the influence of these earthworms on the decomposition processes of three types of forest litters i.e. Tectona grandis (teak), Madhuca indica (mahua) and Butea monosperma (palas), on the maintenance of quality in a vermicomposting system, and to assess the effect of applications of in situ prepared vermicomposts on the growth of forest trees. The results indicated that T. grandis litter was the most suitable food material for the earthworms possibly because it contained high reserves of mineral nutrients. Comparisons of the survival and reproduction rates of the three epigeic earthworm species indicated that a higher reproduction rate was maintained for E. fetida compared to P. excavatus and D. bolaui in the decomposition of these forest litters. The rates of growth and population increases of E. fetida approximately doubled after 12 weeks of litter decomposition. The litter decomposition process was associated strongly with the quality of the materials and their chemical composition. Irrespective of earthworm inoculations, the levels of available nutrient such as NH(4)-N, NO(3)-N, available P and K increased significantly (pM. indica litter compost>B. monosperma litter compost. The mature decomposed litter had lower C/N ratios (11.3-24.8:1), water-soluble carbon (0.30-0.58%), water-soluble carbohydrates (0.35-0.71%) and larger cation exchange capacity/total organic carbon ratios than the values in the parent forest litter. The lignin content increased with maturation with a concomitant decrease in cellulose resulting in higher lignin/cellulose ratios. Application of all three vermicomposts to forest trees significantly improved their heights and diameters over those of control trees, although the increases were lower than those resulting from the chemical fertilizer applications. However, soil biological activities i.e. soil respiration, soil microbial biomass carbon and dehydrogenase activity were greater by application of vermicomposts over that after application of inorganic fertilizer in a new plantation of T. grandis. PMID:12618041

  12. Freeze-drying of lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Fernanda; Cenard, Stéphanie; Passot, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are of great importance for the food and biotechnology industry. They are widely used as starters for manufacturing food (e.g., yogurt, cheese, fermented meats, and vegetables) and probiotic products, as well as for green chemistry applications. Freeze-drying or lyophilization is a convenient method for preservation of bacteria. By reducing water activity to values below 0.2, it allows long-term storage and low-cost distribution at suprazero temperatures, while minimizing losses in viability and functionality. Stabilization of bacteria via freeze-drying starts with the addition of a protectant solution to the bacterial suspension. Freeze-drying includes three steps, namely, (1) freezing of the concentrated and protected cell suspension, (2) primary drying to remove ice by sublimation, and (3) secondary drying to remove unfrozen water by desorption. In this chapter we describe a method for freeze-drying of lactic acid bacteria at a pilot scale, thus allowing control of the process parameters for maximal survival and functionality recovery. PMID:25428024

  13. Slow desiccation improves dehydration tolerance and accumulation of compatible osmolytes in earthworm cocoons (Dendrobaena octaedra Savigny)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina R; Holmstrup, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra, is a common species in temperate and subarctic regions of the northern hemisphere. The egg capsules ('cocoons') of D. octaedra are deposited in the upper soil layers where they may be exposed to desiccation. Many previous studies on desiccation tolerance in soil invertebrates have examined acute exposure to harsh desiccating conditions, however, these animals are often more likely to be exposed to a gradually increasing drought stress. In the present study we slowly desiccated D. octaedra cocoons to simulate ecologically realistic drought conditions and the results clearly demonstrate that gradually dehydrated cocoons show an increased tolerance of extreme drought compared with acutely dehydrated cocoons. NMR spectroscopic analysis of compatible osmolytes revealed the presence of sorbitol, glucose, betaine, alanine and mannitol in dehydrated embryos. The superior drought survival of gradually desiccated embryos could partly be attributed to a higher accumulation of osmolytes (especially sorbitol). Thus, gradually and acutely desiccated embryos accumulated approximately 2 mol l(-1) and 1 mol l(-1) total osmolytes, respectively. However, in addition to osmolyte accumulation, the gradually desiccated cocoons also tolerated a higher degree of water loss, demonstrating that gradually dehydrated D. octaedra cocoons are able to survive loss of approximately 95% of the original water content. Although D. octaedra embryos can probably not be categorized as a truly anhydrobiotic organism we propose that they belong in a transition zone between the desiccation sensitive and the truly anhydrobiotic organisms. Clearly, these earthworm embryos share many physiological traits with anhydrobiotic organisms.

  14. Multi-element analyses of earthworms for radioecology and ecotoxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, S.; Peijnenburg, W.; Muramatsu, Y. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Environmental and Toxicological Sciences Research Group, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Increasing concern about environmental radiation protection has raised awareness that more information is required on the transfer and accumulation of radionuclides in the biological compartments of ecosystems. ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) selected earthworm as one of the reference organisms in their radiation protection recommendations. Earthworms play an important role in ecosystems, and might be a good indicator of soil contamination and its effect on the ecosystem. The elemental composition of earthworms gives useful information on background levels and possible accumulation of metals as well as related radionuclides. In addition, a change of the elemental composition itself might be a possible indicator of the effect on the earthworm and/or ecosystem. However, data for the elemental composition of earthworms are limited except for some specific heavy metals such as Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. In this study, earthworms and their growth media were analyzed for more than 30 elements, including radionuclide related elements such as Cs, Sr, Th and U, in order to obtain the basic information on the transfer parameters of the elements. The earthworms analyzed were fed in the laboratory or collected in the environment. The concentrations and transfer factors of the elements were determined both for laboratory and natural conditions. The controlling factors on the transfer parameters such as the bioavailability of the elements in the soils will also be discussed. (author)

  15. Multi-element analyses of earthworms for radioecology and ecotoxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing concern about environmental radiation protection has raised awareness that more information is required on the transfer and accumulation of radionuclides in the biological compartments of ecosystems. ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) selected earthworm as one of the reference organisms in their radiation protection recommendations. Earthworms play an important role in ecosystems, and might be a good indicator of soil contamination and its effect on the ecosystem. The elemental composition of earthworms gives useful information on background levels and possible accumulation of metals as well as related radionuclides. In addition, a change of the elemental composition itself might be a possible indicator of the effect on the earthworm and/or ecosystem. However, data for the elemental composition of earthworms are limited except for some specific heavy metals such as Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. In this study, earthworms and their growth media were analyzed for more than 30 elements, including radionuclide related elements such as Cs, Sr, Th and U, in order to obtain the basic information on the transfer parameters of the elements. The earthworms analyzed were fed in the laboratory or collected in the environment. The concentrations and transfer factors of the elements were determined both for laboratory and natural conditions. The controlling factors on the transfer parameters such as the bioavailability of the elements in the soils will also be discussed. (author)

  16. The effect of anthropogenic arsenic contamination on the earthworm microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pass, Daniel Antony; Morgan, Andrew John; Read, Daniel S; Field, Dawn; Weightman, Andrew J; Kille, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Earthworms are globally distributed and perform essential roles for soil health and microbial structure. We have investigated the effect of an anthropogenic contamination gradient on the bacterial community of the keystone ecological species Lumbricus rubellus through utilizing 16S rRNA pyrosequencing for the first time to establish the microbiome of the host and surrounding soil. The earthworm-associated microbiome differs from the surrounding environment which appears to be a result of both filtering and stimulation likely linked to the altered environment associated with the gut micro-habitat (neutral pH, anoxia and increased carbon substrates). We identified a core earthworm community comprising Proteobacteria (?50%) and Actinobacteria (?30%), with lower abundances of Bacteroidetes (?6%) and Acidobacteria (?3%). In addition to the known earthworm symbiont (Verminephrobacter sp.), we identified a potential host-associated Gammaproteobacteria species (Serratia sp.) that was absent from soil yet observed in most earthworms. Although a distinct bacterial community defines these earthworms, clear family- and species-level modification were observed along an arsenic and iron contamination gradient. Several taxa observed in uncontaminated control microbiomes are suppressed by metal/metalloid field exposure, including eradication of the hereto ubiquitously associated Verminephrobacter symbiont, which raises implications to its functional role in the earthworm microbiome. PMID:25404571

  17. Anhydrobiosis and Freezing-Tolerance: Adaptations That Facilitate the Establishment of Panagrolaimus Nematodes in Polar Habitats

    OpenAIRE

    McGill, Lorraine M.; Shannon, Adam J.; Pisani, Davide; Félix, Marie-Anne; Ramløv, Hans; Dix, Ilona; Wharton, David A.; Burnell, Ann M.

    2015-01-01

    Anhydrobiotic animals can survive the loss of both free and bound water from their cells. While in this state they are also resistant to freezing. This physiology adapts anhydrobiotes to harsh environments and it aids their dispersal. Panagrolaimus davidi, a bacterial feeding anhydrobiotic nematode isolated from Ross Island Antarctica, can survive intracellular ice formation when fully hydrated. A capacity to survive freezing while fully hydrated has also been observed in some other Antarctic...

  18. Changes in hardwood forest understory plant communities in response to European earthworm invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Cindy M; Frelich, Lee E; Reich, Peter B

    2006-07-01

    European earthworms are colonizing earthworm-free northern hardwood forests across North America. Leading edges of earthworm invasion provide an opportunity to investigate the response of understory plant communities to earthworm invasion and whether the species composition of the earthworm community influences that response. Four sugar maple-dominated forest sites with active earthworm invasions were identified in the Chippewa National Forest in north central Minnesota, USA. In each site, we established a 30 x 150 m sample grid that spanned a visible leading edge of earthworm invasion and sampled earthworm populations and understory vegetation over four years. Across leading edges of earthworm invasion, increasing total earthworm biomass was associated with decreasing diversity and abundance of herbaceous plants in two of four study sites, and the abundance and density of tree seedlings decreased in three of four study sites. Sample points with the most diverse earthworm species assemblage, independent of biomass, had the lowest plant diversity. Changes in understory plant community composition were most affected by increasing biomass of the earthworm species Lumbricus rubellus. Where L. rubellus was absent there was a diverse community of native herbaceous plants, but where L. rubellus biomass reached its maximum, the herbaceous-plant community was dominated by Carex pensylvanica and Arisaema triphyllum and, in some cases, was completely absent. Evidence from these forest sites suggests that earthworm invasion can lead to dramatic changes in the understory community and that the nature of these changes is influenced by the species composition of the invading earthworm community. PMID:16922315

  19. PEM Fuel Cell Freeze Durability and Cold Start Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, T.; O' Neill, Jonathan

    2008-01-02

    UTC has taken advantage of the unique water management opportunities inherent in micro-porous bipolar-plates to improve the cold-start performance of its polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). Diagnostic experiments were used to determine the limiting factors in micro-porous plate PEFC freeze performance and the causes of any performance decay. Alternative cell materials were evaluated for their freeze performance. Freeze-thaw cycling was also performed to determine micro-porous plate PEFC survivability. Data from these experiments has formed the basis for continuing development of advanced materials capable of supporting DOE's cold-start and durability objectives.

  20. Further contribution to knowledge of the earthworms of Šumadija, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanovi? Mirjana M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present the results of recent investigations of earthworms from Šumadija. Research was carried out during 1996-2003 and included natural and cultivated biotopes from various parts of Šumadija. We found 27 taxa including six species new for the earthworm fauna of Šumadija: Dendrobaena alpina, Helodrilus cernosvitovianus, Octolasion cyaneum, Octodrilus complanatus, Serbiona serbica, and Serbiona paratuleskovi. Up to 1995, the total number of earthworm taxa in Šumadija was 37. After our present study this number has risen to 43 taxa. As for the zoogeographical position of the earthworms of Šumadija, the established taxa have the following types of distribution: European (11 taxa, cosmopolitan (10, Holarctic (eight Palearctic (two, South European (five, Balkan (three and endemic (four.

  1. Heavy metal induced biomolecule and genotoxic changes in earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Muthukaruppan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A vibrational [Fourier transform infrared (FTIR] spectroscopic method was used for the structural and compositional analysis of earthworm Eisenia fetida by monitoring of metal binding and further transformations in live cells. The FTIR analyses for metals taken up by the E. fetida will be useful for analyzing the impact of the heavy metal stress on the worm metabolism. The epigeic earthworm E. fetida were exposed to 100 %, 75 %, 50 %, 30 %, 25 %, 15 % and 5 % of dried automobile service station waste mud. All the earthworms exposed in the 100 %, 75 % and 50 % concentrations didn’t survived within 10days. Further experiments were conducted with 25 %, 15 % and 5 % concentration of wastes. Each concentration level was tested with three replicates using 10 animals and the metabolic response after exposure to the heavy metal containing service station waste mud was assessed by FTIR. Furthermore we also emphasized that DNA damage was confirmed with the use of other biomarker like comet assay. The peaks at 1045, 1080, 1236 cm?1 and 1650 cm?1 represented the overall susceptibility of nucleotides, phospholipids, DNA and RNA. Nucleic acids and proteins were modified due to heavy metal accumulation. In flow-through, single cell gel electrophoresis revealed the degradation nuclear DNA. Heavy metals accumulation in the worms was measured and it was found that lead, zinc and copper accumulation increased in the treatment group. Without the use of biomarkers for identifying ecological risks of land contamination, traditional assessment would be difficult to interpret. This new FTIR based biomolecules study revealed a clear molecule shift in the exposed worms, due to heavy metal accumulation.

  2. Earthworms lost from pesticides application in potato crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Forrer, Karin; Binder, Claudia R.

    2010-05-01

    Bioturbation from earthworm's activity contributes to soil creep and soil carbon dynamics, and provide enough aeration conditions for agricultural practices all over the world. In developing countries where there is a long term misuse of pesticides for agricultural purposes, lost of these benefits from earthworms activity might already yielded negative effects in the current crop production. Little research has been performed on earthworms avoidance to pesticides in developing countries located in the tropics. Furthermore, the complete avoidance reaction (from attraction to 100% avoidance) from earthworms to most of the pesticides used in potato cultivation in developing countries like Colombia is incomplete as yet. Hence the aim of this study is to assess the lost of earthworm on the soils caused by different concentrations of pesticides and associated agricultural impacts caused by a lost in the soil bioturbation. As a first stage, we have studied earthworm's avoidance to pesticide concentration in a potato agricultural area located in Colombia. Local cultivated Eisenia fetida were exposed to four of the most frequent applied active ingredients in potato crops i.e. carbofuran, mancozeb, methamidophos and chlorpyriphos. Adult earthworm toxicity experiments were carried out in two soils, untreated grasslands under standard (ISO guidelines) and undisturbed conditions, and exposed to six different concentrations of the active ingredients. The results of the avoidance reaction on the standard soils were significant for carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos. For each of the three active ingredients, we found i) overuse of pesticide, ii) applied dose of carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos by the farmers potentially caused 20%, 11% and 9% of earthworms avoidance on the cultivated soils, respectively.

  3. Root Foraging Influences Plant Growth Responses to Earthworm Foraging

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Erin K.; Cahill, James F.; Bayne, Erin M.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions among the foraging behaviours of co-occurring animal species can impact population and community dynamics; the consequences of interactions between plant and animal foraging behaviours have received less attention. In North American forests, invasions by European earthworms have led to substantial changes in plant community composition. Changes in leaf litter have been identified as a critical indirect mechanism driving earthworm impacts on plants. However, there has been limited...

  4. Greenhouse-gas emissions from soils increased by earthworms

    OpenAIRE

    Lubbers, I.M.; Groenigen, K.J., van; Fonte, S.J.; Six, J.; Brussaard, L.; van Groenigen, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms play an essential part in determining the greenhouse-gas balance of soils worldwide, and their influence is expected to grow over the next decades. They are thought to stimulate carbon sequestration in soil aggregates, but also to increase emissions of the main greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. Hence, it remains highly controversial whether earthworms predominantly affect soils to act as a net source or sink of greenhouse gases. Here, we provide a quantitative revi...

  5. Bacteria and protozoa in soil microhabitats as affected by earthworms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Anne; Rønn, Regin; Hendriksen, Niels B.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of incorporation of elm leaves (Ulmus glabra) into an agricultural sandy loam soil by earthworms (Lumbricus festivus) on the bacterial and protozoan populations were investigated. Three model systems consisting of soil, soil with leaves, and soil with leaves and earthworms, respectively, were compared. The total, viable, and culturable number of bacteria, the metabolic potentials of bacterial populations, and the number of protozoa and nematodes were determined in soil size fractions...

  6. Earthworm (Eisenia andrei Avoidance of Soils Treated with Cypermethrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara M. de Andréa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin is used for agricultural and public health campaigns. Its residues may contaminate soils and the beneficial soil organisms, like the earthworms, that may ingest the contaminated soil particles. Due to its ecological relevance, earthworms Eisenia andrei/fetida have been used in different ecotoxicological tests. The avoidance of soils treated with cypermethrin by compost worms Eisenia andrei was studied here as a bioindicator of the influence of treatment dosage and the pesticide formulation in three different agricultural soils indicated by the Brazilian environmental authorities for ecotoxicological tests. This earthworms’ behavior was studied here as a first attempt to propose the test for regulation purposes. The two-compartment test systems, where the earthworms were placed for a two-day exposure period, contained samples of untreated soil alone or together with soil treated with technical grade or wettable powder formulation of cypermethrin. After 48 h, there was no mortality, but the avoidance was clear because all earthworms were found in the untreated section of each type of soil (p < 0.05. No differences were found by the Fisher’s exact test (p ? 1.000 for each soil and treatment, demonstrating that the different soil characteristics, the cypermethrin concentrations and formulation, as well as the smaller amounts of soil and earthworms did not influence the avoidance behavior of the earthworms to cypermethrin. The number and range of treatments used in this study do not allow a detailed recommendation of the conditions applied here, but to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported attempt to identify the avoidance of pesticide treated tropical soils by earthworms.

  7. Earthworms as colonizers of natural and cultivated soil environments

    OpenAIRE

    Eijsackers, H.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    For cultivated soils, the important function of earthworms as ecosystem engineers and their major contribution to the composition and functioning of soil ecosystems with a varying species diversity has been extensively addressed. However, the role of earthworms as colonizers of virgin, uncultivated soil in the process of soil formation has been little researched and long underrated. To better understand this role, the following questions need to be considered: (1) what makes an early colonize...

  8. Menadione enhances oxyradical formation in earthworm extracts: vulnerability of earthworms to quinone toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osman, A.M.; Besten, P.J. den; Noort, P.C.M. van

    2003-10-08

    NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase activities have been determined in the earthworms, L. rubellus and A. chlorotica, extracts. Menadione (0.35 mM, maximum concentration tested) was found to stimulate the rates of NADPH- and NADH-dependent cytochrome c reduction by three- and twofold, respectively. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibited completely this menadione-mediated stimulation, suggesting that {center_dot}O{sub 2}{sup -} is involved in the redox cycling of menadione. However, SOD had no effect on the basal activity (activity in the absence of quinone) in the case of NADH-dependent cytochrome c reduction, whereas it partially inhibited the basal activity of NADPH-cytochrome c reduction. This indicates direct electron transfer in the former case and the formation of superoxide anion in the latter. DT-diaphorase, measured as the dicumarol-inhibitable part of menadione reductase activity, was not detectable in the earthworms' extracts. In contrast, it was found that DT-diaphorase represents about 70% of the menadione reductase activities in the freshwater mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. The results of this work suggest that earthworms, compared with mussels, could be more vulnerable to oxidative stress from quinones due to lack, or very low level of DT-diaphorase, an enzyme considered to play a significant role in the detoxification of quinones. On the contrary, mussels have efficient DT-diaphorase, which catalyzes two-electron reduction of menadione directly to hydroquinone, thus circumventing the formation of semiquinone.

  9. Use of plant and earthworm bioassays to evaluate remediation of soil from a site contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, J.R.; Chang, L.W.; Meckes, M.C.; Smith, M.K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Jacobs, S. [DynCorp, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Torsella, J. [Oak Ridge Inst. of Science and Education, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was treated with a pilot-scale, solvent extraction technology. Bioassays in earthworms and plants were used to examine the efficacy of the remediation process for reducing the toxicity of the soil. The earthworm toxicity bioassays were the 14-d survival test and 21-d reproduction test, using Lumbricus terrestris and Eisenia fetida andrei. The plant bioassays included phytotoxicity tests for seed germination and root elongation in lettuce and oats, and a genotoxicity test (anaphase aberrations) in Allium cepa (common onion). Although the PCB content of the soil was reduced by 99% (below the remediation goal), toxicity to earthworm reproduction remained essentially unchanged following remediation. Furthermore, phytotoxicity and genotoxicity were higher for the remediated soil compared to the untreated soil. The toxicity remaining after treatment appeared to be due to residual solvent introduced during the remediation process, and/or to heavy metals or other inorganic contaminants not removed by the treatment. Mixture studies involving isopropanol and known toxicants indicated possible synergistic effects of the extraction solvent and soil contaminants. The toxicity in plants was essentially eliminated by a postremediation, water-rinsing step. These results demonstrate a need for including toxicity measurements in the evaluation of technologies used in hazardous waste site remediations, and illustrate the potential value of such measurements for making modifications to remediation processes.

  10. Multi-element analyses of earthworms for radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing attention on the environmental radiation protection realizes that more information is required on the transfer and accumulation of radionuclides in the biological compartments of the ecosystems. Earthworms play an important role in ecosystems, and might be a good indicator of soil contamination and its effect on the ecosystem. The elemental composition of earthworms gives useful information on background levels and possible accumulation of metals as well as related radionuclides. However, data for the elemental composition of earthworms are limited except for some specific heavy metals such as Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. In this study, earthworms and their growth media were analyzed for 35 elements, including radionuclide related elements such as Cs, Sr, Th and U, in order to obtain the basic information on the transfer parameters of the elements. The earthworms analyzed were fed in the laboratory or collected in the environment. The concentrations and transfer factors (TFs) of the elements were determined both for laboratory and natural conditions. Relatively high TFs were observed for Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Mo and Cd. The TFs for Al, Sc, Ti, Y, Nb and lanthanide elements were low. The TFs of Cs were different depending on the medium (soil type), indicating that bioavailability of Cs in the medium might be one of the important controlling factors of Cs concentration in earthworm. (author)

  11. Response of New zealand mudsnails Potamopyrgus antipodarum to freezing and near freezing fluctuating water temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Christine M.; James, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    We explored the resilience of the invasive New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum to fluctuating winter freezing and near-freezing temperature cycles in laboratory tests. Our goal was to provide data to confirm field observations of mortality and presumed mortality in stream habitats with fluctuating freezing to near-freezing temperatures. We tested individuals from 2 locations with distinctly different thermal regimes and population densities. One location had low snail densities and water temperatures with strong diel and seasonal water variation. The other location had high snail densities and nearly constant water temperatures. Groups of individuals from both locations were tested in each of 3 laboratory-created diel thermal cycles around nominal temperatures of 0, 2, or 4°C. Mortality occurred in cycles around 0°C in both populations, and little to no mortality occurred at temperatures >0°C. Individuals from both sources held in diel 0°C cycles for 72 h showed 100% mortality. Our findings support observations from published field studies that survival was limited in infested habitats subject to freezing temperatures.

  12. Heavy metal concentrations in soil and earthworms in a floodplain grassland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We determined accumulated heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) of earthworms in moderately contaminated floodplain soils. Both soil and mature earthworms were sampled before and after flooding and earthworm species were identified to understand species specific differences in bioconcentration. Accumulated metal concentrations in floodplain earthworms differed before and after flooding. Differences in uptake and elimination mechanisms, in food choice and living habitat of the different earthworm species and changes in speciation of the heavy metals are possible causes for this observation. Regression equations taken from literature, that relate metal accumulation by earthworms in floodplains as a function of metal concentration in soil, performed well when all species specific data were combined in an average accumulation, but did not address differences in accumulation between earthworm species. - The accumulation of metals by earthworms is species dependent and affected by flooding

  13. Heavy metal concentrations in soil and earthworms in a floodplain grassland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vliet, P.C.J. van [Wageningen University, Department of Soil Quality, P.O. Box 8005, 6700 EC Wageningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: petra.vanvliet@wur.nl; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der [Wageningen University, Department of Soil Quality, P.O. Box 8005, 6700 EC Wageningen (Netherlands); Ma, W.C. [Alterra, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2005-12-15

    We determined accumulated heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) of earthworms in moderately contaminated floodplain soils. Both soil and mature earthworms were sampled before and after flooding and earthworm species were identified to understand species specific differences in bioconcentration. Accumulated metal concentrations in floodplain earthworms differed before and after flooding. Differences in uptake and elimination mechanisms, in food choice and living habitat of the different earthworm species and changes in speciation of the heavy metals are possible causes for this observation. Regression equations taken from literature, that relate metal accumulation by earthworms in floodplains as a function of metal concentration in soil, performed well when all species specific data were combined in an average accumulation, but did not address differences in accumulation between earthworm species. - The accumulation of metals by earthworms is species dependent and affected by flooding.

  14. Establishing principal soil quality parameters influencing earthworms in urban soils using bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hankard, Peter K. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: pkh@ceh.ac.uk; Bundy, Jacob G. [University of Cambridge, Department of Biochemistry, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA (United Kingdom); Spurgeon, David J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Weeks, Jason M. [WRc-NSF Ltd, Henley Road, Medmenham, Marlow, Buckinghamshire SL7 2HD (United Kingdom); Wright, Julian [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Weinberg, Claire [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Svendsen, Claus [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    Potential contamination at ex-industrial sites means that, prior to change of use, it will be necessary to quantify the extent of risks to potential receptors. To assess ecological hazards, it is often suggested to use biological assessment to augment chemical analyses. Here we investigate the potential of a commonly recommended bioassay, the earthworm reproduction test, to assess the status of urban contaminated soils. Sample points at all study sites had contaminant concentrations above the Dutch soil criteria Target Values. In some cases, the relevant Intervention Values were exceeded. Earthworm survival at most points was high, but reproduction differed significantly in soil from separate patches on the same site. When the interrelationships between soil parameters and reproduction were studied, it was not possible to create a good model of site soil toxicity based on single or even multiple chemical measurements of the soils. We thus conclude that chemical analysis alone is not sufficient to characterize soil quality and confirms the value of biological assays for risk assessment of potentially contaminated soils. - Bioassays must be applied for the risk assessment complexly-polluted sites to complement chemical analysis of soils.

  15. Metallothionein response in earthworms Lampito mauritii (Kinberg) exposed to fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maity, S.; Hattacharya, S.; Chaudhury, S. [Visva Bharati, Santini Ketan (India)

    2009-10-15

    Among pollutants, the coal fly ash occupies a significant position in industrial wastes. The fly ash matrix is a complex mixture of various organic (polyhalogenated compounds) and inorganic (Si, Al, Fe, As, Cd, Bi, Hg, etc.) chemicals. The application of fly ash for agricultural purposes and as landfills may lead to the contamination of the land with some of the toxic chemical compounds present in fly ash. Thus prior to the application of fly ash for developmental activities, it requires bio-monitoring and risk characterization. In order to achieve this objective adult Lampito mauritii were exposed to different proportions of fly ash in soil for 30 d and the concentrations of metallothionein in earthworm were assessed. The results revealed that up to 50% of fly ash amendment does not apparently harm the earthworm in respect of their survival and growth. A significant increase in tissue metallothionein level was recorded in L mauritii exposed to fly ash amended soil without tissue metal accumulation indicating that metallothionein is involved in scavenging of free radicals and reactive oxygen species metabolites. It is concluded that this biochemical response observed in L mauritii exposed to fly ash amended soil could be used in ecotoxicological field monitoring.

  16. STUDIES ON BIOREMEDIATION OF PHENOL BY EARTHWORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh Verma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Three species of earthworms namely Eiseniafoetida, Eudrilluseu geniaand Anantapurspecies were procured from different institutions. They were tested for their tolerance to phenol and bioremediation activity. The bioremediation assays were performed in soil with phenol dispersed in water. Different concentrations of phenol samples ranging from 20 to 100ppm were taken for experimentation. The remediation process of initial phenol concentration was investigated. The results indicated that Eiseniafoetida and Eudrilluseugenia were the best tolerant species, while the Anantapur species was found to be least tolerant. As the initial concentration of phenol increased, there was an increase in the percentage of bioremediation with respect to Eiseniafoetida.But with species Eudrilluseugenia and Anantapur species, the percentage of uptake of phenol at 24 hours decreased with increase in initial phenol concentration. This indicates that the species Eiseniafoetida is most tolerant species since it is able to uptake 100ppm phenol completely with in 72hours.

  17. Earthworm Population Density in Sugarcane Cropping System Applied with Various Quality of Organic Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhidayati Nurhidayati; Endang Arisoesilaningsih; Didik Suprayogo; Kurniatun Hairiah

    2012-01-01

    Earthworms population in the soil are greatly impacted by agricultural management, yet little is known about how the quality and quantity of organic matter addition interact in sugarcane cropping system to earthworm population. This study describes the effect of various organic matter and application rates on earthworms in sugarcane cropping system. Earthworms were collected in April, July and December from 48 experimental plots under five kinds of organic matter application : (1) cattle manu...

  18. Earthworms and collembola relationships: effects of predatory centipedes and humus forms

    OpenAIRE

    Salmon, Sandrine; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Ponge, Jean-François

    2005-01-01

    Relationships between anecic earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea giardi) and the collembolan species Heteromurus nitidus (Templeton, 1835), which is known to be attracted to earthworms, were investigated in an 8-week laboratory experiment. Our aims were (1) to assess whether earthworms influence the population dynamics of H. nitidus, and (2) to study pathways of influence and how earthworm effects are modified by humus forms and predators. Using microcosms with three defaunated ...

  19. Do earthworms impact metal mobility and availability in soil? A review

    OpenAIRE

    Sizmur, T; Hodson, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of earthworms to ecosystem functioning has led to many studies on the impacts of metals on earthworms. Far less attention has been paid to the impact that earthworms have on soil metals both in terms of metal mobility and availability. In this review we consider which earthworms have been used in such studies, which soil components have been investigated, which types of soil have been used and what measures of mobility and availability applied. We proceed to review proposed rea...

  20. Darwin, Earthworms & Circadian Rhythms: A Fertile Field for Science Fair Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, John T.; Scurti, Paul J.; Furda, Amy M.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses why the study of earthworms has fascinated many scientists, and why earthworms make ideal experimental animals for students to test in the laboratory. Although earthworms may appear to be primitive, they are governed by both circadian and seasonal rhythms, just as more advanced organisms are. They possess an intelligence…

  1. Literature-derived bioaccumulation models for earthworms: Development and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II; Beauchamp, J.J.; Efroymson, R.A.

    1999-09-01

    Estimation of contaminant concentrations in earthworms is a critical component in many ecological risk assessments. Without site-specific data, literature-derived uptake factors or models are frequently used. Although considerable research has been conducted on contaminant transfer from soil to earthworms, most studies focus on only a single location. External validation of transfer models has not been performed. The authors developed a database of soil and tissue concentrations for nine inorganic and two organic chemicals. Only studies that presented total concentrations in departed earthworms were included. Uptake factors and simple and multiple regression models of natural-log-transformed concentrations of each analyte in soil and earthworms were developed using data from 26 studies. These models were then applied to data from six additional studies. Estimated and observed earthworm concentrations were compared using nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Relative accuracy and quality of different estimation methods were evaluated by calculating the proportional deviation of the estimate from the measured value. With the exception of Cr, significant, single-variable (e.g., soil concentration) regression models were fit for each analyte. Inclusion of soil Ca improved model fits for Cd and Pb. Soil pH only marginally improved model fits. The best general estimates of chemical concentrations in earthworms were generated by simple ln-ln regression models for As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Zn, and polychlorinated biphenyls. No method accurately estimated Cr or Ni in earthworms. Although multiple regression models including pH generated better estimates for a few analytes, in general, the predictive utility gained by incorporating environmental variables was marginal.

  2. Heat shock protects germinating conidiospores of Neurospora crassa against freezing injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Guy, C L; Plesofsky-Vig, N; Brambl, R

    1986-01-01

    Germinating conidiospores of Neurospora crassa that were exposed to 45 degrees C, a temperature that induces a heat shock response, were protected from injury caused by freezing in liquid nitrogen and subsequent thawing at 0 degrees C. Whereas up to 90% of the control spores were killed by this freezing and slow thawing, a prior heat shock increased cell survival four- to fivefold. Survival was determined by three assays: the extent of spore germination in liquid medium, the number of colonie...

  3. Surviving the cold: molecular analyses of insect cryoprotective dehydration in the Arctic springtail Megaphorura arctica (Tullberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovi? Željko D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insects provide tractable models for enhancing our understanding of the physiological and cellular processes that enable survival at extreme low temperatures. They possess three main strategies to survive the cold: freeze tolerance, freeze avoidance or cryoprotective dehydration, of which the latter method is exploited by our model species, the Arctic springtail Megaphorura arctica, formerly Onychiurus arcticus (Tullberg 1876. The physiological mechanisms underlying cryoprotective dehydration have been well characterised in M. arctica and to date this process has been described in only a few other species: the Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi, an enchytraied worm, the larvae of the Antarctic midge Belgica antarctica and the cocoons of the earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra. There are no in-depth molecular studies on the underlying cold survival mechanisms in any species. Results A cDNA microarray was generated using 6,912 M. arctica clones printed in duplicate. Analysis of clones up-regulated during dehydration procedures (using both cold- and salt-induced dehydration has identified a number of significant cellular processes, namely the production and mobilisation of trehalose, protection of cellular systems via small heat shock proteins and tissue/cellular remodelling during the dehydration process. Energy production, initiation of protein translation and cell division, plus potential tissue repair processes dominate genes identified during recovery. Heat map analysis identified a duplication of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS gene in M. arctica and also 53 clones co-regulated with TPS, including a number of membrane associated and cell signalling proteins. Q-PCR on selected candidate genes has also contributed to our understanding with glutathione-S-transferase identified as the major antioxdidant enzyme protecting the cells during these stressful procedures, and a number of protein kinase signalling molecules involved in recovery. Conclusion Microarray analysis has proved to be a powerful technique for understanding the processes and genes involved in cryoprotective dehydration, beyond the few candidate genes identified in the current literature. Dehydration is associated with the mobilisation of trehalose, cell protection and tissue remodelling. Energy production, leading to protein production, and cell division characterise the recovery process. Novel membrane proteins, along with aquaporins and desaturases, have been identified as promising candidates for future functional analyses to better understand membrane remodelling during cellular dehydration.

  4. Effectivity of the Earthworms Pheretima hupiensis, Eudrellus sp. and Lumbricus sp. on the Organic Matter Decomposition Process

    OpenAIRE

    Ea Kosman Anwar

    2009-01-01

    The earthworms are the one of soil fauna component in soil ecosystem have an important role in organic matter decomposition procces. The earthworm feed plant leaf and plant matter up to apart and dissolved. Earthworm metabolisms produce like faeces that mixed with decomposed organic matter mean vermicompost. The vermicompost fertility varies because of some kind of earthworm differ in “niche” and attitude. The experiment was to study the effectivity of earthworm on organic matter d...

  5. TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ENGINEERED NANOPARTICLES ON EARTHWORMS (LUMBRICUS RUBELLUS IN SHORT EXPOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Vittori Antisari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs types diffused into the environment are increasing, giving potential damages to terrestrial ecosystems. In this work we investigated the nanoparticles toxicity as pure metal and two oxides (Co, SnO2 and CeO2 on earthworm survival (Lumbricus rubellus. A concentration of 5000 mg kg-1 dry soil of each NP was compared to the chronic dose of 10 mg kg-1. The interaction between NPs and soil microbial biomass was also studied in 7 days length incubation. No mortality was observed at the end of the experiment, but high concentration of Co was found in the 5000 kg-1 dry soil treated. Despite low solubility of all NPs (solid-liquid partition coefficient > 2.8 log l kg-1 pure metal NPs were (Co more soluble than the metal oxides nanoparticles (SnO2 and CeO2.

  6. Importance of freeze-thaw events in low temperature ecotoxicology of cold tolerant enchytraeids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrício Silva, Ana L; Enggrob, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Due to global warming it is predicted that freeze-thaw cycles will increase in Arctic and cold temperate regions. The effects of this variation becomes of particular ecological importance to freeze-tolerant species when it is combined with chemical pollutants. We compared the effect of control temperature (2 °C), daily freeze-thaw cycles (2 to -4 °C) and constant freezing (-2 °C) temperatures on the cold-tolerance of oligochaete worms (Enchytraeus albidus) and tested how survival was influenced by pre-exposure to 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), a common nonionic detergent found in sewage sludge amended soils. Results showed that combined effect of 4-NP and daily freeze-thaw cycles can cause higher mortality to worms as compared with sustained freezing or control temperature. Exposure to 4-NP caused a substantial depletion of glycogen reserves which is catabolized during freezing to produce cryoprotective concentrations of free glucose. Further, exposure to freeze-thaw cycles resulted in higher concentrations of 4-NP inworm tissues as compared to constant freezing or control temperature (2 °C). Thus, worms exposed to combined effect of freeze-thaw cycles and 4-NP suffer higher consequences, with the toxic effect of the chemical potentiating the deleterious effects of freezing and thawing.

  7. Earthworm bioturbation influences the phytoavailability of metals released by particles in cultivated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveque, Thibaut; Capowiez, Yvan; Schreck, Eva; Xiong, Tiantian; Foucault, Yann; Dumat, Camille

    2014-08-01

    The influence of earthworm activity on soil-to-plant metal transfer was studied by carrying out six weeks mesocosms experiments with or without lettuce and/or earthworms in soil with a gradient of metal concentrations due to particles fallouts. Soil characteristics, metal concentrations in lettuce and earthworms were measured and soil porosity in the mesocosms was determined. Earthworms increased the soil pH, macroporosity and soil organic matter content due to the burying of wheat straw provided as food. Earthworm activities increased the metals concentrations in lettuce leaves. Pb and Cd concentrations in lettuce leaves can increase up to 46% with earthworm activities … These results and the low correlation between estimated by CaCl2 and EDTA and measured pollutant phytoavailability suggest that earthworm bioturbation was the main cause of the increase. Bioturbation could affect the proximity of pollutants to the roots and soil organic matter. PMID:24858803

  8. Interactions of intracellular calcium and immune response in earthworms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Engelmann

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular calcium level has a definite role in innate and adaptive immune signaling but its evolutionary aspects are not entirely clear yet. Very few information are accessible about calcium contents of invertebrate immunocytes, especially of celomocytes, the effector cells of earthworm immunity. Different basal and induced Ca2+ levels characterize the various celomocyte subgroups. Intracellular calcium is mostly located in the endoplasmic reticulum and celomocytes exert intracellular Ca2+ ATPase activity to maintain their calcium homeostasis. Immune molecules such as phytohemagglutinin and the chemoattractant fMLP caused the elevation of intracellular Ca2+ level in celomocytes. All the evidence suggests that Ca2+ influx may play a crucial role in the signal transduction of the earthworm’s innate immunity.

  9. Second contribution to the knowledge of earthworms (Lumbricidae in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanovi? Mirjana M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains the results of qualitative analysis of Lumbricidae (Oligochaeta in Montenegro, during the period 1997-2003. The research has included natural and cultivated biotopes. The presence of 15 species was established and the habitats, localities and their zoogeographical position are given. In Montenegro we found four species for the first time Dendrobaena jastrebensis, D. vejdovskyi, Octodrilus bretcheri and Lumbricus terrestris. The complete list of earthworm species in Montenegro includes 45 taxa. With respects to the zoogeographic situation of the earthworms in Montenegro, the largest number belongs to endemic (10 and European (10 species. But 8 taxa are south-European, 9 Holarctic, 7 cosmopolitan, and 1 Palearctic. The degree of endemism of the earthworm fauna of Montenegro is quite high, exceeding 22.2%.

  10. Soil contamination evaluations: Earthworms as indicators of soil quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linder, G.; Wilbom, D. [HeronWorks Farm, Brooks, OR (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Earthworms have frequently been evaluated in the field and laboratory as representatives of the soil community that are indicative of their habitat`s quality. Within a landscape or at a contaminated site, soil quality, or soil health, has become increasingly critical to cleanup-related issues that revolve around questions of ``how clean is clean`` and the bioaccumulation of soil contaminants. Through an overview of numerous field and laboratory studies, the role that earthworms have played in evaluating soil contamination will be reviewed with a particular focus on evaluations of the bioaccumulation potential of chemicals in soil. Within ecological contexts, earthworms can provide information regarding immediately observable adverse affects related, for example, to acute toxicity. Additionally, earthworms can provide information directly related to the bioaccumulation potential of a chemical and trophic transfer of environmental chemicals, especially through the food-chain. Within the decision-making process, soil contamination evaluations must consider future land-use, as well as current and future expressions of adverse biological and ecological effects under field conditions, potentially following remediation. Through integrated field and laboratory studies using earthworms, the authors have been able to identify adversely affected soil communities and have been able to provide information for assessing adverse ecological effects potentially caused by contaminants. Field surveys and on-site or in situ biological testing with earthworms, however, can not alone identify causes of effects. As such, standardized biological tests have been routinely completed in the laboratory so linkages between expression of effects and contaminants could be more readily addressed in conjunction with appropriate chemical data from the field.

  11. Comparative toxicity of chemicals to earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, C.A.; Shirazi, M.A. (Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States)); Neuhauser, E.F. (Niagara Mohawk Power Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States))

    1994-02-01

    The concentration-response (mortality) relationships of four species of earthworms, Eisenia fetida (Savigny), Allolobophora tuberculata (Eisen), Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg), and Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) are summarized for 62 chemicals and two test protocols. A Weibull function is used to summarize these data for each chemical in terms of sensitivity and toxicity, in addition to the LC50. The estimation of the Weibull parameters a and k summarize the entire concentration-response relationship. This technique should be applicable to a variety of testing protocols with different species whenever the goal is summarizing the shape of the concentration-response curves to fully evaluate chemical impact on organisms. In some cases for these data four orders of magnitude separate LC50s of the soil test and the contact test for the same chemical and species. All four species appear to be similar in range of toxicity and tolerance to these chemicals, suggesting that Eisenia fetida and may be representative of these four species and these chemicals.

  12. Accumulation of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, W.N. [Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Chlorinated benzenes are widespread in the environment. Hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene and all isomers of dichlorobenzenes, trichlorobenzenes, and tetrachlorobenzenes, have been detected in fish, water, and sediments from the Great Lakes. They probably entered the water as leachates from chemical waste dumps and as effluents from manufacturing. Hexachlorobenzene and pentachlorobenzene are commonly present in Herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs from the Great Lakes, and some of the isomers of trichlorobenzene and tetrachlorobenzene are occasionally detected at low concentrations. Hexachlorobenzene, which was formerly used as a fungicide, has been the most thoroughly studied chlorinated benzene, and has been detected in many species. Its use as a fungicide in the United States was canceled in 1984. Since about 1975 hexachlorobenzene has been formed mainly in the production of chlorinated solvents. It is highly persistent in the environment and some species are poisoned by hexachlorobenzene at very low chronic dietary exposures. As little as 1 ppm in the diet of mink (Mustela vison) reduced the birth weights of young, and 5 ppm in the diet of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) caused slight liver damage. This paper describes a long-term (26 wk) experiment relating the concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to length of exposure and three 8 wk experiments relating concentration to the concentration in soil the soil organic matter content, and the degree of chlorination. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Anhydrobiosis and Freezing-Tolerance : Adaptations That Facilitate the Establishment of Panagrolaimus Nematodes in Polar Habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGill, Lorraine; Shannon, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Anhydrobiotic animals can survive the loss of both free and bound water from their cells. While in this state they are also resistant to freezing. This physiology adapts anhydrobiotes to harsh environments and it aids their dispersal. Panagrolaimus davidi, a bacterial feeding anhydrobiotic nematode isolated from Ross Island Antarctica, can survive intracellular ice formation when fully hydrated. A capacity to survive freezing while fully hydrated has also been observed in some other Antarctic nematodes. We experimentally determined the anhydrobiotic and freezing-tolerance phenotypes of 24 Panagrolaimus strains from tropical, temperate, continental and polar habitats and we analysed their phylogenetic relationships. We found that several other Panagrolaimus isolates can also survive freezing when fully hydrated and that tissue extracts from these freezing-tolerant nematodes can inhibit the growth of ice crystals. We show that P. davidi belongs to a clade of anhydrobiotic and freezing-tolerant panagrolaimids containing strains from temperate and continental regions and that P. superbus, an early colonizer at Surtsey island, Iceland after its volcanic formation, is closely related to a species from Pennsylvania, USA. Ancestral state reconstructions show that anhydrobiosis evolved deep in the phylogeny of Panagrolaimus. The early-diverging Panagrolaimus lineages are strongly anhydrobiotic but weakly freezing-tolerant, suggesting that freezing tolerance is most likely a derived trait. The common ancestors of the davidi and the superbus clades were anhydrobiotic and also possessed robust freezing tolerance, along with a capacity to inhibit the growth and recrystallization of ice crystals. Unlike other endemic Antarctic nematodes, the life history traits of P. davidi do not show evidence of an evolved response to polar conditions. Thus we suggest that the colonization of Antarctica by P. davidi and of Surtsey by P. superbus may be examples of recent “ecological fitting” of freezing-tolerant anhydrobiotic propagules to the respective abiotic conditions in Ross Island and Surtsey

  14. Freezing in random graph ferromagnets

    OpenAIRE

    Svenson, Pontus

    2001-01-01

    Using T=0 Monte Carlo and simulated annealing simulation, we study the energy relaxation of ferromagnetic Ising and Potts models on random graphs. In addition to the expected exponential decay to a zero energy ground state, a range of connectivities for which there is power law relaxation and freezing to a metastable state is found. For some connectivities this freezing persists even using simulated annealing to find the ground state. The freezing is caused by dynamic frustr...

  15. Freezing parameters of soft spheres

    OpenAIRE

    Wilding, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The phase switch Monte Carlo method is employed to determine the freezing properties of particles interacting via an r-12 repulsive potential. We establish that at the equilibrium freezing point the face centred cubic (fcc) structure has a free energy that is lower than that of the metastable body centred cubic (bcc) structure by 0.0184(4) kBT per particle. Thus the bcc structure is not the stable solid phase at freezing despite being commonly observed in...

  16. Freezing singularities in water drops

    OpenAIRE

    Enriquez, O.R.; Gomez Marin, A.; Winkels, K.G.; Snoeijer, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video we show how a drop of water freezes into a singular shape when deposited on a cold surface. The process of solidification can be observed very clearly due to the change in refraction when water turns into ice. The drop remains approximately spherical during most of the process, with a freezing front moving upwards and smoothly following the interface. However, at the final stage of freezing, when the last cap of liquid turns into ice, a singular ...

  17. Water Freezing in Nanopores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The structure and dynamics of supercooled liquid water and of amorphous ice is a very active area of current research. Confinement induces new phenomena such as melting point suppression, and in some cases, water seems even not to freeze at all, as shown in recent differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. Micelle-templated porous silica materials, such as SBA-15 and MCM-41represent ideal model systems for studying water in nano-confinement. The pores of these materials are perfectly ordered on a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice with lattice parameter of a few Nanometers, making these materials ideal for investigations with small-angle X-ray (SAXS) and neutron (SANS) scattering methods. We performed Synchrotron-SAXS and SANS measurement on water-filled MCM-41 and SBA-15 porous materials with pore diameters ranging from 2 nm - 9 nm. The advantages of the two complementary scattering techniques, SAXS and SANS are ideally applied to our system. The high brilliance synchrotron radiation makes strain effects in the order of 10-3 resolvable. The phase contrast variation in neutron scattering allows a detailed investigation of density change of water by using a proper H2O/D2O. Two phenomena could be observed during freezing and melting of confined water. First, the water density change during phase transformation results in change of the scattering contrast and therefore changes the scattering intensity. Second, the strain-induced contraction and expansion of the pore lattice during water phase transformation leads to a shift of the Bragg-Peak position. Both effects are observed for water in large pores exactly at the phase transition temperatures predicted by DSC. Moreover, these effects are present even for water confined in pores below 2,5 nm where water is assumed not to freeze. Additionally, we performed cooling and heating cycles on samples with different pore filling fractions. Different number of the few water layers on pore walls show different freezing and melting behaviour which is discussed together with the results from fully-filled pores with different diameters. (author)

  18. Freezing in random graph ferromagnets

    CERN Document Server

    Svenson, P

    2002-01-01

    Using T=0 Monte Carlo and simulated annealing simulation, we study the energy relaxation of ferromagnetic Ising and Potts models on random graphs. In addition to the expected exponential decay to a zero energy ground state, a range of connectivities for which there is power law relaxation and freezing to a metastable state is found. For some connectivities this freezing persists even using simulated annealing to find the ground state. The freezing is caused by dynamic frustration in the graphs, and is a feature of the local search-nature of the Monte Carlo dynamics used. The implications of the freezing on agent-based complex systems models are briefly considered.

  19. Arsenic resistance and cycling in earthworms residing at a former gold mine in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earthworms (Lumbricus castaneous and Dendrodrilus rubidus), their host soils and leaf litter were collected from a former gold mine with widespread arsenic (As) contamination in Nova Scotia, Canada and determined for total and speciated As. Resistance to As toxicity was investigated by measurement of DNA damage in exposed earthworm populations using the comet assay. Arsenobetaine (AB) was observed at low concentration in the earthworms but not in the host soil or leaf litter. Several different organoarsenic species were observed in the leaf litter and only inorganic As was found in the host soils. The results suggest that 1) adaptation to As toxicity in earthworms is widespread and not particular to a single species, 2) AB originates in the earthworm and not the consumed soil or leaf litter and 3) as previously hypothesised (), biotransformation of inorganic As to AB is not likely involved in the adaptation. - Highlights: ? Adaptation to toxicity and cycling of arsenic in earthworms investigated at Canadian gold mine. ? Earthworms resistant to highly contaminated, genotoxic soils. ? Arsenobetaine present in earthworms but not soil or leaf litter. ? Arsenic resistance in earthworms is widespread and not species specific. - Adaptation of earthworms to arsenic contaminated soils is widespread and not species specific.

  20. Earthworm bioturbation influences the phytoavailability of metals released by particles in cultivated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of earthworm activity on soil-to-plant metal transfer was studied by carrying out six weeks mesocosms experiments with or without lettuce and/or earthworms in soil with a gradient of metal concentrations due to particles fallouts. Soil characteristics, metal concentrations in lettuce and earthworms were measured and soil porosity in the mesocosms was determined. Earthworms increased the soil pH, macroporosity and soil organic matter content due to the burying of wheat straw provided as food. Earthworm activities increased the metals concentrations in lettuce leaves. Pb and Cd concentrations in lettuce leaves can increase up to 46% with earthworm activities … These results and the low correlation between estimated by CaCl2 and EDTA and measured pollutant phytoavailability suggest that earthworm bioturbation was the main cause of the increase. Bioturbation could affect the proximity of pollutants to the roots and soil organic matter. - Highlights: • Earthworm bioturbation increases phytoavailability of Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu. • Earthworm activity influences soil structure and increases pH. • Plant metal uptake was not correlated with CaCl2, EDTA estimated phytoavailability. • Increased metal phytoavailability with bioturbation could increase human exposure. - Earthworm activities can increase metal phytoavailability and subsequent human exposure to metals in consumed vegetables

  1. Abundance, Biomass and Vertical Distribution of Earthworms in Ecosystem Units of Hornbeam Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kooch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate the abundance, biomass and practical distribution of earthworms in ecosystem and tried to identify the factors affecting earthworm populations during different environmental conditions. Density and biomass of earthworms were studied in ecosystem unit`s khanikan forests (North of Iran in July 2006. Eighteen soil profiles (50x50 cm to the depth of 30 cm were digged and soil samples were taken from organic horizon (litter layer and mineral layers (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm. Earthworms were collected by hand sorting method, then oven-dried at 60°C and weighed. Comparison number and biomass of earthworms in various layers of soil have showed that most number was in third layer (63.63% and the least number was in second layer (13.63%. Also, biomass of earthworms in third layer was the most (79.39% and was the least in second layer (7.57%. Results of this research indicated that correlation between number and biomass of earthworms with C/N, biomass of earthworms with carbon of soil and number of earthworms with theirs biomass were significant. Correlation between number and biomass of earthworms with the other soil properties investigated was no significant.

  2. Performance Characteristics of an Isothermal Freeze Valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hailey, A.E.

    2001-08-22

    This document discusses performance characteristics of an isothermal freeze valve. A freeze valve has been specified for draining the DWPF melter at the end of its lifetime. Two freeze valve designs have been evaluated on the Small Cylindrical Melter-2 (SCM-2). In order to size the DWPF freeze valve, the basic principles governing freeze valve behavior need to be identified and understood.

  3. Invasion by Exotic Earthworms Alters Biodiversity and Communities of Litter- and Soil-dwelling Oribatid Mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Maerz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Exotic earthworms are drivers of biotic communities in invaded North American forest stands. Here we used ecologically important oribatid mite (Arachnida: Acari communities, as model organisms to study the responses of litter- and soil-dwelling microarthropod communities to exotic earthworm invasion in a northern temperate forest. Litter- and soil-dwelling mites were sampled in 2008–2009 from forest areas: (1 with no earthworms; (2 those with epigeic and endogeic species, including Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister; and (3 those with epigeic, endogeic, and anecic earthworms including L. terrestris L. Species richness and diversity of litter- and soil-dwelling (0–2 cm soil depth oribatid mites was 1–2 times higher in sites without earthworms than in sites with worms. Similarly, litter-dwelling oribatid mites were between 72 and 1,210 times more abundant in earthworm-free sites than in sites with worms. Among earthworm invaded sites, abundance of litter-dwelling oribatid mites in sites without the anecic L. terrestris was twice as high in May and 28 times higher in October, compared to sites with L. terrestris. Species richness, diversity, and abundance of oribatid mites were greater in litter-layers than in the soil-layers that showed a varied response to earthworm invasion. Species compositions of both litter- and soil-dwelling oribatid mite communities of forests with no earthworms were markedly different from those with earthworms. We conclude that exotic earthworm invasions are associated with significant declines of species diversity, numbers, and compositional shifts in litter- and soil-inhabiting communities. These faunal shifts may contribute to earthworm effects on soil processes and food web dynamics in historically earthworm-free, northern temperate forests.

  4. Earthworm's immunity in the nanomaterial world: new room, future challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, Yuya; Engelmann, Péter

    2013-01-01

    Since the advent of the nanotechnology era, the environmental sink has been continuously receiving engineered nanomaterials as well as their derivatives. Our current understanding of the potential impact of nanomaterials on invertebrate immunity is limited to only a handful of initial studies including those on earthworms. Recently, we reported selective accumulation of silver nanoparticles in the amoebocyte population of Eisenia fetida coelomocytes in vitro. In this review, we give an overview of available literature on the life-history impacts on earthworms, and what we have learnt of the immune responses to nanoparticles with references to other invertebrate species and vertebrate counterparts. We discuss the significant contribution of amoebocytes as nanoparticle scavengers and suggest a possibility of studying inter-cellular communications in coelomocytes. Implications from the leading researches in vertebrate models tell us that study of the nanoparticle recognition involved in cellular uptake as well as sub- and inter-cellular events may uncover further intriguing insights into earthworm’s immunity in the nanomaterial world.

  5. Size structure of earthworms populations and the theory of neutrality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. ?. Kunah

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper points that neutrality theory allows to describe a distribution of earthworms’ body weight classes in the population. The statistical parameters can be interpreted in terms of the population ecology. The dynamics of parameters distribution over seasons and under anthropogenic impact demonstrates that sense assigned to the distribution parameters is very close to real processes in animal population.

  6. Does the microbial environment determine innate immunity in earthworms?.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bilej, Martin; Dvo?ák, Ji?í; Man?íková, Veronika; Šilerová, Marcela; Procházková, Petra; Roubalová, Radka; Škanta, František; Elhottová, Dana; Koubová, Anna; Pižl, Václav

    ?eské Bud?jovice : Institute of Soil Biology, BC ASCR, 2013. s. 13. ISBN 978-80-86525-23-5. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /12./. 08.04.2013-11.04.2013, ?eské Bud?jovice] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : microbial environment * innate immunity * earthworms Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  7. Earthworms in an arable field-forest ecotone.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav; Zeithaml, J.

    ?eské Bud?jovice : Institute of Soil Biology AS CR, 2003. s. 48. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /7./. 14.04.2003-16.04.2003, ?eské Bud?jovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : earthworms * field-forest ecotone Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  8. Identification and expression analysis of calreticulin in Eisenia fetida earthworms.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilerová, Marcela; Kauschke, E.; Kohlerová, Petra; Josková, Radka; Tu?ková, Ludmila; Bilej, Martin

    Paris : EFIS, 2006, s. 46-46. [European Congress of Immunology /16./. Paris (FR), 06.09.2006-09.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA ?R GD310/03/H147; GA AV ?R IAA5020208; GA MŠk 2B06155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : calreticulin * earthworms * eisenia fetida Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  9. Endogeic earthworms can increase CO2 accumulation in soil.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Miloslav; Pižl, Václav

    ?eské Bud?jovice : Institute of Soil Biology BC AS CR, 2009. s. 76. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /10./. 21.04.2009-24.04.2009, ?eské Bud?jovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : endogeic earthworms * CO 2 accumulation * soil Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  10. Diversity and host specificity of the Verminephrobacter–earthworm symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie Braad; Davidson, Seana

    2010-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria of the genus Verminephrobacter (Betaproteobacteria) were detected in the nephridia of 19 out of 23 investigated earthworm species (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). While all four Lumbricus species and three out of five Aporrectodea species were densely colonized by a mono-species culture of Verminephrobacter, other earthworm species contained mixed bacterial populations with varying proportions of Verminephrobacter; four species did not contain Verminephrobacter at all. The Verminephrobacter symbionts could be grouped into earthworm species-specific sequence clusters based on their 16S rRNA and RNA polymerase subunit B (rpoB) genes. Closely related host species harboured more closely related symbionts than did distantly related hosts. Co-diversification of the symbiotic partners could not be demonstrated unambiguously due to the poor resolution of the host phylogeny [based on histone H3 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequence analyses]. However, there was a pattern of symbiont diversification within four groups of closely related hosts. The mean rate of symbiont 16S rRNA gene evolution was determined using a relaxed clock model, and the rate was calibrated with paleogeographical estimates of the time of origin of Lumbricid earthworms. The calibrated rates of symbiont 16S rRNA gene evolution are 0.012–0.026 substitutions per site per 50 million years and thus similar to rates reported from other symbiotic bacteria.

  11. Non-self recognition in Eisenia fetida earthworms.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohlerová, Petra; Šilerová, Marcela; Felsberg, Jürgen; Josková, Radka; Josens, G.; Beschin, A.; De Baetselier, P.; Bilej, Martin

    Paris : EFIS, 2006, s. 47-47. [European Congress of Immunology /16./. Paris (FR), 06.09.2006-09.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06155; GA AV ?R KJB500200613 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : coelomic cytolytic factor * earthworms * eisenia fetida Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  12. Distribution of earthworms (Lumbricidae) in Bohemian Switzerland (Czech Republic).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav

    Praha : Academia, 2007 - (Hartel, H.; Cílek, V.; Herben, T.; Jackson, A.; Williams, R.), s. 147-150 ISBN 978-80-200-1577-8 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : earthworms * soil fauna * sandstone area Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  13. Impact of PCDD/PCDFs on the earthworm Eisenia andrei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubalová, Radka; Dvo?ák, Ji?í; Procházková, Petra; Elhottová, Dana; Rossmann, Pavel; Škanta, František; Bilej, Martin

    Athens : United States Department of Agriculture , 2014. s. 34. [International Symposium on Earthworm Ecology /10./. 22.06.2014-27.06.2014, Athens] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : impact of PCDD/PCDFs * Eisenia andrei Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  14. High ice nucleation activity located in blueberry stem bark is linked to primary freeze initiation and adaptive freezing behaviour of the bark

    OpenAIRE

    KISHIMOTO, TADASHI; Yamazaki, Hideyuki; Saruwatari, Atsushi; Murakawa, Hiroki; Sekozawa, Yoshihiko; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Price, William S.; ISHIKAWA, MASAYA

    2014-01-01

    One may have seen wintering rosette leaves totally frozen and wilted in the early morning but recover during the daytime. How can cold hardy plants survive freezing of the tissues, unlike animal tissues? Cold hardy plants seem to have evolved various strategies. One example is extracellular freezing, where icicles primarily form in intercellular spaces whilst the cells are dehydrated, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, using blueberry stems, we found high ice nucleat...

  15. Generalized structural theory of freezing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first-principles order parameter theory of freezing, proposed in an earlier work, has been successful in yielding quantitative agreement with known freezing parameters for monoatomic liquids forming solids with one atom per unit cell. A generalization of this theory is presented here to include the effects of a basis set of many atoms per unit cell. The basic equations get modified by the 'density structure factors' fsub(i) which arise from the density variations within the unit cell. Calculations are presented for the important case of monoatomic liquids freezing into hexagonal close packed solids. It is concluded that all freezing transitions can be described by using structural correlations in the liquid instead of the pair potential; and that the three body correlations are important in deciding the type of solid formed after freezing. (author)

  16. Freeze. How you can help prevent nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In their book the Senators Kennedy and Hatfield prove that the United States will not be able to survive a nuclear war. The report on the freeze movement is followed by a chapter on the history of the efforts for disarmament which had been abruptly ended by President Reagan's call for the enhanced modernization of nuclear arms. But ''we have reached the unique moment in the history of the atomic age where it is possible and where it must be tried to freeze nuclear armament'', as Kennedy and Hatfield write, for ''the present nuclear balance is relatively stable''. Only by freezing the standard of armament can this balance which decides on worldwide peace be granted. (orig.)

  17. Cold tolerance and freeze-induced glucose accumulation in three terrestrial slugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slotsbo, Stine; Hansen, Lars Monrad

    2012-01-01

    Cold tolerance and metabolic responses to freezing of three slug species common in Scandinavia (Arion ater, Arion rufus and Arion lusitanicus) are reported. Autumn collected slugs were cold acclimated in the laboratory and subjected to freezing conditions simulating likely winter temperatures in their habitat. Slugs spontaneously froze at about -4°C when cooled under dry conditions, but freezing of body fluids was readily induced at -1°C when in contact with external ice crystals. All three species survived freezing for 2days at -1°C, and some A. rufus and A. lusitanicus also survived freezing at -2°C. (1)H NMR spectroscopy revealed that freezing of body fluids resulted in accumulation of lactate, succinate and glucose. Accumulation of lactate and succinate indicates that ATP production occurred via fermentative pathways, which is likely a result of oxygen depletion in frozen tissues. Glucose increased from about 6 to 22?g/mg dry tissue upon freezing in A. rufus, but less so in A. ater and A. lusitanicus. Glucose may thus act as a cryoprotectant in these slugs, although the concentrations are not as high as reported for other freeze tolerant invertebrates.

  18. Potential utilization of bagasse as feed material for earthworm Eisenia fetida and production of vermicompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2015-01-01

    In the present work bagasse (B) i.e waste of the sugar industry, was fed to Eisenia fetida with cattle dung (CD) support as feed material at various ratios (waste: CD) of 0:100 (B0), 25:75 (B25), 50:50 (B50), 75:25 (B75) and 100:0 (B100) on dry weight basis. Co-composting with cattle dung helped to improve their acceptability for E. fetida and also improved physico-chemical characteristics. Best appropriate ratio for survival, maximum growth and population buildup of E. fetida was determined by observing population buildup, growth rate, biomass, mortality and cocoon formation. Minimum mortality and highest population size of worms was observed in 50:50 (B50) ratio. Increasing concentrations of wastes significantly affected the growth and reproduction of worms. Nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and sodium increased from pre-vermicompost to post-vermicompost, while organic carbon, and C:N ratio decreased in all the end products of post-vermicomposting. Heavy metals decreased significantly from initial except zinc, iron and manganese which increased significantly. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to recognize the changes in texture in the pre and post-vermicomposted samples. The post-vermicomposted ratios in the presence of earthworms validate more surface changes that prove to be good manure. The results observed from the present study indicated that the earthworm E. fetida was able to change bagasse waste into nutrient-rich manure and thus play a major role in industrial waste management. PMID:25625035

  19. Do earthworms impact metal mobility and availability in soil? - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizmur, Tom, E-mail: t.p.sizmur@reading.ac.u [Department of Soil Science, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E., E-mail: m.e.hodson@reading.ac.u [Department of Soil Science, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    The importance of earthworms to ecosystem functioning has led to many studies on the impacts of metals on earthworms. Far less attention has been paid to the impact that earthworms have on soil metals both in terms of metal mobility and availability. In this review we consider which earthworms have been used in such studies, which soil components have been investigated, which types of soil have been used and what measures of mobility and availability applied. We proceed to review proposed reasons for effects: changes in microbial populations, pH, dissolved organic carbon and metal speciation. The balance of evidence suggests that earthworms increase metal mobility and availability but more studies are required to determine the precise mechanism for this. - We review the impact of earthworms on metal mobility and availability and suggest areas for further investigation.

  20. Heavy Metals Bioaccumulation by Iranian and Australian Earthworms (Eisenia fetida in the Sewage Sludge Vermicomposting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Shahmansouri, H Pourmoghadas, AR Parvaresh, H Alidadi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Vermicomposting of organic waste has an important part to play in an integrated waste management strategy. In this study, the possibility of heavy metals accumulation with two groups of Iranian and Australian earthworms in sewage sludge vermicompost was investigated. Eisenia fetida was the species of earthworms used in the vermicomposting process. The bioaccumulation of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn as heavy metals by Iranian and Australian earthworms was studied. The results indicated that heavy metals concentration decreased with increasing vermicomposting time. Comparison of the two groups of earthworms showed that the Iranian earthworms consumed higher quantities of micronutrients such as Cu and Zn comparing with the Australian earthworms, while the bioaccumulation of non-essential elements such as Cr, Cd, and Pb by the Australian group was higher. The significant decrease in heavy metal concentrations in the final vermicompost indicated the capability of both Iranian and Australian E.fetida species in accumulating heavy metals in their body tissues.

  1. Do earthworms impact metal mobility and availability in soil? - A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of earthworms to ecosystem functioning has led to many studies on the impacts of metals on earthworms. Far less attention has been paid to the impact that earthworms have on soil metals both in terms of metal mobility and availability. In this review we consider which earthworms have been used in such studies, which soil components have been investigated, which types of soil have been used and what measures of mobility and availability applied. We proceed to review proposed reasons for effects: changes in microbial populations, pH, dissolved organic carbon and metal speciation. The balance of evidence suggests that earthworms increase metal mobility and availability but more studies are required to determine the precise mechanism for this. - We review the impact of earthworms on metal mobility and availability and suggest areas for further investigation.

  2. Understanding Slag Freeze Linings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah-Mehrjardi, Ata; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni

    2014-09-01

    Slag freeze linings, the formation of protective deposit layers on the inner walls of furnaces and reactors, are increasingly used in industrial pyrometallurgical processes to ensure that furnace integrity is maintained in these aggressive, high-temperature environments. Most previous studies of freeze-linings have analyzed the formation of slag deposits based solely on heat transfer considerations. These thermal models have assumed that the interface between the stationary frozen layer and the agitated molten bath at steady-state deposit thickness consists of the primary phase, which stays in contact with the bulk liquid at the liquidus temperature. Recent experimental studies, however, have clearly demonstrated that the temperature of the deposit/liquid bath interface can be lower than the liquidus temperature of the bulk liquid. A conceptual framework has been proposed to explain the observations and the factors influencing the microstructure and the temperature of the interface at steady-state conditions. The observations are consistent with a dynamic steady state that is a balance between (I) the rate of nucleation and growth of solids on detached crystals in a subliquidus layer as this fluid material moves toward the stagnant deposit interface and (II) the dissolution of these detached crystals as they are transported away from the interface by turbulent eddies. It is argued that the assumption that the interface temperature is the liquidus of the bulk material represents only a limiting condition, and that the interface temperature can be between T liquidus and T solidus depending on the process conditions and bath chemistry. These findings have implications for the modeling approach and boundary conditions required to accurately describe these systems. They also indicate the opportunity to integrate considerations of heat and mass flows with the selection of melt chemistries in the design of future high temperature industrial reactors.

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF COMPOSITION CULTURE MEDIA, TECHNIQUE OF CONCENTRATING AND FREEZE DRYING CONDITIONS FOR CELL OF LACTOBACILLUS ACIDOPHILUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysenko Y. A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study has investigated the relationship between culture media, technique of concentrating and freeze drying conditions for the cells of Lactobacillus aci-dophilus. The study has demonstrated that milk whey tomato juice-enriched medium has the high-growth properties. This medium allows ensuring high freeze drying survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus

  4. Earthworms, soil aggregates and organic matter decomposition in agro-ecosystems in The Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Marinissen, J.C.Y.

    1995-01-01

    The relationships between earthworm populations, soil aggregate stability and soil organic matter dynamics were studied at an experimental farm in The Netherlands.Arable land in general is not favourable for earthworm growth. In the Lovinkhoeve fields under conventional management earthworm populations were brought to the verge of extinction in a few years. Main causes are soil fumigation against nematodes and unfavourable food conditions. Organic matter inputs and N-contents of the organic m...

  5. Associations between soil texture, soil water characteristics and earthworm populations of grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Lamandé, Mathieu; Torp, Søren Bent; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog; Heckrath, Goswin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between soil physical characteristics and earthworms in a regional-scale field study in Denmark. The earthworm populations along within-field gradients in soil texture were quantified at five field sites, representing dominant soil types of Denmark. Eleven earthworm species were found, but populations were mainly dominated by Aporrectodea tuberculata and A. longa. Despite considerable variation in soil parameters across the five s...

  6. Impacts of epigeic, anecic and endogeic earthworms on metal and metalloid mobility and availability

    OpenAIRE

    Sizmur, Tom; Tilston, Emma L.; Charnock, John; Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Michael J. Watts; Hodson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of earthworms into soils contaminated with metals and metalloids has been suggested to aid restoration practices. Eisenia veneta (epigeic), Lumbricus terrestris (anecic) and Allolobophora chlorotica (endogeic) earthworms were cultivated in columns containing 900 g soil with 1130, 345, 113 and 131 mg kg1 of As, Cu, Pb and Zn, respectively, for up to 112 days, in parallel with earthworm-free columns. Leachate was produced by pouring water on the soil surface to satu...

  7. Impact of soil management on earthworm diversity according to differential plowing and plant residue incorporation

    OpenAIRE

    Lemtiri, Aboulkacem; Alabi, Taofic; Zirbes, Lara; Bodson, Bernard; Brostaux, Yves; Colinet, Gilles; Destain, Marie-France; Aubinet, Marc; Vandenbol, Micheline; Portetelle, Daniel; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Earthworms are largely distributed in terrestrial ecosystems and their abundance and diversity in soils are significantly affected by biotic (macro- and micro-organisms) and abiotic factors: soil properties (pH, texture, structure…); agricultural management system and climate change. Here, tillage effect of earthworm population combined with crops residual management was investigated and correlated with soils properties. From wheat experimental field plots, the diversity of earthworm accordin...

  8. Soil pH governs production rate of calcium carbonate secreted by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    OpenAIRE

    Lambkin, Denise C.; Gwilliam, K. H.; Layton, C; Canti, M. G.; Piearce, T. G.; Hodson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Lumbricus terrestris earthworms exposed to 11 soils of contrasting properties produced, on average, 0.8 ± 0.1 mgCaCO3 earthworm?1 day?1 in the form of granules up to 2 mm in diameter. Production rate increased with soil pH (r2 = 0.68, p < 0.01). Earthworms could be a significant source of calcite in soils.

  9. The implications of copper fungicide usage in vineyards for earthworm activity and resulting sustainable soil quality

    OpenAIRE

    Eijsackers, H.J.P.; Beneke, P.; Maboeta, M.; Louw, J.P.E.; Reinecke, A. J.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the impact of copper-containing fungicides (copper oxychloride) on earthworms in South African vineyards, field inventories of earthworms in and between vine rows were carried out and compared to directly adjacent grassland. Also copper content, pH, organic matter content, and soil porosity were determined in these soils. This was combined with laboratory experiments to study the impact of vineyard soil characteristics on the burrowing and dispersal behavior of earthworms. More...

  10. Earthworms as colonisers: Primary colonisation of contaminated land, and sediment and soil waste deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Eijsackers, H.J.P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of earthworms in the early colonisation of contaminated soils as well as sediment and waste deposits, which are worm-free because of anthropogenic activities such as open-cast mining, soil sterilisation, consistent pollution or remediation of contaminated soil. Earthworms live in close interaction with their soil environment and are able to change it considerably by their burrowing and litter comminuting behaviour. While earthworms have been studied extensively, se...

  11. Effect of Earthworm Feeding Guilds on Ingested Dissimilatory Nitrate Reducers and Denitrifiers in the Alimentary Canal of the Earthworm ? †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depkat-Jakob, Peter S.; Hilgarth, Maik; Horn, Marcus A.; Drake, Harold L.

    2010-01-01

    The earthworm gut is an anoxic nitrous oxide (N2O)-emitting microzone in aerated soils. In situ conditions of the gut might stimulate ingested nitrate-reducing soil bacteria linked to this emission. The objective of this study was to determine if dissimilatory nitrate reducers and denitrifiers in the alimentary canal were affected by feeding guilds (epigeic [Lumbricus rubellus], anecic [Lumbricus terrestris], and endogeic [Aporrectodea caliginosa]). Genes and gene transcripts of narG (encodes a subunit of nitrate reductase and targets both dissimilatory nitrate reducers and denitrifiers) and nosZ (encodes a subunit of N2O reductase and targets denitrifiers) were detected in guts and soils. Gut-derived sequences were similar to those of cultured and uncultured soil bacteria and to soil-derived sequences obtained in this study. Gut-derived narG sequences and narG terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) were affiliated mainly with Gram-positive organisms (Actinobacteria). The majority of gut- and uppermost-soil-derived narG transcripts were affiliated with Mycobacterium (Actinobacteria). In contrast, narG sequences indicative of Gram-negative organisms (Proteobacteria) were dominant in mineral soil. Most nosZ sequences and nosZ TRFs were affiliated with Bradyrhizobium (Alphaproteobacteria) and uncultured soil bacteria. TRF profiles indicated that nosZ transcripts were more affected by earthworm feeding guilds than were nosZ genes, whereas narG transcripts were less affected by earthworm feeding guilds than were narG genes. narG and nosZ transcripts were different and less diverse in the earthworm gut than in mineral soil. The collective results indicate that dissimilatory nitrate reducers and denitrifiers in the earthworm gut are soil derived and that ingested narG- and nosZ-containing taxa were not uniformly stimulated in the guts of worms from different feeding guilds. PMID:20656855

  12. Effect of earthworm feeding guilds on ingested dissimilatory nitrate reducers and denitrifiers in the alimentary canal of the earthworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depkat-Jakob, Peter S; Hilgarth, Maik; Horn, Marcus A; Drake, Harold L

    2010-09-01

    The earthworm gut is an anoxic nitrous oxide (N(2)O)-emitting microzone in aerated soils. In situ conditions of the gut might stimulate ingested nitrate-reducing soil bacteria linked to this emission. The objective of this study was to determine if dissimilatory nitrate reducers and denitrifiers in the alimentary canal were affected by feeding guilds (epigeic [Lumbricus rubellus], anecic [Lumbricus terrestris], and endogeic [Aporrectodea caliginosa]). Genes and gene transcripts of narG (encodes a subunit of nitrate reductase and targets both dissimilatory nitrate reducers and denitrifiers) and nosZ (encodes a subunit of N(2)O reductase and targets denitrifiers) were detected in guts and soils. Gut-derived sequences were similar to those of cultured and uncultured soil bacteria and to soil-derived sequences obtained in this study. Gut-derived narG sequences and narG terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) were affiliated mainly with Gram-positive organisms (Actinobacteria). The majority of gut- and uppermost-soil-derived narG transcripts were affiliated with Mycobacterium (Actinobacteria). In contrast, narG sequences indicative of Gram-negative organisms (Proteobacteria) were dominant in mineral soil. Most nosZ sequences and nosZ TRFs were affiliated with Bradyrhizobium (Alphaproteobacteria) and uncultured soil bacteria. TRF profiles indicated that nosZ transcripts were more affected by earthworm feeding guilds than were nosZ genes, whereas narG transcripts were less affected by earthworm feeding guilds than were narG genes. narG and nosZ transcripts were different and less diverse in the earthworm gut than in mineral soil. The collective results indicate that dissimilatory nitrate reducers and denitrifiers in the earthworm gut are soil derived and that ingested narG- and nosZ-containing taxa were not uniformly stimulated in the guts of worms from different feeding guilds. PMID:20656855

  13. Effect of temperature and season on reproduction, neutral red retention and metallothionein responses of earthworms exposed to metals in field soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, Claus [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: csv@ceh.ac.uk; Hankard, Peter K. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: pkh@ceh.ac.uk; Lister, Lindsay J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: llist@ceh.ac.uk; Fishwick, Samantha K. [Environment Agency, Block 1 Government Buildings, Burghill Road, Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol BS10 6BF (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: samantha.fishwick@environment-agency.gov.uk; Jonker, Martijs J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: mjonker@science.uva.nl; Spurgeon, David J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: dasp@ceh.ac.uk

    2007-05-15

    This study investigated the short-term survival, reproduction and physiological (lysosomal membrane stability, metallothionein transcript copy number, body tissue metal concentrations) responses of Lumbricus rubellus exposed to metal contaminated field soils under different laboratory temperatures (10, 15 and 20 {sup o}C) and physiological responses of earthworms collected from the field in three different seasons (spring, autumn, winter). In the laboratory, metal contaminated soils had significant effects on reproduction (p < 0.001), metallothionein-2 (MT-2) expression (p = 0.033) and earthworm As (p = 0.003), Cd (p = 0.001), Pb (p < 0.001) and Zn (p < 0.001) concentration, but not lysosomal membrane stability and tissue Hg and Cu. No effect of temperature was found for any parameter. Principal component analysis of extractable and tissue metal concentrations indicated PC1 as a measure of metal stress. Both cocoon production (r = - 0.75) and MT-2 induction (r = 0.41) were correlated with PC1. A correlation was also found between cocoon production and MT-2 expression (r = - 0.41). Neutral red retention and MT-2 measurements in worms collected from the field sites in three seasons confirmed the absence of a temperature effect on these responses. - Laboratory and field studies demonstrate metal effects on earthworm life-cycle and biochemical responses are not influenced by temperature regime.

  14. Bioaccumulation and enantioselectivity of type I and type II pyrethroid pesticides in earthworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jing; Wang, Yinghuan; Wang, Huili; Li, Jianzhong; Xu, Peng

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the bioavailability and enantioselectivity differences between bifenthrin (BF, type?pyrethroid) and lambad-cyhalothrin (LCT, type ? pyrethroid) in earthworm (Eisenia fetida) were investigated. The bio-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) of BF was about 4 times greater than that of LCT. LCT was degraded faster than BF in soil while eliminated lower in earthworm samples. Compound sorption plays an important role on bioavailability in earthworm, and the soil-adsorption coefficient (Koc) of BF and LCT were 22 442 and 42 578, respectively. Metabolic capacity of earthworm to LCT was further studied as no significant difference in the accumulation of LCT between the high and low dose experiment was found. 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBCOOH), a metabolite of LCT produced by earthworm was detected in soil. The concentration of PBCOOH at high dose exposure was about 4.7 times greater than that of in low dose level at the fifth day. The bioaccumulation of BF and LCT were both enantioselective in earthworm. The enantiomer factors of BF and LCT in earthworm were approximately 0.12 and 0.65, respectively. The more toxic enantiomers ((+)-BF and (-)-LCT) had a preferential degradation in earthworm and leaded to less toxicity on earthworm for racemate exposure. In combination with other studies, a liner relationship between Log BSAFS and Log Kow was observed, and the Log BSAFS decreased with the increase of Log Kow. PMID:26490429

  15. Earthworms - role in soil fertility to the use in medicine and as a food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Grdiša

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are important regulators of soil structure and dynamics of soil organic matter. They are a major component of soil fauna communities in most ecosystems and comprise a large proportion of macro fauna biomass. Their activities are beneficial because they can enhance soil nutrient cycling through the rapid incorporation of detritus into mineral soil. However, mucus production associated with water excretion in earthworm guts also enhances the activity of other beneficial soil microorganisms. Earthworms alter soil structure, water movement, nutrient dynamics and plant growth. The medical value of earthworms has been known for centuries. The extracts prepared from earthworm tissues have been used for the treatment of numerous diseases since they are valuable source of proteins, peptides, enzymes and physiologically active substances. Several studies have shown that the earthworm extracts contain different macromolecules which exhibited the variety of activities, such as antioxidative, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, anticancer etc. Some of these activities are involved in wound healing process, using the earthworm preparation. In some countries the earthworms are used as a part of healthy food. They have very high nutritive value because their bodies contain the high percentage of various proteins. Besides the human food, the earthworms are used in the feeding of animals (fish, chicken, etc..

  16. Accumulation of mercury and methylmercury by mushrooms and earthworms from forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieder, Stephan R. [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Institute for Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zuerich, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Brunner, Ivano [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Horvat, Milena [Jozef Stefan Institute, 1001 Ljubliana (Slovenia); Jacobs, Anna [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Department of Environmental Chemistry, University of Kassel, 37213 Witzenhausen (Germany); Frey, Beat, E-mail: beat.frey@wsl.ch [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2011-10-15

    Accumulation of total and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms was studied in thirty-four natural forest soils strongly varying in soil physico-chemical characteristics. Tissue Hg concentrations of both receptors did hardly correlate with Hg concentrations in soil. Both total and methyl-Hg concentrations in tissues were species-specific and dependent on the ecological groups of receptor. Methyl-Hg was low accounting for less than 5 and 8% of total Hg in tissues of mushrooms and earthworms, respectively, but with four times higher concentrations in earthworms than mushrooms. Total Hg concentrations in mushrooms averaged 0.96 mg Hg kg{sup -1} dw whereas litter decomposing mushrooms showed highest total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations. Earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations (1.04 mg Hg kg{sup -1} dw) whereas endogeic earthworms accumulated highest amounts of Hg and methyl-Hg. - Highlights: > Hg and MeHg concentrations in mushrooms and earthworms at unpolluted forest soils. > Mushrooms and earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations. > MeHg was present in traces but four times higher in earthworms than in mushrooms. > Ecophysiological group influenced Hg and MeHg concentration in both receptors. - Accumulation of Hg and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms is species- and ecophysiological group dependent.

  17. Freezing controlled by natural convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were performed for freezing under conditions where the liquid phase is either above or at the fusion temperature (i.e., superheated or nonsuperheated liquid). The liquid was housed in a cylindrical containment vessel whose surface was maintained at a uniform, time-invariant temperature during a data run, and the freezing occurred on a cooled vertical tube positioned along the axis of the vessel. The phase change medium was n-eicosane, a paraffin which freezes at about 360C (970F). In the presence of liquid superheating, the freezing process is drastically slowed and ultimately terminated by the natural convection in the liquid. The terminal size of the frozen layer an the time at which freezing terminates can be controlled by setting the temperature parameters which govern the intensity of the natural convection. The stronger the natural convection, the thinner the frozen layer an the shorter the freezing time. In the absence of liquid superheating, a cylindrical frozen layer grows continuously as predicted by theory, but the growth rate is higher than the predictions because of the presence of whisker-like dendrites on the freezing surface

  18. Earthworms as agents for ecotoxicity in roxarsone-contaminated soil ecosystem: a modeling study of ultrastructure and proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ruizi; Ding, Xueyao; Xiong, Wenguang; Zhong, Xiaoxia; Liang, Wenfei; Gao, Shangji; Hong, Mei; Sun, Yongxue

    2015-08-01

    Contamination of roxarsone has been recognized as a potential environmental hazard. In this study, Eisenia fetida samples were collected after roxarsone exposures to analyze their intestinal epithelium ultrastructure, expression levels of stress-related genes, and proteomics. Our results showed that mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum in roxarsone-treated earthworms demonstrated variety of damages. Furthermore, 149 proteins were displayed in 2-DE, and 36 of them were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Those identified proteins are involved in several important processes including cell immunity, cell stress responses, and cell genetic behaviors. Our study demonstrates the toxicity responses of earthworms toward arsenic-based animal drug roxarsone with practical usefulness and demonstrates a proteomic profile change that may be critical for the roxarsone stress survival mechanisms of E. fetida. Graphical Abstract Inspiration of this referred to the form of Fig. 4 in the article "Proteomic analysis of a high aluminum tolerant yeast Rhodotorula taiwanensis RS1 in response to aluminum stress" of Chao, W et al. PMID:25903172

  19. Promotion of leaf degradation by earthworms under laboratory conditions. Paper presented at Joint Organic Congress, Odense, Denemarken

    OpenAIRE

    Heijne, B.; Jager, A; Jong, P.F. de

    2006-01-01

    Organic materials were applied to leaves from organic apple trees. Then, leaves were fed to earthworms in a laboratory culture. The objective was to select materials which promote leaf degradation by earthworms and consequently reduce the inoculum pressure of apple scab in orchards. Used earthworms were fully grown and consequently no effect of the leaf treatments was found on earthworm weights. However, leaf consumption tended to be increased by addition of amino acids and beet pulp to leave...

  20. Low-temperature microRNA expression in the painted turtle, Chrysemys picta during freezing stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggar, Kyle K; Storey, Kenneth B

    2015-11-30

    Natural freeze tolerance depends on cellular adaptations that address the multiple stresses imposed on cells during freezing. These adaptations preserve viability by suppressing energy-expensive cell processes in the frozen state. In this study, we explore the freeze-responsive expression of microRNA in hatchling painted turtles exposed to 20h freezing. Furthermore, we also explore the possibility of unique temperature-sensitive microRNA targeting programs that aid in adapting turtles for survival in the frozen state. Interestingly, two freeze-responsive 'cryo-miRs' (cpm-miR-16 and cpm-miR-21) were found to have unique low-temperature mRNA targets enriched in biological processes that are known to be part of the stress response. PMID:26519560

  1. Invasive and exotic earthworms: an unaccounted change to mercury cycling in northeastern US forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J. B.; Friedland, A. J.; Görres, J. H.; Renock, D. J.; Jackson, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Invasive and exotic earthworms are now present in many forested areas of the northeastern US with currently unquantified consequences to abiotic and biotic Hg cycling. To quantify these effects, we measured Hg concentrations (mg kg-1) and amounts (?g m-2) in earthworms and soil horizons at 45 soil pits from 9 sites in northern New England. Seven earthworm species were observed in varying assemblages. Most earthworm species attained concentrations of Hg potentially hazardous to wildlife that may ingest them, with highest concentrations found in shallow-burrowing, litter-feeders. Specifically, Aporrectodea rosea and Amynthas agrestis had the greatest Hg concentrations (0.9 ± 0.1) and Hg amounts (8 ± 2) ?g m-2. Aporrectodea rosea and Amynthas agrestis were found to inhabit the forest floor and the top 5 cm of the mineral horizons in high abundance, potentially making it a readily accessible prey species. Bioaccumulation of Hg by invasive and exotic earthworms may be an important mechanism that transfers Hg to ground foraging predators, such as thrushes, red-backed salamanders and foxes, which is generally unaccounted for in terrestrial food chains. Earthworm Hg concentrations were poorly correlated with their respective soil Hg concentrations, suggesting a species dependence for Hg bioaccumulation rather than site effects. We observed that forest floor Hg concentrations and amounts were 23% and 57% lower, respectively, at soil pits with earthworms compared to those without. Moreover, Hg amounts in forest floor-feeding earthworms exceeded the remaining forest floor Hg pools. Mercury concentrations and pools in the mineral soil were 21% and 33% lower, respectively, for soil pits with earthworms compared to those without. We hypothesize that enhanced decomposition, horizon disturbance and bioaccumulation by earthworms has decreased Hg amounts in the forest floor and mineral soil. Our results suggest that earthworms are decreasing Hg storage in forest soils with potential hazardous impacts for predatory animals in northeastern US forests and other ecosystems.

  2. Using Flow Cytometry to Measure Phagocytic Uptake in Earthworms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl L. Fuller-Espie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This laboratory module familiarizes students with flow cytometry while acquiring quantitative reasoning skills during data analysis. Leukocytes, also known as coelomocytes (including hyaline and granular amoebocytes, and chloragocytes, from Eisenia hortensis (earthworms are isolated from the coelomic cavity and used for phagocytosis of fluorescent Escherichia coli. Students learn how to set up in vitro cellular assays and become familiar with theoretical principles of flow cytometry. Histograms based on fluorescence and scatter properties combined with gating options permit students to restrict their analyses to particular subsets of coelomocytes when measuring phagocytosis, a fundamentally important innate immune mechanism used in earthworms. Statistical analysis of data is included in laboratory reports which serve as the primary assessment instrument.

  3. Freezing of a Liquid Marble

    OpenAIRE

    Hashmi, Ali; Strauss, Adam; Xu, Jie

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we present for the first time the observations of a freezing liquid marble. In the experiment, liquid marbles are gently placed on the cold side of a Thermo-Electric Cooler (TEC) and the morphological changes are recorded and characterized thereafter. These liquid marbles are noticed to undergo a shape transition from a spherical to a flying-saucer shaped morphology. The freezing dynamics of liquid marbles is observed to be very different from that of a freezi...

  4. FREEZE DRYING PROCESS: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Soham Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Among the various methods of drying, this article has mentioned only one most important method, “Freeze drying”. This method is mainly used for the drying of thermo labile materials. This method works on the principle of sublimation. This method is divided into 3 steps for its better understanding; these are Freezing, Primary drying, and secondary drying. There are many advantages and disadvantages of this method, but still this is the most useful drying method nowadays.

  5. Recrystallization in a Freezing Tolerant Antarctic Nematode, Panagrolaimus davidi, and a Alpine Weta, Hemideina maori (Orthoptera; Stenopelmatidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RamlØv, Hans; Wharton, David A.

    1996-01-01

    The ability of haemolymph from the freezing tolerant weta,Hemideina maori,and supernatant from homogenates of the freezing tolerant nematodePanagrolaimus davidito inhibit the recrystallization of ice was examined using the “splat freezing” technique and annealing on a cryomicroscope stage. There was no recrystallization inhibition in weta haemolymph or in insect ringer controls. Recrystallization inhibition was present in the nematode supernatant but this was destroyed by heating and was absent in controls.P. davidisurvives intracellular freezing and recrystallization inhibition may be important for the survival of this stress.

  6. The ecology and control of earthworms on golf courses

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    Earthworm casts on golf courses affect the playability of the turf and can potentially damage mowing equipment. Traditionally this problem has been limited using chemical controls. It is estimated that 0.6% of the total UK land surface is occupied by golf courses, therefore, the land management strategies which green keepers adopt with respect to the application of chemicals has a major environmental impact. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the ecology and potential co...

  7. Chloride cotransport in the membrane of earthworm body wall muscles.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Volkov, E. M.; Nurullin, L. F.; Nikolsky, E.; Kr?šek, Jan; Vysko?il, František

    2003-01-01

    Ro?. 52, ?. 5 (2003), s. 587-592. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA305/02/1333; GA ?R GA202/02/1213 Grant ostatní: RBRF(RU) 98-04-48044; RBRF(RU) 99-04-48286; RBRF(RU) 99-04-4306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : earthworm * ouabain * furosemide Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2003

  8. Earthworms in an arable field-forest ecotone.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav; Zeithaml, J.

    ?eské Bud?jovice : Institute of Soil Biology ASCR, 2005, s. 113-117. ISBN 80-86525-04-X. [Contributions to soil Zoology in Central Europe I. Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /7./. ?eské Bud?jovice (CZ), 14.04.2003-16.04.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : earthworms * ecotone * edge effect Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  9. Second contribution to the knowledge of earthworms (Lumbricidae) in Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanovi? Mirjana M.; Karaman Spasenija D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper contains the results of qualitative analysis of Lumbricidae (Oligochaeta) in Montenegro, during the period 1997-2003. The research has included natural and cultivated biotopes. The presence of 15 species was established and the habitats, localities and their zoogeographical position are given. In Montenegro we found four species for the first time Dendrobaena jastrebensis, D. vejdovskyi, Octodrilus bretcheri and Lumbricus terrestris. The complete list of earthworm species in Monten...

  10. Earthworm's immunity in the nanomaterial world: new room, future challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, Yuya; Engelmann, Péter

    2013-01-01

    Since the advent of the nanotechnology era, the environmental sink has been continuously receiving engineered nanomaterials as well as their derivatives. Our current understanding of the potential impact of nanomaterials on invertebrate immunity is limited to only a handful of initial studies including those on earthworms. Recently, we reported selective accumulation of silver nanoparticles in the amoebocyte population of Eisenia fetida coelomocytes in vitro. In this review, we give an overview ...

  11. Colonization of PAH-contaminated dredged sediment by earthworms

    OpenAIRE

    Eijsackers, H; Bruggeman, J.; Harmsen, J.; Kort, T., de; Schakel, A.

    2009-01-01

    In freshly deposited dredged sediment contaminated with PAHs, we followed the colonization of earthworm species by monthly monitoring over two years. Already five months after deposition the first species, Lumbricus castaneus, appeared, although only temporarily. The first permanent colonizing species was L. rubellus, soon followed by Aporrectodea caliginosa and L. castaneus, and a few months later Eiseniella tetraeda. At the end of the two-year observation period some first few specimen of A...

  12. In vitro viability of cryopreserved equine embryos following different freezing protocols.

    OpenAIRE

    Poitras, P.; Guay, P.; Vaillancourt, D; Zidane, N.; Bigras-Poulin, M

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate two freezing protocols and the effect of agar embedding on survival of day 6.5 equine embryos. A total of 133 embryos were used, in one group (n = 51), embryos were first embedded in agar before the freezing protocol was started. A freezing protocol to -30 degrees C or -33 degrees C was used before plunging embryos into liquid nitrogen (LN2). The embryos were thawed in water at 37 degrees C, evaluated and placed in culture. After 24 h culture, ...

  13. Expression and Characterization of the Novel Gene fr47 during Freezing in the Wood Frog, Rana sylvatica

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Katrina J.; Biggar, Kyle K; Storey, Kenneth B

    2015-01-01

    The wood frog, Rana sylvatica, has numerous adaptations that allow it to survive freezing of up to 65% of its total body water during the winter. Such adaptations have been found to include the expression of novel freeze responsive genes that are thought to be important for adaptation and survival. In this study, the tissue-specific stress responsive expression of one novel gene, fr47, was assessed in seven wood frog tissues. In response to freezing, the transcript expression of fr47 increase...

  14. Modeling of the accumulation of organic lipophilic chemicals in earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belfroid, A.; Seinen, W.; Leeuwen, K. van; Hermens, J. [Univ. of Utrecht (Netherlands). Research Inst. of Toxicology; Gestel, K. van [Vrije Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Ecology and Ecotoxicology

    1994-12-31

    For aquatic and terrestrial species living in contaminated sediments and soils it is assumed that the major route of uptake of organic lipophilic compounds is by passive diffusion of the compound dissolved in the interstitial water. Dietary uptake will only be important for extremely lipophilic compounds with log K{sub ow} larger than 5--6. An accumulation study with earthworms in OECD artificial soil confirmed this hypothesis. However, the authors also observed dietary uptake in earthworms after feeding them with food contaminated with three chlorobenzenes, PCB153 and octachloronaphthalene. Still, the question remained whether dietary uptake is an important route of exposure. Therefore, a model was developed that, unlike for example the equilibrium partition theory, incorporates two routes of uptake. The model can be used to estimate the accumulation of inert organic chemicals with log Kow 2--7 in earthworms, but also to determine the relative contribution of the two routes of uptake to the total body burden. It will be shown that the relative contribution depends on the lipophilicity of the compound and also on the type of soil.

  15. PREDICTION OF BIOAVAILABILITY OF CHLORPYRIFOS RESIDUES IN SOIL TO EARTHWORMS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    X.M, Wu; Y.L, Yu; M, Li; Y.H, Long; H, Fang; S.N, Li.

    Full Text Available An incubation test was conducted to investigate the effect of aging on bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil and to assess the feasibility of chemical extraction techniques for predicting bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil. Chlorpyrifos was spiked into sterilized soil and aged in microcosms f [...] or up to 120 days. The earthworms were incubated in the spiked soils, at 0, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 120 days after spiking, for a period of 7 days. After exposure, chlorpyrifos concentrations in the earthworm tissues were determined. Change in chemical extractability of soil-chlorpyrifos was measured using a several solvent systems including methanol, methanol-water (9:1), acetone-water (5:3), and water. The results show that chemical extractability and earthworm bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil decreased with aging. The amount of aged and unaged chlorpyrifos recovered from soil varied with the individual chemical extractant and extraction method. Concentrations of chlorpyrifos in Eisenia foetida were significantly higher than in Allolobophora caliginosa, suggesting that the bioavailability of chlorpyrifos was a species-dependent process. The extractability of chlorpyrifos by chemical solvents was significantly correlated with bioavailability fraction of E. foetida and A. caliginosa, showing that these extraction techniques may be efficient for predicting bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil.

  16. Comparative Genomics of Symbiotic Bacteria in Earthworm Nephridia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Pinel, Nicolas

    The excretory and osmoregulatory organs (nephridia) of lumbricid earthworms are densely colonized by extracellular bacterial symbionts belonging to the newly established betaproteobacterial genus Verminephrobacter. The nephridial symbiont of the earthworm Eisenia fetida was subjected to full genome sequencing along with two of its closest relatives; the plant pathogenic Acidovorax avena subsp. citrulli and the free-living Acidovorax sp. JS42. In addition, the genome of the nephridial symbiont of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata was partially sequenced. In order to resolve the functional and evolutionary basis of the symbiosis we annotated and compared the genomes. The genomes ranged in size from 4.4 to 5.6 Mbp, the E. fetida symbiont genome being the largest. The symbiont genomes showed no evidence of gene-loss related to any particular type of functional gene category. In contrast, genes predicted to be involved in transport processes were highly overrepresented in the symbiont genomes due to massive paralogous expansion of genes encoding ABC-type amino acid and peptide uptake systems. Thus, symbionts seem well-adapted to the nephridial environment being able to profit from proteinaceous excretion products. Gene order was highly conserved between the genomes of Acidovorax avena and Acidovorax sp. JS42, whereas the E. fetida symbiont genome held very little conservation of gene order compared to either of the latter two. Repetitive sequences were excessively abundant throughout the genomes of both symbionts. Together, this is indicative of high recombinatorial frequency in the symbiont genomes the function of which is presently poorly understood.

  17. PREDICTION OF BIOAVAILABILITY OF CHLORPYRIFOS RESIDUES IN SOIL TO EARTHWORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.M Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An incubation test was conducted to investigate the effect of aging on bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil and to assess the feasibility of chemical extraction techniques for predicting bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil. Chlorpyrifos was spiked into sterilized soil and aged in microcosms for up to 120 days. The earthworms were incubated in the spiked soils, at 0, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 120 days after spiking, for a period of 7 days. After exposure, chlorpyrifos concentrations in the earthworm tissues were determined. Change in chemical extractability of soil-chlorpyrifos was measured using a several solvent systems including methanol, methanol-water (9:1, acetone-water (5:3, and water. The results show that chemical extractability and earthworm bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil decreased with aging. The amount of aged and unaged chlorpyrifos recovered from soil varied with the individual chemical extractant and extraction method. Concentrations of chlorpyrifos in Eisenia foetida were significantly higher than in Allolobophora caliginosa, suggesting that the bioavailability of chlorpyrifos was a species-dependent process. The extractability of chlorpyrifos by chemical solvents was significantly correlated with bioavailability fraction of E. foetida and A. caliginosa, showing that these extraction techniques may be efficient for predicting bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil.

  18. Freeze drying of red blood cells: the use of directional freezing and a new radio frequency lyophilization device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arav, Amir; Natan, Dity

    2012-08-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) units are administered routinely into patients expressing a wide range of acute and chronic conditions (e.g., anemia, traumatic bleeding, chronic diseases, and surgery). The modern blood banking system has been designed to answer this need and assure a continuous, high quality blood supply to patients. However, RBCs units can be stored under hypothermic conditions for only up to 42 days, which leads to periodic shortages. Cryopreservation can solve these shortages, but current freezing methods employ high glycerol concentrations, which need to be removed and the cells washed prior to transfusion, resulting in a long (more than 1 hour) and cumbersome washing step. Thus, frozen RBCs have limited use in acute and trauma situations. In addition, transportation of frozen samples is complicated and costly. Freeze drying (lyophilization) of RBCs has been suggested as a solution for these problems, since it will allow for a low weight sample to be stored at room temperature, but reaching this goal is not a simple task. We studied the effect of different solutions (IMT2 and IMT3) containing trehalose and antioxidants or trehalose and human serum albumin, respectively, on freezing/thawing and freeze drying of RBCs. In addition, we evaluated the effect of cells concentrations and cooling rates on the post thaw and post rehydration recoveries of the RBCs. Finally, we developed a new radio frequency (RF) lyophilization device for a more rapid and homogeneous sublimation process of the frozen RBCs samples. Recovery and free Hb were measured as well as oxygen association/dissociation and cell's deformability. We found that IMT3 (0.3 M trehalose and 10% HSA) solution that was directionally frozen at a rapid interface velocity of 1 mm/sec (resulting in a cooling rate of 150°C/min) yielded the best results (better than IMT2 solution and slow interface velocity). Freeze thawing gave 100% survival, while freeze drying followed by rehydration with 20% dextran-40kDa solution resulted in 75% survival. However, recovery following freeze drying was possible only when 20% Dextran-40 solution was used as the rehydration medium. The rehydrated cells were not stable upon an eight-fold dilution. The RF lyophilization system increased the sublimation rate more than twice compared to conventional drying and maintained a high survival rate of the RBCs after partial drying. PMID:24849889

  19. The effects of production systems on earthworm assemblages in vineyards and apple orchards.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav

    Xalapa : Instituto de Ecología, A.C, 2010. s. 114. [International Symposium on Earthworm Ecology /9./. 05.09.2010-10.09.2010, Xalapa] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : earthworm assemblages * vineyards * apple orchards Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  20. Phagocytosis in earthworms: An environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess immunotoxic potential of contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giggleman, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Venables, B.J. [TRAC Labs., Inc., Denton, TX (United States); Callahan, C.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Phagocytosis, a host-defense mechanism phylogenetically conserved throughout the animal kingdom, by earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) coelomocytes has potential as a surrogate for vertebrates to be used as an environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess sublethal immunotoxic risks of contaminated soils to environmental (eg. higher wildlife) and public health. Coelomocytes can be exposed in vivo to complex contaminated parent soils by placing earthworms in situ at hazardous waste sites (HWS) or into soil samples and their dilutions with artificial soil (AS) in the laboratory, or in vitro to soil extracts and their fractionations. Here the authors report on phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils from a wood treatment HWS, PCP-spiked AS and PCP treated filter paper (FP). HWS soil was diluted to 25% with AS to a sublethal concentration (ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) and earthworms exposed for 14d at 10 C under light conditions. AS was spiked at ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1} PCP and earthworms were similarly exposed. Controls for both consisted of earthworms exposed to 100% AS. Earthworms were exposed to FP treated with a sublethal PCP concentration (15 {micro}g cm{sup {minus}2}) at 10 C under dark conditions for 96H. Controls were similarly exposed without PCP. Phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to HWS soil, spiked AS and treated FP was suppressed 37, 41 and 29%, respectively. Results are discussed in terms of PCP body burdens and exposure protocols.

  1. Effects of treatment with sodium fluoride and subsequent starvation on fluoride content of earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    The two experiments described here originated during a long-term investigation into the occurrence and movement of pollutant fluoride in a terrestrial ecosystem. Moles (Talpa europaea) whose diet consist largely of various species of earthworm Lumbricidae, are one of the species under investigation. Bone fluoride in moles was found to be higher, on average, than in foxes or small rodents. Moles probably acquire fluoride from their earthworm diet. Earthworms do not have any readily identifiable tissue in which to store large amounts of fluoride but, for their size, they have a considerable amount of soil in their gut, up oto 20% of their dry weight. Preliminary measurements of fluoride in whole earthworms suggested that observed levels could probably be accounted for by fluoride bound in the mineral part of contained soil and released during preparatory ashing. Two experiments to investigate this situation are described; here their aims were: to expose earthworms kept in soil to different concentrations of sodium fluoride; to measure resulting fluoride in earthworms when soil was removed from their gut by starvation for varying periods of time; and to compare amounts of fluoride in whole starved earthworms with those in starved earthworms from which remaining soil had also been physically removed by dissection and washing.

  2. Temperature-dependent alterations in metabolic enzymes and proteins of three ecophysiologically different species of earthworms

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G, Tripathi; N., Kachhwaha; I., Dabi; N., Bandooni.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of varying temperatures (12 - 44° C) on the specific activity of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase ((cMDH), mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of some earthworms (Metaphire posthuma, Perionyx sansibaricus and Lampito mauritii) were studied. The effec [...] ts of different temperatures on supernatant and mitochondrial protein contents were also investigated. The specific activities of cMDH, mMDH and LDH of the earthworms decreased gradually as a function of increasing temperature from 12 to 44°C. Higher metabolic energy was needed to maintain the activity at low temperatures. Hence, the earthworms showed increased enzyme specific activity at low temperatures. However, the protein content increased upto 28°C. Afterwards, with the increase in the temperature from 28 to 42°C, the proteins in the earthworms showed a significant decrease. The temperature-associated changes in the protein content could be explained by the fact that protein synthesizing capacity was hampered above and below the optimum temperature range. The most pronounced effects of varying temperatures were on P. sansibaricus. It might be due to the epigeic nature of the earthworm species. Then minimum effect was on the endogeic earthworm M. posthuma. Virtually, the differences in the enzymes physiology were associated with the differences in the ecological categories of the earthworms. This clearly demonstrate a possible link between the physiology and ecology at aerobic (cMDH, mMDH) and anaerobic (LDH) levels in the tropical earthworms.

  3. Temperature-dependent alterations in metabolic enzymes and proteins of three ecophysiologically different species of earthworms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Tripathi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of varying temperatures (12 - 44° C on the specific activity of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase ((cMDH, mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH of some earthworms (Metaphire posthuma, Perionyx sansibaricus and Lampito mauritii were studied. The effects of different temperatures on supernatant and mitochondrial protein contents were also investigated. The specific activities of cMDH, mMDH and LDH of the earthworms decreased gradually as a function of increasing temperature from 12 to 44°C. Higher metabolic energy was needed to maintain the activity at low temperatures. Hence, the earthworms showed increased enzyme specific activity at low temperatures. However, the protein content increased upto 28°C. Afterwards, with the increase in the temperature from 28 to 42°C, the proteins in the earthworms showed a significant decrease. The temperature-associated changes in the protein content could be explained by the fact that protein synthesizing capacity was hampered above and below the optimum temperature range. The most pronounced effects of varying temperatures were on P. sansibaricus. It might be due to the epigeic nature of the earthworm species. Then minimum effect was on the endogeic earthworm M. posthuma. Virtually, the differences in the enzymes physiology were associated with the differences in the ecological categories of the earthworms. This clearly demonstrate a possible link between the physiology and ecology at aerobic (cMDH, mMDH and anaerobic (LDH levels in the tropical earthworms.

  4. Microbial communities associated with three populations of Eisenia earthworms - polyphasic approach.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koubová, Anna; Pižl, Václav; Chro?áková, Alica; Elhottová, Dana

    Xalapa : Instituto de Ecología, A.C, 2010. s. 189. [International Symposium on Earthworm Ecology /9./. 05.09.2010-10.09.2010, Xalapa] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : microbial communities * Eisenia earthworms * polyphasic approach Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  5. The effect of earthworms on accumulation of soil organic matter during post mining soil development.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Pižl, Václav

    Kraków : Jagellonian University, 2006. s. 176. [International Symposium on Earthworm Ecology /8./. 04.09.2006-09.09.2006, Kraków] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R(CZ) 1QS600660505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : earthworms * accumulation of soil organic matter * post mining soil development Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MASS OF NEWLY HATCHED INDIVIDUALS AND COCOON MASS IN LUMBRICID EARTHWORMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruus, Marianne; Bjerre, Arne

    1991-01-01

    Earthworm cocoons from laboratory cultures were collected and their mass was determined. When hatched, the mass of the young worms was found. Cocoon mass and the mass of hatchlings varied considerably within species. The hygromass of newly hatched earthworms was found to correlate linearly with cocoon hygromass. It is concluded that cocoon hygromass may offer a prediction for hygromass of hatchlings.

  7. Influence of earthworm mucus and amino acids on tomato seedling growth and cadmium accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Shujie [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Hu Feng, E-mail: fenghu@njau.edu.c [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li Huixin; Li Xiuqiang [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2009-10-15

    The effects on the growth of tomato seedlings and cadmium accumulation of earthworm mucus and a solution of amino acids matching those in earthworm mucus was studied through a hydroponic experiment. The experiment included four treatments: 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} (CC), 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} + 100 mL L{sup -1} earthworm mucus (CE), 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} + 100 mL L{sup -1} amino acids solution (CA) and the control (CK). Results showed that, compared with CC treatment, either earthworm mucus or amino acids significantly increased tomato seedling growth and Cd accumulation but the increase was much higher in the CE treatment compared with the CA treatment. This may be due to earthworm mucus and amino acids significantly increasing the chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement uptake and transport in the tomato seedlings. The much greater increase in the effect of earthworm mucus compared with amino acid treatments may be due to IAA-like substances in earthworm mucus. - Earthworm mucus increased tomato seedlings growth and Cd accumulation through increasing chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement accumulation.

  8. Different expression of fetidin and lysenin in Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida earthworms.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škanta, František; Dvo?ák, Ji?í; Josková, Radka; Šilerová, Marcela; Procházková, Petra; Man?íková, Veronika; Elhottová, Dana; Koubová, Anna; Pižl, Václav; Bilej, Martin

    Xalapa : Instituto de Ecología , A.C, 2010. s. 78. [International Symposium on Earthworm Ecology /9./. 05.09.2010-10.09.2010, Xalapa] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : fetidin * lysenin * earthworms Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  9. Distribution of bacteria and fungi in the earthworm Libyodrillus violaceous (Annelida: Oligochaeta), a native earthworm from Nigeria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A. B, Idowu; M. O, Edema; A. O, Adeyi.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are soil invertebrates that play a key role in recycling organic matter in soils.In Nigeria, earthworms include Libyodrillus violaceous. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial counts, as well as fungal counts of viable microorganisms in soils and gut sections, were made on twenty L. violaceous c [...] ollected from different sites on the campus of the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. The samples were collected between April and November, 2002. Numbers of microorganisms were higher in castings and gut sections than in uningested soil samples. The guts and their contents also had higher moisture and total nitrogen contents than the uningested soils. Bacteria and fungi isolated from the samples were identified by standard microbiological procedures on the bases of their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Isolated bacteria were identified as Staphylococcus, Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus mutans, Clostridium, Spirocheata spp., Azotobacter spp., Micrococcus lylae, Acinetobacter spp., Halobacterium for bacteria. Yeast isolates were identified as Candida spp., Zygosaccharomyces spp., Pichia spp., and Saccharomyces spp while molds were identified as, Aspergillus spp., Pytium spp., Penicillium spp., Fusarium spp and Rhizopus spp. Of the five locations examined, the refuse dump area had the highest numbers of both aerobic and anaerobic organisms, followed by the arboretum while the cultivated land area recorded the lowest counts. The higher numbers of microorganisms observed in the gut sections and casts of the earthworms examined in this work reinforce the general concept that the gut and casts of earthworms show higher microbial diversity and activity than the surrounding soil. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (1): 49-58. Epub 2006 Mar 31.

  10. Effect of Earthworm Feeding Guilds on Ingested Dissimilatory Nitrate Reducers and Denitrifiers in the Alimentary Canal of the Earthworm ? †

    OpenAIRE

    Depkat-Jakob, Peter S.; Hilgarth, Maik; Horn, Marcus A; Drake, Harold L

    2010-01-01

    The earthworm gut is an anoxic nitrous oxide (N2O)-emitting microzone in aerated soils. In situ conditions of the gut might stimulate ingested nitrate-reducing soil bacteria linked to this emission. The objective of this study was to determine if dissimilatory nitrate reducers and denitrifiers in the alimentary canal were affected by feeding guilds (epigeic [Lumbricus rubellus], anecic [Lumbricus terrestris], and endogeic [Aporrectodea caliginosa]). Genes and gene transcripts of narG (encodes...

  11. Microflora dynamics in earthworms casts in an artificial soil (biosynthesol containing lactic acid oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alauzet Nathalie

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were performed to appreciate the presence of micro-organisms able to degrade OLA, in earthworms casts or in the surroundings. Worms were grown in biosynthesol, an artificial soil. The counting of bacteria and fungi in earthworms casts and in biosynthesol without earthworms suggested that earthworms ate some of the micro-organisms. The main filamentous fungi genera found were Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Fusarium and Penicillium. Previous results in the literature have shown that some species from the Aspergillus and Fusarium genera were able to degrade OLA and other aliphatic esters. It could be suggested that these two genera and some bacteria were responsible for the pre-degradation of OLA, and that earthworms might eat them.

  12. Earthworms modify microbial community structure and accelerate maize stover decomposition during vermicomposting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuxiang; Zhang, Yufen; Zhang, Quanguo; Xu, Lixin; Li, Ran; Luo, Xiaopei; Zhang, Xin; Tong, Jin

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, maize stover was vermicomposted with the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida. The results showed that, during vermicomposting process, the earthworms promoted decomposition of maize stover. Analysis of microbial communities of the vermicompost by high-throughput pyrosequencing showed more complex bacterial community structure in the substrate treated by the earthworms than that in the control group. The dominant microbial genera in the treatment with the earthworms were Pseudoxanthomonas, Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, Streptomyces, Cryptococcus, Guehomyces, and Mucor. Compared to the control group, the relative abundance of lignocellulose degradation microorganisms increased. The results indicated that the earthworms modified the structure of microbial communities during vermicomposting process, activated the growth of lignocellulose degradation microorganisms, and triggered the lignocellulose decomposition. PMID:26139410

  13. Mercury, cadmium and lead concentrations in different ecophysiological groups of earthworms in forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd and Pb by eight ecophysiologically distinct earthworm species was studied in 27 polluted and uncontaminated forest soils. Lowest tissue concentrations of Hg and Cd occurred in epigeic Lumbricus rubellus and highest in endogeic Octolasion cyaneum. Soils dominated by Dendrodrilus rubidus possess a high potential of risk of Pb biomagnification for secondary predators. Bioconcentration factors (soil-earthworm) followed the sequence ranked Cd > Hg > Pb. Ordination plots of redundancy analysis were used to compare HM concentrations in earthworm tissues with soil, leaf litter and root concentrations and with soil pH and CEC. Different ecological categories of earthworms are exposed to Hg, Cd and Pb in the topsoil by atmospheric deposition and accumulate them in their bodies. Species differences in HM concentrations largely reflect differences in food selectivity and niche separation. - Accumulation of non-essential heavy metals by earthworms is species-dependent and is affected by soil characteristics in natural forest soils

  14. Mercury, cadmium and lead concentrations in different ecophysiological groups of earthworms in forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Gregor; Zimmermann, Stefan [Soil Sciences, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Christie, Peter [Agricultural and Environmental Science Department, Queen' s University Belfast, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Frey, Beat [Soil Sciences, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)], E-mail: beat.frey@wsl.ch

    2008-12-15

    Bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd and Pb by eight ecophysiologically distinct earthworm species was studied in 27 polluted and uncontaminated forest soils. Lowest tissue concentrations of Hg and Cd occurred in epigeic Lumbricus rubellus and highest in endogeic Octolasion cyaneum. Soils dominated by Dendrodrilus rubidus possess a high potential of risk of Pb biomagnification for secondary predators. Bioconcentration factors (soil-earthworm) followed the sequence ranked Cd > Hg > Pb. Ordination plots of redundancy analysis were used to compare HM concentrations in earthworm tissues with soil, leaf litter and root concentrations and with soil pH and CEC. Different ecological categories of earthworms are exposed to Hg, Cd and Pb in the topsoil by atmospheric deposition and accumulate them in their bodies. Species differences in HM concentrations largely reflect differences in food selectivity and niche separation. - Accumulation of non-essential heavy metals by earthworms is species-dependent and is affected by soil characteristics in natural forest soils.

  15. Metal content of earthworms in sludge-amended soils: uptake and loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, E.F.; Malecki, M.R.; Cukic, Z.V.

    1985-11-01

    The widespread practice of landspreading of sludge has raised concern about increasing concentrations of potentially toxic metals in soils, with the possibility of these metals adversely impacting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Earthworms, as one of the largest components of the soil biota, are useful indicators of potentially toxic soil metal concentrations. The study describes the metal content of five metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in one earthworm species, Allolobophora tuberculata, as a function of varying soil metal concentrations in the same soil type and the ability of the earthworms to bioconcentrate the five metals. The rate of uptake of the five metals in earthworms with initially low concentrations of metals placed in a soil with high metal concentrations was evaluated for a 112 day period. The rate of loss of the five metals in earthworms with initially high metal concentrations placed in soil with low metal concentrations was also examined.

  16. Reduced greenhouse gas mitigation potential of no-tillage soils through earthworm activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, Ingrid M; van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Brussaard, Lijbert; van Groenigen, Jan Willem

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about rising greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations have spurred the promotion of no-tillage practices as a means to stimulate carbon storage and reduce CO2 emissions in agro-ecosystems. Recent research has ignited debate about the effect of earthworms on the GHG balance of soil. It is unclear how earthworms interact with soil management practices, making long-term predictions on their effect in agro-ecosystems problematic. Here we show, in a unique two-year experiment, that earthworm presence increases the combined cumulative emissions of CO2 and N2O from a simulated no-tillage (NT) system to the same level as a simulated conventional tillage (CT) system. We found no evidence for increased soil C storage in the presence of earthworms. Because NT agriculture stimulates earthworm presence, our results identify a possible biological pathway for the limited potential of no-tillage soils with respect to GHG mitigation. PMID:26337488

  17. Population genetics of freeze tolerance among natural populations of Populus balsamifera across the growing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Mitra; Barnes, William J; Olson, Matthew S

    2015-08-01

    Protection against freeze damage during the growing season influences the northern range limits of plants. Freeze tolerance and freeze avoidance are the two major freeze resistance strategies. Winter survival strategies have been extensively studied in perennials, but few have addressed them and their genetic basis during the growing season. We examined intraspecific phenotypic variation in freeze resistance of Populus balsamifera across latitude and the growing season. To investigate the molecular basis of this variation, we surveyed nucleotide diversity and examined patterns of gene expression in the poplar C-repeat binding factor (CBF) gene family. Foliar freeze tolerance exhibited latitudinal and seasonal variation indicative of natural genotypic variation. CBF6 showed signatures of recent selective sweep. Of the 46 SNPs surveyed across the six CBF homologs, only CBF2_619 exhibited latitudinal differences consistent with increased freeze tolerance in the north. All six CBF genes were cold inducible, but showed varying patterns of expression across the growing season. Some Poplar CBF homologs exhibited patterns consistent with historical selection and clinal variation in freeze tolerance documented here. However, the CBF genes accounted for only a small amount of the variation, indicating that other genes in this and other molecular pathways likely play significant roles in nature. PMID:25809016

  18. Earthworms influenced by reduced tillage, conventional tillage and energy forest in Swedish agricultural field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerloef, Jan (SLU, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)), Email: Jan.Lagerlof@ekol.slu.se; Paalsson, Olof; Arvidsson, Johan (SLU, Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2012-03-15

    We compared earthworm density, depth distribution and species composition in three soil cultivation experiments including the treatments ploughless tillage and mouldboard ploughing. Sampling was done in September 2005 and for one experiment also in 1994. By yearly sampling 1995-2005, earthworms in an energy forest of Salix viminalis were compared with those in an adjacent arable field. Sampling method was digging of soil blocks and hand sorting and formalin sampling in one cultivation experiment. Both methods were used in the energy forest and arable land comparison. In two soil cultivation experiments, highest abundances or biomass were found in ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was higher in the upper 10 cm, especially in the ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was significantly higher in the energy forest than in the arable field. Formalin sampling revealed c. 36% of the earthworm numbers found by digging in the energy forest and gave almost no earthworms in the arable field. In all treatments with soil cultivation, species living and feeding in the rhizosphere and soil dominated. One such species, Allolobophora chlorotica, was more abundant under mouldboard ploughing than ploughless tillage. Lumbricus terrestris, browsing on the surface and producing deep vertical burrows, was more common in the ploughless tillage. Species living and feeding close to the soil surface were almost only found in the energy forest, which had not been soil cultivated since 1984. The findings support earlier studies pointing out possibilities to encourage earthworms by reduced soil cultivation. This is one of the first published studies that followed earthworm populations in an energy forest plantation during several years. Explanation of earthworm reactions to management and environmental impacts should be done with consideration of the ecology of species or species groups. Earthworm sampling by formalin must always be interpreted with caution and calibrated by digging and hand-sorting sampling

  19. Effects of low voltage electrolysis and freezing on coliform content of contaminated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sewage sample was mixed with drinking water and subjected to low voltage (15V) electrolysis in the presence of 1% NaCl. The prepared sample was also kept in freezer with and without the presence of sodium chloride for 4-hours. Among these treatments the electrolysis proved to kill the coliforms, while the freezing reduced the bacterial content. Antibiotics sensitivity patterns revealed that certain of the coliform strains survived the freezing and thawing shocks. Nature of such surviving bacteria and need to study chemical parameters of electrolyzed water are discussed. (author)

  20. Comparison of heavy-metal uptake by Eisenia foetida with that of other common earthworms. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stafford, E.A.; Edwards, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Earthworms have been used in the field to indicate levels of soil pollution and in the laboratory for the ecotoxicological testing of industrial chemicals. An earthworm bioassay procedure developed at the Waterways Experiment Station (Vicksburg, Mississippi) was modified and evaluated as a method of providing information on heavy-metal bioavailability in contaminated soils and sediments from Europe. Eight soils/sediments containing elevated levels of a least one of the elements Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb were selected as well as a control and a reference soil. Six species of earthworm, including the WES bioassay earthworm E. foetida, and five field species were grown in the soils/sediments for periods of 15, 28 or 56 days. Concentrations of the elements Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb present in the earthworm samples (corrected for the presence of soil-derived metals within the earthworm gut) were compared between earthworm species from the same soil and for each earthworm species from a range of metal contaminated soils/sediments. A close linear relationship between metal uptake by E.foetida and the field species of earthworm emerged and good correlation between total (HNO3/HC104) soil Pb and Cd levels and earthworm tissue concentrations and between DTPA extractable soil Cu and Cc levels and earthworm tissue concentrations was observed.

  1. Denitrifying Bacteria in the Earthworm Gastrointestinal Tract and In Vivo Emission of Nitrous Oxide (N(inf2)O) by Earthworms

    OpenAIRE

    Karsten, G. R.; H. L. Drake

    1997-01-01

    Earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Octolasium lacteum) and gut homogenates did not produce CH(inf4), and methanogens were not readily culturable from gut material. In contrast, the numbers of culturable denitrifiers averaged 7 x 10(sup7) and 9 x 10(sup6) per g (dry weight) of gut material for L. rubellus and O. lacteum, respectively; these values were 256- and 35-fold larger than the numbers of culturable denitrifiers in the soil from which the earthworms were obtained. Anaerobically incubate...

  2. Freeze Protection in Gas Holders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Duursma, Gail

    2008-01-01

    In cold weather, the water seals of gasholders need protection from freez- ing to avoid compromising the seal. These holders have a large reservoir of “tank water” at the base which is below ground. At present freeze- protection is achieved by external heating of the seal water which is in a slotted channel called a cup. Electrical heating or circulation of heated tank water to the cup are examples of systems presently used. The tank water has a large thermal capacity and National Grid wishes to inves- tigate whether circulation of the tank water without external heating could provide su?cient energy input to avoid freezing. Only tanks in which the tank water is below ground are investigated in the report. The soil temperature under the reservoir at depth of 10m and lower is almost constant.

  3. Freezing singularities in water drops

    CERN Document Server

    Enriquez, Oscar R; Winkels, Koen G; Snoeijer, Jacco H

    2011-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video we show how a drop of water freezes into a singular shape when deposited on a cold surface. The process of solidification can be observed very clearly due to the change in refraction when water turns into ice. The drop remains approximately spherical during most of the process, with a freezing front moving upwards and smoothly following the interface. However, at the final stage of freezing, when the last cap of liquid turns into ice, a singular tip develops spontaneously. Interestingly, the sharp tip of the ice drop acts as a preferential site for deposition of water vapour, and a beautiful "tree" of ice crystals develops right at the tip. The tip singularity attracts the vapour in analogy to a sharp lightning rod attracting lightning.

  4. Water Freezing and Ice Melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma?olepsza, Edyta; Keyes, Tom

    2015-12-01

    The generalized replica exchange method (gREM) is designed to sample states with coexisting phases and thereby to describe strong first order phase transitions. The isobaric MD version of the gREM is presented and applied to the freezing of liquid water and the melting of hexagonal and cubic ice. It is confirmed that coexisting states are well-sampled. The statistical temperature as a function of enthalpy, TS(H), is obtained. Hysteresis between freezing and melting is observed and discussed. The entropic analysis of phase transitions is applied and equilibrium transition temperatures, latent heats, and surface tensions are obtained for hexagonal ice ? liquid and cubic ice ? liquid with excellent agreement with published values. A new method is given to assign water molecules among various symmetry types. Pathways for water freezing, ultimately leading to hexagonal ice, are found to contain intermediate layered structures built from hexagonal and cubic ice. PMID:26642983

  5. Freeze Protection in Gas Holders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Duursma, Gail

    2008-01-01

    In cold weather, the water seals of gasholders need protection from freez- ing to avoid compromising the seal. These holders have a large reservoir of “tank water” at the base which is below ground. At present freeze- protection is achieved by external heating of the seal water which is in a slotted channel called a cup. Electrical heating or circulation of heated tank water to the cup are examples of systems presently used. The tank water has a large thermal capacity and National Grid wishes to...

  6. Rapid bioassessment methods for assessing the toxicity of terrestrial waste sites at the Savannah River Site using the earthworm, Eisenia foetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted to assess the feasibility of using the earthworm, Eisenia foetida, to evaluate the toxicity of contaminated soils at the Savannah River Site. Survival was assessed in several uncontaminated soils, including sandy loams and clayey loams, as well as in soils contaminated with coal fines, ash, diesel fuel, and heavy metals. In addition, behavior responses, changes in biomass, and bioaccumulation of heavy metals were assessed as sublethal indicators of toxicity. The results indicate excellent survival of Eisenia foetida in uncontaminated sandy and clayey soils. No amendment of these uncontaminated soils or addition of food was necessary to sustain the worms for the 14-day test period. In contaminated soils, no significant mortality was observed, except in soils which have very low pH (< 3). However, sublethal responses were observed in earthworms exposed to several of the contaminated soils. These responses included worms clumping on the surface of the soil, worms clumping between the sides of the test container and the soil, increased burrowing times, reductions in biomass, and elevated concentrations of heavy metals in worm tissue

  7. Effects of metals on life cycle parameters of the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to field-contaminated, metal-polluted soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two control and eight field-contaminated, metal-polluted soils were inoculated with Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826). Three, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days after inoculation, earthworm survival, body weight, cocoon production and hatching rate were measured. Seventeen metals were analysed in E. fetida tissue, bulk soil and soil solution. Soil organic carbon content, texture, pH and cation exchange capacity were also measured. Cocoon production and hatching rate were more sensitive to adverse conditions than survival or weight change. Soil properties other than metal concentration impacted toxicity. The most toxic soils were organic-poor (1-10 g C kg-1), sandy soils (c. 74% sand), with intermediate metal concentrations (e.g. 7150-13,100 mg Pb kg-1, 2970-53,400 mg Zn kg-1). Significant relationships between soil properties and the life cycle parameters were determined. The best coefficients of correlation were generally found for texture, pH, Ag, Cd, Mg, Pb, Tl, and Zn both singularly and in multivariate regressions. Studies that use metal-amended artificial soils are not useful to predict toxicity of field multi-contaminated soils. - Soil pH, organic carbon content and texture can exert a greater influence on earthworm life cycle parameters than soil metal concentrations at metal-contaminated sites

  8. A review of studies performed to assess metal uptake by earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahmani, Johanne [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Berkshire, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: j.y.nahmani@reading.ac.uk; Hodson, Mark E. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Berkshire, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: m.e.hodson@reading.ac.uk; Black, Stuart [Department of Archaeology, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Whiteknights, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    Earthworms perform a number of essential functions in soil; the impacts of metals on earthworms are often investigated. In this review we consider the range of earthworm species, types of soil and forms of metal for which metal uptake and accumulation have been studied, the design of these experiments and the quantitative relationships that have been derived to predict earthworm metal body burden. We conclude that there is a need for more studies on earthworm species other than Eisenia fetida in order to apply the large existing database on this earthworm to other, soil dwelling species. To aid comparisons between studies agreement is needed on standard protocols that define exposure and depuration periods and the parameters, such as soil solution composition, soil chemical and physical properties to be measured. It is recommended that more field or terrestrial model ecosystem studies using real contaminated soil rather than metal-amended artificial soils are performed. - We review species, soil and experimental designs used to study metal uptake and accumulation by earthworms and suggest priorities for further studies.

  9. Impact of earthworms on trace element solubility in contaminated mine soils amended with green waste compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizmur, Tom, E-mail: t.p.sizmur@reading.ac.uk [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Palumbo-Roe, Barbara [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E. [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    The common practice of remediating metal contaminated mine soils with compost can reduce metal mobility and promote revegetation, but the effect of introduced or colonising earthworms on metal solubility is largely unknown. We amended soils from an As/Cu (1150 mgAs kg{sup -1} and 362 mgCu kg{sup -1}) and Pb/Zn mine (4550 mgPb kg{sup -1} and 908 mgZn kg{sup -1}) with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% compost and then introduced Lumbricus terrestris. Porewater was sampled and soil extracted with water to determine trace element solubility, pH and soluble organic carbon. Compost reduced Cu, Pb and Zn, but increased As solubility. Earthworms decreased water soluble Cu and As but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. The effect of the earthworms decreased with increasing compost amendment. The impact of the compost and the earthworms on metal solubility is explained by their effect on pH and soluble organic carbon and the environmental chemistry of each element. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Compost reduced the mobility of Cu, Pb and Zn. > Compost increased the mobility of As. > Earthworms decreased water soluble As and Cu but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. > These effects are explained by the impact of the earthworms and compost on pH and DOC. - The effect of earthworms on metal solubility was due to changes in dissolved organic carbon and pH but was reduced with increasing compost amendments.

  10. Conserved lamin A protein expression in differentiated cells in the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalidas, Ramamoorthy M; Raja, Subramanian Elaiya; Mydeen, Sheik Abdul Kader Nagoor Meeran; Samuel, Selvan Christyraj Johnson Retnaraj; Durairaj, Selvan Christyraj Jackson; Nino, Gopi D; Palanichelvam, Karuppaiah; Vaithi, Arumugaswami; Sudhakar, Sivasubramaniam

    2015-09-01

    Lamin A is an intermediate filament protein found in most of the differentiated vertebrate cells but absent in stem cells. It shapes the skeletal frame structure beneath the inner nuclear membrane of the cell nucleus. As there are few studies of the expression of lamin A in invertebrates, in the present work, we have analyzed the sequence, immunochemical conservation and expression pattern of lamin A protein in the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae, a model organism for tissue regeneration. The expression of lamin A has been confirmed in E. eugeniae by immunoblot. Its localization in the nuclear membrane has been observed by immunohistochemistry using two different rabbit anti-sera raised against human lamin A peptides, which are located at the C-terminus of the lamin A protein. These two antibodies detected 70?kDa lamin A protein in mice and a single 65?kDa protein in the earthworm. The Oct-4 positive undifferentiated blastemal tissues of regenerating earthworm do not express lamin A, while the Oct-4 negative differentiated cells express lamin A. This pattern was also confirmed in the earthworm prostate gland. The present study is the first evidence for the immunochemical identification of lamin A and Oct-4 in the earthworm. Along with the partial sequence obtained from the earthworm genome, the present results suggest that lamin A protein and its expression pattern is conserved from the earthworm to humans. PMID:25858151

  11. Impact of earthworms on trace element solubility in contaminated mine soils amended with green waste compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The common practice of remediating metal contaminated mine soils with compost can reduce metal mobility and promote revegetation, but the effect of introduced or colonising earthworms on metal solubility is largely unknown. We amended soils from an As/Cu (1150 mgAs kg-1 and 362 mgCu kg-1) and Pb/Zn mine (4550 mgPb kg-1 and 908 mgZn kg-1) with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% compost and then introduced Lumbricus terrestris. Porewater was sampled and soil extracted with water to determine trace element solubility, pH and soluble organic carbon. Compost reduced Cu, Pb and Zn, but increased As solubility. Earthworms decreased water soluble Cu and As but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. The effect of the earthworms decreased with increasing compost amendment. The impact of the compost and the earthworms on metal solubility is explained by their effect on pH and soluble organic carbon and the environmental chemistry of each element. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Compost reduced the mobility of Cu, Pb and Zn. ? Compost increased the mobility of As. ? Earthworms decreased water soluble As and Cu but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. ? These effects are explained by the impact of the earthworms and compost on pH and DOC. - The effect of earthworms on metal solubility was due to changes in dissolved organic carbon and pH but was reduced with increasing compost amendments.

  12. Earthworms drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities in post-mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrák, Obd?ej; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Previous field observations indicated that earthworms promote late-successional plant species and reduce collembolan numbers at post-mining sites in the Sokolov coal mining district (Czech Republic). Here, we established a laboratory pot experiment to test the effect of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm.) and litter of low, medium, and high quality (the grass Calamagrostis epigejos, the willow Salix caprea, and the alder Alnus glutinosa, respectively) on late successional plants (grasses Arrhenatherum elatius and Agrostis capillaris, legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium medium, and non-leguminous dicots Centaurea jacea and Plantago lanceolata) in spoil substrate originating from Sokolov post-mining sites and naturally inhabited by abundant numbers of Collembola. The earthworms increased plant biomass, especially that of the large-seeded A. elatius, but reduced the number of plant individuals, mainly that of the small-seeded A. capillaris and both legumes. Litter quality affected plant biomass, which was highest with S. caprea litter, but did not change the number of plant individuals. Litter quality did not modify the effect of earthworms on plants; the effect of litter quality and earthworms was only additive. Species composition of Collembola community was altered by litter quality, but earthworms reduced the number of individuals, increased the number of species, and increased species evenness consistently across the litter qualities. Because the results of this experiment were consistent with the field observations, we conclude that earthworms help drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities on post-mining sites.

  13. Effects of heavy metals on the litter consumption by the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus in field soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbelen, P.H.F.; Koolhaas, J.E.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Aim of this study was to determine effects of heavy metals on litter consumption by the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus in National Park the "Brabantsche Biesbosch", the Netherlands. Adult L. rubellus were collected from 12 polluted and from one unpolluted field site. Earthworms collected at the unpolluted site were kept in their native soil and in soil from each of the 12 Biesbosch sites. Earthworms collected in the Biesbosch were kept in their native soils. Non-polluted poplar (Populus sp.) litter was offered as a food source and litter consumption and earthworm biomass were determined after 54 days. Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations were determined in soil, pore water and 0.01 M CaCl2 extracts of the soil and in earthworms. In spite of low available metal concentrations in the polluted soils, Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations in L. rubellus were increased. The litter consumption rate per biomass was positively related to internal Cd and Zn concentrations of earthworms collected from the Biesbosch and kept in native soil. A possible explanation is an increased demand for energy, needed for the regulation and detoxification of heavy metals. Litter consumption per biomass of earthworms from the reference site and kept in the polluted Biesbosch soils, was not related to any of the determined soil characteristics and metal concentrations. ?? 2005 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Toxic effects of acetochlor and methamidophos on earthworm Eisenia fetida in phaiozem, northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi-xing, Zhou; Qian-ru, Zhang; Ji-dong, Liang

    2006-01-01

    Acetochlor and methamidophos are two important agrochemicals which are widely applied to agricultural production in northeast China. The investigation on the earthworm Eisenia fetida as an important type of soil animals exposed to single and binary-combined contamination of acetochlor and methamidophos was thus carried out. The single toxic effect test showed that the two agrochemicals had their toxicity to the earthworms living in phaiozem. Acetochlor had a stronger acute toxic effect on the earthworms than methamidophos. The mortality of the earthworms exposed to individual acetochlor and methamidophos changed with an increase in the exposure time and the exposed concentrations. The LD50 value of acetochlor and methamidophos toxic to the earthworms was 115.6-275.3 and 29.5-228.6 mg/kg, respectively. The weight of the earthworms was a more sensitive index compared to the mortality in indicating toxic effects of acetochlor and methamidophos in phaiozem. When considering both the mortality and the body-weight change, the combined pollution of acetochlor and methamidophos in phaiozem resulted in their synergic toxic effects on the earthworms. PMID:17078554

  15. Acute toxicity of virgin and used engine oil enriched with copper nano particles in the earthworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabandeh, M.; Koohi, M. K.; Roshani, A.; Shahroziyan, E.; Badri, B.; Pourfallah, A.; Shams, Gh; Hobbenaghi, R.; Sadeghi-Hashjin, G.

    2011-07-01

    In spite of development of nanotechnology and creation of new opportunities for industry, new applications and products initiated by this technology may cause harmful effects on human health and environment. Unfortunately, there is no sufficient information on the harmful effects caused by application of some nano materials; the current knowledge in this field is limited solely to the nano particles but not the final products. Nano cupper particles, as one of the common materials produced in industrial scale is widely used as additives into engine oil to reduce friction and improve lubrication. However, the difference between the effects of virgin and used conventional engine oil (CEO) and the engine oil containing cupper nano particles (NEO) on the environment is not known. Earthworm, as a one of the species which could live and survive in different sorts of earth and has a certain role in protecting the soil structure and fertility, was used in this experiment. In accordance with the recommended method of OECD.1984, Filter Paper test in 24 and 48 h based on 8 concentrations in the range of 3×10-3 - 24×10-3 ml/cm2 and Artificial Soil test in 7 and 14 days based on 7 concentrations in the range of 0.1 mg/kg - 100 g/kg were carried out to study earthworms in terms of lifetime (LC50), morphology and pathology. It was shown that the 48 h LC50 for virgin CEO, virgin NEO, used CEO(8000 km) and used NEO (8000 km) were 6×10-3, 23×10-3, 24×10-3 and 16×10-3 ml/cm2 respectively. Furthermore, 14-day LC50 in artificial soil for all cases were above 100 g/kg. It is concluded that virgin CEO is more toxic than virgin NEO. Meanwhile, the CEO shows significant reduction in toxicity after consumption and the used NEO shows more toxicity in comparison to virgin product. It seems that more investigations on the effects of final products specifically after consumption is necessary because the products after consumption have the most contact with environment and subsequently human health.

  16. Acute toxicity of virgin and used engine oil enriched with copper nano particles in the earthworm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of development of nanotechnology and creation of new opportunities for industry, new applications and products initiated by this technology may cause harmful effects on human health and environment. Unfortunately, there is no sufficient information on the harmful effects caused by application of some nano materials; the current knowledge in this field is limited solely to the nano particles but not the final products. Nano cupper particles, as one of the common materials produced in industrial scale is widely used as additives into engine oil to reduce friction and improve lubrication. However, the difference between the effects of virgin and used conventional engine oil (CEO) and the engine oil containing cupper nano particles (NEO) on the environment is not known. Earthworm, as a one of the species which could live and survive in different sorts of earth and has a certain role in protecting the soil structure and fertility, was used in this experiment. In accordance with the recommended method of OECD.1984, Filter Paper test in 24 and 48 h based on 8 concentrations in the range of 3x10-3 - 24x10-3 ml/cm2 and Artificial Soil test in 7 and 14 days based on 7 concentrations in the range of 0.1 mg/kg - 100 g/kg were carried out to study earthworms in terms of lifetime (LC50), morphology and pathology. It was shown that the 48 h LC50 for virgin CEO, virgin NEO, used CEO(8000 km) and used NEO (8000 km) were 6x10-3, 23x10-3, 24x10-3 and 16x10-3 ml/cm2 respectively. Furthermore, 14-day LC50 in artificial soil for all cases were above 100 g/kg. It is concluded that virgin CEO is more toxic than virgin NEO. Meanwhile, the CEO shows significant reduction in toxicity after consumption and the used NEO shows more toxicity in comparison to virgin product. It seems that more investigations on the effects of final products specifically after consumption is necessary because the products after consumption have the most contact with environment and subsequently human health.

  17. Time dependence of immersion freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Welti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The time dependence of immersion freezing was studied for temperatures between 236 K and 243 K. Droplets with single immersed, size-selected 400 nm and 800 nm kaolinite particles were produced at 300 K, cooled down to supercooled temperatures typical for mixed-phase cloud conditions, and the fraction of frozen droplets with increasing residence time was detected. To simulate the conditions of immersion freezing in mixed-phase clouds we used the Zurich Ice Nucleation Chamber (ZINC and its vertical extension, the Immersion Mode Cooling chAmber (IMCA. We observed that the frozen fraction of droplets increased with increasing residence time in the chamber. This suggests that there is a time dependence of immersion freezing and supports the importance of a stochastic component in the ice nucleation process. The rate at which droplets freeze was observed to decrease towards higher temperatures and smaller particle sizes. Comparison of the laboratory data with four different ice nucleation models, three based on classical nucleation theory with different representations of the particle surface properties and one singular, suggest that the classical, stochastic approach combined with a distribution of contact angles is able to reproduce the ice nucleation observed in these experiments most accurately. Using the models to calculate the increase in frozen fraction at typical mixed-phase cloud temperatures over an extended period of time, yields an equivalent effect of ?1 K temperature shift and an increase in time scale by a factor of ~10.

  18. Concentration of cadmium in Coturnix quail fed earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoewsand, G.S.; Bache, C.A.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Lisk, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Earthworms (Lumbriscus terrestris), collected from soils in southern Ontario, Canada, that had no previous history of cadmium application, contained 3 ppm cadmium. They were fed to Coturnix quail as 60% dry weight of their diet for 63 d to examine the extent of deposition of native cadmium. Cadmium in kidney, liver, and excreta was greatly elevated above that of birds fed a control diet without worms. No increase in the level of cadmium in eggs was found. The factors affecting the association of cadmium in soils and worms and their assimilation and possible toxic effects in foraging birds are discussed.

  19. La fecundidad de las lombrices rojas – (Fecundity of red earthworms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuldt, Miguel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenDesde fines de la década del 80 se ha ampliado sustancialmente elconocimiento acerca de la biología reproductiva de Eisenia fetida y Eisenia andrei, permitiendo optimizar las estrategias de conducción de los lombricultivos. La fecundidad es uno de los parámetros reprobiológicos que más allá de las fluctuaciones esperadas (0-9 lombrices / cocón ha generado discusión.SummarySince the late 1980s, knowledge about the reproductive biology of Eisenia fetida and Eisenia andrei has been applied to optimize management strategies in vermiculture. Among the reproductive biological parameters, fecundity, expected to fluctuate between 0-9 earthworms/cocoon, has generated much discussion.

  20. Empirical maximum lifespan of earthworms is twice that of mice

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, Christian; Baerselman, Rob; Posthuma, Leo

    2007-01-01

    We considered a Gompertzian model for the population dynamics of Eisenia andrei case-cohorts in artificial OECD soil under strictly controlled conditions. The earthworm culture was kept between 18 and 22°C at a constant pH of 5.0. In all, 77 lumbricids were carefully followed for almost 9 years, until the oldest died. The Eisenia median longevity is 4.25 years and the oldest specimen was 8.73 years. Eisenia cocoons were hand-sorted every 3 weeks, washed in distilled water, placed in Petri dis...

  1. Co-Speciation of Earthworms and their nephridial symbionts, Acidovorax Spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie Braad; Fritz, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Earthworms (Annelida; Lumbricidae) harbour species-specific symbiotic bacteria in their nephridia (excretory organs) where the symbionts densely colonize a specific part of the nephridia called the ampulla [1]. The symbiosis is universal among earthworms, the symbionts form a monophyletic cluster within the genus Acidovorax [2], and they are transmitted vertically [3]. For these reasons, we suggest that the earthworm-Acidovorax association has evolved by co-speciation. This hypothesis was tested by a comparative study of earthworm and symbiont phylogeny. Different earthworm species were collected in Denmark and DNA was extracted from their nephridia. Earthworm phylogeny was resolved on the basis of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) by direct PCR amplification and sequencing from the nephridial DNA extract. Symbiont 16S rRNA gene sequences were retrieved by cloning and sequencing the extracted DNA. The presence of the symbionts in the ampulla was verified by performing fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on all worm species using an Acidovorax-specific probe. Earthworm and symbiont phylogeny was largely congruent, indicating that host and symbiont have indeed co-evolved since the initial bacterial colonization of an ancestral lumbricid worm. However, the association is complicated by the recent discovery of additional, putative symbiotic bacteria which have been detected in the ampulla of several earthworms by FISH. Identity, distribution among earthworms, and function of these non-Acidovorax symbionts are still to be investigated. [1] Knop, J. 1926. Z Morph Ökol Tiere, 6(3):588-624. [2] Schramm, A. et al. 2003. Environ Microbiol 5(9):804-809. [3] Davidson, S.K. & Stahl, D.A. 2006. Appl Environ Microbiol 72(1):769-775.

  2. Well-plate freeze-drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trnka, Hjalte; Rantanen, Jukka; Grohganz, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context: Freeze-drying in presence of excipients is a common practice to stabilize biomacromolecular formulations. The composition of this formulation is known to affect the quality of the final product. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate freeze-drying in well-plates as a high throughput platform for formulation screening of freeze-dried products. Methods: Model formulations consisting of mannitol, sucrose and bovine serum albumin were freeze-dried in brass well plates, pl...

  3. When hot water freezes before cold

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, J. I.

    2006-01-01

    I suggest that the origin of the Mpemba effect (the freezing of hot water before cold) is freezing-point depression by solutes, either gaseous or solid, whose solubility decreases with increasing temperature so that they are removed when water is heated. They are concentrated ahead of the freezing front by zone refining in water that has not been heated, reduce the temperature of the freezing front, and thereby reduce the temperature gradient and heat flux, slowing the progr...

  4. Using of ants and earthworm to modify of soil biological quality and its effect on cocoa seedlings growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilowasid, Laode Muhammad Harjoni; Budianto, Wayan; Syaf, Hasbullah; Tufaila, Muhammad; Safuan, La Ode

    2015-09-01

    Ant and earthworm can act as soil ecosystem engineers. Ant and earthworm are very dominant in smallholder cocoa plantation. The first experiment aimed to study the effect of the abundance of ants and earthworms on soil microbial activity and microfauna, and the second experiment to analyse the effect of soil modified by ants and earthworms on the cocoa seedlings growth. Ant (Ponera sp.) and earthworm (Pontoscolex sp.) collected from smallholder cocoa plantation, and kept in a container up to applied. In the first experiment, nine combinations of the abundance of ants and earthworms applied to each pot containing 3 kg of soil from smallholder cocoa plantation, and each combination of the abundance was repeated five times in a completely randomized design. After the soil was incubated for thirty days, ants and earthworms removed from the soil using hand sorting techniques. Soil from each pot was analysed for soil microbial activity, abundance of flagellates and nematodes. In the second experiment, the soil in each pot was planted with cocoa seedlings and maintained up to ninety days. The results showed the FDA hydrolytic activity of microbes, the abundance of flagellates and nematodes between the combination of the abundance of ants and earthworms have been significantly different. Dry weight of root, shoot and seedling cacao have been significantly different between the combination of the abundance of ants and earthworms. It was concluded that the combination of the abundance of ants and earthworms can be used in ecological engineering to improve soil quality.

  5. Production and utilization of earthworms as feeds for broilers in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Barcelo P., M.

    1988-01-01

    A study on the production of earthworms was conducted using a 50 : 50 by volume of animal manures in combination with Leucaena leucocephala. A combination of sawdust, rice hull and rice bran at a proportion of 55, 35 and 10 respectively was also used as a substrate. The earthworms in each box were supplemented with either 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 g kitchen scraps. On harvesting, hand picking the earthworms from the castings and arranging the contents of the box in a pyramid were tested. Blanc...

  6. Survival Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    David A. Eubanks

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the theoretical conditions necessary for some subject of study to survive forever. A probabilistic analysis leads to some prerequisite conditions for preserving, say, electronic data indefinitely into the future. The general analysis would also apply to a species, a civilization, or any subject of study, as long as there is a definition of "survival" available. A distinction emerges between two approaches to longevity: being many or being smart. Natural ...

  7. Conditions driving chemical freeze-out

    OpenAIRE

    Tawfik, A

    2004-01-01

    We propose the entropy density as the thermodynamic condition driving best the chemical freeze-out in heavy-ion collisions. Taking its value from lattice calculations at zero chemical potential, we find that it is excellent in reproducing the experimentally estimated freeze-out parameters. The two characteristic endpoints in the freeze-out diagram are reproduced as well.

  8. Earthworm coelomocytes as nanoscavenger of ZnO NPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shruti; Kushwah, Tanuja; Yadav, Shweta

    2014-05-01

    Earthworms can `biotransform' or `biodegrade' chemical contaminants, rendering them harmless in their bodies, and can bioaccumulate them in their tissues. They `absorb' the dissolved chemicals through their moist `body wall' due to the interstitial water and also ingest by `mouth' while soil passes through the gut. Since the advent of the nanotechnology era, the environmental sink has been continuously receiving engineered nanomaterials as well as their derivatives. Our current understanding of the potential impact of nanomaterials and their natural scavenger is limited. In the present investigation, we studied the cellular uptake of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) by coelomocytes especially by chloragocytes of Eisenia fetida and their role as nanoscavenger. Results from exposure to 100- and 50-nm ZnO NPs indicate that coelomocytes of the earthworm E. fetida show no significant DNA damage at a dose lower than 3 mg/l and have the potential ability to uptake ZnO NPs from the soil ecosystem and transform them into microparticles.

  9. USE OF VARIOUS BAITS FOR EXTRACTION OF EARTHWORMS FROM VERMICOMPOST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kostecka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During vermicomposting, earthworm grower has to overcome a lot of different problems. For instance, in case of a sudden requirement to sell earthworms it is useful to have the ability to collect them in one place. Fresh food extraction is an effective and neutral way to do it. The efficiency of gathering and extracting E. fetida from the vermicompost was studied, using a fresh bait method. Experiments were carried out in the laboratory (at the mean temperature of 20±0.5 °C in pots filled with vermicompost. Generally, two hundreds of adult E. fetida were put in every pot and left there for 24 hours. After such acclimatization, various baits were inserted to every pot. Different experiments allowed to conclude that: 1 repeated bait exchange was more efficient in extracting worms from vermicompost than bait laid once for a longer time; 2 extracting worms from the bait in the morning was quicker than extracting them in the evening; 3 addition of valerian (Valeriana officinalis, nettle (Urtica dioica, and flaxseeds to cattle manure could resulted in better extraction than pure manure; 4 dry valerian was more effective than steamed one, but on other hand, steaming of nettle and flaxseeds was giving better results in collecting worms in the bait.

  10. LBP/BPI homologue in Eisenia andrei earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škanta, František; Procházková, Petra; Roubalová, Radka; Dvo?ák, Ji?í; Bilej, Martin

    2016-01-01

    LBP/BPIs are pattern recognition receptors that are often present in vertebrates and in invertebrates, and they play a defense role against pathogens. We have identified 1698 bp cDNA sequence from the Eisenia andrei earthworm with predicted amino acid sequence that shares homology with the LBP/BPI family (EaLBP/BPI). Sequence analysis of EaLBP/BPI proved the existence of two conserved domains with the potential ability to bind LPS. The predicted molecular mass of the EaLBP/BPI protein is 53.5 kDa, and its high basicity (pI 9.8) is caused by its high arginine content. Constitutive transcription of the Ealbp/bpi gene was shown in all tested tissues, with the highest level in coelomocytes and seminal vesicles; the lowest level was detected in the intestine. On the contrary, another earthworm LPS-binding molecule CCF (coelomic cytolytic factor) was expressed only in the intestine and coelomocytes. In E. andrei coelomocytes, the transcription of Ealbp/bpi gene was up-regulated in response to bacterial stimulation, reaching a maximum at 8 and 16 h post stimulation with Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, respectively. PMID:26297397

  11. Biosynthesis of luminescent quantum dots in an earthworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stürzenbaum, S. R.; Höckner, M.; Panneerselvam, A.; Levitt, J.; Bouillard, J.-S.; Taniguchi, S.; Dailey, L.-A.; Khanbeigi, R. Ahmad; Rosca, E. V.; Thanou, M.; Suhling, K.; Zayats, A. V.; Green, M.

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of designer solid-state materials by living organisms is an emerging field in bio-nanotechnology. Key examples include the use of engineered viruses as templates for cobalt oxide (Co3O4) particles, superparamagnetic cobalt-platinum alloy nanowires and gold-cobalt oxide nanowires for photovoltaic and battery-related applications. Here, we show that the earthworm's metal detoxification pathway can be exploited to produce luminescent, water-soluble semiconductor cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots that emit in the green region of the visible spectrum when excited in the ultraviolet region. Standard wild-type Lumbricus rubellus earthworms were exposed to soil spiked with CdCl2 and Na2TeO3 salts for 11 days. Luminescent quantum dots were isolated from chloragogenous tissues surrounding the gut of the worm, and were successfully used in live-cell imaging. The addition of polyethylene glycol on the surface of the quantum dots allowed for non-targeted, fluid-phase uptake by macrophage cells.

  12. PROTECTION OF FREEZE-DRIED ESCHERICHIA COLI BY TREHALOSE UPON EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeze-dried cultures of wild-type and genetically engineered strains of Escherichia coli lost their colony-forming ability upon exposure to air, visible light, and certain relative humidity levels. mendment with 100 mM trehalose increased their survival from 2000 to 4000% for up...

  13. Earthworm Ecology in the Northern Part of Iran: With an Emphasis on Compost Worm Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Omrani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Northern part of Iran was chosen as study area. Four hundred samples of earthworms were collected by three methods (hand-sorting, chemical and heat extraction of which 352 and 20 were mature and immature earthworms, respectively from different parts of the area. Following the method introduced by Graff the earthworms were placed in formaldehyde (5 and 10% and ethyl alcohol (60%. The morphological observations showed the presence of eight species including seven specimens of Lumbricidae: A. caliginosa, A. kaznakovi, A. jassyensis, A. rosea, D. veneta, D. byblica, E. fetida and a specimen of Megascolecidae: P. indica. The abundance of E. fetida was 18.1% with large distribution over the area that makes this species an easily available earthworm in rearing industry and in organic waste management.

  14. Glyphosate herbicide affects belowground interactions between earthworms and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi in a model ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Johann G.; Heigl, Florian; Ruess, Liliane; Grabmaier, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    Herbicides containing glyphosate are widely used in agriculture and private gardens, however, surprisingly little is known on potential side effects on non-target soil organisms. In a greenhouse experiment with white clover we investigated, to what extent a globally-used glyphosate herbicide affects interactions between essential soil organisms such as earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We found that herbicides significantly decreased root mycorrhization, soil AMF spore biomass, vesicles and propagules. Herbicide application and earthworms increased soil hyphal biomass and tended to reduce soil water infiltration after a simulated heavy rainfall. Herbicide application in interaction with AMF led to slightly heavier but less active earthworms. Leaching of glyphosate after a simulated rainfall was substantial and altered by earthworms and AMF. These sizeable changes provide impetus for more general attention to side-effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on key soil organisms and their associated ecosystem services.

  15. Earthworms as soil quality indicators: local and scientific knowledge in rice management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Rodrigues de LIMA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmers from Camaquã, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were shown to have a holistic view of the quality of the soil they are cultivating. Progress towards sustainable land management will come from the synergy of both local and formal scientific knowledge. However, the literature on soil quality largely fails to address such integration. The objective of the present work was to highlight the potential use of earthworms in indicating soil quality from a rice farmers' perspective and using a formal scientific assessment in Camaquã. From a study of local knowledge of farmers and soil analysis it was shown that earthworms are an important component of soil quality. Although the farmers considered that earthworms indicated the quality of their soils, they hardly used them as indicators, due to their limited observation of these animals. A decision-support system to evaluate the options for using earthworms in sustainable management is needed in rice production systems.

  16. Earthworms in Central European Wetlands: Do they contribute to biodiversity of biosphere reserves ?.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav

    Praha : Komitét MAB, 2002. s. 37. [EuroMAB Workshop. 13.10.2002-18.10.2002, Mikulov] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : earthworms * Central European Wetlands Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  17. Assemblages of earthworms and collembolans in fen soil as affected by landslide.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sterzy?ska, M.; Nicia, P.; Pižl, Václav

    Coimbra : University of Coimbra, 2012. s. 30. [International Colloquium on Soil Zoology /16./. 06.08.2012-10.08.2012, Coimbra] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : earthworms * collembolans * fen soil * landslide Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  18. The effects of earthworms on microbial communities: comparison of soil and cave populations of Aporrectodea rosea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav; Elhottová, Dana; Koubová, Anna; Kahounová, Ludmila

    Coimbra : University of Coimbra, 2012. s. 104. [International Colloquium on Soil Zoology /16./. 06.08.2012-10.08.2012, Coimbra] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : earthworms * microbial communities * soil and cave populations Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  19. Earthworm assemblages in vineyards under different production systems: from conventional to biological viticulture.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav

    Coimbra : University of Coimbra , 2012. s. 28. [International Colloquium on Soil Zoology /16./. 06.08.2012-10.08.2012, Coimbra ] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : earthworm assemblages * vineyards * biological viticulture Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  20. Taxonomic composition and physiological and biochemical properties of bacteria in the digestive tracts of earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byzov, B. A.; Tikhonov, V. V.; Nechitailo, T. Yu.; Demin, V. V.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2015-03-01

    Several hundred bacterial strains belonging to different taxa were isolated and identified from the digestive tracts of soil and compost earthworms. Some physiological and biochemical properties of the bacteria were characterized. The majority of intestinal bacteria in the earthworms were found to be facultative anaerobes. The intestinal isolates as compared to the soil ones had elevated activity of proteases and dehydrogenases. In addition, bacteria associated with earthworms' intestines are capable of growth on humic acids as a sole carbon source. Humic acid stimulated the growth of the intestinal bacteria to a greater extent than those of the soil ones. In the digestive tracts, polyphenol oxidase activity was found. Along with the data on the taxonomic separation of the intestinal bacteria, the features described testified to the presence of a group of bacteria in the earthworms intestines that is functionally characteristic and is different from the soil bacteria.

  1. Effects of earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus on distribution of acaricida dicofol in a Podzolic soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of earthworm on pesticides distribution in a Podzolic soil. The experimental model used was a microcosm filled with sieved soil to a final density of 1.25 g cm-3. In microcosms with or without Pontoscolex corethurus 14C-dicofol was applied, and after a period of 52 days strong rain simulation was performed. In the layer of 0-1 cm 75% of the radioactivity in the soil without earthworms were recovered, and in the soil with earthworms the recovery was 9% inferior. In the deepest layers the values of the radioactivity were below 20% and the differences among the treatments did not surpass 2%. This earthworm species of large occurrence in Brazil showed no important influence on the distribution of the pesticide in soil

  2. [Effects of methamidophos and copper on ecological detoxification of acetochlor by earthworm in phaeozem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jidong; Zhou, Qixing

    2006-10-01

    By using microcosm culture method, this paper studied the dynamic changes of acetochlor degradation by earthworm in phaeozem with methamidophos or copper addition, aimed to approach the feasibility of using earthworm to intensify the detoxification of acetochlor. The results showed that the dynamics of acetochlor degradation accorded with the first-order reaction kinetics, whether earthworm existed or not. The activities of earthworm accelerated the detoxification of acetochlor, and the coexistence of methamidophos or copper with acetochlor evidently inhibited the degradation of acetochlor. The coexistence of methamidophos and acetochlor or of copper and higher concentration acetochlor altered the dynamics of acetochlor degradation, while the coexistence of copper and lower concentration acetochlor didn't have any obvious effect on the detoxification of acetochlor. PMID:17209401

  3. Effects of earthworms on physicochemical properties and microbial profiles during vermicomposting of fresh fruit and vegetable wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kui; Li, Fusheng; Wei, Yongfen; Fu, Xiaoyong; Chen, Xuemin

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of earthworms on physicochemical and microbial properties during vermicomposting of fresh fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW) by contrasting two decomposing systems of FVW with and without earthworms for 5weeks. Compared to control treatment (without earthworms), vermicomposting treatment resulted in a rapid decrease of electrical conductivity and losses of total carbon and nitrogen from the 2nd week. Quantitative PCR displayed that earthworms markedly enhanced bacterial and fungal densities, showing the higher values than control, during the whole decomposition process. In addition, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis combined with sequencing analysis revealed that earthworms pronouncedly modified bacterial and fungal community structures, through broadening the community diversities of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Ascomycotina. These results suggest that the presence of earthworms promoted the activity and population of bacteria and fungi, and modified their communities, thus altering the decomposition pathway of fresh FVW. PMID:25118152

  4. Earthworms - role in soil fertility to the use in medicine and as a food

    OpenAIRE

    M Grdiša; K Grši?; MD Grdiša

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms are important regulators of soil structure and dynamics of soil organic matter. They are a major component of soil fauna communities in most ecosystems and comprise a large proportion of macro fauna biomass. Their activities are beneficial because they can enhance soil nutrient cycling through the rapid incorporation of detritus into mineral soil. However, mucus production associated with water excretion in earthworm guts also enhances the activity of other beneficial soil microorg...

  5. Earthworms and Humans in Vitro: Characterizing Evolutionarily Conserved Stress and Immune Responses to Silver Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, Yuya; Engelmann, Péter; Foldbjerg, Rasmus; Szabó, Mariann; Somogyi, Ildikó; Pollák, Edit; Molnár, László; Autrup, Herman; Sutherland, Duncan S; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck James; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the potential threats of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to ecosystem health, with no detailed report existing on the stress and immune responses of soil invertebrates. Here we use earthworm primary cells, cross-referencing to human cell cultures with a particular emphasis on the conserved biological processes, and provide the first in vitro analysis of molecular and cellular toxicity mechanisms in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to AgNPs (83 ± 22 nm). While we observed a...

  6. Earthworms and radionuclides, with experimental investigations on the uptake and exchangeability of radiocaesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.L.; Bell, J.N.B. [Imperial College, Silwood Park, Ascot (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biology

    1995-04-01

    The potential influence of earthworm activity on the mobility of radionuclides in soils and their subsequent availability for uptake by plants and transfer to higher trophic levels is briefly reviewed. The accumulation of caesium by the earthworm Aporrectodea longa from soil and from plant litter was investigated in laboratory experiments, as was the effect of reworking (through burrowing and ingestion) soil and soil with added organic material, on the extractability of caesium (ammonium acetate extraction). (author).

  7. Agricultural management affects earthworm and termite diversity across humid to semi-arid tropical zones

    OpenAIRE

    Ayuke, F.O.; Pulleman, M.M.; Vanlauwe, B.; Goede, R.G.M. de; Six, J.; Csuzdi, C.; Brussaard, L.

    2011-01-01

    Earthworm and termite diversity were studied in 12 long-term agricultural field trials across the sub-humid to semi-arid tropical zones of Eastern and Western Africa. In each trial, treatments with high and low soil organic C were chosen to represent contrasts in long-term soil management effects, including tillage intensity, organic matter and nutrient management and crop rotations. For each trial, a fallow representing a relatively undisturbed reference was also sampled. Earthworm taxonomic...

  8. Inhibitory of Encapsulated Earthworm Extract (Lumbricus rubellus) on Pathogenic Bacteria in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    L. Istiqomah; H. Herdian; E. Damayanti; S. N. Hayati; H. Julendra

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the inhibitory of earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) extract (ECT) and encapsulated earthworm extract (ECT-t) as poultry feed additive against some pathogenic bacteria. Earthwom extract was prepared by dekokta method with water at 90 ºC then encapsulated by spray drying with maltodextrin as filler. In vitro antibacterial activity was performed using dilution method against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella pullorum, and Pseudomonas ae...

  9. The earthworm—Verminephrobacter symbiosis: an emerging experimental system to study extracellular symbiosis

    OpenAIRE

    MarieBraadLund; KasperUrupKjeldsen; AndreasSchramm

    2014-01-01

    Almost all Lumbricid earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) harbor extracellular species-specific bacterial symbionts of the genus Verminephrobacter (Betaproteobacteria) in their nephridia. The symbionts have a beneficial effect on host reproduction and likely live on their host’s waste products. They are vertically transmitted and presumably associated with earthworms already at the origin of Lumbricidae 62 – 136 million years ago. The Verminephrobacter genomes carry signs of bottleneck-induc...

  10. Infestation of natural populations of earthworm cocoons by rhabditid and cephalobid nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraglund, HO; Ekelund, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    Nematodes infested 13 of 100 earthworm cocoons from a compost pile and 17 of 197 cocoons from a permanent pasture soil. Between one and 2000 nematodes were found within the infested cocoons. All nematodes found in cocoons from the compost pile belonged to the genus Rhabditis, while Rhabditis spp. as well as members of Cephalobidae infested earthworm cocoons in the pasture soil. In cultures established from cocoons found in the pasture soil, at least five different types of nematodes belonging to...

  11. Implementation of earthworm-assisted constructed wetlands to treat wastewater and possibility of using alternative plants in constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Chiarawatchai, Nathasith

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to add the earthworms into the constructed wetlands, both in Germany and Thailand, in order to investigate whether they could improve the treatment performances. For Germany, earthworm-assisted constructed wetlands exhibited better treatment efficiency than conventional vertical subsurface-flow constructed wetlands and the unplanted constructed wetlands with earthworms. For Thailand, the production of sludge on the surface of wetlands was reduced by 40% with eart...

  12. Survival of Cold-Stressed Campylobacter jejuni on Ground Chicken and Chicken Skin during Frozen Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaduri, Saumya; Cottrell, Bryan

    2004-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is prevalent in poultry, but the effect of combined refrigerated and frozen storage on its survival, conditions relevant to poultry processing and storage, has not been evaluated. Therefore, the effects of refrigeration at 4°C, freezing at ?20°C, and a combination of refrigeration and freezing on the survival of C. jejuni in ground chicken and on chicken skin were examined. Samples were enumerated using tryptic soy agar containing sheep's blood and modified cefoperazone c...

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of four pheretimoid earthworms (Clitellata: Oligochaeta) and their phylogenetic reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangliang; Jiang, Jibao; Dong, Yan; Qiu, Jiangping

    2015-12-15

    Among oligochaetes, the Pheretima complex within the Megascolecidae is a major earthworm group. Recently, however, the systematics of the Pheretima complex based on morphology are challenged by molecular studies. Since little comparative analysis of earthworm complete mitochondrial genomes has been reported yet, we sequenced mitogenomes of four pheretimoid earthworm species to explore their phylogenetic relationships. The general earthworm genomic features are also found in four earthworms: all genes transcribed from the same strand, the same initiation codon ATG for each PCGs, and conserved structures of RNA genes. Interestingly we find an extra potential tRNA-leucine (CUN) in Amynthas longisiphonus. The earthworm mitochondrial ATP8 exhibits the highest evolutionary rate, while the gene CO1 evolves slowest. Phylogenetic analysis based on protein-coding genes (PCGs) strongly supports the monophyly of the Clitellata, Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Megascolecidae and Pheretima complex. Our analysis, however, reveals non-monophyly within the genara Amynthas and Metaphire. Thus the generic divisions based on morphology in the Pheretima complex should be reconsidered. PMID:26291739

  14. Invasive earthworms interact with abiotic conditions to influence the invasion of common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Alexander M; Whitfeld, Timothy J S; Lodge, Alexandra G; Eisenhauer, Nico; Frelich, Lee E; Reich, Peter B

    2015-05-01

    Common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L.) is one of the most abundant and ecologically harmful non-native plants in forests of the Upper Midwest United States. At the same time, European earthworms are invading previously glaciated areas in this region, with largely anecdotal evidence suggesting they compound the negative effects of buckthorn and influence the invasibility of these forests. Germination and seedling establishment are important control points for colonization by any species, and manipulation of the conditions influencing these life history stages may provide insight into why invasive species are successful in some environments and not others. Using a greenhouse microcosm experiment, we examined the effects of important biotic and abiotic factors on the germination and seedling establishment of common buckthorn. We manipulated light levels, leaf litter depth and earthworm presence to investigate the independent and interactive effects of these treatments on buckthorn establishment. We found that light and leaf litter depth were significant predictors of buckthorn germination but that the presence of earthworms was the most important factor; earthworms interacted with light and leaf litter to increase the number and biomass of buckthorn across all treatments. Path analysis suggested both direct and moisture-mediated indirect mechanisms controlled these processes. The results suggest that the action of earthworms may provide a pathway through which buckthorn invades forests of the Upper Midwest United States. Hence, researchers and managers should consider co-invasion of plants and earthworms when investigating invasibility and creating preemptive or post-invasion management plans. PMID:25481818

  15. Persistence in earthworms and potential hazards to birds of soil applied DDT, dieldrin, and heptachlor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Gish, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    (1) DDT, dieldrin, and heptachlor were each applied to separate replicate plots in a hay field at 0.6, 2.2, or 9.0 kg/ha. For 11 yr thereafter, soil and earthworms were analysed for residues. (2) The average ratios of residues in earthworms (dry weight) to residues in soil (dry weight) were: total DDT, 5; dieldrin, 8; and heptachlor epoxide, 10. The average time for the initial residues in soil to be reduced by 50% were: total DDT, 3.2 yr; dieldrin, 5.1 yr; and heptachlor epoxide, 3.2 yr. The corresponding times for residues in earthworms were: total DDT, 3.2 yr; dieldrin, 2.6 yr; and heptachlor epoxide, 3.0 yr. (3) DDE was most persistent, and in plots treated at 9.0 kg/ha its concentration remained constant at about 0.4 ppm in soil and about 7 ppm in earthworms. (4) When applied at 9.0 kg/ha, DDT accumulated in earthworms to concentrations (32 ppm) which laboratory studies have shown to be hazardous to some sensitive bird species. When heptachlor was applied at 2.2 or 9.0 kg/ha, heptachlor epoxide in earthworms reached concentrations (8 ppm) potentially hazardous to woodcock. Dieldrin remained at potentially hazardous concentrations (8 ppm) for 3 yr in plots treated with 2.2 kg/ha and for 11 yr in plots treated with 9.0 kg/ha.

  16. Impact of land protection in soil quality properties and in earthworm biomass in Venezuelan savannas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D, López-Hernández; L, Hernández; A, Ojeda; E, Quintero; S, Caipo.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied soil parameters and the earthworm biomass and density in a protected savanna (PS) from fire and cattle raising for more than forty years located at Estación Biológica de los Llanos, Venezuela (EBLL), and an adjacent non-protected savanna (NS) under frequent burning and agricultural activi [...] ties, located less than 1 km apart. Earthworm sampling was carried out at the end of the dry season (April), and at the peak of the wet season (July-August) using a hand sorting extraction method. In each plot, five to seven sampling units were selected corresponding to soil monoliths of 25x25x30 cm. The main physical, chemical, microbial (biomass) and enzymatic activities of soils in both systems were estimated. Thepresence of an abundant litter layer under the tree canopies in the PS have increased the soil water retention capacity, the organic-C, C-microbial biomass, dehydrogenase activity and fertility levels respect NS. This may allow for an increase in the density and biomass of earthworms in the PS compared with the adjacent NS. The systems were characterized by abundance in juvenile individuals belonging to the Glossoscolecidae family; two different morphotypes of the genus Aicodrilus were registered. Earthworms found were located in an endo-anecic ecological category. Results suggest that, agricultural management in savannas by modification of physical and biochemical soil properties can decrease an important fraction of pedofauna, particularly their earthworm communities. However, earthworm populations and soil quality indicators can be restored after long-term protection.

  17. Soil geochemistry and digestive solubilization control mercury bioaccumulation in the earthworm Pheretima guillemi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Fei; Zhao, Jie; Greenfield, Ben K; Zhong, Huan; Wang, Yujun; Yang, Zhousheng; Zhou, Dongmei

    2015-07-15

    Mercury presents a potential risk to soil organisms, yet our understanding of mercury bioaccumulation in soil dwelling organisms is limited. The influence of soil geochemistry and digestive processes on both methylmercury (MeHg) and total mercury (THg) bioavailability to earthworms (Pheretima guillemi) was evaluated in this study. Earthworms were exposed to six mercury-contaminated soils with geochemically contrasting properties for 36 days, and digestive fluid was concurrently collected to solubilize soil-associated mercury. Bioaccumulation factors were 7.5-31.0 and 0.2-0.6 for MeHg and THg, respectively, and MeHg accounted for 17-58% of THg in earthworm. THg and MeHg measured in soils and earthworms were negatively associated with soil total organic carbon (TOC). Earthworm THg and MeHg also increased with increasing soil pH. The proportion of MeHg and THg released into the digestive fluid (digestive solubilizable mercury, DSM) was 8.3-18.1% and 0.4-1.3%, respectively. The greater solubilization of MeHg by digestive fluid than CaCl2, together with a biokinetic model-based estimate of dietary MeHg uptake, indicated the importance of soil ingestion for MeHg bioaccumulation in earthworms. PMID:25781374

  18. Radiocesium ([sup 137]Cs) from the Chernobyl reactor in Eurasian woodcock and earthworms in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalas, J.A. (Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim (Norway)); Bretten, S.; Njastad, O. (Univ. of Trondheim (Norway)); Byrkjedal, I. (Univ. of Bergen (Norway))

    1994-01-01

    To understand the ecological effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident, we investigated radiocesium ([sup 137]Cs) levels in Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola), earthworms (Lambricidae), litter (dead organic materials lying on the ground), humus (beneath litter 2 cm deep), and mineral soil samples (3-6 cm deep) from a heavily effected (20-60 kBq/m[sup 2][1 Bq = 1 nuclear fission/sec]) area in Norway. The highest concentrations measured in earthworms (1988 median = 142 Bq/Kg) and woodcock (1986 median = 730 Bq/kg) for human food (600 Bq/kg fresh mass) only were found in woodcock during 1986. Radiocesium concentrations decreased (P < 0.001) in earthworms (40%) and woodcock (95%) from 1986 to 1990. There was no reduction in total radiocesium in soil over the same period. The relatively high radiocesium concentrations in woodcock during 1986 and the decreasing radiocesium ratio in woodcock to earthworms during the first years following fallout could have been caused by woodcock ingesting abiotic radiocesium with earthworms. The decrease in radiocesium in woodcock and earthworms during the study (1986-90) probably resulted from decreasing bioavailability of radiocesium during the first years after fallout rather than by radiocesium disappearing from the ecosystem. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Population Dynamics Of Earthworms In Cauvery Delta Areas In Relation To Soil Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Parthasarathi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Population dynamics of earthworms in the two different cultivable land areas – wet land cultivable areas (WLCA (including paddy, banana and sugarcane fields and dry land cultivable areas (DLCA (including coconut and groundnut fields of five different pedoecosystems in the Cauvery delta areas of Sirkazhi taluk, Nagapattinam district, Tamil Nadu state, India with reference to various soil ecological parameters have been studied, for the first time during the period from November 2011 to April 2012. The WLCA (paddy> sugarcane> banana fields harbor maximum population dynamics of earthworms whereas low in DLCA (groundnut> coconut fields. This may be due to presence of more edaphic factors - OC, N and moisture. Along with these, microorganisms as protein and N rich food support for earthworm growth and reproduction. They are involved synergistically influence the density and biomass of earthworm at maximum. In the five different pedoecosystems of Cauvery delta areas, only two types of soil namely clayloam and sandyloam are found and this variations are due to the nature of earlier agricultural activity and the nature of soil texture. Population dynamics of earthworm in different pedoecosystem are found in soil having 17.6–23.8% range of moisture and among pedoecosystems, more moisture content and more earthworm population dynamics are found in paddy field, followed by sugarcane, banana, groundnut and coconut field. This is due to adequate and frequent irrigation, more water holding capacity, higher microbial activity, OC, N and other nutrient content of the soil.

  20. Physical and chemical characterization of earthworms and humus obtained by vertical vermicomposting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélia Hoehne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms culture are usually made horizontally and it is necessary a lot of area. In order to minimize the size of earthworms culture and the possibility to be applied in residences, this paper proposed evaluate conditions for vertical vermicomposting. For this, were purchased vertical boxes and organic matter. The earthworms of species Eisenia andrei, california red earthworms, were used. There were evaluated the adaptation of earthworms and physical and chemical characterization of the humus. Results showed that there was a good adaptation of earthworms in this configuration, minimizing the space required, and it is one technique for environmentally friendly recycling of organic waste, creating a bio-product wich can used as fertilizers.Resumo Minhocários são normalmente feitoshorizontalmente sendo necessária uma área grande. A fim de minimizar o tamanho da cultura de minhocas e a possibilidade de ser aplicado em residências, este trabalho propõe avaliar as condições de vermicompostagem vertical. Para isso, foram adquiridas caixas verticais e matéria orgânica. Foram usadas minhocas da espécie Eisenia andrei, minhocas vermelhas da califórmia. Foi avaliada a adaptação das minhocas e caracterização físico-química do húmus gerado. Os resultados mostraram que houve uma boa adaptação das minhocas nesta configuração, minimizando o espaço utilizado, e é uma técnica de reciclagem ecológica de resíduos orgânicos, a criação de umbioproduto o qual pode ser usado como adubo.

  1. THE USE OF SELECTED ANAESTHETIC DRUGS IN SEARCH OF A METHOD FOR IMPROVING EARTHWORMS’ WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Podolak-Machowska

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes selected effects of body contact of earthworms Dendrobaena veneta Rosa with local anaesthetic (LA drugs used for human anesthesia (lidocaine and prilocaine and anaesthetics for aquatic animals (MS-222. The findings showed safe and effective immobilization of earthworms with prilocaine at a concentration of 0.25-1%. At the applied concentrations lidocaine was safe, but less effective. On the other hand, MS-222, at the applied concentrations had a strongly irritating effect for earthworms and induced convulsive body movements connected with a discharge of coelomic fluid. The results may be relevant both for improving the welfare of earthworms during experiments and for the organization of research involving testing drugs on invertebrates. In this case, by using earthworms as an experimental model and by applying the method for measuring their mobility after contact with anaesthetics, which has been described in this article, it might be possible to replace experiments on guinea pigs, rabbits, rats and mice, which are expensive and require an approval of an ethics committee, with laboratory tests on earthworms.

  2. Earthworms as Ecosystem Engineers and the Most Important Detritivors in Forest Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Kooch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are considered as soil engineers because of their effects on soil properties and their influence on the availability of resources for other organisms, including microorganisms and plants. However, the links between their impacts on the soil environment and the resulting modification of natural selection pressures on engineer as well as on other organisms have received little attention. Earthworms are known to have a positive influence on the soil fabric and on the decomposition and mineralization of litter by breaking down organic matter and producing large amounts of fasces, thereby mixing litter with the mineral soil. Therefore, they play an important part in changes from one humus from to another according to forest succession patterns. Consequently, they are also expected to be good bio-indicators for forest site quality and are thus useful when planning forest production improvement. Earthworm`s populations are as indicator that in exploited regions is destruction indicator and reclamation plans is nature return indicator. In this study we summarized the current knowledge in relation to earthworm`s ecology in forest soils as ecosystem engineers.

  3. Functional attributes: Compacting vs decompacting earthworms and influence on soil structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnauth Martinez GUÉI, Yannick BAIDAI, Jérôme Ebagnerin TONDOH,Jeroen HUISING

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A short term field mesocosm experiment was performed in semi-deciduous forest areas of Ivory Coast to assess the impact of a decompacting (Hyperiodrilus africanus, Eudrilidae and two compacting (Millsonia omodeoi and Dichogaster terraenigrae, Acanthodrilidae earthworm species on soil properties. These species have been selected for their predominance in the region and their contrasting impact on soil structure. The experimental design consisted of a treatment without worms (control, and treatments with one, two or three species of earthworms. Both compacting and decompacting earthworms increased water infiltration rate in all treatments, with marked impact in H. africanus and M. omodeoi+D. terraenigrae treatments. Interactions between compacting and decompacting species resulted in more large aggregates in comparison to when the compacting species D. terraenigrae was alone. This may be accounted for by their compacting attribute as compacting earthworms are responsible for producing the highest number of large aggregates. The low values of mean weight diameter in treatments combining decompacting and compacting earthworms compared with compacting "M. omodeoi" one also confirmed the trend of decline in soil compaction in the presence of the decompacting species. These results showed positive impact of species richness on soil structure regulation, which is crucial in ecosystem productivity and support consequently the insurance hypothesis. In fact, this study showed that the preservation of earthworm species belonging to these two contrasting functional groups is essential for the maintenance of stable soil structure regulation in agro-tropical ecosystems [Current Zoology 58 (4: 556–565, 2012].

  4. Physiological and molecular responses of the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) to soil chlortetracycline contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to evaluate toxic effects of exposure to chlortetracycline (CTC) in soil on reproductive endpoints (juvenile counts and cocoon counts), biochemical responses, and genotoxic potentials of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Results showed that juvenile counts and cocoon counts of the tested earthworms were reduced after exposure to CTC. The effective concentrations (EC50 values) for juvenile and cocoon counts were 96.1 and 120.3 mg/kg, respectively. Treatment of earthworms with CTC significantly changed the activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). An increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) indicated that CTC could cause cellular lipid peroxidation in the tested earthworms. The percentage of DNA in the tail of single-cell gel electrophoresis of coelomocytes as an indication of DNA damage increased after treatment with different doses of CTC, and a dose-dependent DNA damage of coelomocytes was found. In conclusion, CTC induces physiological responses and genotoxicity on earthworms. - Highlights: ? Reproductive endpoints were assessed for Eisenia fetida exposed to chlortectracyline (CTC). ? CTC may induce physiological and molecular responses in E. fetida. ? A clear relationship was observed between CTC doses and DNA damage of coelomocytes. - Chlortetracycline in soil could induce physiological responses and genotoxicity on earthworms at realistic environmental concentrations.

  5. Impact of land protection in soil quality properties and in earthworm biomass in Venezuelan savannas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D, López-Hernández; L, Hernández; A, Ojeda; E, Quintero; S, Caipo.

    Full Text Available We studied soil parameters and the earthworm biomass and density in a protected savanna (PS) from fire and cattle raising for more than forty years located at Estación Biológica de los Llanos, Venezuela (EBLL), and an adjacent non-protected savanna (NS) under frequent burning and agricultural activi [...] ties, located less than 1 km apart. Earthworm sampling was carried out at the end of the dry season (April), and at the peak of the wet season (July-August) using a hand sorting extraction method. In each plot, five to seven sampling units were selected corresponding to soil monoliths of 25x25x30 cm. The main physical, chemical, microbial (biomass) and enzymatic activities of soils in both systems were estimated. Thepresence of an abundant litter layer under the tree canopies in the PS have increased the soil water retention capacity, the organic-C, C-microbial biomass, dehydrogenase activity and fertility levels respect NS. This may allow for an increase in the density and biomass of earthworms in the PS compared with the adjacent NS. The systems were characterized by abundance in juvenile individuals belonging to the Glossoscolecidae family; two different morphotypes of the genus Aicodrilus were registered. Earthworms found were located in an endo-anecic ecological category. Results suggest that, agricultural management in savannas by modification of physical and biochemical soil properties can decrease an important fraction of pedofauna, particularly their earthworm communities. However, earthworm populations and soil quality indicators can be restored after long-term protection.

  6. Earthworm invasion as the driving force behind plant invasion and community change in northeastern North American forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Victoria A; Maerz, John C; Blossey, Bernd

    2009-08-01

    Identification of factors that drive changes in plant community structure and contribute to decline and endangerment of native plant species is essential to the development of appropriate management strategies. Introduced species are assumed to be driving causes of shifts in native plant communities, but unequivocal evidence supporting this view is frequently lacking. We measured native vegetation, non-native earthworm biomass, and leaf-litter volume in 15 forests in the presence and absence of 3 non-native plant species (Microstegium vimineum, Alliaria petiolata, Berberis thunbergii) to assess the general impact of non-native plant and earthworm invasions on native plant communities in northeastern United States. Non-native plant cover was positively correlated with total native plant cover and non-native earthworm biomass. Earthworm biomass was negatively associated with cover of native woody and most herbaceous plants and with litter volume. Graminoid cover was positively associated with non-native earthworm biomass and non-native plant cover. These earthworm-associated responses were detected at all sites despite differences in earthworm species and abundance, composition of the native plant community, identity of invasive plant species, and geographic region. These patterns suggest earthworm invasion, rather than non-native plant invasion, is the driving force behind changes in forest plant communities in northeastern North America, including declines in native plant species, and earthworm invasions appear to facilitate plant invasions in these forests. Thus, a focus on management of invasive plant species may be insufficient to protect northeastern forest understory species. PMID:19236448

  7. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G

    2011-01-01

    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  8. Macropores and earthworm species affected by agronomic intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Paul Henning; Pérès, Guénola

    Soil ecosystem services depend on water regulation both to retain soil moisture and to eliminate water excess without harmful loss of particles and nutrients. As such the combination of soil physical properties that support soil hydrological functioning is a well-recognized service delivered by soil. There is widespread recognition of soil biodiversity and biological activities that are needed to sustain soil structural properties. The detrimental consequences of a weakened functionality have been stressed in the EU Soil Strategy and hydrology in particular is related to all soil threats. Biopores and soil aggregate formation have been shown to be crucial results of soil macroorganism activities contributing to soil hydrology. In collaboration between the French “Observatoire de Recherche en Environnement – Agro-écosystèmes, Cycles Biogéochimiques et Biodiversité” (ORE-ACBB) and the FP7 EU project EcoFINDERS we investigated the relationsship between earthworm biodiversity, macropores and three agricultural landuse types. A field campaign was conducted in October-November 2011. Earthworm burrow distribution was quantified at 10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 20 cm horizontal layer intervals down the soil profile to 1 meter depth and correlated with the earthworm community consisting of 12 species dominated by the endogeics Aporrectodea caliginosa and Aporrectodea chlorotica and the anecics Aporrectodea longa and Lumbricus centralis. Medium-small macropores in the ploughing layer with diameters (Ø) less than 5 mm were significantly more abundant in permanent grassland compared to conventional rotation system with annual crops. An intermediate system with 3 year grass and 3 years with annuals was also intermediate between the two other systems. At 30 cm's depth we found no large macropores, Ø >7 mm, in the system with annuals, but increasingly more in rotations with grass. Addition of frequencies of macropores with Ø>7 mm retains the significant difference between annual and the permanent grass system. Moreover, all the large burrows, >5 mm Ø, follow this pattern and are significantly more numerous in permanent grass to annuals (P<3%). At depth 100 cm total number of macropores were more abundant in the annual crops compared with permanent grass (P=5%), due to a larger number of macropores <7 mm. We present an interpretation of the macropore patterns in relation to the anecic and endogeic lifeforms and their established role in creating burrows of different spatial distribution and density.

  9. Freezing Rate Due to Heterogeneous Nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vali, Gabor

    1994-07-01

    The heterogeneous nucleation of ice from supercooled water is influenced by the nature of the foreign nuclei that serve as the sites for ice embryo formation, and by the stochastic nature of the process of embryo growth to critical size. The relative roles of these two factors have been the subject of some debate, especially as they influence the way nucleation of ice is modeled in clouds. `Freezing rate' is defined as the time-dependent rate at which a population of macroscopically identical samples (e.g., drops in a volume of air) freeze due to the nuclei contained in them. Freezing rate is the combined result of nucleus content and of time dependence. The time-dependent freezing rate model (TDFR) is consistent with available empirical evidence. For droplets cooled at rates of the order of 1°C per min, the nucleus content, or nucleus spectrum, predicts the freezing rate with reasonable accuracy. For samples exposed to a fixed temperature, the time dependence of the freezing rate becomes important, but the probability of freezing is not the same for each individual of the sample population. Stochastic models are not supported by the results. Application of the TDFR model and use of measured freezing nucleus data for precipitation provide a basis for the description of ice formation via immersion-freezing nucleation in cloud models. Limitations to full development of these models arise from inadequate knowledge about the freezing nucleus content of cloud water as a function of cloud evolution.

  10. Improved cryofixation applicable to freeze etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, L; Schmitt, W W

    1971-09-01

    Freeze etching of solute model systems (e.g., glycerol or ferritin solutions) demonstrates that cryofixation can introduce serious artifacts due to the segregation of the dissolved or dispersed material from the solvent. Since, in principle, this problem can be reduced by increasing the cooling rate, a new technique has been developed which combines spray freezing with freeze etching. This spray-freeze-etching is applied by first spraying the specimen into a liquid cryomedium. The frozen droplets are then "glued" together with butylbenzene to form a regular freeze-etch specimen, while the temperature of the sample is kept at -85 degrees C. The results obtained by spray-freeze-etching are far superior to those obtained by standard freezing. Our results, using 5% glycerol as a test specimen, are equivalent to those obtained by the high-pressure method (1). The reduction of segregation during freezing makes freeze etching a method applicable for the investigation of solute systems. Furthermore, the study of unicellular organisms or cellular fractions by freeze etching without the use of antifreeze is made possible. PMID:4943787

  11. Effect of acute gamma radiation and protective action of different concentration of extracts of safora japonica and hypericum perforatum on the life of aboriginal earthworms of Absheron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : As atomic power is increasingly recognized as a potential energy source to sustain future human development, radiological protection of the environment will become an even more important environmental safety concern. Thus, an understanding of the effects of ionizing radiation on non-human biota is required by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the radiological protection of the environment. Soil processes are vital to sustainable terrestrial ecosystems, and soil invertebrates play an important role in nutrient cycling by feeding on microbiota. Because of their ecological importance, soil invertebrates are used for ecological impact assessments of terrestrial ecosystem pollutants. For chemical substances, single-species laboratory tests are used to understand toxicity. Standard tests using earthworms and spring tails have been developed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Laboratory toxicity tests are also applicable in field contamination monitoring to determine if test organisms have been exposed to field-corrected soils. In such assays, gene expression as a biomarker has been receiving increased attention as it may produce fast, sensitive and diagnostic assays. A similar use of laboratory tests can be applied to assess the environmental impact of ionizing radiation. An understanding of the dose-effect relations of ionising radiation for non-human biota establishes important baselines for radiobiological protection of ecosystems. We used standard laboratory tests to examine dose-effect relationships of gamma radiation on the survival, biomass changing, feeding activity, coprolite excretion of aboriginal earthworms

  12. Earthworms newly from Mongolia (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae, Eisenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Blakemore

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new megadrile earthworms from the steppes, the first species wholly from Outer Mongolia, are ascribed to the partially parthenogenetic Eisenia nordenskioldi (Eisen, 1879 species-complex. Taxonomic justification of sympatric Eisenia nordenskioldi mongol and E. nordenskioldi onon ssp. n. are supported by mtDNA COI barcodes. The unreliability of molecular differentiation based on voucher names compared to definitive types is again demonstrated, as pertains to the ultimate Eisenia andrei Bouché, 1972 synonym of the E. fetida (Savigny, 1826 sibling species-complex composed of more than a dozen prior names. Similar species described from Northeast China [formerly Manchuria] and North Korea are briefly considered, albeit they are intermittently held in synonymy of cosmopolitan Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826 along with many other taxa including some exotic lumbricids initially found in India. Japanese and North American lumbricids are also mentioned. Distributions are discussed and an annotated checklist of all nine Siberian/sub-arctic E. nordenskioldi ssp. is appended.

  13. Further records of non-cryptic New Zealand earthworms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Blakemore

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Current descriptions add natives Aporodrilus aotea sp. n., A. ponga sp. n. and Notoscolex repanga sp. n., plus new exotic records to the numbers of megadrile earthworms known from New Zealand, which are now raised from 193 to 222 species in five families, viz: Acanthodrilidae, Octochaetidae and Megascolecidae, plus Lumbricidae and Glossoscolecidae for exotics. Overlooked spermathecal diverticula have been located for Notoscolex equestris Benham, 1942 and for Megascolex animae Lee, 1959 and non-tubular prostrates were misconstrued as tubular in Megascolides tasmani Lee, 1959. Of these latter three species, a lectotype is designated for N. equestris and holotypes of the other two are briefly redescribed. Whereas M. tasmani now belongs in Notoscolex Fletcher, 1887 and M. animae belongs in Anisochaeta Beddard, 1890, further lack of dorsal pores in N. equestris as with Notoscolex esculentus (Benham, 1904 and N. mortenseni (Michaelsen, 1924 newly qualifies all three as additional combs. novae in primarily Tasmanian genus Aporodrilus Blakemore, 2000.

  14. PCR-DGGE analysis of earthworm gut bacteria diversity in stress of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenjun Sun; Yufeng Zhang; Hui Zhao; Yupeng Wu; Gaochan Wang; Yi (Leaf) Zhang

    2013-01-01

    In order to test if the intestinal bacteria play an important role in antibacterial ability of earthworm, we chose Escherichia coli O157:H7, an anthropozoonosis pathogen, as a biological stressor and studied the change of intestinal bacteria community of earthworm by PCR-DGGE analysis. Results showed that the pathogen merely existed 1 - 3 days, then almost disappeared after through the earthworm’s gut. In this period, the diversity and abundance index of intestinal bacteria increased first, ...

  15. Diversification patterns in cosmopolitan earthworms: similar mode but different tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rosa; Novo, Marta; Marchán, Daniel F; Díaz Cosín, Darío J

    2016-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography of widespread species that span the same geographic areas can elucidate the influence of historical events on current patterns of biodiversity, identify patterns of co-vicariance, and therefore aid the understanding of general evolutionary processes. Soil-dwelling animals present characteristics that make them suitable for testing the effect of the palaeogeographical events on their distribution and diversification, such as their low vagility and population structure. In this study, we shed light on the spatial lineage diversification and cladogenesis of two widely-distributed cosmopolitan and invasive earthworms (Aporrectodea rosea and A. trapezoides) in their putative ancestral area of origin, the Western Palearctic, and a few populations in North America. Molecular analyses were conducted on mitochondrial and nuclear markers from 220 (A. rosea) and 198 (A. trapezoides) individuals collected in 56 and 57 localities, respectively. We compared the lineage diversification pattern, genetic variability and cladogenesis in both species. Our findings showed that both species underwent a similar diversification from the Western Mediterranean plates to (i) Northern Europe and (ii) the Iberian Peninsula, establishing their two main lineages. Their diversification was in concordance with the main palaeogeographical events in the Iberian Peninsula and Western Mediterranean, followed by a later colonization of North America from individuals derived exclusively from the Eurosiberian lineage. Their diversification occurred at different times, with the diversification of A. rosea being potentially more ancient. Cladogenesis in both species seems to have been modelled only by the Mediterranean plate shifts, ignoring historical climatic oscillations such as the Messinian salinity crisis. Their high genetic variability, strong population structure, lack of gene flow and stepping-stone-like cladogenesis suggest the existence of different cryptic lineages. Our results may indicate a recurrent event in invasive earthworms within their ancestral distribution areas in the Western Palearctic. PMID:26299880

  16. Atmospheric freeze drying assisted by power ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Santacatalina Bonet, Juan Vicente; Carcel Carrión, Juan Andrés; García Pérez, José Vicente; Mulet Pons, Antonio; Simal, S.

    2012-01-01

    [EN] Atmospheric freeze drying (AFD) is considered an alternative to vacuum freeze drying to keep the quality of fresh product. AFD allows continuous drying reducing fix and operating costs, but presents, as main disadvantage, a long drying time required. The application of power ultrasound (US) can accelerate AFD process. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the application of power ultrasound to improve atmospheric freeze drying of carrot. For that pur...

  17. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    OpenAIRE

    Wetterich, C.

    2014-01-01

    We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze - a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple "crossover model" without a big bang singularit...

  18. A computer controlled analysis of freezing behaviour.

    OpenAIRE

    Richmond, MA; Murphy, CA; Pouzet, B.; Schmid, P.; Rawlins, JN; Feldon, J

    1998-01-01

    The conditioned freezing response in rats has been much used both by psychologists and neuroscientists to investigate the behavioural effects of brain lesions and of changes in motivational state. The primary advantage of the freezing response is that it can be used without motivational manipulations such as food or water deprivation. Previously, freezing has been measured by a human observer either from video recordings or during the test sessions themselves. But these methods of data collec...

  19. Repeatability and randomness in heterogeneous freezing nucleation

    OpenAIRE

    Vali, G.

    2008-01-01

    This study is aimed at clarifying the relative importance of the specific character of the nuclei and of the duration of supercooling in heterogeneous freezing nucleation by immersed impurities. Laboratory experiments were carried out in which sets of water drops underwent multiple cycles of freezing and melting. The drops contained suspended particles of mixtures of materials; the resulting freezing temperatures ranged from ?6°C to ?24°C. Rank correlation ...

  20. Freeze Enhanced Halate Halide Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberg, J. T.; Weaver, K.; Broderick, A.

    2014-12-01

    Relatively little is known about halate ion species (XO3-; X = I, Br, Cl) in atmospheric condensed phases. It was initial thought that iodate was a terminal stable species upon iodide oxidation. However, it is becoming increasingly recognized that reactions involving iodate can lead to reactive iodine, and this chemistry is accelerated under acidic conditions. The environmental concentrations and chemistry of bromate and chlorate are largely unexplored in environmental ices. We present results from a series of aqueous phase halate ion reactions with halides under acidic conditions, showing that the kinetics are strongly enhanced upon freezing. The products of these reactions are reactive halogens, which have important implications to marine boundary layer chemistry.

  1. Soil Aggregate Stability in the Presence of Earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L. and Different Organic Materials in a Calcareous Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Moosavi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the crucial function of earthworms in improvement of soil physical properties is well -know, but very little is known of the interactive influence of earthworms and organic materials on soil properties such as soil aggregate stability, particularly in arid and semi-arid soils. The low organic matter content and the significant role of earthworms in improving physical properties of arid and semi-arid soils necessitate studying the interactive effects of organic materials and earthworms. Thus, the main objective of this study was to identify the interactive effects of anecic earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris L. and various organic residues (including alfalfa, compost, mixture of alfalfa and compost and cow dung on soil aggregate stability expressed as the Mean Weight Diameter (MWD, Geometric Mean Diameter (GMD and Aggregation Ratio (AR, and furthermore soil Ca and Mg contents. The experiment consisted of a 2×5 factorial treatment organized in a completely randomized design with four replications under controlled greenhouse conditions, lasted for 150 days. Results showed that earthworm inoculation and organic materials addition alone increased significantly all the indices of soil aggregation and aggregate stability, and Ca and Mg contents. However, the combined use of earthworms and organic residues resulted in more stable aggregates. Results indicated that earthworm inoculation in the presence of organic materials resulted in 39, 58, 2, 67, 43 and 74% increases, respectively in MWD, AR, GMD, Ca, Mg and macroaggregates whereas microaggregates were reduced by 13.5% in earthworm-worked soils. We observed a significant relationship (R2=0.945 between soil Ca content and MWD, demonstrating that earthworms apparently excrete calcite that helps bonding clay particles and soil organic matter via cationic (Ca+2 bridging. In summary, results of this study show that the simultaneous applications of anecic earthworms and organic materials may considerably help in improving the structure of arid and semi-arid soils with low carbon level.

  2. Fundamental Technical Elements of Freeze-fracture/Freeze-etch in Biological Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeze-fracture/freeze-etch describes a process whereby specimens, typically biological or nanomaterial in nature, are frozen, fractured, and replicated to generate a carbon/platinum "cast" intended for examination by transmission electron microscopy. Specimens are subjected to u...

  3. Viability of Bifidobacterium Pseudocatenulatum G4 after Spray-Drying and Freeze-Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenie Wong; Barka Mohammed Kabeir; Shuhaimi Mustafa; Rosfarizan Mohamad; Anis Shobirin Meor Hussin; Mohd Yazid Manap

    2010-01-01

    Viability of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 following spray-drying and freeze-drying in skim milk was evaluated. After spray-drying, the strain experienced over 99% loss in viability regardless of the air outlet temperature (75 and 85 °C) and the heat-adaptation temperature (45 and 65 °C, 30 min). The use of heat-adaptation treatment to improve the thermotolerance of this strain was ineffective. On the other hand, the strain showed a superior survival at 71.65%–82.07% after freeze-dryin...

  4. Function test of radiopharmaceutical freeze dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeze Dryer is the main tool for radiopharmaceutical production process such as drying of radiopharmaceutical kits. To increase research and development activity of radiopharmaceutical product needs new freeze dryer type of 7948030 Freezone-Stoppering Tray Dryer to obtain high quality radiopharmaceutical dry kit. The aim of this research is ensuring freeze dryer machine can be operated well and fulfilling quality assurance programme. The working principle of freeze dryer is freeze drying process. Liquid material that originally frozen then dried with a heating process at low temperature in the vacuum freeze dryer chamber and will result phorous lyophilized product. Therefore, there are some parameters on freeze dryer operation, such as temperature, pressure, and time. They will effect on quality of radiopharmaceutical kit products. This research try for dry DTPA kit with manual or auto method for ± 31 hours following the procedure of drying DTPA kit. The results showed that freeze dryer can function properly in accordance with the specifications that with manual methods, freezing process reached -40°C and -34 °C in the auto, the drying process at 15°C and 0.050 mbar on each method, and obtain dry product of DTPA kit powder (lyophilized). (author)

  5. When hot water freezes before cold

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, J I

    2006-01-01

    I suggest that the origin of the Mpemba effect (the freezing of hot water before cold) is freezing-point depression by solutes, either gaseous or solid, whose solubility decreases with increasing temperature so that they are removed when water is heated. They are concentrated ahead of the freezing front by zone refining in water that has not been heated, reduce the temperature of the freezing front, and thereby reduce the temperature gradient and heat flux, slowing the progress of the front. I present a simple calculation of this effect, and suggest experiments to test this hypothesis.

  6. Freeze dehydration of milk using microwave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of experimental studies on heat and mass transfer during a microwave freeze dehydration process. An experimental system and procedure was developed to freeze dry milk. A 2500-W microwave system with an appropriate wave guide was set up and instrumented, and a procedure was experimentally developed to obtain milk powder first by freezing milk and then dehydrating it at low pressure using microwave energy. An unsteady-state analysis was used to derive a one-dimensional mathematical model of the freeze dehydration process in a microwave electromagnetic field

  7. The influence of freezing rates on bovine pericardium tissue Freeze-drying

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Figueiredo Borgognoni; Virgilio Tattini Junior; Ana Maria Irene Bartolomeu Ayrosa; Bronislaw Polakiewicz; Adolfo Alberto Leirner; Marina Junko Shiotsu Maizato; Olga Zazuco Higa; Marisa Masumi Beppu; Ronaldo Nogueira de Moraes Pitombo

    2009-01-01

    The bovine pericardium has been used as biomaterial in developing bioprostheses. Freeze-drying is a drying process that could be used for heart valve's preservation. The maintenance of the characteristics of the biomaterial is important for a good heart valve performance. This paper describes the initial step in the development of a bovine pericardium tissue freeze-drying to be used in heart valves. Freeze-drying involves three steps: freezing, primary drying and secondary drying. The freezin...

  8. Earthworms, Collembola and residue management change wheat (Triticum aestivum) and herbivore pest performance (Aphidina: Rhophalosiphum padi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xin; Scheu, Stefan

    2008-10-01

    Management practices of arable systems determine the distribution of soil organic matter thereby changing decomposer animal activity and their impact on nutrient mineralization, plant growth and plant-herbivore interactions. Decomposer-mediated changes in plant growth and insect pest performance were investigated in wheat-aphid model systems in the greenhouse. Three types of litter distribution were established: litter patch at the soil surface (simulating mulching), litter patch deeper in soil (simulating ploughing) and litter homogeneously mixed into soil (simulating disk cultivation). The litter was labelled with (15)N to follow the mineralization and uptake of nutrients by the plants. Earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) and Collembola (Protaphorura armata) were included as representatives of major functional groups of decomposers. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) was planted and aphids (Rhophalosiphum padi) were introduced to leaves as one of the most important pests. Earthworms, Collembola and litter distribution affected plant growth, N acquisition and aphid development in an interactive way. Earthworms and Collembola increased biomass of seeds, shoots and roots of wheat. Increased plant growth by earthworms and Collembola was mainly due to increased transfer of N from soil (rather than litter) into plants. Despite increasing plant growth, earthworms reduced aphid reproduction. Aphid reproduction was not correlated closely with plant N concentrations, but rather with the concentration of litter N in wheat. Unexpectedly, both Collembola and earthworms predominantly affected the mobilization of N from soil organic matter, and by altering the distribution of litter earthworms reduced infestation of crops by aphids via reducing plant capture of litter N, in particular if the litter was concentrated deeper in soil. The results suggest that management practices stimulating a continuous moderate increase in nutrient mobilization from soil organic matter rather than nutrient flushes from decomposing fresh organic matter result in maximum plant growth with minimum plant pest infestation. PMID:18654802

  9. Shock freezing berries. Effective freezing with liquid nitrogen; Beeren unter Frostschock. Tiefgefrieren mit Fluessigstickstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-07-01

    Sensitive foods such as fruit do not freeze well at regular sub-zero temperatures. Quick freezing at extremely low temperatures is the only way of ensuring that high-value foodstuffs retain their shape and taste. Linde supplies cryogenic gases for deep freezing and also a broad portfolio of dedicated freezers. (orig.)

  10. Surviving Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Murjas, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Surviving Objects (2012) is a devised multi-media practice-as-research performance based on extensive interviews conducted with my elderly mother and recorded on a hand-held device. Our conversations concern her experiences as a child refugee following violent deportation by the Soviet Army from Eastern Poland to Siberia (1941), and her subsequent route, via Persia, to a British-run refugee camp in Northern Rhodesia, where she remained for 6 years before arriving in the UK. In order to aid my...

  11. Mutual impacts of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and earthworms (Eisenia fetida) on the bioavailability of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat and earthworms were exposed individually and together to soils contaminated with 11 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Wheat accumulated PFASs from soil with root concentration factors and bioconcentration factors that decreased as the number of perfluorinated carbons in the molecule increased. Earthworms accumulated PFASs from soil with biota-to-soil accumulation factors that increased with the number of carbons. Translocation factors (TF) of perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) in wheat peaked at perfluorohexanoic acid and decreased significantly as the number of carbons increased or decreased. Perfluorohexane sulfonate produced the greatest TF of the three perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) examined. Wheat increased the bioaccumulation of all 11 PFASs in earthworms and earthworms increased the bioaccumulation in wheat of PFCAs containing seven or less perfluorinated carbons, decreased bioaccumulation of PFCAs with more than seven carbons, and decreased bioaccumulation of PFSAs. In general, the co-presence of wheat and earthworms enhanced the bioavailability of PFASs in soil. -- Highlights: • PFASs can be taken up by root of wheat from soil and translocated to shoot. • The RCFs and BCFs of PFASs in wheat decreased with perfluorinated carbon chain length. • PFHxA had the highest TF, which decreased exponentially with the carbon chain length. • The BSAFs in earthworm increased with carbon chain length. • The co-presence of wheat and earthworm enhanced the bioavailability of PFASs in soil. -- PFASs can be uptake by root of wheat from soil and translocated to shoot and co-presence of wheat and earthworm enhance the bioavailability of PFASs in soil

  12. Effects of spatial and temporal variation in metal availability on earthworms in floodplain soils of the river Dommel, The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleeker, Eric A.J. [Department of Animal Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: eric.bleeker@falw.vu.nl; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Department of Animal Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-08-15

    Regarding impact on ecological soil functioning, metal pollution is often considered a constant factor for certain sampling sites. However, especially bioavailable concentrations may differ in space and time. This aspect was investigated on four sites along a metal-polluted river, differing in soil characteristics and metal concentrations. Every four weeks earthworm densities, soil characteristics, and metal concentrations in soil and earthworms were determined. Earthworm biomass and density fluctuated in time and increased with increasing metal contamination, indicating the presence of compensating factors. Multivariate analysis suggested organic matter and moisture content to be the main factors explaining earthworm biomass. Metal concentrations in the earthworms increased with increasing total or 0.01 M CaCl{sub 2} extractable soil concentrations, but no time-related trends were seen. Cadmium concentrations in the earthworms exceeded background values, suggesting a potential risk. The neutral red retention biomarker assay, however, did not show any signs of metal stress in the earthworms. - Soil characteristics appear to dominate earthworm abundance and metal bioaccumulation in contaminated floodplain soils.

  13. Impact of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (L.) on As, Cu, Pb and Zn mobility and speciation in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the risks that contaminated soils pose to the environment properly a greater understanding of how soil biota influence the mobility of metal(loid)s in soils is required. Lumbricus terrestris L. were incubated in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. The concentration and speciation of metal(loid)s in pore waters and the mobility and partitioning in casts were compared with earthworm-free soil. Generally the concentrations of water extractable metal(loid)s in earthworm casts were greater than in earthworm-free soil. The impact of the earthworms on concentration and speciation in pore waters was soil and metal specific and could be explained either by earthworm induced changes in soil pH or soluble organic carbon. The mobilisation of metal(loid)s in the environment by earthworm activity may allow for leaching or uptake into biota. - Research highlights: ? Earthworms increase the mobility and availability of metals and metalloids in soils. ? We incubated L. terrestris in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. ? Earthworms increased the mobility of As, Cu, Pb and Zn in their casts. ? The mechanisms for this could be explained by changes in pH or organic carbon. - Lumbricus terrestris change the partitioning of metal(loid)s between soil constituents and increase the mobility of metal(loid)s in casts and pore water.

  14. Effects of metal pollution on earthworm communities in a contaminated floodplain area: Linking biomarker, community and functional responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects on earthworms in the contaminated floodplain area the Biesbosch, the Netherlands, were determined at different levels of organization using a combination of field and laboratory tests. The species Lumbricus rubellus, collected from different polluted sites in the Biesbosch, showed reduced values for the biomarker neutral red retention time (NRRT), mainly explained by high metal concentrations in the soil and the resulting high internal copper concentrations in the earthworms. Organic pollutant levels in earthworms were low and did not explain reduced NRRTs. Earthworm abundance and biomass were not correlated with pollutant levels in the soil. Litterbag decomposition and bait-lamina feeding activity, measures of the functional role of earthworms, were not affected by metal pollution and did not show any correlation with metal concentrations in soil or earthworms nor with NRRT. Effects at the biochemical level therefore did not result in a reduced functioning of earthworm communities. - Metal pollution in floodplain soils does affect earthworm biomarker response but not their activity in decomposition processes

  15. Assessing soil ecotoxicity of methyl tert-butyl ether using earthworm bioassay; closed soil microcosm test for volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An earthworm bioassay was conducted to assess ecotoxicity in methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-amended soils. Ecotoxicity of MTBE to earthworms was evaluated by a paper contact method, natural field soil test, and an OECD artificial soil test. All tests were conducted in closed systems to prevent volatilization of MTBE out of test units. Test earthworm species were Perionyx excavatus and Eisenia andrei. Mortality and abnormal morphology of earthworms exposed to different concentrations of MTBE were examined. MTBE was toxic to both earthworm species and the severity of response increased with increasing MTBE concentrations. Perionyx excavatus was more sensitive to MTBE than Eisenia andrei in filter papers and two different types of soils. MTBE toxicity was more severe in OECD artificial soils than in field soils, possibly due to the burrowing behavior of earthworms into artificial soils. The present study demonstrated that ecotoxicity of volatile organic compounds such as MTBE can be assessed using an earthworm bioassay in closed soil microcosm with short-term exposure duration. - Earthworm bioassay can be a good protocol to assess soil ecotoxicity of volatile organic compounds such as MTBE

  16. Impact of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (L.) on As, Cu, Pb and Zn mobility and speciation in contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizmur, Tom, E-mail: t.p.sizmur@reading.ac.uk [Soil Research Centre, Department of Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Watts, Michael J. [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E. [Soil Research Centre, Department of Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    To assess the risks that contaminated soils pose to the environment properly a greater understanding of how soil biota influence the mobility of metal(loid)s in soils is required. Lumbricus terrestris L. were incubated in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. The concentration and speciation of metal(loid)s in pore waters and the mobility and partitioning in casts were compared with earthworm-free soil. Generally the concentrations of water extractable metal(loid)s in earthworm casts were greater than in earthworm-free soil. The impact of the earthworms on concentration and speciation in pore waters was soil and metal specific and could be explained either by earthworm induced changes in soil pH or soluble organic carbon. The mobilisation of metal(loid)s in the environment by earthworm activity may allow for leaching or uptake into biota. - Research highlights: > Earthworms increase the mobility and availability of metals and metalloids in soils. > We incubated L. terrestris in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. > Earthworms increased the mobility of As, Cu, Pb and Zn in their casts. > The mechanisms for this could be explained by changes in pH or organic carbon. - Lumbricus terrestris change the partitioning of metal(loid)s between soil constituents and increase the mobility of metal(loid)s in casts and pore water.

  17. Assessing ecotoxicity and uptake of metals and metalloids in relation to two different earthworm species (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to diffuse atmospheric fallouts of process particles enriched by metals and metalloids, polluted soils concern large areas at the global scale. Useful tools to assess ecotoxicity induced by these polluted soils are therefore needed. Earthworms are currently used as biotest, however the influence of specie and earthworm behaviour, soil characteristics are poorly highlighted. Our aim was therefore to assess the toxicity of various polluted soils with process particles enriches by metals and metalloids (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, As and Sb) collected from a lead recycling facility on two earthworm species belonging to different ecological types and thus likely to have contrasted behavioural responses (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris). The combination of behavioural factors measurements (cast production and biomass) and physico-chemical parameters such as metal absorption, bioaccumulation by earthworms and their localization in invertebrate tissues provided a valuable indication of pollutant bioavailability and ecotoxicity. Soil characteristics influenced ecotoxicity and metal uptake by earthworms, as well as their soil bioturbation. -- Highlights: •Historically polluted soils collected from a lead recycling facility were studied. •Cast production is a sensitive parameter to assess ecotoxicity on earthworms. •Both soil parameters, like organic matter content and pH and earthworm specie influence metal uptake and ecotoxicity. -- Behavioural factors and inorganic pollutant uptake by earthworms provide a valuable indication of bioavailability and ecotoxicity

  18. Impact of Native and Invasive Earthworm Activity on Forest Soil Organic Matter Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top, Sara; Filley, Timothy

    2010-05-01

    Many northern North American forests are experiencing the introduction of exotic European lumbricid species earthworms with documented losses in litter layers, expansion of A-horizons, loss of the organic horizon, changes in fine root density, and shifts in microbial populations as a result. Some of these forests were previously devoid of these ecosystem engineers. We compare the soil isotope and molecular chemistry from two free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) forest experiments (aspen FACE at Rhinelander, Wisconsin and sweet gum FACE at Oak Ridge National Lab, Tennessee) that lie within the zones of earthworm invasion. These sites exhibit differences in amounts of exotic and native species as well as endogeic (predominantly mineral soil dwelling) and epigeic (litter and organic matter horizon dwelling) types. We investigated the impact of earthworm activity by tracking the relative abundance and stable carbon isotope compositions of lignin and substituted fatty acids extracted from isolated earthworms and their fecal pellets and from host soils. Additionally, 15N-labeled additions to the soil provide additional methods for tracking earthworm impacts. Indications of root vs leaf input to earthworm casts and fecal matter were derived from differences in the chemical composition of cutin, suberin, and lignin. The isotopically depleted CO2 used in FACE and the resulting isotopically depleted plant organic matter afford an excellent opportunity to assess biopolymer-specific turnover dynamics. We find that endogeic species are proportionately more responsible for fine root cycling while some epigeic species are responsible for microaggregation of foliar cutin. CSIA of fecal pellet lignin and SFA indicate how these biopolymer pools can be derived from variable sources, roots, background soil, foliar tissue within one earthworm. Additionally, CSIA indicates the distinct roles that different earthworm types have in "aging" surface soil biopolymer pools through encapsulation and upward transport of deeper soil carbon, and "freshening" deeper soil biopolymer pools through downward transport of surface carbon to deeper layers. Although, endogeic species burrow down below 30 cm in these systems, comparison of 13C and 15N in soil layers and fecal matter indicate their greatest impact is restricted to the upper 5 cm. As earthworm species abundance and activity are not is steady state in these forests, the role of these important invertebrates should be more considered when assessing the ability of forest soils to accumulate new plant input.

  19. Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs) by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earthworms were exposed to artificially contaminated soils with ten perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). PFASs with longer perfluorinated carbon chain displayed higher uptake rate coefficients (ku), longer half-life (t1/2) and time to steady-state (tss) but lower elimination rate coefficients (ke) than the shorter ones. Similarly, perfluorosulfonates acids (PFSAs) displayed higher ku, longer t1/2 and tss but lower ke than perflurocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) with the same perfluorinated chain length. All the studied PFASs, including those with seven or less perfluorinated carbons, were bioaccumulated in the earthworms and the biota-to-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) increased with perfluorinated carbon chain length and were greater for PFSAs than for PFCAs of equal perfluoroalkyl chain length. The BSAFs were found to be dependent on the concentrations of PFASs in soil and decreased as the level of PFASs in soil increased. -- Highlights: •PFASs with seven or less perfluoroalkyl carbons were bioaccumulated in earthworm. •The BSAFs of PFASs in earthworm increased with perfluoroalkyl chain length. •The BSAFs of PFSAs were greater than PFCAs of equal perfluoroalkyl chain length. •The ku increased with perfluorinated chain length while ke decreased. •The BSAFs of PFASs decreased as their concentrations in soil increased. -- Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) can be effectively bioaccumulated in earthworms including those with seven or less perfluoroalkyl carbon chain length

  20. The behavior and toxicological effects of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) in a soil-earthworm system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Jing; Liu, Kou; Lin, Kuangfei

    2015-12-15

    Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) is easily absorbed by soil particles but barely degraded over time. Its potential ecological risk has received extensive attention. Here we supplemented natural soil with three different levels of BDE209 (1, 10 and 100mgkg(-1) dry weight (i.e., dw)) to focus on the behavior and toxicological effects of BDE209 in a soil-earthworm system. Results demonstrated that earthworms accumulated BDE209 quickly, followed by biphasic elimination. The uptake rate constant (ku) values ranged from 0.156 to 0.232 mgsoil kg(-1)wormd(-1), while the depuration rate (kd) values ranged from 0.228 to 0.239d(-1). Biota-soil accumulation factor (BSAF) was also calculated in the present study, and the BSAF values for BDE209 ranged from 0.074 to 0.123. Throughout 28-d exposure, the concentrations of BDE209 among soil, worm casts and earthworms reached steady-state equilibrium. BDE209 content in worm casts might be a good indicator of actual concentration in soil. Neutral red retention time (NRRT) was also conducted to assess the lysosomal membrane stability, and it declined during the uptake phase when BDE209 gradually accumulated in earthworms, indicating a good dose-response relationship. These observations provide new insights into the potential ecological effects of BDE209 in a model soil-earthworm system. PMID:26282772

  1. Biomarker responses in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) to soils contaminated with di-n-butyl phthalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li; Li, Guangde; Liu, Mingming; Li, Yanqiang; Yin, Suzhen; Zhao, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalates (DBP) are recognized as ubiquitous contaminants in soil and adversely impact the health of organisms. Changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and levels of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were used as biomarkers to evaluate the impact of DBP on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) after exposure to DBP for 28 days. DBP was added to artificial soil in the amounts of 0, 5, 10, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) of soil. Earthworm tissues exposed to each treatment were collected on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day of the treatment. We found that superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels were significantly inhibited in the 100 mg kg(-1) treatment group on day 28. After 21 days of treatment, GST activity in 10-50 mg kg(-1) treatment groups was markedly stimulated compared to the control group. MDA content in treatment groups was higher than in the control group throughout the exposure time, suggesting that DBP may lead to lipid peroxidation (LPO) in cells. GSH content increased in the treatment group that received 50 mg kg(-1) DBP from 7 days of exposure to 28 days. These results suggest that DBP induces serious oxidative damage on earthworms and induce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in earthworms. However, DBP concentration in current agricultural soil in China will not constitute any threat to the earthworm or other animals in the soil. PMID:25328097

  2. Metabolism and bioaccumulation of nitroaromatic munitions by-products in earthworms and plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, T.V.; Chang, L.W.; Smith, M.K.; Daniel, F.B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Wiechman, B. [Pathology Associates, Inc., West Chester, OH (United States); Reddy, G. [USABRDL, Fort Detrick, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Previously the authors have used earthworm and plant bioassays to evaluate the toxicity of nitroaromatic ammunition by-products. In the present study, they investigated the uptake, metabolism and possible bioaccumulation of these compounds in earthworms and plants. Earthworms were maintained on artificial soil supplemented with {sup 14}[C] trinitrobenzene (TNB). The authors also studied the translocation, metabolism and bioaccumulation of {sup 14}[C] 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB) by germinating oat and lettuce seeds planted on artificial soil. Acetone extracts of tissue and gut contents of earthworms exposed to TNB for different intervals contained only a small fraction of the original radioactivity, which did not increase with time. The radioactivity extracted from earthworms co-eluted with 1,3-dinitroaniline (DNAN) on HPLC and the amount of radioactivity decreased with time. In the DNB plant studies, five day old oat seedlings accumulated 17% of {sup 14}[C] radioactivity. HPLC of acetone extracts revealed unidentified radioactive peaks but DNB radioactivity was not detected. The radioactivity from butanol extracts of both oats and lettuce coeluted with aniline and 3-nitroaniline and the radioactivity increased with time. These results suggest that oats and lettuce bioaccumulate DNB metabolites, which might result in the transfer of toxicants to herbivores.

  3. Earthworms and structure rehabilitation in subsoils and in topsoils affected by opencast mining for coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, V.I.; Scullion, J.; Salih, R.O.; Al-Bakri, K.H.

    1988-01-01

    Because soil structure seems to benefit from the period under grass in a normal rotation, it is widely assumed that grass roots are primarily responsible (Strutt, 1970). Due credit is also given to efficient drainage, adequate inputs of organic matter, lime and microbial activity. However, it is not clear whether the earthworm is a passive exploiter or a causal agent of structure improvement. When the pressures of production end up in severe soil structure deterioration, or when massive soil disturbance, and stockpiling ends up in soils restored with little residual structure, experimental evidence suggests that the role of the earthworm is crucial. Evidence will be presented to show how earthworms, in association with all the other factors normally held to be responsible, initiate the development of water-stable, soil granulation. However, evidence will also be presented which shows how certain features of modern agriculture are, to some extent at least, antagonistic to earthworms. In utilizing degraded land, it may be necessary to farm initially for the benefit of the earthworm rather than for yield. This approach must be maintained despite the fact that, in the early stages, it may result in a phase of greater waterlogging and susceptibility to poaching. 30 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Subacute toxicity of copper and glyphosate and their interaction to earthworm (Eisenia fetida)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyphosate (GPS) and copper (Cu) are common pollutants in soils, and commonly co-exist. Due to the chemical structure of GPS, it can form complexes of heavy metals and interface their bioavailability in soil environment. In order to explore the interactions between GPS and Cu, subacute toxicity tests of Cu and GPS on soil invertebrate earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were conducted. The relative weight loss and whole-worm metal burdens increased significantly with the increasing exposure concentration of Cu, while the toxicity of GPS was insignificant. The joint toxicity data showed that the relative weight loss and the uptake of Cu, as well as the superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde activities, were significantly alleviated in the present of GPS, which indicated that GPS could reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cu in the soil because of its strong chelating effects. Highlights: •Cu markedly increased the weight loss ratio of earthworm. •Cu decreased the cocoon production of earthworm. •The toxicity of GPS on earthworm was insignificant. •The presence of GPS could reduce the toxicity of Cu on earthworm. -- The presence of glyphosate could reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cu in the soil because of its strong chelating effects

  5. Role of Earthworms in Soil Fertility Maintenance through the Production of Biogenic Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soil biota benefits soil productivity and contributes to the sustainable function of all ecosystems. The cycling of nutrients is a critical function that is essential to life on earth. Earthworms (EWs) are a major component of soil fauna communities in most ecosystems and comprise a large proportion of macro fauna biomass. Their activity is beneficial because it can enhance soil nutrient cycling through the rapid incorporation of detritus into mineral soils. In addition to this mixing effect, mucus production associated with water excretion in earthworm guts also enhances the activity of other beneficial soil microorganisms. This is followed by the production of organic matter. So, in the short term, a more significant effect is the concentration of large quantities of nutrients (N, P, K, and Ca) that are easily assimilable by plants in fresh cast depositions. In addition, earthworms seem to accelerate the mineralization as well as the turnover of soil organic matter. Earthworms are known also to increase nitrogen mineralization, through direct and indirect effects on the microbial community. The increased transfer of organic C and N into soil aggregates indicates the potential for earthworms to facilitate soil organic matter stabilization and accumulation in agricultural systems, and that their influence depends greatly on differences in land management practices. This paper summarises information on published data on the described subjects.

  6. [Single and binary-combined toxicity of methamidophos, acetochlor and Cu on earthworm Eisenia foetida].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jidong; Zhou, Qixing

    2003-04-01

    A population of earthworm Eisenia foetida was exposed to single and binary-combined contamination of phaeozem by methamidophos, acetochlor and Cu. The result showed that one of three test chemicals had its toxicity on the earthworm population, and the single toxic sequence of the chemicals was acetochlor > methamidophos > Cu. The values of their LD50 were 0.307, 0.708 and 118.70 mg.kg-1, respectively. The difference was depended on the biological mechanisms of the earthworm population. Acetochlor and Cu in soil could be absorbed by the earthworm population through penetrating through the skin of an earthworm. The result also showed that Cu could swell the toxicity of methamidophos, whether it was in low or high concentration by the binary-combined toxic effect test. Cu in low concentration could decrease the toxicity of acetochlor, but in high concentration, Cu could increase the acetochlor toxicity in soil. Therefore, these three pollutants were dangerous to the ecological security of soil ecosystem and soil-health quality. Furthermore, when the chemicals in same soil environment act one another, they could boost up the potential danger of soil ecosystem contaminated by the three pollutants. The joint toxic effects of various chemicals were in relation to their different concentration combinations in soil. PMID:12920910

  7. Comparing effects of freezing at -196 °C and -20 °C on the viability of mastitis pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge-Marie Petzer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cryopreservation at approximately -196 °C in liquid nitrogen (N and freezing at approximately -20 °C in a freezer, on the viability and survival of eight different mastitogenic bacteria inoculated in milk. Bacteria were frozen at approximately -20 °C in a freezer and cryopreserved at approximately -196 °C in liquid nitrogen. An effective preservation method was needed for follow-up samples from cows identified in the South African National Milk Recording Scheme (NMRS with somatic cell counts above 250 000 cells/mL milk. The organisation responsible for sample collection of the NMRS milk samples also provides producers with liquid nitrogen for their semen flasks at the collection sites. This existing mode of storage and transport could therefore be utilised.Ten samples of each organism were thawed and cultured bi-weekly until week 18 for both temperature treatments. An additional sampling was performed at week 30 for samples frozen at approximately -20 °C. Freezing and cryopreservation did not impair subsequent isolation of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus (STH (phage type lytic group III or Sta. aureus (STA (phage typed, other than lytic group III. Survival was indicated by the isolation of bacteria from samples, and viability by the strength of growth of the bacteria isolated. The survival of Streptococcus agalactiae decreased after week 12 and Escherichia coli after week 16 of freezing, but both organisms survived under cryogenic preservation until week 18. Coagulase-negative staphylococci survived until week 18 for both freezing and cryogenic preservation.Both storage methods could thus contribute to the improvement of a pro-active approach towards udder health management in South African dairy herds.

  8. Freeze concentration of lime juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampawan Tansakul

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to study the effects of processing conditions, i.e. cooling medium temperature (-6, -12 and -18?C and scraper blade rotational speed (50, 100 and 150 rpm on the freeze concentration of lime juice. The initial soluble solid content of lime juice was 7.6? Brix. Results showed that soluble solid content of lime juice increased as cooling medium temperature decreased while scraper blade rotational speed increased. It was also found that the processing condition with -18?C cooling medium temperature and 150 rpm rotational speed of the scraper blade was the best among all studied conditions, although the loss of the soluble solids with ice crystals during ice separation was relatively high at 35%.

  9. An Investigation into the Anti-microbial and Anti-fungal Properties of Earthworm Powder Obtained from Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Adil Ansari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study was carried out during the year 2006-2007 on dried earthworm powder collected from culture of Eisenia fetida in vermicomposting units and focused on the effect of the dried earthworm on microbes determining the anti-microbial and anti-fungal properties of the worms, as well as the chemical composition of worms obtain from vermicomposting units. The earthworm powder was also subjected to analysis of nitrogen and potassium using standard procedures. Antimicrobial disc diffusion suspecting tests were carried out against Bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as the fungus Candida albicans with the following treatments: Control, earthworm powder in water (1:1, earthworm powder in water (1:2 and earthworm powder in acetone (1:2. The technique involves using disk diffusion susceptibility testing where disks from both the pure and diluted honey as well as the antibiotic disk erythromycin (control were impregnated onto the surface of the Mueller Hinton agar. The study conclusively proved that the earthworm powder (all dilutions has antifungal properties which would be effective in treating fungal infections, such as candidosis whereas did not indicate the anti-microbial properties which may be attributed to different composition of elements in earthworm powder obtained from vermicomposting unit rather than garden soil. ANOVA analysis (Single factor at p = 0.05, proved that differences between the different concentrations of earthworm powder treatment containing colonies of C. albicans was significant, indicating the effect of earthworm powder by inhibiting the growth of the fungus C. albicans.

  10. Soil physical ambient and its relation ships with the earthworm's biomass in some Colombian Andean hillsides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presented here describes on the one hand the relationship between diversity, density and biomass of the earthworm's side and humidity, total porosity and resistance to penetration in the hillsides soils (secondary forest, Inceptisol and Pennsisetum clandestinum pastured, Andisol) on the other hand side. Results indicate that there were significant differences between sites for density and biomass of earthworms, and that their presence was affected by the physical parameters. Resistance to soil penetrability and humidity were significantly different only in the first 20 cm; while in deeper soil layers these were no such difference between sites, this is of importance, since the surface of the soil suffers changes due to the management, thus affecting the conditions that regulate the earthworm populations

  11. DNA Repair Inhibition by Mercuric Chloride in Earthworms after Exposure to Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Tae Ho; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nili, Mohammad [Dawnesh Radiation Research Institute, Barcelona (Spain); An, Kwang Guk [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    All organisms are being exposed to harmful factors present in the environment. Ionizing radiation can damage DNA through a series of molecular events depending on the radiation energy. The biological effects due to the combined action of ionizing radiation with the other factor are hard to estimate and predict in advance. Recently International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) requires the effect data of ionizing radiation on non-human biota for the radiological protection of the environment. Earthworms have been identified by the ICRP as one of the reference animals and plants to be used in environmental radiation protection. Particularly, the earthworm Eisenia fetida can be used as a bio-indicator of pollution in soil. This study was performed to investigate the acute genotoxic effects of radiation and the synergistic effects between radiation and mercury in earthworm, E. fetida

  12. Modelling the accumulation of hydrophobic organic chemicals in earthworms. Application of the equilibrium partitioning theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belfroid, A.C. [Research Inst. of Toxicology, Univ. Utrecht (Netherlands); Seinen, W. [Dept. of Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gestel, K.C.A.M. van [Research Inst. of Toxicology, Univ. Utrecht (Netherlands); Hermens, J.L.M. [Research Inst. of Toxicology, Univ. Utrecht (Netherlands); Leeuwen, K.J. van [Research Inst. of Toxicology, Univ. Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1995-07-01

    In this paper a method is developed which can be used to estimate the body burden of organic hydrophobic chemicals in earthworms. In contrast to the equilibrium partitioning theory, two routes of uptake are incorporated: uptake from interstitial water and dietary uptake. Although many uncertainties still remain, calculations show that for earthworms steady state body burdens are mainly determined by uptake from interstitial water. Under most circumstances, the contribution of dietary uptake is small, except for hydrophobic chemicals (log K{sub OW}>5) in soils with a high organic matter (OM) content of {approx}20%. Under those conditions, estimates of the steady state body burden calculated with the equilibrium partitioning model, in which only uptake from interstitial water is taken into account, might result in a small underestimation of the real body burden of chemicals in earthworms. (orig.)

  13. Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycerol/H+ symporter Stl1p is essential for cold/near-freeze and freeze stress adaptation. A simple recipe with high biotechnological potential is given

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Célia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Freezing is an increasingly important means of preservation and storage of microbial strains used for many types of industrial applications including food processing. However, the yeast mechanisms of tolerance and sensitivity to freeze or near-freeze stress are still poorly understood. More knowledge on this regard would improve their biotechnological potential. Glycerol, in particular intracellular glycerol, has been assigned as a cryoprotectant, also important for cold/near-freeze stress adaptation. The S. cerevisiae glycerol active transporter Stl1p plays an important role on the fast accumulation of glycerol. This gene is expressed under gluconeogenic conditions, under osmotic shock and stress, as well as under high temperatures. Results We found that cells grown on STL1 induction medium (YPGE and subjected to cold/near-freeze stress, displayed an extremely high expression of this gene, also visible at glycerol/H+ symporter activity level. Under the same conditions, the strains harbouring this transporter accumulated more than 400 mM glycerol, whereas the glycerol/H+ symporter mutant presented less than 1 mM. Consistently, the strains able to accumulate glycerol survive 25-50% more than the stl1? mutant. Conclusions In this work, we report the contribution of the glycerol/H+ symporter Stl1p for the accumulation and maintenance of glycerol intracellular levels, and consequently cell survival at cold/near-freeze and freeze temperatures. These findings have a high biotechnological impact, as they show that any S. cerevisiae strain already in use can become more resistant to cold/freeze-thaw stress just by simply adding glycerol to the broth. The combination of low temperatures with extracellular glycerol will induce the transporter Stl1p. This solution avoids the use of transgenic strains, in particular in food industry.

  14. Balkanized Research in Ecological Engineering Revealed by a Bibliometric Analysis of Earthworms and Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

    2013-08-01

    Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically-based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evolution of the association of "earthworms" and other terms such as ecosystem services (primary production, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, soil structure, and pollution remediation), "ecological engineering" or "biodiversity," to assess their convergence or divergence through time. In this aim, we calculated the similarity index, an indicator of the paradigmatic proximity defined in applied epistemology, for each year between 1900 and 2009. We documented the scientific fields and the geographical origins of the studies, as well as the land uses, and compare these characteristics with a 25 years old review on earthworm management. The association of earthworm related keywords with ecosystem services related keywords was increasing with time, reflecting the growing interest in earthworm use in biodiversity and ecosystem services management. Conversely, no significant increase in the association between earthworms and disciplines such as ecological engineering or restoration ecology was observed. This demonstrated that general ecologically-based approaches have yet to emerge and that there is little exchange of knowledge, methods or concepts among balkanized application realms. Nevertheless, there is a strong need for crossing the frontiers between fields of application and for developing an umbrella discipline to provide a framework for the use of organisms to manage ecosystem services.

  15. Protein freeze concentration and micro-segregation analysed in a temperature-controlled freeze container

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Roessl

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To examine effects of varied freezing conditions on the development of spatial heterogeneity in the frozen protein solution, macroscopic freeze concentration and micro-segregation of bovine serum albumin (BSA were investigated in a temperature-controlled 200-ml freeze container. Freezing to ?40 °C promoted formation of protein concentration gradients (69–114 ?g ml?1 in frozen samples taken from 12 different freezer positions, whereby slow freezing in 4 h or longer facilitated the evolution of strong spatial heterogeneities and caused local concentration increases by 1.15-fold relative to the initial protein concentration (100 ?g ml?1. To visualize protein micro-segregation during phase separation, BSA was conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate and confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy was used to localize and size the freeze-concentrated protein regions. Slow freezing resulted in distinctly fewer and larger protein domains in the frozen bulk than fast freezing. Surface stress on the protein during freezing would therefore be minimized at low cooling rates; microscopic freeze concentration would however be highest under these conditions, potentially favoring protein aggregation.

  16. Unravelling some Kinki earthworms (Annelida: Oligochaeta: Megadrili: Megascolecidae - Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blakemore, R.J.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Metaphire tanbode sp. nov. is found in rice paddy in Kinki plain at Lake Biwa and Amynthas yamade sp. nov. isfrom Hira range to the West. M. tanbode belongs to the M. hilgendorfi / A. tokioensis species-complex, while montane A. yamadeis comparable to both Amynthas aeruginosus-group and Duplodicodrilus schmardae-group. Genetic barcoding (mtDNA COI viatypes is attempted. Taxonomic ‘housekeeping’ requires replacement of invalid homonyms: e.g. Pheretima montana Ishizuka, 1999(non type-species P. montana Kinberg, 1867 is renamed Amynthas nonmontanus; others are A. nonsilvestris, A. noninvisus, A.nonmonticolus and A. nonsetosus, noms. et combs. novae. Thus Pheretima Kinberg, 1867 s. stricto remains unrecorded from Japanwhile prior Amynthas Kinberg, 1867, and its derivative Metaphire Sims & Easton, 1972, are abundant and diverse. Family andgeneric level definition and placement of Oriental pheretimoids are restated for the benefit of current workers and for novicefield-ecologists. Surveys of below-ground biodiversity of rice paddy in Lake Biwa is compared to more natural habitats aroundLake Pedder in Western Tasmanian Wilderness Area, and co-incidentally, both have 21 recorded earthworm species. Thus claimsfrom various countries of less than six species per location are contraindicated by thorough eco-taxonomic methods yieldingmore representative results.

  17. Potentiation effect of metolachlor on toxicity of organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides in earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepi?, Sandra; Hackenberger, Branimir K; Velki, Mirna; Hackenberger, Davorka K; Lon?ari?, Zeljka

    2013-07-01

    Acetylcholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase activities were determined in earthworms Eisenia andrei exposed to insecticides (endosulfan, temephos, malathion, pirimiphos-methyl) alone and in a binary combination with the herbicide metolachlor. Metolachlor individually was not acutely toxic, even at high concentrations applied; however, in the treated earthworms metolachlor enhanced the toxicity of endosulfan and temephos by significantly reducing the acetylcholinesterase activity. In binary combination with malathion and pirimiphos-methyl, metolachlor did not increase toxicity. The potentiation character of metolachlor is specific rather than general, and probably depends on the chemical structure of pesticides in the mixture. PMID:23666323

  18. Study of Genital Variations among the Earthworms of Genus Pheretima Inhabiting the Soil of Islamabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambreen Faiz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available External genital markings are supposed to be the key character of speciation and slight variation leads towards the differentiation among individuals of the same species. Such striking variations exist in the genital papillae of earthworms of genus Pheretima. This study was based on the exploration of soils of Islamabad to hunt the variations in number and position of genital papillae of earthworms belonging to genus Pheretima. A total of ten new variants were found, that were previously undescribed, including six variants of P. posthuma, three of P. morrisi and one of P. hawayana

  19. Inhibitory of Encapsulated Earthworm Extract (Lumbricus rubellus on Pathogenic Bacteria in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Istiqomah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the inhibitory of earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus extract (ECT and encapsulated earthworm extract (ECT-t as poultry feed additive against some pathogenic bacteria. Earthwom extract was prepared by dekokta method with water at 90 ºC then encapsulated by spray drying with maltodextrin as filler. In vitro antibacterial activity was performed using dilution method against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella pullorum, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The optical density results showed that started from ECT level 0.26% inhibited (P0.05 of ECT and ECT-t against S. pullorum.

  20. The Earthworm Gut: an Ideal Habitat for Ingested N2O-Producing Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Marcus A.; Schramm, Andreas; Drake, Harold L.

    2003-01-01

    The in vivo production of nitrous oxide (N2O) by earthworms is due to their gut microbiota, and it is hypothesized that the microenvironment of the gut activates ingested N2O-producing soil bacteria. In situ measurement of N2O and O2 with microsensors demonstrated that the earthworm gut is anoxic and the site of N2O production. The gut had a pH of 6.9 and an average water content of approximately 50%. The water content within the gut decreased from the anterior end to the posterior end. In co...

  1. Exploring the Nature of Contact Freezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, A. A.; Hoffmann, N.; Duft, D.; Leisner, T.

    2012-12-01

    The freezing of supercooled water droplets upon contact with aerosol particles (contact nucleation of ice) is the least understood mechanism of ice formation in atmospheric clouds. Although experimental evidences suggest that some aerosols can be better IN in the contact than in the immersion mode (that is, triggering ice nucleation at higher temperature), no final explanation of this phenomena currently exists. On the other hand, the contact freezing is believed to be responsible for the enhanced rate of secondary ice formation occasionally observed in LIDAR measurements in the cold mixed phase clouds. Recently we have been able to show that the freezing of supercooled droplets electrodynamically levitated in the laminar flow containing mineral dust particles (kaolinite) is a process solely governed by a rate of collisions between the supercooled droplet and the aerosol particles. We have shown that the probability of droplet freezing on a single contact with aerosol particle may differ over an order of magnitude for kaolinite particles having different genesis and morphology. In this presentation we extend the study of contact nucleation of ice and compare the IN efficiency measured for DMA-selected kaolinite, illite and hematite particles. We show that the freezing probability increases towards unity as the temperature decreases and discuss the functional form of this temperature dependence. We explore the size dependence of the contact freezing probability and show that it scales with the surface area of the particles, thus resembling the immersion freezing behavior. However, for all minerals investigated so far, the contact freezing has been shown to dominate over immersion freezing on the short experimental time scales. Finally, based on the combined ESEM and electron microprobe analysis, we discuss the significance of particle morphology and variability of chemical composition on its IN efficiency in contact mode.

  2. Snow Melting and Freezing on Older Townhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anker; Claesson, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The snowy winter of 2009/2010 in Scandinavia prompted many newspaper articles on icicles falling from buildings and the risk this presented for people walking below. The problem starts with snow melting on the roof due to heat loss from the building. Melt water runs down the roof and some of it will freeze on the overhang. The rest of the water will either run off or freeze in gutters and downpipes or turn into icicles. This paper describes use of a model for the melting and freezing of snow on ...

  3. Uptake and retention of radio-caesium in earthworms cultured in soil contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, K; Takahashi, T; Nguyen, P; Kubota, Y; Gamou, S; Sakurai, S; Takahashi, S

    2015-01-01

    To understand the effects of radionuclides on non-human biota and the environment, it is essential to study the intake and metabolism of radio-isotopes in earthworms which are among the most important soil organisms, and Eisenia fetida, which were used in this study, are known to be sufficiently sensitive to chemicals and representative of common earthworms. In this study, we assessed the concentration ratios, uptake and retention, absorbed dose rate, and distribution of radio-caesium in earthworms. The concentration ratios of (137)Cs (i.e., the concentrations of radio-caesium in earthworms relative to those in dry soil) were higher early in the culturing period and decreased gradually over the experimental period. (137)Cs taken up by E. fetida was cleared rapidly after the worms were cultured in radio-caesium-free soil, suggesting that the metabolism of radio-caesium in earthworms is very rapid. Autoradiography demonstrated that the concentration of radio-caesium within the digestive tract was as high as that in the soil, while radio-caesium in the body tissue was lower than radio-caesium in the soil and was almost uniformly distributed among earthworm tissues. The highest absorbed dose rate of total exposure to radio-caesium ((137)Cs + (134)Cs) was calculated to be 1.9 × 10(3) (?Gy/day) in the earthworms. PMID:25464049

  4. Effectivity of the Earthworms Pheretima hupiensis, Eudrellus sp. and Lumbricus sp. on the Organic Matter Decomposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ea Kosman Anwar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The earthworms are the one of soil fauna component in soil ecosystem have an important role in organic matter decomposition procces. The earthworm feed plant leaf and plant matter up to apart and dissolved. Earthworm metabolisms produce like faeces that mixed with decomposed organic matter mean vermicompost. The vermicompost fertility varies because of some kind of earthworm differ in “niche” and attitude. The experiment was to study the effectivity of earthworm on organic matter decomposition which has been conducted in Soil Biological and Healthy Laboratory and Green House of Soil Research Institute Bogor, during 2006 Budget Year. The three kind of earthworms i.e Pheretima hupiensis, Lumbricus sp. and Eudrellus sp. combined with three kind of organic matter sources i.e rice straw, trash and palm oil plant waste (compost heap. The result shows that the Lumbricus sp. are the most effective decomposer compared to Pheretima hupiensis and Eudrellus sp. and the organic matter decomposed by Lumbricus sp. as followed: market waste was decomposed of 100%, palm oil empty fruit bunch (compost heap 95.8 % and rice straw 84.9%, respectively. Earthworm effectively decreased Fe, Al, Mn, Cu dan Zn.

  5. Radiocesium concentrations in epigeic earthworms at various distances from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant 6 months after the 2011 accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the concentrations of radiocesium in epigeic earthworms, litter, and soil samples collected from forests in Fukushima Prefecture 6 months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011. Radiocesium concentrations in litter accumulated on the forest floor were higher than those in the soil (0–5 cm depth). The highest average 134+137Cs concentrations in earthworms (approximately 19 Bq g?1 of wet weight with gut contents and 108 Bq g?1 of dry weight without gut contents) were recorded from a plot that experienced an air dose rate of 3.1 ?Sv h?1, and earthworm concentrations were found to increase with litter and/or soil concentrations. Average 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations (with or without gut contents) were intermediate between accumulated litter and soil. Different species in the same ecological groups on the same plots had similar concentrations because of their use of the same habitats or their similar physiological characteristics. The contribution of global fallout 137Cs to earthworms with gut contents was calculated to be very low, and most 137Cs in earthworms was derived from the Fukushima accident. Transfer factors from accumulated litter to earthworms, based on their dry weights, ranged from 0.21 to 0.35, in agreement with previous field studies. -- Highlights: • Radiocesium concentrations in earthworms were intermediate between litter and soil. • Three earthworm species in epigeic groups had similar radiocesium concentrations. • Transfer factors from accumulated litter to earthworms ranged from 0.21 to 0.35

  6. Determining the bioavailability and toxicity of lead contamination to earthworms requires using a combination of physicochemical and biological methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed at assessing the bioavailability and toxicity of lead to Eisenia andrei in shooting range soils representing different land uses (forest, grassland, bullet plot). Soils contained 47–2398 mg Pb/kg dry weight (dw), but also had different pH-CaCl2 (3.2–6.8) and organic matter contents (3.8–13%). Therefore artificial soils with different pH and organic matter contents and two natural soils were included as control soils. Earthworms were exposed for 28 days and toxicity and uptake of Pb were related to total, water and 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable and porewater Pb concentrations as well as to soil characteristics. Pb uptake in the earthworms linearly increased with increasing soil concentrations. At >2000 mg Pb/kg dw and pH 3.3–3.5, high earthworm mortality with significant weight loss and complete inhibition of reproduction were recorded. At <1000 mg/kg dw, earthworm reproduction was more related to differences in pH and other soil characteristics than to Pb. -- Highlights: • Availability and earthworm toxicity of Pb determined in field-contaminated soils. • Earthworm toxicity of most-polluted soils explained from available Pb levels. • Earthworm response in less polluted soils mainly determined by soil pH. • Earthworm toxicity correlated with Pb uptake from the soil. • Soil properties explained differences in earthworm Pb uptake and effects. -- Combination of physicochemical and biological assays helped explaining Pb toxicity in shooting range soils from available Pb concentrations and soil characteristics

  7. Application of Pb isotopes to track the sources and routes of metal uptake in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bader Albogami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to determine the important routes of metal uptake in earthworms to enable a better understanding of the primary source of metal uptake in the environment. Earthworms can take up chemicals from pore water and soil both by ingestion and through contact with their skin. However, it is unclear which pathway is the most important for metal uptake. An experiment was designed in which both soil chemistry and foods were artificially manipulated, producing different pools of soil lead (Pb with different isotope compositions at a range of Pb concentrations. Earthworms (Eiseniafetida were exposed to different lead concentrations through the addition of 500 mg/kg lead oxide (Pb3O4 to soil and 500 mg/kg lead nitrate to food (manure, with distinctly different isotopic compositions. Earthworms were also exposed to combinations of soil only and soil plus food in order to quantify the proportions of Pb taken up from each component. After acid digestion of the earthworm tissues, the Pb isotope composition of the accumulated lead in the earthworms was measured using a Thermo-fisher, iCAPQ, ICP-MS for 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios measured relative to NIST SRM 981, allowing us to determine the pathway of lead uptake. Mixing calculations have been used to deconvolute the lead isotope signatures and identify the amount of lead taken up by the earthworms from the different soil pools. Differences in bioaccumulation factors and the relative amounts of lead accumulated from different pools changes as a function of concentration in the different pools. Earthworms were shown to uptake lead from bothsoil and food sources through ingestion route. Our findings suggest that a major pathway of lead uptake in earthworm species is heavily influenced by their ecology.

  8. Global Annual Freezing and Thawing Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The total annual freezing and thawing indices are defined as the cumulative number of degree-days when air temperatures are below and above zero degrees Celsius....

  9. Immersion freezing of birch pollen washing water

    OpenAIRE

    Augustin, S.; Hartmann, S.; B. Pummer; H. Grothe; D. Niedermeier; Clauss, T; Voigtländer, J.; L. Tomsche; Wex, H; Stratmann, F

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the immersion freezing behavior of birch pollen, i.e. its ice nucleating active (INA) macromolecules, was investigated at the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). For that, washing water of two different birch pollen samples with different regional origin (Northern birch and Southern birch) were used. The immersion freezing of droplets generated from the pollen washing water was already observed at temperatures higher than ?20 °C, for bo...

  10. Periodic ice banding in freezing colloidal dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Anthony M; Worster, M Grae

    2012-12-01

    Concentrated colloidal alumina dispersions were frozen in a directional solidification apparatus that provides independent control of the freezing rate and temperature gradient. Two distinct steady-state modes of periodic ice banding were observed in the range of freezing rates examined. For each mode, the wavelength between successive bands of segregated ice decreases with increasing freezing rate. At low freezing rates (0.25-3 ?m s(-1)), the ice segregates from the suspension into ice lenses, which are cracklike in appearance, and there is visible structure in the layer of rejected particles in the unfrozen region ahead of the ice lenses. In this regime, we argue that compressive cryosuction forces lead to the irreversible aggregation of the rejected particles into a close-packed cohesive layer. The temperature in the aggregated layer is depressed below the bulk freezing point by more than 2 °C before the ice lenses are encountered; moreover, this undercooled region appears as a light-colored layer. The magnitude of the undercooling and the color change in this region both suggest the presence of pore ice and the formation of a frozen fringe. The possibility of a frozen fringe is supported by a quantitative model of the freezing behavior. At intermediate freezing rates, around 4 ?m s(-1), the pattern of ice segregation is disordered, coinciding with the disappearance of the dark- and light-colored layers. Finally, at high freezing rates (5-10 ?m s(-1)), there is a new mode of periodic ice banding that is no longer cracklike and is absent of any visible structure in the suspension ahead of the ice bands. We discuss the implications of our experimental findings for theories of ice lensing. PMID:23110707

  11. N2O-Producing Microorganisms in the Gut of the Earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa Are Indicative of Ingested Soil Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Ihssen, Julian; Horn, Marcus A.; Matthies, Carola; Gößner, Anita; Schramm, Andreas; Drake, Harold L.

    2003-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were (i) to determine if gut wall-associated microorganisms are responsible for the capacity of earthworms to emit nitrous oxide (N2O) and (ii) to characterize the N2O-producing bacteria of the earthworm gut. The production of N2O in the gut of garden soil earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) was mostly associated with the gut contents rather than the gut wall. Under anoxic conditions, nitrite and N2O were transient products when supplemental nitrate was redu...

  12. Effects of non-native earthworms on on below- and aboveground processes in the Mid-Atlantic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlavecz, K. A.; McCormick, M. K.; Xia, L.; Pitz, S.; O'Neill, J.; Bernard, M.; Chang, C.; Whigham, D. F.

    2011-12-01

    Many biotic and abiotic disturbances have shaped the structure of the deciduous forests in the Mid-Atlantic region. One major anthropogenic factor is land use history. Agricultural practices in the past undoubtedly facilitated non-native earthworm colonization and establishment. Today most secondary forests are dominated by European lumbricid earthworms, although native species also occur in some habitats. To investigate how earthworm community composition and abundance affect belowground processes and tree seedling growth we set up a field manipulation experiment at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, MD. A total of 66 experimental plots were set up in successional (70 yrs) and mature (150 yrs) Tulip-poplar-Oak associations. We manipulated earthworm abundance and leaf litter input, and planted seedlings of Tulip poplar, Red maple, Red oak, and American beech. The experiment lasted for two years during which we regularly monitored density, biomass and species composition of earthworm assemblages and measured soil respiration. Soil moisture, temperature and air temperature were also continuously monitored using a wireless sensor network. At harvest, soil bulk density, pH, N pools, C:N ratio, potential N-mineralization rates, and enzyme activity were determined. We used quantitative PCR to assess the community composition of soil fungi. We also determined the extent of mycorrhizal colonization and biomass of roots, shoots and leaves. We conducted likelihood ratio tests for random and fixed effects based on mixed model analyses of variance. Differences between soil depths and among sites and plots accounted for a large portion of the variation in many soil properties. Litter quality affected soil pH and N mineralization. Earthworm densities affected bulk density, inorganic N content, and N mineralization. Both mycorrhizal groups were more abundant in mature than in successional forests. Both ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and arbuscular (AM) fungi were less abundant in the earthworm removal plots. There was a significant positive earthworm effect on the rate and thermal sensitivity of soil respiration. Soil respiration was consistently higher in plots with tulip poplar litter than those with beech litter, indicating a strong influence of plant residue quality. However, the differences were smaller in the second year than in the first one indicating an adaptation of the soil system. Oak and beech seedlings were smaller in high density earthworm plots, while the reverse was true for maple and tulip poplar seedlings. Non-native earthworms affect below- and aboveground processes, however, these effects depend on forest type and land use history. The earthworm effects also appear to be dynamic, as witnessed by a recent invasion of an Asian earthworm species in one of our forest stands.

  13. Hydrocarbon exclusion from ground water during freezing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bench-scale studies were conducted using a constant-head ground-water flow chamber and natural soil. Initial experiments with chlorides and dye were conducted to test the hydraulic and adsorptive characteristics of the chamber. A constant flow of phenol was then introduced into the chamber and contaminant movement with time was monitored under freezing and nonfreezing conditions. The chamber was located in a controlled-temperature room, and freezing fronts were induced from the soil surface downward using cooled Freon circulated through freezer pads placed on the surface of the soil. The results conclusively demonstrate that phenol is excluded from the freezing front and pushed downward through the system. Extensive exclusion of the chemical occurs even though the freezing point of phenol (43 C) is significantly higher than water. The information gained through this research is applicable in cold regions outside Alaska and the Arctic where ground water systems may undergo periodic freezing, and may also be of extreme importance in artificial-freezing scenarios such as those currently being investigated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a method of contaminant containment

  14. Theory of freezing in simple systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transition parameters for the freezing of two one-component liquids into crystalline solids are evaluated by two theoretical approaches. The first system considered is liquid sodium which crystallizes into a body-centered-cubic (bcc) lattice; the second system is the freezing of adhesive hard spheres into a face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattice. Two related theoretical techniques are used in this evaluation: One is based upon a recently developed bifurcation analysis; the other is based upon the theory of freezing developed by Ramakrishnan and Yussouff. For liquid sodium, where experimental information is available, the predictions of the two theories agree well with experiment and each other. The adhesive-hard-sphere system, which displays a triple point and can be used to fit some liquids accurately, shows a temperature dependence of the freezing parameters which is similar to Lennard-Jones systems. At very low temperature, the fractional density change on freezing shows a dramatic increase as a function of temperature indicating the importance of all the contributions due to the triplet direction correlation function. Also, we consider the freezing of a one-component liquid into a simple-cubic (sc) lattice by bifurcation analysis and show that this transition is highly unfavorable, independent of interatomic potential choice. The bifurcation diagrams for the three lattices considered are compared and found to be strikingly different. Finally, a new stability analysis of the bifurcation diagrams is presented

  15. Preservation of functionality of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis INL1 after incorporation of freeze-dried cells into different food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinderola, G; Zacarías, M F; Bockelmann, W; Neve, H; Reinheimer, J; Heller, K J

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate how production and freeze-drying conditions of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis INL1, a probiotic strain isolated from breast milk, affected its survival and resistance to simulated gastric digestion during storage in food matrices. The determination of the resistance of bifidobacteria to simulated gastric digestion was useful for unveiling differences in cell sensitivity to varying conditions during biomass production, freeze-drying and incorporation of the strain into food products. These findings show that bifidobacteria can become sensitive to technological variables (biomass production, freeze-drying and the food matrix) without this fact being evidenced by plate counts. PMID:22265312

  16. Characterization of the organic fraction of earthworm humus and composts taken place starting from different substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the quality and the humification degree of different composted materials, the organic fraction of earthworm humus obtained from kitchen and farm residues, coffee pulp, biodegradable garbage and roses residues and of composts from roses and carnation residues were characterized chemically. Thus, determination and analysis of the C/N ratio, as well as the fractionation of the organic matter and the purification and characterization of the humic acids by C, H, N, 0 elemental analysis, UV-VIS spectroscopy were done and different humification parameters were found. The fractionation of the organic matter showed a low content of extracted carbon with respect to the normal content found in the soil humus. The elemental analysis data of the humic acids from the composts and the earthworm humus did not reveal important differences between these materials, while the E4/E6 ratio provided more evident changes. The results showed that the C/N ratio is not an absolute indicative of the Maturity State of the studied materials. The best parameters to estimate the maturity degree of the composts and the earthworm humus turned out to be the polymerization ratio, the humification index and the extracted carbon/non extracted carbon ratio. Among the evaluated materials, the earthworm of roses residues showed the best conditions with respect to content and quality of the organic matter to be added to a soil

  17. Chlorpyrifos causes decreased organic matter decomposition by suppressing earthworm and termite communities in tropical soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of pesticides on structural and functional properties of ecosystems are rarely studied under tropical conditions. In this study litterbag and earthworm field tests were performed simultaneously at the same tropical field site sprayed with chlorpyrifos (CPF). The recommended dose of CPF (0.6 kg a.i. ha-1) and two higher doses (4.4-8.8 kg a.i. ha-1) significantly decreased litter decomposition during the first 3 months after application, which could be explained from lower earthworm and termite abundances during this period. Species-specific effects of CPF on organism abundance and biomass were observed, with termites being mostly affected followed by the earthworm Perionyx excavatus; the earthworm Megascolex sp. was least affected. Recovery was completed within 6 months. Decomposition in the controls and lowest two treatments was completed within 4 months, which suggests the need for modification of standard test guidelines to comply with faster litter degradation under tropical conditions. - Effects of chlorpyrifos on functional and structural endpoints in soil.

  18. Toxicological effects of soil contaminated with spirotetramat to the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingming; Zhang, Guoli; Yin, Peijun; Lv, Yanzhen; Yuan, Shun; Chen, Jiqiang; Wei, Binbin; Wang, Caixia

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of spirotetramat to the earthworm Eisenia fetida in a natural soil environment. Many biochemical markers, viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), cellulase, and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were measured after exposure to 0.25, 1.25, and 2.5mgkg(-1) for 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28days. In addition, the comet assay was performed on earthworm coelomocytes to assess the level of genetic damage. The results demonstrate that the SOD activity and MDA content were significantly stimulated by the highest dose (2.5mgkg(-1)) of spirotetramat for the entire period of exposure. The activities of CAT and POD increased significantly by 2d and 21d, respectively, but the activities of both were significantly inhibited after prolonged exposure (28d). After an initial increase on the 2nd day, the cellulase activity in the high-dose treatment group was significantly inhibited for the entire remaining exposure period. The comet assay results demonstrate that spirotetramat (?2.5mgkg(-1)) can induce low and intermediate degrees of DNA damage in earthworm coelomocytes. The results indicate that spirotetramat may pose potential biochemical and genetic toxicity to earthworms (E. fetida), and this information is helpful for understanding the ecological toxicity of spirotetramat on soil invertebrate organisms. PMID:26081578

  19. The effects of production systems on earthworm assemblages in vineyards and apple orchards.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav

    Washington : Society for Ecological Restoration, 2011. s. 162. [World Conference on Ecological Restoration /4./. 21.08.2011-25.08.2011, Mérida] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : earthworm assemblages * vineyards * apple orchards Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  20. The effects of production systems on earthworm assemblages in vineyards and apple orchards.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav

    Brno : Ústav biologie obratlovc? AV ?R, 2011. s. 178-179. ISBN 978-80-87189-09-2. [Zoologické dny Brno 2011. 17.02.2011-18.02.2011, Brno] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : earthworm assemblages * vineyards * apple orchards Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  1. Nitric oxide production in celomocytes of the earthworm Eisenia hortensis following bacterial challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SR Cook

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this in vitro investigation, nitric oxide (NO production was induced within celomocytes of the earthworm Eisenia hortensis following microbial challenge. Celomocytes were pre-loaded with the fluorescent indicator 4-amino-5-methylamino-2’, 7’-difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF-FM DA in order to detect the presence of intracellular nitric oxide subsequent to a 16 h incubation with chemically-fixed soil bacteria including Bacillus megaterium, Arthrobacter globiformis, Pseudomonas stutzeri, and Azotobacter chroococcum at a range of multiplicities of infection (MOIs. Flow cytometric analysis measuring increases in relative fluorescence intensity (RFI, which is directly proportional to the amount of intracellular NO produced, permitted determination of statistical significance (p < 0.05 of exposed celomocytes compared to baseline controls. Significant increases in NO were detected reproducibly in celomocytes treated with all bacterial species used. The most prominent results were observed after exposure to Gram positive B. megaterium and A. globiformis where 100 % of earthworms tested exhibited statistically significant increases of RFI at MOIs of 100:1 and 500:1, respectively. Furthermore, significant decreases in NO production in bacteria-stimulated earthworm celomocytes incubated with the NOS inhibitor aminoguanidine hydrochloride were observed. These results demonstrate microbial induction of NO synthesis in earthworms and provide evidence of an antimicrobial role of NO in the innate immune system.

  2. Effects of the endemic earthworm Allolobophora hrabei (?ernosvitov, 1935) on soil microbial communities of steppe grasslands.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirout, Ji?í; Pižl, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 76, September (2014), s. 249-256. ISSN 0038-0717 R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP504/12/0536 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bacteria * archaea * fungi * community composition * DGGE * earthworm Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.932, year: 2014

  3. Bioremediation of polluted soil through the combined application of plants, earthworms and organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macci, Cristina; Doni, Serena; Peruzzi, Eleonora; Ceccanti, Brunello; Masciandaro, Grazia

    2012-10-26

    Two plant species (Paulownia tomentosa and Cytisus scoparius), earthworms (Eisenia fetida), and organic matter (horse manure) were used as an ecological approach to bioremediate a soil historically contaminated by heavy metals and hydrocarbons. The experiment was carried out for six months at a mesoscale level using pots containing 90 kg of polluted soil. Three different treatments were performed for each plant: (i) untreated planted soil as a control (C); (ii) planted soil + horse manure (20:1 w/w) (M); (iii) planted soil + horse manure + 15 earthworms (ME). Both the plant species were able to grow in the polluted soil and to improve the soil's bio-chemical conditions, especially when organic matter and earthworms were applied. By comparing the two plant species, few significant differences were observed in the soil characteristics; Cytisus scoparius improved soil nutrient content more than Paulownia tomentosa, which instead stimulated more soil microbial metabolism. Regarding the pollutants, Paulownia tomentosa was more efficient in reducing the heavy metal (Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni) content, while earthworms were particularly able to stimulate the processes involved in the decontamination of organic pollutants (hydrocarbons). This ecological approach, validated at a mesoscale level, has recently been transferred to a real scale situation to carry out the bioremediation of polluted soil in San Giuliano Terme Municipality (Pisa, Italy). PMID:22911348

  4. Neurotoxicity and biochemical responses in the earthworm Pheretima hawayana exposed to TiO2NPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Abdelmonem M

    2015-12-01

    Serious concerns have been expressed about potential risks of manufactured TiO2NPs. In this research, toxicity of nanoparticulate and bulk TiO2 were examined to the earthworm Pheretima hawayana. The 24-h median lethal concentration (LC50) and sublethal endpoints were assessed. Both NPs and their bulk counterparts were toxic. The 24-h LC50 for TiO2NPs (145.36mgkg(-1)) was highly toxic than that of bulk TiO2 (357.77mgkg(-1)). The aim of the present work is to evaluate the suitability of P. hawayana and its biochemical responses to be used as a bioindicator organism and biomarkers of TiO2 toxicity. Earthworms were exposed to three sublethal concentrations of TiO2NPs (1, 10 and 100µgkg(-1)) for 28 days to test acetylcholinesterase (AChE), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase: SOD and catalase: CAT) activities and MDA content. The response of the antioxidant enzymes combined with AChE inhibition and MDA accumulation indicated that TiO2NPs could induce significant impairments to the earthworms at the actual environment tested concentrations. The results pointed out the high sensitivity of the antioxidant and oxidative stress related responses to TiO2NPs exposure, demonstrating their usefulness in environmental monitoring and risk assessment. The study highlights also the usefulness of earthworm P. hawayana as potential bioindicator species for assessing the risk of nanoparticles environmental contamination. PMID:26398239

  5. APPLICATION OF PLANT AND EARTHWORM BIOASSAYS TO EVALUATE REMEDIATION OF A LEAD-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earthworm acute toxicity, plant seed germination/root elongation (SG/RE) and plant genotoxicity bioassays were employed to evaluate the remediation of a lead-contaminated soil. The remediation involved removal of heavy metals by a soil washing/soil leaching treatment process. A p...

  6. Earthworms of the Šumava Biosphere Reserve and the effects of management practices on their communities.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav

    Kostelec nad ?ernými Lesy : ?eská zem?d?lská univerzita v Praze, Lesnická fakulta, Katedra p?stování les?, 2002. s. 9. [Monitoring, výzkum a management ekosystém? NP Šumava /3./. 28.11.2002-29.11.2002, Kostelec nad ?ernými Lesy] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : soil fauna * earthworms * Šumava Mts. Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  7. A few new Western Australian earthworms (Oligochaeta: Megadrilacea: Megascolecidae sensu Blakemore, 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Blakemore

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Earthworm samples, apparently collected in the 1980’s from the northern Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata forests of Western Australian and deposited in the London Natural History Museum, were studied. Due to limited time and budget only a few of the hundred samples were inspected. Description of just five new taxa are reported here.

  8. Responses of earthworms (Annelida: Lumbricidae) to disturbances in mountain alder swamp woods.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav

    Brno : Ústav biologie obratlovc? AV?R, 2013. s. 175-176. ISBN 978-80-87189-14-6. [Zoologické dny Brno 2013. 07.02.2013-08.02.2013, Brno] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : earthworms * disturbances * mountain alder swamp woods Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  9. How do earthworms affect Collembola and the plant assemblages in primary succession?.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mudrák, Ond?ej; Uteseny, Karoline; Frouz, Jan

    ?eské Bud?jovice : Institute of Soil Biology BC AS CR, 2009. s. 60. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /10./. 21.04.2009-24.04.2009, ?eské Bud?jovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : earthworms * Collembola * plant assemblages Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  10. Interactions between earthworms and arsenic in the soil environment: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langdon, Caroline J.; Piearce, Trevor G.; Meharg, Andrew A.; Semple, Kirk

    2003-08-01

    Relationships between earthworms and As-rich soils are discussed, examining mechanisms of tolerance, soil factors and possible trophic transfers. - Chemical pollution of the environment has become a major source of concern. In particular, many studies have investigated the impact of pollution on biota in the environment. Studies on metalliferous contaminated mine spoil wastes have shown that some soil organisms have the capability to become resistant to metal/metalloid toxicity. Earthworms are known to inhabit arsenic-rich metalliferous soils and, due to their intimate contact with the soil, in both the solid and aqueous phases, are likely to accumulate contaminants present in mine spoil. Earthworms that inhabit metalliferous contaminated soils must have developed mechanisms of resistance to the toxins found in these soils. The mechanisms of resistance are not fully understood; they may involve physiological adaptation (acclimation) or be genetic. This review discusses the relationships between earthworms and arsenic-rich mine spoil wastes, looking critically at resistance and possible mechanisms of resistance, in relation to soil edaphic factors and possible trophic transfer routes.

  11. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of chlorophenols in earthworms, in relation to bioavailability in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Gestel, C.A.; Ma, W.C.

    1988-06-01

    The acute toxicity of five chlorophenols for two earthworm species was determined in two sandy soils differing in organic matter content and the results were compared with adsorption data. Adsorption increased with increasing organic matter content of the soils, but for tetra- and pentachlorophenol was also influenced by soil pH. Earthworm toxicity was significantly higher in the soil with a low level of organic matter. This difference disappeared when LC50 values were recalculated to concentrations in soil solution using adsorption data. Eisenia fetida andrei showed LC50 values lower than those of Lumbricus rubellus although bioaccumulation was generally higher in the latter species. Toxicity and bioaccumulation based on soil solution concentrations increased with increasing lipophilicity of the chlorophenols. The present results indicate that the toxicity and bioaccumulation and therefore the bioavailability of chlorophenols in soil to earthworms are dependent on the concentration in soil solution and can be predicted on the basis of adsorption data. Both the toxicity of and bioaccumulation data on chlorophenols in earthworms demonstrated surprisingly good agreement with those on chlorophenols in fish.

  12. Earthworms in floodplain ecosystems - do they contribute to the biodiversity of central European landscapes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav

    Görlitz : Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Görlitz, 2005. s. 20. [International Symposium Floodplains: Hydrology, Soils, Fauna and their Interactions. 11.09.2005-16.09.2005, St. Marientahl] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : earthworms * floodplain ecosystems * central European landscapes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  13. Lethal concentrations of heavy metals in tissue of earthworms. Interim report No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouche, M.B.; Brun, P.; Gal, J.Y.; Rida, A.

    1987-10-01

    This toxicological research report addresses lethal concentrations of heavy metals in tissue of earthworms. We have presented the work in progress in the first interim report to improve 1) ecotoxicological test, 2) field procedures, and 3) standardization of analysis. This second interim report deals mostly with toxicity tests because the point (3) is now in order and the field work was impossible during the last dry season. Nevertheless, analysis of soil samples are in progress and most data are on computer files. The authors here develop more in detail point (1) new results or state of the art in the improvement of toxicity tests. 1) They have repeated the toxicity tests trying to get the LC50 for the different metals: cadmium, copper, arsenic and mercury. 2) They worked out a method to analyze earthworms. In the first part, results of the toxicity test are presented with their interpretations and, in the second part, the analytical method is examined and results are given of the test earthworms analyzed, trying to establish a relation between earthworms and artisol from which they come.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in soil and earthworms of urban greens.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav

    ?eské Bud?jovice : Institute of Soil Biology BC AS CR, 2009. s. 65. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /10./. 21.04.2009-24.04.2009, ?eské Bud?jovice] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA600660608 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons * heavy metals * earthworms Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. Earthworms and Plant Residues Modify Nematodes in Tropical Cropping Soils (Madagascar): A Mesocosm Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free-living nematodes present several characteristics that have led to their use as bio indicators of soil quality. Analyzing the structure of nematofauna is a pertinent way to understand soil biological processes. Earthworms play an important role in soil biological functioning and organic matter dynamics. Their effects on soil nematofauna have seldom been studied. We studied the effect of the tropical endogeic earthworm, Pontoscolex corethrurus, on nematode community structure in a 5-month field mesocosm experiment conducted in Madagascar. Ten different treatments with or without earthworms and with or without organic residues (rice, soybean) were compared. Organic residues were applied on the soil surface or mixed with the soil. The abundance of nematodes (bacterial and fungal feeders) was higher in presence of P. corethrurus than in their absence. The type of plant residues as well as their localisation had significant effects on the abundance and composition of soil nematodes. The analysis of nematode community structure showed that earthworm activity led to an overall activation of the microbial compartment without specific stimulation of the bacterial or fungal compartment.

  16. Vermiremediation of dyeing sludge from textile mill with the help of exotic earthworm Eisenia fetida Savigny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2013-09-01

    The aim of present study was for the vermiremediation of dyeing sludge from textile mill into nutrient-rich vermicompost using earthworm Eisenia fetida. The dyeing sludge was mixed with cattle dung in different ratios, i.e., 0:100 (D0), 25:75 (D25), 50:50 (D50), 75:25 (D75), and 100:0 (D100) with earthworms, and 0:100 (S0), 25:75 (S25), 50:50 (S50), 75:25 (S75), and 100:0 (S100) without earthworms. Minimum mortality and maximum population build-up were observed in a 25:75 mixture. Nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium, and pH increased from the initial to the final products with earthworms, while electrical conductivity, C/N ratio, organic carbon, and potassium declined in all the feed mixtures. Vermicomposting with E. fetida was better for composting to change this sludge into nutrient-rich manure. PMID:23508537

  17. Effect on enzymes and histopathology in earthworm (Eisenia foetida) induced by triazole fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Minling; Song, Wenhua; Zhang, Jinyang; Guo, Jing

    2013-05-01

    Earthworms are an ideal biological model in toxicity assays and environment monitoring studies, especially for the toxicity of pesticides on soil ecosystem. However, There are very little data on the toxicity of triazoles on earthworms despite the fact that such data are critical in assessing their fate and potential toxic effects in soil organisms. To address this issue, earthworms were exposed to triazoles (triadimefon, triadimenol, difenoconazole and propiconazole) to study biochemical and histopathological examination. The results showed protein content significantly increased in treatment of difenoconazole compared to control. There were no significant differences between controls and triadimefon treated groups, while the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity is significantly lower than control. Other triazoles also had an inhibitory effect on GSH-Px activity at higher concentration. The histopathological examination showed the epidermis and the epidermis cell of earthworm was ruined at lower triazoles concentration. The arrangement of smooth muscle layer disordered, and some cell disintegrated with concentration increasing of pesticides. Cell pyknosis, cytoplasm deep stained, nucleus concentrations were observed in the treated group with propiconazole. PMID:23474400

  18. Ecotoxicological effects of earthworm following long-term Dechlorane Plus exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Ji, Funian; Cui, Yibin; Li, Mei

    2016-02-01

    Dechlorane Plus (DP), similar to persistent organic pollutants, has been widely detected in environmental matrices, especially in sediment and soil. In this study, earthworms Eisenia fetida were exposed to 0.1, 0.5, 6.25 and 12.5 mg kg(-1) DP for 28 d. Lethality, oxidative stress, neurotoxicity and cellulase of E. fetida were assessed to investigate ecotoxicological effects of DP after long-term exposure. Results showed that the direct toxicity of DP was very low. However, death rate, as well as SOD activity, together with changes in activities of CAT, GSH-Px, and GSH levels, indicating that oxidative stress may play a significant role in DP exposure. In addition, DP also changes the AChE and cellulase activity of earthworms even under low DP concentration after long-term exposure. Moreover, comet assay results showed that DP exposure increased the levels of tDNA significantly (p < 0.05) even in the lowest treatment (0.1 mg kg(-1) DP). Combined with the results of enzyme activity, oxidative damage and comet assay, it can be suggested that earthworms experience more stress of DP during long-time exposure. This study provides insight into the toxicological effects of DP on earthworm model, and may be useful for risk assessment of DP on soil ecosystems. PMID:26619313

  19. Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antioxidant activities of the earthworms extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam El-Din Mohamed Omar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Earthworms are the major biomass in soil. They have been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. However, in the past few decades with the development of biochemical technologies the research on the pharmaceutical effects of earthworms has been commencement.Aims: Experiments were conducted to recognize the therapeutic properties such as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antioxidant activities of biologically active extract isolated from two species of earthworm (Pheretima hawayana Rosa and Allolobophora caliginosa Savigny.Materials and methods: inflammation in the hind paw of albino rat, Rattus rattus, was induced by histamine, pyrexia was induced by Escherichia coli in rats and liver damage was induced by injection of rats with CCl4. Anti-inflammatory drug - indomethacin, anti-pyretic drug - paracetamol and antioxidant drug - silymarin plus were used as standard drug for comparison.Results: Administration of Eearthworms extract (100 mg/kg and indomethacin (10 mg/kg, paracetamol (150 mg/kg, silymarin plus (150 mg/kg as standard drugs reduced and restored to normal the changes that induced by histamine, Escherichia coli and CCl4 in rats.Conclusions: The present study conclude that both extract of earthworms gave result as anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic similar to the standard drugs. The extract of the two species showed various responds as antioxidants against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity.

  20. The effects of earthworms Eisenia spp. on microbial community are habitat dependent.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koubová, Anna; Chro?áková, Alica; Pižl, Václav; Sánchez-Monedero, M.A.; Elhottová, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 68, May-June (2015), s. 42-55. ISSN 1164-5563 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA600200704; GA MŠk LC06066 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : earthworms * soil * compost * vermiculture * archaea * bacteria Impact factor: 1.719, year: 2014

  1. Earthworm species and burrows related to agricultural management of grass-clover in rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Paul Henning; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Grass-clover is an important element in crop rotations due to its beneficial agronomic properties including nitrogen build-up, biodiversity stimulation and maintenance of soil macropores and it produces very high levels of earthworm biomass. We studied the relationship between crucial elements of grass-clover management in a crop rotation and earthworm diversity and macropore depth distribution. The dominance of anecics increased from an annual crop to the perennial grass-clover. Aporrectodea tuberculata decreased significantly from annuals to 3 year grass-clover. Cattle grazing favours the occurrence of coarse macropores (>5 mm ?) made by anecics, Aporrectodea longa and Lumbricus terrestris, while otherwise decreasing the number of fine-medium macropores (<5 mm ?) below the topsoil. Our study stresses the importance of considering subsoil macropores to complete the picture of earthworm influence on soil hydrology. The anecics are responsible for coarse macropores, while the smaller endogeic A. tuberculata isless important for coarse macropores and even negatively correlated with the abundant anecics and sensitive to the presence of grazing cattle compacting the topsoil. The detailed species-specific functional properties are crucial for successfully predicting the contribution to soil ecosystem services by earthworms.

  2. Management of plant communities on set-aside land and its effects on earthworm communities.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gormsen, D.; Hedlund, K.; Korthals, G. W.; Mortimer, S. R.; Pižl, Václav; Šmilauerová, M.; Sugg, E.

    2004-01-01

    Ro?. 40, 3-4 (2004), s. 123-128. ISSN 1164-5563 Grant ostatní: Evropská unie(XE) ENV4-CT95-0002 Keywords : earthworm community * plant community * land use Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.776, year: 2004

  3. Influence of soil properties on the bioaccumulation and effects of arsenic in the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Freire, A; Peinado, F J Martín; Ortiz, M Díez; van Gestel, C A M

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed at assessing the influence of soil properties on the uptake and toxicity effects of arsenic in the earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed for 4 weeks to seven natural soils spiked with different arsenic concentrations. Water-soluble soil concentrations (AsW) and internal As concentrations in the earthworms (AsE) were greatly different between soils. These two variables were highly correlated and were key factors in earthworm toxicity response. AsW was explained by some soil properties, such as the pH, calcium carbonate content, ionic strength, texture or oxide forms. Toxicity showed a clear variation between soils, in some cases without achieving 50 % adverse effect at the highest As concentration added (600 mg kg(-1)). Nevertheless, soil properties did not show, in general, a high relation with studied toxicity endpoints, although the high correlation with AsW could greatly reduce indirectly As bioavailability and toxicity risk for earthworms. Obtained results suggest that soil properties should be part of the criteria to establishing thresholds for contaminated soils because they will be key in controlling As availability and thus result in different degrees of toxicity. PMID:26002360

  4. The effects of environmental parameters on the availability of cesium for earthworms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of potassium, stable cesium, calcium and ammonium in soil, and pH are known to affect the uptake of 134Cs from soil. Uncertain is whether this is a direct effect on the uptake (e.g. through competition for binding sites) or an indirect effect through a changing distribution of 134Cs between the solid and liquid phase of the soil. The uptake of 134Cs by earthworms from solution and soil has been studied to investigate these effects. The effects of potassium and stable cesium expressed per mmol added, were comparable: 134Cs accumulation decreases with potassium and stable cesium concentration in solution. No significant effects from varying pH or calcium and ammonium concentrations on 134Cs uptake from liquid medium were observed. 134Cs concentrations in the earthworms increased with temperature, which could mainly be explained by earthworm-related factors such as increased metabolism or feeding rate. Addition of calcium, potassium, ammonium and organic matter to soil increased the amount of 134Cs in soil solution significantly. However, the overall effects of additions of K+, Ca++, NH4+ and organic matter on the 134Cs concentrations in earthworms were non-significant. Based on the experiments in liquid medium increasing the concentration of potassium in soil solution showed to be most effective and most realistic in reducing 134Cs uptake. The results in soil indicate that the effect of potassium will depend on other soil characteristics as well

  5. Bioremediation of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons in diesel contaminated soil with the earthworm: Eudrilus eugeniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekperusi, Ogheneruemu Abraham; Aigbodion, Iruobe Felix

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil with the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Kingberg) was conducted. 5 ml of diesel was contaminated into soils in replicates and inoculated with E. eugeniae for 90 days. Physicochemical parameters, heavy metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons were analyzed using AAS. BTEX in contaminated soil and tissues of earthworms were determined with GC-FID. The activities of earthworms resulted in a decrease in pH (3.0 %), electrical conductivity (60.66 %), total nitrogen (47.37 %), chloride (60.66 %), total organic carbon (49.22 %), sulphate (60.59 %), nitrate (60.65 %), phosphate (60.80 %), sodium (60.65 %), potassium (60.67 %), calcium (60.67 %), magnesium (60.68 %), zinc (60.59 %), manganese (60.72 %), copper (60.68 %), nickel (60.58 %), cadmium (60.44 %), vanadium (61.19 %), chromium (53.60 %), lead (60.38 %), mercury (61.11 %), arsenic (80.85 %), TPH (84.99 %). Among the BTEX constituents, only benzene (8.35 %) was detected in soil at the end of the study. Earthworm tissue analysis showed varying levels of TPH (57.35 %), benzene (38.91 %), toluene (27.76 %), ethylbenzene (42.16 %) and xylene (09.62 %) in E. eugeniae at the end of the study. The study has shown that E. eugeniae could be applied as a possible bioremediator in diesel polluted soil. PMID:26413446

  6. Chlorpyrifos causes decreased organic matter decomposition by suppressing earthworm and termite communities in tropical soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Silva, P. Mangala C.S., E-mail: msilva@falw.vu.n [Department of Animal Ecology, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Ruhuna, Matara (Sri Lanka); Pathiratne, Asoka [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Kelaniya, Kelaniya (Sri Lanka); Straalen, Nico M. van; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Department of Animal Ecology, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-10-15

    Effects of pesticides on structural and functional properties of ecosystems are rarely studied under tropical conditions. In this study litterbag and earthworm field tests were performed simultaneously at the same tropical field site sprayed with chlorpyrifos (CPF). The recommended dose of CPF (0.6 kg a.i. ha{sup -1}) and two higher doses (4.4-8.8 kg a.i. ha{sup -1}) significantly decreased litter decomposition during the first 3 months after application, which could be explained from lower earthworm and termite abundances during this period. Species-specific effects of CPF on organism abundance and biomass were observed, with termites being mostly affected followed by the earthworm Perionyx excavatus; the earthworm Megascolex sp. was least affected. Recovery was completed within 6 months. Decomposition in the controls and lowest two treatments was completed within 4 months, which suggests the need for modification of standard test guidelines to comply with faster litter degradation under tropical conditions. - Effects of chlorpyrifos on functional and structural endpoints in soil.

  7. Role of Native and Exotic Earthworms in Plant Biopolymer Dynamics in Forest Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filley, Timothy

    2010-05-01

    Many forests within northern North America are experiencing the introduction of earthworms for the first time, presumably since before the last major glaciation. Forest dynamics are undergoing substantial changes because of the activity of the mainly European lumbricid species. Documented losses in litter layers, expansion of A-horizons, loss of the organic horizon, changes in fine root density, and shifts in microbial populations have all been documented in invaded zones. Two free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) forest experiments (aspen FACE at Rhinelander, Wisconsin and sweet gum FACE at Oak Ridge National Lab, Tennessee) lie within the zones of invasion and exhibit differences in amounts of exotic and native species as well as endogeic (predominantly mineral soil dwelling) and epigeic (litter and organic matter horizon dwelling) types. Considerations of carbon accrual dynamics and relative input of above vs. below ground plant input in these young successional systems do not consider the potential impact of these ecosystem engineers. We investigated the impact of earthworm activity by tracking the relative abundance and stable carbon isotope compositions of lignin and substituted fatty acids extracted from isolated earthworms and their fecal pellets and from host soils. Indications of root vs leaf input to earthworm casts and fecal matter were derived from differences in the chemical composition of cutin, suberin, and lignin. The isotopically depleted CO2 used in FACE and the resulting isotopically depleted plant organic matter afford an excellent opportunity to assess biopolymer-specific turnover dynamics. We find that endogeic species are proportionately more responsible for fine root cycling while some epigeic species are responsible for microaggregation of foliar cutin. CSIA of fecal pellet lignin and SFA indicates how these biopolymer pools can be derived from variable sources, roots, background soil, foliar tissue within one earthworm. Additionally, CSIA indicates the distinct roles that different earthworm types have in "aging" surface soil biopolymer pools through encapsulation and upward transport of deeper soil carbon, and "freshening" deeper soil biopolymer pools through downward transport of surface carbon to deeper layers,. As earthworm species abundance and activity are not is steady state in many forests, the role of these important invertebrates should be more considered when assessing the changing soil state.

  8. Importância ecológica e ambiental das minhocas / Environmental and ecological importance of earthworms

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gerusa Pauli Kist, Steffen; Zaida Inês, Antoniolli; Ricardo Bemfica, Steffen; Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti, Jacques.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As minhocas correspondem a um dos principais grupos de organismos edáficos atuantes nos processos de movimenta­ção de partículas e ciclagem de nutrientes. Este trabalho tem como objetivos discutir a importância das minhocas para a melhoria e manutenção da sustentabilidade dos agroecossistemas, salie [...] ntando as formas de avaliação da comunidade de minhocas no solo e sua utilização como ferramenta em avaliações ambientais. Através da constante movimentação e atividade de ingestão de solo e resíduos orgânicos, constroem galerias que contribuem com o aumento da aeração e da taxa de infiltração de água no solo. A liberação de excrementos na superfície e no interior do solo modifica positiva­mente sua estrutura e fertilidade. A densidade e diversidade de minhocas em agroecossistemas pode ser determinada por diferentes métodos de extração. Algumas espécies de minhocas, por apresentarem sensibilidade a alterações de uso e manejo do solo, são excelentes bioindicadoras ambientais, representando importante ferramenta para avaliação de impactos em ecossistemas. Abstract in english The earthworms represent a major group of soil organisms active in the process of moving particles and nutrient cycling. This paper aims to discuss the importance of earthworms to improve and maintain the sustainability of agroecosystems, emphasizing forms of community assessment of earthworms in th [...] e soil and its use as a tool in environmental assess­ments. Through constant movement and activity of soil ingestion and organic waste, they build galleries that contribute to increase the aeration and water infiltration in the soil. The release of faeces on the surface and within the soil positively modify its structure and fertility. The density and diversity of earthworms in agroecosystems can be determined by dif­ferent extraction methods. Some species of earthworms, because they are excellen to changes in land use and management, are sensitive environmental bioindicators, representing an important tool to asses impacts on ecosystems.

  9. Earthworms as bio-indicators of metal pollution in dump sites of Abeokuta City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bamgbose

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Metal concentrations (Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, Cd and Cr and contents were measured in earthworms (Libyodrilus violaceus and soil samples from three non-contaminated sites and ten dump sites located in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Samples from control sites show (in general levels of metals to be higher in earthworms than in soil samples, as shown by the mean concentrations, (earthworms-soil: - Zn:7.02, 6.74, Pb:5.04, 4.94, Mn 10.54, 10.41, Cu:1.03, 1.60., Cd: 0.80, 0.81 and Cr:0.55, 0.49 µg/g while for samples from dump sites, irrespective of the degree of pollution, the ratio of metal concentration in earthworms to soil samples were less than unity with the exception of Cd and Cr. The availability of metals in soils was also co-determined by the soil pH and soil organic matter which accounted for the trend of metal concentration at the various dump sites. For the control sites, the pH ranged from 5.40 - 6.74 and soil organic matter from 3.25% to 3.40%, while for the dump sites, values of 7.44-10.10 and 5.79% - 7.59% were obtained for soil pH and soil organic matter respectively. The metal ion concentration in both soil and earthworm samples followed the trend Pb > Zn > Mn > Cu > Cr > Cd. Dump sites with high levels of Pb were located by roadsides of busy highways.

  10. Earthworms as bio-indicators of metal pollution in dump sites of Abeokuta City, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal concentrations (Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, Cd and Cr) and contents were measured in earthworms (Libyodrilus violaceus) and soil samples from three non-contaminated sites and ten dump sites located in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Samples from control sites show (in general) levels of metals to be higher in earthworms than in soil samples, as shown by the mean concentrations, (earthworms-soil: - Zn:7.02, 6.74, Pb:5.04, 4.94, Mn 10.54, 10.41, Cu:1.03, 1.60., Cd: 0.80, 0.81 and Cr:0.55, 0.49 ?g/g) while for samples from dump sites, irrespective of the degree of pollution, the ratio of metal concentration in earthworms to soil samples were less than unity with the exception of Cd and Cr. The availability of metals in soils was also co-determined by the soil pH and soil organic matter which accounted for the trend of metal concentration at the various dump sites. For the control sites, the pH ranged from 5.40 - 6.74 and soil organic matter from 3.25% to 3.40%, while for the dump sites, values of 7.44-10.10 and 5.79% - 7.59% were obtained for soil pH and soil organic matter respectively. The metal ion concentration in both soil and earthworm samples followed the trend Pb > Zn > Mn > Cu > Cr > Cd. Dump sites with high levels of Pb were located by roadsides of busy highways. (Author) Mgtr.Julieta Soto Rojas Subdirectora Sistema de Bibliotecas, Documentacion e Informacion Universidad de Costa Rica jsotoatsibdi.ucr.ac.cr Tel. 207-4750, 207-4238, 207-4461, 207-5316 y 253-6152 Fax: 2342809

  11. Building the Method to Determine the Rate of Freezing Water in Penaeus monodon of the Freezing Process

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Tan Dzung; Trinh Van Dzung; Tran Duc Ba

    2012-01-01

    The method of determination the rate of freezing water in Penaeus monodon of freezing process was established on base the equation of energy balance in warming up process Penaeus monodon after freezing to determine specific heat of Penaeus monodon. The result obtained was built the mathematical model (19) to determine the rate of freezing water according to the freezing temperature of Penaeus monodon. The results indicated that when water was completely frozen (? = 1 or 100%), the optimal fre...

  12. Enchytraeids and earthworms (Annelida: Clitellata: Enchytraeidae, Lumbricidae) of urban parks in the city of Brno, Czech Republic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlaghamerský, J.; Pižl, Václav

    Durham : University of Durham, 2008. s. 6. [International Symposium on Enchytraeidae /8./. 02.07.2008-06.07.2008, Durham] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : enchytraeids * earthworms * urban parks Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  13. Glyphosate-based herbicides reduce the activity and reproduction of earthworms and lead to increased soil nutrient concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaupp-Berghausen, Mailin; Hofer, Martin; Rewald, Boris; Zaller, Johann G

    2015-01-01

    Herbicide use is increasing worldwide both in agriculture and private gardens. However, our knowledge of potential side-effects on non-target soil organisms, even on such eminent ones as earthworms, is still very scarce. In a greenhouse experiment, we assessed the impact of the most widely used glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup on two earthworm species with different feeding strategies. We demonstrate, that the surface casting activity of vertically burrowing earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) almost ceased three weeks after herbicide application, while the activity of soil dwelling earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) was not affected. Reproduction of the soil dwellers was reduced by 56% within three months after herbicide application. Herbicide application led to increased soil concentrations of nitrate by 1592% and phosphate by 127%, pointing to potential risks for nutrient leaching into streams, lakes, or groundwater aquifers. These sizeable herbicide-induced impacts on agroecosystems are particularly worrisome because these herbicides have been globally used for decades. PMID:26243044

  14. Rediscovery of Fimoscolex sporadochaetus Michaelsen 1918 (Clitellata: Glossoscolecidae), and considerations on the endemism and diversity of Brazilian earthworms / Redescubrimiento de Fimoscolex Sporadochaetus Michaelsen 1918 (clitellata: glossoscolecidae), y consideraciones sobre el endemismo y la diversidad de lombrices de tierra brasileñas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Samuel W., JAMES; George G., BROWN.

    Full Text Available En Brasil hay aproximadamente 305 especies de lombrices de tierra, de las cuales 260 (85%) son nativas e 46 (15%) exóticas. La mayor parte de las especies nativas (80%) es conocida de apenas una o dos localidades y dos especies fueron consideradas como extintas por el Ministerio del Medio Ambiente d [...] e Brasil en 2003, debido a la falta de registros, destrucción de hábitat y distribución limitada (endemismo). Una de ellas es Fimoscolex sporadochaetus Michaelsen 1918, que fue recién encontrada en una reserva de Bosque Atlántico (Parque Estatal de Itacolomi) próximo al Embalse del Custodio, en el municipio de Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais. Basándonos en los datos de colectas de lombrices de tierra realizadas en Brasil hasta el momento, creemos que el estado de las especies amenazadas y "extintas" debe ser revisado y que mayores esfuerzos de colecta son necesarios para determinar la biodiversidad de lombrices en el país y su estado actual de amenaza. Abstract in english Brazil hosts approximately 305 earthworm species, of which 260 (85%) are native and 46 (15%) exotic. Most of the native species (80%) are known from only one or a few sites, and two species were considered as extinct by the Ministry of Environment of Brazil in 2003, due to lack of sightings, habitat [...] destruction and a limited prior known distribution (endemism). One of these, Fimoscolex spora-dochaetus Michaelsen, 1918 was recently found in a forest reserve (Parque Estadual do Itacolomi), near the reservoir Bacio do Custódio in Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais. With this finding, and based on earthworm collection data in Brazil up to now, we believe that the endangered and "extinct" species should have their status reviewed, and that further collecting efforts are urgently necessary to adequately determine the extent of earthworm biodiversity in Brazil and the present level of threat to their survival.

  15. The Arabidopsis RCC1 Family Protein TCF1 Regulates Freezing Tolerance and Cold Acclimation through Modulating Lignin Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Gareth I.; Wang, Shuangfeng; Shang, Zhonglin; Shi, Yiting; Yang, Shuhua; Li, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cell water permeability and cell wall properties are critical to survival of plant cells during freezing, however the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report that a specifically cold-induced nuclear protein, Tolerant to Chilling and Freezing 1 (TCF1), interacts with histones H3 and H4 and associates with chromatin containing a target gene, BLUE-COPPER-BINDING PROTEIN (BCB), encoding a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein that regulates lignin biosynthesis. Loss of TCF1 function leads to reduced BCB transcription through affecting H3K4me2 and H3K27me3 levels within the BCB gene, resulting in reduced lignin content and enhanced freezing tolerance. Furthermore, plants with knocked-down BCB expression (amiRNA-BCB) under cold acclimation had reduced lignin accumulation and increased freezing tolerance. The pal1pal2 double mutant (lignin content reduced by 30% compared with WT) also showed the freezing tolerant phenotype, and TCF1 and BCB act upstream of PALs to regulate lignin content. In addition, TCF1 acts independently of the CBF (C-repeat binding factor) pathway. Our findings delineate a novel molecular pathway linking the TCF1-mediated cold-specific transcriptional program to lignin biosynthesis, thus achieving cell wall remodeling with increased freezing tolerance. PMID:26393916

  16. The Arabidopsis RCC1 Family Protein TCF1 Regulates Freezing Tolerance and Cold Acclimation through Modulating Lignin Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hongtao; Wang, Youning; Cloix, Catherine; Li, Kexue; Jenkins, Gareth I; Wang, Shuangfeng; Shang, Zhonglin; Shi, Yiting; Yang, Shuhua; Li, Xia

    2015-09-01

    Cell water permeability and cell wall properties are critical to survival of plant cells during freezing, however the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report that a specifically cold-induced nuclear protein, Tolerant to Chilling and Freezing 1 (TCF1), interacts with histones H3 and H4 and associates with chromatin containing a target gene, BLUE-COPPER-BINDING PROTEIN (BCB), encoding a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein that regulates lignin biosynthesis. Loss of TCF1 function leads to reduced BCB transcription through affecting H3K4me2 and H3K27me3 levels within the BCB gene, resulting in reduced lignin content and enhanced freezing tolerance. Furthermore, plants with knocked-down BCB expression (amiRNA-BCB) under cold acclimation had reduced lignin accumulation and increased freezing tolerance. The pal1pal2 double mutant (lignin content reduced by 30% compared with WT) also showed the freezing tolerant phenotype, and TCF1 and BCB act upstream of PALs to regulate lignin content. In addition, TCF1 acts independently of the CBF (C-repeat binding factor) pathway. Our findings delineate a novel molecular pathway linking the TCF1-mediated cold-specific transcriptional program to lignin biosynthesis, thus achieving cell wall remodeling with increased freezing tolerance. PMID:26393916

  17. Bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals and other anthropogenic waste indicators in earthworms from agricultural soil amended with biosolid or swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, C.A.; Furlong, E.T.; Kolpin, D.W.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Zaugg, S.D.; Werner, S.L.; Bossio, J.P.; Benotti, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of earthworms offers potential for assessing the transfer of organic anthropogenic waste indicators (AWIs) derived from land-applied biosolid or manure to biota. Earthworms and soil samples were collected from three Midwest agricultural fields to measure the presence and potential for transfer of 77 AWIs from land-applied biosolids and livestock manure to earthworms. The sites consisted of a soybean field with no amendments of human or livestock waste (Site 1), a soybean field amended with biosolids from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (Site 2), and a cornfield amended with swine manure (Site 3). The biosolid applied to Site 2 contained a diverse composition of 28 AWIs, reflecting the presence of human-use compounds. The swine manure contained 12 AWIs, and was dominated by biogenic sterols. Soil and earthworm samples were collected in the spring (about 30 days after soil amendment) and fall (140-155 days after soil amendment) at all field sites. Soils from Site 1 contained 21 AWIs and soil from Sites 2 and 3 contained 19 AWIs. The AWI profiles at Sites 2 and 3 generally reflected the relative composition of AWIs present in waste material applied. There were 20 AWIs detected in earthworms from Site 1 (three compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 ??g/kg), 25 AWIs in earthworms from Site 2 (seven compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 ??g/kg), and 21 AWIs in earthworms from Site 3 (five compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 ??g/kg). A number of compounds thatwere present in the earthworm tissue were at concentrations less than reporting levels in the corresponding soil samples. The AWIs detected in earthworm tissue from the three field sites included pharmaceuticals, synthetic fragrances, detergent metabolites, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), biogenic sterols, disinfectants, and pesticides, reflecting a wide range of physicochemical properties. For those contaminants detected in earthworm tissue and soil, bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged from 0.05 (galaxolide) to 27 (triclosan). This study documents that when AWIs are present in source materials that are land applied, such as biosolids and swine manure, AWIs can be transferred to earthworms. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  18. BIOCONVERSION OFWATER HYACINTH (EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES) TO VERMICOMPOST BY THE EARTHWORM EUDRILUS EUGENIAE: AN IDEAL METHOD FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    K. R. Rao; MUSHAN,L.C; P. V. KALE; S. R. ANKARAM

    2013-01-01

    Vermicomposting is a process in which organic waste can be converted to an energy rich byproduct by the action of microbial population present in the gut flora of earthworms. Earthworms are considered as bioengineers as they enrich the soil by adding micronutrient and macronutrients through their cast. This enriched soil will be useful for getting higher yield in the agricultural crops. The vermibiotechnology facilitates the recycling of industrial, agricultural, domestic an...

  19. Application of Pb isotopes to track the sources and routes of metal uptake in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    OpenAIRE

    Albogami, Bader; Hodson, Mark E.; Black, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the important routes of metal uptake in earthworms to enable a better understanding of the primary source of metal uptake in the environment. Earthworms can take up chemicals from pore water and soil both by ingestion and through contact with their skin. However, it is unclear which pathway is the most important for metal uptake. An experiment was designed in which both soil chemistry and foods were artificially manipulated, producing different pools of so...

  20. New records of earthworms from Guadeloupe with description of a new species (Oligochaeta: Glossoscolecidae, Acanthodrilidae, Megascolecidae and Eudrilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csuzdi, Cs.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A small earthworm material from Guadeloupe Islands (French West-Indies was studied. Altogether 14 earth¬worm species were collected, 12 of which are common tropical peregrine. On the other hand, two seem to be endemic in the islands. One of these native species, Eutrigaster (Graffia musciphila (James, 1996 is reported for the first time after the original description, the other, Periscolex nevoi sp. nov. is proved to be new to science.

  1. Land use intensity impact on functional diversity in earthworms regarding regulation of soil structure and water infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Jack H.; Pérès, G.; de Groot, Arjen; Krogh, Paul Henning

    2015-01-01

    Earthworms can be distinguished into three groups that represent different clusters of morphological and behavioural traits. These so-called ecological groups (sensu Bouché 1977) have traditionally been considered to represent different functional groups with respect to soil processes. In this context, one aim of our study was to assess the impact of agronomic intensification across a range of land-use systems on the relationships between earthworm community composition and soil processes. Secon...

  2. Design and experimental gait analysis of a multi-segment in-pipe robot inspired by earthworm's peristaltic locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongbin; Wang, Chenghao; Li, Suyi; Xu, Jian; Wang, K. W.

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports the experimental progress towards developing a multi-segment in-pipe robot inspired by earthworm's body structure and locomotion mechanism. To mimic the alternating contraction and elongation of a single earthworm's segment, a robust, servomotor based actuation mechanism is developed. In each robot segment, servomotor-driven cords and spring steel belts are utilized to imitate the earthworm's longitudinal and circular muscles, respectively. It is shown that the designed segment can contract and relax just like an earthworm's body segment. The axial and radial deformation of a single segment is measured experimentally, which agrees with the theoretical predictions. Then a multisegment earthworm-like robot is fabricated by assembling eight identical segments in series. The locomotion performance of this robot prototype is then extensively tested in order to investigate the correlation between gait design and dynamic locomotion characteristics. Based on the principle of retrograde peristalsis wave, a gait generator is developed for the multi-segment earthworm-like robot, following which gaits of the robot can be constructed. Employing the generated gaits, the 8-segment earthworm-like robot can successfully perform both horizontal locomotion and vertical climb in pipes. By changing gait parameters, i.e., with different gaits, locomotion characteristics including average speed and anchor slippage can be significantly tailored. The proposed actuation method and prototype of the multi-segment in-pipe robot as well as the gait generator provide a bionic realization of earthworm's locomotion with promising potentials in various applications such as pipeline inspection and cleaning.

  3. Patterns of earthworm communities and species traits in relation to the perturbation gradient of a restored floodplain

    OpenAIRE

    Fournier, Bertrand; Samaritani, Emanuela; Shrestha, Juna; Mitchell, Edward A D; Le Bayon Renée-Claire

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the diversity and ecology of earthworms in floodplains, as well as their response to natural and anthropic perturbations (e.g. floods, river channelisation, floodplain restoration). We characterised the patterns of earthworm communities and species traits in the different habitats of a lowland restored floodplain in Switzerland. In addition to classical species-based metrics, such as species richness and Shannon diversity, species traits were used to calculate the commun...

  4. The wonders of earthworms & its vermicompost in farm production: Charles Darwin’s ‘friends of farmers’, with potential to replace destructive chemical fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Dalsukh Valani; Krunal Chauhan; Sunita Agarwal; Sinha, Rajiv K

    2010-01-01

    Earthworms and its excreta (vermicast) promises to usher in the ‘Second Green Revolution’ by completely replacing the destructive agro chemicals which did more harm than good to both the farmers and their farmland. Earthworms restore & improve soil fertility and significantly boost crop productivity. Earthworms excreta (vermicast) is a nutritive ‘organic fertilizer’ rich in humus, NKP, micronutrients, beneficial soil microbes—‘nitrogenfixing & phosphate solubilizing bacteria’ & ‘a...

  5. An Investigation into the Anti-microbial and Anti-fungal Properties of Earthworm Powder Obtained from Eisenia fetida

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Adil Ansari; Kaminie Sitaram

    2011-01-01

    Present study was carried out during the year 2006-2007 on dried earthworm powder collected from culture of Eisenia fetida in vermicomposting units and focused on the effect of the dried earthworm on microbes determining the anti-microbial and anti-fungal properties of the worms, as well as the chemical composition of worms obtain from vermicomposting units. The earthworm powder was also subjected to analysis of nitrogen and potassium using standard procedures. Antimicrobial disc diffusion su...

  6. Droplet coalescence and freezing on hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and biphilic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Alexander S.; Collard, Diane; Derby, Melanie M.; Betz, Amy Rachel

    2015-10-01

    Frost and ice formation can have severe negative consequences, such as aircraft safety and reliability. At atmospheric pressure, water heterogeneously condenses and then freezes at low temperatures. To alter this freezing process, this research examines the effects of biphilic surfaces (surfaces which combine hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions) on heterogeneous water nucleation, growth, and freezing. Silicon wafers were coated with a self-assembled monolayer and patterned to create biphilic surfaces. Samples were placed on a freezing stage in an environmental chamber at atmospheric pressure, at a temperature of 295 K, and relative humidities of 30%, 60%, and 75%. Biphilic surfaces had a significant effect on droplet dynamics and freezing behavior. The addition of biphilic patterns decreased the temperature required for freezing by 6 K. Biphilic surfaces also changed the size and number of droplets on a surface at freezing and delayed the time required for a surface to freeze. The main mechanism affecting freezing characteristics was the coalescence behavior.

  7. Sampling of resident earthworms using mustard expellant to evaluate ecological risk at a mixed hazardous and radioactive waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As residents of contaminated soils and as prey for many species of wildlife, earthworms can serve as integrative biomonitors of soil contamination, which is biologically available to the terrestrial food chain. The assessment of contaminants within earthworm tissue provides a more realistic measurement of the potential biological hazards and ecological risks than physical and chemical measurements of soil. A unique sampling procedure using a mixture of ground mustard powder and water was implemented for cost-effectively collecting earthworms without digging; the procedure minimized occupational exposure to soil contaminants and reduced the quantity of investigation-derived wastes. The study site is located at a closed burial ground for low-level radioactive waste and transuranic waste that lies within the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of East Tennessee. Earthworms were maintained in the laboratory for four days to allow passage of the contents of the digestive tract. Earthworm body burdens, castings, and soil were analyzed for gamma-emitting radioisotopes (potassium 40, cobalt 60, cesium 137), strontium 90, trace metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, and selenium), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Ecological effects of soil contamination on the earthworms were also assessed through analysis of weight, abundance, and reproductive success

  8. Sampling of resident earthworms using mustard expellant to evaluate ecological risk at a mixed hazardous and radioactive waste site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stair, D.M. Jr.; Keller, L.J. [Bechtel Environmental Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Remediation Center; Hensel, T.W. [OGDEN Environmental and Energy Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    As residents of contaminated soils and as prey for many species of wildlife, earthworms can serve as integrative biomonitors of soil contamination, which is biologically available to the terrestrial food chain. The assessment of contaminants within earthworm tissue provides a more realistic measurement of the potential biological hazards and ecological risks than physical and chemical measurements of soil. A unique sampling procedure using a mixture of ground mustard powder and water was implemented for cost-effectively collecting earthworms without digging; the procedure minimized occupational exposure to soil contaminants and reduced the quantity of investigation-derived wastes. The study site is located at a closed burial ground for low-level radioactive waste and transuranic waste that lies within the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of East Tennessee. Earthworms were maintained in the laboratory for four days to allow passage of the contents of the digestive tract. Earthworm body burdens, castings, and soil were analyzed for gamma-emitting radioisotopes (potassium 40, cobalt 60, cesium 137), strontium 90, trace metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, and selenium), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Ecological effects of soil contamination on the earthworms were also assessed through analysis of weight, abundance, and reproductive success.

  9. An Ecological Study on Earthworm (Pheretema sp. in Different Environments of Nam Pong Soil Series (Ustoxic Quartzipsamment, Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chuasavathi

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A field survey was carried out on farmer land areas in Northeast Thailand where earthworms have been inhabited. Methodology being used was a grid method of 10x10 m plots in four different inhabitancies, i.e. native dipterocarp forest, tamarind orchard, natural grazing areas and sugarcane plantation. The results showed that earthworm inhabitants were largely found in soils with organic matter contents (OM % ranging from 0.40-0.89% and soil pH values of the studied sites ranging from 4.68-6.29 whilst electrical conductivity (EC values of soil locations were ranging from 52.9-94.0 ? Mho/cm. There were no clear trends on earthworm (Pheretema sp. distribution have been recorded yet it seems more likely that organic matter, soil moisture contents, soil disturbances and seasonal changes had its effects on earthworm distribution. Variation in soil characteristics had no effect on earthworm distribution in Northeast Thailand and it was not considered as a limiting factor to proliferation of the earthworms.

  10. Toxicokinetics of metals in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus exposed to natural polluted soils – relevance of laboratory tests to the field situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to estimate the bioavailability of essential (Zn, Cu) and non-essential metals (Cd, Pb) to the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus exposed to soils originating from a gradient of metal pollution in Southern Poland. Metal uptake and elimination kinetics were determined and related to soils properties. Experimental results were compared with tissue metal concentrations observed in earthworms from the studied transect. Cd and Pb were intensively accumulated by the earthworms, with very slow or no elimination. Their uptake rate constants, based on 0.01 M CaCl2-extractable concentrations in the soils, increased with soil pH. Internal concentrations of Cu and Zn were maintained by the earthworms at a stable level, suggesting efficient regulation of these metals by the animals. The estimated uptake and elimination kinetics parameters enabled fairly accurate prediction of metal concentrations reached within a life span of L. rubellus in nature. - Highlights: • We estimated bioavailability of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn to the earthworm L. rubellus. • Earthworms intensively accumulated Cd and Pb. • Uptake rate constants of Cd and Pb increased with soil pH. • Earthworms showed efficient regulation of Cu and Zn internal concentrations. • Toxicokinetics was predictive of metal accumulation by earthworms in the field. - Toxicokinetics tests with earthworms are indicative of metal bioavailability in the field

  11. Impact of gut passage and mucus secretion by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris on mobility and speciation of arsenic in contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Sizmur, Tom; Michael J. Watts; Geoffrey D. Brown; Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Hodson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Earthworms inhabiting arsenic contaminated soils may accelerate the leaching of As into surface and ground waters. We carried out three experiments to determine the impact of passage of As contaminated soil (1150 mg As kg?1) through the gut of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris on the mobility and speciation of As and the effects of earthworm mucus on As mobility. The concentration of water soluble As in soil increased (from 1.6 to 18 mg kg?1) after passage through the earthworm gut. Casts th...

  12. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wetterich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze — a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple “crossover model” without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space–time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe.

  13. Effect of Glycerol, as Cryoprotectant in the Encapsulation and Freeze Drying of Microspheres Containing Probiotic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Lelia Pop

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is reported that probiotics provide several health benefits as they help in maintaining a good balance and composition of intestinal flora, and increase the resistance against invasion of pathogens. Ensuring adequate dosages of probiotics at the time of consumption is a challenge, because several factors during processing and storage affect the viability of probiotic organisms. Major emphasis has been given to protect the microorganisms with the help of encapsulation technique, by addition of different protectants. In this study, probiotic cells (Bifidobacterium lactis 300B were entrapped in alginate/pullulan microspheres. In the encapsulation formula glycerol was used as cryoprotectant in the freeze drying process for long time storage. It was observed that the survival of Bifidobacterium lactis 300B when encapsulated without cryoprotectant was higher than the formula with glycerol in the fresh obtained microspheres. The addition of glycerol was in order to reduce the deep freezing and freeze drying damages. In the chosen formulations, glycerol did not proved protection for the entrapped probiotic cells in the freeze drying process, for which the use of glycerol as cryoprotectant for alginate/pullulan Bifidobacterium lactis 300B entrapment is not recommended.

  14. Media alternatives for the collection, culture and freezing of mouse and cattle embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palasz, A T; Tornesi, M B; Archer, J; Mapletoft, R J

    1995-10-01

    The replacement of biological products in media for the collection, culture and freezing of mammalian embryos was studied. To test the hypothesis that chemically defined surfactants can replace bovine serum albumin (BSA) or serum in embryo media, morula-stage mouse and cattle embryos were collected, cultured, and/or frozen in the surfactant compound, VF5. Collection efficiency of mouse and cattle embryos did not differ whether the medium contained serum or surfactant. In addition, morula-stage mouse and cattle embryos developed and hatched at similar rates in culture media containing either BSA or surfactant. Although the freeze/thaw survival and development in culture of bovine embryos was not significantly different in any of the media, there was a significantly lower hatching rate of mouse embryos frozen with serum or surfactant than with cryoprotectant alone or with cryoprotectant plus albumin-free serum. However, the absence of serum or surfactant in embryo freezing media resulted in embryo loss, presumably due to stickiness. The data suggest that serum can be replaced by a chemically defined surfactant in mouse and cattle embryo transfer systems for the collection, culturing and freezing of embryos. It is likely that the beneficial effects of serum are due to its surfactant properties. PMID:16727768

  15. Reproducing Black's experiments: freezing point depression and supercooling of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We carried out two historical experiments referred to by Joseph Black, one on freezing mixtures of salted water with ice and another on freezing supercooled pure water by a small disturbance. The results confirm thermodynamical predictions for the depression of the freezing point of salted water and for the latent heat of freezing of supercooled water respectively, which came after Black. The depression of the freezing point can hardly be fitted in the framework of the caloric theory of heat, which was taken for granted by Black, and the instantaneous freezing of supercooled water also poses some difficulties for that theory. (author)

  16. Production of Fusarium verticillioides biocontrol agents, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Microbacterium oleovorans, using different growth media: evaluation of biomass and viability after freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, M; Nesci, A; Etcheverry, M

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the viability and biomass production of B. amyloliquefaciens and M. oleovorans in different growth media, and the efficiency of a freeze-drying method as a possible formulation process. B. amyloliquefaciens and M. oleovorans were grown in 100 ml of four different media. Media water activity was modified at 0.99, 0.98, 0.97 and 0.96. Nutrient yeast dextrose broth (NYDB) and molasses soy powder (MSB) media were selected and survival levels of cells were determined before and after the freeze-drying process. B. amyloliquefaciens showed the highest survival after freeze-drying when grown in NYDB medium at 0.99 a(w), whereas, at 0.98, 0.97 and 0.96 a(w), the highest survival was obtained in MSB medium. M. oleovorans showed the highest survival in MSB medium at 0.99 a(w). MSB medium was select for biomass production due to high growth and survival after freeze-drying. PMID:21547798

  17. Integrated biomarker analysis of chlorpyrifos metabolism and toxicity in the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C; Narvaez, C; Sabat, P; Martínez Mocillo, S

    2014-08-15

    To increase our understanding about the mode of toxic action of organophosphorus pesticides in earthworms, a microcosm experiment was performed with Aporrectodea caliginosa exposed to chlorpyrifos-spiked soils (0.51 and 10 mg kg(-1) dry soil) for 3 and 21 d. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CbE), cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase (CYP450), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were measured in the body wall of earthworms. With short-term exposure, chlorpyrifos inhibited CbE activity (51-89%) compared with controls in both treated groups, whereas AChE activity was depressed in the 10-mg kg(-1) group (87% inhibition). With long-term exposure, chlorpyrifos strongly inhibited all esterase activities (84-97%). Native electrophoresis revealed three AChE isozymes, two of which showed a decreased staining corresponding to the level of pesticide exposure. The impact of chlorpyrifos on CbE activity was also corroborated by zymography. CYP450 activity was low in unexposed earthworms, but it increased (1.5- to 2.4-fold compared to controls) in the earthworms exposed to both chlorpyrifos concentrations for 3d. Bioactivation of chlorpyrifos was determined by incubating the muscle homogenate in the presence of chlorpyrifos and NAD(H)2. The mean (±SD, n=40) bioactivation rate in the unexposed earthworms was 0.74±0.27 nmol NAD(H)2 oxidized min(-1) mg(-1) protein, and a significant induction was detected in the low/short-term exposure group. GST activity significantly increased (33-35% of controls) in earthworms short-term exposed to both chlorpyrifos concentrations. Current data showed that CYP450 and GST activities had a prominent role in the initial exposure to the organophosphorus. With short-term exposure, CbE activity was also a key enzyme in the non-catalytic detoxification of chlorpyrifos-oxon, thereby reducing its impact on AChE activity, before it became saturated at t=21 d. Results indicate that A. caliginosa detoxify efficiently chlorpyrifos, which would explain its tolerance to relatively high exposure levels to chlorpyrifos. PMID:24867707

  18. Effects of confinement on freezing and melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba-Simionesco, C; Coasne, B; Dosseh, G; Dudziak, G; Gubbins, K E; Radhakrishnan, R; Sliwinska-Bartkowiak, M

    2006-02-15

    We present a review of experimental, theoretical, and molecular simulation studies of confinement effects on freezing and melting. We consider both simple and more complex adsorbates that are confined in various environments (slit or cylindrical pores and also disordered porous materials). The most commonly used molecular simulation, theoretical and experimental methods are first presented. We also provide a brief description of the most widely used porous materials. The current state of knowledge on the effects of confinement on structure and freezing temperature, and the appearance of new surface-driven and confinement-driven phases are then discussed. We also address how confinement affects the glass transition. PMID:21697556

  19. Effects of confinement on freezing and melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a review of experimental, theoretical, and molecular simulation studies of confinement effects on freezing and melting. We consider both simple and more complex adsorbates that are confined in various environments (slit or cylindrical pores and also disordered porous materials). The most commonly used molecular simulation, theoretical and experimental methods are first presented. We also provide a brief description of the most widely used porous materials. The current state of knowledge on the effects of confinement on structure and freezing temperature, and the appearance of new surface-driven and confinement-driven phases are then discussed. We also address how confinement affects the glass transition. (topical review)

  20. Unitarity constraints on asymmetric freeze-in

    CERN Document Server

    Hook, Anson

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers unitarity and CPT constraints on asymmetric freeze-in, the use of freeze-in to store baryon number in a dark sector. In this scenario, Sakharov's out of equilibrium condition is satisfied by placing the visible and hidden sectors at different temperatures while a net visible baryon number is produced by storing negative baryon number in a dark sector. It is shown that unitarity and CPT lead to unexpected cancellations. In particular, the transfer of baryon number cancels completely at leading order.

  1. Viability of Bifidobacterium Pseudocatenulatum G4 after Spray-Drying and Freeze-Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephenie Wong

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Viability of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 following spray-drying and freeze-drying in skim milk was evaluated. After spray-drying, the strain experienced over 99% loss in viability regardless of the air outlet temperature (75 and 85 °C and the heat-adaptation temperature (45 and 65 °C, 30 min. The use of heat-adaptation treatment to improve the thermotolerance of this strain was ineffective. On the other hand, the strain showed a superior survival at 71.65%–82.07% after freeze-drying. Viable populations of 9.319–9.487 log10 cfu/g were obtained when different combinations of skim milk and sugar were used as cryoprotectant. However, the addition of sugars did not result in increased survival during the freeze-drying process. Hence, 10% (w/v skim milk alone is recommended as a suitable protectant and drying medium for this strain. The residual moisture content obtained was 4.41% ± 0.44%.

  2. USE AND EFFECT OF FREEZE BRANDING ON ROACH (RUTILUS RUTILUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVRARD G.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available We tested the effects of freeze branding on growth, survival and mark retention in roach Rutilus rutilus L. (82-268 mm in total length. Markings were applied at two positions on the skin: (1 the depressed area above the anal fin, (2 the muscles above the lateral line and between the caudal and dorsal fins. A control group received no mark. The experiment duration was 30 days, and 120 roach were selected and distributed into three lots. Retention rates were high and ranged between 94% for position 2 and 100% for position 1. Survival rate after 1 month was 87% for freeze branded roach at position 2, 90% for position 1 and 92% for unmarked fish. These differences were not statistically significant. A significant decrease of linear growth was observed for individuals marked at position 2 (3.2 mm.month-1, but the implication of the brand itself was unclear. We discuss the short- and long-term properties of freeze branding techniques on roach.

  3. The influence of freezing rates on bovine pericardium tissue Freeze-drying

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camila Figueiredo, Borgognoni; Virgilio, Tattini Junior; Ana Maria Irene Bartolomeu, Ayrosa; Bronislaw, Polakiewicz; Adolfo Alberto, Leirner; Marina Junko Shiotsu, Maizato; Olga Zazuco, Higa; Marisa Masumi, Beppu; Ronaldo Nogueira de Moraes, Pitombo.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O pericárdio bovino é um material utilizado na fabricação de biopróteses. A liofilização é um método de secagem que vem sendo estudado para a conservação de válvulas cardíacas. A preservação das características do biomaterial é de fundamental importância no bom funcionamento das válvulas. Este artig [...] o é a primeira etapa do desenvolvimento do ciclo de liofilização do pericárdio bovino. Liofilização é o processo de secagem no qual a água é removida do material congelado por sublimação e desorção da água incongelável, sob pressão reduzida. O congelamento influencia o tamanho do cristal de gelo e, consequentemente, a secagem primária e secundária. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência das taxas de congelamento nos parâmetros de liofilização do pericárdio bovino. Determinou-se a temperatura de transição vítrea e o comportamento estrutural do pericárdio bovino liofilizado. Determinou-se o tempo da secagem primária e secundária. O protocolo de liofilização utilizando-se congelamento lento com annealing apresentou os melhores resultados. Abstract in english The bovine pericardium has been used as biomaterial in developing bioprostheses. Freeze-drying is a drying process that could be used for heart valve's preservation. The maintenance of the characteristics of the biomaterial is important for a good heart valve performance. This paper describes the in [...] itial step in the development of a bovine pericardium tissue freeze-drying to be used in heart valves. Freeze-drying involves three steps: freezing, primary drying and secondary drying. The freezing step influences the ice crystal size and, consequently, the primary and secondary drying stages. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of freezing rates on the bovine pericardium tissue freeze-drying parameters. The glass transition temperature and the structural behaviour of the lyophilized tissues were determined as also primary and secondary drying time. The slow freezing with thermal treatment presented better results than the other freeze-drying protocols.

  4. The influence of freezing rates on bovine pericardium tissue Freeze-drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Figueiredo Borgognoni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The bovine pericardium has been used as biomaterial in developing bioprostheses. Freeze-drying is a drying process that could be used for heart valve's preservation. The maintenance of the characteristics of the biomaterial is important for a good heart valve performance. This paper describes the initial step in the development of a bovine pericardium tissue freeze-drying to be used in heart valves. Freeze-drying involves three steps: freezing, primary drying and secondary drying. The freezing step influences the ice crystal size and, consequently, the primary and secondary drying stages. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of freezing rates on the bovine pericardium tissue freeze-drying parameters. The glass transition temperature and the structural behaviour of the lyophilized tissues were determined as also primary and secondary drying time. The slow freezing with thermal treatment presented better results than the other freeze-drying protocols.O pericárdio bovino é um material utilizado na fabricação de biopróteses. A liofilização é um método de secagem que vem sendo estudado para a conservação de válvulas cardíacas. A preservação das características do biomaterial é de fundamental importância no bom funcionamento das válvulas. Este artigo é a primeira etapa do desenvolvimento do ciclo de liofilização do pericárdio bovino. Liofilização é o processo de secagem no qual a água é removida do material congelado por sublimação e desorção da água incongelável, sob pressão reduzida. O congelamento influencia o tamanho do cristal de gelo e, consequentemente, a secagem primária e secundária. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência das taxas de congelamento nos parâmetros de liofilização do pericárdio bovino. Determinou-se a temperatura de transição vítrea e o comportamento estrutural do pericárdio bovino liofilizado. Determinou-se o tempo da secagem primária e secundária. O protocolo de liofilização utilizando-se congelamento lento com annealing apresentou os melhores resultados.

  5. Building the Method to Determine the Rate of Freezing Water in Penaeus monodon of the Freezing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Tan Dzung

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The method of determination the rate of freezing water in Penaeus monodon of freezing process was established on base the equation of energy balance in warming up process Penaeus monodon after freezing to determine specific heat of Penaeus monodon. The result obtained was built the mathematical model (19 to determine the rate of freezing water according to the freezing temperature of Penaeus monodon. The results indicated that when water was completely frozen (? = 1 or 100%, the optimal freezing temperature of Penaeus monodon was-22.00°C.

  6. Comparing effects of freezing at -196 ºC and -20 ºC on the viability of mastitis pathogens

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Inge-Marie, Petzer; Joanne, Karzis; Theodorus J., van der Schans; Johanna C., Watermeyer; Norman, Mitchell-Innes; Stephanie, Eloff; Geoffrey T., Fosgate.

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cryopreservation at approximately -196 ºC in liquid nitrogen (N) and freezing at approximately -20 ºC in a freezer, on the viability and survival of eight different mastitogenic bacteria inoculated in milk. Bacteria were frozen at approximately -20 [...] ºC in a freezer and cryopreserved at approximately -196 ºC in liquid nitrogen. An effective preservation method was needed for follow-up samples from cows identified in the South African National Milk Recording Scheme (NMRS) with somatic cell counts above 250 000 cells/mL milk. The organisation responsible for sample collection of the NMRS milk samples also provides producers with liquid nitrogen for their semen flasks at the collection sites. This existing mode of storage and transport could therefore be utilised. Ten samples of each organism were thawed and cultured bi-weekly until week 18 for both temperature treatments. An additional sampling was performed at week 30 for samples frozen at approximately -20 ºC. Freezing and cryopreservation did not impair subsequent isolation of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus (STH) (phage type lytic group III) or Sta. aureus (STA) (phage typed, other than lytic group III). Survival was indicated by the isolation of bacteria from samples, and viability by the strength of growth of the bacteria isolated. The survival of Streptococcus agalactiae decreased after week 12 and Escherichia coli after week 16 of freezing, but both organisms survived under cryogenic preservation until week 18. Coagulase-negative staphylococci survived until week 18 for both freezing and cryogenic preservation. Both storage methods could thus contribute to the improvement of a pro-active approach towards udder health management in South African dairy herds.

  7. 7 CFR 58.638 - Freezing the mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...false Freezing the mix. 58.638 Section...Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...638 Freezing the mix. After the...

  8. Unitarity Constraints on Asymmetric Freeze-In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hook, Anson; /SLAC

    2011-08-15

    This paper considers unitarity and CPT constraints on asymmetric freeze-in, the use of freeze-in to store baryon number in a dark sector. In this scenario, Sakharov's out of equilibrium condition is satisfied by placing the visible and hidden sectors at different temperatures while a net visible baryon number is produced by storing negative baryon number in a dark sector. It is shown that unitarity and CPT lead to unexpected cancellations. In particular, the transfer of baryon number cancels completely at leading order. This note has shown that if two sectors are in thermal equilibrium with themselves, but not with each other, then the leading effect transferring conserved quantities between the two sectors is of order the the weak coupling connecting them to the third power. When freeze-in is used to produce a net baryon number density, the leading order effect comes from {Omicron}({lambda}{sup 3}) diagrams where the intermediate state that goes on-shell has a different visible baryon number than the final state visible baryon number. Models in which the correct baryon number is generated with freeze-in as the dominant source of abundance, typically require {lambda} {approx}> 10{sup -6} and m{sub bath} {approx}> TeV. m{sub bath} is the mass of the visible particle which communicates with the hidden sector. The lower window is potentially observable at the LHC.

  9. Freeze block testing of buried waste lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was conducted to demonstrate application of freeze blocking in waste transfer lines such that a hydrostatic pressure test can be applied. A shop test was conducted on a 20-foot length, 3-inch schedule 40, carbon steel pipe using a coolant of dry ice and Freon. The positive results from these tests prompted a similar employment of the freeze block method in hydrostatic pressure testing the feed inlet leading to 241-S-101 Waste Tank. This pipeline is a 3-inch schedule 10, stainless steel pipe approximately 800 feet long. The freeze block was formed near the lower end of the pipe as it entered the 101-S Waste Tank and a pressure hold test was applied to this pipeline. This test proved the integrity of the pipeline in question, and demonstrated the validity of freeze blocking an open-ended pipeline which could not be hydrotested in other conventional ways. The field demonstration facility, costing $30,200 was completed late in 1975

  10. Renormalization, Freezing Phase Transitions and Fibonacci Quasicrystals

    OpenAIRE

    Bruin, Henk; Leplaideur, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    We examine the renormalization operator determined by the Fibonacci substitution. We exhibit a fixed point and determine its stable leaf (under iteration of the operator). Then, we study the thermodynamic formalism for po- tentials in this stable leaf, and prove they have a freezing phase transition, with ground state supported on the attracting quasi-crystal associated to the Fibonacci substitution

  11. Snow Melting and Freezing on Older Townhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anker; Claesson, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The snowy winter of 2009/2010 in Scandinavia prompted many newspaper articles on icicles falling from buildings and the risk this presented for people walking below. The problem starts with snow melting on the roof due to heat loss from the building. Melt water runs down the roof and some of it will freeze on the overhang. The rest of the water will either run off or freeze in gutters and downpipes or turn into icicles. This paper describes use of a model for the melting and freezing of snow on roofs. Important parameters are roof length, overhang length, heat resistance of roof and overhang, outdoor and indoor temperature, snow thickness and thermal conductivity. If the snow thickness is above a specific limit value – the snow melting limit- some of the snow will melt. Another interesting limit value is the dripping limit. All the melt water will freeze on the overhang, if the snow thickness is between the two limit values. Only if the snow thickness is above the dripping limit, will we get icicles. The model is used on an old townhouse without much thermal insulation and compared with newer townhouses. A discussion on attic temperatures is included. The results show that better thermal insulation or ventilation with outdoor air is the best way to reduce the risk of icicles.

  12. Unitarity Constraints on Asymmetric Freeze-In

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers unitarity and CPT constraints on asymmetric freeze-in, the use of freeze-in to store baryon number in a dark sector. In this scenario, Sakharov's out of equilibrium condition is satisfied by placing the visible and hidden sectors at different temperatures while a net visible baryon number is produced by storing negative baryon number in a dark sector. It is shown that unitarity and CPT lead to unexpected cancellations. In particular, the transfer of baryon number cancels completely at leading order. This note has shown that if two sectors are in thermal equilibrium with themselves, but not with each other, then the leading effect transferring conserved quantities between the two sectors is of order the the weak coupling connecting them to the third power. When freeze-in is used to produce a net baryon number density, the leading order effect comes from ?(?3) diagrams where the intermediate state that goes on-shell has a different visible baryon number than the final state visible baryon number. Models in which the correct baryon number is generated with freeze-in as the dominant source of abundance, typically require ? ?> 10-6 and mbath ?> TeV. mbath is the mass of the visible particle which communicates with the hidden sector. The lower window is potentially observable at the LHC.

  13. FREEZE-FRAME: Fast Action Stress Relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childre, Doc Lew

    Recent scientific research has proven that we can, not only manage our stress, we can even prevent it. Ways to achieve stress management are presented in this book. It details a method called FREEZE-FRAME, a process in which individuals mentally stop the chaos that surrounds them and then calmly contemplate their situation. The text opens with an…

  14. Strangeness and QGP freeze-out dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Rafelski, Johann(Department of Physics, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA); Torrieri, Giorgio; Letessier, Jean

    2001-01-01

    We compare chemical and thermal analysis of the SPS Pb--Pb results at $158A$ GeV, and present a first chemical analysis of RHIC results. We show how a combined analysis of several strange hadron resonances can be used in a study of freeze-out dynamics.

  15. Uptake, bioavailability and elimination of hydrophobic compounds in earthworms (Eisenia andrei) in field-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belfroid, A.; Berg, M. van den; Seinen, W.; Hermens, J. [Univ. of Utrecht (Netherlands). Research Inst. of Toxicology; Gestel, K. van [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Ecology and Ecotoxicology

    1995-04-01

    Uptake, accumulation, and elimination of hydrophobic organic chemicals in earthworms (Eisenia andrei) exposed to field-contaminated Volgermeerpolder soil was studied. Earthworms were able to take up chlorobenzenes and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), but body burdens did not exceed concentrations measured in the soil. For the chlorobenzenes, steady-state concentrations in the worms and biota-to-soil accumulation factor (BSAF) values were much smaller than expected based on earlier experiments, suggesting a decreased bioavailability in the Volgermeerpolder soil. Comparison of the PCB accumulation pattern in worms to the pattern in soil showed that biotransformation of the studied PCBs is of minor importance in this species. Elimination of all chemicals studied was monophasic, with the exception of hexachlorobenzene, which showed a biphasic elimination. The elimination half-life for the initial fast phase of this compound is comparable to the elimination measured in previous studies. Elimination rate constants decreased with increasing log K{sub ow}.

  16. Effects of C60 nanoparticle exposure on earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus) and implications for population dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of C60 nanoparticles (nominal concentrations 0, 15.4 and 154 mg/kg soil) on mortality, growth and reproduction of Lumbricus rubellus earthworms were assessed. C60 exposure had a significant effect on cocoon production, juvenile growth rate and mortality. These endpoints were used to model effects on the population level. This demonstrated reduced population growth rate with increasing C60 concentrations. Furthermore, a shift in stage structure was shown for C60 exposed populations, i.e. a larger proportion of juveniles. This result implies that the lower juvenile growth rate due to exposure to C60 resulted in a larger proportion of juveniles, despite increased mortality among juveniles. Overall, this study indicates that C60 exposure may seriously affect earthworm populations. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that juveniles were more sensitive to C60 exposure than adults. - C60 nanoparticle exposure can affect Lumbricus rubellus populations.

  17. Expression of stem cell pluripotency factors during regeneration in the earthworm Eisenia foetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Pengfei; Shao, Qiang; Diao, Xiaoping; Li, Zandong; Han, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell pluripotency factors can induce somatic cells to form induced pluripotent stem cells, which are involved in cell reprogramming and dedifferentiation. The tissue regeneration in the earthworm Eisenia foetida may involve cell dedifferentiation. There is limited information about associations between pluripotency factors and the regeneration. In this report, cDNA sequences of pluripotency factors, oct4, nanog, sox2, c-myc and lin28 genes from the earthworm E. foetida were cloned, and quantitative PCR analysis was performed for their mRNA expressions in the head, clitellum and tail. The maximum up-regulation of oct4, nanog, sox2, c-myc and lin28 occurred at 12h, 4days, 12h, 2days, and 24h after amputation for 110, 178, 21, 251 and 325-fold, respectively, in comparison with the controls. The results suggest that the tissues are regenerated via cellular dedifferentiation and reprogramming. PMID:26299657

  18. Use of ?-galactosidase liposome model as a novel method to screen freeze-drying cryoprotectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqi; Gao, Lili; Wang, Song; Zhang, Yin; Liu, Youqun; Zhang, Bolin

    2013-10-01

    This study developed a novel method of screening cryoprotectants used to improve the survivability of lyophilized Lactobacillus helveticus. To develop a liposome encapsulated ?-galactosidase (?-gal) as a cell membrane model, the ?-gal liposome was characterized in terms of mean size, poly dispersity index, zeta potential, along with transmission electron microscopy. 800 W of ultrasonic power and 10 min of sonication time were the optimal experimental conditions to obtain the desirable ?-gal liposome. Subsequently, different cryoprotectants were mixed with the ?-gal liposome during freeze-drying. After freeze-drying, liposomes were hydrolized, and the protective effect of cryoprotectants was assessed as the release rate of encapsulated ?-gal. The lowest release rate of ?-gal was obtained using 10 mg/100 ml trehalose and 0.2 mg/100 ml hyaluronic acid. PMID:23604792

  19. Evidence of membrane damage in Lactobacillus bulgaricus following freeze drying

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, H. P.; Teixeira, P. M.; Kirby, R.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of inactivation of Lactobacillus bulgaricus due to freeze drying was investigated. Cells were freeze-dried in skim milk powder, maltodextrin, glycerol, trehalose and water. Results are presented confirming previous authors’observations regarding membrane damage during freeze drying. In an attempt to define more clearly the nature of this damage, further experiments were carried out. Results show that following freeze drying changes occur in the unsaturated: saturated fatty acid ...

  20. Does Anxiety Cause Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's Disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Ehgoetz Martens, Kaylena A; Ellard, Colin G.; Almeida, Quincy J.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly experience freezing of gait under time constraints, in narrow spaces, and in the dark. One commonality between these different situations is that they may all provoke anxiety, yet anxiety has never been directly examined as a cause of FOG. In this study, virtual reality was used to induce anxiety and evaluate whether it directly causes FOG. Fourteen patients with PD and freezing of gait (Freezers) and 17 PD without freezing of gait (Non-Freez...

  1. Pollutant distribution in the soil by earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris). Pt. 1 and 2. Pt. 1: Lead, chromium, cobalt, nickel and cadmium enrichment in earthworm casts and earthworm tissues. Pt. 2: Vertical transport of the elements lead, chromium, cobalt, nickel and cadmium by earthworms. Verteilung von Schadstoffen durch Regenwuermer (Lumbricus terrestris). T. 1 und 2. T. 1: Anreicherung von Blei, Chrom, Cobalt, Nickel und Cadmium in Wurmaggregaten und Wurmgewebe. T. 2: Vertikaler Transport der Elemente Blei, Chrom, Cobalt, Nickel und Cadmium durch Regenwuermer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, W.; Liese, T.; Sollich, T.

    1986-02-01

    In an experiment of ten months duration the Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb contents were measured both in earthworms of the lumbricus terrestris species and in their casts. The living space for the earthworms were soil columns with a loess subsoil depleted in organic matter. The contaminated cattle dung had been applied on top or in the center or on the bottom as thin layers each. Compared with the contaminated cattle dung the earthworms enrich Cd by the factor 1.4. Compared with the non-contaminated soil the enrichments on an average were 85, 24, 26, 5 and 2.4 for Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb, respectively. In the earthworm casts the the average attained values of 14, 11, 66, 17 and 14. A column experiment served to examine whether, how and during which period earthworms of the lumbricus terrestris species distribute in the soil columns the heavy metals introduced into various depths in a cattle dung layer of 5 cm thickness. Furthermore, it was of interest to know how the ratio of heavy metal portions available to plants and capable of mobilization undergoes variations. For this purpose, the columns were cut into slices of about 5 cm thickness upon termination of the experiment. Independent of the application of the contaminated cattle dung layer the organic matter was turned over in the column from top to bottom and vice versa forming tapetal layers in the earthworm tunnels. By the action of the earthworms the portion available to plants, especially for Cd and not for Cr, was increased at a relatively higher rate than the portion amenable to mobilization. (orig./MG).

  2. Variable selection in near infrared spectra for the biological characterization of soil and earthworm casts

    OpenAIRE

    Cécillon, Lauric; Cassagne, Nathalie; Czarnes, Sonia; Gros, Raphaël; Brun, Jean-Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to predict six biological properties of soil and earthworm casts including extracellular soil enzymes, microbial carbon, potential nitrification and denitrification. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were developed with a selection of the most important near infrared wavelengths. They reached coefficients of determination ranging from 0.81 to 0.91 and ratios of performance-to-deviation above 2.3. Variable selection with the v...

  3. Uptake routes and toxicokinetics of silver nanoparticles and silver ions in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Ortiz, Maria; Lahive, Elma; Kille, Peter; Powell, Kate; Morgan, A John; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Mosselmans, J Fred W; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J

    2015-10-01

    Current bioavailability models, such as the free ion activity model and biotic ligand model, explicitly consider that metal exposure will be mainly to the dissolved metal in ionic form. With the rise of nanotechnology products and the increasing release of metal-based nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment, such models may increasingly be applied to support risk assessment. It is not immediately clear, however, whether the assumption of metal ion exposure will be relevant for NPs. Using an established approach of oral gluing, a toxicokinetics study was conducted to investigate the routes of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and Ag(+) ion uptake in the soil-dwelling earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. The results indicated that a significant part of the Ag uptake in the earthworms is through oral/gut uptake for both Ag(+) ions and NPs. Thus, sealing the mouth reduced Ag uptake by between 40% and 75%. An X-ray analysis of the internal distribution of Ag in transverse sections confirmed the presence of increased Ag concentrations in exposed earthworm tissues. For the AgNPs but not the Ag(+) ions, high concentrations were associated with the gut wall, liver-like chloragogenous tissue, and nephridia, which suggest a pathway for AgNP uptake, detoxification, and excretion via these organs. Overall, the results indicate that Ag in the ionic and NP forms is assimilated and internally distributed in earthworms and that this uptake occurs predominantly via the gut epithelium and less so via the body wall. The importance of oral exposure questions the application of current metal bioavailability models, which implicitly consider that the dominant route of exposure is via the soil solution, for bioavailability assessment and modeling of metal-based NPs. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:2263-2270. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:25917164

  4. Reduction of pesticide use can increase earthworm populations in wheat crops in a European temperate region

    OpenAIRE

    Pelosi, Céline; Toutous, Lucile; Chiron, François; Dubs, Florence; Hedde, Mickael; Muratet, Audrey; Ponge, Jean-François; Salmon, Sandrine; Makowski,David

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural intensification has led to reduced soil biodiversity in arable lands. The potential benefits from organic farming and from low-input cropping systems have not yet been precisely assessed. Earthworm, having important agro-ecological functions, may be affected by pesticide applications, especially those species living mainly in the surface soil layer. We used a five-year experimental database including conventional and organic cropping systems to establish simple relationships betw...

  5. Searching for external sources of the riboflavin stored in earthworm eleocytes

    OpenAIRE

    P Sulik; Klimek, M.; P Talik; Kruk, J.; AJ Morgan; Plytycz, B.

    2012-01-01

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is essential to maintain immune potency in animals and plants. So far is accepted that animals cannot synthesise riboflavin; they rely on plant-sourced diets and intestinal bacteria for their supplies. A unique feature of earthworm ‘hepatocyte-like’ chloragocytes and chloragocyte-derived eleocytes floating in celomic cavity is the storage of riboflavin within intracellular granules. The hypothesis was that vegetarian food-deprivation or antibiotic/antifungal treatment ...

  6. Molecular characterization of the iron binding protein ferritin in Eisenia andrei earthworms.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházková, Petra; Dvo?ák, Ji?í; Šilerová, Marcela; Roubalová, Radka; Škanta, František; Halada, Petr; Bilej, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 485, ?. 2 (2011), s. 73-80. ISSN 0378-1119 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/07/0378; GA ?R GD310/08/H077; GA AV ?R IAA600200704; GA MŠk 2B06155; GA MŠk LC07017 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Earthworms * Invertebrates * Ferritin Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.341, year: 2011

  7. Changes of soil structure and earthworm community under different agricultural management

    OpenAIRE

    Lemtiri, Aboulkacem

    2013-01-01

    The living soil is represented by soil biota that interacts with aboveground biota and with the abiotic constructs of soil, represented as soil structure, organic matter, and nutrients. Maintenance of soil organic matter through integrated soil fertility management is necessary for soil quality and agricultural productivity. Earthworms are key actors in soil structure formation through the formation of casts and the incorporation of soil organic matter in the soil. Little is known about the i...

  8. Earthworms as indicators for different forest management types and human disturbance in Ilam oak forest, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydari Mehdi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been observed widespread destruction of natural ecosystems around the world due to population growth, land use change and clear cutting which have affected soil properties. Different management strategies have been so far implemented to reduce this crisis in various regions of the world, such as e.g. short-term and long-term conservation management in the Zagros region. However, any management approach should be evaluated with appropriate measures to determine how managed areas respond. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential of earthworms as an indicator for different forest management strategies and human disturbances in Zagros oak (Quercus persica Jaub. and Spach forest. The sites selected included undisturbed one as the control (Un, the sites under five-year conservation management (FCM and twenty-year conservation management (TCM as well as the disturbed site (D. The results of principal component analysis (PCA showed that different regions separated into the components: PC1 and PC2. Un and TCM sites gathered together and represented higher values of the factors such as pH, Kavailable, OC, clay content, Pavailable, CEC, overstory tree canopy, Ntot, biomass and abundance of earthworms. The positive direction of the first axis reflected a gradient of EC, BD and Ptot. According to the logistic model, NH4-N and EC played the most important role in earthworm presence and absence in Zagros forest ecosystem. Earthworm abundance and biomass could be a good indicator to evaluate different forest management strategies in the study area.

  9. VERMICOMPOSTING OF COUROUPITA GUIANENSIS BY USING TWO EPIGEIC EARTHWORMS (EUDRILUS EUGENIAE AND EISENIA FETIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jayanthi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vermibeds were prepared in 1:1 ratio. The composting potential of two epigeic worms Eudrilus eugeniae and Eisenia fetida were inoculated into the Couroupita guianensis vermibed separately. The reproductive potential and nutrient status were estimated by both species produced vermicompost. The results of the present study reveals that the C.guianensis with cured cowdung can be used for converting into value added vermicompost by utilizing the both epigeic earthworms.

  10. The effects of environmental parameters on the availability of cesium for earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, M.; Glastra, P.; Lembrechts, J. [National Inst. of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven (Netherlands). Laboratory of Radiation Research

    1996-12-31

    The concentrations of potassium, stable cesium, calcium and ammonium in soil, and pH are known to affect the uptake of {sup 134}Cs from soil. Uncertain is whether this is a direct effect on the uptake (e.g. through competition for binding sites) or an indirect effect through a changing distribution of {sup 134}Cs between the solid and liquid phase of the soil. The uptake of {sup 134}Cs by earthworms from solution and soil has been studied to investigate these effects. The effects of potassium and stable cesium expressed per mmol added, were comparable: {sup 134}Cs accumulation decreases with potassium and stable cesium concentration in solution. No significant effects from varying pH or calcium and ammonium concentrations on {sup 134}Cs uptake from liquid medium were observed. {sup 134}Cs concentrations in the earthworms increased with temperature, which could mainly be explained by earthworm-related factors such as increased metabolism or feeding rate. Addition of calcium, potassium, ammonium and organic matter to soil increased the amount of {sup 134}Cs in soil solution significantly. However, the overall effects of additions of K{sup +}, Ca{sup ++}, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and organic matter on the {sup 134}Cs concentrations in earthworms were non-significant. Based on the experiments in liquid medium increasing the concentration of potassium in soil solution showed to be most effective and most realistic in reducing {sup 134}Cs uptake. The results in soil indicate that the effect of potassium will depend on other soil characteristics as well. 11 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab.

  11. Evaluation of a remediation process for lead contaminated soil by toxicity bioassays: Plants and earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chana, L.W.; Smith, K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Soil from a site contaminated with heavy metals (predominantly lead) was treated using the TERRAMET{reg_sign} lead extraction process. Earthworm acute toxicity and plant seed germination/root elongation (SG/RE) bioassays were used to evaluate the toxicity of the soil before treatment (BT), after treatment (AT) and after treatment, followed by rinsing with water, intended to simulate exposure to rainfall (RT). The results showed BT and RT were not toxic to earthworms in a 14-day exposure while AT showed significant toxicity. The LC{sub 50} values for Eisenia and Lumbricus were 44.04 and 28.83 (as % AT soil/test soil mixture), respectively. The phytotoxicity data indicated that all 3 test soils significantly inhibited lettuce SG/RE in a dose-related manner, with AT being the most phytotoxic. In oats, RT had no effect on SG/RE and AT was more toxic than BT. For the two local-site grass seeds tested (blue grama and sideoat grama), the AT soil was the most phytotoxic followed by BT and RT. The results suggest that the soil after this remediation process exerts significant toxicity on both plant and earthworm, but after a rain-simulating rinse, the toxicity is the same as, or less than, the toxicity before treatment. Further studies are in progress to confirm the assumption that the high salt concentrations generated by acidification during the leaching process, followed by neutralization are responsible for the increased toxicity of unrinsed soil in both plant and earthworm.

  12. Ingestion of charcoal by the Amazonian earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus: a potential for tropical soil fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Ponge, Jean-François; Topoliantz, Stéphanie; Ballof, Sylvain; Rossi, Jean-Pierre; Lavelle, Patrick; Betsch, Jean-Marie; Gaucher, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    It is now attested that a large part of the Amazonian rain forest has been cultivated during Pre-Colombian times, using charcoal as an amendment. The incorporation of charcoal to the soil is a starting point for the formation of fertile Amazonian Dark Earths, still selected by Indian people for shifting cultivation. We showed that finely separated charcoal was commonly incorporated in the topsoil by Pontoscolex corethrurus, a tropical earthworm which thrives after burning and clearing of the ...

  13. Effect of mulch quality on earthworm activity and nutrient supply in the humid tropics.

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, G.; Kang, B.T.; Brussaard, L.

    1997-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in 1990 and 1991 at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria to study the role of earthworms in the decomposition of plant residue mulches with different qualities. Five mulches of Dactyladenia barteri, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala prunings, maize (Zea mays) stover and rice (Oryza sativa) straw, which had a wide range of C-to-N ratio, lignin and polyphenol concentrations were studied. Based on their chemical compositio...

  14. Assessing depleted uranium (DU) contamination of soil, plants and earthworms at UK weapons testing sites

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, I.W.; Graham, M. C.; MacKenzie, A.B.; Ellam, R.M.; Farmer, J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) weapons testing programmes have been conducted at two locations within the UK. An investigation was therefore carried out to assess the extent of any environmental contamination arising from these test programmes using both alpha spectrometry and mass spectrometry techniques. Uranium isotopic signatures indicative of DU contamination were observed in soil, plant and earthworm samples collected in the immediate vicinity of test firing points and targets, but contamination...

  15. Determination of biomarkers for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) toxicity to earthworm (Eisenia fetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Tae-Hoon; Jeon, Hwang-Ju; Mo, Hyung-Ho; Cho, Kijong; Ok, Yong-Sik; Lee, Sung-Eun

    2015-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds are persistent, carcinogenic, and mutagenic. When PAHs enter agricultural soils through sewage sludge, they pose an environmental risk to soil organisms, including earthworms. Therefore, we aimed to determine the toxic effects of PAHs on earthworms. Five PAHs were used: fluorene, anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. Only fluorene and phenanthrene exhibited toxicity (LC50 values 394.09 and 114.02 g L(-1), respectively) against the earthworm Eisenia fetida. None of the other PAHs tested in this study enhanced the mortality of adult earthworm until the concentrations reached to 1000 g L(-1). After exposure to PAHs, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in E. fetida decreased in a concentration-dependent manner, and phenanthrene exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on AChE, followed by fluorene. Activity of a representative detoxifying enzyme, carboxylesterase, was dramatically reduced in E. fetida exposed to all tested PAHs in comparison with that observed in the control test. The remaining glutathione S-transferase activity significantly decreased in E. fetida after exposure to PAHs. To profile small proteins <20 kDa, SELDI-TOF MS with Q10 ProteinChips was used, and 54 proteins were identified as being significantly different from the control (p = 0.05). Among them, the expressions of three proteins at 4501.8, 4712.4, and 4747.9 m/z were only enhanced in E. fetida exposed to anthracene and pyrene. One protein with 16,174 m/z was selectively expressed in E. fetida exposed to fluorene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene. These proteins may be potential biomarkers for the five PAHs tested in E. fetida. PMID:25920560

  16. Slow desiccation improves dehydration tolerance and accumulation of compatible osmolytes in earthworm cocoons (Dendrobaena octaedra Savigny)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Rask; Holmstrup, Martin; Malmendal, Anders; Bayley, Mark; Overgaard, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    The earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra, is a common species in temperate and subarctic regions of the northern hemisphere. The egg capsules ('cocoons') of D. octaedra are deposited in the upper soil layers where they may be exposed to desiccation. Many previous studies on desiccation tolerance in soil invertebrates have examined acute exposure to harsh desiccating conditions, however, these animals are often more likely to be exposed to a gradually increasing drought stress. In the present study we...

  17. Facilitation of the main generator source of earthworm muscle contraction by a peripheral neuron

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Y.C.; Assmé Z.; Bartoszeck A.B.

    1998-01-01

    A constant facilitation of responses evoked in the earthworm muscle contraction generator neurons by responses evoked in the neurons of its peripheral nervous system was demonstrated. It is based on the proposal that these two responses are bifurcations of an afferent response evoked by the same peripheral mechanical stimulus but converging again on this central neuron. A single-peaked generator response without facilitation was demonstrated by sectioning the afferent route of the peripheral ...

  18. Critical body residues (CBRs) for ecotoxicological soil quality assessment: copper in earthworms

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, W.C.

    2005-01-01

    The term `critical body residue` (CBR) was defined as the lowest observed total body concentration of a contaminant in an organism, which is associated with the occurrence of adverse toxic effects in either individuals or populations of a defined age or stage of development. In this study, internal toxicity thresholds were determined for copper in the clitellated adult stage of earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa). The objective was to assess the applicability of CBRs a...

  19. Earthworm assemblages in different intensity of agricultural uses and their relation to edaphic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LB Falco

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to relate earthworm assemblage structure with three different soil use intensities, and to indentify the physical, chemical, and microbiological soil variables that are associated to the observed differences. Three soil uses were evaluated: 1-Fifty year old naturalized grasslands, low use intensity; 2-Recent agricultural fields, intermediate use intensity, and 3-Fifty year old intensive agricultural fields, high use intensity. Three different sites for each soil use were evaluated from winter 2008 through summer 2011. Nine earthworm species were identified across all sampling sites. The sites shared five species: the native Microscolex dubius, and the introduced Aporrectodea caliginosa, A. rosea, Octalasion cyaneum, and O. lacteum, but they differed in relative abundance by soil use. The results show that the earthworm community structure is linked to and modulated by soil properties. Both species abundance and diversity showed significant differences depending on soil use intensity. A principal component analysis showed that species composition is closely related to the environmental variability. The ratio of native to exotic species was significantly lower in the intensive agricultural system when compared to the other two, lower disturbance systems. Microscolex dubius abundance was related to naturalized grasslands along with soil Ca, pH, mechanical resistance, and microbial respiration. Aporrectodea caliginosa abundance was related to high K levels, low enzymatic activity, slightly low pH, low Ca, and appeared related to the highly disturbed environment. Eukerria stagnalis and Aporrectodea rosea, commonly found in the recent agricultural system, were related to high soil moisture condition, low pH, low Ca and low enzymatic activity. These results show that earthworm assemblages can be good indicators of soil use intensities. In particular, Microscolex dubius, Aporrectodea caliginosa, and Aporrectodea rosea, showed different temporal patterns and species associations, due to the changes in soil properties attributable to soil use intensity, defined as the amount and type of agricultural operations.

  20. Earthworm assemblages in different intensity of agricultural uses and their relation to edaphic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, L B; Sandler, R; Momo, F; Di Ciocco, C; Saravia, L; Coviella, C

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to relate earthworm assemblage structure with three different soil use intensities, and to indentify the physical, chemical, and microbiological soil variables that are associated to the observed differences. Three soil uses were evaluated: 1-Fifty year old naturalized grasslands, low use intensity; 2-Recent agricultural fields, intermediate use intensity, and 3-Fifty year old intensive agricultural fields, high use intensity. Three different sites for each soil use were evaluated from winter 2008 through summer 2011. Nine earthworm species were identified across all sampling sites. The sites shared five species: the native Microscolex dubius, and the introduced Aporrectodea caliginosa, A. rosea, Octalasion cyaneum, and O. lacteum, but they differed in relative abundance by soil use. The results show that the earthworm community structure is linked to and modulated by soil properties. Both species abundance and diversity showed significant differences depending on soil use intensity. A principal component analysis showed that species composition is closely related to the environmental variability. The ratio of native to exotic species was significantly lower in the intensive agricultural system when compared to the other two, lower disturbance systems. Microscolex dubius abundance was related to naturalized grasslands along with soil Ca, pH, mechanical resistance, and microbial respiration. Aporrectodea caliginosa abundance was related to high K levels, low enzymatic activity, slightly low pH, low Ca, and appeared related to the highly disturbed environment. Eukerria stagnalis and Aporrectodea rosea, commonly found in the recent agricultural system, were related to high soil moisture condition, low pH, low Ca and low enzymatic activity. These results show that earthworm assemblages can be good indicators of soil use intensities. In particular, Microscolex dubius, Aporrectodea caliginosa, and Aporrectodea rosea, showed different temporal patterns and species associations, due to the changes in soil properties attributable to soil use intensity, defined as the amount and type of agricultural operations. PMID:26038733

  1. Cadmium uptake by earthworms as related to the availability in the soil and the intestine

    OpenAIRE

    Oste, L.A.; Dolfing, J.; Ma, W.C.; Lexmond, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    The free metal concentration in the soil solution is often considered a key parameter for metal uptake by and toxicity to soft-bodied soil organisms. The equilibrium partitioning theory, which assumes a relationship between the contaminant concentration in pore water and the contaminant concentration in the body tissue, can be used to describe uptake by earthworms. This theory has proved useful for organic chemicals, but its applicability is less clear for metals. In this study, the Cd concen...

  2. Earthworms as bio-indicators of metal pollution in dump sites of Abeokuta City, Nigeria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    O., Bamgbose; O., Odukoya; T.O.A., Arowolo.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Metal concentrations (Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, Cd and Cr) and contents were measured in earthworms (Libyodrilus violaceus) and soil samples from three non-contaminated sites and ten dump sites located in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Samples from control sites show (in general) levels of metals to be higher in earthwor [...] ms than in soil samples, as shown by the mean concentrations, (earthworms-soil: - Zn:7.02, 6.74, Pb:5.04, 4.94, Mn 10.54, 10.41, Cu:1.03, 1.60., Cd: 0.80, 0.81 and Cr:0.55, 0.49 µg/g) while for samples from dump sites, irrespective of the degree of pollution, the ratio of metal concentration in earthworms to soil samples were less than unity with the exception of Cd and Cr. The availability of metals in soils was also co-determined by the soil pH and soil organic matter which accounted for the trend of metal concentration at the various dump sites. For the control sites, the pH ranged from 5.40 - 6.74 and soil organic matter from 3.25% to 3.40%, while for the dump sites, values of 7.44-10.10 and 5.79% - 7.59% were obtained for soil pH and soil organic matter respectively. The metal ion concentration in both soil and earthworm samples followed the trend Pb > Zn > Mn > Cu > Cr > Cd. Dump sites with high levels of Pb were located by roadsides of busy highways.

  3. Cryopreservation of human failed-matured oocytes followed by in vitro maturation: vitrification is superior to the slow freezing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang ZhiGuo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oocyte cryopreservation is an important method used in a number of human fertility circumstances. Here, we compared the survival, in vitro maturation, fertilization, and early embryonic development rates of frozen-thawed human immature oocytes using two different cryopreservation methods. Methods A total of 454 failed-matured oocytes [germinal vesicle (GV and metaphase I (MI stages] were collected from 135 patients (mean age 33.84 +/- 5.0 y who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles between February 2009 and December 2009 and randomly divided into a slow freezing group [1.5 mol/L-1, 2-propanediol (PROH + 0.2 mol/l sucrose] and vitrification group [20% PROH + 20% ethylene glycol (EG + 0.5 mol/l sucrose]. Results The vitrification protocol yielded a better survival rate than the slow freezing protocol at each maturation stage assessed. Regardless of the maturation stage (GV + MI, the slow freezing protocol had a significantly lower survival rate than the vitrification protocol (p in vitro maturation (21.2 vs. 54.0%, respectively; p 0.05. For the GV-matured oocytes, no fertilized eggs were obtained in the slow-freezing group, while a 19.0% (4/21 fertilization rate was observed in the vitrification group. For the MI-matured oocytes, fertilization rates for the slow freezing and vitrified groups were 36% and 61.1%, respectively, but no significant difference was found between the two groups (PIn the Methods section in the MS, all procedures were compliant with ethical guidelines, i.e. approved by the Ethical Committee of our university and Informed Consent signed by each patient. > 0.05. In the GV vitrification group, no embryo formed; however, in the MI slow freezing group, 12 oocytes were fertilized, but only two achieved cleavage and were subsequently blocked at the 2-cell stage. In the MI vitrification group, a total of 22 embryos were obtained, five of which developed to the blastocyst stage. Conclusions Vitrification is superior to the slow freezing method in terms of the survival and developmental rates for the cryopreservation of human failed-matured oocytes. In addition, GV oocytes appeared to be more resistant than MI oocytes to the low temperature and cryoprotectant used during cryopreservation.

  4. Survival strategies of freshwater insects in cold environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria LENCIONI

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available At high latitudes and altitudes, ice formation is a major variable affecting survival of freshwater fauna and hence the abundance and composition of invertebrate communities. Freezing, but also desiccation and anoxia, are lethal threats to all life stages of aquatic insects, from the eggs to the adults. During cold periods, the aquatic stages commonly remain in or move to a portion of the water body that will not freeze or dry (e.g., deep waters of lakes, springs and hyporheic zone where they can remain active. Less frequently they migrate to habitats that will freeze at the onset of winter. Insects have developed a complex of strategies to survive at their physiological temperature minimum, comprising (a morphological (melanism, reduction in size, hairiness/pubescence, brachyptery and aptery, (b behavioural (basking in the sun, changes in feeding and mating habit, parthenogenesis, polyploidy, ovoviviparity, habitat selection and cocoon building, (c ecological (extension of development to several years by quiescence or diapause and reduction of the number of generations per year, (d physiological and biochemical (freezing tolerance and freezing avoidance adaptations. Most species develop a combination of these survival strategies that can be different in the aquatic and terrestrial phase. Freezing avoidance and freezing tolerance may be accompanied by diapause. Both cold hardiness and diapause manifest during the unfavourable season and: (i involve storage of food resources (commonly glycogen and lipids; (ii are under hormonal control (ecdysone and juvenile hormone; (iii involve a depression or suppression of the oxidative metabolism with mitochondrial degradation. However, where the growing season is reduced to a few weeks, insects may develop cold hardiness without entering diapause, maintaining in the haemolymph a high concentration of Thermal Hysteris Proteins (THPs for the entire year and a slow but continuous growth. A synthesis of literature regarding adaptation strategies in aquatic insects is presented, highlighting the scarcity of information on freshwater insects from Alpine regions. Most references are on Diptera Chironomidae from North America and North Europe. Some recent findings on aquatic insects from Italian Alpine streams are also presented.

  5. VISUALIZATION OF FREEZING PROGRESSION IN TURFGRASSES USING INFRARED VIDEO THERMOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freezing injury can be a significant problem in turfgrasses. Understanding how freezing develops and ramifies throughout the plant could assist in the development of improved management or screening processes for cultivar improvemen. The development of freezing injury is not well understand due pa...

  6. Biomarker responses in the earthworm, Dichogaster curgensis exposed to fly ash polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markad, Vijaykumar L; Gaupale, Tekchand C; Bhargava, Shobha; Kodam, Kisan M; Ghole, Vikram S

    2015-08-01

    Earthworms are globally accepted as a model organism in terrestrial ecotoxicology for assessment of environmental pollution. This study evaluated and compared effects of fly ash polluted soils collected from two geographically different thermal power plants on biomarker responses in the earthworm, Dichogaster curgensis. To evaluate relationship between distance sampling and biomarker responses in the earthworm D. curgensis, soil samples at 0.5, 1 and 3km from thermal plant were analyzed for physico-chemical properties and metal concentrations. Biochemical alterations, lysosomal membrane stability, genotoxic effects, and histological changes were examined on 1, 7, and 14 d of exposure to fly ash contaminated soils collected from different thermal power plants. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly increased, while glutathione reductase (GR) activity was found to be decreased in treated animals. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S- transferase (GST) activities were found to be increased initially up to 7d exposure and further decreased on 14d exposure. D. curgensis exposed to fly ash contaminated soils showed significant lysosomal membrane destabilization and DNA damage. Extensive histopathological changes were observed in the tissues of the body wall and intestinal tract of the exposed D. curgensis along with accumulation of heavy metals. These results demonstrate that soil pollution around thermal power plants has adverse biological effects of on the indicator organism D. curgensis and no correlation was found between distance and extent of biological biochemical responses. PMID:25910689

  7. Searching for external sources of the riboflavin stored in earthworm eleocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sulik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Riboflavin (vitamin B2 is essential to maintain immune potency in animals and plants. So far is accepted that animals cannot synthesise riboflavin; they rely on plant-sourced diets and intestinal bacteria for their supplies. A unique feature of earthworm ‘hepatocyte-like’ chloragocytes and chloragocyte-derived eleocytes floating in celomic cavity is the storage of riboflavin within intracellular granules. The hypothesis was that vegetarian food-deprivation or antibiotic/antifungal treatment inhibits riboflavin accumulation in eleocytes of Eisenia andrei. The 7-week starvation inhibited worm body weight gain and worm reproduction but had insignificant effects on celomocytes, both amoebocytes and eleocytes, and eleocyte riboflavin accumulation. The 1 week or 3 week antibiotic exposure had insignificant effects on worm coelomocytes and riboflavin content. Thus, a vegetarian diet and intestinal bacteria are not the exclusive or perhaps even the main sources of eleocyte riboflavin. The role of endosymbionts in earthworm flavonoid economy warrants targeted investigation. Moreover, the possibility of horizontal transfer of riboflavin biosynthesis genes from bacteria/fungi to earthworm genomes cannot be neglected.

  8. The earthworm – Verminephrobacter symbiosis: an emerging experimental system to study extracellular symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MarieBraadLund

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Almost all Lumbricid earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae harbor extracellular species-specific bacterial symbionts of the genus Verminephrobacter (Betaproteobacteria in their nephridia. The symbionts have a beneficial effect on host reproduction and likely live on their host’s waste products. They are vertically transmitted and presumably associated with earthworms already at the origin of Lumbricidae 62 – 136 million years ago. The Verminephrobacter genomes carry signs of bottleneck-induced genetic drift, such as accelerated evolutionary rates, low codon usage bias, and extensive genome shuffling, which are characteristic of vertically transmitted intracellular symbionts. However, the Verminephrobacter genomes lack AT bias, size reduction, and pseudogenization, which are also common genomic hallmarks of vertically transmitted, intracellular symbionts. We propose that the opportunity for genetic mixing during part of the host – symbiont life cycle is the key to evade drift-induced genome erosion. Furthermore, we suggest the earthworm-Verminephrobacter association as new experimental system for investigating host-microbe interactions, and especially for understanding genome evolution of vertically transmitted symbionts in the presence of genetic mixing.

  9. Brainless but not clueless: earthworms boost their ejaculates when they detect fecund non-virgin partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velando, Alberto; Eiroa, Julio; Domínguez, Jorge

    2008-05-01

    In many animals in which females store sperm, males may detect female mating status and, in order to outcompete rival sperm, increase ejaculate size when copulating with non-virgin females. Although most studies have been restricted to organisms with separate sexes, theoretical models suggest that sperm competition should also be an important selective agent shaping life-history traits in simultaneous hermaphrodites. Nevertheless, the empirical support for ejaculate adjustment in a mating opportunity is scarce in hermaphrodites. In the present study, we performed a double-mating experiment to determine whether earthworms (Eisenia andrei) detect the mating status of their partners and whether they respond by adjusting their ejaculate. We found that earthworms triplicated the donated sperm when mating with a non-virgin mate. Moreover, such increases were greater when the worms were mated with larger (more fecund) partners, indicating that earthworms perform a fine-tune control of ejaculate volume. The results of the present study suggest that, under high intensity of sperm competition, partner evaluation is subject to intense selection in hermaphrodite animals, and donors are selective about to whom they donate how much sperm. PMID:18252668

  10. The Changes of Earthworm Population and Chemical Properties of Tropical Soils under Different Land Use Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Yusnaini

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Hilly area Sumberjaya, West Lampung Province, South Sumatra, Indonesia, is one of the Province where deforestation increasing in the past 30 years as a result of the implementation of agricultural systems, especially coffee plantation. it is important to study the soil fauna in these natural relicts. Six sites (3 naturals and 3 managed systems were studied in order to identify earthworm species communities, using the hand sorting method and soil chemical parameters (pH, avail-P, org-C., tot-N, and cation exchange capacity (CEC. Two species were found (Pheretima sp. and Pontoscolex sp.. All land use systems had very similar soil chemical characteristics, there can be characterised as acidic (pH between 3.6 and 5.0. A high content of organic carbon was in natural sites (bush 4.0% and primary forest 3.9%, and a low content was in managed sites (coffee plantation 2.1%. Total nitrogen (0.37% and CEC (21.84 Cmol-c kg-1 was in primary forest. However, the earthworm densities were significantly lower under primary forest than in the other sites. The acidity component explained mainly the lowest earthworm population at the primary forest (soil pH 3.6. The use of succession forest (bush and mix farming showed a positive effect on soil fertility.

  11. Chlorinated pesticide and PCB analysis of earthworms for determination of body burden and bioaccumulation factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouveia, D.A.; Turton, D.; Rury, P. [Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A study of target chlorinated pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) uptake in Red Wiggler (Eisenia foetida) earthworms for the determination of body burden and bioaccumulation factors was performed to provide site-specific data for an extensive ecological risk assessment. Earthworms and contaminated site soil (both prior to and following earthworm exposure) were analyzed for chlorinated pesticides, PCB Aroclors, and target metals. While the target metal analysis was straightforward, the pesticide and PCB analyses were complicated due to the number and concentration of site contaminants, as well as interferences from the biological matrix. This study provided valuable information on: integration of analytical chemistry in an ecological risk assessment; available options for extraction, cleanup, and analysis; selection of optimum analytical methodologies to meet data quality objectives (DQOs); interpretation of soil and tissue analytical results; and understanding of the potential error and uncertainty in the analyses. By coordinating risk assessment needs and expectations with the analytical laboratory capabilities and by maintaining a flexible analysis program, the study provided analytical data capable of meeting the DQOs and overall risk assessment objectives.

  12. Earthworms and Humans in Vitro: Characterizing Evolutionarily Conserved Stress and Immune Responses to Silver Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, Yuya; Engelmann, Péter

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the potential threats of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to ecosystem health, with no detailed report existing on the stress and immune responses of soil invertebrates. Here we use earthworm primary cells, cross-referencing to human cell cultures with a particular emphasis on the conserved biological processes, and provide the first in vitro analysis of molecular and cellular toxicity mechanisms in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to AgNPs (83 ± 22 nm). While we observed a clear difference in cytotoxicity of dissolved silver salt on earthworm coelomocytes and human cells (THP-1 cells, differentiated THP-1 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells), the coelomocytes and differentiated (macrophage-like) THP-1 cells showed a similar response to AgNPs. Intracellular accumulation of AgNPs in the coelomocytes, predominantly in a phagocytic population, was evident by several methods including transmission electron microscopy. Molecular signatures of oxidative stress and selected biomarker genes probed in a time-resolved manner suggest early regulation of oxidative stress genes and subsequent alteration of immune signaling processes following the onset of AgNP exposure in the coelomocytes and THP-1 cells. Our findings provide mechanistic clues on cellular innate immunity toward AgNPs that is likely to be evolutionarily conserved across the animal kingdom.

  13. Identification of Earthworms species in Sari Township in Northern Iran, 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yousefi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is identification of earthworm species gathered from the geographic regions of Sari Township. Samples gathered from different regions of Sari Township fixed by formaldehyde and alcohol solution in several stages and placed into formalin tubes (5%, in addition to providing sample characteristics tabled by Graff identification key, fixed earthworms are recognized. After recognition, analysis obtained data from geographical information of sampling regions and from original and microscopical observations of morphological characteristics were performed using SPSS with statistical tests (Chi square, ANOVA. From 644 samples gathered, 345 adult samples were recognizable and identified. Five species were recognized, including: Eisenia fetida (120 samples, Dendrobaena byblica (67 samples, Allolobophora caliginosa (58 samples, Allolobophora kaznakovi (52 samples and Allolobophora jassyensis (45 samples. Meanwhile, two samples were regenerating and one sample was unknown. The average weight in adult earthworms was 0.54±0.23 (g, while 69.23±16.24 (mm for their length and the number of segments averaging 100.48±18.96. The greatest weight, length and number of segments belonged to the Allolobophora caliginous. This study showed that the dominant species in Sari Township with 34.8% amplitude (120 samples, belonged to Eisenia fetida. This species obtained from all regions of Sari Township, included: plains (45%, forests (31%, littorals (18% and mountains (6%.

  14. The potential role of earthworms in toxicity assessment of terrestrial hazardous waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goven, A.J.; Fitzpatrick, L.C. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Venables, B.J. [TRAC Labs., Inc., Denton, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Understanding the toxic potential and mechanisms of action of environmental xenobiotics is fundamental for assessing risk to public and environmental health. Current established protocols with earthworms focus primarily on defining the lethal effects of chemicals associated with soil contamination. Development of sublethal assays, until recently, has been largely ignored. Here the authors develop rationale for use of earthworms as a model organism for comprehensive assessment of risks to higher wildlife from contaminated soils and hazardous waste sites. They present a panel of lethal (LC/LD50`s) and sublethal measurement endpoint biomarkers, developed within the framework of the National Toxicology Program`s tiered immunotoxicity protocol for mice and according to published criteria for good measurement endpoints, that represent sensitive phylogenetically-conserved processes. Specifically the authors discuss immunosuppressive effects of terrestrial heavy metal and organic contamination on the innate, nonspecific and specific immune responses of earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, coelomocytes in terms of total and differential cell counts, lysozyme activity, nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction, phagocytic activity and secretary rosette formation. Findings indicate that sensitive phylogenetically conserved immune responses present in invertebrates can be used to assess or predict risk to wildlife from contaminated soils.

  15. BIOCONCENTRATION OF HEAVY METALS IN VERMICOMPOSTING EARTHWORMS (Eisenia fetida, Perionyx excavatus and Lampito mauritii IN NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Panday

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Vermicomposting of organic waste can play an important part during the waste management process in larger cities such as Kathmandu where 70% of the waste generated is organic. In this study, the possibility of heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Cu and Cr bioaccumulation by three different species of earthworms Eisenia fetida, Lampito mauritii and Perionyx excavatus in domestic waste vermicompost was investigated. Quantification of heavy metals by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy(AAS in final vermicompost showed a significant reduction in concentration of metals, Pb (11.4-26.0%, Cd (48-61%, Cu (4.9- 29.01% and Cr (18.90-33.60% at the end. Bioaccumulation of heavy metal in the composting earthworms was also recorded. Comparison of the three groups of earthworms showed that the bioaccumulation of Pb, Cu and Cr was greater for P. excavatus whereas E. fetida was the most reluctant. Heavy metal content in the vermicompost was within the limit of USEPA for Biosolids and the compost could be used for the agriculture purpose.

  16. Effects of municipal sludge and fertilizer on heavy metal accumulation in earthworms. [Lumbricus rubellus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, E.A.; Barrett, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    Comparisons were made of heavy metal concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc, in Lumbricus rubellus collected from a three-year-old field community in which replicate plots were treated five times annually for four years with either fertilizer, sewage sludge, or left untreated as controls. Concentrations of all four metals were significantly higher in the soil from sludge-treated plots than from fertilizer or control plots. Cadmium concentration was approximately nine times greater in earthworms from sludge plots than in those from control or fertilizer plots. Although amounts of copper (anti-x = 20.7 ..mu..g g/sup -1/) and lead (8.75 ..mu..g g/sup -1/) were also significantly higher in earthworm tissue from sludge-amended communities as compared to fertilizer or control treatments, concentration factors were relatively low, suggesting possible biological regulation of these metals. No significant differences were found between treatments for zinc concentrations in earthworm tissue. Lumbricus rubellus appears to be an ideal indicator species for investigating rates of heavy metal uptake within terrestrial ecosystems.

  17. Body metal concentrations and glycogen reserves in earthworms (Dendrobaena octaedra) from contaminated and uncontaminated forest soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmstrup, Martin, E-mail: martin.holmstrup@dmu.d [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Sorensen, Jesper G. [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Overgaard, Johannes; Bayley, Mark [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Building 131, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Bindesbol, Anne-Mette [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Building 131, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Slotsbo, Stine; Fisker, Karina V.; Maraldo, Kristine [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Waagner, Dorthe [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Building 131, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Labouriau, Rodrigo [Aarhus University, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Asmund, Gert [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2011-01-15

    Stress originating from toxicants such as heavy metals can induce compensatory changes in the energy metabolism of organisms due to increased energy expenses associated with detoxification and excretion processes. These energy expenses may be reflected in the available energy reserves such as glycogen. In a field study the earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra, was collected from polluted areas, and from unpolluted reference areas. If present in the environment, cadmium, lead and copper accumulated to high concentrations in D. octaedra. In contrast, other toxic metals such as aluminium, nickel and zinc appeared to be regulated and kept at low internal concentrations compared to soil concentrations. Lead, cadmium and copper accumulation did not correlate with glycogen reserves of individual worms. In contrast, aluminium, nickel and zinc were negatively correlated with glycogen reserves. These results suggest that coping with different metals in earthworms is associated with differential energy demands depending on the associated detoxification strategy. - Detoxification and accumulation of cadmium and lead by earthworms carries little energetic expenses whereas strict internal regulation of aluminium and nickel has energetic costs.

  18. The earthworm-Verminephrobacter symbiosis : an emerging experimental system to study extracellular symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie Braad; Kjeldsen, Kasper U

    2014-01-01

    ALMOST ALL LUMBRICID EARTHWORMS (OLIGOCHAETA: Lumbricidae) harbor extracellular species-specific bacterial symbionts of the genus Verminephrobacter (Betaproteobacteria) in their nephridia. The symbionts have a beneficial effect on host reproduction and likely live on their host's waste products. They are vertically transmitted and presumably associated with earthworms already at the origin of Lumbricidae 62-136 million years ago. The Verminephrobacter genomes carry signs of bottleneck-induced genetic drift, such as accelerated evolutionary rates, low codon usage bias, and extensive genome shuffling, which are characteristic of vertically transmitted intracellular symbionts. However, the Verminephrobacter genomes lack AT bias, size reduction, and pseudogenization, which are also common genomic hallmarks of vertically transmitted, intracellular symbionts. We propose that the opportunity for genetic mixing during part of the host-symbiont life cycle is the key to evade drift-induced genome erosion. Furthermore, we suggest the earthworm-Verminephrobacter association as a new experimental system for investigating host-microbe interactions, and especially for understanding genome evolution of vertically transmitted symbionts in the presence of genetic mixing.

  19. Alternatives to herbicides in an apple orchard, effects on yield, earthworms and plant diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L.; Kuehn, Birka Falk

    2013-01-01

    tIn a newly established apple orchard eight alternative methods to weed control in the tree row werecompared to a herbicide treatment with respect to effects on tree growth, first-quality fruit yield, earth-worms and flora. All treatments were tested at two irrigation schedules, with similar amount of water ata daily or weekly basis. In general, daily irrigation reduced first-quality fruit yield compared to weeklyirrigation. Mulching with black polypropylene (MyPex®) and rape straw had a positive effect on first-quality yield and shoot growth, only black polypropylene, compared to herbicide treatment, whereasmulching with paper wool reduced first-quality fruit yield compared to herbicide treatment. Cover cropas tagetes and weed harrowing had similar yield as herbicide treatment, whereas cover crops as grassand hop medick and weed cutting reduced first-quality yield compared to herbicide treatment. Earth-worms thrived under rape straw contrary to under black polypropylene and plots with weed harrowing.Treatments had significant effects on species numbers of plants both years, and total vegetation covergenerally increased in the second year. Rape straw supported a high production of apples and a largestock of earthworms; however, its support of wild flora is poor, when it is taken into account that a largeproportion of the flora in the rape straw was rape established from seeds left with the straw

  20. The earthworm—Verminephrobacter symbiosis: an emerging experimental system to study extracellular symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Marie B.; Kjeldsen, Kasper U.; Schramm, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Almost all Lumbricid earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) harbor extracellular species-specific bacterial symbionts of the genus Verminephrobacter (Betaproteobacteria) in their nephridia. The symbionts have a beneficial effect on host reproduction and likely live on their host's waste products. They are vertically transmitted and presumably associated with earthworms already at the origin of Lumbricidae 62–136 million years ago. The Verminephrobacter genomes carry signs of bottleneck-induced genetic drift, such as accelerated evolutionary rates, low codon usage bias, and extensive genome shuffling, which are characteristic of vertically transmitted intracellular symbionts. However, the Verminephrobacter genomes lack AT bias, size reduction, and pseudogenization, which are also common genomic hallmarks of vertically transmitted, intracellular symbionts. We propose that the opportunity for genetic mixing during part of the host—symbiont life cycle is the key to evade drift-induced genome erosion. Furthermore, we suggest the earthworm-Verminephrobacter association as a new experimental system for investigating host-microbe interactions, and especially for understanding genome evolution of vertically transmitted symbionts in the presence of genetic mixing. PMID:24734029

  1. Effect of Butachlor Herbicide on Earthworm Eisenia fetidaIts Histological Perspicuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the advent of the Green Revolution, there has been a quantum leap in the use of synthetic herbicides and pesticides throughout the world to sustain high yielding crop varieties. Continuous use of these synthetic chemicals leads to loss of soil fertility and soil organisms. To explore the effect of exposure to commercial herbicide (Butachlor) on the life history parameters (biomass, clitellum development, and cocoon production) and the histological changes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida over 60 days, the dried cow dung was contaminated with 0.2575 mg/ kg-1, 0.5150 mg/ kg-1, and 2.5750 mg/ kg-1 of butachlor based on the LC 50 value, and a control was maintained. The mean earthworm biomass was found to be decreased with increasing herbicide concentration. Similarly, cocoon production was also reduced by the increasing herbicide concentration. A possible explanation is an increased demand for energy, needed for the regulation and detoxification of herbicide. All earthworms in the exposed group were found to have glandular cell enlargement and to be vacuolated

  2. Effects of Bio solids at Varying Rates on Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and Springtails (Folsomia candida)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land spreading is a major option internationally for the disposal/use of treated sewage sludge (bio solids), but effects of this practice on soil organisms are largely unknown. This study investigated the effects of bio solids on two soil invertebrate species, earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and Collembola (Folsomia candida), in laboratory tests. Five bio solids from different sewage works were assessed at rates equivalent to 0, 2, 5, 10, and 20tha-1. Bio solids applied at 2 and 5tha-1 did not cause mortality of adult earthworms but did at 10 and 20tha-1. At 5, 10 and 20tha-1, all bio solids had significantly fewer juvenile worms relative to controls. Increasing the rates from 2 to 10tha-1 did not impact on the number of adult Collembola, but at 20tha-1 there were significantly fewer adults. There were significantly fewer juvenile Collembola recorded for bio solids applied at the 2tha-1 when compared with controls, and also when bio solids were applied at 5, 10, and 20tha-1 relative to 2tha-1. Some significant difference between bio solids were observed, but generally, negative effects were not related to heavy metal concentrations in bio solids. It is recommended that possible detrimental mechanisms (e.g., ammonia production, lack of oxygen) be investigated in future work. It is concluded that bio solids, applied at legal, low rates (about 2tha-1) are unlikely to be detrimental to earthworms or adult Collembola but can be detrimental to Collembola reproduction.

  3. Ternary toxicological interactions of insecticides, herbicides, and a heavy metal on the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanhua [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control/Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Chen, Chen [Key Laboratory of Agro-Product Quality and Safety of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality Standards and Testing Technology for Agro-Products, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Qian, Yongzhong, E-mail: qyzcaas@aliyun.com [Key Laboratory of Agro-Product Quality and Safety of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality Standards and Testing Technology for Agro-Products, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhao, Xueping [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control/Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Wang, Qiang, E-mail: qiangwang2003@vip.sina.com [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control/Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021 (China)

    2015-03-02

    Highlights: • The combined toxicity of insecticides, herbicides, and a heavy metal was examined. • Acute earthworm toxicity assays were conducted in twenty-one ternary mixtures. • Synergism predominated in the majority of the mixtures at low effect levels. • Combination index method could more accurately predict the combined toxicity. - Abstract: The combined toxicities of five insecticides (chlorpyrifos, avermectin, imidacloprid, ?-cyhalothrin, and phoxim), two herbicides (atrazine and butachlor), and a heavy metal (cadmium) have been examined using the acute toxicity test on the earthworm. With a concentration of 2.75 mg/kg being lethal for 50% of the organisms, imidacloprid exhibited the highest acute toxicity toward the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Toxicological interactions of these chemicals in ternary mixtures were studied using the combination-index (CI) equation method. Twenty-one ternary mixtures exhibited various interactive effects, in which 11 combinations showed synergistic effects, four led to dual synergistic/additive behaviors, one exhibited an additive effect, and five showed increasing antagonism within the entire range of effects. The CI method was compared with the classical models of concentration addition and independent action, and it was found that the CI method could accurately predict combined toxicity of the chemicals studied. The predicted synergism in the majority of the mixtures, especially at low-effect levels, might have implications in the real terrestrial environment.

  4. Ternary toxicological interactions of insecticides, herbicides, and a heavy metal on the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The combined toxicity of insecticides, herbicides, and a heavy metal was examined. • Acute earthworm toxicity assays were conducted in twenty-one ternary mixtures. • Synergism predominated in the majority of the mixtures at low effect levels. • Combination index method could more accurately predict the combined toxicity. - Abstract: The combined toxicities of five insecticides (chlorpyrifos, avermectin, imidacloprid, ?-cyhalothrin, and phoxim), two herbicides (atrazine and butachlor), and a heavy metal (cadmium) have been examined using the acute toxicity test on the earthworm. With a concentration of 2.75 mg/kg being lethal for 50% of the organisms, imidacloprid exhibited the highest acute toxicity toward the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Toxicological interactions of these chemicals in ternary mixtures were studied using the combination-index (CI) equation method. Twenty-one ternary mixtures exhibited various interactive effects, in which 11 combinations showed synergistic effects, four led to dual synergistic/additive behaviors, one exhibited an additive effect, and five showed increasing antagonism within the entire range of effects. The CI method was compared with the classical models of concentration addition and independent action, and it was found that the CI method could accurately predict combined toxicity of the chemicals studied. The predicted synergism in the majority of the mixtures, especially at low-effect levels, might have implications in the real terrestrial environment

  5. Development of peristaltic crawling robot using magnetic fluid on the basis of locomotion mechanism of earthworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saga, Norihiko; Nakamura, Taro

    2002-11-01

    The field of bio-engineering with the aim of developing new machines, which utilizes the motion and control of organisms as a model, is attracting attention. This technology is pursued by paying attention to various shapes and movements of organisms and autonomous system of organisms in acting in response to environment surrounding them, and by mechanically elucidating the locomotion mechanism, propulsive mechanism, nerve system and sensation system of these organisms. On the other hand, in the field of hydrodynamics, magnetic fluid that changes its apparent viscosity depending on magnetic field has been developed, and its utilization is under trial in various fields. We paid attention to the peristaltic crawling of earthworm as transport function in place of wheels or ambulation, and have developed a micro robot running inside a tube using magnetic fluid. In this micro robot, a cell corresponding to earthworm's segment is composed of a natural rubber tube sealed with water-based magnetic fluid, and the cells are connected with elastic rods made of natural rubber. The feature of this micro robot is that its structure is simply composed of, and it can be controlled with external wireless force, by providing it with moving magnetism from the outside. This paper presents the analytical result of the peristaltic crawling of an actual earthworm and the evaluation result of transport mechanism of a prototype micro robot moved by external magnetic field.

  6. Efectos tóxicos de los insecticidas clorpirifos y teflutrina sobre la lombriz de tierra (Lumbricus terrestris L.) / Toxic effects of the insecticides chlorpyrifos and tefluthrin on earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosana, Giménez; Angela, Della Penna; Ezequiel, Odello.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Para evaluar la ecotoxicidad de clorpirifos y teflutrina sobre Lumbricus terrestris L., se realizó una prueba de laboratorio, basado en el protocolo de la Organización Internacional de Control Biológico (IOBC). Las lombrices fueron recolectadas a mano en un suelo libre de plaguicidas, en el campo de [...] la Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina y colocadas en suelo esterilizado, en condiciones de oscuridad y 12°C durante cinco días, alimentadas con hojas secas de trébol blanco (Trifolium repens L.). Se colocó una lombriz mayor a 1,5 g sin clitelo por embudo de Daniel, con diez hojas secas de trébol blanco sobre la superficie. Los tratamientos fueron: 1) testigo, agua no clorada; 2) 30 mg L-1 de solución de cloroacetamida (97,37%); 3) clorpirifos (EC 48%) 5 L ha-1 o 50 mg L-1; 4) teflutrina (EC 5%) 2 L ha-1 o 20 mg L-1. El ensayo tuvo diseño completamente aleatorizado con diez repeticiones. Durante los 15 días de ensayo las variables analizadas fueron: variación de peso, actividad individual y supervivencia de lombrices. El incremento de peso de las lombrices fue 0,285; 0,280 y 0,300 g en 15 días en los tratamientos 1, 3 y 4 respectivamente, y no hubo diferencias significativas entre los mismos así como en la cantidad de hojas retiradas al día, que fue de 0,61; 0,369; 0,555 y 0,425, respectivamente. La supervivencia fue de 100; 20; 100; y 90% en los tratamientos 1, 2, 3 y 4, respectivamente, siendo afectada sólo por cloroacetamida. Clorpirifos y teflutrina no fueron tóxicos a las dosis evaluadas (P Abstract in english In order to evaluate the ecotoxicity of chlorpyrifos and tefluthrin on the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L., a laboratory test was carried out based on the guidelines of the International Organization of Biological Control (IOBC). The earthworms were collected by handsorting from a soil free of pes [...] ticides of the Agronomy Faculty, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina and placed in sterilized soil, in complete darkness, at 12ºC for five days, and fed with dry white clover (Trifolium repens L.) leaves. Earthworms larger than 1.5 g without clitelum were placed in a Daniel's funnel with ten dry leaves of white clover on the surface. The treatments were: 1) control, unchlorinated water; 2) chloroacetamid solution (97.37%) 30 mg L-1; 3) chlorpyrifos (emulsifiable concentrate, EC, 48%) 5 L ha-1 or 50 mg L-1; 4) tefluthrin (EC 5%) 2 L ha-1 or 20 mg L-1. A completely randomized experimental design with ten replicates was used. During 15 days of the assay the variables analyzed were: live weight change, individual activity and earthworm survival. The increase of earthworm weight was 0.285, 0.280 and 0.300 g in the 15 days of treatments 1, 3 and 4, respectively, with no significant differences between treatments, as well as the number of leaves withdrawn per day 0.61, 0.369, 0.555, and 0.425, respectively. The survival rates were: 100, 20, 100 and 90%, in treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively, being only effected by chloroacetamid. Chlorpyrifos and tefluthrin were not toxic for L. terrestris at the current dose (P

  7. Efectos tóxicos de los insecticidas clorpirifos y teflutrina sobre la lombriz de tierra (Lumbricus terrestris L. Toxic effects of the insecticides chlorpyrifos and tefluthrin on earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Giménez

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Para evaluar la ecotoxicidad de clorpirifos y teflutrina sobre Lumbricus terrestris L., se realizó una prueba de laboratorio, basado en el protocolo de la Organización Internacional de Control Biológico (IOBC. Las lombrices fueron recolectadas a mano en un suelo libre de plaguicidas, en el campo de la Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina y colocadas en suelo esterilizado, en condiciones de oscuridad y 12°C durante cinco días, alimentadas con hojas secas de trébol blanco (Trifolium repens L.. Se colocó una lombriz mayor a 1,5 g sin clitelo por embudo de Daniel, con diez hojas secas de trébol blanco sobre la superficie. Los tratamientos fueron: 1 testigo, agua no clorada; 2 30 mg L-1 de solución de cloroacetamida (97,37%; 3 clorpirifos (EC 48% 5 L ha-1 o 50 mg L-1; 4 teflutrina (EC 5% 2 L ha-1 o 20 mg L-1. El ensayo tuvo diseño completamente aleatorizado con diez repeticiones. Durante los 15 días de ensayo las variables analizadas fueron: variación de peso, actividad individual y supervivencia de lombrices. El incremento de peso de las lombrices fue 0,285; 0,280 y 0,300 g en 15 días en los tratamientos 1, 3 y 4 respectivamente, y no hubo diferencias significativas entre los mismos así como en la cantidad de hojas retiradas al día, que fue de 0,61; 0,369; 0,555 y 0,425, respectivamente. La supervivencia fue de 100; 20; 100; y 90% en los tratamientos 1, 2, 3 y 4, respectivamente, siendo afectada sólo por cloroacetamida. Clorpirifos y teflutrina no fueron tóxicos a las dosis evaluadas (P In order to evaluate the ecotoxicity of chlorpyrifos and tefluthrin on the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L., a laboratory test was carried out based on the guidelines of the International Organization of Biological Control (IOBC. The earthworms were collected by handsorting from a soil free of pesticides of the Agronomy Faculty, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina and placed in sterilized soil, in complete darkness, at 12ºC for five days, and fed with dry white clover (Trifolium repens L. leaves. Earthworms larger than 1.5 g without clitelum were placed in a Daniel's funnel with ten dry leaves of white clover on the surface. The treatments were: 1 control, unchlorinated water; 2 chloroacetamid solution (97.37% 30 mg L-1; 3 chlorpyrifos (emulsifiable concentrate, EC, 48% 5 L ha-1 or 50 mg L-1; 4 tefluthrin (EC 5% 2 L ha-1 or 20 mg L-1. A completely randomized experimental design with ten replicates was used. During 15 days of the assay the variables analyzed were: live weight change, individual activity and earthworm survival. The increase of earthworm weight was 0.285, 0.280 and 0.300 g in the 15 days of treatments 1, 3 and 4, respectively, with no significant differences between treatments, as well as the number of leaves withdrawn per day 0.61, 0.369, 0.555, and 0.425, respectively. The survival rates were: 100, 20, 100 and 90%, in treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively, being only effected by chloroacetamid. Chlorpyrifos and tefluthrin were not toxic for L. terrestris at the current dose (P < 0.05.

  8. Field isotopic study of lead fate and compartmentalization in earthworm-soil-metal particle systems for highly polluted soil near Pb recycling factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goix, Sylvaine; Mombo, Stéphane; Schreck, Eva; Pierart, Antoine; Lévêque, Thibaut; Deola, Frédéric; Dumat, Camille

    2015-11-01

    Earthworms are important organisms in soil macrofauna and play a key role in soil functionality, and consequently in terrestrial ecotoxicological risk assessments. Because they are frequently observed in soils strongly polluted by metals, the influence of earthworm bioturbation on Pb fate could therefore be studied through the use of Pb isotopes. Total Pb concentrations and isotopic composition ((206)Pb, (207)Pb and (208)Pb) were then measured in earthworms, casts and bulk soils sampled at different distance from a lead recycling factory. Results showed decreasing Pb concentrations with the distance from the factory whatever the considered matrix (bulk soils, earthworm bodies or cast samples) with higher concentrations in bulk soils than in cast samples. The bivariate plot (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratios versus (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios showed that all samples can be considered as a linear mixing between metallic process particulate matter (PM) and geochemical Pb background. Calculated anthropogenic fraction of Pb varied between approximately 84% and 100%. Based on Pb isotopic signatures, the comparison between casts, earthworms and bulk soils allowed to conclude that earthworms preferentially ingest the anthropogenic lead fraction associated with coarse soil organic matter. Actually, soil organic matter was better correlated with Pb isotopic ratios than with Pb content in soils. The proposed hypothesis is therefore a decrease of soil organic matter turnover due to Pb pollution with consequences on Pb distribution in soils and earthworm exposure. Finally, Pb isotopes analysis constitutes an efficient tool to study the influence of earthworm bioturbation on Pb cycle in polluted soils. PMID:26025429

  9. TargetFreeze: Identifying Antifreeze Proteins via a Combination of Weights using Sequence Evolutionary Information and Pseudo Amino Acid Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xue; Han, Ke; Hu, Jun; Yan, Hui; Yang, Jing-Yu; Shen, Hong-Bin; Yu, Dong-Jun

    2015-12-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are indispensable for living organisms to survive in an extremely cold environment and have a variety of potential biotechnological applications. The accurate prediction of antifreeze proteins has become an important issue and is urgently needed. Although considerable progress has been made, AFP prediction is still a challenging problem due to the diversity of species. In this study, we proposed a new sequence-based AFP predictor, called TargetFreeze. TargetFreeze utilizes an enhanced feature representation method that weightedly combines multiple protein features and takes the powerful support vector machine as the prediction engine. Computer experiments on benchmark datasets demonstrate the superiority of the proposed TargetFreeze over most recently released AFP predictors. We also implemented a user-friendly web server, which is openly accessible for academic use and is available at http://csbio.njust.edu.cn/bioinf/TargetFreeze . TargetFreeze supplements existing AFP predictors and will have potential applications in AFP-related biotechnology fields. PMID:26058944

  10. A modeling approach to simulate the role of anecic and endogeic earthworms in soil structure dynamics of two agricultural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Couteulx, Alexis; Wolf, Cédric; Pérès, Guénola; Hallaire, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    In agriculture, one of the main purposes of innovative systems is to preserve and improve soil quality and noticeably their physical quality. This physical quality of a soil is intimately linked with its structure, i.e. the spatial arrangement of voids and solids. It is well-known that agricultural systems may deeply impact on soil structure through their effect on various structuring processes, in particular (i) the mechanical action of soil tillage and (ii) the burrowing activity and casts production of earthworms. As the assessment of agricultural systems needs long term experiments, it is not feasible to assess them all. However, the modeling approach has been used seldom despite it seems promising. As a first step towards the modeling of agricultural systems, we propose a model that simulates the impact of earthworm bioturbation and several tillage practices on soil structure dynamics. The proposed model accounts for two earthworm ecological categories: anecics and endogeics. Anecics are split into epi-anecics and true anecics and endogeics are kept at the specific level. The model takes into account their physiological and morphological features such as their diapause period, their gut transit time or their body size. In order to simulate the bioturbation activity of earthworms, they can make six different actions: (i) burrow new paths by ingesting soil particles, (ii) move inside existing paths, (iii) move to soil surface, (iv) wait, (v) produce a subsurface cast or (vi) produce a surface cast. For the various species and groups of earthworms, the probability of these actions was adjusted from experiments and published results. This part of the model dedicated to earthworms allows to build and study their network of burrows but also the position and volume of their subsurface and surface casts. This network may be couple with models of water conductivity to assess the role of earthworm on this soil functional property. To better simulate soil structure dynamics in agricultural systems, the model also simulates the impact of tillage practices. By now, it accounts for ploughing and direct seedling by simulating the destruction of burrow paths and the mixing of void and solid particles into the soil. The model could be used to simulate the dynamics of soil structure for a year or more but a deeper understanding of earthworm behavior would greatly improve its reliability. The mix of a biological and a tillage model is an important first step to modeling soil structure dynamics in agricultural systems. In addition to acquire more precise knowledge on earthworm behavior, it is now needed to extend the model with new processes such as soil compaction due to climate and due to heavy machinery.

  11. Optimism and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Henriette; Jeune, Bernard; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Martinussen, Torben; Vaupel, James W; Christensen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    Studies examining predictors of survival among the oldest-old have primarily focused on objective measures, such as physical function and health status. Only a few studies have examined the effect of personality traits on survival, such as optimism. The aim of this study was to examine whether an optimistic outlook predicts survival among the oldest-old.

  12. Survivability Versus Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, James J., Sr.

    2014-01-01

    Develop Survivability vs Time Model as a decision-evaluation tool to assess various emergency egress methods used at Launch Complex 39B (LC 39B) and in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) on NASAs Kennedy Space Center. For each hazard scenario, develop probability distributions to address statistical uncertainty resulting in survivability plots over time and composite survivability plots encompassing multiple hazard scenarios.

  13. Total Nitorgen Content from Earthworm (Eisenia Foetida Using The Kjeldahl Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarina Zakaria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the fish aquaculture management, fish feed is identified as a major problem. The high cost and scarcity of fishmeal in formulated feeds have led to the use of other protein sources such as earthworms and animal by-product. Earthworm is an alternative protein source to replace the fish meal in the fish feed formulation. In this study, total nitrogen content in earthworm powder is determined using the Kjeldahl method by employing the statistical software, Full Factorial Design (FFD which could provide the significant information about the studied parameters. The parameters are the digestion time (min and the volume of sulfuric acid (H2SO4 (ml. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA, the volume of H2SO4and the interaction between digestion time and the volume of H2SO4arefound to be important parameters in the nitrogen determination process via the Kjeldahl method. The highest nitrogen content obtained was 12.23% when using 15 ml H2SO4 and 60 mins of digestion time. The value of R2 is 0.9986 which shows that the selected parameters (the digestion time and the volume of H2SO4 and its corresponding levels are highly correlated to the percentage nitrogen content in earthworm powder using the Kjeldahl method. ABSTRAK:Dalam pengurusan akuakultur ikan, makanan telah dikenalpasti sebagai masalah utama. Kos yang tinggi serta kekurangan sumber makanan telah menggalakkan pencarian sumber protein baru seperti cacing tanah dan hasil sampingan sembelihan haiwan ternakan. Cacing adalah sumber protein alternatif menggantikan ramuan ikan (fish meal dalam formulasi makanan ikan. Dalam kajian ini, kandungan jumlah nitrogen dalam serbuk cacing tanah telah dianalisa menggunakan kaedah Kjeldahl dengan menggunapakai perisian statistikal iaitu Full Factorial Design (FFD yang boleh memberikan maklumat yang penting berkenaan dengan parameter-parameter yang dikaji. Parameter-parameter tersebut adalah masa pencernaan (min dan isipadu asid sulfurik (H2SO4 (ml. Daripada analisa varian (ANOVA, isipadu H2SO4 dan interaksi antara masa pencernaan dan isipadu H2SO4 telah dikenalpasti sebagai parameter-parameter utama dalam proses penentuan kandungan nitrogen melalui kaedah Kjeldahl. Kandungan nitrogen yang tertinggi diperolehi adalah 12.23% bila menggunakan 15 ml H2SO4 dan 60 minit masa pencernaan. Nilai R2 adalah 0.9986 menunjukkan bahawa parameter-parameter (masa pencernaan dan isipadu H2SO4 dan aras yang dipilih mempunyai perkaitan langsung yang tinggi dengan kandungan nitrogen dalam serbuk cacing dengan menggunakan kaedah Kjeldahl.KEYWORDS: nitrogen content;, earthworm; Kjeldahl method

  14. Comparative toxicity in earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris exposed to cadmium nitrate using artificial soil and filter paper protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Muratti-Ortiz, J.F. [City of Denton Water/Wastewater Laboratory, TX (United States); Venables, B.J. [TRAC Laboratories Inc., Denton, TX (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Earthworms are ideal soil organisms for use in terrestrial ecotoxicology. As such, several earthworm protocols have been developed for testing toxic potential of chemicals and contaminated soils. Of these, the 48-h filter paper contact (FP) and the 14-d artificial soil exposure (AS) protocols, using mortality (LC50) as the toxic endpoint and Eisenia fetida as the test species, have received the most attention, with the latter being adopted by both OECD and EEC in Europe and the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in the United States. Although the FP technique, adopted by EEC, provides for inexpensive reproducible toxicity screening for chemicals (i.e. establishing relative toxicities), it has been criticized for lacking the ecotoxicological relevance of the AS protocol. Choice of earthworm species for laboratory testing also has been controversial. The manure worm, E. fetida, is criticized for not being sufficiently sensitive to chemicals or representative of {open_quotes}typical{close_quotes} earthworms. Lumbricus terrestris and Apporectodea caliginosa have been suggested as more sensitive and ecologically relevant earthworms by Dean-Ross and Martin, respectively. This paper compares the AS and FP protocols in assessing toxicity of cadminum to L. terrestris and E. fetida using LC50s and LC50s. 19 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Responses by earthworms to reduced tillage in herbicide tolerant maize and Bt maize cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, P. H.; Griffiths, B.

    2007-01-01

    Genetically modified crops (GM) may affect earthworms either directly through the plant, its root exudates and litter, or indirectly through the agricultural management changes that are associated with GM plant production. In order to investigate such possible effects we established two field studies of Bt corn and a glufosinate ammonium tolerant corn and included a reduced tillage treatment (RT) and a conventional tillage treatment (CT) as examples of a likely concomitant change in the agricultural practise. At a French study site at Varois, (Bourgogne), a field grown with the Bt-toxin producing transgenic maize line MON810 was studied for 1 year. At a Danish study site, Foulum (Jutland), one year of Bt corn was followed by 2 years of herbicide tolerant corn. At the French study site the most prominent effects observed were due to the tillage method where RT significantly reduced the earthworm populations to levels about half of CT. At the Danish study site effects of CT complied with known reduction of anecic earthworms due to this technique and likewise effects of RT were observed for endogeic earthworms. Earthworm populations were dimin-ished with the herbicide tolerant crop, probably due to exposure to the herbicide Basta® during the two consecutive autumn seasons. This study confirms the importance of including the tillage tech-niques and pesticide usage when evaluating the environmental effects of new agricultural technologies.

  16. Effects of three pesticides on the avoidance behavior of earthworms in laboratory tests performed under temperate and tropical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcos [Embrapa Amazonia Ocidental, Rod. AM-10, Km 28, 69.011-970 Manaus (Brazil); Roembke, Joerg [ECT Oekotoxikologie, Boettgerstr. 2-14, D-65439 Floersheim (Germany)], E-mail: j-roembke@ect.de; Torres de Brito, Marcus [CNPq - PIBIC/Embrapa, Rod. AM-10, Km 28, 69.011-970 Manaus (Brazil); Scheffczyk, Adam [ECT Oekotoxikologie, Boettgerstr. 2-14, D-65439 Floersheim (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    Little research has been performed on the impact of pesticides on earthworms under tropical conditions. Taking into consideration the often-limited resources in tropical countries, simple screening tests are needed. Therefore, it was investigated whether three pesticides relevant for the Brazilian Amazon (benomyl, carbendazim, lambda-cyhalothrin) affect the avoidance behavior of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The tests were performed for two days according to ISO guideline 17512 but were adapted to tropical conditions (i.e. test substrate, test organism and temperature). The results indicate that this test gives reproducible and reliable results. Toxicity values (NOEC, EC50) are lower than those determined in 14 day-acute mortality tests and are approximately in the same range such as those found in 56 day-chronic reproduction tests with the same earthworm species, which were performed in parallel. Therefore, the use of the earthworm avoidance tests is recommended as a screening tool for the risk assessment of pesticides. - The earthworm avoidance test is a practical and sensitive screening method for assessing the effects of pesticides in tropical soils.

  17. Combined effects of soil moisture and carbaryl to earthworms and plants: Simulation of flood and drought scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Maria P.R.; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M. [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Loureiro, Susana, E-mail: sloureiro@ua.pt [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2011-07-15

    Studying tolerance limits in organisms exposed to climatic variations is key to understanding effects on behaviour and physiology. The presence of pollutants may influence these tolerance limits, by altering the toxicity or bioavailability of the chemical. In this work, the plant species Brassica rapa and Triticum aestivum and the earthworm Eisenia andrei were exposed to different levels of soil moisture and carbaryl, as natural and chemical stressors, respectively. Both stress factors were tested individually, as well as in combination. Acute and chronic tests were performed and results were discussed in order to evaluate the responses of organisms to the combination of stressors. When possible, data was fitted to widely employed models for describing chemical mixture responses. Synergistic interactions were observed in earthworms exposed to carbaryl and drought conditions, while antagonistic interactions were more representative for plants, especially in relation to biomass loss under flood-simulation conditions. - Highlights: > Climate variations may cause changes on chemicals' toxicity or bioavailability. > Earthworms and plants are exposed simultaneously to carbaryl and flood and drought conditions. > The IA model and possible deviations were used to evaluate combination exposures. > Synergism was observed for earthworms exposed to carbaryl and drought conditions. > Antagonistic interactions were observed for plants, in flood conditions and carbaryl. - Soil moisture can play an important role in carbaryl toxicity towards plants and earthworms.

  18. Identifying the metabolic perturbations in earthworm induced by cypermethrin using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry based metabolomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ch, Ratnasekhar; Singh, Amit Kumar; Pandey, Pathya; Saxena, Prem Narain; Reddy Mudiam, Mohana Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Globally, cypermethrin is one of the most widely used synthetic pyrethroid for agricultural and domestic purposes. Most part of the pesticides used in the agriculture ends up as residues in the soil, making soil dwelling organisms, especially earthworms more susceptible to pesticide intoxication. Cypermethrin is known to be a neurotoxicant to many model organisms, including mammals and insects, but such type of toxicity evidence is not available for invertebrate systems like earthworms. In the present work, metabolomics based approach was utilized to identify the toxic mechanism of action of cypermethrin on earthworm (Metaphire posthuma) and these were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of cypermethrin such as 2.5?mg/kg, 5?mg/kg, 10?mg/kg and 20?mg/kg (1/40th, 1/20th, 1/10th and 1/5th of LC50, respectively) for fourteen days. The results revealed that 22 metabolites (mainly fatty acids, sugars and amino acids) were shown significant responses in the exposed earthworms and these responses are dose dependent. It is proposed that mainly carbohydrate and fatty acids in neural system metabolism was disturbed. Overall, the results provided that metabolomics can be an effective tool to understand the effects of cypermethrin on the metabolic responses of earthworm Metaphire posthuma. PMID:26514086

  19. Could humic acid relieve the biochemical toxicities and DNA damage caused by nickel and deltamethrin in earthworms (Eisenia foetida)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen-Chao; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Shentu, Jia-Li; Wang, Mei-Zhen; Wan, Ming-Yang

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether humic acid (HA) prevented gene and biochemical toxic effects in earthworms (Eisenia foetida) exposed to nickel and deltamethrin (at 100 and 1 mg kg(-1), respectively) in soil. Cellular- and molecular-level toxic effects of nickel and deltamethrin in earthworms were evaluated by measuring damage to lipid membranes and DNA and the production of protein carbonyls over 42 days of exposure. Nickel and deltamethrin induced significant levels of oxidative stress in earthworms, increasing the production of peroxidation products (malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls) and increasing the comet assay tail DNA% (determined by single-cell gel electrophoresis). DNA damage was the most sensitive of the three indices because it gave a higher sample/control ratio than did the other indices. The presence of HA alleviated (in decreasing order of effectiveness) damage to DNA, proteins, and lipid membranes caused by nickel and deltamethrin. A low HA dose (0.5-1% HA in soil) prevented a great deal of lipid membrane damage, but the highest HA dose (3% HA in soil) prevented still more DNA damage. However, the malondialdehyde concentrations in earthworms were higher at the highest HA dose than at the lower HA doses. The amounts of protein carbonyls produced at different HA doses were not significantly different. The toxic effects to earthworms caused by increased oxidizable nickel concentrations could be relieved by adding HA. PMID:26511644

  20. Effects of three pesticides on the avoidance behavior of earthworms in laboratory tests performed under temperate and tropical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little research has been performed on the impact of pesticides on earthworms under tropical conditions. Taking into consideration the often-limited resources in tropical countries, simple screening tests are needed. Therefore, it was investigated whether three pesticides relevant for the Brazilian Amazon (benomyl, carbendazim, lambda-cyhalothrin) affect the avoidance behavior of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The tests were performed for two days according to ISO guideline 17512 but were adapted to tropical conditions (i.e. test substrate, test organism and temperature). The results indicate that this test gives reproducible and reliable results. Toxicity values (NOEC, EC50) are lower than those determined in 14 day-acute mortality tests and are approximately in the same range such as those found in 56 day-chronic reproduction tests with the same earthworm species, which were performed in parallel. Therefore, the use of the earthworm avoidance tests is recommended as a screening tool for the risk assessment of pesticides. - The earthworm avoidance test is a practical and sensitive screening method for assessing the effects of pesticides in tropical soils