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Sample records for earthworms survive freezing

  1. Small Dendrobaena earthworms survive freezing better than large worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Overgaard, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    Dendrobaena octaedra is a freeze tolerant earthworm widely distributed in boreal regions. Specimens collected in Sweden were cold acclimated and then frozen at -7 degrees C to examine the influence of body mass on survival of freezing. Results showed that survival was negatively correlated to body mass. Glycogen content of the worms was variable and seemed to decrease with increasing body mass consistent with the hypothesis that freeze survival is dependent on the ability to rapidly break down glycogen and accumulate high concentrations of glucose. The results suggest that large worms (subadults and adults) invest energy in production of cocoons at the expense of glycogen storage for cryoprotectant production, whereas juvenile worms increase their survival chances by investing energy in glycogen storage at the expense of growth as a preparation for winter.

  2. Freezing rate affects the survival of a short-term freezing stress in Panagrolaimus davidi, an Antarctic nematode that survives intracellular freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, D A; Goodall, G; Marshall, C J

    2002-01-01

    The ability of the Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi to survive a short-term freezing stress depended upon the rate of freezing of its surroundings, measured as the duration of the sample exotherm. The freezing rate increased as the sample volume and freezing temperature decreased and resulted in fewer nematodes surviving. This appears to be due to the greater risk of physical damage by ice crystal growth at high freezing rates. Once frozen the nematodes will then survive exposure to lower temperatures. The environment of the nematode is likely to produce the slow rate of freezing of its surroundings that is necessary for its survival. PMID:11912502

  3. Survival of intracellular freezing by the Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton; Ferns

    1995-01-01

    Animals are usually thought to survive ice formation in their bodies only if the ice is confined to the body cavity and to extracellular spaces. Intracellular ice formation is believed to be fatal. This conclusion is based on studies of the cryopreservation of mammalian cells. Intracellular freezing has been observed in some living insect cells but has not been observed in intact animals. Nematodes are transparent and so the location of ice in their bodies can be observed directly using a cryomicroscope stage. We have observed freezing and melting in all body compartments, including intracellular compartments, of the Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi. Inoculative freezing from the surrounding water occurs via the body openings, rather than across the cuticle; most frequently it occurs via the excretory pore. Individual nematodes that have frozen intracellularly will subsequently grow and reproduce in culture. Determining the mechanisms by which this nematode survives intracellular freezing could have important applications in the cryopreservation of a variety of biological materials. PMID:9319273

  4. The effects of mercuric chloride on survival, growth, reproduction, burrowing speed and glutathione concentrations in the earthworm species Eisenia fetida Savigny

    OpenAIRE

    Gudbrandsen,Marius

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The common compost earthworm Eisenia fetida was used for toxicity testing of mercury, in a well-characterized agricultural soil obtained from a local field (Ås, Norway). Groups of five or ten clitellate earthworms were exposed to various concentrations of mercury in soil, added in the form of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) in distilled water. The effects on survival, burrowing behaviour, reproduction, growth, and glutathione levels were recorded. Very low mercury concentration (0.22 m...

  5. The ability of the Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi to survive intracellular freezing is dependent upon nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Mélianie R; Wharton, David A

    2013-02-01

    The Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi is the best documented example of an animal surviving intracellular freezing and the only animal so far shown to survive such freezing throughout its tissues. However, a recent study found that after exposure to a freezing stress that produced intracellular freezing in a proportion of nematodes, the resulting survival levels could be explained if those nematodes that froze intracellularly had died. We have thus re-examined the survival of intracellular freezing in this nematode. The ability to survive a freezing exposure that is likely to produce intracellular freezing (freezing at -10 °C) declines with culture age. In cultures that are fed regularly, the ability to survive freezing at -10 °C increases, but in starved cultures freezing survival declines. Survival of intracellular freezing in fed cultures was confirmed using cryomicroscopy, staining of cells with vital dyes and by freeze substitution and transmission electron microscopy. We have thus confirmed that P. davidi can survive intracellular freezing and shown that this ability is dependent upon them being well fed. The effect of culture conditions on the nutrient status of the nematodes should thus be an important factor in the design of experiments. PMID:22836298

  6. Differential scanning calorimetry studies on an Antarctic nematode (Panagrolaimus davidi) which survives intracellular freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, D A; Block, W

    1997-03-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry was used to characterize thermal events associated with freezing and melting of suspensions and extracts of Panagrolaimus davidi, an Antarctic nematode which can survive intracellular freezing. Nematode suspensions produced a single freezing exotherm with a shoulder on the peak representing the freezing of the nematodes. A shoulder on the peak of melting endotherms indicates the melting of the nematodes and of the water surrounding them. Exotherms were also detected from individual nematodes mounted in liquid paraffin. The freezing of nematodes was very rapid and in marked contrast to that of freezing-tolerant insects and vertebrates, which take hours or days to freeze. Eighty-two percent of the nematodes' body water froze. High levels of survival were obtained in nematodes exposed to temperatures down to -40 degrees C. No additional thermal events were observed after the freezing event and before the melting of samples cooled to -40 degrees C, indicating no changes in the proportion of body water frozen. Ice nucleating activity is present in nematode suspensions but not in supernatants from nematode extracts. No thermal hysteresis activity was detected in nematode extracts. PMID:9130384

  7. Freezing survival and cryoprotective dehydration as cold tolerance mechanisms in the Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, David A; Goodall, Gordon; Marshall, Craig J

    2003-01-01

    The relative importance of freezing tolerance and cryoprotective dehydration in the Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi has been investigated. If nucleation of the medium is initiated at a high subzero temperature (-1 degree C), the nematodes do not freeze but dehydrate. This effect occurs in deionised water, indicating that the loss of water is driven by the difference in vapour pressure of ice and supercooled water at the same temperature. If the nematodes are held above their nucleation temperature for a sufficient time, or are cooled slowly, enough water is lost to prevent freezing (cryoprotective dehydration). However, if the medium is nucleated at lower temperatures or if the sample is cooled at a faster cooling rate, the nematodes freeze and can survive intracellular ice formation. P. davidi thus has a variety of mechanisms that ensure its survival in its harsh terrestrial Antarctic habitat. PMID:12477892

  8. Survival and recovery of Phaeocystis antarctica (Prymnesiophyceae) from prolonged darkness and freezing

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Kam W.; Smith, Walker O.; Shields, Amy R.; Elliott, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The colony-forming haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica is an important primary producer in the Ross Sea, and must survive long periods of darkness and freezing temperature in this extreme environment. We conducted experiments on the responses of P. antarctica-dominated phytoplankton assemblages to prolonged periods of darkness and freezing. Chlorophyll and photosynthetic capacity of the alga declined nonlinearly and independently of each other in the dark, and darkness alone would potentially r...

  9. Cold tolerance of an Antarctic nematode that survives intracellular freezing: comparisons with other nematode species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T; Wharton, D A; Marshall, C J

    2008-01-01

    Panagrolaimus davidi is an Antarctic nematode with very high levels of cold tolerance. Its survival was compared with that of some other nematodes (P. rigidus, Rhabditophanes sp., Steinernema carpocapsae, Panagrellus redivivus and Ditylenchus dipsaci) in both unacclimated samples and those acclimated at 5 degrees C. Levels of recrystallization inhibition in homogenates were also compared, using the splat-cooling assay. The survival of P. davidi after the freezing of samples was notably higher than that of the other species tested, suggesting that its survival ability is atypical compared to other nematodes. In general, acclimation improved survival. Levels of recrystallization inhibition were not associated with survival but such a relationship may exist for those species that are freezing tolerant. PMID:17712562

  10. Survival and Recovery of Phaeocystis Antarctica (Prymnesiophyceae) from Prolonged Darkness and Freezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The colony-forming haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica is an important primary producer in the Ross Sea, and must survive long periods of darkness and freezing in this extreme environment. We conducted experiments on the responses of P. antarctica-dominated phytoplankton assemblage...

  11. Survival of freezing by hydrated tardigrades inhabiting terrestrial and freshwater habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Roberto; Altiero, Tiziana; Bertolani, Roberto; Grazioso, Pasqualina; Rebecchi, Lorena

    2011-04-01

    The seasonality and unpredictability of environmental conditions at high altitudes and latitudes govern the life cycle patterns of organisms, giving rise to stresses that cause death or development of specific adaptations. Ice formation is a major variable affecting the survival of both freshwater fauna and fauna inhabiting lichens, mosses and leaf litter. Tardigrades occupy a wide range of niches in marine, freshwater and terrestrial environments. The highest number of species is found in terrestrial habitats thanks to their ability to enter anhydrobiosis and cryobiosis. The cryobiotic ability of tardigrade species from polar regions is well known. Consequently, we focused our research on the ability to survive freezing in the active hydrated state using seven tardigrade species differing in phylogenetic position and collected at various altitudes and from different habitats in a temperate area. Specimens were cooled at different cooling rates (from 0.31° C min(-1) to 3.26° C min(-1)). Even though the final survival and the time required by animals to recover to active life were both inversely related to the cooling rate, highly significant interspecific differences were found. Species survival ability ranged from excellent to none. Species living in xeric habitats withstood freezing better than those living in hygrophilous habitats, while true limnic species did not exhibit any cryobiotic ability. The ability to withstand freezing seems linked to the anhydrobiotic ability. The differences in cryptobiotic performance among tardigrade species seem more influenced by selective pressures linked to local adaptation to habitat characteristics than by phylogenetic relationships. PMID:21429723

  12. Survival and Growth of Epidemically Successful and Nonsuccessful Salmonella enterica Clones after Freezing and Dehydration.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Karoline; Aabo, SØren

    2012-01-01

    The spread of epidemically successful nontyphoidal Salmonella clones has been suggested as the most important cause of salmonellosis in industrialized countries. Factors leading to the emergence of success clones are largely unknown, but their ability to survive and grow after physical stress may contribute. During epidemiological studies, a mathematical model was developed that allowed estimation of a factor (q) accounting for the relative ability of Salmonella serovars with different antimicrobial resistances to survive in the food chain and cause human disease. Based on this q-factor, 26 Salmonella isolates were characterized as successful or nonsuccessful. We studied the survival and growth of stationary- and exponential-phase cells of these isolates after freezing for up to 336 days in minced meat. We also investigated survival and growth after dehydration at 10°C and 82% relative humidity (RH) and 25°C and 49% RH for 112 days. Stationary-phase cells were reduced by less than 1 log unit during 1 year of freezing, and growth was initiated with an average lag phase of 1.7 h. Survival was lower in exponentialphase cells, but lag phases tended to be shorter. High humidity and low temperature were less harmful to Salmonella than were low humidity and high temperature. Tolerance to adverse conditions was highest for Salmonella Infantis and one Salmonella Typhimurium U292 isolate and lowest for Salmonella Derby and one Salmonella Typhimurium DT170 isolate. Dehydration, in contrast to freezing, was differently tolerated by the Salmonella strains in this study, but tolerance to freezing and dehydration does not appear to contribute to the emergence of successful Salmonella clones.

  13. Improving survival and storage stability of bacteria recalcitrant to freeze-drying: a coordinated study by European culture collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiren, Jindrich; Buyse, Joke; De Vos, Paul; Lang, Elke; Clermont, Dominique; Hamon, Sylviane; Bégaud, Evelyne; Bizet, Chantal; Pascual, Javier; Ruvira, María A; Macián, M Carmen; Arahal, David R

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to improve the viability after freeze-drying and during storage of delicate or recalcitrant strains safeguarded at biological resource centers. To achieve this objective, a joint experimental strategy was established among the different involved partner collections of the EMbaRC project ( www.embarc.eu ). Five bacterial strains considered as recalcitrant to freeze-drying were subjected to a standardized freeze-drying protocol and to seven agreed protocol variants. Viability of these strains was determined before and after freeze-drying (within 1 week, after 6 and 12 months, and after accelerated storage) for each of the protocols. Furthermore, strains were exchanged between partners to perform experiments with different freeze-dryer-dependent parameters. Of all tested variables, choice of the lyoprotectant had the biggest impact on viability after freeze-drying and during storage. For nearly all tested strains, skim milk as lyoprotectant resulted in lowest viability after freeze-drying and storage. On the other hand, best freeze-drying and storage conditions were strain and device dependent. For Aeromonas salmonicida CECT 894(T), best survival was obtained when horse serum supplemented with trehalose was used as lyoprotectant, while Aliivibrio fischeri LMG 4414(T) should be freeze-dried in skim milk supplemented with marine broth in a 1:1 ratio. Freeze-drying Campylobacter fetus CIP 53.96(T) using skim milk supplemented with trehalose as lyoprotectant resulted in best recovery. Xanthomonas fragariae DSM 3587(T) expressed high viability after freeze-drying and storage for all tested lyoprotectants and could not be considered as recalcitrant. In contrary, Flavobacterium columnare LMG 10406(T) did not survive the freeze-drying process under all tested conditions. PMID:25773973

  14. Freeze tolerance, supercooling points and ice formation: comparative studies on the subzero temperature survival of limno-terrestrial tardigrades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengherr, S; Worland, M R; Reuner, A; Brümmer, F; Schill, R O

    2009-03-01

    Many limno-terrestrial tardigrades live in unstable habitats where they experience extreme environmental conditions such as drought, heat and subzero temperatures. Although their stress tolerance is often related only to the anhydrobiotic state, tardigrades can also be exposed to great daily temperature fluctuations without dehydration. Survival of subzero temperatures in an active state requires either the ability to tolerate the freezing of body water or mechanisms to decrease the freezing point. Considering freeze tolerance in tardigrades as a general feature, we studied the survival rate of nine tardigrade species originating from polar, temperate and tropical regions by cooling them at rates of 9, 7, 5, 3 and 1 degrees C h(-1) down to -30 degrees C then returning them to room temperature at 10 degrees C h(-1). The resulting moderate survival after fast and slow cooling rates and low survival after intermediate cooling rates may indicate the influence of a physical effect during fast cooling and the possibility that they are able to synthesize cryoprotectants during slow cooling. Differential scanning calorimetry of starved, fed and cold acclimatized individuals showed no intraspecific significant differences in supercooling points and ice formation. Although this might suggest that metabolic and biochemical preparation are non-essential prior to subzero temperature exposure, the increased survival rate with slower cooling rates gives evidence that tardigrades still use some kind of mechanism to protect their cellular structure from freezing injury without influencing the freezing temperature. These results expand our current understanding of freeze tolerance in tardigrades and will lead to a better understanding of their ability to survive subzero temperature conditions. PMID:19251996

  15. Effects of sugar alcohol and proteins on the survival of Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 during freeze drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 is a bacterium which was selected in the commercial yoghurt with high angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activity. Preparation of concentrated starter cultures via freeze drying is of practical importance to dairy and food industries. Material and methods. We optimized the optimal sugar alcohol and proteins for Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 during the process of freeze drying using a Plackett-Burman design. In our initial tests survival rate and the number of viable cells were associated with the type of lyoprotectant used and so our optimization protocol focused on increasing survival rate. Substances that had previously had a protective effect during freeze drying were investigated, for example: mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol, meso-erythritol, lactitol, whey protein isolate 90, bovine serum albumin, and whey protein concentrate 80 and soy protein isolate 70. Results. We found that the optimum sugar alcohol and proteins for survival of Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 were whey protein concentrate (p = 0.0040 for survival rate, xylitol (p = 0.0067 for survival rate and sorbitol (p = 0.0073 for survival rate, they showed positive effect (whey protein concentrate and sorbitol or negative effect (xylitol. Discussion. The effectiveness of three chosen sugar alcohols and protein implied that they could be used as lyoprotectant for Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 in the further research, the optimal composition of sugar alcohol and protein for the lyoprotectant use must be established.

  16. Earthworm Immunity.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bilej, Martin; Procházková, Petra; Šilerová, Marcela; Josková, Radka

    New York : Landes Biosciences and Springer Science +Business Media, 2010 - (Söderhäll, K.), 66-79 ISBN 978-1-4419-8058-8. - (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 708) R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/07/0378; GA AV ?R IAA600200704; GA MŠk 2B06155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : earthworms * immunity Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  17. Soil salinity increases survival of freezing in the enchytraeid Enchytraeus albidus.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Patrício Silva, A. L.; Holmstrup, M.; Koš?ál, Vladimír; Amorim, M. J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 216, ?. 14 (2013), s. 2732-2740. ISSN 0022-0949 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ice content * freeze tolerance * osmolality Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.002, year: 2013

  18. Anatomical regulation of ice nucleation and cavitation helps trees to survive freezing and drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintunen, A.; Hölttä, T.; Kulmala, M.

    2013-06-01

    Water in the xylem, the water transport system of plants, is vulnerable to freezing and cavitation, i.e. to phase change from liquid to ice or gaseous phase. The former is a threat in cold and the latter in dry environmental conditions. Here we show that a small xylem conduit diameter, which has previously been shown to be associated with lower cavitation pressure thus making a plant more drought resistant, is also associated with a decrease in the temperature required for ice nucleation in the xylem. Thus the susceptibility of freezing and cavitation are linked together in the xylem of plants. We explain this linkage by the regulation of the sizes of the nuclei catalysing freezing and drought cavitation. Our results offer better understanding of the similarities of adaption of plants to cold and drought stress, and offer new insights into the ability of plants to adapt to the changing environment.

  19. The effect of cryogenic freezing and gamma irradiation on the survival of Salmonella on frozen shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unfortunately, contraction of foodborne illness due to consumption of contaminated seafood, including shrimp, is an occasional occurrence. Cryogenic freezing and gamma irradiation are safe and effective technologies that can be used to control and inactivate pathogenic bacteria in foods. In this stu...

  20. Freeze tolerance and accumulation of cryoprotectants in the enchytraeid Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta) from Greenland and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slotsbo, Stine; Maraldo, Kristine

    2008-01-01

    The freeze tolerance and accumulation of cryoprotectants was investigated in three geographically different populations of the enchytraeid Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta). E. albidus is widely distributed from the high Arctic to temperate Western Europe. Our results show that E. albidus is freeze tolerant, with freeze tolerance varying extensively between Greenlandic and European populations. Two populations from sub Arctic (Nuuk) and high Arctic Greenland (Zackenberg) survived freezing at -15 degrees C, whereas only 30% of a German population survived this temperature. When frozen, E. albidus responded by catabolising glycogen to glucose, which likely acted as a cryoprotectant. The average glucose concentrations were similar in the three populations when worms were frozen at -2 degrees C, approximately 50 microg glucose mg(-1) tissue dry weight (DW). At -14 degrees C the glucose concentrations increased to between 110 and 170 microg mg(-1) DW in worms from Greenland. The average glycogen content of worms from Zackenberg and Nuuk were about 300 microg mg(-1) DW, but only 230 microg mg(-1) DW in worms from Germany showing that not all glycogen was catabolised during the experiment. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR) was used to screen for other putative cryoprotectants. Proline, glutamine and alanine were up regulated in frozen worms at -2 degrees C but only in relatively small concentrations suggesting that they were of little significance for freeze survival. The present study confirms earlier reports that freeze tolerant enchytraeids, like other freeze tolerant oligochaete earthworms, accumulate high concentrations of glucose as a primary cryoprotectant.

  1. Earthworms and Soil Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Tamae

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short review, we describe recent studies concerning the relationship between earthworms and soil pollutants, and discuss the possibility of using the earthworm as a bio-monitoring organism for soil pollution.

  2. Survival, Pb-uptake and behaviour of three species of earthworm in Pb treated soils determined using an OECD-style toxicity test and a soil avoidance test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mature (clitellate) Eisenia andrei Bouche (ultra epigeic), Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister (epigeic), and Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny) (endogeic) earthworms were placed in soils treated with Pb(NO3)2 to have concentrations in the range 1000 to 10 000 mg Pb kg-1. After 28 days LC50-95%confidencelimit+95%confidencelimit values were E. andrei5824-361+898 mg Pb kg-1, L. rubellus2867-193+145 mg Pb kg-1 and A. caliginosa2747-304+239 mg Pb kg-1 and EC50s for weight change were E. andrei2841-68+150 mg Pb kg-1, L. rubellus1303-201+240 mg Pb kg-1 and A. caliginosa1208-206+212 mg Pb kg-1. At any given soil Pb concentration, Pb tissue concentrations after 28 days were the same for all three earthworm species. In a soil avoidance test there was no difference between the behaviour of the different species. The lower sensitivity to Pb exhibited by E. andrei is most likely due to physiological adaptations associated with the modes of life of the earthworms, and could have serious implications for the use of this earthworm as the species of choice in standard toxicological testing.

  3. Earthworms and Soil Pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuyoshi Tamae; Takeshi Hirano

    2011-01-01

    Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short...

  4. Impact of different cryoprotectants on the survival of freeze-dried Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei/paracasei during long-term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofré, A; Aymerich, T; Garriga, M

    2015-01-01

    The production of long shelf-life highly concentrated dried probiotic/starter cultures is of paramount importance for the food industry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of glucose, lactose, trehalose, and skim milk applied alone or combined upon the survival of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679, Lactobacillus casei/paracasei CTC1677 and L. casei/paracasei CTC1678 during freeze-drying and after 39 weeks of storage at 4 and 22 °C. Immediately after freeze-drying, the percentage of survivors was very high (?94%) and only slight differences were observed among strains and cryoprotectants. In contrast, during storage, survival in the dried state depended on the cryoprotectant, temperature and strain. For all the protectants assayed, the stability of the cultures was remarkably higher when stored under refrigeration (4 °C). Under these conditions, skim milk alone or supplemented with trehalose or lactose showed the best performance (reductions ?0.9 log units after 39 weeks of storage). The lowest survival was observed during non-refrigerated storage and with glucose and glucose plus milk; no viable cells left at the end of the storage period. Thus, freeze-drying in the presence of appropriate cryoprotectants allows the production of long shelf-life highly concentrated dried cultures ready for incorporation in high numbers into food products as starter/potential probiotic cultures. PMID:25380798

  5. Infectivity of isolates of Trichinella and the ability of an arctic isolate to survive freezing temperatures in the raccoon, Procyon lotor, under experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, T A

    1983-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if the raccoon was a useful experimental animal for infections of Trichinella and to determine if the ability of Trichinella to survive freezing conditions, known to occur in wild animals, could be duplicated under laboratory conditions. The isolates of Trichinella used in this study were from pigs, polar bear, wolverine, arctic fox and T. spiralis var. pseudospiralis originally isolated from a raccoon in the USSR. The raccoon was found to be a useful experimental host for Trichinella as it was easily maintained under experimental conditions and was readily infected. Infectivity indices were lower in raccoons than in laboratory mice. Those isolates of Trichinella with the longest association with laboratory mice had the lowest infectivity indices. The isolate of Trichinella from an arctic fox retained its ability to survive freezing temperatures when introduced into raccoons held under experimental conditions. The type of host, method of passing the parasite and perhaps a special genetic characteristic of arctic isolates seem to be important factors influencing their ability to survive freezing temperatures. PMID:6644931

  6. Interaction of plant and earthworm during primary succession in heaps after coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubí?ková, Alena; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    These results of field manipulation experiment show that earthworms can remarkably influence vegetation succession on spoil heaps, namely promoting grasses and late succession species. This is in agreement with concurrent appearance of earthworms and some plant species typical for late-succession communities of meadows and forests aren't purely coincidental. On the other hand, facilitation of soil conditions by plant communities during succession is an important factor in earthworm distribution on the spoil heaps; earthworms showed a low survival on sites with sparse vegetation cover and thin litter layer, which means that their occurrence in certain stages of succession isn't determined only by migration abilities or passive dispersal. More field experiments are needed to test if earthworms could be used in directed succession management practices to speed up the natural rate of succession. Preliminary results from an experiment with introduction earthworms to a 20- year old, earthworm-free site indicate that colonization of this site from a single deposition of about 100 specimen of epigeic and 100 endogeic earthworms is slow and not very efficient. Results show that interaction between earthworm and vegetation are important in ecosystem development in post mining sites.

  7. The Resistance to Freeze-Drying and to Storage Was Determined as the Cellular Ability to Recover Its Survival Rate and Acidification Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Lognay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of the fatty acid composition and membrane action of the acidification activity of two strains of Lactobacillus kept at 20?C were studied. The addition of sorbitol, monosodium glutamate and glycerol during storage is causing the decline of acidification and increased concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids observed in both strains. The addition of sorbitol and monosodium glutamate does not alter the fatty acid composition, whatever the strain, but increases the resistance to freeze-drying of L. plantarum CWBI-B1419 and improves survival during storage. The addition of these preservatives and decreased activity of acidification improves the ratio unsaturated. These results indicate that the survival during storage and freeze-drying resistance are closely related to the composition of membrane fatty acids. This behaviour can be interpreted as an adaptation of L. plantarum B1419-CWBI supplemented by cryoprotectant additives such as sorbitol or monosodium glutamate sorbitol and monosodium glutamate as an additive. L. plantarum CWBI-B1419 presents a greater adaptation to culture conditions than L. paracasei ssp. paracasei LMG9192T.

  8. Exposure to extremely low frequency (50 Hz electromagnetic field changes the survival rate and morphometric characteristics of neurosecretory neurons of the earthworm Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta under illumination stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banova?ki Zorana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vivo model was set up to establish the behavioral stress response (rate of survival and morphometric characteristics of A1 protocerebral neurosecretory neurons (cell size of Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta as a result of the synergetic effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF - 50 Hz, 50 ?T, 17 V/m and 50 Hz, 150 ?T, 17 V/m, respectively and constant illumination (420-450 lux. If combined, these two stressors significantly (p<0.05 increased the survival rate of E. foetida in the 150 ?T-exposed animals, because of delayed caudal autotomy reflex, an indicator of stress response. In addition, morphometric analysis indicated that there were changes in the protocerebral neurosecretory cells after exposure to the ELF-EMF. The present data support the view that short-term ELF-EMF exposure in “windows” of intensity is likely to stimulate the immune and neuroendocrine response of E. foetida.

  9. Cryoprotectants are metabolic fuels during long term frost exposure in the earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    C. JØrgensen, Sofia; Overgaard, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Ectothermic animals that live in the subarctic and temperate regions must have strategies to deal with periods of frost during winter. The earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra is a freeze tolerant species that accumulates large concentrations of the cryoprotectant glucose upon ice formation in the extracellular fluid. This study investigates if D. octaedra metabolizes its primary cryoprotectant as an energy source when frozen for longer periods. In this study D. octaedra were exposed to frost at 2 °C for 47 days. The results clearly demonstrate a gradual decrease in the level of glucose and simultaneously an accumulation of lactate, alanine and succinate as a result of the continuous anaerobic metabolism. Freeze mortality (~ 30%) did not increase with time suggesting that the accumulation of waste products were not toxic to the worms. Instead dead worms were always characterised by low glucose and glycogen levels indicating that depletion of fermentable resources was the primary cause of death. Calorimetric measurements of metabolic rate showed a 15-fold metabolic depression in frozen versus unfrozen worms and this reduction in metabolic rate is clearly of importance for long term survival of frozen worms. On the basis of metabolic rate measurements we calculated that the “average” worms would be able to survive for a total of 83 days before the glucose storage becomes exhausted. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the large accumulations of glucose during frost may be more important as anaerobic fuel source than as a cryoprotectant.

  10. Production and utilization of earthworms as feeds for broilers in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barcelo P., M.

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the production of earthworms was conducted using a 50 : 50 by volume of animal manures in combination with Leucaena leucocephala. A combination of sawdust, rice hull and rice bran at a proportion of 55, 35 and 10 respectively was also used as a substrate. The earthworms in each box were supplemented with either 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 g kitchen scraps. On harvesting, hand picking the earthworms from the castings and arranging the contents of the box in a pyramid were tested. Blanching, direct heating, freezing and using an oven-drier were likewise tested on "killing" earthworms prior to drying. On broiler utilization, eighty four one-day old broiler chicks were fed with the six rations formulated where in 6 %, 10 % and 14 % levels of vermimeal and fish meal were used with the commercial mash as the control. Results revealed that goat manure in combination with Leucaena leucocephala with 100 to 400g feed supplement produced the highest gain and largest population. The pyramid method for harvesting and freezing for processing earthworms were found to be the best. Commercial broiler mash was significantly better than the home-mixed rations. In the home-mixed rations, 10 to 14 % levels of vermimeal were comparable to 6 % vermimeal and 6-10 % fish meal.

  11. Earthworm species, a searchable database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csuzdi, Cs.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The first earthworm species named was Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758. Since then, there were some 6000earthworm (Oligochaeta: Megadrili species names described, from which ca. 3000–3500 are valid. In order to help the orientation in such a huge amount of data a web-based database was created. Each record contains the basic data of the species names described; i.e. family, genus, specific epithet, author, year, reference to the original description and optionally the valid combination of the species name and deposition of type specimens. The database is searchable by every field mentioned and the resulted list can be arranged alphabetically.

  12. Comparison of earthworm responses to petroleum hydrocarbon exposure in aged field contaminated soil using traditional ecotoxicity endpoints and 1H NMR-based metabolomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1H NMR metabolomics and conventional ecotoxicity endpoints were used to examine the response of earthworms exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in soil samples collected from a site that was contaminated with crude oil from a pipeline failure in the mid-1990s. The conventional ecotoxicity tests showed that the soils were not acutely toxic to earthworms (average survival ?90%), but some soil samples impaired reproduction endpoints by >50% compared to the field control soil. Additionally, metabolomics revealed significant relationships between earthworm metabolic profiles (collected after 2 or 14 days of exposure) and soil properties including soil PHC concentration. Further comparisons by partial least squares regression revealed a significant relationship between the earthworm metabolomic data (collected after only 2 or 14 days) and the reproduction endpoints (measured after 63 days). Therefore, metabolomic responses measured after short exposure periods may be predictive of chronic, ecologically relevant toxicity endpoints for earthworms exposed to soil contaminants. -- Highlights: •Earthworm response to petroleum hydrocarbon exposure in soil is examined. •Metabolomics shows significant changes to metabolic profile after 2 days. •Significant relationships observed between metabolomic and reproduction endpoints. •Metabolomics may have value as a rapid screening tool for chronic toxicity. -- Earthworm metabolomic responses measured after 2 and 14 days are compared to traditional earthworm ecotoxicity endpoints (survival and reproduction) in petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil

  13. New records of earthworms (Oligochaeta) from Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Razafindrakoto, M.; Csuzdi, Cs; Rakotofiringa, S.; Blanchart, E.

    2010-01-01

    New records of earthworms from Madagascar are presented. This is the first taxonomic report on the earthwormfauna of Madagascar since the last paper of Michaelsen (1931). Altogether data on 14 peregrine earthworm species belonging tofive families are summarized. Together with the native taxa, 33 valid earthworm species have so far been recorded fromMadagascar of which 18 (55%) are endemic in the Island and 15 (45%) introduced.

  14. Ketahanan dan viabilitas probiotik bakteri asam laktat selama proses pembuatan kultur kering dengan metode freeze dan spray drying [Survival and Viability of Lactid Acid Bacteria Probiotic during production of Dried Culture Using Freeze and Spray Drying Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erni Harmayani 1

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Selection on 36 lactid aid bacteria isolate from various source (dadih, sausage, infant faces, gato, chinese leaf pickle, growol and yoghurt has been carried out based on their potency to reduce choresterol. Based on their ability to assimilate choresterol, conjugate bile solt, restency on bile salt and low pH, three isolates i.e. Lactobacillus sp. Dad 13, L. asidophillus D2 and L. plantarum Mut 7 have been chosen for further study. Viability of selected cultures during biomass production using coconut water with addition of 0.5% yeast extract, and during production of dried starter culture using freeze and spray dried were investigated. The results show that the growth patern of the three isolates selected were almost similar i.e. reaching maximum amount after 16 hours fermentation at 37°C. biomass production using coconut water produced 109 cfu/ml after 16-18 hours incubation at 37°C. decrease on viability after drying using freeze drier ranged between 0.5-2 log cycles, while that of storage of freeze dried culture during 4 weeks at -20°C caused descreasing in viability of 26-56%.

  15. Earthworm sublethal responses to titanium dioxide nanomaterial in soil detected by ¹H NMR metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield Åslund, Melissa L; McShane, Heather; Simpson, Myrna J; Simpson, André J; Whalen, Joann K; Hendershot, William H; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

    2012-01-17

    ¹H NMR-based metabolomics was used to examine the response of Eisenia fetida earthworms raised from juveniles for 20-23 weeks in soil spiked with either 20 or 200 mg/kg of a commercially available uncoated titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanomaterial (nominal diameter of 5 nm). To distinguish responses specific to particle size, soil treatments spiked with a micrometer-sized TiO(2) material (nominal diameter, toxicity for nanosized TiO(2). In contrast, a prior study had observed no impairment of E. fetida survival, reproduction, or growth following exposure to the same TiO(2) spiked soils. This suggests that (1)H NMR-based metabolomics provides a more sensitive measure of earthworm response to TiO(2) materials in soil and that further targeted assays to detect specific cellular or molecular level damage to earthworms caused by chronic exposure to TiO(2) are warranted. PMID:22148900

  16. Effects of antimicrobial coatings and cryogenic freezing on survival and growth of Listeria innocua on frozen ready-to-eat shrimp during thawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes could pose a health risk for frozen ready-to-eat (RTE) shrimp as the pathogen can grow following thawing. In this study, antimicrobial coating treatments alone, or in combination with cryogenic freezing, were evaluated for their ability to inhibit t...

  17. HOST CADAVERS PROTECT ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES DURING FREEZING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four species of insect-killing nematodes were exposed to freezing temperatures while inside their hosts. Survival was assessed by observing live and dead nematodes inside cadavers and by counting the infective juveniles (IJs) tht emerged after freezing. We 1) measured the effects of 24 hours of fr...

  18. Genetics of winter wheat response to two freezing treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inheritance of the ability of winter wheat plants to survive two kinds of freezing stress was investigated in a five-parent diallel cross. Plants were acclimated at +4°C for 5 wks and frozen with or without a –3°C, 16-hour pre-freezing (PF) period prior to freezing to damaging temperatures. The ...

  19. Reproductive and behavioral responses of earthworms exposed to nano-sized titanium dioxide in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Heather; Sarrazin, Manon; Whalen, Joann K; Hendershot, William H; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

    2012-01-01

    Nanometer-sized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO(2) ) is found in a number of commercial products; however, its effects on soil biota are largely unknown. In the present study, earthworms (Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida) were exposed to three types of commercially available, uncoated TiO(2) nanomaterials with nominal diameters of 5, 10, and 21?nm. Nanomaterials were characterized for particle size, agglomeration, surface charge, chemical composition, and purity. Standard lethality, reproduction, and avoidance tests, as well as a juvenile growth test, were conducted in artificial soil or field soil amended with nano-TiO(2) by two methods, liquid dispersion and dry powder mixing. All studies included a micrometer-sized TiO(2) control. Exposure to field and artificial soil containing between 200 and 10,000?mg nano-TiO(2) per kilogram of dry soil (mg/kg) had no significant effect (p?>?0.05) on juvenile survival and growth, adult earthworm survival, cocoon production, cocoon viability, or total number of juveniles hatched from these cocoons. However, earthworms avoided artificial soils amended with nano-TiO(2) . The lowest concentration at which avoidance was observed was between 1,000 and 5,000?mg nano-TiO(2) per kilogram of soil, depending on the TiO(2) nanomaterial applied. Furthermore, earthworms differentiated between soils amended with 10,000?mg/kg nano-TiO(2) and micrometer-sized TiO(2) . A positive relationship between earthworm avoidance and TiO(2) specific surface area was observed, but the relationship between avoidance and primary particle size was not determined because of the agglomeration and aggregation of nano-TiO(2) materials. Biological mechanisms that may explain earthworm avoidance of nano-TiO(2) are discussed. Results of the present study indicate that earthworms can detect nano-TiO(2) in soil, although exposure has no apparent effect on survival or standard reproductive parameters. PMID:21993953

  20. Effects of antimicrobial coatings and cryogenic freezing on survival and growth of Listeria innocua on frozen ready-to-eat shrimp during thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingming; Jin, Tony Z; Scullen, O Joseph; Sommers, Christopher H

    2013-08-01

    Foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes could pose a health risk on frozen ready-to-eat (RTE) shrimp as the pathogen could grow following thawing. In this study, antimicrobial-coating treatments alone, or in combination with cryogenic freezing, were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of Listeria innocua, a surrogate for L. monocytogenes, on RTE shrimp. Cooked RTE shrimp were inoculated with L. innocua at 3 population levels and treated with coating solutions consisting of chitosan, allyl isothiocyanate (AIT), or lauric arginate ester (LAE). The treated shrimp were then stored at -18 °C for 6 d before being thawed at 4, 10, or 22 °C for either 24 or 48 h. Results revealed that antimicrobial coatings achieved approximately 5.5 to 1 log CFU/g reduction of L. innocua on RTE shrimp after the treatments, depending on the inoculated population levels. The coating-treated shrimp samples had significantly (P < 0.05) less L. innocua than controls at each thawing temperature and time. Cryogenic freezing in combination with coating treatments did not achieve synergistic effects against L. innocua. Antimicrobial coatings can help to improve product safety by reducing Listeria on RTE shrimp. PMID:23957407

  1. Earthworms – good indicators for forest disturbance

    OpenAIRE

    YAHYA KOOCH; KATAYOUN HAGHVERDI

    2014-01-01

    In temperate forests, formation of canopy gaps by windthrow is a characteristic natural disturbance event. Little work has been done on the effects of canopy gaps on soil properties and fauna, especially earthworms as ecosystem engineers. We conducted a study to examine the reaction of earthworms (density/biomass) and different soil properties (i.e., soil moisture, pH, organic matter, total N, and available Ca) to different canopy gap areas in 25-ha areas of Liresar district beech forest loca...

  2. Biochemical diversity of betaines in earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebeke, Manuel [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bundy, Jacob G., E-mail: j.bundy@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: ? We develop a method for rapid untargetted analysis of betaines. ? We profile betaines in a comparative study of ten earthworm species. ? Earthworms contain a surprisingly high number of different betaine metabolites. ? Earthworms contain betaines normally seen only in plants or marine animals. -- Abstract: The ability to accumulate osmoprotectant compounds, such as betaines, is an important evolutionary feature in many organisms. This is particularly the case for organisms that live in variable environments, which may have fluctuations in moisture and salinity levels. There is, surprisingly, very little known about betaines in soil invertebrates in general, and there is almost no information about earthworms – a group that are important ‘ecosystem engineers’ and key indicators of soil health. Here, we describe a fast and reliable {sup 1}H–{sup 13}C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) 2D NMR approach for the metabolic profiling of a series of betaines and related metabolites in tissue extracts, and list {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C chemical shifts for the trimethylammonium signal for 23 such compounds. The analysis of ten different species from three different families (Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Glossoscolecidae) showed an unexpected diversity of betaines present in earthworms. In total ten betaines were identified, including hydroxyproline-betaine, proline-betaine, taurine-betaine, GABA-betaine and histidine-betaine, and a further eleven as-yet unassigned putative betaine metabolites detected. The findings clearly indicate a hitherto-unappreciated important role for betaine metabolism in earthworms.

  3. Biochemical diversity of betaines in earthworms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We develop a method for rapid untargetted analysis of betaines. ? We profile betaines in a comparative study of ten earthworm species. ? Earthworms contain a surprisingly high number of different betaine metabolites. ? Earthworms contain betaines normally seen only in plants or marine animals. -- Abstract: The ability to accumulate osmoprotectant compounds, such as betaines, is an important evolutionary feature in many organisms. This is particularly the case for organisms that live in variable environments, which may have fluctuations in moisture and salinity levels. There is, surprisingly, very little known about betaines in soil invertebrates in general, and there is almost no information about earthworms – a group that are important ‘ecosystem engineers’ and key indicators of soil health. Here, we describe a fast and reliable 1H–13C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) 2D NMR approach for the metabolic profiling of a series of betaines and related metabolites in tissue extracts, and list 1H and 13C chemical shifts for the trimethylammonium signal for 23 such compounds. The analysis of ten different species from three different families (Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Glossoscolecidae) showed an unexpected diversity of betaines present in earthworms. In total ten betaines were identified, including hydroxyproline-betaine, proline-betaine, taurine-betaine, GABA-betaine and histidine-betaine, and a further eleven as-yet unassigned putative betaine metabolites detected. The findings clearly indicate a hitherto-unappreciated important role for betaine metabolism in earthworms

  4. Bacterial Diversity in the Digestive Tract of Earthworms (Oligochaeta)

    OpenAIRE

    Hortensia Brito-Vega; David Espinosa-Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Anecic, epigeous and endogeous earthworms stimulate or inhibit the growth of bacteria of agricultural importance inside their digestive tracts. It is possible that these bacteria establish a mutual symbiosis within the digestive tract of the earthworm. The bacterial species reported within the intestines of the earthworms belong to the genuses Bacillus, Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Nocardia, Gordonia, Vibrio, Clostridium, Proteus, Serratia, Mycobacterium, Klebsiella, Azotob...

  5. Cold acclimation and cryoprotectants in a freeze-tolerant Antarctic nematode, Panagrolaimus davidi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, D A; Judge, K F; Worland, M R

    2000-06-01

    Panagrolaimus davidi is a freeze-tolerant Antarctic nematode which survives extensive intracellular freezing. This paper describes the development of culture techniques which provide clean samples, with a high degree of freeze tolerance and in sufficient quantities for the analysis of potential cryoprotectants. Cultures grown at 20 degrees C survived a short-term freezing stress but survival declined with the time spent frozen. Acclimation of cultures at 5 degrees C enhanced the long-term survival of freezing. Starvation, however, reduced the nematode's ability to survive short-term freezing. The principal cryoprotectants detected by gas chromatography were trehalose and glycerol. The levels of trehalose, but not those of glycerol, increased significantly after acclimation. Trehalose may stabilise membranes and protect them against the dehydrating effects of the osmotic stresses resulting from freeze concentration effects but other factors, such as recrystallisation inhibition, may be involved in long-term survival. PMID:10935523

  6. Earthworms and their Nephridial Symbionts: Co-diversification and Maintenance of the Symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie Braad; Holmstrup, Martin

    Earthworms harbor in their nephridia (excretory organs) symbiotic bacteria which densely colonize a specific part of the nephridia, called the ampulla [1]. The symbiosis is species-specific and the symbionts form their own monophyletic genus Verminephrobacter (?-proteobacteria) [2] and are vertically transmitted [3]. For these reasons we hypothesized that the earthworm-Verminephrobacter association evolved by co-diversification. This hypothesis was investigated by a comparison of earthworm and symbiont phylogenies. The earthworm phylogeny was based on Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and Histone H3 and the symbiont phylogeny was based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and RNA polymerase ? subunit (rpoB). The phylogenies were found to be largely congruent, however, leaving possibility for horizontal symbiont transfer events. In addition symbiont losses have occurred. The overall congruency suggests that the symbiosis has been stably maintained over evolutionary time dating back to the last common lumbricid earthworm ancestor. How this evolutionarily stable association is maintained is unknown; symbiont-free worms can be reared in lab culture and therefore the symbionts are not essential to the survival of the worms, but at the same time the symbionts are consistently found in almost all Lumbricid worm species. The symbionts have been hypothesized to be proteolytically active during excretion, thereby enhancing the earthworm’s absorption of nitrogenous compounds otherwise lost in the urine; such protein recycling should therefore increase worm fitness under nitrogen-limited conditions [4]. To test this hypothesis we conducted a comparative fitness study of worms with and without symbionts; the worms were grown in soil and fed with either a nitrogen-rich or a nitrogen-poor diet. The experiment showed no significant differences in growth rate and fecundity between symbiotic and aposymbiotic worms. Thus the symbionts do not appear to have an effect on worm fitness, under growth conditions tested. The underlying functional and maintaining mechanisms of this symbiosis remain a conundrum. [1] Knop,J. 1926. Z Morph Ökol Tiere, 6(3):588-624. [2] Schramm,A. et al. 2003. Environ Microbiol 5(9):804-809. [3] Davidson,S.K. & Stahl,D.A. 2006. Appl Environ Microbiol 72(1):769-775. [4] Pandazis,G. 1931. Zentralbl Bakteriol 120:440-453.

  7. Autofluorescence in eleocytes of some earthworm species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara P?ytycz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Immunocompetent cells of earthworms, coelomocytes, comprise adherent amoebocytes and granular eleocytes (chloragocytes. Both cell populations can be expelled via dorsal pores of adult earthworms by exposure to an electric current (4.5 V for 1 min. Analysis by phase contrast/fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry demonstrated that eleocyte population of several species exhibits a strong autofluorescence. A high percentage (11-35% of autofluorescent eleocytes was recorded in Allolobophora chlorotica, Dendrodrilus rubidus, Eisenia fetida, and Octolasion sp. (O. cyaneum, O. tyrtaeum tyrtaeum and O. tyrtaeum lacteum. In contrast, autofluorescent coelomocytes were exceptionally scarce (less than 1% in representative Aporrectodea sp. (A. caliginosa and A. longa and Lumbricus sp. (L. castaneus, L. festivus, L. rubellus, L. terrestris. Thus, this paper for the first time describes profound intrinsic fluorescence of eleocytes in some--but not all--earthworm species. The function (if any and inter-species differences of the autofluorescent coelomocytes still remain elusive.

  8. Productivity Potentials and Nutritional Values of Semi-arid Zone Earthworm (Hyperiodrilus euryaulos; Clausen, 1967 Cultured in Organic Wastes as Fish Meal Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Sogbesan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study 60 Adult Earthworms (H. euryaulos of weight and length range 1.7-3.0 g (mean-2.34±0.91 g and 13.0-28.0 cm (mean-21.5±5.8 cm, respectively were cultured for 12 weeks. The productivity potential and nutrient composition of earthworm (H. euryaulos cultured in two rearing substrata (Cellulose Substrate (Control - Coded Hs1 and Dry Neem and leaves and soil Substrate - Coded Hs2 were assessed using six wooden boxes stocked in triplicates at the rate of 92.7 g earthworms per box. The higher total final weight, weekly weight gain, relative growth rate, specific growth rate and survival of 400.6 g kg-1 of substrate, 25.7 g/week/substrate, 332.5, 0.76/day and 99.0% while the lower of 367.5 g kg-1 of substrate, 22.9 g/week, 296.4, 0.71/day and 98.0% were recorded in earthworm cultured in cellulose substrate and the soil substrate respectively. The proximate analyses, mineral compositions and amino acids indices were comparable to those of conventional fish meal. Based on the results of this study, the utilization of cellulose substrate is recommended for the culture of earthworm and the inclusion of the earthworm meal is guarantee as a reliable and nutritional dependable fish meal supplement.

  9. Correlations between Lumbricus terrestris survival and gut microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut Rudi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The interplay between diet, gut bacteria and health still remain enigmatic. Here, we addressed this issue through the investigation of the effect of crystalline cellulose on the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris gut microbiota composition and survival. Methods : Earthworm gut contents were analyzed after 14 days of feeding using a mixed 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach, in addition to direct measurements of cellulase activity. The survival of earthworms was followed each week for 17 weeks. Results : We found a tendency that the crystalline cellulose fed earthworms survived better than the high energy fed earthworms (p=0.08. Independent of feeding we found that the bacterial group related to Ferrimonadaceae was correlated to an increased lifespan (p=0.01. We also found a positive correlation between Ruminococcaceae related bacteria and cellulase activity in the earthworm gut (p=0.05. Surprisingly, however, the cellulase activity was not correlated to the feeding regime. Conclusion : Taken together, the interactions between diet, gut microbiota and lifespan seem complex.

  10. Visualization of enzyme activities inside earthworm pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Duyen; Razavi, Bahar S.

    2015-04-01

    In extremely dynamic microhabitats as bio-pores made by earthworm, the in situ enzyme activities are assumed as a footprint of complex biotic interactions. Our study focused on the effect of earthworm on the enzyme activities inside bio-pores and visualizing the differences between bio-pores and earthworm-free soil by zymography technique (Spohn and Kuzyakov, 2013). For the first time, we aimed at quantitative imaging of enzyme activities in bio-pores. Lumbricus terrestris L. was placed into transparent box (15×20×15cm). After two weeks when bio-pore systems were formed by earthworms, we visualized in situ enzyme activities of five hydrolytic enzymes (?-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, chitinase, xylanase, leucine-aminopeptidase, and phosphatase. Zymography showed higher activity of ?-glucosidase, chitinase, xylanase and phosphatase in biopores comparing to bulk soil. However, the differences in activity of cellobiohydrolase and leucine aminopeptidase between bio-pore and bulk soil were less pronounced. This demonstrated an applicability of zymography approach to monitor and to distinguish the in situ activity of hydrolytic enzymes in soil biopores.

  11. Earthworm asemblages in variously managed cattle pastures.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav

    ?eské Bud?jovice : Institute of Soil Biology, BC ASCR, 2013. s. 39. ISBN 978-80-86525-23-5. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /12./. 08.04.2013-11.04.2013, ?eské Bud?jovice] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : earthworm assemblages * cattle pasture Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  12. Bacterial Diversity in the Digestive Tract of Earthworms (Oligochaeta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hortensia Brito-Vega

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Anecic, epigeous and endogeous earthworms stimulate or inhibit the growth of bacteria of agricultural importance inside their digestive tracts. It is possible that these bacteria establish a mutual symbiosis within the digestive tract of the earthworm. The bacterial species reported within the intestines of the earthworms belong to the genuses Bacillus, Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Nocardia, Gordonia, Vibrio, Clostridium, Proteus, Serratia, Mycobacterium, Klebsiella, Azotobacte and Enterobacter. These bacteria inhabit the soil and develop considerably when there are easily degradable organic soil nutrients. The bacterial community inside the digestive tract of earthworms pertains to at least four physiological groups: plant growth promoters, free-living nitrogen fixers, biocides and phosphate solubilizers. The diversity of bacterial communities within the digestive tracts of earthworms depends on climate, soil type and organic matter. The objective of this present study was to analyze the state of art on the bacterial diversity within the digestive tracts of earthworms.

  13. Activity of earthworm in Latosol under simulated acid rain stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-En; Yu, Jiayu; Ouyang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Acid rain is still an issue of environmental concerns. This study investigated the impacts of simulated acid rain (SAR) upon earthworm activity from the Latosol (acidic red soil). Laboratory experiment was performed by leaching the soil columns grown with earthworms (Eisenia fetida) at the SAR pH levels ranged from 2.0 to 6.5 over a 34-day period. Results showed that earthworms tended to escape from the soil and eventually died for the SAR at pH = 2.0 as a result of acid toxicity. The catalase activity in the earthworms decreased with the SAR pH levels, whereas the superoxide dismutases activity in the earthworms showed a fluctuate pattern: decreasing from pH 6.5 to 5.0 and increasing from pH 5.0 to 4.0. Results implied that the growth of earthworms was retarded at the SAR pH ? 3.0. PMID:25351717

  14. Diversity of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae in Sofia Plain, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A rich earthworm material from 47 different localities in Sofia Plain has been elaborated. During the investigations between the years 2010 and 2013, thirteen earthworm species and subspecies were collected altogether, belonging to seven genera. Among them, three new records are reported. Aporrectodea longa (Ude, 1885, Eisenia lucens (Waga, 1857 and Octodrilus transpadanus (Rosa, 1884 proved to be new to the earthworm fauna of Sofia plain.

  15. Freezing of living cells: mechanisms and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur, P.

    1984-01-01

    Cells can endure storage at low temperatures such as -196/sup 0/C for centuries. The challenge is to determine how they can survive both the cooling to such temperatures and the subsequent return to physiological conditions. A major factor is whether they freeze intracellularly. They do so if cooling is too rapid, because with rapid cooling insufficient cell water is removed osmotically to eliminate supercooling. Equations have been developed that describe the kinetics of this water loss and permit one to predict the likelihood of intracellular freezing as a function of cooling rate. Such predictions agree well with observations. Although the avoidance of intracellular freezing is usually necessary for survival, it is not sufficient. Slow freezing itself can be injurious. As ice forms outside the cell, the residual unfrozen medium forms channels of decreasing size and increasing solute concentration. The cells lie in the channels and shrink in osmotic response to the rising solute concentration. Prior theories have ascribed slow freezing injury to the concentration of solutes or the cell shrinkage. Recent experiments, however, indicate that the damage is due more to the decrease in the size of the unfrozen channels. This new view of the mechanism of slow freezing injury ought to facilitate the development of procedures for the preservation of complex assemblages of cells of biological, medical, and agricultural significance. 126 references, 18 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Root foraging influences plant growth responses to earthworm foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Erin K; Cahill, James F; Bayne, Erin M

    2014-01-01

    Interactions among the foraging behaviours of co-occurring animal species can impact population and community dynamics; the consequences of interactions between plant and animal foraging behaviours have received less attention. In North American forests, invasions by European earthworms have led to substantial changes in plant community composition. Changes in leaf litter have been identified as a critical indirect mechanism driving earthworm impacts on plants. However, there has been limited examination of the direct effects of earthworm burrowing on plant growth. Here we show a novel second pathway exists, whereby earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) impact plant root foraging. In a mini-rhizotron experiment, roots occurred more frequently in burrows and soil cracks than in the soil matrix. The roots of Achillea millefolium L. preferentially occupied earthworm burrows, where nutrient availability was presumably higher than in cracks due to earthworm excreta. In contrast, the roots of Campanula rotundifolia L. were less likely to occur in burrows. This shift in root behaviour was associated with a 30% decline in the overall biomass of C. rotundifolia when earthworms were present. Our results indicate earthworm impacts on plant foraging can occur indirectly via physical and chemical changes to the soil and directly via root consumption or abrasion and thus may be one factor influencing plant growth and community change following earthworm invasion. More generally, this work demonstrates the potential for interactions to occur between the foraging behaviours of plants and soil animals and emphasizes the importance of integrating behavioural understanding in foraging studies involving plants. PMID:25268503

  17. Effect of repeated freeze-thaw cycles on geographically different populations of the freeze-tolerant worm Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisker, Karina Vincents; Holmstrup, Martin; Malte, Hans; Overgaard, Johannes

    2014-11-01

    Freeze-tolerant organisms survive internal ice formation; however, the adaptations to repeated freeze-thaw cycles are often not well investigated. Here we report how three geographically different populations of Enchytraeus albidus (Germany, Iceland and Svalbard) respond to three temperature treatments - constant thawed (0°C), constant freezing (-5°C) and fluctuating temperature (0 to -5°C) - over a period of 42 days. Survival varied between treatments and populations such that enchytraeids from arctic locations had a higher survival following prolonged freeze periods compared with temperate populations. However, enchytraeids from temperate locations had the same survival rate as arctic populations when exposed to repeated freeze-thaw events. Across all populations, metabolic rate decreased markedly in frozen animals (-5°C) compared with thawed controls (0°C). This decrease is likely due to the lower temperature of frozen animals, but also to the transition to the frozen state per se. Animals exposed to repeated freeze-thaw events had an intermediate metabolic rate and freeze-thaw events were not associated with pronounced excess energetic costs. Overwintering under either condition was not associated with a decrease in lipid content; however, during exposure to constant freezing and repeated freeze-thaw events there was a noticeable decrease in carbohydrate stores over time. Thus, animals exposed to constant freezing showed a decrease in glycogen stores, while both glucose and glycogen content decreased over time when the organisms were exposed to repeated freezing. The results therefore suggest that carbohydrate resources are important as a fuel for E. albidus during freezing whereas lipid resources are of marginal importance. PMID:25214492

  18. Strategies for exploration of freeze responsive gene expression: advances in vertebrate freeze tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Kenneth B

    2004-04-01

    Winter survival for many cold-blooded species involves freeze tolerance, the capacity to endure the freezing of a high percentage of total body water as extracellular ice. The wood frog (Rana sylvatica) is the primary model animal used for studies of vertebrate freeze tolerance and current studies in my lab are focused on the freeze-induced changes in gene expression that support freezing survival. Using cDNA library screening, we have documented the freeze-induced up-regulation of a number of genes in wood frogs including both identifiable genes (fibrinogen, ATP/ADP translocase, and mitochondrial inorganic phosphate carrier) and novel proteins (FR10, FR47, and Li16). All three novel proteins share in common the presence of hydrophobic regions that may indicate that they have an association with membranes, but apart from that each shows unique tissue distribution patterns, stimulation by different signal transduction pathways and responses to two of the component stresses of freezing, anoxia, and dehydration. The new application of cDNA array screening technology is opening up a whole new world of possibilities in the search for molecular mechanisms that underlie freezing survival. Array screening of hearts from control versus frozen frogs hints at the up-regulation of adenosine receptor signaling for the possible mediation of metabolic rate suppression, hypoxia inducible factor mediated adjustments of anaerobic metabolism, natriuretic peptide regulation of fluid dynamics, enhanced glucose transporter capacity for cryoprotectant accumulation, defenses against the accumulation of advanced glycation end products, and improved antioxidant defenses as novel parts of natural freeze tolerance that remain to be explored. PMID:15094090

  19. Ecological transfer of radionuclides and metals to free-living earthworm species in natural habitats rich in NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena, E-mail: jelena.mrdakovic.popic@umb.no; Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis

    2012-01-01

    Transfer of radionuclides ({sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U) and associated metals (As, Cd, Pb and Cr) from soil to free-living earthworm species was investigated in a thorium ({sup 232}Th) rich area in Norway. Sampling took place within former mining sites representing the technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM), at undisturbed site with unique bedrock geology representing the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and at site outside the {sup 232}Th rich area taken as reference Background site. Soil analysis revealed the elevated levels of investigated elements at NORM and TENORM sites. Based on sequential extraction, uranium ({sup 238}U) and cadmium (Cd) were quite mobile, while the other elements were strongly associated with mineral components of soil. Four investigated earthworm species (Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Dendrodrilus rubidus and Lumbricus rubellus) showed large individual variability in the accumulation of radionuclides and metals. Differences in uptake by epigeic and endogeic species, as well as differences within same species from the NORM, TENORM and Background sites were also seen. Based on total concentrations in soil, the transfer factors (TF) were in ranges 0.03-0.08 and 0.09-0.25, for {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, respectively. TFs for lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) were low (less than 0.5), while TFs for Cd were higher (about 10). Using the ERICA tool, the estimated radiation exposure dose rate of the earthworms ranged from 2.2 to 3.9 {mu}Gy/h. The radiological risk for investigated earthworms was low (0.28). The obtained results demonstrated that free-living earthworm species can survive in soil containing elevated {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, as well As, Cd, Pb and Cr levels, although certain amount of radionuclides was accumulated within their bodies. The present investigation contributes to general better understanding of complex soil-to-biota transfer processes of radionuclides and metals and to assessment of risk for non-human species in the ecosystem with multiple contaminants. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transfer of radionuclides ({sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U) and metals (As, Cr, Cd and Pb) from soil to earthworms was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Individual organisms' variability and species specific accumulation were demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results suggested that earthworms could survive in habitats with multiple contaminants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estimated radiological risk was not significant despite high soil concentrations of radionuclides.

  20. Freezing and cryoprotective dehydration in an Antarctic nematode (Panagrolaimus davidi) visualised using a freeze substitution technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, D A; Downes, M F; Goodall, G; Marshall, C J

    2005-02-01

    The pattern of ice formation during the freezing of Panagrolaimus davidi, an Antarctic nematode that can survive intracellular ice formation, was visualised using a freeze substitution technique and transmission electron microscopy. Nematodes plunged directly into liquid nitrogen had small ice crystals throughout their tissues, including nuclei and organelles, but did not survive. Those frozen at high subzero temperatures showed three patterns of ice formation: no ice, extracellular ice, and intracellular ice. Nematodes subjected to a slow-freezing regime (at -1 degrees C) had mainly extracellular ice (70.4%), with the bulk of the ice in the pseudocoel. Some (24.8%) had no ice within their bodies, due to cryoprotective dehydration. Nematodes subjected to a fast-freezing regime (at -4 degrees C) had intracellular (54%) and extracellular (42%) ice. Intracellular ice was confined to the cytoplasm of cells, with organelles in the spaces in between ice crystals. The survival of nematodes subjected to the fast-freezing regime (53%) was less than those subjected to the slow-freezing regime (92%). PMID:15710366

  1. Gene Expression Analysis of CL-20-induced Reversible Neurotoxicity Reveals GABAA Receptors as Potential Target in the Earthworm Eisenia fetida

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Ping; Guan, Xin; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Liang, Chun; Perkins, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    The earthworm Eisenia fetida is one of the most used species in standardized soil ecotoxicity tests. Endpoints such as survival, growth and reproduction are eco-toxicologically relevant but provide little mechanistic insight into toxicity pathways, especially at the molecular level. Here we applied a toxicogenomic approach to investigate the mode of action underlying the reversible neurotoxicity of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), a cyclic nitroamine explosives compound. We developed an...

  2. Checklist of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmitz, Ricarda; Römbke, Jörg; Jänsch, Stephan; Krück, Stefanie; Beylich, Anneke; Graefe, Ulfert

    2014-01-01

    A checklist of the German earthworm fauna (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) is presented, including published data, data from reports, diploma- and PhD- theses as well as unpublished data from museum collections, research institutions and private persons. Overall, 16,000 datasets were analyzed to produce the first German checklist of Lumbricidae. The checklist comprises 46 earthworm species from 15 genera and provides ecological information, zoogeographical distribution type and information on the species distribution in Germany. Only one species, Lumbricus badensis Michaelsen, 1907, is endemic to Germany, whereas 41% are peregrine. As there are 14 species occurring exclusively in the southern or eastern part of Germany, the species numbers in German regions increase from north to south. PMID:25283656

  3. Effects of historic metal(loid) pollution on earthworm communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévêque, Thibaut; Capowiez, Yvan; Schreck, Eva; Mombo, Stéphane; Mazzia, Christophe; Foucault, Yann; Dumat, Camille

    2015-04-01

    The effects of metal(loid)s (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, As and Sb) from atmospheric fallout on earthworm communities were investigated in a fallow meadow located close to a 60-year-old lead recycling factory. We examined abundance and species diversity as well as the ratio of adult-to-juvenile earthworms, along five 140 m parallel transects. The influence of soil pollution on the earthworm community at the plot scale was put in context by measuring some physico-chemical soil characteristics (OM content, N content, pH), as well as total and bioavailable metal(loid) concentrations. Earthworms were absent in the highly polluted area (concentration from 30,000 to 5000 mg Pb·kg(-1) of dried soil), just near the factory (0-30 m area). A clear and almost linear relationship was observed between the proportion of juvenile versus mature earthworms and the pollution gradient, with a greater proportion of adults in the most polluted zones (only adult earthworms were observed from 30 to 50 m). Apporectodea longa was the main species present just near the smelter (80% of the earthworms were A. longa from 30 to 50 m). The earthworm density was found to increase progressively from five individuals·m(-2) at 30 m to 135 individuals·m(-2) at 140 m from the factory. On average, metal(loid) accumulation in earthworm tissues decreased linearly with distance from the factory. The concentration of exchangeable metal(loid)s in earthworm surface casts was higher than that of the overall soil. Finally, our field study clearly demonstrated that metal(loid) pollution has a direct impact on earthworm communities (abundance, diversity and proportion of juveniles) especially when Pb concentrations in soil were higher than 2050 mg·kg(-1). PMID:25616191

  4. Earthworm communities in central European beech forests.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav

    ?eské Bud?jovice : ISB BC AS CR, 2007, s. 103-107. ISBN 978-80-86525-08-2. [Contributions to Soil Zoology in Central Europe II. Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /8./. ?eské Bud?jovice (CZ), 20.04.2005-22.04.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : earthworms * communities * beech forests Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  5. The sub-lethal effects of repeated freezing in the woolly bear caterpillar Pyrrharctia isabella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Katie E; Sinclair, Brent J

    2011-04-01

    Repeated freeze-thaw cycles are common and are increasing in frequency with climate change in many temperate locations, yet understanding of their impact on freeze-tolerant insects is extremely limited. We investigated the effects of repeated freezing and thawing on the freeze-tolerant final instar caterpillars of the moth Pyrrharctia isabella (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) by subjecting individuals to either a single sustained 35 h freeze or five 7 h freezes. Sub-lethal effects were quantified with changes in three broad groups of measures: (1) cold hardiness, (2) metabolic rate and energy reserves and (3) survival after challenge with fungal spores. Repeated freeze-thaw cycles increased mortality to almost 30% and increased tissue damage in Malpighian tubules and hemocytes. Repeated freezing increased caterpillar glycerol concentration by 0.82 mol l(-1). There were no changes in metabolic rate or energy reserves with repeated freezing. For the first time, we report increased survival after immune challenge in caterpillars after freezing and suggest that this may be linked to wounding during freezing. We suggest that little repair of freezing damage is possible in P. isabella caterpillars and repeated freeze-thaw cycles may present significant challenges to survival in this species. PMID:21389206

  6. Gene Expression Analysis of CL-20-induced Reversible Neurotoxicity Reveals GABAA Receptors as Potential Target in the Earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ping; Guan, Xin; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Liang, Chun; Perkins, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    The earthworm Eisenia fetida is one of the most used species in standardized soil ecotoxicity tests. Endpoints such as survival, growth and reproduction are eco-toxicologically relevant but provide little mechanistic insight into toxicity pathways, especially at the molecular level. Here we applied a toxicogenomic approach to investigate the mode of action underlying the reversible neurotoxicity of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), a cyclic nitroamine explosives compound. We developed an E. fetida-specific shotgun microarray targeting 15119 unique E. fetida transcripts. Using this array we profiled gene expression in E. fetida in response to exposure to CL-20. Eighteen earthworms were exposed for 6 days to 0.2 ?g/cm2 of CL-20 on filter paper, half of which were allowed to recover in a clean environment for 7 days. Nine vehicle control earthworms were sacrificed at day 6 and 13, separately. Electrophysiological measurements indicated that the conduction velocity of earthworm medial giant nerve fiber decreased significantly after 6-day exposure to CL-20, but was restored after 7 days of recovery. Total RNA was isolated from the four treatment groups including 6-day control, 6-day exposed, 13-day control and 13-day exposed (i.e. 6-day exposure followed by 7-day recovery), and was hybridized to the 15K shot-gun oligo array. Statistical and bioinformatic analyses suggest that CL-20 initiated neurotoxicity by non-competitively blocking the ligand-gated GABAA receptor ion channel, leading to altered expression of genes involved in GABAergic, cholinergic, and Agrin-MuSK pathways. In the recovery phase, expression of affected genes returned to normality, possibly as a result of autophagy and CL-20 dissociation/metabolism. This study provides significant insights into potential mechanisms of CL-20-induced neurotoxicity and the recovery of earthworms from transient neurotoxicity stress. PMID:22191394

  7. Response of Different Strains of Enterococcus faecalis to UV Inactivation after Freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Response of two strains of Enterococcus faecalis bacteria, ATCC strain 29212 and ATCC strain 51299 (vancomycin resistant to UV inactivation after survived freezing treatment was examined. The test microorganisms were frozen at -7 °C, -15 °C or -30 °C with one, three or five freeze and thaw cycles prior to UV irradiation to investigate the effect of freezing temperature and freeze thaw cycles on the efficacy of UV inactivation. Experimental results suggest that freezing influenced the response of Enterococcus faecalis cells to UV irradiation. Freezing treated cells behaved differently compared to those had not frozen.

  8. Comparative efficacy of three epigeic earthworms under different deciduous forest litters decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, M C; Jha, S; Ghosh, P K; Acharya, C L

    2003-07-01

    An experiment was conducted during 1998-1999, in a deciduous forest located in the semi-arid tropics of central India, to evaluate the suitability of different forest litters as food material for the tropical epigeic earthworms i.e. Eisenia fetida (Savigny), Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) and Dicogaster bolaui (michaelsen). The aim was to examine the influence of these earthworms on the decomposition processes of three types of forest litters i.e. Tectona grandis (teak), Madhuca indica (mahua) and Butea monosperma (palas), on the maintenance of quality in a vermicomposting system, and to assess the effect of applications of in situ prepared vermicomposts on the growth of forest trees. The results indicated that T. grandis litter was the most suitable food material for the earthworms possibly because it contained high reserves of mineral nutrients. Comparisons of the survival and reproduction rates of the three epigeic earthworm species indicated that a higher reproduction rate was maintained for E. fetida compared to P. excavatus and D. bolaui in the decomposition of these forest litters. The rates of growth and population increases of E. fetida approximately doubled after 12 weeks of litter decomposition. The litter decomposition process was associated strongly with the quality of the materials and their chemical composition. Irrespective of earthworm inoculations, the levels of available nutrient such as NH(4)-N, NO(3)-N, available P and K increased significantly (pgrandis litter compost>M. indica litter compost>B. monosperma litter compost. The mature decomposed litter had lower C/N ratios (11.3-24.8:1), water-soluble carbon (0.30-0.58%), water-soluble carbohydrates (0.35-0.71%) and larger cation exchange capacity/total organic carbon ratios than the values in the parent forest litter. The lignin content increased with maturation with a concomitant decrease in cellulose resulting in higher lignin/cellulose ratios. Application of all three vermicomposts to forest trees significantly improved their heights and diameters over those of control trees, although the increases were lower than those resulting from the chemical fertilizer applications. However, soil biological activities i.e. soil respiration, soil microbial biomass carbon and dehydrogenase activity were greater by application of vermicomposts over that after application of inorganic fertilizer in a new plantation of T. grandis. PMID:12618041

  9. Multi-element analyses of earthworms for radioecology and ecotoxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing concern about environmental radiation protection has raised awareness that more information is required on the transfer and accumulation of radionuclides in the biological compartments of ecosystems. ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) selected earthworm as one of the reference organisms in their radiation protection recommendations. Earthworms play an important role in ecosystems, and might be a good indicator of soil contamination and its effect on the ecosystem. The elemental composition of earthworms gives useful information on background levels and possible accumulation of metals as well as related radionuclides. In addition, a change of the elemental composition itself might be a possible indicator of the effect on the earthworm and/or ecosystem. However, data for the elemental composition of earthworms are limited except for some specific heavy metals such as Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. In this study, earthworms and their growth media were analyzed for more than 30 elements, including radionuclide related elements such as Cs, Sr, Th and U, in order to obtain the basic information on the transfer parameters of the elements. The earthworms analyzed were fed in the laboratory or collected in the environment. The concentrations and transfer factors of the elements were determined both for laboratory and natural conditions. The controlling factors on the transfer parameters such as the bioavailability of the elements in the soils will also be discussed. (author)

  10. Status, Trends, and Advances in Earthworm Research and Vermitechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this special issue reflect the developments in the fields of earthworm research and vermitechnology. Charles Darwins observation on earthworms is a milestone in understanding the soil biology and enormous contribution to some aspects of the genesis of humus and of its role in soils. Earthworms are the best known soil inhabiting animals commonly called friends of farmers due to the beneficial role they play in soil. The research on earthworms has gained importance in India as well as in other countries. In the year 1981, an international symposium entitled Earthworm Ecology: Darwin to Vermiculture was held at Cumbria, UK, to commemorate the centenary celebration of Darwins book The Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of Worms, with Observations on Their Habits that was published in 1881 by Murray, London, UK. In the year 2000, Vermillenium-an international workshop and symposium- was held at Kalamazoo, USA, to realize the progress achieved in this field after a decade (since 1991). Recently, Ninth International Symposium on Earthworm Ecology (ISEE-9) that was held at Xalapa, Mexico, during the 5th to 10th of September 2010 clearly proved the importance of earthworms and vermitechnology by the participation of scientists from different countries. About 300 papers were received from the researchers across the world

  11. Metabolic changes during estivation in the common earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayley, Mark; Overgaard, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    The common earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa survives drought by forming estivation chambers in the topsoil under even very slight reductions in soil water activity. We induced estivation in a soil of a consistency that allowed the removal of intact soil estivation chambers containing a single worm. These estivation chambers were exposed to 97% relative humidity for 30 d to simulate the effect of a severe summer drought. Gas exchange, body fluid osmolality, water balance, urea, and alanine were quantified, and whole-body homogenates were screened for changes in small organic molecules via (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Formation of estivation chambers was associated with a dramatic increase in body fluid osmolality, from 175 to 562 mOsm kg(-1), accompanied by a 20% increase in water content. Dehydration for 1 mo caused a further increase to 684 mOsm kg(-1), while the worms lost 50% of their water content. Gas exchange was depressed by 50% after worms entered estivation and by 80% after a further 30 d of dehydration. Urea concentrations increased from 0.3 to 1 micromol g(-1) dry mass during this time. Although (1)H-NMR did not provide the identity of the osmolytes responsible for the initial increase in osmolality after estivation, it showed that alanine increased to more than 80 mmol L(-1) in the long-term-estivation group. We propose that alanine functions as a nitrogen depot during dehydration and is not an anaerobe product in this case.

  12. Slow desiccation improves dehydration tolerance and accumulation of compatible osmolytes in earthworm cocoons (Dendrobaena octaedra Savigny)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Rask; Holmstrup, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra, is a common species in temperate and subarctic regions of the northern hemisphere. The egg capsules ('cocoons') of D. octaedra are deposited in the upper soil layers where they may be exposed to desiccation. Many previous studies on desiccation tolerance in soil invertebrates have examined acute exposure to harsh desiccating conditions, however, these animals are often more likely to be exposed to a gradually increasing drought stress. In the present study we slowly desiccated D. octaedra cocoons to simulate ecologically realistic drought conditions and the results clearly demonstrate that gradually dehydrated cocoons show an increased tolerance of extreme drought compared with acutely dehydrated cocoons. NMR spectroscopic analysis of compatible osmolytes revealed the presence of sorbitol, glucose, betaine, alanine and mannitol in dehydrated embryos. The superior drought survival of gradually desiccated embryos could partly be attributed to a higher accumulation of osmolytes (especially sorbitol). Thus, gradually and acutely desiccated embryos accumulated approximately 2 mol l(-1) and 1 mol l(-1) total osmolytes, respectively. However, in addition to osmolyte accumulation, the gradually desiccated cocoons also tolerated a higher degree of water loss, demonstrating that gradually dehydrated D. octaedra cocoons are able to survive loss of approximately 95% of the original water content. Although D. octaedra embryos can probably not be categorized as a truly anhydrobiotic organism we propose that they belong in a transition zone between the desiccation sensitive and the truly anhydrobiotic organisms. Clearly, these earthworm embryos share many physiological traits with anhydrobiotic organisms.

  13. Metals and terrestrial earthworms (Annelida: Oligochaeta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.

    1981-01-01

    The toxicity of metals to earthworms and the residues of metals found in earthworms are reviewed. Meta 1 concentrations are rarely high enough to be toxic to worms, but copper may reduce populations in orchards heavily treated with fungicides and in soil contaminated with pig wastes. The metals in some industrial sewage sludges may interfere with using sludge in vermiculture. Storage ratios (the concentration of a metal in worms divided by the concentration in soil) tend to be highest in infertile soil and lowest in media rich in organic matter, such as sewage sludge. Cadmium, gold, and selenium are highly concentrated by worms. Lead concentrations in worms may be very high, but are generally lower than concentrations in soil. Body burdens of both copper and zinc seem to be regulated by worms. Because worms are part of the food webs of many wildlife species, and also because they are potentially valuable feed supplements for domestic animals, the possible toxic effects of cadmium and other metals should be studied. Worms can make metals more available to food webs and can redistribute them in soil.

  14. Freeze-drying of lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Fernanda; Cenard, Stéphanie; Passot, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are of great importance for the food and biotechnology industry. They are widely used as starters for manufacturing food (e.g., yogurt, cheese, fermented meats, and vegetables) and probiotic products, as well as for green chemistry applications. Freeze-drying or lyophilization is a convenient method for preservation of bacteria. By reducing water activity to values below 0.2, it allows long-term storage and low-cost distribution at suprazero temperatures, while minimizing losses in viability and functionality. Stabilization of bacteria via freeze-drying starts with the addition of a protectant solution to the bacterial suspension. Freeze-drying includes three steps, namely, (1) freezing of the concentrated and protected cell suspension, (2) primary drying to remove ice by sublimation, and (3) secondary drying to remove unfrozen water by desorption. In this chapter we describe a method for freeze-drying of lactic acid bacteria at a pilot scale, thus allowing control of the process parameters for maximal survival and functionality recovery. PMID:25428024

  15. Identification and Classification of Earthworm Species in Guyana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeta Saywack

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are very important organisms, they are both environmentally and economically beneficial and hence their correct identification and classification is very vital. Taxonomy aims to classify organisms based on their similarities and differences. The present study was carried out during the year 2006-2007 at University of Guyana, Georgetown focusing on identification and classification of local earthworm species of Guyana and comparison with a known non-native species (California red. The earthworms were collected (using hand sorting method, cultured and then carefully examined (worms were washed with water, preserved in 10% formalin solution. The two species studied were identified based on their external morphology and internal anatomy as well as their ecological features. The California red earthworm was grouped under the family Lumbricidae and identified as Eisenia foetida, while the local species was grouped under the family Eudrilidae and identified as Eudrilus eugenia.

  16. Earthworm (Eisenia andrei Avoidance of Soils Treated with Cypermethrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara M. de Andréa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin is used for agricultural and public health campaigns. Its residues may contaminate soils and the beneficial soil organisms, like the earthworms, that may ingest the contaminated soil particles. Due to its ecological relevance, earthworms Eisenia andrei/fetida have been used in different ecotoxicological tests. The avoidance of soils treated with cypermethrin by compost worms Eisenia andrei was studied here as a bioindicator of the influence of treatment dosage and the pesticide formulation in three different agricultural soils indicated by the Brazilian environmental authorities for ecotoxicological tests. This earthworms’ behavior was studied here as a first attempt to propose the test for regulation purposes. The two-compartment test systems, where the earthworms were placed for a two-day exposure period, contained samples of untreated soil alone or together with soil treated with technical grade or wettable powder formulation of cypermethrin. After 48 h, there was no mortality, but the avoidance was clear because all earthworms were found in the untreated section of each type of soil (p < 0.05. No differences were found by the Fisher’s exact test (p ? 1.000 for each soil and treatment, demonstrating that the different soil characteristics, the cypermethrin concentrations and formulation, as well as the smaller amounts of soil and earthworms did not influence the avoidance behavior of the earthworms to cypermethrin. The number and range of treatments used in this study do not allow a detailed recommendation of the conditions applied here, but to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported attempt to identify the avoidance of pesticide treated tropical soils by earthworms.

  17. New data to the earthworm fauna of Israel (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szederjesi, T.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Elaborating several smaller earthworm samples collected in different parts of Israel resulted in recording 20 earthworm species including Bimastos parvus (Eisen, 1874 a North American peregrine which represents new record for the country. Three other species; Dendrobaena nevoi Csuzdi & Pavlí?ek, 1999, Healyella jordanis (Csuzdi & Pavlí?ek, 1999and Perelia shamsi Csuzdi & Pavlí?ek, 2005 were first recorded after their original descriptions. The present list of lumbricidearthworms recorded for Israel is raised to 28.

  18. Greenhouse-gas emissions from soils increased by earthworms

    OpenAIRE

    Lubbers, I.M.; Groenigen, K.J., van; Fonte, S.J.; Six, J.; Brussaard, L.; Van Groenigen, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms play an essential part in determining the greenhouse-gas balance of soils worldwide, and their influence is expected to grow over the next decades. They are thought to stimulate carbon sequestration in soil aggregates, but also to increase emissions of the main greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. Hence, it remains highly controversial whether earthworms predominantly affect soils to act as a net source or sink of greenhouse gases. Here, we provide a quantitative revi...

  19. Earthworms lost from pesticides application in potato crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Forrer, Karin; Binder, Claudia R.

    2010-05-01

    Bioturbation from earthworm's activity contributes to soil creep and soil carbon dynamics, and provide enough aeration conditions for agricultural practices all over the world. In developing countries where there is a long term misuse of pesticides for agricultural purposes, lost of these benefits from earthworms activity might already yielded negative effects in the current crop production. Little research has been performed on earthworms avoidance to pesticides in developing countries located in the tropics. Furthermore, the complete avoidance reaction (from attraction to 100% avoidance) from earthworms to most of the pesticides used in potato cultivation in developing countries like Colombia is incomplete as yet. Hence the aim of this study is to assess the lost of earthworm on the soils caused by different concentrations of pesticides and associated agricultural impacts caused by a lost in the soil bioturbation. As a first stage, we have studied earthworm's avoidance to pesticide concentration in a potato agricultural area located in Colombia. Local cultivated Eisenia fetida were exposed to four of the most frequent applied active ingredients in potato crops i.e. carbofuran, mancozeb, methamidophos and chlorpyriphos. Adult earthworm toxicity experiments were carried out in two soils, untreated grasslands under standard (ISO guidelines) and undisturbed conditions, and exposed to six different concentrations of the active ingredients. The results of the avoidance reaction on the standard soils were significant for carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos. For each of the three active ingredients, we found i) overuse of pesticide, ii) applied dose of carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos by the farmers potentially caused 20%, 11% and 9% of earthworms avoidance on the cultivated soils, respectively.

  20. Osmotic stress effects on the freezing tolerance of the antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, D A; To, N B

    1996-01-01

    The freezing and freezing survival of the Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi after exposure to solutions of different osmotic concentrations has been examined using a thermoelectric cooling stage and multi-specimen cooling block to see if there is any evidence that freeze-induced desiccation prevents inoculative freezing. The nematodes froze in all the test solutions used (up to 1138 mosmol.l-1) and at all cooling rates and nucleation temperatures tested. Freezing survival was at its maximum in 0.1 mol.l-1 NaCl in artificial tap water after 1 h exposure to the test solution and in artificial tap water after 24 h exposure. Hyperosmotic and hyposmotic stress adversely affected the nematodes' ability to survive freezing. In nonfrozen controls survival declined with increasing osmolality of the test solution. Measurements of the osmolality of water extracted from a variety of moss samples indicate that the nematodes are exposed to an osmotic concentration of about 9 mosmol.l-1 in their natural habitat. This is close to that of artificial tap water. Our experiments, and measurements of freeze concentration effects in the literature, indicate that freeze-induced desiccation is unlikely to prevent inoculative freezing and the survival of nematodes over the winter. PMID:8870265

  1. Seed dispersion by surface casting activities of earthworms in Colombian grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaëns, Thibaud; Mariani, Lucero; Betancourt, Nixon; Jiménez, Juan José

    2003-09-01

    The effects of Martiodrilus sp. (Oligochaeta, Glossoscolecidae) on the soil seed banks was investigated in a Colombian savanna and two intensive pastures. Germination and washing-sieving methods were used to compare seed density, diversity, species composition and germination rates in earthworm casts and the surrounding soil. Although large amounts of seeds were present in casts (163.65, 156.84 and 60.36 seeds per 100 g of dry casts in the savanna, the old and young pastures, respectively), germination rates were 3-40 times lower than in the surrounding soil, likely due to degradation during the gut transit. The number of viable seeds present in casts was 0.40, 7.46 and 1.99 seeds per 100 g of dry casts in the savanna, the old and young pastures, respectively. Species composition of viable seeds was quite different in casts compared to soil, probably because of selective seed ingestion by earthworms. Viable seeds deposited in surface casts each year represented 0.65%, 16.17% and 8.24% of the total viable seed bank of the soil, in the savanna, the old and young pastures, respectively. In the savanna and the old pasture, species composition in casts was more similar to the vegetation than species composition in the soil was. This may indicate that ingested seeds that survive gut transit have a greater chance to germinate than those of the soil seed bank, providing vegetation cover is sufficiently opened to enable germination processes. Thus, casts may be considered as a regeneration niche for plant species, and earthworm activity a factor that enhances, in some cases, the expression of the soil seed bank in the standing vegetation.

  2. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of bromadiolone to earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Xiong, Kang; Ye, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jianyun; Yang, Ye; Ji, Li

    2015-09-01

    Bromadiolone, a potent second-generation anticoagulant rodenticide, has been extensively used worldwide for the field control of rodents. Invertebrates may be at risk from primary poisoning as a result of bromadiolone bait applications. However, there are few data regarding the toxicity and bioaccumulation of bromadiolone to earthworms. In this study, we reported that bromadiolone was toxic to earthworms at 1mg/kg soil, which is a likely concentration in the field following application of bromadiolone baits. Exposure to bromadiolone resulted in a significant inhibition of earthworm growth. The antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were slightly increased in earthworms, while malondialdehyde content (as a molecular marker indicative of the damage to lipid peroxidation) was dominantly elevated over the duration of exposure. Bromadiolone in soil is bioaccumulative to earthworms. The biota to soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) of bromadiolone were concentration dependent and BSAFs decreased as the level of bromadiolone in soil increased. These results suggest earthworms are not only the potential subject to primary poisoning but also the source of secondary exposure for insectivores and scavengers following application of bromadiolone. PMID:25965004

  3. Freezing and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... successful freezing, blanch or partially cook vegetables in boiling water or in a microwave oven. Then rapidly ... be frozen. Instead, spread them out in one layer on various shelves, stacking them only after frozen ...

  4. Off to the (Earthworm) Races: A Quick and Flexible Lab Experiment for Introductory Zoology Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Paul V.; Fritz, Ann H.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a hands-on, investigative lab activity for use in an introductory zoology course. Tests the behavioral hypothesis that substrate texture affects earthworm locomotor ability. Provides background information on earthworm locomotion followed by details of the lab exercise. (NB)

  5. PEM Fuel Cell Freeze Durability and Cold Start Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, T.; O' Neill, Jonathan

    2008-01-02

    UTC has taken advantage of the unique water management opportunities inherent in micro-porous bipolar-plates to improve the cold-start performance of its polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). Diagnostic experiments were used to determine the limiting factors in micro-porous plate PEFC freeze performance and the causes of any performance decay. Alternative cell materials were evaluated for their freeze performance. Freeze-thaw cycling was also performed to determine micro-porous plate PEFC survivability. Data from these experiments has formed the basis for continuing development of advanced materials capable of supporting DOE's cold-start and durability objectives.

  6. The earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa stimulates abundance and activity of phenoxyalkanoic acid herbicide degraders

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ya-Jun; Zaprasis, Adrienne; Liu, Shuang-jiang; Drake, Harold L; Horn, Marcus A.

    2010-01-01

    2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) is a widely used phenoxyalkanoic acid (PAA) herbicide. Earthworms represent the dominant macrofauna and enhance microbial activities in many soils. Thus, the effect of the model earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) on microbial MCPA degradation was assessed in soil columns with agricultural soil. MCPA degradation was quicker in soil with earthworms than without earthworms. Quantitative PCR was inhibition-corrected per nucleic ...

  7. Earthworms and collembola relationships: effects of predatory centipedes and humus forms

    OpenAIRE

    Salmon, Sandrine; Geoffroy, Jean-jacques; Ponge, Jean-franc?ois

    2005-01-01

    Relationships between anecic earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea giardi) and the collembolan species Heteromurus nitidus (Templeton, 1835), which is known to be attracted to earthworms, were investigated in an 8-week laboratory experiment. Our aims were (1) to assess whether earthworms influence the population dynamics of H. nitidus, and (2) to study pathways of influence and how earthworm effects are modified by humus forms and predators. Using microcosms with three defaunated ...

  8. Hydrological and environmental impact of earthworm depletion by the New Zealand flatworm ( Artioposthia triangulata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haria, A. H.

    1995-09-01

    The predation of earthworms by the New Zealand flatworm is an environmental threat that may have consequences beyond the scope of merely reducing earthworm populations in the UK. The role of earthworms in developing soil structure is substantial and the effect of structural degradation on hydrological processes, following earthworm eradication, may therefore be major, with a resulting increase in flood risk from river systems and decrease in agricultural productivity of economic concern.

  9. Comparative proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in the earthworm Eisenia fetida during Escherichia coli O157:H7 stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Chang, Li; Sun, Zhenjun; Zhang, Yufeng

    2010-12-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an intestine-inhabiting bacterium associated with many severe disease outbreaks worldwide. It may enter the soil environment with the excreta of infected animals (e.g., horses, cattle, chickens) and humans. Earthworms can protect themselves against invading pathogens because of their efficient innate defense system. Identification of differential proteomic responses to E. coli O157:H7 may provide a better understanding of the survival mechanisms of the earthworm Eisenia fetida that lives in E. coli O157:H7-polluted environments. Whole earthworm extracts, collected at days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after E. coli O157:H7 stress, were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and quantitative image analysis. In total, 124 proteins demonstrated significant regulation at least at one time point, and 52 proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry and database searching. Compared with control samples, 11 protein spots were up-regulated and 41 were down-regulated for at least one time point. The identified proteins, including heat shock protein 90, fibrinolytic protease 0, gelsolin-like protein, lombricine kinase, coelomic cytolytic factor-1, manganous superoxide dismutase, catalase, triosephosphate isomerase, extracellular globin-4, lysenin, intermediate filament protein, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, are involved in several processes, including transcription, translation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the glucose metabolic process. Thus, our study provides a functional profile of the E. coli O157:H7-responsive proteins in earthworms. We suggest that the variable levels and trends in these spots on the gel may be useful as biomarker profiles to investigate E. coli O157:H7 contamination levels in soils. PMID:20863058

  10. Metallothionein response in earthworms Lampito mauritii (Kinberg) exposed to fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maity, S.; Hattacharya, S.; Chaudhury, S. [Visva Bharati, Santini Ketan (India)

    2009-10-15

    Among pollutants, the coal fly ash occupies a significant position in industrial wastes. The fly ash matrix is a complex mixture of various organic (polyhalogenated compounds) and inorganic (Si, Al, Fe, As, Cd, Bi, Hg, etc.) chemicals. The application of fly ash for agricultural purposes and as landfills may lead to the contamination of the land with some of the toxic chemical compounds present in fly ash. Thus prior to the application of fly ash for developmental activities, it requires bio-monitoring and risk characterization. In order to achieve this objective adult Lampito mauritii were exposed to different proportions of fly ash in soil for 30 d and the concentrations of metallothionein in earthworm were assessed. The results revealed that up to 50% of fly ash amendment does not apparently harm the earthworm in respect of their survival and growth. A significant increase in tissue metallothionein level was recorded in L mauritii exposed to fly ash amended soil without tissue metal accumulation indicating that metallothionein is involved in scavenging of free radicals and reactive oxygen species metabolites. It is concluded that this biochemical response observed in L mauritii exposed to fly ash amended soil could be used in ecotoxicological field monitoring.

  11. Establishing principal soil quality parameters influencing earthworms in urban soils using bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential contamination at ex-industrial sites means that, prior to change of use, it will be necessary to quantify the extent of risks to potential receptors. To assess ecological hazards, it is often suggested to use biological assessment to augment chemical analyses. Here we investigate the potential of a commonly recommended bioassay, the earthworm reproduction test, to assess the status of urban contaminated soils. Sample points at all study sites had contaminant concentrations above the Dutch soil criteria Target Values. In some cases, the relevant Intervention Values were exceeded. Earthworm survival at most points was high, but reproduction differed significantly in soil from separate patches on the same site. When the interrelationships between soil parameters and reproduction were studied, it was not possible to create a good model of site soil toxicity based on single or even multiple chemical measurements of the soils. We thus conclude that chemical analysis alone is not sufficient to characterize soil quality and confirms the value of biological assays for risk assessment of potentially contaminated soils. - Bioassays must be applied for the risk assessment complexly-polluted sites to complement chemical analysis of soils

  12. Effect of solar UV radiation on earthworm (Metaphire posthuma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, R B; Lal, K; Farooq, M; Hans, R K

    2005-11-01

    Human health risks like damage to the eyes, immune system, and skin are known to be associated with increasing ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in the environment. In this study, we evaluated the phototoxic effects of UVR in sunlight and its possible mechanism of action by using earthworm as an alternative model because earthworm skin contains several biomolecules (tetraene and triene sterol) similar to human beings. We studied the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), photooxidation of lipids, and histopathological changes in earthworm integument. It was observed that UVR-exposed earthworm skin homogenate produced a significant amount of singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)), superoxide anion (O(2)(*)(-)), hydroxyl radicals ((*)OH), and photooxidation of lipids. The production of ROS and lipid peroxidation product was found dependent on the dose of solar UVR in earthworm integument. Histological anomalies such as thickening, vacuolation, and hypertrophy of epidermal cells were observed when the animals were exposed for 1 to 2h, while a higher exposure period (3h) caused degeneration of circular and longitudinal muscles. Continuous sunlight exposure for more than 3h was found lethal to worms. These observations suggested that the current level of UVR in sunlight may produce significant phototoxic effects in the earthworms probably via the generation of ROS (photodynamic action). Possible increases in UVR in view of ozone depletion may be more detrimental to the biomolecules in the worm's skin. The earthworm thus turned out as a simple, sensitive, and cost-effective test organism for the assessment of the hazardous potential of solar radiation and also for planning safety measures for human beings. PMID:16216633

  13. Scram or Freeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    1981-01-01

    In this outdoor activity and animal-role-play game, learners discover and uncover the hidden world of "cryptozoa"—organisms such as spiders, salamanders and slugs that live under objects, like rocks and fallen tree trunks, or in concealed places. When uncovered, some cryptozoa scurry for cover ("scram"), while others remain motionless ("freeze"). Both behaviors help uncovered organisms escape from predators. In the game, learners take the roles of predator or prey and get to scram and freeze, and even growl, until all the prey are caught or reach "shelter." Learners also conduct a cryptozoa survey, by carefully upturning pieces of wood, leaves and rock to find and collect hidden animals. At the end, learners return all organisms to their original positions. The PDF includes safety precautions to protect both learners and the animals they uncover. To adapt the game for hearing impaired learners, instruction signs reading "scram" and "freeze" could be used instead of verbal instructions.

  14. Earthworm biomarker responses on exposure to commercial cypermethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangphra, Ptumporn; Sengsai, Supanyika; Gooneratne, Ravi

    2015-05-01

    Cypermethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used worldwide in agriculture, home pest control, disease vector control, and food safety. It accumulates in soil. Therefore, traces of cypermethrin may frequently appear in vegetables grown in contaminated soil. There is a push now to develop biomarkers as early warning indicators of environmental pollution. In this study, DNA damage (tail DNA%, tail length, and olive tail moment), the micronucleus, neutral red retention (NRR) time, and pinocytic adherence ability of coelomocytes were investigated in Pheretima peguana earthworms exposed to cypermethrin in filter paper tests. The NRR time of earthworm coelomocytes decreased significantly at a concentration of 3.5 × 10(-3) µg · cm(-2) (1/100 LC50 ) after 48 h exposure, with a highly negative correlation with cypermethrin concentration. Pinocytic adherence ability of coelomocytes also declined significantly at a cypermethrin concentration of 3.5 × 10(-2) µg · cm(-2) (1/10 LC50 ). The DNA damage to earthworm coelomocytes (tail DNA%, tail length, and olive tail moment) increased considerably at the highest concentration (3.5 × 10(-1) µg · cm(-2) ) although the correlation between tail DNA% and cypermethrin concentration was low. Thus, physiological biomarkers were more sensitive than the genotoxic effects in earthworms exposed to commercial cypermethrin. Although a suite of earthworm biomarkers could be used to evaluate cypermethrin terrestrial pollution, the NRR test is easier to conduct and a more sensitive indicator. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 597-606, 2015. PMID:24376091

  15. Longitudinal in vivo MR imaging of live earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budán, Ferenc; Kovács, Noémi; Engelmann, Péter; Horváth, Ildikó; Veres, Dániel S; Németh, Péter; Szigeti, Krisztián; Máthé, Domokos

    2014-11-01

    Earthworm (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) species are used widely in eco-toxicological tests especially with contaminated soils. These long-term tests are reliable, but a high sample size is needed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can produce fast, robust, sensitive, and longitudinal morphological results using a small sample size. Performing longitudinal in vivo examinations of earthworms using MRI requires the need for anesthetics to completely avoid earthworm's moving. Our goal was to develop a simple and non-invasive method to anesthetize earthworms for in vivo longitudinal imaging studies. We investigated a number of different anesthesia methods and found that propan-2-ol and its vapor was optimal. We used a commercial sequential nanoScan® PET/MRI system (Mediso Ltd, Hungary, Budapest) to explore feasibility of MR imaging in immobilized earthworms. It was possible to visualize via micro MRI the brain, gastrointestinal tract, seminal vesicles, calciferous gland (Morren gland), and main blood vessels of the circulatory system. Our findings show the possibilities to examine changes in morphology using MRI of certain organs using a reversible, long-term immobilization method. PMID:25059556

  16. Genotoxic effects of glyphosate or paraquat on earthworm coelomocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangphra, Ptumporn; Kwankua, Wimon; Gooneratne, Ravi

    2014-06-01

    The potential genotoxicity (nuclear anomalies, damage to single-strand DNA) and pinocytic adherence activity of two (glyphosate-based and paraquat-based) commercial herbicides to earthworm coelomocytes (immune cells in the coelomic cavity) were assessed. Coelomocytes were extracted from earthworms (Pheretima peguana) exposed to concentrations glyphosate-based or paraquat-based herbicides on filter paper for 48 h. Three assays were performed: Micronucleus (light microscopy count of micronuclei, binuclei, and trinuclei), Comet (epifluorescent microscope and LUCIA image analyzer measure of tail DNA %, tail length, and tail moment), and Neutral Red (to detect phagocytic or pinocytic activity). The LC50 value for paraquat was 65-fold lower than for glyphosate indicating that paraquat was far more acutely toxic to P. peguana. There were significant (P glyphosate at 25 × 10(-1) (10(-3) LC50) and paraquat at 39 × 10(-5) (10(-4) LC50) ?g cm(-2) filter paper. In earthworms exposed to glyphosate, no differences in tail DNA%, tail length, and tail moment of coelomocytes were detected. In contrast, for paraquat at 10(-1) LC50 concentration, there were significant (P glyphosate or paraquat at 10(-3) LC50 concentration. This study showed that, at concentrations well below field application rates, paraquat induces both clastogenic and aneugenic effects on earthworm coelomocytes whereas glyphosate causes only aneugenic effects and therefore does not pose a risk of gene mutation in this earthworm. PMID:22644885

  17. Earthworm bioassays and seedling emergence for monitoring toxicity, aging and bioaccumulation of anthropogenic waste indicator compounds in biosolids-amended soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Chad A.; Campbell, Bryan R.; Thompson, Regina; Furlong, Edward T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Burkhardt, Mark R.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Werner, Stephen L.; Hay, Anthony G.

    2012-01-01

    Land application of biosolids (treated sewage sludge) can be an important route for introducing xenobiotic compounds into terrestrial environments. There is a paucity of available information on the effects of biosolids amendment on terrestrial organisms. In this study, the influence of biosolids and biosolids aging on earthworm (Eisenia fetida) reproduction and survival and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedling emergence was investigated. Earthworms were exposed to soils amended with varying quantities of biosolids (0, 1, 2, 3, or 4% dry mass). To investigate the influence of biosolids aging, the biosolids used in the study were aged for differing lengths of time (2 or 8 weeks) prior to exposure. All of the adult earthworms survived in the biosolids–amended soils at all concentrations that were aged for 2 weeks; however, only 20% of the adults survived in the soil amended with the highest concentration of biosolids and aged for 8 weeks. Reproduction as measured by mean number of juveniles and unhatched cocoons produced per treatment correlated inversely with biosolids concentration, although the effects were generally more pronounced in the 8-week aged biosolids–soil samples. Latent seedling emergence and reduced seedling fitness correlated inversely with biosolids concentration, but these effects were tempered in the 8-week aged versus the 2-week aged soil–biosolids mixtures. Anthropogenic waste indicator compounds (AWIs) were measured in the biosolids, biosolids–soil mixtures, and earthworm samples. Where possible, bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated or estimated. A wide variety of AWIs were detected in the biosolids (51 AWIs) and earthworm samples (? 19 AWI). The earthworms exposed to the 8-week aged biosolids–soil mixtures tended to accumulate greater quantities of AWIs compared to the 2-week aged mixture, suggesting that the bioavailability of some AWIs was enhanced with aging. The BAFs for a given AWI varied with treatment. Notably large BAFs were determined for some AWIs. For example, the maximum BAF determined for para-cresol, methyl salicylate, bisphenol-A, and cholesterol was greater than 100 in some treatments.

  18. Effectivity of the Earthworms Pheretima hupiensis, Eudrellus sp. and Lumbricus sp. on the Organic Matter Decomposition Process

    OpenAIRE

    Ea Kosman Anwar

    2009-01-01

    The earthworms are the one of soil fauna component in soil ecosystem have an important role in organic matter decomposition procces. The earthworm feed plant leaf and plant matter up to apart and dissolved. Earthworm metabolisms produce like faeces that mixed with decomposed organic matter mean vermicompost. The vermicompost fertility varies because of some kind of earthworm differ in “niche” and attitude. The experiment was to study the effectivity of earthworm on organic matt...

  19. Gene expression analysis of CL-20-induced reversible neurotoxicity reveals GABA(A) receptors as potential targets in the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ping; Guan, Xin; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Liang, Chun; Perkins, Edward J

    2012-01-17

    The earthworm Eisenia fetida is one of the most used species in standardized soil ecotoxicity tests. End points such as survival, growth, and reproduction are eco-toxicologically relevant but provide little mechanistic insight into toxicity pathways, especially at the molecular level. Here we apply a toxicogenomic approach to investigate the mode of action underlying the reversible neurotoxicity of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), a cyclic nitroamine explosives compound. We developed an E. fetida-specific shotgun microarray targeting 15119 unique E. fetida transcripts. Using this array we profiled gene expression in E. fetida in response to exposure to CL-20. Eighteen earthworms were exposed for 6 days to 0.2 ?g/cm(2) of CL-20 on filter paper, half of which were allowed to recover in a clean environment for 7 days. Nine vehicle control earthworms were sacrificed at days 6 and 13, separately. Electrophysiological measurements indicated that the conduction velocity of earthworm medial giant nerve fiber decreased significantly after 6-day exposure to CL-20, but was restored after 7 days of recovery. Total RNA was isolated from the four treatment groups including 6-day control, 6-day exposed, 13-day control, and 13-day exposed (i.e., 6-day exposure followed by 7-day recovery), and was hybridized to the 15K shotgun oligo array. Statistical and bioinformatic analyses suggest that CL-20 initiated neurotoxicity by noncompetitively blocking the ligand-gated GABA(A) receptor ion channel, leading to altered expression of genes involved in GABAergic, cholinergic, and Agrin-MuSK pathways. In the recovery phase, expression of affected genes returned to normality, possibly as a result of autophagy and CL-20 dissociation/metabolism. This study provides significant insights into potential mechanisms of CL-20-induced neurotoxicity and the recovery of earthworms from transient neurotoxicity stress. PMID:22191394

  20. Calcium-dependent freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis involves membrane resealing via synaptotagmin SYT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tomokazu; Kawamura, Yukio; Minami, Anzu; Uemura, Matsuo

    2008-12-01

    Plant freezing tolerance involves the prevention of lethal freeze-induced damage to the plasma membrane. We hypothesized that plant freezing tolerance involves membrane resealing, which, in animal cells, is accomplished by calcium-dependent exocytosis following mechanical disruption of the plasma membrane. In Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts, extracellular calcium enhanced not only freezing tolerance but also tolerance to electroporation, which typically punctures the plasma membrane. However, calcium did not enhance survival when protoplasts were exposed to osmotic stress that mimicked freeze-induced dehydration. Calcium-dependent freezing tolerance was also detected with leaf sections in which ice crystals intruded into tissues. Interestingly, calcium-dependent freezing tolerance was inhibited by extracellular addition of an antibody against the cytosolic region of SYT1, a homolog of synaptotagmin known to be a calcium sensor that initiates exocytosis. This inhibition indicates that the puncture allowing the antibody to flow into the cytoplasm occurs during freeze/thawing. Thus, we propose that calcium-dependent freezing tolerance results from resealing of the punctured site. Protoplasts or leaf sections isolated from Arabidopsis SYT1-RNA interference (RNAi) plants lost calcium-dependent freezing tolerance, and intact SYT1-RNAi plants had lower freezing tolerance than control plants. Taken together, these findings suggest that calcium-dependent freezing tolerance results from membrane resealing and that this mechanism involves SYT1 function. PMID:19088330

  1. Methylation of Mercury in Earthworms and the Effect of Mercury on the Associated Bacterial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Stephan Raphael; Brunner, Ivano; Daniel, Otto; Liu, Bian; Frey, Beat

    2013-01-01

    Methylmercury compounds are very toxic for most organisms. Here, we investigated the potential of earthworms to methylate inorganic-Hg. We hypothesized that the anaerobic and nutrient-rich conditions in the digestive tracts of earthworm's promote the methylation of Hg through the action of their gut bacteria. Earthworms were either grown in sterile soils treated with an inorganic (HgCl2) or organic (CH3HgCl) Hg source, or were left untreated. After 30 days of incubation, the total-Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations in the soils, earthworms, and their casts were analyzed. The impact of Hg on the bacterial community compositions in earthworms was also studied. Tissue concentrations of methyl-Hg in earthworms grown in soils treated with inorganic-Hg were about six times higher than in earthworms grown in soils without Hg. Concentrations of methyl-Hg in the soils and earthworm casts remained at significantly lower levels suggesting that Hg was mainly methylated in the earthworms. Bacterial communities in earthworms were mostly affected by methyl-Hg treatment. Terminal-restriction fragments (T-RFs) affiliated to Firmicutes were sensitive to inorganic and methyl-Hg, whereas T-RFs related to Betaproteobacteria were tolerant to the Hg treatments. Sulphate-reducing bacteria were detected in earthworms but not in soils. PMID:23577209

  2. Earthworm bioturbation influences the phytoavailability of metals released by particles in cultivated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveque, Thibaut; Capowiez, Yvan; Schreck, Eva; Xiong, Tiantian; Foucault, Yann; Dumat, Camille

    2014-08-01

    The influence of earthworm activity on soil-to-plant metal transfer was studied by carrying out six weeks mesocosms experiments with or without lettuce and/or earthworms in soil with a gradient of metal concentrations due to particles fallouts. Soil characteristics, metal concentrations in lettuce and earthworms were measured and soil porosity in the mesocosms was determined. Earthworms increased the soil pH, macroporosity and soil organic matter content due to the burying of wheat straw provided as food. Earthworm activities increased the metals concentrations in lettuce leaves. Pb and Cd concentrations in lettuce leaves can increase up to 46% with earthworm activities … These results and the low correlation between estimated by CaCl2 and EDTA and measured pollutant phytoavailability suggest that earthworm bioturbation was the main cause of the increase. Bioturbation could affect the proximity of pollutants to the roots and soil organic matter. PMID:24858803

  3. Second contribution to the knowledge of earthworms (Lumbricidae in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanovi? Mirjana M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains the results of qualitative analysis of Lumbricidae (Oligochaeta in Montenegro, during the period 1997-2003. The research has included natural and cultivated biotopes. The presence of 15 species was established and the habitats, localities and their zoogeographical position are given. In Montenegro we found four species for the first time Dendrobaena jastrebensis, D. vejdovskyi, Octodrilus bretcheri and Lumbricus terrestris. The complete list of earthworm species in Montenegro includes 45 taxa. With respects to the zoogeographic situation of the earthworms in Montenegro, the largest number belongs to endemic (10 and European (10 species. But 8 taxa are south-European, 9 Holarctic, 7 cosmopolitan, and 1 Palearctic. The degree of endemism of the earthworm fauna of Montenegro is quite high, exceeding 22.2%.

  4. 7 CFR 58.621 - Freezing tunnels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Freezing tunnels. 58.621 Section 58.621 Agriculture... Rooms and Compartments § 58.621 Freezing tunnels. Freezing tunnels for quick freezing at extremely low temperatures...

  5. Heat shock protects germinating conidiospores of Neurospora crassa against freezing injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Guy, C. L.; Plesofsky-vig, N.; Brambl, R.

    1986-01-01

    Germinating conidiospores of Neurospora crassa that were exposed to 45 degrees C, a temperature that induces a heat shock response, were protected from injury caused by freezing in liquid nitrogen and subsequent thawing at 0 degrees C. Whereas up to 90% of the control spores were killed by this freezing and slow thawing, a prior heat shock increased cell survival four- to fivefold. Survival was determined by three assays: the extent of spore germination in liquid medium, the number of colonie...

  6. Arsenic resistance and cycling in earthworms residing at a former gold mine in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earthworms (Lumbricus castaneous and Dendrodrilus rubidus), their host soils and leaf litter were collected from a former gold mine with widespread arsenic (As) contamination in Nova Scotia, Canada and determined for total and speciated As. Resistance to As toxicity was investigated by measurement of DNA damage in exposed earthworm populations using the comet assay. Arsenobetaine (AB) was observed at low concentration in the earthworms but not in the host soil or leaf litter. Several different organoarsenic species were observed in the leaf litter and only inorganic As was found in the host soils. The results suggest that 1) adaptation to As toxicity in earthworms is widespread and not particular to a single species, 2) AB originates in the earthworm and not the consumed soil or leaf litter and 3) as previously hypothesised (), biotransformation of inorganic As to AB is not likely involved in the adaptation. - Highlights: ? Adaptation to toxicity and cycling of arsenic in earthworms investigated at Canadian gold mine. ? Earthworms resistant to highly contaminated, genotoxic soils. ? Arsenobetaine present in earthworms but not soil or leaf litter. ? Arsenic resistance in earthworms is widespread and not species specific. - Adaptation of earthworms to arsenic contaminated soils is widespread and not species specific.

  7. Earthworm bioturbation influences the phytoavailability of metals released by particles in cultivated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of earthworm activity on soil-to-plant metal transfer was studied by carrying out six weeks mesocosms experiments with or without lettuce and/or earthworms in soil with a gradient of metal concentrations due to particles fallouts. Soil characteristics, metal concentrations in lettuce and earthworms were measured and soil porosity in the mesocosms was determined. Earthworms increased the soil pH, macroporosity and soil organic matter content due to the burying of wheat straw provided as food. Earthworm activities increased the metals concentrations in lettuce leaves. Pb and Cd concentrations in lettuce leaves can increase up to 46% with earthworm activities … These results and the low correlation between estimated by CaCl2 and EDTA and measured pollutant phytoavailability suggest that earthworm bioturbation was the main cause of the increase. Bioturbation could affect the proximity of pollutants to the roots and soil organic matter. - Highlights: • Earthworm bioturbation increases phytoavailability of Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu. • Earthworm activity influences soil structure and increases pH. • Plant metal uptake was not correlated with CaCl2, EDTA estimated phytoavailability. • Increased metal phytoavailability with bioturbation could increase human exposure. - Earthworm activities can increase metal phytoavailability and subsequent human exposure to metals in consumed vegetables

  8. Importance of freeze-thaw events in low temperature ecotoxicology of cold tolerant enchytraeids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrício Silva, Ana L; Enggrob, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Due to global warming it is predicted that freeze-thaw cycles will increase in Arctic and cold temperate regions. The effects of this variation becomes of particular ecological importance to freeze-tolerant species when it is combined with chemical pollutants. We compared the effect of control temperature (2 °C), daily freeze-thaw cycles (2 to -4 °C) and constant freezing (-2 °C) temperatures on the cold-tolerance of oligochaete worms (Enchytraeus albidus) and tested how survival was influenced by pre-exposure to 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), a common nonionic detergent found in sewage sludge amended soils. Results showed that combined effect of 4-NP and daily freeze-thaw cycles can cause higher mortality to worms as compared with sustained freezing or control temperature. Exposure to 4-NP caused a substantial depletion of glycogen reserves which is catabolized during freezing to produce cryoprotective concentrations of free glucose. Further, exposure to freeze-thaw cycles resulted in higher concentrations of 4-NP inworm tissues as compared to constant freezing or control temperature (2 °C). Thus, worms exposed to combined effect of freeze-thaw cycles and 4-NP suffer higher consequences, with the toxic effect of the chemical potentiating the deleterious effects of freezing and thawing.

  9. Aggregate formation and soil carbon sequestration by earthworms at the ORNL FACE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-de Leon, Y.; Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.; Lugo-Perez, J.; Wise, D. H.; Jastrow, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Earthworms have an important role in soil carbon sequestration, but their contribution to carbon sequestration in soils exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations has been largely overlooked. Previous studies at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Free Air CO2 Experiment (ORNL FACE) site showed that the formation of soil aggregates is a key mechanism for soil carbon sequestration. We did a microcosm experiment to quantify earthworm-mediated aggregate formation and compare between two earthworm species with different feeding habits (endogeic vs. epi-edogeic). In addition, we wanted to identify the carbon source (soil, leaf litter or root litter) within aggregates formed by earthworms. We used 13C-depleted soil and 15N-enriched sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) leaf and root litter collected from the ORNL FACE site to assess soil aggregate formation of the native, endogeic earthworm Diplocardia sp. and European, epi-endogeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Both earthworm species are present at the ORNL FACE site. We crushed, sieved ( 250 ?m) were higher in treatments with earthworms (III and IV) than in treatments without earthworms (I and II) (p = 0.02). Within macroaggregates, most of the carbon was soil-derived. Leaf and root-derived carbon was found in treatment IV only. Our results suggest that earthworms at the ORNL FACE site directly contribute to the formation of soil aggregates, thus contributing to soil carbon sequestration. Carbon source within macroaggregates correspond with earthworm feeding habits, with endogeic earthworms (Diplocardia sp.) feeding mostly on mineral soil and epi-endogeic earthworm (L. rubellus) feeding on both plant residues and soil organic matter.

  10. Does the microbial environment determine innate immunity in earthworms?.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bilej, Martin; Dvo?ák, Ji?í; Man?íková, Veronika; Šilerová, Marcela; Procházková, Petra; Roubalová, Radka; Škanta, František; Elhottová, Dana; Koubová, Anna; Pižl, Václav

    ?eské Bud?jovice : Institute of Soil Biology, BC ASCR, 2013. s. 13. ISBN 978-80-86525-23-5. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /12./. 08.04.2013-11.04.2013, ?eské Bud?jovice] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : microbial environment * innate immunity * earthworms Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  11. Diversity and host specificity of the Verminephrobacter–earthworm symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie Braad; Davidson, Seana

    2010-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria of the genus Verminephrobacter (Betaproteobacteria) were detected in the nephridia of 19 out of 23 investigated earthworm species (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). While all four Lumbricus species and three out of five Aporrectodea species were densely colonized by a mono-species culture of Verminephrobacter, other earthworm species contained mixed bacterial populations with varying proportions of Verminephrobacter; four species did not contain Verminephrobacter at all. The Verminephrobacter symbionts could be grouped into earthworm species-specific sequence clusters based on their 16S rRNA and RNA polymerase subunit B (rpoB) genes. Closely related host species harboured more closely related symbionts than did distantly related hosts. Co-diversification of the symbiotic partners could not be demonstrated unambiguously due to the poor resolution of the host phylogeny [based on histone H3 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequence analyses]. However, there was a pattern of symbiont diversification within four groups of closely related hosts. The mean rate of symbiont 16S rRNA gene evolution was determined using a relaxed clock model, and the rate was calibrated with paleogeographical estimates of the time of origin of Lumbricid earthworms. The calibrated rates of symbiont 16S rRNA gene evolution are 0.012–0.026 substitutions per site per 50 million years and thus similar to rates reported from other symbiotic bacteria.

  12. Earthworm assemblages in pasture soils affected by cattle overwintering.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav

    Brno : Ústav biologie obratlovc? AV?R, 2014. s. 158-159. ISBN 978-80-87189-16-0. [Zoologické dny Ostrava 2014. 06.02.2014-07.02.2014, Ostrava] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Earthworm assemblages * pasture soils * cattle overwintering Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  13. Earthworms in an arable field-forest ecotone.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav; Zeithaml, J.

    ?eské Bud?jovice : Institute of Soil Biology AS CR, 2003. s. 48. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /7./. 14.04.2003-16.04.2003, ?eské Bud?jovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : earthworms * field-forest ecotone Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  14. Earthworm's immunity in the nanomaterial world: new room, future challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, Yuya; Engelmann, Péter

    2013-01-01

    Since the advent of the nanotechnology era, the environmental sink has been continuously receiving engineered nanomaterials as well as their derivatives. Our current understanding of the potential impact of nanomaterials on invertebrate immunity is limited to only a handful of initial studies including those on earthworms. Recently, we reported selective accumulation of silver nanoparticles in the amoebocyte population of Eisenia fetida coelomocytes in vitro. In this review, we give an overview of available literature on the life-history impacts on earthworms, and what we have learnt of the immune responses to nanoparticles with references to other invertebrate species and vertebrate counterparts. We discuss the significant contribution of amoebocytes as nanoparticle scavengers and suggest a possibility of studying inter-cellular communications in coelomocytes. Implications from the leading researches in vertebrate models tell us that study of the nanoparticle recognition involved in cellular uptake as well as sub- and inter-cellular events may uncover further intriguing insights into earthworm’s immunity in the nanomaterial world.

  15. Oxygen consumption of the earthworm species Dendrobaena mrazeki

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šustr, Vladimír; Pižl, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 45, 5-6 (2009), s. 478-482. ISSN 1164-5563 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/03/0056 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : earthworms * Dendrobaena mrazeki * respiration rate Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.247, year: 2009

  16. Impact of PCDD/PCDFs on the earthworm Eisenia andrei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubalová, Radka; Dvo?ák, Ji?í; Procházková, Petra; Elhottová, Dana; Rossmann, Pavel; Škanta, František; Bilej, Martin

    Athens : United States Department of Agriculture , 2014. s. 34. [International Symposium on Earthworm Ecology /10./. 22.06.2014-27.06.2014, Athens] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : impact of PCDD/PCDFs * Eisenia andrei Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  17. The Earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae)of Wyoming, USA, Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This survey of the earthworms from 22 of the 23 counties of Wyoming recorded 13 species of terrestrial Oligochaeta, all members of the family Lumbricidae. One of these species, Aporrectodea limicola, is reported for the first time from the state. Current nomenclature is applied to historical records...

  18. Recrystallization in a freezing tolerant Antarctic nematode, Panagrolaimus davidi, and an alpine weta, Hemideina maori (Orthoptera; Stenopelmatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramløv, H; Wharton, D A; Wilson, P W

    1996-12-01

    The ability of haemolymph from the freezing tolerant weta, Hemideina maori, and supernatant from homogenates of the freezing tolerant nematode Panagrolaimus davidi to inhibit the recrystallization of ice was examined using the "splat freezing" technique and annealing on a cryomicroscope stage. There was no recrystallization inhibition in weta haemolymph or in insect ringer controls. Recrystallization inhibition was present in the nematode supernatant but this was destroyed by heating and was absent in controls. P. davidi survives intracellular freezing and recrystallization inhibition may be important for the survival of this stress. PMID:8975688

  19. Surviving the cold: molecular analyses of insect cryoprotective dehydration in the Arctic springtail Megaphorura arctica (Tullberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovi? Željko D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insects provide tractable models for enhancing our understanding of the physiological and cellular processes that enable survival at extreme low temperatures. They possess three main strategies to survive the cold: freeze tolerance, freeze avoidance or cryoprotective dehydration, of which the latter method is exploited by our model species, the Arctic springtail Megaphorura arctica, formerly Onychiurus arcticus (Tullberg 1876. The physiological mechanisms underlying cryoprotective dehydration have been well characterised in M. arctica and to date this process has been described in only a few other species: the Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi, an enchytraied worm, the larvae of the Antarctic midge Belgica antarctica and the cocoons of the earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra. There are no in-depth molecular studies on the underlying cold survival mechanisms in any species. Results A cDNA microarray was generated using 6,912 M. arctica clones printed in duplicate. Analysis of clones up-regulated during dehydration procedures (using both cold- and salt-induced dehydration has identified a number of significant cellular processes, namely the production and mobilisation of trehalose, protection of cellular systems via small heat shock proteins and tissue/cellular remodelling during the dehydration process. Energy production, initiation of protein translation and cell division, plus potential tissue repair processes dominate genes identified during recovery. Heat map analysis identified a duplication of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS gene in M. arctica and also 53 clones co-regulated with TPS, including a number of membrane associated and cell signalling proteins. Q-PCR on selected candidate genes has also contributed to our understanding with glutathione-S-transferase identified as the major antioxdidant enzyme protecting the cells during these stressful procedures, and a number of protein kinase signalling molecules involved in recovery. Conclusion Microarray analysis has proved to be a powerful technique for understanding the processes and genes involved in cryoprotective dehydration, beyond the few candidate genes identified in the current literature. Dehydration is associated with the mobilisation of trehalose, cell protection and tissue remodelling. Energy production, leading to protein production, and cell division characterise the recovery process. Novel membrane proteins, along with aquaporins and desaturases, have been identified as promising candidates for future functional analyses to better understand membrane remodelling during cellular dehydration.

  20. Do earthworms impact metal mobility and availability in soil? - A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of earthworms to ecosystem functioning has led to many studies on the impacts of metals on earthworms. Far less attention has been paid to the impact that earthworms have on soil metals both in terms of metal mobility and availability. In this review we consider which earthworms have been used in such studies, which soil components have been investigated, which types of soil have been used and what measures of mobility and availability applied. We proceed to review proposed reasons for effects: changes in microbial populations, pH, dissolved organic carbon and metal speciation. The balance of evidence suggests that earthworms increase metal mobility and availability but more studies are required to determine the precise mechanism for this. - We review the impact of earthworms on metal mobility and availability and suggest areas for further investigation.

  1. Do earthworms impact metal mobility and availability in soil? - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizmur, Tom, E-mail: t.p.sizmur@reading.ac.u [Department of Soil Science, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E., E-mail: m.e.hodson@reading.ac.u [Department of Soil Science, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    The importance of earthworms to ecosystem functioning has led to many studies on the impacts of metals on earthworms. Far less attention has been paid to the impact that earthworms have on soil metals both in terms of metal mobility and availability. In this review we consider which earthworms have been used in such studies, which soil components have been investigated, which types of soil have been used and what measures of mobility and availability applied. We proceed to review proposed reasons for effects: changes in microbial populations, pH, dissolved organic carbon and metal speciation. The balance of evidence suggests that earthworms increase metal mobility and availability but more studies are required to determine the precise mechanism for this. - We review the impact of earthworms on metal mobility and availability and suggest areas for further investigation.

  2. Freezing parameters of soft spheres

    OpenAIRE

    Wilding, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The phase switch Monte Carlo method is employed to determine the freezing properties of particles interacting via an r-12 repulsive potential. We establish that at the equilibrium freezing point the face centred cubic (fcc) structure has a free energy that is lower than that of the metastable body centred cubic (bcc) structure by 0.0184(4) kBT per particle. Thus the bcc structure is not the stable solid phase at freezing despite being commonly observed in...

  3. Anhydrobiosis and Freezing-Tolerance : Adaptations That Facilitate the Establishment of Panagrolaimus Nematodes in Polar Habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGill, Lorraine; Shannon, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Anhydrobiotic animals can survive the loss of both free and bound water from their cells. While in this state they are also resistant to freezing. This physiology adapts anhydrobiotes to harsh environments and it aids their dispersal. Panagrolaimus davidi, a bacterial feeding anhydrobiotic nematode isolated from Ross Island Antarctica, can survive intracellular ice formation when fully hydrated. A capacity to survive freezing while fully hydrated has also been observed in some other Antarctic nematodes. We experimentally determined the anhydrobiotic and freezing-tolerance phenotypes of 24 Panagrolaimus strains from tropical, temperate, continental and polar habitats and we analysed their phylogenetic relationships. We found that several other Panagrolaimus isolates can also survive freezing when fully hydrated and that tissue extracts from these freezing-tolerant nematodes can inhibit the growth of ice crystals. We show that P. davidi belongs to a clade of anhydrobiotic and freezing-tolerant panagrolaimids containing strains from temperate and continental regions and that P. superbus, an early colonizer at Surtsey island, Iceland after its volcanic formation, is closely related to a species from Pennsylvania, USA. Ancestral state reconstructions show that anhydrobiosis evolved deep in the phylogeny of Panagrolaimus. The early-diverging Panagrolaimus lineages are strongly anhydrobiotic but weakly freezing-tolerant, suggesting that freezing tolerance is most likely a derived trait. The common ancestors of the davidi and the superbus clades were anhydrobiotic and also possessed robust freezing tolerance, along with a capacity to inhibit the growth and recrystallization of ice crystals. Unlike other endemic Antarctic nematodes, the life history traits of P. davidi do not show evidence of an evolved response to polar conditions. Thus we suggest that the colonization of Antarctica by P. davidi and of Surtsey by P. superbus may be examples of recent “ecological fitting” of freezing-tolerant anhydrobiotic propagules to the respective abiotic conditions in Ross Island and Surtsey

  4. Anhydrobiosis and freezing-tolerance: adaptations that facilitate the establishment of Panagrolaimus nematodes in polar habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Lorraine M; Shannon, Adam J; Pisani, Davide; Félix, Marie-Anne; Ramløv, Hans; Dix, Ilona; Wharton, David A; Burnell, Ann M

    2015-01-01

    Anhydrobiotic animals can survive the loss of both free and bound water from their cells. While in this state they are also resistant to freezing. This physiology adapts anhydrobiotes to harsh environments and it aids their dispersal. Panagrolaimus davidi, a bacterial feeding anhydrobiotic nematode isolated from Ross Island Antarctica, can survive intracellular ice formation when fully hydrated. A capacity to survive freezing while fully hydrated has also been observed in some other Antarctic nematodes. We experimentally determined the anhydrobiotic and freezing-tolerance phenotypes of 24 Panagrolaimus strains from tropical, temperate, continental and polar habitats and we analysed their phylogenetic relationships. We found that several other Panagrolaimus isolates can also survive freezing when fully hydrated and that tissue extracts from these freezing-tolerant nematodes can inhibit the growth of ice crystals. We show that P. davidi belongs to a clade of anhydrobiotic and freezing-tolerant panagrolaimids containing strains from temperate and continental regions and that P. superbus, an early colonizer at Surtsey island, Iceland after its volcanic formation, is closely related to a species from Pennsylvania, USA. Ancestral state reconstructions show that anhydrobiosis evolved deep in the phylogeny of Panagrolaimus. The early-diverging Panagrolaimus lineages are strongly anhydrobiotic but weakly freezing-tolerant, suggesting that freezing tolerance is most likely a derived trait. The common ancestors of the davidi and the superbus clades were anhydrobiotic and also possessed robust freezing tolerance, along with a capacity to inhibit the growth and recrystallization of ice crystals. Unlike other endemic Antarctic nematodes, the life history traits of P. davidi do not show evidence of an evolved response to polar conditions. Thus we suggest that the colonization of Antarctica by P. davidi and of Surtsey by P. superbus may be examples of recent "ecological fitting" of freezing-tolerant anhydrobiotic propagules to the respective abiotic conditions in Ross Island and Surtsey. PMID:25747673

  5. Valorisation of a water hyacinth in vermicomposting using an epigeic earthworm Perionyx excavatus in Central Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Zirbes, L.; Renard, Q.; Dufey, J.; Tu, Pk; Duyet, Hn; Lebailly, P.; Francis, F.; Haubruge, E.

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of vermicomposting water hyacinth (WH) [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] mixed with pig manure (PM) in different proportions was tested using tropical composting earthworm Perionyx excavatus. Earthworms grew and reproduced normally until the incorporation of 50% WH in initial substrate. Higher water hyacinth proportions induced earthworms' mortality and significantly affected the numbers of hatchlings and cocoons produced during vermicomposting period. The influence of the ...

  6. Earthworms Dilong: Ancient, Inexpensive, Noncontroversial Models May Help Clarify Approaches to Integrated Medicine Emphasizing Neuroimmune Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Edwin L.; Mariappan Balamurugan; Chih-Yang Huang; Tsao, Clara R.; Jesus Heredia; Mila Tommaseo-Ponzetta; Paoletti, Maurizio G.

    2012-01-01

    Earthworms have provided ancient cultures with food and sources of medicinal cures. Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and practices in Japan, Vietnam, and Korea have focused first on earthworms as sources of food. Gradually fostering an approach to potential beneficial healing properties, there are renewed efforts through bioprospecting and evidence-based research to understand by means of rigorous investigations the mechanisms of action whether earthworms are used as food and/or ...

  7. Earthworm responses to Cd and Cu under fluctuating environmental conditions: a comparison with results from laboratory exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory toxicity tests are usually conducted under stable ambient conditions, while exposures in ecosystems occur in a fluctuating climate. To assess how climate influences the toxicity of Cu and Cd for the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus, this study compared effects for life-cycle parameters (survival, reproduction), cellular status (lysosomal membrane stability), gene expression (transcript of the metal binding protein metallothionein-2) and tissue metal concentration measured under outdoor conditions, with the same responses under constant conditions as measured by Spurgeon et al. [Spurgeon, D.J., Svendsen, C., Weeks, J.M., Hankard, P.K., Stubberud, H.E., Kammenga, J.E., 2003. Quantifying copper and cadmium impacts on intrinsic rate of population increase in the terrestrial oligochaete Lumbricus rubellus. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22, 1465-1472]. Both metals were found to significantly influence earthworm reproduction, compromise lysosomal membrane stability and induce MT-2 gene expression in the outdoor system. Comparison with physiological and life-cycle responses in the laboratory indicated similar response patterns and effect concentrations for Cu. For Cd, lysosomal membrane stability and MT-2expression showed comparable responses in both exposures. Juvenile production rate, however, gave different dose response relationships, with the EC-50 in the outdoor test approximately half that in the laboratory test. A difference in Cd accumulatiratory test. A difference in Cd accumulation was also seen. Overall, however, the comparison indicated only a marginal effect of environmental fluctuations typical for northern temperate Europe on earthworm sensitivity to the two metals. - Comparative analysis of life-cycle, physiological and molecular responses to Cu and Cd indicate similar responses under static and fluctuating climate regimes

  8. Accumulation of mercury and methylmercury by mushrooms and earthworms from forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieder, Stephan R. [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Institute for Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zuerich, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Brunner, Ivano [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Horvat, Milena [Jozef Stefan Institute, 1001 Ljubliana (Slovenia); Jacobs, Anna [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Department of Environmental Chemistry, University of Kassel, 37213 Witzenhausen (Germany); Frey, Beat, E-mail: beat.frey@wsl.ch [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2011-10-15

    Accumulation of total and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms was studied in thirty-four natural forest soils strongly varying in soil physico-chemical characteristics. Tissue Hg concentrations of both receptors did hardly correlate with Hg concentrations in soil. Both total and methyl-Hg concentrations in tissues were species-specific and dependent on the ecological groups of receptor. Methyl-Hg was low accounting for less than 5 and 8% of total Hg in tissues of mushrooms and earthworms, respectively, but with four times higher concentrations in earthworms than mushrooms. Total Hg concentrations in mushrooms averaged 0.96 mg Hg kg{sup -1} dw whereas litter decomposing mushrooms showed highest total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations. Earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations (1.04 mg Hg kg{sup -1} dw) whereas endogeic earthworms accumulated highest amounts of Hg and methyl-Hg. - Highlights: > Hg and MeHg concentrations in mushrooms and earthworms at unpolluted forest soils. > Mushrooms and earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations. > MeHg was present in traces but four times higher in earthworms than in mushrooms. > Ecophysiological group influenced Hg and MeHg concentration in both receptors. - Accumulation of Hg and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms is species- and ecophysiological group dependent.

  9. Earthworms - role in soil fertility to the use in medicine and as a food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Grdiša

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are important regulators of soil structure and dynamics of soil organic matter. They are a major component of soil fauna communities in most ecosystems and comprise a large proportion of macro fauna biomass. Their activities are beneficial because they can enhance soil nutrient cycling through the rapid incorporation of detritus into mineral soil. However, mucus production associated with water excretion in earthworm guts also enhances the activity of other beneficial soil microorganisms. Earthworms alter soil structure, water movement, nutrient dynamics and plant growth. The medical value of earthworms has been known for centuries. The extracts prepared from earthworm tissues have been used for the treatment of numerous diseases since they are valuable source of proteins, peptides, enzymes and physiologically active substances. Several studies have shown that the earthworm extracts contain different macromolecules which exhibited the variety of activities, such as antioxidative, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, anticancer etc. Some of these activities are involved in wound healing process, using the earthworm preparation. In some countries the earthworms are used as a part of healthy food. They have very high nutritive value because their bodies contain the high percentage of various proteins. Besides the human food, the earthworms are used in the feeding of animals (fish, chicken, etc..

  10. Accumulation of mercury and methylmercury by mushrooms and earthworms from forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation of total and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms was studied in thirty-four natural forest soils strongly varying in soil physico-chemical characteristics. Tissue Hg concentrations of both receptors did hardly correlate with Hg concentrations in soil. Both total and methyl-Hg concentrations in tissues were species-specific and dependent on the ecological groups of receptor. Methyl-Hg was low accounting for less than 5 and 8% of total Hg in tissues of mushrooms and earthworms, respectively, but with four times higher concentrations in earthworms than mushrooms. Total Hg concentrations in mushrooms averaged 0.96 mg Hg kg-1 dw whereas litter decomposing mushrooms showed highest total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations. Earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations (1.04 mg Hg kg-1 dw) whereas endogeic earthworms accumulated highest amounts of Hg and methyl-Hg. - Highlights: ? Hg and MeHg concentrations in mushrooms and earthworms at unpolluted forest soils. ? Mushrooms and earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations. ? MeHg was present in traces but four times higher in earthworms than in mushrooms. ? Ecophysiological group influenced Hg and MeHg concentration in both receptors. - Accumulation of Hg and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms is species- and ecophysiological group dependent.

  11. Performance Characteristics of an Isothermal Freeze Valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hailey, A.E.

    2001-08-22

    This document discusses performance characteristics of an isothermal freeze valve. A freeze valve has been specified for draining the DWPF melter at the end of its lifetime. Two freeze valve designs have been evaluated on the Small Cylindrical Melter-2 (SCM-2). In order to size the DWPF freeze valve, the basic principles governing freeze valve behavior need to be identified and understood.

  12. Effect of temperature and season on reproduction, neutral red retention and metallothionein responses of earthworms exposed to metals in field soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the short-term survival, reproduction and physiological (lysosomal membrane stability, metallothionein transcript copy number, body tissue metal concentrations) responses of Lumbricus rubellus exposed to metal contaminated field soils under different laboratory temperatures (10, 15 and 20 oC) and physiological responses of earthworms collected from the field in three different seasons (spring, autumn, winter). In the laboratory, metal contaminated soils had significant effects on reproduction (p < 0.001), metallothionein-2 (MT-2) expression (p = 0.033) and earthworm As (p = 0.003), Cd (p = 0.001), Pb (p < 0.001) and Zn (p < 0.001) concentration, but not lysosomal membrane stability and tissue Hg and Cu. No effect of temperature was found for any parameter. Principal component analysis of extractable and tissue metal concentrations indicated PC1 as a measure of metal stress. Both cocoon production (r = - 0.75) and MT-2 induction (r = 0.41) were correlated with PC1. A correlation was also found between cocoon production and MT-2 expression (r = - 0.41). Neutral red retention and MT-2 measurements in worms collected from the field sites in three seasons confirmed the absence of a temperature effect on these responses. - Laboratory and field studies demonstrate metal effects on earthworm life-cycle and biochemical responses are not influenced by temperature regime

  13. Promotion of leaf degradation by earthworms under laboratory conditions. Paper presented at Joint Organic Congress, Odense, Denemarken

    OpenAIRE

    Heijne, B.; Jager, A; Jong, P.F., de

    2006-01-01

    Organic materials were applied to leaves from organic apple trees. Then, leaves were fed to earthworms in a laboratory culture. The objective was to select materials which promote leaf degradation by earthworms and consequently reduce the inoculum pressure of apple scab in orchards. Used earthworms were fully grown and consequently no effect of the leaf treatments was found on earthworm weights. However, leaf consumption tended to be increased by addition of amino acids and beet pulp to leave...

  14. Earthworm activities in cassava and egusi melon fields in the transitional zone of Benin: linking farmers' perceptions with field studies

    OpenAIRE

    Saïdou, A.; D. Kossou; Brussaard, L.; Richards, P.; T. W. Kuyper

    2008-01-01

    Farmers' perceptions of earthworm activities were studied in the transitional zone of Benin and linked to scientific explanations of earthworm casting activities. Earthworm activity was assessed in farmers' fields with three different cassava cultivars and in a field experiment with three different egusi melon species. The experiment included plots with cowpea and maize. The study also comprised group discussions and a survey with 91 individual farmers. All farmers were aware of earthworms, b...

  15. Non-native earthworms promote plant invasion by ingesting seeds and modifying soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clause, Julia; Forey, Estelle; Lortie, Christopher J.; Lambert, Adam M.; Barot, Sébastien

    2015-04-01

    Earthworms can have strong direct effects on plant communities through consumption and digestion of seeds, however it is unclear how earthworms may influence the relative abundance and composition of plant communities invaded by non-native species. In this study, earthworms, seed banks, and the standing vegetation were sampled in a grassland of central California. Our objectives were i) to examine whether the abundances of non-native, invasive earthworm species and non-native grassland plant species are correlated, and ii) to test whether seed ingestion by these worms alters the soil seed bank by evaluating the composition of seeds in casts relative to uningested soil. Sampling locations were selected based on historical land-use practices, including presence or absence of tilling, and revegetation by seed using Phalaris aquatica. Only non-native earthworm species were found, dominated by the invasive European species Aporrectodea trapezoides. Earthworm abundance was significantly higher in the grassland blocks dominated by non-native plant species, and these sites had higher carbon and moisture contents. Earthworm abundance was also positively related to increased emergence of non-native seedlings, but had no effect on that of native seedlings. Plant species richness and total seedling emergence were higher in casts than in uningested soils. This study suggests that there is a potential effect of non-native earthworms in promoting non-native and likely invasive plant species within grasslands, due to seed-plant-earthworm interactions via soil modification or to seed ingestion by earthworms and subsequent cast effects on grassland dynamics. This study supports a growing body of literature for earthworms as ecosystem engineers but highlights the relative importance of considering non-native-native interactions with the associated plant community.

  16. Generalized structural theory of freezing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first-principles order parameter theory of freezing, proposed in an earlier work, has been successful in yielding quantitative agreement with known freezing parameters for monoatomic liquids forming solids with one atom per unit cell. A generalization of this theory is presented here to include the effects of a basis set of many atoms per unit cell. The basic equations get modified by the 'density structure factors' fsub(i) which arise from the density variations within the unit cell. Calculations are presented for the important case of monoatomic liquids freezing into hexagonal close packed solids. It is concluded that all freezing transitions can be described by using structural correlations in the liquid instead of the pair potential; and that the three body correlations are important in deciding the type of solid formed after freezing. (author)

  17. Managing Earthworm Castings (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) in Turfgrass using a Natural By-Product of Tea Oil (Camellia sp.) Manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earthworm casts are a problem on golf courses and sport fields when they disrupt the playability, aesthetics, and maintenance of playing surfaces. Abundant earthworms alongside airport runways can increase bird strike risk. Currently no pesticides are labeled for earthworms in the United States. W...

  18. Earthworms in an arable field-forest ecotone.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav; Zeithaml, J.

    ?eské Bud?jovice : Institute of Soil Biology ASCR, 2005, s. 113-117. ISBN 80-86525-04-X. [Contributions to soil Zoology in Central Europe I. Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /7./. ?eské Bud?jovice (CZ), 14.04.2003-16.04.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : earthworms * ecotone * edge effect Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  19. The ecology and control of earthworms on golf courses

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    Earthworm casts on golf courses affect the playability of the turf and can potentially damage mowing equipment. Traditionally this problem has been limited using chemical controls. It is estimated that 0.6% of the total UK land surface is occupied by golf courses, therefore, the land management strategies which green keepers adopt with respect to the application of chemicals has a major environmental impact. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the ecology and potential co...

  20. UO2 flow freezing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transient freezing of molten UO2 and UO2-steel mixtures in steel channels is an important functional heat transfer process which occurs in the course of Liquid Metal-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accidents (HCDA). Fuel freezing processes can influence both the transient overpower (TOP) and transient undercooling (TUC) accidents. In the absence of freezing, either fuel sweepout or continuous fuel removal can lead to shutdown with a largely coolable geometry in the TOP case and greatly reduce concerns over recriticality in the TUC case. However, with fuel freezing either case may lead to a temporarily ''bottled-up core'' condition which is relieved by melting of the initially formed plugs. Whether further freezing occurs in either the upward or downward direction through the core support structure is of interest in determining the decay heat level for Post-Accident Heat Removal (PAHR). Attention is focused on the freezing of ceramic fuel in steel channels. A discussion of the conduction-controlled and bulk freezing mechanisms is given first. A fuel crust stability criterion is proposed, and an explicit formula providing a rough estimate of critical fuel crust disintegration conditions is developed. A comparison of the crust stability criterion with a number of explanatory experimental results is made. A steel ablation-fuel freezing mechanism is identified. If the conditions in the fuel flow are such to prevent fues in the fuel flow are such to prevent fuel crust growth, then the steel wall melting can become catastrophic. Steel ablation rapidly leads to fuel freezing in a bulk manner via turbulent mixing between the relatively ''cold'' molten steel and hot molten fuel. Based on this ablation-freezing concept, simple equations are developed for molten fuel penetration into steel channels. Comparison of the equations with the available experimental results proves favorable

  1. Intracellular freezing in the infective juveniles of Steinernema feltiae: an entomopathogenic nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Farman; Wharton, David A

    2014-01-01

    Taking advantage of their optical transparency, we clearly observed the third stage infective juveniles (IJs) of Steinernema feltiae freezing under a cryo-stage microscope. The IJs froze when the water surrounding them froze at -2°C and below. However, they avoid inoculative freezing at -1°C, suggesting cryoprotective dehydration. Freezing was evident as a sudden darkening and cessation of IJs' movement. Freeze substitution and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the IJs of S. feltiae freeze intracellularly. Ice crystals were found in every compartment of the body. IJs frozen at high sub-zero temperatures (-1 and -3°C) survived and had small ice crystals. Those frozen at -10°C had large ice crystals and did not survive. However, the pattern of ice formation was not well-controlled and individual nematodes frozen at -3°C had both small and large ice crystals. IJs frozen by plunging directly into liquid nitrogen had small ice crystals, but did not survive. This study thus presents the evidence that S. feltiae is only the second freeze tolerant animal, after the Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi, shown to withstand extensive intracellular freezing. PMID:24769523

  2. Vitrification of mouse preantral follicles versus slow freezing: Morphological and apoptosis evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Seyed Abdolvahab; Valojerdi, Mojtaba Rezazadeh; Moghadam, Mehdi Forozandeh; Ebrahimi, Bita

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was evaluation of survivability, maturation rate and apoptotic gene expression of preantral follicles after vitrification and slow freezing technique. Normal mouse preantral follicles were randomly divided into three experimental groups. In the control group, follicles were cultured immediately; in the vitrification and slow freezing groups, follicles were cultured after vitrification-warming and slow freezing-thawing procedures. Follicular viability was assessed by using 0.4% trypan blue, and molecular evaluation of messenger RNA levels of apoptosis-related genes was performed by the semi-quantitative RT-PCR method after 3?h of culture. Oocyte maturation rates were also evaluated on day 14 of culture. Survival and maturation rate in the slow freezing group were significantly lower than those in control and vitrification groups (P???0.05). Although there was no difference in Survivin expression among the three experimental groups, Bcl-2 expression was significantly lower in the slow freezing group compared to the other groups (P???0.05). The expression of Bax, P53, Fas and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the slow freezing group was significantly higher than control and vitrification groups (P???0.05). Preantral follicle vitrification seems to be better than slow freezing as seen in the survival, maturation and expression rates of apoptotic gene variants. PMID:25041991

  3. Cold tolerance and freeze-induced glucose accumulation in three terrestrial slugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slotsbo, Stine; Hansen, Lars Monrad

    2012-01-01

    Cold tolerance and metabolic responses to freezing of three slug species common in Scandinavia (Arion ater, Arion rufus and Arion lusitanicus) are reported. Autumn collected slugs were cold acclimated in the laboratory and subjected to freezing conditions simulating likely winter temperatures in their habitat. Slugs spontaneously froze at about -4 °C when cooled under dry conditions, but freezing of body fluids was readily induced at -1 °C when in contact with external ice crystals. All three species survived freezing for 2 days at -1 °C, and some A. rufus and A. lusitanicus also survived freezing at -2 °C. (1)H NMR spectroscopy revealed that freezing of body fluids resulted in accumulation of lactate, succinate and glucose. Accumulation of lactate and succinate indicates that ATP production occurred via fermentative pathways, which is likely a result of oxygen depletion in frozen tissues. Glucose increased from about 6 to 22 µg/mg dry tissue upon freezing in A. rufus, but less so in A. ater and A. lusitanicus. Glucose may thus act as a cryoprotectant in these slugs, although the concentrations are not as high as reported for other freeze tolerant invertebrates.

  4. Freeze. How you can help prevent nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In their book the Senators Kennedy and Hatfield prove that the United States will not be able to survive a nuclear war. The report on the freeze movement is followed by a chapter on the history of the efforts for disarmament which had been abruptly ended by President Reagan's call for the enhanced modernization of nuclear arms. But ''we have reached the unique moment in the history of the atomic age where it is possible and where it must be tried to freeze nuclear armament'', as Kennedy and Hatfield write, for ''the present nuclear balance is relatively stable''. Only by freezing the standard of armament can this balance which decides on worldwide peace be granted. (orig.)

  5. PREDICTION OF BIOAVAILABILITY OF CHLORPYRIFOS RESIDUES IN SOIL TO EARTHWORMS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    X.M, Wu; Y.L, Yu; M, Li; Y.H, Long; H, Fang; S.N, Li.

    Full Text Available An incubation test was conducted to investigate the effect of aging on bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil and to assess the feasibility of chemical extraction techniques for predicting bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil. Chlorpyrifos was spiked into sterilized soil and aged in microcosms f [...] or up to 120 days. The earthworms were incubated in the spiked soils, at 0, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 120 days after spiking, for a period of 7 days. After exposure, chlorpyrifos concentrations in the earthworm tissues were determined. Change in chemical extractability of soil-chlorpyrifos was measured using a several solvent systems including methanol, methanol-water (9:1), acetone-water (5:3), and water. The results show that chemical extractability and earthworm bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil decreased with aging. The amount of aged and unaged chlorpyrifos recovered from soil varied with the individual chemical extractant and extraction method. Concentrations of chlorpyrifos in Eisenia foetida were significantly higher than in Allolobophora caliginosa, suggesting that the bioavailability of chlorpyrifos was a species-dependent process. The extractability of chlorpyrifos by chemical solvents was significantly correlated with bioavailability fraction of E. foetida and A. caliginosa, showing that these extraction techniques may be efficient for predicting bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil.

  6. Comparative Genomics of Symbiotic Bacteria in Earthworm Nephridia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Pinel, Nicolas

    The excretory and osmoregulatory organs (nephridia) of lumbricid earthworms are densely colonized by extracellular bacterial symbionts belonging to the newly established betaproteobacterial genus Verminephrobacter. The nephridial symbiont of the earthworm Eisenia fetida was subjected to full genome sequencing along with two of its closest relatives; the plant pathogenic Acidovorax avena subsp. citrulli and the free-living Acidovorax sp. JS42. In addition, the genome of the nephridial symbiont of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata was partially sequenced. In order to resolve the functional and evolutionary basis of the symbiosis we annotated and compared the genomes. The genomes ranged in size from 4.4 to 5.6 Mbp, the E. fetida symbiont genome being the largest. The symbiont genomes showed no evidence of gene-loss related to any particular type of functional gene category. In contrast, genes predicted to be involved in transport processes were highly overrepresented in the symbiont genomes due to massive paralogous expansion of genes encoding ABC-type amino acid and peptide uptake systems. Thus, symbionts seem well-adapted to the nephridial environment being able to profit from proteinaceous excretion products. Gene order was highly conserved between the genomes of Acidovorax avena and Acidovorax sp. JS42, whereas the E. fetida symbiont genome held very little conservation of gene order compared to either of the latter two. Repetitive sequences were excessively abundant throughout the genomes of both symbionts. Together, this is indicative of high recombinatorial frequency in the symbiont genomes the function of which is presently poorly understood.

  7. PREDICTION OF BIOAVAILABILITY OF CHLORPYRIFOS RESIDUES IN SOIL TO EARTHWORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.M Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An incubation test was conducted to investigate the effect of aging on bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil and to assess the feasibility of chemical extraction techniques for predicting bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil. Chlorpyrifos was spiked into sterilized soil and aged in microcosms for up to 120 days. The earthworms were incubated in the spiked soils, at 0, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 120 days after spiking, for a period of 7 days. After exposure, chlorpyrifos concentrations in the earthworm tissues were determined. Change in chemical extractability of soil-chlorpyrifos was measured using a several solvent systems including methanol, methanol-water (9:1, acetone-water (5:3, and water. The results show that chemical extractability and earthworm bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil decreased with aging. The amount of aged and unaged chlorpyrifos recovered from soil varied with the individual chemical extractant and extraction method. Concentrations of chlorpyrifos in Eisenia foetida were significantly higher than in Allolobophora caliginosa, suggesting that the bioavailability of chlorpyrifos was a species-dependent process. The extractability of chlorpyrifos by chemical solvents was significantly correlated with bioavailability fraction of E. foetida and A. caliginosa, showing that these extraction techniques may be efficient for predicting bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil.

  8. Biological response of earthworm, Eisenia fetida, to five neonicotinoid insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Pang, Sen; Mu, Xiyan; Qi, Suzhen; Li, Dongzhi; Cui, Feng; Wang, Chengju

    2015-08-01

    Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) are one of the most abundant terrestrial species, and play an important role in maintaining the ecological function of soil. Neonicotinoids are some of the most widely used insecticides applied to crops. Studies on the effect of neonicotinoids on E. fetida are limited. In the present work, we evaluated the effects of five neonicotinoid insecticides on reproduction, cellulase activity and the tissues of E. fetida. The results showed that, the LC50 of imidacloprid, acetamiprid, nitenpyram, clothianidin and thiacloprid was 3.05, 2.69, 4.34, 0.93 and 2.68mgkg(-1), respectively. They also could seriously affect the reproduction of E. fetida, reducing the fecundity by 84.0%, 39.5%, 54.3%, 45.7% and 39.5% at the sub-lethal concentrations of 2.0, 1.5, 0.80, 2.0 and 1.5mgkg(-1), respectively. The cellulase activity of E. fetida was most sensitive to clothianidin. Significant disruption of the epidermal and midgut tissue was observed after 14d exposure. In summary, we demonstrate that imidacloprid, acetamiprid, nitenpyram, clothianidin and thiacloprid have high toxic to earthworm, and can significantly inhibited fecundity and cellulase activity of E. fetida, and they also damage the epidermal and midgut cells of earthworm. PMID:25828917

  9. Short-term stabilization of grape marc through earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Brandón, María; Lazcano, Cristina; Lores, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge

    2011-03-15

    The winery industry generates vast amounts of organic waste during the various stages of wine production. Among the possible methodological alternatives available for its treatment, vermicomposting is one of the best-known processes for the biological stabilization of solid organic wastes by transforming them into safer and more stabilized materials suitable for application to soil. In this study we carried out a mesocosm experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of the active phase of vermicomposting for the stabilization of grape marc, an enriched lignocellulosic by-product obtained after the grape crushing and pressing stages in wine production. For this we analysed the chemical, biochemical and microbiological properties of the product resulting from this phase, in comparison with those in a control treatment. Earthworm activity reduced the abundance of both bacterial and fungal PLFA biomarkers. Decreases in microbial activity and in protease and cellulase activities were also attributed to the presence of earthworms. The differences in microbial communities were accompanied by a reduction in the labile C pool and the cellulose content. These results indicate that earthworms played a key role in the stabilization of the grape marc in the short-term, via its effects on organic matter decomposition and microbial biomass and activity. PMID:21277083

  10. Distribution of bacteria and fungi in the earthworm Libyodrillus violaceous (Annelida: Oligochaeta), a native earthworm from Nigeria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A. B, Idowu; M. O, Edema; A. O, Adeyi.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are soil invertebrates that play a key role in recycling organic matter in soils.In Nigeria, earthworms include Libyodrillus violaceous. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial counts, as well as fungal counts of viable microorganisms in soils and gut sections, were made on twenty L. violaceous c [...] ollected from different sites on the campus of the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. The samples were collected between April and November, 2002. Numbers of microorganisms were higher in castings and gut sections than in uningested soil samples. The guts and their contents also had higher moisture and total nitrogen contents than the uningested soils. Bacteria and fungi isolated from the samples were identified by standard microbiological procedures on the bases of their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Isolated bacteria were identified as Staphylococcus, Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus mutans, Clostridium, Spirocheata spp., Azotobacter spp., Micrococcus lylae, Acinetobacter spp., Halobacterium for bacteria. Yeast isolates were identified as Candida spp., Zygosaccharomyces spp., Pichia spp., and Saccharomyces spp while molds were identified as, Aspergillus spp., Pytium spp., Penicillium spp., Fusarium spp and Rhizopus spp. Of the five locations examined, the refuse dump area had the highest numbers of both aerobic and anaerobic organisms, followed by the arboretum while the cultivated land area recorded the lowest counts. The higher numbers of microorganisms observed in the gut sections and casts of the earthworms examined in this work reinforce the general concept that the gut and casts of earthworms show higher microbial diversity and activity than the surrounding soil. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (1): 49-58. Epub 2006 Mar 31.

  11. Distribution of bacteria and fungi in the earthworm Libyodrillus violaceous (Annelida: Oligochaeta, a native earthworm from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B Idowu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are soil invertebrates that play a key role in recycling organic matter in soils.In Nigeria, earthworms include Libyodrillus violaceous. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial counts, as well as fungal counts of viable microorganisms in soils and gut sections, were made on twenty L. violaceous collected from different sites on the campus of the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. The samples were collected between April and November, 2002. Numbers of microorganisms were higher in castings and gut sections than in uningested soil samples. The guts and their contents also had higher moisture and total nitrogen contents than the uningested soils. Bacteria and fungi isolated from the samples were identified by standard microbiological procedures on the bases of their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Isolated bacteria were identified as Staphylococcus, Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus mutans, Clostridium, Spirocheata spp., Azotobacter spp., Micrococcus lylae, Acinetobacter spp., Halobacterium for bacteria. Yeast isolates were identified as Candida spp., Zygosaccharomyces spp., Pichia spp., and Saccharomyces spp while molds were identified as, Aspergillus spp., Pytium spp., Penicillium spp., Fusarium spp and Rhizopus spp. Of the five locations examined, the refuse dump area had the highest numbers of both aerobic and anaerobic organisms, followed by the arboretum while the cultivated land area recorded the lowest counts. The higher numbers of microorganisms observed in the gut sections and casts of the earthworms examined in this work reinforce the general concept that the gut and casts of earthworms show higher microbial diversity and activity than the surrounding soil. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (1: 49-58. Epub 2006 Mar 31.

  12. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MASS OF NEWLY HATCHED INDIVIDUALS AND COCOON MASS IN LUMBRICID EARTHWORMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruus, Marianne; Bjerre, Arne

    1991-01-01

    Earthworm cocoons from laboratory cultures were collected and their mass was determined. When hatched, the mass of the young worms was found. Cocoon mass and the mass of hatchlings varied considerably within species. The hygromass of newly hatched earthworms was found to correlate linearly with cocoon hygromass. It is concluded that cocoon hygromass may offer a prediction for hygromass of hatchlings.

  13. Temperature-dependent alterations in metabolic enzymes and proteins of three ecophysiologically different species of earthworms

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G, Tripathi; N., Kachhwaha; I., Dabi; N., Bandooni.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of varying temperatures (12 - 44° C) on the specific activity of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase ((cMDH), mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of some earthworms (Metaphire posthuma, Perionyx sansibaricus and Lampito mauritii) were studied. The effec [...] ts of different temperatures on supernatant and mitochondrial protein contents were also investigated. The specific activities of cMDH, mMDH and LDH of the earthworms decreased gradually as a function of increasing temperature from 12 to 44°C. Higher metabolic energy was needed to maintain the activity at low temperatures. Hence, the earthworms showed increased enzyme specific activity at low temperatures. However, the protein content increased upto 28°C. Afterwards, with the increase in the temperature from 28 to 42°C, the proteins in the earthworms showed a significant decrease. The temperature-associated changes in the protein content could be explained by the fact that protein synthesizing capacity was hampered above and below the optimum temperature range. The most pronounced effects of varying temperatures were on P. sansibaricus. It might be due to the epigeic nature of the earthworm species. Then minimum effect was on the endogeic earthworm M. posthuma. Virtually, the differences in the enzymes physiology were associated with the differences in the ecological categories of the earthworms. This clearly demonstrate a possible link between the physiology and ecology at aerobic (cMDH, mMDH) and anaerobic (LDH) levels in the tropical earthworms.

  14. Microbial communities associated with three populations of Eisenia earthworms - polyphasic approach.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koubová, Anna; Pižl, Václav; Chro?áková, Alica; Elhottová, Dana

    Xalapa : Instituto de Ecología , A.C, 2010. s. 189. [International Symposium on Earthworm Ecology /9./. 05.09.2010-10.09.2010, Xalapa] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : microbial communities * Eisenia earthworms * polyphasic approach Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. The effects of production systems on earthworm assemblages in vineyards and apple orchards.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav

    Xalapa : Instituto de Ecología , A.C, 2010. s. 114. [International Symposium on Earthworm Ecology /9./. 05.09.2010-10.09.2010, Xalapa] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : earthworm assemblages * vineyards * apple orchards Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  16. Different expression of fetidin and lysenin in Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida earthworms.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škanta, František; Dvo?ák, Ji?í; Josková, Radka; Šilerová, Marcela; Procházková, Petra; Man?íková, Veronika; Elhottová, Dana; Koubová, Anna; Pižl, Václav; Bilej, Martin

    Xalapa : Instituto de Ecología , A.C, 2010. s. 78. [International Symposium on Earthworm Ecology /9./. 05.09.2010-10.09.2010, Xalapa] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : fetidin * lysenin * earthworms Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  17. Earthworms as phoretic hosts for Steinernema carpocapsae and Beauveria bassiana: Implications for enhanced biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior research indicated that earthworms may serve as phoretic hosts to entomopathogenic nematodes. Therefore, we hypothesized that biocontrol efficacy of nematodes could be enhanced in the presence of earthworms based on increased nematode dispersal through the soil. We also hypothesized that ear...

  18. Influence of earthworm mucus and amino acids on tomato seedling growth and cadmium accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects on the growth of tomato seedlings and cadmium accumulation of earthworm mucus and a solution of amino acids matching those in earthworm mucus was studied through a hydroponic experiment. The experiment included four treatments: 5 mg Cd L-1 (CC), 5 mg Cd L-1 + 100 mL L-1 earthworm mucus (CE), 5 mg Cd L-1 + 100 mL L-1 amino acids solution (CA) and the control (CK). Results showed that, compared with CC treatment, either earthworm mucus or amino acids significantly increased tomato seedling growth and Cd accumulation but the increase was much higher in the CE treatment compared with the CA treatment. This may be due to earthworm mucus and amino acids significantly increasing the chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement uptake and transport in the tomato seedlings. The much greater increase in the effect of earthworm mucus compared with amino acid treatments may be due to IAA-like substances in earthworm mucus. - Earthworm mucus increased tomato seedlings growth and Cd accumulation through increasing chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement accumulation.

  19. Microflora dynamics in earthworms casts in an artificial soil (biosynthesol containing lactic acid oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alauzet Nathalie

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were performed to appreciate the presence of micro-organisms able to degrade OLA, in earthworms casts or in the surroundings. Worms were grown in biosynthesol, an artificial soil. The counting of bacteria and fungi in earthworms casts and in biosynthesol without earthworms suggested that earthworms ate some of the micro-organisms. The main filamentous fungi genera found were Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Fusarium and Penicillium. Previous results in the literature have shown that some species from the Aspergillus and Fusarium genera were able to degrade OLA and other aliphatic esters. It could be suggested that these two genera and some bacteria were responsible for the pre-degradation of OLA, and that earthworms might eat them.

  20. Earthworms influenced by reduced tillage, conventional tillage and energy forest in Swedish agricultural field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerloef, Jan (SLU, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)), Email: Jan.Lagerlof@ekol.slu.se; Paalsson, Olof; Arvidsson, Johan (SLU, Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2012-03-15

    We compared earthworm density, depth distribution and species composition in three soil cultivation experiments including the treatments ploughless tillage and mouldboard ploughing. Sampling was done in September 2005 and for one experiment also in 1994. By yearly sampling 1995-2005, earthworms in an energy forest of Salix viminalis were compared with those in an adjacent arable field. Sampling method was digging of soil blocks and hand sorting and formalin sampling in one cultivation experiment. Both methods were used in the energy forest and arable land comparison. In two soil cultivation experiments, highest abundances or biomass were found in ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was higher in the upper 10 cm, especially in the ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was significantly higher in the energy forest than in the arable field. Formalin sampling revealed c. 36% of the earthworm numbers found by digging in the energy forest and gave almost no earthworms in the arable field. In all treatments with soil cultivation, species living and feeding in the rhizosphere and soil dominated. One such species, Allolobophora chlorotica, was more abundant under mouldboard ploughing than ploughless tillage. Lumbricus terrestris, browsing on the surface and producing deep vertical burrows, was more common in the ploughless tillage. Species living and feeding close to the soil surface were almost only found in the energy forest, which had not been soil cultivated since 1984. The findings support earlier studies pointing out possibilities to encourage earthworms by reduced soil cultivation. This is one of the first published studies that followed earthworm populations in an energy forest plantation during several years. Explanation of earthworm reactions to management and environmental impacts should be done with consideration of the ecology of species or species groups. Earthworm sampling by formalin must always be interpreted with caution and calibrated by digging and hand-sorting sampling

  1. Impact of age of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation on earthworm communities of West Tripura (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, P S; Bhattacharjee, Subhalaxmi; Dey, Animesh; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila; Bhattacharya, Dipto

    2013-01-01

    A comparative analysis of earthworm communities was carried out in the rubber plantations (Hevea brasiliensis) of different age groups in West Tripura to understand the impact of such exotic and monoculture plantation in biodiversity conservation. Earthworm communities were studied on monthly basis over a period of one year (2006-2007) in the 3, 10, 14, 20 and 25 year-old plantations. Among twelve earthworm species collected from the studied sites, six species belonged to Octochaetidae [Eutyphoeus assomensis Stephenson, Eutyphoeus comillahnus Michaelsen, Lennogaster chittagongensis (Stephensen), Octochaetona beatrix Gates, Dichogaster offinis Michaelsen, Lennogaster yeicus (Stephensen)], two species each to Megascolecidae [Metaphire houlleti (Perrier), Konchurio sp. 1] and Moniligastridae [Drowida nepalensis Michaelsen, Drawida papillifer papillifer Stephenson], one species each to Glossoscolecidae [Pontoscolex corethrurus (Muller)] and Ocnerodrilidae [Gordiodrilus elegans Beddard]. Exotic species P corethrurus, M. houlleti and native peregrine species like D. nepolensis and D. papillifer papillifer were distributed in all the age groups of plantation, while other species showed restricted distribution. P. corethrurus contributed more than 60% biomass and 70% density of earthworm communities in rubber plantation. With aging of rubber plantations both the densities and biomasses of earthworms increased. High contents of polyphenol, flavonoid and lignin in the litters of 3 and 10 year-old-rubber plantations through their effects on food intake, probably resulted to low biomass values of earthworms in those age groups of plantation. With further increase in the age of plantations beyond 10 years, polyphenol, flavonoid and lignin contents decreased. Accordingly the biomass of earthworms increased with increase in the age of plantation. Soil moisture increased with increase in the age of plantation and there was a good positive correlation between soil moisture and earthworm biomass (p < 0.01). Density, biomass and dominance of earthworms increased while species diversity, species richness and species evenness of earthworm community were decreased with increase in the age of rubber plantation. PMID:24006808

  2. Surviving the cold: molecular analyses of insect cryoprotective dehydration in the Arctic springtail Megaphorura arctica (Tullberg)

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Melody S.; Thorne, Michael A. S.; Purac?, Jelena; Burns, Gavin; Hillyard, Guy; Popovic?, Z?eljko D.; Grubor-lajs?ic?, Gordana; Worland, Michael Roger

    2009-01-01

    Background: Insects provide tractable models for enhancing our understanding of the physiological and cellular processes that enable survival at extreme low temperatures. They possess three main strategies to survive the cold: freeze tolerance, freeze avoidance or cryoprotective dehydration, of which the latter method is exploited by our model species, the Arctic springtail Megaphorura arctica, formerly Onychiurus arcticus (Tullberg 1876). The physiological mechanisms underlying cryoprotectiv...

  3. FREEZE DRYING PROCESS: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Soham Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Among the various methods of drying, this article has mentioned only one most important method, “Freeze drying”. This method is mainly used for the drying of thermo labile materials. This method works on the principle of sublimation. This method is divided into 3 steps for its better understanding; these are Freezing, Primary drying, and secondary drying. There are many advantages and disadvantages of this method, but still this is the most useful drying method nowadays.

  4. Freezing behaviour of microencapsulated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, H; Ohshima, H; Kondo, T

    1992-01-01

    The freezing behaviour of water in polyurea microcapsules was studied through DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) and ESR (electron spin resonance) measurements under a non-equilibrium condition to show that supercooling of water becomes more noticeable with decreasing droplet size of the liquid. Thermodynamics of small systems was found applicable to analyse the experimental findings, even though the process of water freezing in the microcapsules was not of an equilibrium nature. PMID:1328582

  5. Recrystallization in a Freezing Tolerant Antarctic Nematode, Panagrolaimus davidi, and a Alpine Weta, Hemideina maori (Orthoptera; Stenopelmatidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RamlØv, Hans; Wharton, David A.

    1996-01-01

    The ability of haemolymph from the freezing tolerant weta,Hemideina maori,and supernatant from homogenates of the freezing tolerant nematodePanagrolaimus davidito inhibit the recrystallization of ice was examined using the “splat freezing” technique and annealing on a cryomicroscope stage. There was no recrystallization inhibition in weta haemolymph or in insect ringer controls. Recrystallization inhibition was present in the nematode supernatant but this was destroyed by heating and was absent in controls.P. davidisurvives intracellular freezing and recrystallization inhibition may be important for the survival of this stress.

  6. Elemental and mineralogical changes in soils due to bioturbation along an earthworm invasion chronosequence in Northern Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resner, Kathryn [Dept. of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota, 439 Borlaug Hall, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN, 55108-6028 (United States); Yoo, Kyungsoo, E-mail: kyoo@umn.edu [Dept. of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota, 439 Borlaug Hall, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN, 55108-6028 (United States); Hale, Cindy [University of Minnesota Duluth, The Natural Resources Research Institute, 5013 Miller Trunk Hwy. Duluth, MN 55811 (United States); Aufdenkampe, Anthony [Assistant Research Scientist - Isotope and Organic Geochemistry, Stroud Water Research Center, 970 Spencer Road, Avondale, PA 19311 (United States); Blum, Alex [US Geological Survey, 3215 Marine St., Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Sebestyen, Stephen [Research Hydrologist, USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Grand Rapids, MN 55744-3399 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Minnesota forested soils have evolved without the presence of earthworms since the last glacial retreat. When exotic earthworms arrive, enhanced soil bioturbation often results in dramatic morphological and chemical changes in soils with negative implications for the forests' sustainability. However, the impacts of earthworm invasion on geochemical processes in soils are not well understood. This study attempts to quantify the role of earthworm invasion in mineral chemical weathering and nutrient dynamics along an earthworm invasion chronosequence in a sugar maple forest in Northern Minnesota. Depth and rates of soil mixing can be tracked with atmospherically derived short lived radioisotopes {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs. Their radioactivities increase in the lower A horizon at the expense of the peak activities near the soil surface, which indicate that soil mixing rate and its depth reach have been enhanced by earthworms. Enhanced soil mixing by earthworms is consistent with the ways that the vertical profiles of elemental and mineralogical compositions were affected by earthworm invasion. Biologically cycled Ca and P have peak concentrations near the soil surface prior to earthworm invasion. However, these peak abundances significantly declined in the earthworm invaded soils presumably due to enhanced soil mixing. It is clear that enhanced soil mixing due to earthworms also profoundly altered the vertical distribution of most mineral species within A horizons. Though the mechanisms are not clear yet, earthworm invasion appears to have contributed to net losses of clay mineral species and opal from the A horizons. As much as earthworms vertically relocated minerals and elements, they also intensify the contacts between organic matter and cations as shown in the increased amount of Ca and Fe in organically complexed and in exchangeable pools. With future studies on soil mixing rates and elemental leaching, this study will quantitatively and mechanically address the role of earthworms in geochemical evolution of soils and forests' nutrient dynamics.

  7. Elemental and mineralogical changes in soils due to bioturbation along an earthworm invasion chronosequence in Northern Minnesota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minnesota forested soils have evolved without the presence of earthworms since the last glacial retreat. When exotic earthworms arrive, enhanced soil bioturbation often results in dramatic morphological and chemical changes in soils with negative implications for the forests' sustainability. However, the impacts of earthworm invasion on geochemical processes in soils are not well understood. This study attempts to quantify the role of earthworm invasion in mineral chemical weathering and nutrient dynamics along an earthworm invasion chronosequence in a sugar maple forest in Northern Minnesota. Depth and rates of soil mixing can be tracked with atmospherically derived short lived radioisotopes 210Pb and 137Cs. Their radioactivities increase in the lower A horizon at the expense of the peak activities near the soil surface, which indicate that soil mixing rate and its depth reach have been enhanced by earthworms. Enhanced soil mixing by earthworms is consistent with the ways that the vertical profiles of elemental and mineralogical compositions were affected by earthworm invasion. Biologically cycled Ca and P have peak concentrations near the soil surface prior to earthworm invasion. However, these peak abundances significantly declined in the earthworm invaded soils presumably due to enhanced soil mixing. It is clear that enhanced soil mixing due to earthworms also profoundly altered the vertical distribution of most mineral species within A horizion of most mineral species within A horizons. Though the mechanisms are not clear yet, earthworm invasion appears to have contributed to net losses of clay mineral species and opal from the A horizons. As much as earthworms vertically relocated minerals and elements, they also intensify the contacts between organic matter and cations as shown in the increased amount of Ca and Fe in organically complexed and in exchangeable pools. With future studies on soil mixing rates and elemental leaching, this study will quantitatively and mechanically address the role of earthworms in geochemical evolution of soils and forests' nutrient dynamics.

  8. Mode of action of the COR15a gene on the freezing tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Steponkus, Peter L.; Uemura, Matsuo; Joseph, Raymond A.; Gilmour, Sarah J.; Thomashow, Michael F.

    1998-01-01

    Constitutive expression of the cold-regulated COR15a gene of Arabidopsis thaliana results in a significant increase in the survival of isolated protoplasts frozen over the range of ?4.5 to ?7°C. The increased freezing tolerance is the result of a decreased incidence of freeze-induced lamellar-to-hexagonal II phase transitions that occur in regions where the plasma membrane is brought into close apposition with the chloroplast envelope as a result of freeze-induced dehydration. Moreover, the m...

  9. Selective recruitment of bacteria during embryogenesis of an earthworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Seana K; Stahl, David A

    2008-05-01

    Earthworms of the family Lumbricidae harbor specific and stable populations of Acidovorax-like bacteria within their excretory organs, the nephridia. The symbionts of Eisenia foetida are deposited into the egg capsules during mating and the nephridia of the juveniles are colonized before they hatch. The timing and mechanisms governing bacterial recruitment and colonization are unknown for the earthworm-Acidovorax association. This study examined the process of colonization of the symbiotic organ during development of the embryos within the egg capsules. Bacteria associated with the developing embryos were visualized using in situ hybridization to bacterial cells and laser scanning confocal microscopy. Bacterial cells were associated with earthworm embryos during the earliest stages of development-the ova through to hatching. Three-dimensional examination of stages of development revealed an embryonic duct that recruits the Acidovorax-like symbiont cells. As each segment matures, Acidovorax-like symbiotic bacteria are recruited into this duct, excluding most other bacterial types, and remain there for a period of days prior to migration into the nephridium. After colonization of the nephridial ampulla, the canal remains bacteria-free. In addition to the known Acidovorax-like bacteria, multiple types of bacteria interact with the embryos externally and internally during the full course of development, and ultimately fill the gut lumen near the end of development prior to hatching. Colonization of the correct tissues by specific bacteria during differentiation and maturation of the organs must involve selective host defenses and signaling between the two partners to prevent over growth of nascent tissues. PMID:18273064

  10. Impact of earthworms on trace element solubility in contaminated mine soils amended with green waste compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizmur, Tom, E-mail: t.p.sizmur@reading.ac.uk [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Palumbo-Roe, Barbara [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E. [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    The common practice of remediating metal contaminated mine soils with compost can reduce metal mobility and promote revegetation, but the effect of introduced or colonising earthworms on metal solubility is largely unknown. We amended soils from an As/Cu (1150 mgAs kg{sup -1} and 362 mgCu kg{sup -1}) and Pb/Zn mine (4550 mgPb kg{sup -1} and 908 mgZn kg{sup -1}) with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% compost and then introduced Lumbricus terrestris. Porewater was sampled and soil extracted with water to determine trace element solubility, pH and soluble organic carbon. Compost reduced Cu, Pb and Zn, but increased As solubility. Earthworms decreased water soluble Cu and As but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. The effect of the earthworms decreased with increasing compost amendment. The impact of the compost and the earthworms on metal solubility is explained by their effect on pH and soluble organic carbon and the environmental chemistry of each element. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Compost reduced the mobility of Cu, Pb and Zn. > Compost increased the mobility of As. > Earthworms decreased water soluble As and Cu but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. > These effects are explained by the impact of the earthworms and compost on pH and DOC. - The effect of earthworms on metal solubility was due to changes in dissolved organic carbon and pH but was reduced with increasing compost amendments.

  11. Earthworms drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities in post-mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrák, Obd?ej; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Previous field observations indicated that earthworms promote late-successional plant species and reduce collembolan numbers at post-mining sites in the Sokolov coal mining district (Czech Republic). Here, we established a laboratory pot experiment to test the effect of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm.) and litter of low, medium, and high quality (the grass Calamagrostis epigejos, the willow Salix caprea, and the alder Alnus glutinosa, respectively) on late successional plants (grasses Arrhenatherum elatius and Agrostis capillaris, legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium medium, and non-leguminous dicots Centaurea jacea and Plantago lanceolata) in spoil substrate originating from Sokolov post-mining sites and naturally inhabited by abundant numbers of Collembola. The earthworms increased plant biomass, especially that of the large-seeded A. elatius, but reduced the number of plant individuals, mainly that of the small-seeded A. capillaris and both legumes. Litter quality affected plant biomass, which was highest with S. caprea litter, but did not change the number of plant individuals. Litter quality did not modify the effect of earthworms on plants; the effect of litter quality and earthworms was only additive. Species composition of Collembola community was altered by litter quality, but earthworms reduced the number of individuals, increased the number of species, and increased species evenness consistently across the litter qualities. Because the results of this experiment were consistent with the field observations, we conclude that earthworms help drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities on post-mining sites.

  12. A review of studies performed to assess metal uptake by earthworms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earthworms perform a number of essential functions in soil; the impacts of metals on earthworms are often investigated. In this review we consider the range of earthworm species, types of soil and forms of metal for which metal uptake and accumulation have been studied, the design of these experiments and the quantitative relationships that have been derived to predict earthworm metal body burden. We conclude that there is a need for more studies on earthworm species other than Eisenia fetida in order to apply the large existing database on this earthworm to other, soil dwelling species. To aid comparisons between studies agreement is needed on standard protocols that define exposure and depuration periods and the parameters, such as soil solution composition, soil chemical and physical properties to be measured. It is recommended that more field or terrestrial model ecosystem studies using real contaminated soil rather than metal-amended artificial soils are performed. - We review species, soil and experimental designs used to study metal uptake and accumulation by earthworms and suggest priorities for further studies

  13. Antioxidant defense system responses and DNA damage of earthworms exposed to Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of earthworms as a sublethal endpoint has significantly contributed to the ecological risk assessment of contaminated soils. Few studies have focused on the potential toxicity of PFOS to earthworms in the soil. In this work, artificial soils were tested, and contact filter paper studies were used. The results showed that earthworm growth was generally inhibited. The antioxidant activities of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were initially activated and then inhibited. Reduced glutathione content was observed, and malondialdehyde content was elevated over the duration of the exposure. These results suggested that PFOS induced oxidative stress in earthworms. In addition, the values of olive tail moment, tail DNA% and tail length using SCGE showed similar frequency distributions and increased with increases in the PFOS concentration. These results suggest that all concentrations of PFOS cause DNA damage. Highlights: ? We studied the potential ecotoxicity of PFOS to earthworm in soil. ? Eisenia foetida was used as a model organism and its growth was generally inhibited. ? Antioxidant enzyme activities were initially activated and then inhibited. ? Reduced glutathione content was observed and malondialdehyde content was elevated. ? PFOS induced DNA damage in earthworms. -- Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in earthworms

  14. Impact of earthworms on trace element solubility in contaminated mine soils amended with green waste compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The common practice of remediating metal contaminated mine soils with compost can reduce metal mobility and promote revegetation, but the effect of introduced or colonising earthworms on metal solubility is largely unknown. We amended soils from an As/Cu (1150 mgAs kg-1 and 362 mgCu kg-1) and Pb/Zn mine (4550 mgPb kg-1 and 908 mgZn kg-1) with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% compost and then introduced Lumbricus terrestris. Porewater was sampled and soil extracted with water to determine trace element solubility, pH and soluble organic carbon. Compost reduced Cu, Pb and Zn, but increased As solubility. Earthworms decreased water soluble Cu and As but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. The effect of the earthworms decreased with increasing compost amendment. The impact of the compost and the earthworms on metal solubility is explained by their effect on pH and soluble organic carbon and the environmental chemistry of each element. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Compost reduced the mobility of Cu, Pb and Zn. ? Compost increased the mobility of As. ? Earthworms decreased water soluble As and Cu but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. ? These effects are explained by the impact of the earthworms and compost on pH and DOC. - The effect of earthworms on metal solubility was due to changes in dissolved organic carbon and pH but was reduced with increasing compost amendments.

  15. Effects of heavy metals on the litter consumption by the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus in field soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbelen, P.H.F.; Koolhaas, J.E.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Aim of this study was to determine effects of heavy metals on litter consumption by the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus in National Park the "Brabantsche Biesbosch", the Netherlands. Adult L. rubellus were collected from 12 polluted and from one unpolluted field site. Earthworms collected at the unpolluted site were kept in their native soil and in soil from each of the 12 Biesbosch sites. Earthworms collected in the Biesbosch were kept in their native soils. Non-polluted poplar (Populus sp.) litter was offered as a food source and litter consumption and earthworm biomass were determined after 54 days. Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations were determined in soil, pore water and 0.01 M CaCl2 extracts of the soil and in earthworms. In spite of low available metal concentrations in the polluted soils, Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations in L. rubellus were increased. The litter consumption rate per biomass was positively related to internal Cd and Zn concentrations of earthworms collected from the Biesbosch and kept in native soil. A possible explanation is an increased demand for energy, needed for the regulation and detoxification of heavy metals. Litter consumption per biomass of earthworms from the reference site and kept in the polluted Biesbosch soils, was not related to any of the determined soil characteristics and metal concentrations. ?? 2005 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Warming shifts ‘worming': effects of experimental warming on invasive earthworms in northern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future warming is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, warming-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field warming experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental warming effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by warming-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of warming effects depended on the current average SWC: warming had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that warming limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless warming is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration. PMID:25363633

  17. Metabolic changes during estivation in the common earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayley, Mark; Overgaard, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    The common earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa survives drought by forming estivation chambers in the topsoil under even very slight reductions in soil water activity. We induced estivation in a soil of a consistency that allowed the removal of intact soil estivation chambers containing a single worm. These estivation chambers were exposed to 97% relative humidity for 30 d to simulate the effect of a severe summer drought. Gas exchange, body fluid osmolality, water balance, urea, and alanine were quantified, and whole?body homogenates were screened for changes in small organic molecules via 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Formation of estivation chambers was associated with a dramatic increase in body fluid osmolality, from 175 to 562 mOsm kg-1, accompanied by a 20% increase in water content. Dehydration for 1 mo caused a further increase to 684 mOsm kg-1, while the worms lost 50% of their water content. Gas exchange was depressed by 50% after worms entered estivation and by 80% after a further 30 d of dehydration. Urea concentrations increased from 0.3 to 1 ?mol g-1 dry mass during this time. Although 1H?NMR did not provide the identity of the osmolytes responsible for the initial increase in osmolality after estivation, it showed that alanine increased to more than 80 mmol L-1 in the long?term?estivation group. We propose that alanine functions as a nitrogen depot during dehydration and is not an anaerobe product in this case.

  18. Co-Speciation of Earthworms and their nephridial symbionts, Acidovorax Spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie Braad; Fritz, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Earthworms (Annelida; Lumbricidae) harbour species-specific symbiotic bacteria in their nephridia (excretory organs) where the symbionts densely colonize a specific part of the nephridia called the ampulla [1]. The symbiosis is universal among earthworms, the symbionts form a monophyletic cluster within the genus Acidovorax [2], and they are transmitted vertically [3]. For these reasons, we suggest that the earthworm-Acidovorax association has evolved by co-speciation. This hypothesis was tested by a comparative study of earthworm and symbiont phylogeny. Different earthworm species were collected in Denmark and DNA was extracted from their nephridia. Earthworm phylogeny was resolved on the basis of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) by direct PCR amplification and sequencing from the nephridial DNA extract. Symbiont 16S rRNA gene sequences were retrieved by cloning and sequencing the extracted DNA. The presence of the symbionts in the ampulla was verified by performing fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on all worm species using an Acidovorax-specific probe. Earthworm and symbiont phylogeny was largely congruent, indicating that host and symbiont have indeed co-evolved since the initial bacterial colonization of an ancestral lumbricid worm. However, the association is complicated by the recent discovery of additional, putative symbiotic bacteria which have been detected in the ampulla of several earthworms by FISH. Identity, distribution among earthworms, and function of these non-Acidovorax symbionts are still to be investigated. [1] Knop, J. 1926. Z Morph Ökol Tiere, 6(3):588-624. [2] Schramm, A. et al. 2003. Environ Microbiol 5(9):804-809. [3] Davidson, S.K. & Stahl, D.A. 2006. Appl Environ Microbiol 72(1):769-775.

  19. Automated Analysis of Two-Dimensional Positions and Body Lengths of Earthworms (Oligochaeta); MimizuTrack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemura, Seiichiro; Kaneda, Satoshi; Ohashi, Mizue; Ikeno, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    Earthworms are important soil macrofauna inhabiting almost all ecosystems. Their biomass is large and their burrowing and ingestion of soils alters soil physicochemical properties. Because of their large biomass, earthworms are regarded as an indicator of “soil heath”. However, primarily because the difficulties in quantifying their behavior, the extent of their impact on soil material flow dynamics and soil health is poorly understood. Image data, with the aid of image processing tools, are a powerful tool in quantifying the movements of objects. Image data sets are often very large and time-consuming to analyze, especially when continuously recorded and manually processed. We aimed to develop a system to quantify earthworm movement from video recordings. Our newly developed program successfully tracked the two-dimensional positions of three separate parts of the earthworm and simultaneously output the change in its body length. From the output data, we calculated the velocity of the earthworm's movement. Our program processed the image data three times faster than the manual tracking system. To date, there are no existing systems to quantify earthworm activity from continuously recorded image data. The system developed in this study will reduce input time by a factor of three compared with manual data entry and will reduce errors involved in quantifying large data sets. Furthermore, it will provide more reliable measured values, although the program is still a prototype that needs further testing and improvement. Combined with other techniques, such as measuring metabolic gas emissions from earthworm bodies, this program could provide continuous observations of earthworm behavior in response to environmental variables under laboratory conditions. In the future, this standardized method will be applied to other animals, and the quantified earthworm movement will be incorporated into models of soil material flow dynamics or behavior in response to chemical substances present in the soil. PMID:24886977

  20. Acute toxicity of virgin and used engine oil enriched with copper nano particles in the earthworm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodabandeh, M; Koohi, M K; Shahroziyan, E; Badri, B; Pourfallah, A; Shams, Gh; Sadeghi-Hashjin, G [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Roshani, A [Industrial and Environmental Protection Division, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RRIPI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hobbenaghi, R, E-mail: gsadeghi@ut.ac.ir [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-06

    In spite of development of nanotechnology and creation of new opportunities for industry, new applications and products initiated by this technology may cause harmful effects on human health and environment. Unfortunately, there is no sufficient information on the harmful effects caused by application of some nano materials; the current knowledge in this field is limited solely to the nano particles but not the final products. Nano cupper particles, as one of the common materials produced in industrial scale is widely used as additives into engine oil to reduce friction and improve lubrication. However, the difference between the effects of virgin and used conventional engine oil (CEO) and the engine oil containing cupper nano particles (NEO) on the environment is not known. Earthworm, as a one of the species which could live and survive in different sorts of earth and has a certain role in protecting the soil structure and fertility, was used in this experiment. In accordance with the recommended method of OECD.1984, Filter Paper test in 24 and 48 h based on 8 concentrations in the range of 3x10{sup -3} - 24x10{sup -3} ml/cm{sup 2} and Artificial Soil test in 7 and 14 days based on 7 concentrations in the range of 0.1 mg/kg - 100 g/kg were carried out to study earthworms in terms of lifetime (LC50), morphology and pathology. It was shown that the 48 h LC50 for virgin CEO, virgin NEO, used CEO(8000 km) and used NEO (8000 km) were 6x10{sup -3}, 23x10{sup -3}, 24x10{sup -3} and 16x10{sup -3} ml/cm{sup 2} respectively. Furthermore, 14-day LC50 in artificial soil for all cases were above 100 g/kg. It is concluded that virgin CEO is more toxic than virgin NEO. Meanwhile, the CEO shows significant reduction in toxicity after consumption and the used NEO shows more toxicity in comparison to virgin product. It seems that more investigations on the effects of final products specifically after consumption is necessary because the products after consumption have the most contact with environment and subsequently human health.

  1. Acute toxicity of virgin and used engine oil enriched with copper nano particles in the earthworm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of development of nanotechnology and creation of new opportunities for industry, new applications and products initiated by this technology may cause harmful effects on human health and environment. Unfortunately, there is no sufficient information on the harmful effects caused by application of some nano materials; the current knowledge in this field is limited solely to the nano particles but not the final products. Nano cupper particles, as one of the common materials produced in industrial scale is widely used as additives into engine oil to reduce friction and improve lubrication. However, the difference between the effects of virgin and used conventional engine oil (CEO) and the engine oil containing cupper nano particles (NEO) on the environment is not known. Earthworm, as a one of the species which could live and survive in different sorts of earth and has a certain role in protecting the soil structure and fertility, was used in this experiment. In accordance with the recommended method of OECD.1984, Filter Paper test in 24 and 48 h based on 8 concentrations in the range of 3x10-3 - 24x10-3 ml/cm2 and Artificial Soil test in 7 and 14 days based on 7 concentrations in the range of 0.1 mg/kg - 100 g/kg were carried out to study earthworms in terms of lifetime (LC50), morphology and pathology. It was shown that the 48 h LC50 for virgin CEO, virgin NEO, used CEO(8000 km) and used NEO (8000 km) were 6x10-3, 23x1NEO (8000 km) were 6x10-3, 23x10-3, 24x10-3 and 16x10-3 ml/cm2 respectively. Furthermore, 14-day LC50 in artificial soil for all cases were above 100 g/kg. It is concluded that virgin CEO is more toxic than virgin NEO. Meanwhile, the CEO shows significant reduction in toxicity after consumption and the used NEO shows more toxicity in comparison to virgin product. It seems that more investigations on the effects of final products specifically after consumption is necessary because the products after consumption have the most contact with environment and subsequently human health.

  2. Rapid bioassessment methods for assessing the toxicity of terrestrial waste sites at the Savannah River Site using the earthworm, Eisenia foetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted to assess the feasibility of using the earthworm, Eisenia foetida, to evaluate the toxicity of contaminated soils at the Savannah River Site. Survival was assessed in several uncontaminated soils, including sandy loams and clayey loams, as well as in soils contaminated with coal fines, ash, diesel fuel, and heavy metals. In addition, behavior responses, changes in biomass, and bioaccumulation of heavy metals were assessed as sublethal indicators of toxicity. The results indicate excellent survival of Eisenia foetida in uncontaminated sandy and clayey soils. No amendment of these uncontaminated soils or addition of food was necessary to sustain the worms for the 14-day test period. In contaminated soils, no significant mortality was observed, except in soils which have very low pH (< 3). However, sublethal responses were observed in earthworms exposed to several of the contaminated soils. These responses included worms clumping on the surface of the soil, worms clumping between the sides of the test container and the soil, increased burrowing times, reductions in biomass, and elevated concentrations of heavy metals in worm tissue

  3. Soil Chemical Weathering and Nutrient Budgets along an Earthworm Invasion Chronosequence in a Northern Minnesota Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resner, K. E.; Yoo, K.; Sebestyen, S. D.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Lyttle, A.; Weinman, B. A.; Blum, A.; Hale, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    We are investigating the impact of exotic earthworms on the rate of nutrient and ion release from soil chemical weathering along an ~200 m invasion chronosequence in a northern Minnesota sugar maple forest. The earthworms belong to three ecological groups that represent different feeding and burrowing behaviors, all of which were introduced from Europe to the previously earthworm-free Great Lakes Region through fishing and agricultural activities. As earthworms digest and mix the soil, we hypothesize that they significantly alter chemical weathering processes by incorporating mineral surfaces to new geochemical environments in their intestines and at different soil depths. The effect of mixing on soil morphology is dramatic, but biogeochemical changes remain largely unknown and therefore are poorly coupled to the current and potential changes in forest ecosystems under the threat of exotic earthworms. We analyze the activities of short-lived isotopes 137-Cs and 210-Pb along with the inorganic chemistry of soil, water, and leaf litter across an invasion transect and link these measurements to the biomass and species composition of exotic earthworms. Earthworms vertically relocate minerals and organic matter largely within the top ~10 cm, which is reflected in the depth profiles of the short-lived isotopes. Among the inorganic nutrients analyzed, Ca is of particular interest due to sugar maple's aptitude for recycling Ca. Fractional mass loss values (tau) of Ca, relative to the soil's parent material, show an enrichment factor of 14 in the least invaded A horizon soils. However, such a high enrichment factor declines dramatically in the heavily invaded soils, suggesting that earthworm activities contribute to leaching Ca. In contrast, the enrichment factor of Fe increases with greater degrees of earthworm invasion, which is consistent with the extraction chemistry data showing greater quantities of pedogenic crystalline iron oxides and greater mineral specific surface area (presumably due to the crystalline iron oxides) in the heavily invaded soils. Water chemistry of lysimeter samples show a similar trend: the heavily invaded soils show a lower solute concentration of Ca but higher concentrations of Fe. These data indicate that exotic earthworms, while significantly affecting chemical weathering processes in the soils, are seriously altering (1) the budgets of inorganic nutrient in these hardwood forests and (2) the minerals' potential capacity to complex carbon on their surface area. Our ongoing work includes the use of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating which may complement the 137-Cs and 210-Pb data in constraining soil mixing. Additionally, we will incorporate leaf litter chemistry and continue water and earthworm sampling to understand the degree that exotic earthworms contribute to chemical weathering in the Great Lakes hardwood ecosystems.

  4. Profiles of organochlorine pesticides in earthworms from urban leisure areas of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing-Hong; Wang, Xi-Zhi; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Xiang-Ning; Xu, Xiao-Bai

    2010-04-01

    In this study, organochlorine pesticides (HCHs and DDTs) in earthworm and soil contacted closely with it were determined for the purpose of the risk assessment of chemicals in the urban leisure environment. The level of total hexachlorocyclohexanes and (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in earthworms was 0.6500-44.78 ng g(-1) and 18.97-1.112 x 104 ng g(-1), respectively. Absolutely high levels of DDT and its metabolites in earthworm and correlative soils samples, and the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of DDTs probably presents certain risk to the higher trophic organisms through its food chain, especially birds. PMID:20238098

  5. Production and utilization of earthworms as feeds for broilers in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Barcelo P, M.

    1988-01-01

    A study on the production of earthworms was conducted using a 50 : 50 by volume of animal manures in combination with Leucaena leucocephala. A combination of sawdust, rice hull and rice bran at a proportion of 55, 35 and 10 respectively was also used as a substrate. The earthworms in each box were supplemented with either 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 g kitchen scraps. On harvesting, hand picking the earthworms from the castings and arranging the contents of the box in a pyramid were tested. Blanc...

  6. Biomanagement of sago-sludge using an earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, J Rajesh; Yeom, Ick Tae; Esakkiraj, S; Kumar, Naresh; Logakanthi, S

    2008-03-01

    Sago, the tapioca starch is manufactured by over 800 small-scale units located in the Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India. During the processing of sago it generates huge quantities of biodegradable solid waste, as crushed tubers. In present study an attempt was made to convert these biodegradable solid sago tubers into value added compost using an exotic earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae. The experiments were carried out in a plastic tray at various concentrations of sago-sludge (50% 75% and 100%) for a period of 90 days. During the vermicomposting, data were collected on life form (cocoon, non clitellates, clitellates) of earthworm and it was found to be high in 50% followed by 75% and 100% concentrations. Chemical analysis of worked substrates showed a step wise increase of nitrogen and phosphorus. The fold increase of phosphorus and nitrogen were found to be high for sago-sludge undergoing vermicomposting than the control. During the composting period the organic carbon decreased from its initial value of 58, 76 and 107 mg/kg to 21, 24 and 65 mg/kg for 50, 70 and 100%, respectively The microbial analysis showed that after 75 days of composting, their population stabilized and further increase in composting period did not increase their population size. The results indicate that 50% and 75% concentration of sludge mixed with bedding material was ideal for the vermicomposting. PMID:18831362

  7. The binding interactions of imidacloprid with earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Chen, Tao

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, several studies were conducted to elucidate the binding mechanism of earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme (EFE) with imidocloprid (IMI) by using theoretical calculation, fluorescence, UV-vis, circular dichroism spectroscopy and an enzymatic inhibition assay. The spectral data showed that the binding interactions existed between IMI and EFE. The binding constants, binding site, thermodynamic parameters and binding forces were analyzed in detail. The results indicate a single class of binding sites for IMI in EFE and that this binding interaction is a spontaneous process with the estimated enthalpy and entropy changes being 2.195 kJ mol-1 and 94.480 J mol-1 K-1, respectively. A single class of binding site existed for IMI in EFE. The tertiary or secondary structure of EFE was partly destroyed by IMI. The visualized binding details were also exhibited by the theoretical calculation and the results indicated that the interaction between IMI and Phe (Tyr, or Trp) or EFE occurred. Combining the experimental data with the theoretical calculation data, we showed that the binding forces between IMI and EFE were mainly hydrophobic force accompanied by hydrogen binding, and ?-? stacking. In addition, IMI did not obviously influence the activity of EFE. In a word, the above analysis offered insights into the binding mechanism of IMI with EFE and could provide some important information for the molecular toxicity of IMI for earthworms.

  8. Freeze Protection in Gas Holders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Duursma, Gail

    2008-01-01

    In cold weather, the water seals of gasholders need protection from freez- ing to avoid compromising the seal. These holders have a large reservoir of “tank water” at the base which is below ground. At present freeze- protection is achieved by external heating of the seal water which is in a slotted channel called a cup. Electrical heating or circulation of heated tank water to the cup are examples of systems presently used. The tank water has a large thermal capacity and National Grid wishes to inves- tigate whether circulation of the tank water without external heating could provide su?cient energy input to avoid freezing. Only tanks in which the tank water is below ground are investigated in the report. The soil temperature under the reservoir at depth of 10m and lower is almost constant.

  9. Freezing singularities in water drops

    CERN Document Server

    Enriquez, Oscar R; Winkels, Koen G; Snoeijer, Jacco H

    2011-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video we show how a drop of water freezes into a singular shape when deposited on a cold surface. The process of solidification can be observed very clearly due to the change in refraction when water turns into ice. The drop remains approximately spherical during most of the process, with a freezing front moving upwards and smoothly following the interface. However, at the final stage of freezing, when the last cap of liquid turns into ice, a singular tip develops spontaneously. Interestingly, the sharp tip of the ice drop acts as a preferential site for deposition of water vapour, and a beautiful "tree" of ice crystals develops right at the tip. The tip singularity attracts the vapour in analogy to a sharp lightning rod attracting lightning.

  10. Effects of low voltage electrolysis and freezing on coliform content of contaminated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sewage sample was mixed with drinking water and subjected to low voltage (15V) electrolysis in the presence of 1% NaCl. The prepared sample was also kept in freezer with and without the presence of sodium chloride for 4-hours. Among these treatments the electrolysis proved to kill the coliforms, while the freezing reduced the bacterial content. Antibiotics sensitivity patterns revealed that certain of the coliform strains survived the freezing and thawing shocks. Nature of such surviving bacteria and need to study chemical parameters of electrolyzed water are discussed. (author)

  11. Earthworm Ecology in the Northern Part of Iran: With an Emphasis on Compost Worm Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Omrani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Northern part of Iran was chosen as study area. Four hundred samples of earthworms were collected by three methods (hand-sorting, chemical and heat extraction of which 352 and 20 were mature and immature earthworms, respectively from different parts of the area. Following the method introduced by Graff the earthworms were placed in formaldehyde (5 and 10% and ethyl alcohol (60%. The morphological observations showed the presence of eight species including seven specimens of Lumbricidae: A. caliginosa, A. kaznakovi, A. jassyensis, A. rosea, D. veneta, D. byblica, E. fetida and a specimen of Megascolecidae: P. indica. The abundance of E. fetida was 18.1% with large distribution over the area that makes this species an easily available earthworm in rearing industry and in organic waste management.

  12. Earthworms in Central European Wetlands: Do they contribute to biodiversity of biosphere reserves ?.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav

    Praha : Komitét MAB, 2002. s. 37. [EuroMAB Workshop. 13.10.2002-18.10.2002, Mikulov] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : earthworms * Central European Wetlands Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  13. Taxonomic composition and physiological and biochemical properties of bacteria in the digestive tracts of earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byzov, B. A.; Tikhonov, V. V.; Nechitailo, T. Yu.; Demin, V. V.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2015-03-01

    Several hundred bacterial strains belonging to different taxa were isolated and identified from the digestive tracts of soil and compost earthworms. Some physiological and biochemical properties of the bacteria were characterized. The majority of intestinal bacteria in the earthworms were found to be facultative anaerobes. The intestinal isolates as compared to the soil ones had elevated activity of proteases and dehydrogenases. In addition, bacteria associated with earthworms' intestines are capable of growth on humic acids as a sole carbon source. Humic acid stimulated the growth of the intestinal bacteria to a greater extent than those of the soil ones. In the digestive tracts, polyphenol oxidase activity was found. Along with the data on the taxonomic separation of the intestinal bacteria, the features described testified to the presence of a group of bacteria in the earthworms intestines that is functionally characteristic and is different from the soil bacteria.

  14. Inhibition effect of glyphosate on the acute and subacute toxicity of cadmium to earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chui-Fan; Wang, Yu-Jun; Sun, Rui-Juan; Liu, Cun; Fan, Guang-Ping; Qin, Wen-Xiu; Li, Cheng-Cheng; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2014-10-01

    The acute and subacute toxicities of cadmium (Cd) to earthworm Eisenia fetida in the presence and absence of glyphosate were studied. Although Cd is highly toxic to E. fetida, the presence of glyphosate markedly reduced the acute toxicity of Cd to earthworm; both the mortality rate of the earthworms and the accumulation of Cd decreased with the increase of the glyphosate/Cd molar ratio. The subcellular distribution of Cd in E. fetida tissues showed that internal Cd was dominant in the intact cells fraction and the heat-stable proteins fraction. The presence of glyphosate reduced the concentration of Cd in all fractions, especially the intact cells. During a longer period of exposure, the weight loss of earthworm and the total Cd absorption was alleviated by glyphosate. Thus, the herbicide glyphosate can reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cd in the soil ecosystems at both short- and long-term exposures. PMID:25043609

  15. Effects of earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus on distribution of acaricida dicofol in a Podzolic soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of earthworm on pesticides distribution in a Podzolic soil. The experimental model used was a microcosm filled with sieved soil to a final density of 1.25 g cm-3. In microcosms with or without Pontoscolex corethurus 14C-dicofol was applied, and after a period of 52 days strong rain simulation was performed. In the layer of 0-1 cm 75% of the radioactivity in the soil without earthworms were recovered, and in the soil with earthworms the recovery was 9% inferior. In the deepest layers the values of the radioactivity were below 20% and the differences among the treatments did not surpass 2%. This earthworm species of large occurrence in Brazil showed no important influence on the distribution of the pesticide in soil

  16. Glyphosate herbicide affects belowground interactions between earthworms and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi in a model ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Johann G.; Heigl, Florian; Ruess, Liliane; Grabmaier, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    Herbicides containing glyphosate are widely used in agriculture and private gardens, however, surprisingly little is known on potential side effects on non-target soil organisms. In a greenhouse experiment with white clover we investigated, to what extent a globally-used glyphosate herbicide affects interactions between essential soil organisms such as earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We found that herbicides significantly decreased root mycorrhization, soil AMF spore biomass, vesicles and propagules. Herbicide application and earthworms increased soil hyphal biomass and tended to reduce soil water infiltration after a simulated heavy rainfall. Herbicide application in interaction with AMF led to slightly heavier but less active earthworms. Leaching of glyphosate after a simulated rainfall was substantial and altered by earthworms and AMF. These sizeable changes provide impetus for more general attention to side-effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on key soil organisms and their associated ecosystem services.

  17. Heavy metal accumulation in earthworms exposed to spatially variable soil contamination.

    OpenAIRE

    Marinussen, M. P. J. C.

    1997-01-01

    Ecotoxicity of contaminated soil is commonly tested in standard laboratory tests. Extrapolation of these data to the field scale is complicated due to considerable differences between conditions in laboratory tests and conditions in situ in contaminated soils. In this thesis, heavy metal accumulation in earthworms was studied under various laboratory conditions to identify and obtain knowledge that is needed to predict accumulation in earthworms exposed to in situ soil contamination. Both Cu...

  18. Identification and Optimization of Classifier Genes from Multi-Class Earthworm Microarray Dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ying; Wang, Nan; PERKINS, EDWARD J.; Zhang, Chaoyang; Gong, Ping

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring, assessment and prediction of environmental risks that chemicals pose demand rapid and accurate diagnostic assays. A variety of toxicological effects have been associated with explosive compounds TNT and RDX. One important goal of microarray experiments is to discover novel biomarkers for toxicity evaluation. We have developed an earthworm microarray containing 15,208 unique oligo probes and have used it to profile gene expression in 248 earthworms exposed to TNT, RDX or neither. W...

  19. Emission of Methane by Eudrilus eugeniae and Other Earthworms from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Depkat-jakob, Peter S.; Hunger, Sindy; Schulz, Kristin; Brown, George G.; Tsai, Siu M.; Drake, Harold L.

    2012-01-01

    Earthworms emit denitrification-derived nitrous oxide and fermentation-derived molecular hydrogen. The present study demonstrated that the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae, obtained in Brazil, emitted methane. Other worms displayed a lesser or no capacity to emit methane. Gene and transcript analyses of mcrA (encoding the alpha subunit of methyl-CoM reductase) in gut contents of E. eugeniae suggested that Methanosarcinaceae, Methanobacteriaceae, and Methanomicrobiaceae might be associated with thi...

  20. Influence of ground cover on earthworm communities in an unmanaged beech forest: linear gradient studies

    OpenAIRE

    Campana, Cyril; Gauvin, Stéphanie; Ponge, Jean-François

    2002-01-01

    Micro-scale changes in earthworm communities and ground cover types were studied along five transect lines in an unmanaged beech forest (Fontainebleau forest, France). Spatial patterns were interpreted in the light of interactions between earthworm species and forest architecture, ground vegetation and quantity as well as quality of litter. The anecic Lumbricus terrestris was associated with patches of the grass Melica uniflora, with poor litter cover, while most epigeic species were favoured...

  1. The use of earthworms in ecological soil classification and assessment concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Rombke, J.; Jansch, S.; Didden, W.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Without doubt, earthworms are the most important soil invertebrates in most soils worldwide, in terms of both biomass and activity. Several species are even considered to be ecosystem engineers. Earthworms are also known to influence soil structure, soil chemistry, and, in particular, processes like organic matter decomposition. In addition, standardized sampling methods are available and their taxonomy is well known (even the first PC-aided keys have been developed). For these reasons, earth...

  2. Diversity of Glycosyl Hydrolases from Cellulose-Depleting Communities Enriched from Casts of Two Earthworm Species? †

    OpenAIRE

    Beloqui, Ana; Nechitaylo, Taras Y.; Lopez-cortes, Nieves; Ghazi, Azam; Guazzaroni, María-Eugenia; Polaina, Julio; Strittmatter, Axel W.; Reva, Oleg N; Waliczek, Agnes; Yakimov, Michail M.; Golyshina, Olga V.; Ferrer, Manuel; Golyshin, Peter N.

    2010-01-01

    The guts and casts of earthworms contain microbial assemblages that process large amounts of organic polymeric substrates from plant litter and soil; however, the enzymatic potential of these microbial communities remains largely unexplored. In the present work, we retrieved carbohydrate-modifying enzymes through the activity screening of metagenomic fosmid libraries from cellulose-depleting microbial communities established with the fresh casts of two earthworm species, Aporrectodea caligino...

  3. Earthworms as Ecosystem Engineers and the Most Important Detritivors in Forest Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Yahya Kooch; Hamid Jalilvand

    2008-01-01

    Earthworms are considered as soil engineers because of their effects on soil properties and their influence on the availability of resources for other organisms, including microorganisms and plants. However, the links between their impacts on the soil environment and the resulting modification of natural selection pressures on engineer as well as on other organisms have received little attention. Earthworms are known to have a positive influence on the soil fabric and on the decompositi...

  4. Radioresistance of aboriginal earthworms of Absheron peninsula in radioactive model systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : Soil animals are the most suitable biological indicators of radioactive pollution because they are parts of nutritional chains and webs, occur in relatively high numbers and can be collected during most parts of the year. The use of earthworms in the soils from Ramana (Baku) iodine plant area of Absheron peninsula, which is rich with radionuclide and in the soil mixed with RaCl2 and UO2SO4 salt solutions in different concentrations, for resistance to ionizing radiation in soil is reviewed. Effect of radionuclides on vital functions of earthworms and determination of radionuclides (before and after experiments) in contaminated soils by ?-spectrometer were carried out in laboratory condition during a month. Regarding to ?-spectrometric results there were determined that earthworms had absorbed most of radioactive elements and allocated them as coprogenous substances on the upper layer of soil. In Ramana soils mostly the 238U radionuclides were highly accumulated in gut cells of the earthworms. By the influence of radioactive elements it was shown that the earthworms from Ramana iodine plant territory variants had proved particularly sensitive to an increased Ra-radiation background and to iodine factor. It was interestingly established the proportional dependence between rising level of accumulation in earthworms body and in their coprolites and increasing of radioactive salts containing in the soils treated by UO22SO4 and RaCl2 solutions. Thus there is different level of radioresistance for earthworms and they are among the best bioindicators of polluted soils. There was an obvious perspective of using of earthworms as bioremediators in polluted soil with radionuclides in future as well.

  5. Radioresistance of aboriginal earthworms of Absheron peninsula in radioactive model systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full tex:Soil animals are the most suitable biological indicators of radioactive pollution because they are parts of nutritional chains and webs, occur in relatively high numbers and can be collected during most parts of the year.The use of earthworms in the soils from Ramana iodine plant area of Absheron peninsula, which is rich with radionuclide and in the soil mixed with RaCl2 and UO2SO4 salt solutions in different concentrations, for resistance to ionizing radiation in soil is reviewed.Effect of radionuclides on vital functions of earthworms and determination of radionuclides (before and after experiments) in contaminated soils by ?-spectrometer were carried out in laboratory condition during a month. Regarding to ?-spectrometric results there were determined that earthworms had absorbed most of radioactive elements and allocated them as coprogenous substances on the upper layer of soil. In Ramana soils mostly the 238U radionuclides were highly accumulated in gut cells of the earthworms. By the influence of radioactive elements it was shown that the earthworms from Ramana iodine plant territory variants had proved particularly sensitive to an increased Ra-radiation background and to iodine factor.It was interestingly established the proportional dependence between rising level of accumulation in earthworms' body and in their coprolites and increasing of radioactive salts containing in the soils treated by UO2SO4 and RaCl2 solutions.Thus there is different level ofsolutions.Thus there is different level of radioresistance for earthworms and they are among the best bioindicators of polluted soils. There was an obvious perspective of using of earthworms as bioremediators in polluted soil with radionuclides in future as well.

  6. Status of Chemical Freeze-Out

    OpenAIRE

    Cleymans, J; Oeschler, H; Redlich, K; Wheaton, S

    2006-01-01

    The status of the energy dependence of the chemical freeze-out temperature and chemical potential obtained in heavy ion collisions is presented. Recent proposals for chemical freeze-out conditions are compared.

  7. Flooding responses of three earthworm species, Allolobophora chlorotica, Aporrectodea caliginosa and Lumbricus rubellus, in a laboratory-controlled environment

    OpenAIRE

    Zorn, M.I.; Gestel, C.A.M. van; Morrien, E.; Wagenaar, M.; Eijsackers, H. J. P.

    2008-01-01

    To get a better understanding of earthworm' responses towards flooding, three laboratory experiments were performed with the species Allolobophora chlorotica, Aporrectodea caliginosa and Lumbricus rubellus. Flooding response was determined in a pot experiment, in which the earthworms were incubated for 42 days in flooded or non-flooded soil, with or without heavy metal pollution. To determine moisture preference, earthworms were incubated for 9 days in aquaria with five compartments, containi...

  8. Time dependence of immersion freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Welti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The time dependence of immersion freezing was studied for temperatures between 236 K and 243 K. Droplets with single immersed, size-selected 400 nm and 800 nm kaolinite particles were produced at 300 K, cooled down to supercooled temperatures typical for mixed-phase cloud conditions, and the fraction of frozen droplets with increasing residence time was detected. To simulate the conditions of immersion freezing in mixed-phase clouds we used the Zurich Ice Nucleation Chamber (ZINC and its vertical extension, the Immersion Mode Cooling chAmber (IMCA. We observed that the frozen fraction of droplets increased with increasing residence time in the chamber. This suggests that there is a time dependence of immersion freezing and supports the importance of a stochastic component in the ice nucleation process. The rate at which droplets freeze was observed to decrease towards higher temperatures and smaller particle sizes. Comparison of the laboratory data with four different ice nucleation models, three based on classical nucleation theory with different representations of the particle surface properties and one singular, suggest that the classical, stochastic approach combined with a distribution of contact angles is able to reproduce the ice nucleation observed in these experiments most accurately. Using the models to calculate the increase in frozen fraction at typical mixed-phase cloud temperatures over an extended period of time, yields an equivalent effect of ?1 K temperature shift and an increase in time scale by a factor of ~10.

  9. Response of Nitrous Oxide Flux to Addition of Anecic Earthworms to an Agricultural Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Amador

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The burrowing and feeding activities of earthworms may have a strong effect on the flux of N2O from agricultural soils. As such, shifts to agricultural management practices that increase the number of earthworms require an understanding of the role of earthworms in N2O dynamics. We conducted a field experiment to examine the effects of addition of anecic earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris on N2O flux in a field previously planted with corn (Zea mays in southern Rhode Island, USA. Plots were amended with (15NH42SO4 and either 0 (CTL or 48 L. terrestris m-2 (EW. The flux of N2O, 15N2O and 15N2 was measured over 28 days between October and November 2008. The EW treatment had a significantly higher flux of N2O and 15N2O 1 - 3 days after 15NH4 addition. No treatment effects were observed on 15N2 flux. The addition of earthworms significantly increased (Day 1 and decreased (Day 12 the mole fraction of N2O relative to the CTL. Our results suggest that anecic earthworm additions can increase N2O flux from inorganic fertilizer N amendments, but the effects appear to short-lived.

  10. Aporrectodea caliginosa, a suitable earthworm species for field based genotoxicity assessment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klobucar, Goeran I.V., E-mail: gklobuca@zg.biol.pmf.hr [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Stambuk, Anamaria; Srut, Maja [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Husnjak, Ivana [Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction, Ulica Republike Austrije 14, Zagreb (Croatia); Merkas, Martina [Croatian Institute for Brain Research, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Salata 12, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Traven, Luka [Department of Environmental Medicine, Medical Faculty, University of Rijeka, Brace Branchetta 20a, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Teaching Institute of Public Health of the Primorsko-goranska County, Kresimirova 52a, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Cvetkovic, Zelimira [Department of Ecology, Institute of Public Health, Mirogojska c. 16, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-04-15

    There is a growing interest for the application of biomakers to field-collected earthworms. Therefore we have evaluated the usability of native populations of endogeic, widely distributed earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa in the assessment of soil genotoxicity using the Comet assay. Validation of the Comet assay on earthworm coelomocytes has been established using commercially available Eisenia fetida exposed to copper, cadmium, and pentachlorophenol, along with A. caliginosa exposed to copper in a filter paper contact test. Neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay was conducted on copper exposed and field-collected earthworms. Significant DNA and lysosomal damage was measured using Comet and NRRT assays in native populations of A. caliginosa sampled from the polluted soils in the urban area in comparison to the earthworms from the reference site. The results of this study confirm the employment of A. caliginosa as a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Research highlights: > Native A. caliginosa has shown significant biological effect measured by the Comet and NRRT assays. > The Comet assay on A. caliginosa and E. fetida has shown to be of similar sensitivity as the NRRT assay. > A. caliginosa is a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Native populations of endogeic earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa can be successfully applied in the genotoxicity field surveys using Comet assay.

  11. Impact of land protection in soil quality properties and in earthworm biomass in Venezuelan savannas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D, López-Hernández; L, Hernández; A, Ojeda; E, Quintero; S, Caipo.

    Full Text Available We studied soil parameters and the earthworm biomass and density in a protected savanna (PS) from fire and cattle raising for more than forty years located at Estación Biológica de los Llanos, Venezuela (EBLL), and an adjacent non-protected savanna (NS) under frequent burning and agricultural activi [...] ties, located less than 1 km apart. Earthworm sampling was carried out at the end of the dry season (April), and at the peak of the wet season (July-August) using a hand sorting extraction method. In each plot, five to seven sampling units were selected corresponding to soil monoliths of 25x25x30 cm. The main physical, chemical, microbial (biomass) and enzymatic activities of soils in both systems were estimated. Thepresence of an abundant litter layer under the tree canopies in the PS have increased the soil water retention capacity, the organic-C, C-microbial biomass, dehydrogenase activity and fertility levels respect NS. This may allow for an increase in the density and biomass of earthworms in the PS compared with the adjacent NS. The systems were characterized by abundance in juvenile individuals belonging to the Glossoscolecidae family; two different morphotypes of the genus Aicodrilus were registered. Earthworms found were located in an endo-anecic ecological category. Results suggest that, agricultural management in savannas by modification of physical and biochemical soil properties can decrease an important fraction of pedofauna, particularly their earthworm communities. However, earthworm populations and soil quality indicators can be restored after long-term protection.

  12. Enantioselective toxicity, bioaccumulation and degradation of the chiral insecticide fipronil in earthworms (Eisenia feotida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Han; Wang, Peng; Ma, Rui-xue; Qiu, Xing-xu; Xu, Peng; Zhou, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Dong-hui

    2014-07-01

    The enantioselective acute toxicity to earthworms of racemic fipronil and its individual enantiomers was studied. R-(-)-fipronil was approximately 1.5 times more toxic than the racemate and approximately 2 times more toxic than S-(+)-fipronil after 72 and 96 h of exposure, respectively. Assays of fipronil enantiomer bioaccumulation and degradation in earthworms were conducted. The bio-concentration factors (BCFs) were slightly different between the two enantiomers. The enantiomeric fraction (EF) values in earthworms in the bioaccumulation period were approximately 0.5, which indicated there was no enantioselective bioaccumulation. In contrast, the degradation of fipronil in earthworms was enantioselective: the t1/2 values for R- and S-fipronil were 3.3 and 2.5 days, respectively, in natural soil, and 2.1 and 1.4 days, respectively, in artificial soil. The results of soil analyses showed that the degradation of fipronil was not enantioselective, which suggested that the enantioselectivity of fipronil in earthworms results from the organism's metabolism. The study also demonstrated that the presence of earthworms could accelerate the degradation of fipronil in soil. PMID:24742550

  13. Can we predict How Earthworm Effects on Plant Growth Vary with Soil Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earthworms are usually assumed to enhance plant growth through different mechanisms which are now clearly identified. It is however difficult to determine their relative importance, and to predict a priori the strength and direction of the effects of a given earthworm species on a given plant. Soil properties are likely to be very influential in determining plant responses to earthworm activities. They are likely to change the relative strength of the various mechanisms involved in plant-earthworm interactions. In this paper, we review the different rationales used to explain changes in earthworm effect due to soil type. Then, we systematically discuss the effect of main soil characteristics (soil texture, OM, and nutrient contents) on the different mechanisms allowing earthworm to influence plant growth. Finally, we identify the main shortcomings in our knowledge and point out the new experimental and meta-analytical approaches that need to be developed. An example of such a meta-analysis is given and means to go further are suggested. The result highlights a strong positive effect size in sandy soil and a weakly negative effect in clayey soil.

  14. Physiological and molecular responses of the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) to soil chlortetracycline contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to evaluate toxic effects of exposure to chlortetracycline (CTC) in soil on reproductive endpoints (juvenile counts and cocoon counts), biochemical responses, and genotoxic potentials of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Results showed that juvenile counts and cocoon counts of the tested earthworms were reduced after exposure to CTC. The effective concentrations (EC50 values) for juvenile and cocoon counts were 96.1 and 120.3 mg/kg, respectively. Treatment of earthworms with CTC significantly changed the activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). An increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) indicated that CTC could cause cellular lipid peroxidation in the tested earthworms. The percentage of DNA in the tail of single-cell gel electrophoresis of coelomocytes as an indication of DNA damage increased after treatment with different doses of CTC, and a dose-dependent DNA damage of coelomocytes was found. In conclusion, CTC induces physiological responses and genotoxicity on earthworms. - Highlights: ? Reproductive endpoints were assessed for Eisenia fetida exposed to chlortectracyline (CTC). ? CTC may induce physiological and molecular responses in E. fetida. ? A clear relationship was observed between CTC doses and DNA damage of coelomocytes. - Chlortetracycline in soil could induce physiological responses and genotoxicity on earthworms at realistic environmental concentrations.entrations.

  15. Soil geochemistry and digestive solubilization control mercury bioaccumulation in the earthworm Pheretima guillemi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Fei; Zhao, Jie; Greenfield, Ben K; Zhong, Huan; Wang, Yujun; Yang, Zhousheng; Zhou, Dongmei

    2015-07-15

    Mercury presents a potential risk to soil organisms, yet our understanding of mercury bioaccumulation in soil dwelling organisms is limited. The influence of soil geochemistry and digestive processes on both methylmercury (MeHg) and total mercury (THg) bioavailability to earthworms (Pheretima guillemi) was evaluated in this study. Earthworms were exposed to six mercury-contaminated soils with geochemically contrasting properties for 36 days, and digestive fluid was concurrently collected to solubilize soil-associated mercury. Bioaccumulation factors were 7.5-31.0 and 0.2-0.6 for MeHg and THg, respectively, and MeHg accounted for 17-58% of THg in earthworm. THg and MeHg measured in soils and earthworms were negatively associated with soil total organic carbon (TOC). Earthworm THg and MeHg also increased with increasing soil pH. The proportion of MeHg and THg released into the digestive fluid (digestive solubilizable mercury, DSM) was 8.3-18.1% and 0.4-1.3%, respectively. The greater solubilization of MeHg by digestive fluid than CaCl2, together with a biokinetic model-based estimate of dietary MeHg uptake, indicated the importance of soil ingestion for MeHg bioaccumulation in earthworms. PMID:25781374

  16. Earthworms as Ecosystem Engineers and the Most Important Detritivors in Forest Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Kooch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are considered as soil engineers because of their effects on soil properties and their influence on the availability of resources for other organisms, including microorganisms and plants. However, the links between their impacts on the soil environment and the resulting modification of natural selection pressures on engineer as well as on other organisms have received little attention. Earthworms are known to have a positive influence on the soil fabric and on the decomposition and mineralization of litter by breaking down organic matter and producing large amounts of fasces, thereby mixing litter with the mineral soil. Therefore, they play an important part in changes from one humus from to another according to forest succession patterns. Consequently, they are also expected to be good bio-indicators for forest site quality and are thus useful when planning forest production improvement. Earthworm`s populations are as indicator that in exploited regions is destruction indicator and reclamation plans is nature return indicator. In this study we summarized the current knowledge in relation to earthworm`s ecology in forest soils as ecosystem engineers.

  17. Influence of earthworm activity on microbial communities related with the degradation of persistent pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Lee, Iwa; Verweij, Rudo A; Morais, Paula V; Van Velzen, Martin J M; Sousa, José Paulo; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2012-04-01

    Earthworms may promote the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, but the mechanism through which they exert such influence is still unknown. To determine if the stimulation of PAH degradation by earthworms is related to changes in microbial communities, a microcosm experiment was conducted consisting of columns with natural uncontaminated soil covered with PAH-contaminated dredge sediment. Columns without and with low and high Eisenia andrei densities were prepared. Organic matter and PAH content, microbial biomass, and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) were measured in soil and sediment over time. Biolog Ecoplate™ and polymerase chain reaction using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were used to evaluate changes in metabolic and structural diversity of the microbial community, respectively. Earthworm activity promoted PAH degradation in soil, which was significant for biphenyl, benzo[a]pyrene, and benzo[e]pyrene. Microbial biomass and DHA activity generally did not change over the experiment. Earthworm activity did change microbial community structure, but this did not affect its functioning in terms of carbon substrate consumption. Results suggest no relationship between changes in the microbial community by earthworm activity and increased PAH disappearance. The role of shifts in soil microbial community structure induced by earthworms in PAH removal needs further investigation. PMID:22213518

  18. Soil bioturbation by earthworms and plant roots- mechanical and energetic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, S.; Or, D.; Schymanski, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Soil structure is a key factor shaping hydrological and ecological functions including water storage, deep recharge and plant growth. Compaction adversely impacts soil ecosystem services over extended periods (years to decades) until structure and functionality are restored. An important class of soil structural restoration processes are related to biomechanical activity associated with borrowing of earthworms and root proliferation in impacted soils. This study employs a new biomechanical model to estimate stresses required for earthworm and plant root bioturbation under different conditions and the mechanical energy required. We consider steady state plastic cavity expansion to determine burrowing pressures of earthworms and plant roots as linked with models for cone penetration required for initial burrowing into soil volumes. We use earthworm physical and ecological parameters (e.g., population density, burrowing rate, and burrowing behavior) to convert mechanical deformation to estimation of energy and soil organic carbon (energy source for earthworms). Results illustrate a reduction in strain energy with increasing water content and trade-offs between pressure and energy investment for various root and earthworm geometries and soil hydration. The study provides a quantitative framework for estimating energy costs of bioturbation in terms of soil organic carbon or plant assimilates and delineates mechanical and hydration conditions that promote or constrain such activities.

  19. Earthworms dilong: ancient, inexpensive, noncontroversial models may help clarify approaches to integrated medicine emphasizing neuroimmune systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Edwin L; Balamurugan, Mariappan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Tsao, Clara R; Heredia, Jesus; Tommaseo-Ponzetta, Mila; Paoletti, Maurizio G

    2012-01-01

    Earthworms have provided ancient cultures with food and sources of medicinal cures. Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and practices in Japan, Vietnam, and Korea have focused first on earthworms as sources of food. Gradually fostering an approach to potential beneficial healing properties, there are renewed efforts through bioprospecting and evidence-based research to understand by means of rigorous investigations the mechanisms of action whether earthworms are used as food and/or as sources of potential medicinal products. Focusing on earthworms grew by serendipity from an extensive analysis of the earthworm's innate immune system. Their immune systems are replete with leukocytes and humoral products that exert credible health benefits. Their emerging functions with respect to evolution of innate immunity have long been superseded by their well-known ecological role in soil conservation. Earthworms as inexpensive, noncontroversial animal models (without ethical concerns) are not vectors of disease do not harbor parasites that threaten humans nor are they annoying pests. By recognizing their numerous ecological, environmental, and biomedical roles, substantiated by inexpensive and more comprehensive investigations, we will become more aware of their undiscovered beneficial properties. PMID:22888362

  20. Impact of land protection in soil quality properties and in earthworm biomass in Venezuelan savannas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D, López-Hernández; L, Hernández; A, Ojeda; E, Quintero; S, Caipo.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied soil parameters and the earthworm biomass and density in a protected savanna (PS) from fire and cattle raising for more than forty years located at Estación Biológica de los Llanos, Venezuela (EBLL), and an adjacent non-protected savanna (NS) under frequent burning and agricultural activi [...] ties, located less than 1 km apart. Earthworm sampling was carried out at the end of the dry season (April), and at the peak of the wet season (July-August) using a hand sorting extraction method. In each plot, five to seven sampling units were selected corresponding to soil monoliths of 25x25x30 cm. The main physical, chemical, microbial (biomass) and enzymatic activities of soils in both systems were estimated. Thepresence of an abundant litter layer under the tree canopies in the PS have increased the soil water retention capacity, the organic-C, C-microbial biomass, dehydrogenase activity and fertility levels respect NS. This may allow for an increase in the density and biomass of earthworms in the PS compared with the adjacent NS. The systems were characterized by abundance in juvenile individuals belonging to the Glossoscolecidae family; two different morphotypes of the genus Aicodrilus were registered. Earthworms found were located in an endo-anecic ecological category. Results suggest that, agricultural management in savannas by modification of physical and biochemical soil properties can decrease an important fraction of pedofauna, particularly their earthworm communities. However, earthworm populations and soil quality indicators can be restored after long-term protection.

  1. Macropores and earthworm species affected by agronomic intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Paul Henning; Pérès, Guénola

    Soil ecosystem services depend on water regulation both to retain soil moisture and to eliminate water excess without harmful loss of particles and nutrients. As such the combination of soil physical properties that support soil hydrological functioning is a well-recognized service delivered by soil. There is widespread recognition of soil biodiversity and biological activities that are needed to sustain soil structural properties. The detrimental consequences of a weakened functionality have been stressed in the EU Soil Strategy and hydrology in particular is related to all soil threats. Biopores and soil aggregate formation have been shown to be crucial results of soil macroorganism activities contributing to soil hydrology. In collaboration between the French “Observatoire de Recherche en Environnement – Agro-écosystèmes, Cycles Biogéochimiques et Biodiversité” (ORE-ACBB) and the FP7 EU project EcoFINDERS we investigated the relationsship between earthworm biodiversity, macropores and three agricultural landuse types. A field campaign was conducted in October-November 2011. Earthworm burrow distribution was quantified at 10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 20 cm horizontal layer intervals down the soil profile to 1 meter depth and correlated with the earthworm community consisting of 12 species dominated by the endogeics Aporrectodea caliginosa and Aporrectodea chlorotica and the anecics Aporrectodea longa and Lumbricus centralis. Medium-small macropores in the ploughing layer with diameters (Ø) less than 5 mm were significantly more abundant in permanent grassland compared to conventional rotation system with annual crops. An intermediate system with 3 year grass and 3 years with annuals was also intermediate between the two other systems. At 30 cm's depth we found no large macropores, Ø >7 mm, in the system with annuals, but increasingly more in rotations with grass. Addition of frequencies of macropores with Ø>7 mm retains the significant difference between annual and the permanent grass system. Moreover, all the large burrows, >5 mm Ø, follow this pattern and are significantly more numerous in permanent grass to annuals (P<3%). At depth 100 cm total number of macropores were more abundant in the annual crops compared with permanent grass (P=5%), due to a larger number of macropores <7 mm. We present an interpretation of the macropore patterns in relation to the anecic and endogeic lifeforms and their established role in creating burrows of different spatial distribution and density.

  2. Freeze-dried sperm fertilization leads to full-term development in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji-Long; Kusakabe, Hirokazu; Chang, Ching-Chien; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Schmidt, David W; Julian, Marina; Pfeffer, Robert; Bormann, Charles L; Tian, X Cindy; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2004-06-01

    To date, the laboratory mouse is the only mammal in which freeze-dried spermatozoa have been shown to support full-term development after microinjection into oocytes. Because spermatozoa in mice, unlike in most other mammals, do not contribute centrosomes to zygotes, it is still unknown whether freeze-dried spermatozoa in other mammals are fertile. Rabbit sperm was selected as a model because of its similarity to human sperm (considering the centrosome inheritance pattern). Freeze- drying induces rabbit spermatozoa to undergo dramatic changes, such as immobilization, membrane breaking, and tail fragmentation. Even when considered to be "dead" in the conventional sense, rabbit spermatozoa freeze-dried and stored at ambient temperature for more than 2 yr still have capability comparable to that of fresh spermatozoa to support preimplantation development after injection into oocytes followed by activation. A rabbit kit derived from a freeze-dried spermatozoon was born after transferring 230 sperm-injected oocytes into eight recipients. The results suggest that freeze-drying could be applied to preserve the spermatozoa from most other species, including human. The present study also raises the question of whether rabbit sperm centrosomes survive freeze-drying or are not essential for embryonic development. PMID:14960482

  3. Earthworms newly from Mongolia (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae, Eisenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Blakemore

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new megadrile earthworms from the steppes, the first species wholly from Outer Mongolia, are ascribed to the partially parthenogenetic Eisenia nordenskioldi (Eisen, 1879 species-complex. Taxonomic justification of sympatric Eisenia nordenskioldi mongol and E. nordenskioldi onon ssp. n. are supported by mtDNA COI barcodes. The unreliability of molecular differentiation based on voucher names compared to definitive types is again demonstrated, as pertains to the ultimate Eisenia andrei Bouché, 1972 synonym of the E. fetida (Savigny, 1826 sibling species-complex composed of more than a dozen prior names. Similar species described from Northeast China [formerly Manchuria] and North Korea are briefly considered, albeit they are intermittently held in synonymy of cosmopolitan Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826 along with many other taxa including some exotic lumbricids initially found in India. Japanese and North American lumbricids are also mentioned. Distributions are discussed and an annotated checklist of all nine Siberian/sub-arctic E. nordenskioldi ssp. is appended.

  4. Escape and avoidance learning in the earthworm Eisenia hortensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jeffrey Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in instrumental learning in earthworms dates back to 1912 when Yerkes concluded that they can learn a spatial discrimination in a T-maze. Rosenkoetter and Boice determined in the 1970s that the “learning” that Yerkes observed was probably chemotaxis and not learning at all. We examined a different form of instrumental learning: the ability to learn both to escape and to avoid an aversive stimulus. Freely moving “master” worms could turn off an aversive white light by increasing their movement; the behavior of yoked controls had no effect on the light. We demonstrate that in as few as 12 trials the behavior of the master worms comes under the control of this contingency.

  5. Freeze Technology for Nuclear Applications - 13590

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freezing of soil materials is a complicated process of a number of physical processes: - freezing of pore water in a thermal gradient, - cryogenic suction causing water migration and - ice formation expanding pores inducing frost heave. Structural changes due to increase of effective stress during freezing also take place. The over consolidation gives a powerful dewatering/drying effect and the freeze process causes separation of contaminates. Artificial ground freezing (AGF is a well established technique first practiced in south Wales, as early as 1862. AGF is mostly used to stabilize tunnels and excavations. During the last ten years underwater applications of freeze technologies based on the AGF have been explored in Sweden. The technology can, and has been, used in many different steps in a remediation action. Freeze Sampling where undisturbed samples are removed in both soft and hard sediment/sludge, Freeze Dredging; retrieval of sediment with good precision and minimal redistribution, and Freeze Drying; volume reduction of contaminated sludge/sediment. The application of these technologies in a nuclear or radioactive environment provides several advantages. Sampling by freezing gives for example an advantage of an undisturbed sample taken at a specified depth, salvaging objects by freezing or removal of sludges is other applications of this, for the nuclear industry, novel technology. (authors)

  6. Modelling spatiotemporal distribution patterns of earthworms in order to indicate hydrological soil processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Juliane; Klaus, Julian; van Schaik, Loes; Zehe, Erwin; Schröder, Boris

    2010-05-01

    Soils provide central ecosystem functions in recycling nutrients, detoxifying harmful chemicals as well as regulating microclimate and local hydrological processes. The internal regulation of these functions and therefore the development of healthy and fertile soils mainly depend on the functional diversity of plants and animals. Soil organisms drive essential processes such as litter decomposition, nutrient cycling, water dynamics, and soil structure formation. Disturbances by different soil management practices (e.g., soil tillage, fertilization, pesticide application) affect the distribution and abundance of soil organisms and hence influence regulating processes. The strong relationship between environmental conditions and soil organisms gives us the opportunity to link spatiotemporal distribution patterns of indicator species with the potential provision of essential soil processes on different scales. Earthworms are key organisms for soil function and affect, among other things, water dynamics and solute transport in soils. Through their burrowing activity, earthworms increase the number of macropores by building semi-permanent burrow systems. In the unsaturated zone, earthworm burrows act as preferential flow pathways and affect water infiltration, surface-, subsurface- and matrix flow as well as the transport of water and solutes into deeper soil layers. Thereby different ecological earthworm types have different importance. Deep burrowing anecic earthworm species (e.g., Lumbricus terrestris) affect the vertical flow and thus increase the risk of potential contamination of ground water with agrochemicals. In contrast, horizontal burrowing endogeic (e.g., Aporrectodea caliginosa) and epigeic species (e.g., Lumbricus rubellus) increase water conductivity and the diffuse distribution of water and solutes in the upper soil layers. The question which processes are more relevant is pivotal for soil management and risk assessment. Thus, finding relevant environmental predictors which explain the distribution and dynamics of different ecological earthworm types can help us to understand where or when these processes are relevant in the landscape. Therefore, we develop species distribution models which are a useful tool to predict spatiotemporal distributions of earthworm occurrence and abundance under changing environmental conditions. On field scale, geostatistical distribution maps have shown that the spatial distribution of earthworms depends on soil parameters such as food supply, soil moisture, bulk density but with different patterns for earthworm stages (adult, juvenile) and ecological types (anecic, endogeic, epigeic). On landscape scales, earthworm distribution seems to be strongly controlled by management/disturbance-related factors. Our study shows different modelling approaches for predicting distribution patterns of earthworms in the Weiherbach area, an agricultural site in Kraichtal (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). We carried out field studies on arable fields differing in soil management practices (conventional, conservational), soil properties (organic matter content, texture, soil moisture), and topography (slope, elevation) in order to identify predictors for earthworm occurrence, abundance and biomass. Our earthworm distribution models consider all ecological groups as well as different life stages, accounting for the fact that the activity of juveniles is sometimes different from those of adults. Within our BIOPORE-project it is our final goal to couple our distribution models with population dynamic models and a preferential flow model to an integrated ecohydrological model to analyse feedbacks between earthworm engineering and transport characteristics affecting the functioning of (agro-) ecosystems.

  7. Soil Aggregate Stability in the Presence of Earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L. and Different Organic Materials in a Calcareous Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Moosavi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the crucial function of earthworms in improvement of soil physical properties is well -know, but very little is known of the interactive influence of earthworms and organic materials on soil properties such as soil aggregate stability, particularly in arid and semi-arid soils. The low organic matter content and the significant role of earthworms in improving physical properties of arid and semi-arid soils necessitate studying the interactive effects of organic materials and earthworms. Thus, the main objective of this study was to identify the interactive effects of anecic earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris L. and various organic residues (including alfalfa, compost, mixture of alfalfa and compost and cow dung on soil aggregate stability expressed as the Mean Weight Diameter (MWD, Geometric Mean Diameter (GMD and Aggregation Ratio (AR, and furthermore soil Ca and Mg contents. The experiment consisted of a 2×5 factorial treatment organized in a completely randomized design with four replications under controlled greenhouse conditions, lasted for 150 days. Results showed that earthworm inoculation and organic materials addition alone increased significantly all the indices of soil aggregation and aggregate stability, and Ca and Mg contents. However, the combined use of earthworms and organic residues resulted in more stable aggregates. Results indicated that earthworm inoculation in the presence of organic materials resulted in 39, 58, 2, 67, 43 and 74% increases, respectively in MWD, AR, GMD, Ca, Mg and macroaggregates whereas microaggregates were reduced by 13.5% in earthworm-worked soils. We observed a significant relationship (R2=0.945 between soil Ca content and MWD, demonstrating that earthworms apparently excrete calcite that helps bonding clay particles and soil organic matter via cationic (Ca+2 bridging. In summary, results of this study show that the simultaneous applications of anecic earthworms and organic materials may considerably help in improving the structure of arid and semi-arid soils with low carbon level.

  8. The wonders of earthworms & its vermicompost in farm production: Charles Darwin’s ‘friends of farmers’, with potential to replace destructive chemical fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Dalsukh Valani; Krunal Chauhan; Sunita Agarwal; Sinha, Rajiv K.

    2010-01-01

    Earthworms and its excreta (vermicast) promises to usher in the ‘Second Green Revolution’ by completely replacing the destructive agro chemicals which did more harm than good to both the farmers and their farmland. Earthworms restore & improve soil fertility and significantly boost crop productivity. Earthworms excreta (vermicast) is a nutritive ‘organic fertilizer’ rich in humus, NKP, micronutrients, beneficial soil microbes—‘nitrogenfixing & phosphate solubilizing bacter...

  9. Continuous 3d Freezing Transition in Layered Superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Balents, Leon; Radzihovsky, Leo

    1995-01-01

    We use Ginzburg-Landau theory to study the $H_{c2}$ transition in layered superconductors with field parallel to the layers, finding a continuous 3d freezing transition to a triangular vortex super-solid in the three-dimensional XY universality class. If screening effects are neglected, off--diagonal--long--range--order survives only for $d>d_{lc}=5/2$. The partial breaking of the lowest Landau level degeneracy induced by layering leads to a {\\sl local} selection of a triang...

  10. Cryoprotectant Biosynthesis and the Selective Accumulation of Threitol in the Freeze-tolerant Alaskan Beetle, Upis ceramboides*

    OpenAIRE

    Walters, Kent R.; Pan, Qingfeng; Serianni, Anthony S.; Duman, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Adult Upis ceramboides do not survive freezing in the summer but tolerate freezing to ?60 °C in midwinter. The accumulation of two cryoprotective polyols, sorbitol and threitol, is integral to the extraordinary cold-hardiness of this beetle. U. ceramboides are the only animals known to accumulate high concentrations of threitol; however, the biosynthetic pathway has not been studied. A series of 13C-labeled compounds was employed to investigate this biosynthetic pathway using 13C{1H} NMR s...

  11. A Leech Capable of Surviving Exposure to Extremely Low Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Dai; Miyamoto, Tomoko; Kikawada, Takahiro; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

    2014-01-01

    It is widely considered that most organisms cannot survive prolonged exposure to temperatures below 0°C, primarily because of the damage caused by the water in cells as it freezes. However, some organisms are capable of surviving extreme variations in environmental conditions. In the case of temperature, the ability to survive subzero temperatures is referred to as cryobiosis. We show that the ozobranchid leech, Ozobranchus jantseanus, a parasite of freshwater turtles, has a surprisingly high...

  12. The influence of the earthworm Lampito mauritii (Kinberg) on the activity of selected soil enzymes in cadmium-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, S; Prabha, D; Barathi, S; Nityanandi, D; Subbhuraam, C V; Lakshmipriya, T; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan; Jang, S H; Yi, P I

    2015-03-01

    The effects of cadmium (CdCl2·7H2O) on cellulase, urease, amylase, invertase and phosphatase were assessed for a period of 45 days in the presence and absence of earthworms [Lampito mauritii (Kinberg)] in alfisol soil. The activities of all enzymes significantly increased with longer incubation times (45 days) under laboratory conditions in both control and Cd-amended soils (both with and without earthworm incubation). However, the activities of all enzymes decreased with increasing Cd concentrations under laboratory conditions, both in the presence and absence of earthworms. In the presence of earthworms, cellulase, urease, invertase and amylase activities increased. However, phosphatase activity was lower in most of the Cd-amended soils in the presence of earthworms compared to its activity levels in soils lacking earthworms. These results show that earthworms modulated the stress imposed by Cd by providing suitable substrates, which in turn acted as stimulants for extracellular enzyme secretion by microbes, and by removing Cd through its accumulation in the tissues of the earthworms. PMID:25647789

  13. Impact of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (L.) on As, Cu, Pb and Zn mobility and speciation in contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizmur, Tom, E-mail: t.p.sizmur@reading.ac.uk [Soil Research Centre, Department of Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Watts, Michael J. [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E. [Soil Research Centre, Department of Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    To assess the risks that contaminated soils pose to the environment properly a greater understanding of how soil biota influence the mobility of metal(loid)s in soils is required. Lumbricus terrestris L. were incubated in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. The concentration and speciation of metal(loid)s in pore waters and the mobility and partitioning in casts were compared with earthworm-free soil. Generally the concentrations of water extractable metal(loid)s in earthworm casts were greater than in earthworm-free soil. The impact of the earthworms on concentration and speciation in pore waters was soil and metal specific and could be explained either by earthworm induced changes in soil pH or soluble organic carbon. The mobilisation of metal(loid)s in the environment by earthworm activity may allow for leaching or uptake into biota. - Research highlights: > Earthworms increase the mobility and availability of metals and metalloids in soils. > We incubated L. terrestris in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. > Earthworms increased the mobility of As, Cu, Pb and Zn in their casts. > The mechanisms for this could be explained by changes in pH or organic carbon. - Lumbricus terrestris change the partitioning of metal(loid)s between soil constituents and increase the mobility of metal(loid)s in casts and pore water.

  14. Mutual impacts of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and earthworms (Eisenia fetida) on the bioavailability of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat and earthworms were exposed individually and together to soils contaminated with 11 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Wheat accumulated PFASs from soil with root concentration factors and bioconcentration factors that decreased as the number of perfluorinated carbons in the molecule increased. Earthworms accumulated PFASs from soil with biota-to-soil accumulation factors that increased with the number of carbons. Translocation factors (TF) of perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) in wheat peaked at perfluorohexanoic acid and decreased significantly as the number of carbons increased or decreased. Perfluorohexane sulfonate produced the greatest TF of the three perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) examined. Wheat increased the bioaccumulation of all 11 PFASs in earthworms and earthworms increased the bioaccumulation in wheat of PFCAs containing seven or less perfluorinated carbons, decreased bioaccumulation of PFCAs with more than seven carbons, and decreased bioaccumulation of PFSAs. In general, the co-presence of wheat and earthworms enhanced the bioavailability of PFASs in soil. -- Highlights: • PFASs can be taken up by root of wheat from soil and translocated to shoot. • The RCFs and BCFs of PFASs in wheat decreased with perfluorinated carbon chain length. • PFHxA had the highest TF, which decreased exponentially with the carbon chain length. • The BSAFs in earthworm increased with carbon chain length. • The co-presence of wheat and earthworm enhanced the bioavailability of PFASs in soil. -- PFASs can be uptake by root of wheat from soil and translocated to shoot and co-presence of wheat and earthworm enhance the bioavailability of PFASs in soil

  15. Assessing ecotoxicity and uptake of metals and metalloids in relation to two different earthworm species (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to diffuse atmospheric fallouts of process particles enriched by metals and metalloids, polluted soils concern large areas at the global scale. Useful tools to assess ecotoxicity induced by these polluted soils are therefore needed. Earthworms are currently used as biotest, however the influence of specie and earthworm behaviour, soil characteristics are poorly highlighted. Our aim was therefore to assess the toxicity of various polluted soils with process particles enriches by metals and metalloids (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, As and Sb) collected from a lead recycling facility on two earthworm species belonging to different ecological types and thus likely to have contrasted behavioural responses (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris). The combination of behavioural factors measurements (cast production and biomass) and physico-chemical parameters such as metal absorption, bioaccumulation by earthworms and their localization in invertebrate tissues provided a valuable indication of pollutant bioavailability and ecotoxicity. Soil characteristics influenced ecotoxicity and metal uptake by earthworms, as well as their soil bioturbation. -- Highlights: •Historically polluted soils collected from a lead recycling facility were studied. •Cast production is a sensitive parameter to assess ecotoxicity on earthworms. •Both soil parameters, like organic matter content and pH and earthworm specie influence metal uptake and ecotoxicity. -- Behavioural factors and inorganic pollutant uptake by earthworms provide a valuable indication of bioavailability and ecotoxicity

  16. Effects of metal pollution on earthworm communities in a contaminated floodplain area: Linking biomarker, community and functional responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects on earthworms in the contaminated floodplain area the Biesbosch, the Netherlands, were determined at different levels of organization using a combination of field and laboratory tests. The species Lumbricus rubellus, collected from different polluted sites in the Biesbosch, showed reduced values for the biomarker neutral red retention time (NRRT), mainly explained by high metal concentrations in the soil and the resulting high internal copper concentrations in the earthworms. Organic pollutant levels in earthworms were low and did not explain reduced NRRTs. Earthworm abundance and biomass were not correlated with pollutant levels in the soil. Litterbag decomposition and bait-lamina feeding activity, measures of the functional role of earthworms, were not affected by metal pollution and did not show any correlation with metal concentrations in soil or earthworms nor with NRRT. Effects at the biochemical level therefore did not result in a reduced functioning of earthworm communities. - Metal pollution in floodplain soils does affect earthworm biomarker response but not their activity in decomposition processes

  17. Impact of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (L.) on As, Cu, Pb and Zn mobility and speciation in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the risks that contaminated soils pose to the environment properly a greater understanding of how soil biota influence the mobility of metal(loid)s in soils is required. Lumbricus terrestris L. were incubated in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. The concentration and speciation of metal(loid)s in pore waters and the mobility and partitioning in casts were compared with earthworm-free soil. Generally the concentrations of water extractable metal(loid)s in earthworm casts were greater than in earthworm-free soil. The impact of the earthworms on concentration and speciation in pore waters was soil and metal specific and could be explained either by earthworm induced changes in soil pH or soluble organic carbon. The mobilisation of metal(loid)s in the environment by earthworm activity may allow for leaching or uptake into biota. - Research highlights: ? Earthworms increase the mobility and availability of metals and metalloids in soils. ? We incubated L. terrestris in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. ? Earthworms increased the mobility of As, Cu, Pb and Zn in their casts. ? The mechanisms for this could be explained by changes in pH or organic carbon. - Lumbricus terrestris change the partitioning of metal(loid)s between soil constituents and increase the mobility of metal(loid)s in casts and pore water.

  18. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF AMBIENT AND ALTERED EARTHWORM COMMUNITIES IN ROW-CROP AGROECOSYSTEMS IN THE MIDWESTERN U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although earthworms affect agroecosystem processes, few studies have addressed population dynamics when earthworms are intentionally introduced. Therefore, handsorting and formalin extraction were used semi-annually from fall 1994 to fall 1997 to measure populations in ambient and addition plots in ...

  19. Assessing soil ecotoxicity of methyl tert-butyl ether using earthworm bioassay; closed soil microcosm test for volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An earthworm bioassay was conducted to assess ecotoxicity in methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-amended soils. Ecotoxicity of MTBE to earthworms was evaluated by a paper contact method, natural field soil test, and an OECD artificial soil test. All tests were conducted in closed systems to prevent volatilization of MTBE out of test units. Test earthworm species were Perionyx excavatus and Eisenia andrei. Mortality and abnormal morphology of earthworms exposed to different concentrations of MTBE were examined. MTBE was toxic to both earthworm species and the severity of response increased with increasing MTBE concentrations. Perionyx excavatus was more sensitive to MTBE than Eisenia andrei in filter papers and two different types of soils. MTBE toxicity was more severe in OECD artificial soils than in field soils, possibly due to the burrowing behavior of earthworms into artificial soils. The present study demonstrated that ecotoxicity of volatile organic compounds such as MTBE can be assessed using an earthworm bioassay in closed soil microcosm with short-term exposure duration. - Earthworm bioassay can be a good protocol to assess soil ecotoxicity of volatile organic compounds such as MTBE

  20. Impact of Native and Invasive Earthworm Activity on Forest Soil Organic Matter Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top, Sara; Filley, Timothy

    2010-05-01

    Many northern North American forests are experiencing the introduction of exotic European lumbricid species earthworms with documented losses in litter layers, expansion of A-horizons, loss of the organic horizon, changes in fine root density, and shifts in microbial populations as a result. Some of these forests were previously devoid of these ecosystem engineers. We compare the soil isotope and molecular chemistry from two free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) forest experiments (aspen FACE at Rhinelander, Wisconsin and sweet gum FACE at Oak Ridge National Lab, Tennessee) that lie within the zones of earthworm invasion. These sites exhibit differences in amounts of exotic and native species as well as endogeic (predominantly mineral soil dwelling) and epigeic (litter and organic matter horizon dwelling) types. We investigated the impact of earthworm activity by tracking the relative abundance and stable carbon isotope compositions of lignin and substituted fatty acids extracted from isolated earthworms and their fecal pellets and from host soils. Additionally, 15N-labeled additions to the soil provide additional methods for tracking earthworm impacts. Indications of root vs leaf input to earthworm casts and fecal matter were derived from differences in the chemical composition of cutin, suberin, and lignin. The isotopically depleted CO2 used in FACE and the resulting isotopically depleted plant organic matter afford an excellent opportunity to assess biopolymer-specific turnover dynamics. We find that endogeic species are proportionately more responsible for fine root cycling while some epigeic species are responsible for microaggregation of foliar cutin. CSIA of fecal pellet lignin and SFA indicate how these biopolymer pools can be derived from variable sources, roots, background soil, foliar tissue within one earthworm. Additionally, CSIA indicates the distinct roles that different earthworm types have in "aging" surface soil biopolymer pools through encapsulation and upward transport of deeper soil carbon, and "freshening" deeper soil biopolymer pools through downward transport of surface carbon to deeper layers. Although, endogeic species burrow down below 30 cm in these systems, comparison of 13C and 15N in soil layers and fecal matter indicate their greatest impact is restricted to the upper 5 cm. As earthworm species abundance and activity are not is steady state in these forests, the role of these important invertebrates should be more considered when assessing the ability of forest soils to accumulate new plant input.

  1. Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs) by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earthworms were exposed to artificially contaminated soils with ten perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). PFASs with longer perfluorinated carbon chain displayed higher uptake rate coefficients (ku), longer half-life (t1/2) and time to steady-state (tss) but lower elimination rate coefficients (ke) than the shorter ones. Similarly, perfluorosulfonates acids (PFSAs) displayed higher ku, longer t1/2 and tss but lower ke than perflurocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) with the same perfluorinated chain length. All the studied PFASs, including those with seven or less perfluorinated carbons, were bioaccumulated in the earthworms and the biota-to-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) increased with perfluorinated carbon chain length and were greater for PFSAs than for PFCAs of equal perfluoroalkyl chain length. The BSAFs were found to be dependent on the concentrations of PFASs in soil and decreased as the level of PFASs in soil increased. -- Highlights: •PFASs with seven or less perfluoroalkyl carbons were bioaccumulated in earthworm. •The BSAFs of PFASs in earthworm increased with perfluoroalkyl chain length. •The BSAFs of PFSAs were greater than PFCAs of equal perfluoroalkyl chain length. •The ku increased with perfluorinated chain length while ke decreased. •The BSAFs of PFASs decreased as their concentrations in soil increased. -- Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) can be effectively bioaccumulated in earthworms including those with seven or less perfluoroalkyl carbon chain length

  2. A dataset comprising four micro-computed tomography scans of freshly fixed and museum earthworm specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Although molecular tools are increasingly employed to decipher invertebrate systematics, earthworm (Annelida: Clitellata: ‘Oligochaeta’) taxonomy is still largely based on conventional dissection, resulting in data that are mostly unsuitable for dissemination through online databases. In order to evaluate if micro-computed tomography (?CT) in combination with soft tissue staining techniques could be used to expand the existing set of tools available for studying internal and external structures of earthworms, ?CT scans of freshly fixed and museum specimens were gathered. Findings Scout images revealed full penetration of tissues by the staining agent. The attained isotropic voxel resolutions permit identification of internal and external structures conventionally used in earthworm taxonomy. The ?CT projection and reconstruction images have been deposited in the online data repository GigaDB and are publicly available for download. Conclusions The dataset presented here shows that earthworms constitute suitable candidates for ?CT scanning in combination with soft tissue staining. Not only are the data comparable to results derived from traditional dissection techniques, but due to their digital nature the data also permit computer-based interactive exploration of earthworm morphology and anatomy. The approach pursued here can be applied to freshly fixed as well as museum specimens, which is of particular importance when considering the use of rare or valuable material. Finally, a number of aspects related to the deposition of digital morphological data are briefly discussed. PMID:24839546

  3. Engineering of Soil Biological Quality from Nickel Mining Stockpile Using Two Earthworm Ecological Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L M H Kilowasid

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms have the ability in modifying soil biological quality for plant growth. Their ability is mostly depending on its ecological groups. The objectives of the research were to study the influence of two ecological groups of earthworms on soil microbial activity and soil micro-fauna abundance, and to know the potential of soil modified by earthworms as plant growth medium. Eight combination of individual earthworm from epigeic and endogeic groups was applied into pot that was filled by soil from two years of nickel stockpile and each treatment was repeated by five times. The experiment was following complete randomize design procedure. After sixteen days of research, the soil sample from each pot was analyzed for soil FDA activity, number of flagellate and nematodes. Furthermore, one kg of the soil from each pot was taken and every pot was grown by Paraserianthes falcataria seedling with the age of five days and continued its growth for two months. The results indicated that the soil FDA activity, number of flagellate and nematodes among treatments were significantly differences. In addition, it indicated the significant differences in dry weight of shoot, root, total plant, and root to shoot ratio of P. falcataria seedlings. It concluded that the combination of an individual number of epigeic and endogeic earthworms improved soil biological quality of stock pile, amd most suitable for seedlings growth in nickel mining area.

  4. Subacute toxicity of copper and glyphosate and their interaction to earthworm (Eisenia fetida)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyphosate (GPS) and copper (Cu) are common pollutants in soils, and commonly co-exist. Due to the chemical structure of GPS, it can form complexes of heavy metals and interface their bioavailability in soil environment. In order to explore the interactions between GPS and Cu, subacute toxicity tests of Cu and GPS on soil invertebrate earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were conducted. The relative weight loss and whole-worm metal burdens increased significantly with the increasing exposure concentration of Cu, while the toxicity of GPS was insignificant. The joint toxicity data showed that the relative weight loss and the uptake of Cu, as well as the superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde activities, were significantly alleviated in the present of GPS, which indicated that GPS could reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cu in the soil because of its strong chelating effects. Highlights: •Cu markedly increased the weight loss ratio of earthworm. •Cu decreased the cocoon production of earthworm. •The toxicity of GPS on earthworm was insignificant. •The presence of GPS could reduce the toxicity of Cu on earthworm. -- The presence of glyphosate could reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cu in the soil because of its strong chelating effects

  5. Characteristics of sugar surfactants in stabilizing proteins during freeze-thawing and freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Koreyoshi; Murai, Katsuyuki; Korehisa, Tamayo; Shimizu, Noriyuki; Yamahira, Ryo; Matsuura, Tsutashi; Tada, Hiroko; Imanaka, Hiroyuki; Ishida, Naoyuki; Nakanishi, Kazuhiro

    2014-06-01

    Sugar surfactants with different alkyl chain lengths and sugar head groups were compared for their protein-stabilizing effect during freeze-thawing and freeze-drying. Six enzymes, different in terms of tolerance against inactivation because of freeze-thawing and freeze-drying, were used as model proteins. The enzyme activities that remained after freeze-thawing and freeze-drying in the presence of a sugar surfactant were measured for different types and concentrations of sugar surfactants. Sugar surfactants stabilized all of the tested enzymes both during freeze-thawing and freeze-drying, and a one or two order higher amount of added sugar surfactant was required for achieving protein stabilization during freeze-drying than for the cryoprotection. The comprehensive comparison showed that the C10-C12 esters of sucrose or trehalose were the most effective through the freeze-drying process: the remaining enzyme activities after freeze-thawing and freeze-drying increased at the sugar ester concentrations of 1-10 and 10-100 ?M, respectively, and increased to a greater extent than for the other surfactants at higher concentrations. Results also indicate that, when a decent amount of sugar was also added, the protein-stabilizing effect of a small amount of sugar ester through the freeze-drying process could be enhanced. PMID:24797557

  6. Fundamental Technical Elements of Freeze-fracture/Freeze-etch in Biological Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeze-fracture/freeze-etch describes a process whereby specimens, typically biological or nanomaterial in nature, are frozen, fractured, and replicated to generate a carbon/platinum "cast" intended for examination by transmission electron microscopy. Specimens are subjected to u...

  7. Freeze Enhanced Halate Halide Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberg, J. T.; Weaver, K.; Broderick, A.

    2014-12-01

    Relatively little is known about halate ion species (XO3-; X = I, Br, Cl) in atmospheric condensed phases. It was initial thought that iodate was a terminal stable species upon iodide oxidation. However, it is becoming increasingly recognized that reactions involving iodate can lead to reactive iodine, and this chemistry is accelerated under acidic conditions. The environmental concentrations and chemistry of bromate and chlorate are largely unexplored in environmental ices. We present results from a series of aqueous phase halate ion reactions with halides under acidic conditions, showing that the kinetics are strongly enhanced upon freezing. The products of these reactions are reactive halogens, which have important implications to marine boundary layer chemistry.

  8. Freeze dehydration of milk using microwave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of experimental studies on heat and mass transfer during a microwave freeze dehydration process. An experimental system and procedure was developed to freeze dry milk. A 2500-W microwave system with an appropriate wave guide was set up and instrumented, and a procedure was experimentally developed to obtain milk powder first by freezing milk and then dehydrating it at low pressure using microwave energy. An unsteady-state analysis was used to derive a one-dimensional mathematical model of the freeze dehydration process in a microwave electromagnetic field

  9. Bioaccumulation and biological effects in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to natural and depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanetti, Anna, E-mail: anna.giovanetti@enea.i [ENEA, Institute of Radiation Protection, CR Casaccia Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Fesenko, Sergey [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Cozzella, Maria L. [ENEA, National Institute for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation, CR Casaccia Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Asencio, Lisbet D. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales, Carretera a Castillo de Jagua, CP. 59350 C. Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Sansone, Umberto [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2010-06-15

    The accumulations of both natural (U) and depleted (DU) uranium in the earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were studied to evaluate corresponding biological effects. Concentrations of metals in the experimental soil ranged from 1.86 to 600 mg kg{sup -1}. Five biological endpoints: mortality, animals' weight increasing, lysosomal membrane stability by measuring the neutral red retention time (the NRRT), histological changes and genetic effects (Comet assay) were used to evaluate biological effects in the earthworms after 7 and 28 days of exposure. No effects have been observed in terms of mortality or weight reduction. Cytotoxic and genetic effects were identified at quite low U concentrations. For some of these endpoints, in particular for genetic effects, the dose (U concentration)-effect relationships have been found to be non-linear. The results have also shown a statistically significant higher level of impact on the earthworms exposed to natural U compared to depleted U.

  10. DNA Repair Inhibition by Mercuric Chloride in Earthworms after Exposure to Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Tae Ho; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nili, Mohammad [Dawnesh Radiation Research Institute, Barcelona (Spain); An, Kwang Guk [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    All organisms are being exposed to harmful factors present in the environment. Ionizing radiation can damage DNA through a series of molecular events depending on the radiation energy. The biological effects due to the combined action of ionizing radiation with the other factor are hard to estimate and predict in advance. Recently International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) requires the effect data of ionizing radiation on non-human biota for the radiological protection of the environment. Earthworms have been identified by the ICRP as one of the reference animals and plants to be used in environmental radiation protection. Particularly, the earthworm Eisenia fetida can be used as a bio-indicator of pollution in soil. This study was performed to investigate the acute genotoxic effects of radiation and the synergistic effects between radiation and mercury in earthworm, E. fetida

  11. Immune system participates in brain regeneration and restoration of reproduction in the earthworm Dendrobaena veneta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Laszlo; Pollak, Edit; Skopek, Zuzanna; Gutt, Ewa; Kruk, Jerzy; Morgan, A John; Plytycz, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Earthworm decerebration causes temporary inhibition of reproduction which is mediated by certain brain-derived neurohormones; thus, cocoon production is an apposite supravital marker of neurosecretory center functional recovery during brain regeneration. The core aim of the present study was to investigate aspects of the interactions of nervous and immune systems during brain regeneration in adult Dendrobaena veneta (Annelida; Oligochaeta). Surgical brain extirpation was combined, either with (i) maintenance of immune-competent coelomic cells (coelomocytes) achieved by surgery on prilocaine-anesthetized worms or (ii) prior extrusion of fluid-suspended coelomocytes by electrostimulation. Both brain renewal and cocoon output recovery were significantly faster in earthworms with relatively undisturbed coelomocyte counts compared with individuals where coelomocyte counts had been experimentally depleted. These observations provide empirical evidence that coelomocytes and/or coelomocyte-derived factors (e.g. riboflavin) participate in brain regeneration and, by implication, that there is close functional synergy between earthworm neural and immune systems. PMID:25863277

  12. Effects of Pesticides on the Growth and Reproduction of Earthworm: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific literature addressing the influence of pesticides on the growth and reproduction of earthworm is reviewed. Earthworms are considered as important bio indicators of chemical toxicity in the soil ecosystem. Studies on this aspect are important because earthworms are the common prey of many terrestrial vertebrate species such as birds and small mammals, and thus they play a key role in the bio magnification process of several soil pollutants. Majority of the studies have used mortality as an endpoint rather than subtler endpoints such as reproductive output. It is now emphasized that, whereas higher concentrations of a pollutant can easily be assessed with the acute (mortality) test, contaminated soils with lower (sublethal) pollutant concentrations require more sensitive test methods such as reproduction test in their risk assessment.

  13. The influence of freezing rates on bovine pericardium tissue Freeze-drying

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Figueiredo Borgognoni; Virgilio Tattini Junior; Ana Maria Irene Bartolomeu Ayrosa; Bronislaw Polakiewicz; Adolfo Alberto Leirner; Marina Junko Shiotsu Maizato; Olga Zazuco Higa; Marisa Masumi Beppu; Ronaldo Nogueira de Moraes Pitombo

    2009-01-01

    The bovine pericardium has been used as biomaterial in developing bioprostheses. Freeze-drying is a drying process that could be used for heart valve's preservation. The maintenance of the characteristics of the biomaterial is important for a good heart valve performance. This paper describes the initial step in the development of a bovine pericardium tissue freeze-drying to be used in heart valves. Freeze-drying involves three steps: freezing, primary drying and secondary drying. The freezin...

  14. Response surface optimization of lyoprotectant for Lactobacillus bulgaricus during vacuum freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, He; Chen, Shiwei; Li, Chuanna; Shu, Guowei

    2015-01-01

    The individual and interactive effects of skimmed milk powder, lactose, and sodium ascorbate on the number of viable cells and freeze-drying survival for vacuum freeze-dried powder formulation of Lactobacillus bulgaricus were studied by response surface methodology, and the optimal compound lyoprotectant formulations were gained. It is shown that skim milk powder, lactose, and sodium ascorbate had a significant impact on variables and survival of cultures after freeze-drying. Also, their protective abilities could be enhanced significantly when using them as a mixture of 28% w/v skim milk, 24% w/v lactose, and 4.8% w/v sodium ascorbate. The optimal freeze-drying survival rate and the number of viable cells of Lactobacillus bulgaricus were observed to be (64.41±0.02)% and (3.22±0.02)×10(11) colony-forming units (CFU)/g using the optimal compound protectants, which were very close to the expected values 64.47% and 3.28×10(11) CFU/g. PMID:24840953

  15. Viability of Bifidobacterium Pseudocatenulatum G4 after Spray-Drying and Freeze-Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenie Wong; Barka Mohammed Kabeir; Shuhaimi Mustafa; Rosfarizan Mohamad; Anis Shobirin Meor Hussin; Mohd Yazid Manap

    2010-01-01

    Viability of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 following spray-drying and freeze-drying in skim milk was evaluated. After spray-drying, the strain experienced over 99% loss in viability regardless of the air outlet temperature (75 and 85 °C) and the heat-adaptation temperature (45 and 65 °C, 30 min). The use of heat-adaptation treatment to improve the thermotolerance of this strain was ineffective. On the other hand, the strain showed a superior survival at 71.65%–82.07% after freeze-dryin...

  16. Balkanized Research in Ecological Engineering Revealed by a Bibliometric Analysis of Earthworms and Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

    2013-08-01

    Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically-based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evolution of the association of "earthworms" and other terms such as ecosystem services (primary production, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, soil structure, and pollution remediation), "ecological engineering" or "biodiversity," to assess their convergence or divergence through time. In this aim, we calculated the similarity index, an indicator of the paradigmatic proximity defined in applied epistemology, for each year between 1900 and 2009. We documented the scientific fields and the geographical origins of the studies, as well as the land uses, and compare these characteristics with a 25 years old review on earthworm management. The association of earthworm related keywords with ecosystem services related keywords was increasing with time, reflecting the growing interest in earthworm use in biodiversity and ecosystem services management. Conversely, no significant increase in the association between earthworms and disciplines such as ecological engineering or restoration ecology was observed. This demonstrated that general ecologically-based approaches have yet to emerge and that there is little exchange of knowledge, methods or concepts among balkanized application realms. Nevertheless, there is a strong need for crossing the frontiers between fields of application and for developing an umbrella discipline to provide a framework for the use of organisms to manage ecosystem services.

  17. Metallothionein gene activation in the earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höckner, M; Dallinger, R; Stürzenbaum, S R

    2015-05-01

    In order to cope with changing environmental conditions, organisms require highly responsive stress mechanisms. Heavy metal stress is handled by metallothioneins (MTs), the regulation of which is evolutionary conserved in insects and vertebrates and involves the binding of metal transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) to metal responsive elements (MREs) positioned in the promoter of MT genes. However, in most invertebrate phyla, the transcriptional activation of MTs is different and the exact mechanism is still unknown. Interestingly, although MREs are typically present also in invertebrate MT gene promoters, MTF-1 is notably absent. Here we use Lumbricus rubellus, the red earthworm, to study the elusive mechanism of wMT-2 activation in control and Cd-exposed conditions. EMSA and DNase I footprinting approaches were used to pinpoint functional binding sites within the wMT-2 promoter region, which revealed that the cAMP responsive element (CRE) is a promising candidate which may act as a transcriptional activator of invertebrate MTs. PMID:25797623

  18. Stability of Freeze-Dried Lactobacillus acidophilus in Banana, Soybean and Pearl Barley Powders

    OpenAIRE

    Nathanon Trachoo; Panomkorn Wechakama; Anuchita Moongngarm; Maitree Suttajit

    2008-01-01

    Effect of banana, soybean, pearl barley powders and nonfat dry milk on the viability of freeze-dried Lactobacillus acidophilus at 4 and 25°C was studied during 30 days of storage. The survival of freeze-dried L. acidophilus at 4°C was greater than that at 25°C. The survival of L. acidophilus in banana, pearl barley, soybean powders and nonfat dry milk powder was higher than that in control (0.1% peptone water) at both temperatures indicating that addition of banana, soybean and pearl barley p...

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of an Amynthas earthworm, Amynthas aspergillus (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangliang; Jiang, Jibao; Dong, Yan; Qiu, Jiangping

    2014-10-20

    Abstract We have determined the mitochondrial genome of the first Amynthas earthworm, Amynthas aspergillus (Perrier, 1872), which is a natural medical resource in Chinese traditional medicine. Its mitogenome is 15,115?bp in length containing 37 genes with the same contents and order as other sequenced earthworms. All genes are encoded by the same strand, all 13 PCGs use ATG as start codon. The content of A + T is 63.04% for A. aspergillus (33.41% A, 29.63% T, 14.56% G and 22.41% C). The complete mitochondrial genomes of A. aspergillus would be useful for the reconstruction of Oligochaeta polygenetic relationships. PMID:25329289

  20. The Earthworm Gut: an Ideal Habitat for Ingested N2O-Producing Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Marcus A.; Schramm, Andreas; Drake, Harold L.

    2003-01-01

    The in vivo production of nitrous oxide (N2O) by earthworms is due to their gut microbiota, and it is hypothesized that the microenvironment of the gut activates ingested N2O-producing soil bacteria. In situ measurement of N2O and O2 with microsensors demonstrated that the earthworm gut is anoxic and the site of N2O production. The gut had a pH of 6.9 and an average water content of approximately 50%. The water content within the gut decreased from the anterior end to the posterior end. In co...

  1. Improving Forecasts of Freezing Rain at ECMWF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsonevsky, Ivan; Forbes, Richard; Hewson, Tim

    2015-04-01

    Freezing rain events, though relatively rare, can be extremely debilitating and dangerous for society, with recovery times of order months or even years. Analysis of forecasts of past events by the operational ECMWF Integrated Forecast System (IFS) showed a strong tendency to incorrectly represent freezing rain as snow. Investigations highlighted that this was primarily because the re-freezing process in IFS, following hydrometeors as they descend, was parametrised with the same time-scale as the melting process. In reality the time-scale for re-freezing should, in general, be much longer. The model physics were changed accordingly, and the results in terms of forecast quality were positive and very striking. Coupled with these physics changes new IFS output was developed for users which shows precipitation type at the surface (rain, snow, wet snow, sleet, freezing rain, ice pellets). The changes to the physics will be described in detail, and their impact will be illustrated by comparing forecast output for past events in new and old model versions, in terms of precipitation type and intensity. Illustrations will include short-range deterministic forecasts from 'HRES' (the high resolution ECMWF model), and longer range probabilistic forecasts of freezing rain occurrence from the ensemble. There will also be reference to issues requiring further work/investigation, such as high level convection in potential freezing rain cases, freezing drizzle generated in supercooled shallow clouds, and IFS retention of the 'warm nose' in which melting occurs.

  2. Uptake and retention of radio-caesium in earthworms cultured in soil contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, K; Takahashi, T; Nguyen, P; Kubota, Y; Gamou, S; Sakurai, S; Takahashi, S

    2015-01-01

    To understand the effects of radionuclides on non-human biota and the environment, it is essential to study the intake and metabolism of radio-isotopes in earthworms which are among the most important soil organisms, and Eisenia fetida, which were used in this study, are known to be sufficiently sensitive to chemicals and representative of common earthworms. In this study, we assessed the concentration ratios, uptake and retention, absorbed dose rate, and distribution of radio-caesium in earthworms. The concentration ratios of (137)Cs (i.e., the concentrations of radio-caesium in earthworms relative to those in dry soil) were higher early in the culturing period and decreased gradually over the experimental period. (137)Cs taken up by E. fetida was cleared rapidly after the worms were cultured in radio-caesium-free soil, suggesting that the metabolism of radio-caesium in earthworms is very rapid. Autoradiography demonstrated that the concentration of radio-caesium within the digestive tract was as high as that in the soil, while radio-caesium in the body tissue was lower than radio-caesium in the soil and was almost uniformly distributed among earthworm tissues. The highest absorbed dose rate of total exposure to radio-caesium ((137)Cs + (134)Cs) was calculated to be 1.9 × 10(3) (?Gy/day) in the earthworms. PMID:25464049

  3. Effectivity of the Earthworms Pheretima hupiensis, Eudrellus sp. and Lumbricus sp. on the Organic Matter Decomposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ea Kosman Anwar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The earthworms are the one of soil fauna component in soil ecosystem have an important role in organic matter decomposition procces. The earthworm feed plant leaf and plant matter up to apart and dissolved. Earthworm metabolisms produce like faeces that mixed with decomposed organic matter mean vermicompost. The vermicompost fertility varies because of some kind of earthworm differ in “niche” and attitude. The experiment was to study the effectivity of earthworm on organic matter decomposition which has been conducted in Soil Biological and Healthy Laboratory and Green House of Soil Research Institute Bogor, during 2006 Budget Year. The three kind of earthworms i.e Pheretima hupiensis, Lumbricus sp. and Eudrellus sp. combined with three kind of organic matter sources i.e rice straw, trash and palm oil plant waste (compost heap. The result shows that the Lumbricus sp. are the most effective decomposer compared to Pheretima hupiensis and Eudrellus sp. and the organic matter decomposed by Lumbricus sp. as followed: market waste was decomposed of 100%, palm oil empty fruit bunch (compost heap 95.8 % and rice straw 84.9%, respectively. Earthworm effectively decreased Fe, Al, Mn, Cu dan Zn.

  4. Application of Pb isotopes to track the sources and routes of metal uptake in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bader Albogami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to determine the important routes of metal uptake in earthworms to enable a better understanding of the primary source of metal uptake in the environment. Earthworms can take up chemicals from pore water and soil both by ingestion and through contact with their skin. However, it is unclear which pathway is the most important for metal uptake. An experiment was designed in which both soil chemistry and foods were artificially manipulated, producing different pools of soil lead (Pb with different isotope compositions at a range of Pb concentrations. Earthworms (Eiseniafetida were exposed to different lead concentrations through the addition of 500 mg/kg lead oxide (Pb3O4 to soil and 500 mg/kg lead nitrate to food (manure, with distinctly different isotopic compositions. Earthworms were also exposed to combinations of soil only and soil plus food in order to quantify the proportions of Pb taken up from each component. After acid digestion of the earthworm tissues, the Pb isotope composition of the accumulated lead in the earthworms was measured using a Thermo-fisher, iCAPQ, ICP-MS for 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios measured relative to NIST SRM 981, allowing us to determine the pathway of lead uptake. Mixing calculations have been used to deconvolute the lead isotope signatures and identify the amount of lead taken up by the earthworms from the different soil pools. Differences in bioaccumulation factors and the relative amounts of lead accumulated from different pools changes as a function of concentration in the different pools. Earthworms were shown to uptake lead from bothsoil and food sources through ingestion route. Our findings suggest that a major pathway of lead uptake in earthworm species is heavily influenced by their ecology.

  5. Determining the bioavailability and toxicity of lead contamination to earthworms requires using a combination of physicochemical and biological methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed at assessing the bioavailability and toxicity of lead to Eisenia andrei in shooting range soils representing different land uses (forest, grassland, bullet plot). Soils contained 47–2398 mg Pb/kg dry weight (dw), but also had different pH-CaCl2 (3.2–6.8) and organic matter contents (3.8–13%). Therefore artificial soils with different pH and organic matter contents and two natural soils were included as control soils. Earthworms were exposed for 28 days and toxicity and uptake of Pb were related to total, water and 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable and porewater Pb concentrations as well as to soil characteristics. Pb uptake in the earthworms linearly increased with increasing soil concentrations. At >2000 mg Pb/kg dw and pH 3.3–3.5, high earthworm mortality with significant weight loss and complete inhibition of reproduction were recorded. At <1000 mg/kg dw, earthworm reproduction was more related to differences in pH and other soil characteristics than to Pb. -- Highlights: • Availability and earthworm toxicity of Pb determined in field-contaminated soils. • Earthworm toxicity of most-polluted soils explained from available Pb levels. • Earthworm response in less polluted soils mainly determined by soil pH. • Earthworm toxicity correlated with Pb uptake from the soil. • Soil properties explained differences in earthworm Pb uptake and effects. -- Combination of physicochemical and biological assays helped explaining Pb toxicity in shooting range soils from available Pb concentrations and soil characteristics

  6. Biotic interactions modify the transfer of cesium-137 in a soil-earthworm-plant-snail food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Clémentine; Scheifler, Renaud; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Hubert, Philippe; Coeurdassier, Michaël; de Vaufleury, Annette; Badot, Pierre-Marie

    2008-08-01

    The present study investigated the possible influence of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata on the transfer of cesium-137 ((137)Cs) from a contaminated (130 Bq/kg) deciduous forest soil to the lettuce Lactuca sativa and to the snail Cantareus aspersus (formerly Helix aspersa) in two laboratory experiments. In the first experiment, the International Organization for Standardization 15952 test was used to expose snails for five weeks to contaminated soil with or without earthworms. In these conditions, the presence of earthworms caused a two- to threefold increase in (137)Cs concentrations in snails. Transfer was low in earthworms as well as in snails, with transfer factors (TFs) lower than 3.7 x 10(-2). Activity concentrations were higher in earthworms (2.8- 4.8 Bq/kg dry mass) than in snails (<1.5 Bq/kg). In the second experiment, microcosms were used to determine the contribution of soil and lettuce in the accumulation of (137)Cs in snails. Results suggest that the contribution of lettuce and soil is 80 and 20%, respectively. Microcosms also were used to study the influence of earthworms on (137)Cs accumulation in snail tissues in the most ecologically relevant treatment (soil-earthworm-plant-snail food web). In this case, soil-to-plant transfer was high, with a TF of 0.8, and was not significantly modified by earthworms. Conversely, soil-to-snail transfer was lower (TF, approximately 0.1) but was significantly increased in presence of earthworms. Dose rates were determined in the microcosm study with the EDEN (elementary dose evaluation for natural environment) model. Dose rates were lower than 5.5 x 10(-4) mGy/d, far from values considered to have effects on terrestrial organisms (1 mGy/d). PMID:18266477

  7. Freeze concentration of lime juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampawan Tansakul

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to study the effects of processing conditions, i.e. cooling medium temperature (-6, -12 and -18?C and scraper blade rotational speed (50, 100 and 150 rpm on the freeze concentration of lime juice. The initial soluble solid content of lime juice was 7.6? Brix. Results showed that soluble solid content of lime juice increased as cooling medium temperature decreased while scraper blade rotational speed increased. It was also found that the processing condition with -18?C cooling medium temperature and 150 rpm rotational speed of the scraper blade was the best among all studied conditions, although the loss of the soluble solids with ice crystals during ice separation was relatively high at 35%.

  8. Bioinspired Design: Magnetic Freeze Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael Martin

    Nature is the ultimate experimental scientist, having billions of years of evolution to design, test, and adapt a variety of multifunctional systems for a plethora of diverse applications. Next-generation materials that draw inspiration from the structure-property-function relationships of natural biological materials have led to many high-performance structural materials with hybrid, hierarchical architectures that fit form to function. In this dissertation, a novel materials processing method, magnetic freeze casting, is introduced to develop porous scaffolds and hybrid composites with micro-architectures that emulate bone, abalone nacre, and other hard biological materials. This method uses ice as a template to form ceramic-based materials with continuously, interconnected microstructures and magnetic fields to control the alignment of these structures in multiple directions. The resulting materials have anisotropic properties with enhanced mechanical performance that have potential applications as bone implants or lightweight structural composites, among others.

  9. Slow-roll freezing quintessence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Sourish, E-mail: sourish.d@gmail.com [Department of Physics and School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Scherrer, Robert J., E-mail: robert.scherrer@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2011-10-19

    We examine the evolution of quintessence models with potentials satisfying (V'/V){sup 2}<<1 and V'/V<<1, in the case where the initial field velocity is nonzero. We derive an analytic approximation for the evolution of the equation of state parameter, w, for the quintessence field. We show that such models are characterized by an initial rapid freezing phase, in which the equation of state parameter w decreases with time, followed by slow thawing evolution, for which w increases with time. These models resemble constant-V models at early times but diverge at late times. Our analytic approximation gives results in excellent agreement with exact numerical evolution.

  10. Effect of Fluctuations on the Freezing of a Colloidal Suspension in an External Periodic Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, J; Sinha, Supurna

    1997-01-01

    We incorporate the effects of fluctuations in a density functional analysis of the freezing of a colloidal liquid in the presence of an external potential generated by interfering laser beams. A mean field treatment, using a density functional theory, predicts that with the increase in the strength of the modulating potential, the freezing transition changes from a first order to a continuous one via a tricritical point for a suitable choice of the modulating wavevectors. We demonstrate here that the continuous nature of the freezing transition at large values of the external potential $V_{e}$ survives the presence of fluctuations. We also show that fluctuations tend to stabilize the liquid phase in the large $V_{e}$ regime.

  11. Analysis of chemicals from earthworms and fish that elicit prey attack by ingestively naive garter snakes (Thamnophis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, F M; Burghardt, G M; Johnston, A; Coholich, C

    1990-01-01

    Materials previously shown to elicit increased tongue-flicking and prey attack in garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) were isolated from both earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) and fish (Pimephales promelas). Both high- and low-molecular-weight components from earthworms and fish stimulated attacks and increased tongue-flicking in previously unfed neonate garter snakes relative to distilled water controls. Earthworm collagen was also effective, but even concentrated fractions were less effective than raw extract. Conflicting reports on the effectiveness of collagen suggest that the salient chemical(s) is a smaller molecule tightly bound to collagen and resisting standard purification methods. PMID:24264896

  12. Effects of the geophagous earthworm Metaphire guillelmi on sorption, mineralization, and bound-residue formation of 4-nonylphenol in an agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of earthworms on fate of nonylphenol (NP) are obscure. Using 14C-4-NP111 as a representative, we studied the fate of 4-NP in an agricultural soil with or without the earthworm Metaphire guillelmi and in fresh cast of the earthworm. Sorption of 4-NP on the cast (Kd 1564) was significantly higher than on the parent soil (Kd 1474). Mineralization of 4-NP was significantly lower in the cast (13.2%) and the soil with earthworms (10.4%) than in the earthworm-free soil (16.0%). One nitro metabolite of 4-NP111 (2-nitro-4-NP111) was identified in the soil and cast, and the presence of the earthworm significantly decreased its amounts. The presence of earthworm also significantly decreased formation of bound residues of 4-NP in the soil. Our results demonstrate that earthworms could significantly change the fate of 4-NP, underlining that earthworm effects should be considered when evaluating behavior and risk of 4-NP in soil. - Highlights: • The earthworm Metaphire guillelmi inhibited mineralization of 4-NP in the soil. • A less-polar metabolite of 4-NP (2-nitro-4-NP111) was detected in the soil and cast. • The presence of earthworm reduced the amount of 2-nitro-4-NP111 in the soil. • M. guillelmi significantly reduced formation of bound residues of 4-NP in the soil. - Earthworms significantly changed the fate of 4-NP, highlighting that effects of earthworm should be considered when evaluating the behavior and risk of 4-NP in soil

  13. Management of plant communities on set-aside land and its effects on earthworm communities.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gormsen, D.; Hedlund, K.; Korthals, G. W.; Mortimer, S. R.; Pižl, Václav; Šmilauerová, M.; Sugg, E.

    2004-01-01

    Ro?. 40, 3-4 (2004), s. 123-128. ISSN 1164-5563 Grant ostatní: Evropská unie(XE) ENV4-CT95-0002 Keywords : earthworm community * plant community * land use Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.776, year: 2004

  14. The role of earthworm colonization in post mining sites on plant succession.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Mudrák, Ond?ej; Roubí?ková, A.; Prach, K.

    Curitiba : Positivo University, 2008. [Biodiversity, Conservation and Sustainable Management of Soil Animals. International Colloquium on Soil Zoology /15./. 25.08.2008-29.08.2008, Curitiba] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : earthworm colonization * post mining sites * plant succession Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. Toxicological Effects of Organophosphate Pesticide on Ceolomocytes Viability of Earthworm E. Foetida Using NRRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameena Farrukh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the development of sub-lethal earthworm biomarkers as they are relevant indicators of environmental change and they are among the five key indicators for ecotoxicological testing of industrial chemicals determined by the OECD. In the present study, the effects of an organophosphate pesticide dichlorovos on lysosomes of coelomocytes of earthworm E. foetida are studied using Neutral Red Retention Assay (NRRA. Methods: Earthworms were exposed to three sub-lethal concentrations of the pesticide for 7, 14, 21, and 28 days and neutral red retention assay was done following the method employed by Weeks and Sevendsen and Booth et al. Results: It was observed that the pesticide significantly affected the coelomocyte viability within 28 days of exposure. The neutral red retention time of lysosomal membrane significantly decreased at all concentrations when compared with well-matched controls. Conclusion: After the analysis of results, it was concluded that the neutral red retention time assay in earthworms can be used to link changes in the permeability of lysosomal membranes to ecologically relevant life cycle effects caused by such toxic substances.

  16. Earthworms facilitate carbon sequestration through unequal amplification of carbon stabilization compared with mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recent review concluded that earthworm presence increases CO2 emissions by 33% but does not affect soil organic carbon stocks. However, the findings are controversial and raise new questions. Here we hypothesize that neither an increase in CO2 emission nor in stabilized carbon...

  17. APPLICATION OF PLANT AND EARTHWORM BIOASSAYS TO EVALUATE REMEDIATION OF A LEAD-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earthworm acute toxicity, plant seed germination/root elongation (SG/RE) and plant genotoxicity bioassays were employed to evaluate the remediation of a lead-contaminated soil. The remediation involved removal of heavy metals by a soil washing/soil leaching treatment process. A p...

  18. Earthworm assemblages in a forest-arable field ecotone and their relations with soil properties.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav; Zeithaml, J.; Skleni?ka, P.

    Curitiba : Positivo University, 2008. [Biodiversity, Conservation and Sustainable Management of Soil Animals. International Colloquium on Soil Zoology /15./. 25.08.2008-29.08.2008, Curitiba] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : earthworm assemblages * forest-arable field ecotone * soil properties Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  19. Earthworms and Plant Residues Modify Nematodes in Tropical Cropping Soils (Madagascar): A Mesocosm Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free-living nematodes present several characteristics that have led to their use as bio indicators of soil quality. Analyzing the structure of nematofauna is a pertinent way to understand soil biological processes. Earthworms play an important role in soil biological functioning and organic matter dynamics. Their effects on soil nematofauna have seldom been studied. We studied the effect of the tropical endogeic earthworm, Pontoscolex corethrurus, on nematode community structure in a 5-month field mesocosm experiment conducted in Madagascar. Ten different treatments with or without earthworms and with or without organic residues (rice, soybean) were compared. Organic residues were applied on the soil surface or mixed with the soil. The abundance of nematodes (bacterial and fungal feeders) was higher in presence of P. corethrurus than in their absence. The type of plant residues as well as their localisation had significant effects on the abundance and composition of soil nematodes. The analysis of nematode community structure showed that earthworm activity led to an overall activation of the microbial compartment without specific stimulation of the bacterial or fungal compartment.

  20. Earthworm species and burrows related to agricultural management of grass-clover in rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Paul Henning; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Grass-clover is an important element in crop rotations due to its beneficial agronomic properties including nitrogen build-up, biodiversity stimulation and maintenance of soil macropores and it produces very high levels of earthworm biomass. We studied the relationship between crucial elements of grass-clover management in a crop rotation and earthworm diversity and macropore depth distribution. The dominance of anecics increased from an annual crop to the perennial grass-clover. Aporrectodea tuberculata decreased significantly from annuals to 3 year grass-clover. Cattle grazing favours the occurrence of coarse macropores (>5 mm ?) made by anecics, Aporrectodea longa and Lumbricus terrestris, while otherwise decreasing the number of fine-medium macropores (<5 mm ?) below the topsoil. Our study stresses the importance of considering subsoil macropores to complete the picture of earthworm influence on soil hydrology. The anecics are responsible for coarse macropores, while the smaller endogeic A. tuberculata isless important for coarse macropores and even negatively correlated with the abundant anecics and sensitive to the presence of grazing cattle compacting the topsoil. The detailed species-specific functional properties are crucial for successfully predicting the contribution to soil ecosystem services by earthworms.

  1. Responses of earthworms (Annelida: Lumbricidae) to disturbances in mountain alder swamp woods.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav

    Brno : Ústav biologie obratlovc? AV?R, 2013. s. 175-176. ISBN 978-80-87189-14-6. [Zoologické dny Brno 2013. 07.02.2013-08.02.2013, Brno] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : earthworms * disturbances * mountain alder swamp woods Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  2. Earthworms (Oligochaeta: Acanthodrilidae and Lumbricidae) associated with Hornsby Bend Biosolids Management Plant, Travis County, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earthworm populations were surveyed in soils from a variety of habitats associated with the Hornsby Bend Biosolids Management Plant, Austin, Texas, from November 2009 through March 2010. Seven species of terrestrial Oligochaeta, including one species new to science, are reported from two families, ...

  3. Earthworm cast as a promising filter bed material and its methanotrophic contribution to methane removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kyung-Eun; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Lee, Sang Hyon; Ryu, Hee Wook; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2010-04-15

    The use of biocovers is a promising strategy toward mitigating CH(4) emission from smaller and/or older landfills. In this study, a filter bed material consisting of a mixture of earthworm cast and rice paddy soil in a biocover was evaluated. Although the CH(4) oxidation rate of the enriched paddy soil was 4.9 microg g-dry soil(-1) h(-1), it was enhanced to 25.1 microg g-dry soil(-1) h(-1) by adding an earthworm cast with a 3:7 ratio of earthworm cast:soil (wet weight). CO(2) was found as the final oxidation product of CH(4), and the mole ratio of CO(2) production to CH(4) consumption was 0.27. At a moisture content range of 15-40% and a temperature range of 20-40 degrees C, the CH(4) oxidation rates of the enriched mixture were more than 57% of the maximum rate obtained at 25% moisture content and 25 degrees C. By denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis employing primers for the universal bacterial 16S rRNA gene, and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using primers for the pmoA gene, the bacterial and methanotrophic communities in the enriched mixture were mainly originate from paddy soil and earthworm cast, respectively. Both type I (mainly Methylocaldum) and type II methanotrophs (mainly Methylocystis) played important roles in CH(4) oxidation in the enriched mixture. PMID:19959288

  4. Effects of the endemic earthworm Allolobophora hrabei (?ernosvitov, 1935) on soil microbial communities of steppe grasslands.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirout, Ji?í; Pižl, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 76, September (2014), s. 249-256. ISSN 0038-0717 R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP504/12/0536 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bacteria * archaea * fungi * community composition * DGGE * earthworm Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.410, year: 2013

  5. Acephaline gregarine parasites (Monocystis sp.) are not transmitted sexually among their lumbricid earthworm hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Stuart G; Michiels, Nico K

    2006-04-01

    The precise transmission mode(s) of acephaline gregarines in their earthworm hosts has long been questioned, yet a rigorous experimental evaluation of sexual transmission is currently lacking. That Monocystis sp., a common gregarine parasite of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, infects the sexual organs of its host is suggestive of sexual transmission. Considering the divergent evolutionary consequences of various modes of transmission, excluding or proving sexual transmission in this host-parasite system is critical to fully understanding it. We cultured uninfected earthworms from cocoons and subsequently mated them to either an infected or uninfected partner (from the wild). We then compared these individuals with an orally infected group, which were infected using a newly developed gavage (oral injection) method. Our data have unambiguously established that (1) horizontal sexual transmission does not play a significant role in the transmission of Monocystis sp., and (2) oral transmission through the soil is likely the principal mode of transmission between earthworms. This finding is important to models of mate-choice because infection avoidance does not appear to drive mating decisions. Finally, we further report a successful and relatively simple method to obtain infection-free individuals, which can subsequently be infected via oral gavage and used in empirical studies. PMID:16729685

  6. Interactions between earthworms and arsenic in the soil environment: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relationships between earthworms and As-rich soils are discussed, examining mechanisms of tolerance, soil factors and possible trophic transfers. - Chemical pollution of the environment has become a major source of concern. In particular, many studies have investigated the impact of pollution on biota in the environment. Studies on metalliferous contaminated mine spoil wastes have shown that some soil organisms have the capability to become resistant to metal/metalloid toxicity. Earthworms are known to inhabit arsenic-rich metalliferous soils and, due to their intimate contact with the soil, in both the solid and aqueous phases, are likely to accumulate contaminants present in mine spoil. Earthworms that inhabit metalliferous contaminated soils must have developed mechanisms of resistance to the toxins found in these soils. The mechanisms of resistance are not fully understood; they may involve physiological adaptation (acclimation) or be genetic. This review discusses the relationships between earthworms and arsenic-rich mine spoil wastes, looking critically at resistance and possible mechanisms of resistance, in relation to soil edaphic factors and possible trophic transfer routes

  7. The effects of environmental parameters on the availability of cesium for earthworms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of potassium, stable cesium, calcium and ammonium in soil, and pH are known to affect the uptake of 134Cs from soil. Uncertain is whether this is a direct effect on the uptake (e.g. through competition for binding sites) or an indirect effect through a changing distribution of 134Cs between the solid and liquid phase of the soil. The uptake of 134Cs by earthworms from solution and soil has been studied to investigate these effects. The effects of potassium and stable cesium expressed per mmol added, were comparable: 134Cs accumulation decreases with potassium and stable cesium concentration in solution. No significant effects from varying pH or calcium and ammonium concentrations on 134Cs uptake from liquid medium were observed. 134Cs concentrations in the earthworms increased with temperature, which could mainly be explained by earthworm-related factors such as increased metabolism or feeding rate. Addition of calcium, potassium, ammonium and organic matter to soil increased the amount of 134Cs in soil solution significantly. However, the overall effects of additions of K+, Ca++, NH4+ and organic matter on the 134Cs concentrations in earthworms were non-significant. Based on the experiments in liquid medium increasing the concentration of potassium in soil solution showed to be most effective and most realistic in redu most effective and most realistic in reducing 134Cs uptake. The results in soil indicate that the effect of potassium will depend on other soil characteristics as well

  8. Earthworm functioning in soil ecosystem services in relation to land use intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, Jack H.; Peres, Gue?nola; Groot, Arjen; Krogh, Paul Henning; Sudaholc, Marjetka; Mihelic, Rok; Rombke, Jo?rg; Jaensch, Stefan; Schmelz, Ru?diger; Keith, A. K.; Schmidt, O.; Andriuzzi, Walter; Chabbi, Abad

    2014-01-01

    The FP7 EcoFINDERS project aimed to assess the relationship between soil biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. We studied functional responses for earthworms and fungi on soil formation and water regulation under different agricultural land uses representing a range in land use intensity. The aim was to establish and quantify these functional relationships by literature and field studies.

  9. Bioremediation of polluted soil through the combined application of plants, earthworms and organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macci, Cristina; Doni, Serena; Peruzzi, Eleonora; Ceccanti, Brunello; Masciandaro, Grazia

    2012-10-26

    Two plant species (Paulownia tomentosa and Cytisus scoparius), earthworms (Eisenia fetida), and organic matter (horse manure) were used as an ecological approach to bioremediate a soil historically contaminated by heavy metals and hydrocarbons. The experiment was carried out for six months at a mesoscale level using pots containing 90 kg of polluted soil. Three different treatments were performed for each plant: (i) untreated planted soil as a control (C); (ii) planted soil + horse manure (20:1 w/w) (M); (iii) planted soil + horse manure + 15 earthworms (ME). Both the plant species were able to grow in the polluted soil and to improve the soil's bio-chemical conditions, especially when organic matter and earthworms were applied. By comparing the two plant species, few significant differences were observed in the soil characteristics; Cytisus scoparius improved soil nutrient content more than Paulownia tomentosa, which instead stimulated more soil microbial metabolism. Regarding the pollutants, Paulownia tomentosa was more efficient in reducing the heavy metal (Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni) content, while earthworms were particularly able to stimulate the processes involved in the decontamination of organic pollutants (hydrocarbons). This ecological approach, validated at a mesoscale level, has recently been transferred to a real scale situation to carry out the bioremediation of polluted soil in San Giuliano Terme Municipality (Pisa, Italy). PMID:22911348

  10. Characterization of the organic fraction of earthworm humus and composts taken place starting from different substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the quality and the humification degree of different composted materials, the organic fraction of earthworm humus obtained from kitchen and farm residues, coffee pulp, biodegradable garbage and roses residues and of composts from roses and carnation residues were characterized chemically. Thus, determination and analysis of the C/N ratio, as well as the fractionation of the organic matter and the purification and characterization of the humic acids by C, H, N, 0 elemental analysis, UV-VIS spectroscopy were done and different humification parameters were found. The fractionation of the organic matter showed a low content of extracted carbon with respect to the normal content found in the soil humus. The elemental analysis data of the humic acids from the composts and the earthworm humus did not reveal important differences between these materials, while the E4/E6 ratio provided more evident changes. The results showed that the C/N ratio is not an absolute indicative of the Maturity State of the studied materials. The best parameters to estimate the maturity degree of the composts and the earthworm humus turned out to be the polymerization ratio, the humification index and the extracted carbon/non extracted carbon ratio. Among the evaluated materials, the earthworm of roses residues showed the best conditions with respect to content and quality of the organic matter to be added to a soil

  11. Nitric oxide production in celomocytes of the earthworm Eisenia hortensis following bacterial challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SR Cook

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this in vitro investigation, nitric oxide (NO production was induced within celomocytes of the earthworm Eisenia hortensis following microbial challenge. Celomocytes were pre-loaded with the fluorescent indicator 4-amino-5-methylamino-2’, 7’-difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF-FM DA in order to detect the presence of intracellular nitric oxide subsequent to a 16 h incubation with chemically-fixed soil bacteria including Bacillus megaterium, Arthrobacter globiformis, Pseudomonas stutzeri, and Azotobacter chroococcum at a range of multiplicities of infection (MOIs. Flow cytometric analysis measuring increases in relative fluorescence intensity (RFI, which is directly proportional to the amount of intracellular NO produced, permitted determination of statistical significance (p < 0.05 of exposed celomocytes compared to baseline controls. Significant increases in NO were detected reproducibly in celomocytes treated with all bacterial species used. The most prominent results were observed after exposure to Gram positive B. megaterium and A. globiformis where 100 % of earthworms tested exhibited statistically significant increases of RFI at MOIs of 100:1 and 500:1, respectively. Furthermore, significant decreases in NO production in bacteria-stimulated earthworm celomocytes incubated with the NOS inhibitor aminoguanidine hydrochloride were observed. These results demonstrate microbial induction of NO synthesis in earthworms and provide evidence of an antimicrobial role of NO in the innate immune system.

  12. Earthworm symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae mediates natural transformation within host egg capsules using type IV pili.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Seana K; Dulla, Glenn F; Go, Ruth A; Stahl, David A; Pinel, Nicolás

    2014-01-01

    The dense microbial communities commonly associated with plants and animals should offer many opportunities for horizontal gene transfer through described mechanisms of DNA exchange including natural transformation (NT). However, studies of the significance of NT have focused primarily on pathogens. The study presented here demonstrates highly efficient DNA exchange by NT in a common symbiont of earthworms. The obligate bacterial symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae is a member of a microbial consortium of the earthworm Eisenia fetida that is transmitted into the egg capsules to colonize the embryonic worms. In the study presented here, by testing for transformants under different conditions in culture, we demonstrate that V. eiseniae can incorporate free DNA from the environment, that competency is regulated by environmental factors, and that it is sequence specific. Mutations in the type IV pili of V. eiseniae resulted in loss of DNA uptake, implicating the type IV pilus (TFP) apparatus in DNA uptake. Furthermore, injection of DNA carrying antibiotic-resistance genes into egg capsules resulted in transformants within the capsule, demonstrating the relevance of DNA uptake within the earthworm system. The ability to take up species-specific DNA from the environment may explain the maintenance of the relatively large, intact genome of this long-associated obligate symbiont, and provides a mechanism for acquisition of foreign genes within the earthworm system. PMID:25400622

  13. Role of Native and Exotic Earthworms in Plant Biopolymer Dynamics in Forest Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filley, Timothy

    2010-05-01

    Many forests within northern North America are experiencing the introduction of earthworms for the first time, presumably since before the last major glaciation. Forest dynamics are undergoing substantial changes because of the activity of the mainly European lumbricid species. Documented losses in litter layers, expansion of A-horizons, loss of the organic horizon, changes in fine root density, and shifts in microbial populations have all been documented in invaded zones. Two free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) forest experiments (aspen FACE at Rhinelander, Wisconsin and sweet gum FACE at Oak Ridge National Lab, Tennessee) lie within the zones of invasion and exhibit differences in amounts of exotic and native species as well as endogeic (predominantly mineral soil dwelling) and epigeic (litter and organic matter horizon dwelling) types. Considerations of carbon accrual dynamics and relative input of above vs. below ground plant input in these young successional systems do not consider the potential impact of these ecosystem engineers. We investigated the impact of earthworm activity by tracking the relative abundance and stable carbon isotope compositions of lignin and substituted fatty acids extracted from isolated earthworms and their fecal pellets and from host soils. Indications of root vs leaf input to earthworm casts and fecal matter were derived from differences in the chemical composition of cutin, suberin, and lignin. The isotopically depleted CO2 used in FACE and the resulting isotopically depleted plant organic matter afford an excellent opportunity to assess biopolymer-specific turnover dynamics. We find that endogeic species are proportionately more responsible for fine root cycling while some epigeic species are responsible for microaggregation of foliar cutin. CSIA of fecal pellet lignin and SFA indicates how these biopolymer pools can be derived from variable sources, roots, background soil, foliar tissue within one earthworm. Additionally, CSIA indicates the distinct roles that different earthworm types have in "aging" surface soil biopolymer pools through encapsulation and upward transport of deeper soil carbon, and "freshening" deeper soil biopolymer pools through downward transport of surface carbon to deeper layers,. As earthworm species abundance and activity are not is steady state in many forests, the role of these important invertebrates should be more considered when assessing the changing soil state.

  14. Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycerol/H+ symporter Stl1p is essential for cold/near-freeze and freeze stress adaptation. A simple recipe with high biotechnological potential is given

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Célia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Freezing is an increasingly important means of preservation and storage of microbial strains used for many types of industrial applications including food processing. However, the yeast mechanisms of tolerance and sensitivity to freeze or near-freeze stress are still poorly understood. More knowledge on this regard would improve their biotechnological potential. Glycerol, in particular intracellular glycerol, has been assigned as a cryoprotectant, also important for cold/near-freeze stress adaptation. The S. cerevisiae glycerol active transporter Stl1p plays an important role on the fast accumulation of glycerol. This gene is expressed under gluconeogenic conditions, under osmotic shock and stress, as well as under high temperatures. Results We found that cells grown on STL1 induction medium (YPGE and subjected to cold/near-freeze stress, displayed an extremely high expression of this gene, also visible at glycerol/H+ symporter activity level. Under the same conditions, the strains harbouring this transporter accumulated more than 400 mM glycerol, whereas the glycerol/H+ symporter mutant presented less than 1 mM. Consistently, the strains able to accumulate glycerol survive 25-50% more than the stl1? mutant. Conclusions In this work, we report the contribution of the glycerol/H+ symporter Stl1p for the accumulation and maintenance of glycerol intracellular levels, and consequently cell survival at cold/near-freeze and freeze temperatures. These findings have a high biotechnological impact, as they show that any S. cerevisiae strain already in use can become more resistant to cold/freeze-thaw stress just by simply adding glycerol to the broth. The combination of low temperatures with extracellular glycerol will induce the transporter Stl1p. This solution avoids the use of transgenic strains, in particular in food industry.

  15. Protein freeze concentration and micro-segregation analysed in a temperature-controlled freeze container

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Roessl

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To examine effects of varied freezing conditions on the development of spatial heterogeneity in the frozen protein solution, macroscopic freeze concentration and micro-segregation of bovine serum albumin (BSA were investigated in a temperature-controlled 200-ml freeze container. Freezing to ?40 °C promoted formation of protein concentration gradients (69–114 ?g ml?1 in frozen samples taken from 12 different freezer positions, whereby slow freezing in 4 h or longer facilitated the evolution of strong spatial heterogeneities and caused local concentration increases by 1.15-fold relative to the initial protein concentration (100 ?g ml?1. To visualize protein micro-segregation during phase separation, BSA was conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate and confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy was used to localize and size the freeze-concentrated protein regions. Slow freezing resulted in distinctly fewer and larger protein domains in the frozen bulk than fast freezing. Surface stress on the protein during freezing would therefore be minimized at low cooling rates; microscopic freeze concentration would however be highest under these conditions, potentially favoring protein aggregation.

  16. Exploring the Nature of Contact Freezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, A. A.; Hoffmann, N.; Duft, D.; Leisner, T.

    2012-12-01

    The freezing of supercooled water droplets upon contact with aerosol particles (contact nucleation of ice) is the least understood mechanism of ice formation in atmospheric clouds. Although experimental evidences suggest that some aerosols can be better IN in the contact than in the immersion mode (that is, triggering ice nucleation at higher temperature), no final explanation of this phenomena currently exists. On the other hand, the contact freezing is believed to be responsible for the enhanced rate of secondary ice formation occasionally observed in LIDAR measurements in the cold mixed phase clouds. Recently we have been able to show that the freezing of supercooled droplets electrodynamically levitated in the laminar flow containing mineral dust particles (kaolinite) is a process solely governed by a rate of collisions between the supercooled droplet and the aerosol particles. We have shown that the probability of droplet freezing on a single contact with aerosol particle may differ over an order of magnitude for kaolinite particles having different genesis and morphology. In this presentation we extend the study of contact nucleation of ice and compare the IN efficiency measured for DMA-selected kaolinite, illite and hematite particles. We show that the freezing probability increases towards unity as the temperature decreases and discuss the functional form of this temperature dependence. We explore the size dependence of the contact freezing probability and show that it scales with the surface area of the particles, thus resembling the immersion freezing behavior. However, for all minerals investigated so far, the contact freezing has been shown to dominate over immersion freezing on the short experimental time scales. Finally, based on the combined ESEM and electron microprobe analysis, we discuss the significance of particle morphology and variability of chemical composition on its IN efficiency in contact mode.

  17. The anti-cell death FNK protein protects cells from death induced by freezing and thawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FNK protein, constructed from anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL with enhanced activity, was fused with the protein transduction domain (PTD) of the HIV/Tat protein to mediate the delivery of FNK into cells. The fusion protein PTD-FNK was introduced into chondrocytes in isolated articular cartilage-bone sections, cultured neurons, and isolated bone marrow mononuclear cells to evaluate its ability to prevent cell death induced by freezing and thawing. PTD-FNK protected the cells from freeze-thaw damage in a concentration-dependent manner. Addition of PTD-FNK with conventional cryoprotectants (dimethyl sulfoxide and hydroxyethyl starch) increased surviving cell numbers around 2-fold compared with controls treated only with the cryoprotectants. Notably, PTD-FNK allowed CD34+ cells among bone marrow mononuclear cells to survive more efficiently (12-fold more than the control cells) from two successive freeze-thaw cycles. Thus, PTD-FNK prevented cell death induced by freezing and thawing, suggesting that it provides for the successful cryopreservation of biological materials

  18. Importância ecológica e ambiental das minhocas / Environmental and ecological importance of earthworms

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gerusa Pauli Kist, Steffen; Zaida Inês, Antoniolli; Ricardo Bemfica, Steffen; Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti, Jacques.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As minhocas correspondem a um dos principais grupos de organismos edáficos atuantes nos processos de movimenta­ção de partículas e ciclagem de nutrientes. Este trabalho tem como objetivos discutir a importância das minhocas para a melhoria e manutenção da sustentabilidade dos agroecossistemas, salie [...] ntando as formas de avaliação da comunidade de minhocas no solo e sua utilização como ferramenta em avaliações ambientais. Através da constante movimentação e atividade de ingestão de solo e resíduos orgânicos, constroem galerias que contribuem com o aumento da aeração e da taxa de infiltração de água no solo. A liberação de excrementos na superfície e no interior do solo modifica positiva­mente sua estrutura e fertilidade. A densidade e diversidade de minhocas em agroecossistemas pode ser determinada por diferentes métodos de extração. Algumas espécies de minhocas, por apresentarem sensibilidade a alterações de uso e manejo do solo, são excelentes bioindicadoras ambientais, representando importante ferramenta para avaliação de impactos em ecossistemas. Abstract in english The earthworms represent a major group of soil organisms active in the process of moving particles and nutrient cycling. This paper aims to discuss the importance of earthworms to improve and maintain the sustainability of agroecosystems, emphasizing forms of community assessment of earthworms in th [...] e soil and its use as a tool in environmental assess­ments. Through constant movement and activity of soil ingestion and organic waste, they build galleries that contribute to increase the aeration and water infiltration in the soil. The release of faeces on the surface and within the soil positively modify its structure and fertility. The density and diversity of earthworms in agroecosystems can be determined by dif­ferent extraction methods. Some species of earthworms, because they are excellen to changes in land use and management, are sensitive environmental bioindicators, representing an important tool to asses impacts on ecosystems.

  19. Earthworms as bio-indicators of metal pollution in dump sites of Abeokuta City, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal concentrations (Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, Cd and Cr) and contents were measured in earthworms (Libyodrilus violaceus) and soil samples from three non-contaminated sites and ten dump sites located in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Samples from control sites show (in general) levels of metals to be higher in earthworms than in soil samples, as shown by the mean concentrations, (earthworms-soil: - Zn:7.02, 6.74, Pb:5.04, 4.94, Mn 10.54, 10.41, Cu:1.03, 1.60., Cd: 0.80, 0.81 and Cr:0.55, 0.49 ?g/g) while for samples from dump sites, irrespective of the degree of pollution, the ratio of metal concentration in earthworms to soil samples were less than unity with the exception of Cd and Cr. The availability of metals in soils was also co-determined by the soil pH and soil organic matter which accounted for the trend of metal concentration at the various dump sites. For the control sites, the pH ranged from 5.40 - 6.74 and soil organic matter from 3.25% to 3.40%, while for the dump sites, values of 7.44-10.10 and 5.79% - 7.59% were obtained for soil pH and soil organic matter respectively. The metal ion concentration in both soil and earthworm samples followed the trend Pb > Zn > Mn > Cu > Cr > Cd. Dump sites with high levels of Pb were located by roadsides of busy highways. (Author) Mgtr.Julieta Soto Rojas Subdirectora Sistema de Bibliotecas, Documentacion e Informacion Universidad de Costa Rica jsotoatsibdi.ucr.ac.cr Tel. 207-4750, 207-4238, 207-4461, 207-5316 y 253-6152 Fax: 234280961, 207-5316 y 253-6152 Fax: 2342809

  20. A two-dimensional electrophoresis reference map of the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms underlying innate immunity in the earthworm E. fetida remain unclear. For the recognition of innate immunity in the earthworm E. fetida, a detailed knowledge of this proteome is a prerequisite. The absence of a high-resolution E. fetida proteome map prompted us to determine E. fetida protein spots that can be visualised on 2-D protein gels. In this study, we present a preliminary description of the whole earthworm E. fetida proteome. A highly detailed two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE map of the E. fetida proteome was established and approximately 1500 protein spots were detected from the earthworm sample when applying a 500 ?g protein 2-DE in the pH range 3.0 - 10.0. We present a 2-DE proteome map of E. fetida, identifying 76 different proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/ TOF-MS analysis. These identified proteins, including heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90, chaperonine protein HSP60, caspase-8, fibrinolytic protease 0, gelsolin-like protein, lombricine kinase, coelomic cytolytic factor1 (CCF 1, manganous superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, triosephosphate isomerase, extracellular globin-4, lysenin, and intermediate filament protein, glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate dehydrogenase, et al., are involved in several processes, including transcripttion, translation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the cellular amino acid metabolic process, protein amino acid phosphorylation, glycolysis, and the glucose metabolic process. These 2-DE data will enhance future comparisons of immunity, toxicology, biotic processes and other challenges, thereby allowing for further study of the molecular mechanisms in response to environmental stressors, and it will be useful to investigate environmental proteomics in invertebrate earthworms.

  1. Ice crystallization and freeze tolerance in embryonic stages of the tardigrade Milnesium tardigradum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengherr, S; Reuner, A; Brümmer, F; Schill, R O

    2010-05-01

    In tardigrades, tolerance to low temperature is well known and allows them to cope with subzero temperatures in their environment. Although the ability to tolerate freezing body water has been demonstrated in some tardigrades, freeze tolerance of embryonic stages has been little studied, although this has ecological significance. In this study, we evaluated the subzero temperature survival of five different developmental stages of the eutardigrade species Milnesium tardigradum after freezing to -30 degrees C. Embryos were exposed to five different cooling rates between room temperature and -30 degrees C at 1 degrees C/h, 3 degrees C/h, 5 degrees C/h, 7 degrees C/h, and 9 degrees C/h followed by a warming period at 10 degrees C/h. The results showed that the developmental stage and the cooling rate have a significant effect on the hatching rate. Less developed embryonic stages were more sensitive to freezing at higher freezing rates than more developed stages. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to determine the temperature of crystallization (Tc) in single embryos of the different developmental stages and revealed no differences between the stages. Based on the calorimetric data, we also conclude that the ice nucleation is homogeneous in embryonic stages in tardigrades, as also recently shown for fully developed tardigrades, and not triggered by nucleating agents. PMID:20116441

  2. An efficient deep freeze tunnel; Zuinige diepvriestunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Bael, J. [Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek VITO, Mol (Belgium)

    1997-11-01

    The freezing of vegetables requires cooling to far below the zero point (-18 to -20{sup o}C). As a result, the energy consumption and the energy expenses of freeze tunnels are high. Accurate adjustment of the operational parameters of the freeze tunnel can result in up to 20% energy savings. A brief overview is given of the VITO study on the most important parameters that influence the energy consumption and the energy saving options at `Stevens Koeltechniek` and `Compufreez` in Ieper, Belgium. 2 ills.

  3. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G

    2011-01-01

    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  4. IN VIVO NEUROTOXIC EFFECTS OF DIELDRIN ON GIANT NERVE FIBERS AND ESCAPE REFLEX FUNCTION IN THE EARTHWORM, 'EISENIA FOETIDA'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurotoxicological effects of dieldrin were assessed in adult earthworms, Eisenia foetida, using noninvasive electrophysiological recordings of escape reflex activity. After 48 hr body surface exposure to aqueous suspensions of dieldrin, dose-dependent reductions in medial and la...

  5. Enchytraeids and earthworms (Annelida: Clitellata: Enchytraeidae, Lumbricidae) of urban parks in the city of Brno, Czech Republic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlaghamerský, J.; Pižl, Václav

    Durham : University of Durham, 2008. s. 6. [International Symposium on Enchytraeidae /8./. 02.07.2008-06.07.2008, Durham] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : enchytraeids * earthworms * urban parks Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. Automated assessment of pavlovian conditioned freezing and shock reactivity in mice using the video freeze system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostaras, Stephan G; Wood, Suzanne C; Shuman, Tristan; Cai, Denise J; Leduc, Arthur D; Zurn, Karl R; Zurn, J Brooks; Sage, Jennifer R; Herrera, Gerald M

    2010-01-01

    The Pavlovian conditioned freezing paradigm has become a prominent mouse and rat model of learning and memory, as well as of pathological fear. Due to its efficiency, reproducibility and well-defined neurobiology, the paradigm has become widely adopted in large-scale genetic and pharmacological screens. However, one major shortcoming of the use of freezing behavior has been that it has required the use of tedious hand scoring, or a variety of proprietary automated methods that are often poorly validated or difficult to obtain and implement. Here we report an extensive validation of the Video Freeze system in mice, a "turn-key" all-inclusive system for fear conditioning in small animals. Using digital video and near-infrared lighting, the system achieved outstanding performance in scoring both freezing and movement. Given the large-scale adoption of the conditioned freezing paradigm, we encourage similar validation of other automated systems for scoring freezing, or other behaviors. PMID:20953248

  7. Bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals and other anthropogenic waste indicators in earthworms from agricultural soil amended with biosolid or swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, C.A.; Furlong, E.T.; Kolpin, D.W.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Zaugg, S.D.; Werner, S.L.; Bossio, J.P.; Benotti, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of earthworms offers potential for assessing the transfer of organic anthropogenic waste indicators (AWIs) derived from land-applied biosolid or manure to biota. Earthworms and soil samples were collected from three Midwest agricultural fields to measure the presence and potential for transfer of 77 AWIs from land-applied biosolids and livestock manure to earthworms. The sites consisted of a soybean field with no amendments of human or livestock waste (Site 1), a soybean field amended with biosolids from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (Site 2), and a cornfield amended with swine manure (Site 3). The biosolid applied to Site 2 contained a diverse composition of 28 AWIs, reflecting the presence of human-use compounds. The swine manure contained 12 AWIs, and was dominated by biogenic sterols. Soil and earthworm samples were collected in the spring (about 30 days after soil amendment) and fall (140-155 days after soil amendment) at all field sites. Soils from Site 1 contained 21 AWIs and soil from Sites 2 and 3 contained 19 AWIs. The AWI profiles at Sites 2 and 3 generally reflected the relative composition of AWIs present in waste material applied. There were 20 AWIs detected in earthworms from Site 1 (three compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 ??g/kg), 25 AWIs in earthworms from Site 2 (seven compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 ??g/kg), and 21 AWIs in earthworms from Site 3 (five compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 ??g/kg). A number of compounds thatwere present in the earthworm tissue were at concentrations less than reporting levels in the corresponding soil samples. The AWIs detected in earthworm tissue from the three field sites included pharmaceuticals, synthetic fragrances, detergent metabolites, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), biogenic sterols, disinfectants, and pesticides, reflecting a wide range of physicochemical properties. For those contaminants detected in earthworm tissue and soil, bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged from 0.05 (galaxolide) to 27 (triclosan). This study documents that when AWIs are present in source materials that are land applied, such as biosolids and swine manure, AWIs can be transferred to earthworms. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  8. Tank Temperature and Humidity Prediction in Earthworm Treatment Using Support Vector Regression with Tuning-based on TLBO Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Yongming Cai; Xuenong Zhang; Lingyan Gu; Lidan Fan

    2014-01-01

    By combining the use of support vector regression and predictive control techniques, we find that it is possible to control tank air temperature and humidity in earthworm treatment. In this study, we use Support Vector Regression (SVR) to predict temperature and humidity in the earthworm biological treatment reactor used to treat the municipal sludge, where the temperature and humidity belong to the nonlinear dynamic model system. Base on this model, we design ...

  9. Effect of acute gamma radiation and protective action of different concentration of extracts of safora japonica and hypericum perforatum on the life of aboriginal earthworms of Absheron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : As atomic power is increasingly recognized as a potential energy source to sustain future human development, radiological protection of the environment will become an even more important environmental safety concern. Thus, an understanding of the effects of ionizing radiation on non-human biota is required by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the radiological protection of the environment. Soil processes are vital to sustainable terrestrial ecosystems, and soil invertebrates play an important role in nutrient cycling by feeding on microbiota. Because of their ecological importance, soil invertebrates are used for ecological impact assessments of terrestrial ecosystem pollutants. For chemical substances, single-species laboratory tests are used to understand toxicity. Standard tests using earthworms and spring tails have been developed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Laboratory toxicity tests are also applicable in field contamination monitoring to determine if test organisms have been exposed to field-corrected soils. In such assays, gene expression as a biomarker has been receiving increased attention as it may produce fast, sensitive and diagnostic assays. A similar use of laboratory tests can be applied to assess the environmental impact of ionizing radiation. An understanding of the dose-effect relations of ionising radiation foreffect relations of ionising radiation for non-human biota establishes important baselines for radiobiological protection of ecosystems. We used standard laboratory tests to examine dose-effect relationships of gamma radiation on the survival, biomass changing, feeding activity, coprolite excretion of aboriginal earthworms

  10. Harnessing the energy accompanying freezing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyurt, M., E-mail: makyurt@kau.edu.s [Departments of Mechanical Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Tuerkmen, N. [Departments of Mechanical Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Ice pressurization allows the burst and leak testing of practically all tubular materials. {yields} The assembly can be made fully portable for maintenance operations without the use of liquid CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. {yields} Ice pressurization can work where conventional interference fitting, axial pressing and heat treatment fail. {yields} Uniform pressures can be developed in ice pressurization as opposed to Herzian distributions under plungers. -- Abstract: The progression of freezing of water inside a pipe is reviewed, with special emphasis on bursting. The process of pressure rise in confined bodies of water is discussed. The development of a method utilizing liquid carbon dioxide and liquid nitrogen, for the development of pressures inside closed containers is summarized. Then a novel method, utilizing mechanical refrigeration, is explained for the generation of high pressures. An experimental setup for the latter technique is described and results of experiments are summarized. A number of ways of utilizing the ice-pressurization technique are presented. Certain characteristics and advantages of ice-pressurization are enumerated as regards to burst and leak testing. It is noted that a number of other techniques such as shrink fitting, embossing and compaction of powders also seem to be particularly suitable. It is concluded that, with the advent of the portable and novel chilling apparatus, new vistas are approachable for undertaking maintenance operations in hospitals, power plants, nuclear facilities, and other systems that require uninterrupted operation.

  11. Freeze concentration beats the heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, J.

    1990-12-01

    This paper reports on freeze concentration (FC) which saves energy and money in packaging, shipping, and storing food products. FC---in contrast to existing heat-evaporation processes---retains volatile flavor and aroma compounds in food products so that no additives are required to restore the taste and smell of the original product. In recent tests on orange, grapefruit, and pineapple juices, reconstituted FC juices were found to be superior in taste to juices produced by evaporation and similar to the original pasteurized juices. The dairy industry, which is the largest user of energy for concentration in the food sector, is looking to FC for new products such as frozen concentrated milk as well as better use of the milk by-products of cheese production. The biggest potential for new FC applications is in those industries that consume large amounts of energy for separation processing, according to a 1987 report prepared for EPRI. In the food industry, this includes milk, vinegar, and beer producers. Potential applications also abound in the pulp and paper, pharmaceutical, chemical, and petroleum industries. FC separates substances via crystallization at substantial energy savings.

  12. Freeze-out Conditions from Lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a procedure for determination of freeze-out parameters of heavy–ion collisions through direct comparisons between experimentally measured higher order cumulants of charge fluctuations and first principle (lattice) QCD calculations

  13. Freeze-out Conditions from Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Swagato

    2012-01-01

    We describe a procedure for determination of freeze-out parameters of heavy-ion collisions through direct comparisons between experimentally measured higher order cumulants of charge fluctuations and first principle (lattice) QCD calculations.

  14. Freeze-out Conditions from Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Swagato

    2013-05-02

    We describe a procedure for determination of freeze-out parameters of heavy–ion collisions through direct comparisons between experimentally measured higher order cumulants of charge fluctuations and first principle (lattice) QCD calculations.

  15. Surface freezing of n-octane nanodroplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Viraj; Pathak, Harshad; Thayer, Mitchell; Singer, Sherwin; Wyslouzil, Barbara

    2013-05-01

    Surface freezing, at temperatures up to a few degrees above the equilibrium melting point, has been observed for intermediate chain length (16? i? 50) n-alkanes [B. M. Ocko, X. Z. Wu, E. B. Sirota, S. K. Sinha, O. Gang and M. Deutsch, Phys. Rev. E, 1997, 55, 3164-3182]. Our recent experimental results suggest that surface freezing is also the first step when highly supercooled nanodroplets of n-octane crystallize. Our data yield surface and bulk nucleation rates on the order of ˜1015/cm2.s and ˜1022/cm3.s, respectively. Complementary molecular dynamics simulations also show that the surface of the droplet freezes almost immediately, and freezing of the remainder of the droplet progresses in a layer-by-layer manner.

  16. Global Annual Freezing and Thawing Indices

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The total annual freezing and thawing indices are defined as the cumulative number of degree-days when air temperatures are below and above zero degrees Celsius....

  17. Rediscovery of Fimoscolex sporadochaetus Michaelsen 1918 (Clitellata: Glossoscolecidae), and considerations on the endemism and diversity of Brazilian earthworms / Redescubrimiento de Fimoscolex Sporadochaetus Michaelsen 1918 (clitellata: glossoscolecidae), y consideraciones sobre el endemismo y la diversidad de lombrices de tierra brasileñas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Samuel W., JAMES; George G., BROWN.

    Full Text Available En Brasil hay aproximadamente 305 especies de lombrices de tierra, de las cuales 260 (85%) son nativas e 46 (15%) exóticas. La mayor parte de las especies nativas (80%) es conocida de apenas una o dos localidades y dos especies fueron consideradas como extintas por el Ministerio del Medio Ambiente d [...] e Brasil en 2003, debido a la falta de registros, destrucción de hábitat y distribución limitada (endemismo). Una de ellas es Fimoscolex sporadochaetus Michaelsen 1918, que fue recién encontrada en una reserva de Bosque Atlántico (Parque Estatal de Itacolomi) próximo al Embalse del Custodio, en el municipio de Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais. Basándonos en los datos de colectas de lombrices de tierra realizadas en Brasil hasta el momento, creemos que el estado de las especies amenazadas y "extintas" debe ser revisado y que mayores esfuerzos de colecta son necesarios para determinar la biodiversidad de lombrices en el país y su estado actual de amenaza. Abstract in english Brazil hosts approximately 305 earthworm species, of which 260 (85%) are native and 46 (15%) exotic. Most of the native species (80%) are known from only one or a few sites, and two species were considered as extinct by the Ministry of Environment of Brazil in 2003, due to lack of sightings, habitat [...] destruction and a limited prior known distribution (endemism). One of these, Fimoscolex spora-dochaetus Michaelsen, 1918 was recently found in a forest reserve (Parque Estadual do Itacolomi), near the reservoir Bacio do Custódio in Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais. With this finding, and based on earthworm collection data in Brazil up to now, we believe that the endangered and "extinct" species should have their status reviewed, and that further collecting efforts are urgently necessary to adequately determine the extent of earthworm biodiversity in Brazil and the present level of threat to their survival.

  18. Self-Fulfilling Credit Market Freezes

    OpenAIRE

    Bebchuk, Lucian Arye; Goldstein, Itay

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a model of a self-fulfilling credit market freeze and uses it to study alternative governmental responses to such a crisis. We study an economy in which operating firms are interdependent, with their success depending on the ability of other operating firms to obtain financing. In such an economy, an inefficient credit market freeze may arise in which banks abstain from lending to operating firms with good projects because of their self-fulfilling expectations that other b...

  19. Conditions for Confinement and Freeze-Out

    OpenAIRE

    Magas, V.; Satz, H.

    2003-01-01

    Matter implies the existence of a large-scale connected cluster of a uniform nature. The appearance of such clusters as function of hadron density is specified by percolation theory. We can therefore formulate the freeze-out of interacting hadronic matter in terms of the percolation of hadronic clusters. The resulting freeze-out condition as function of temperature and baryo-chemical potential interpolates between resonance gas behaviour at low baryon density and repulsive n...

  20. Sampling of resident earthworms using mustard expellant to evaluate ecological risk at a mixed hazardous and radioactive waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As residents of contaminated soils and as prey for many species of wildlife, earthworms can serve as integrative biomonitors of soil contamination, which is biologically available to the terrestrial food chain. The assessment of contaminants within earthworm tissue provides a more realistic measurement of the potential biological hazards and ecological risks than physical and chemical measurements of soil. A unique sampling procedure using a mixture of ground mustard powder and water was implemented for cost-effectively collecting earthworms without digging; the procedure minimized occupational exposure to soil contaminants and reduced the quantity of investigation-derived wastes. The study site is located at a closed burial ground for low-level radioactive waste and transuranic waste that lies within the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of East Tennessee. Earthworms were maintained in the laboratory for four days to allow passage of the contents of the digestive tract. Earthworm body burdens, castings, and soil were analyzed for gamma-emitting radioisotopes (potassium 40, cobalt 60, cesium 137), strontium 90, trace metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, and selenium), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Ecological effects of soil contamination on the earthworms were also assessed through analysis of weight, abundance, and reproductive success

  1. Sampling of resident earthworms using mustard expellant to evaluate ecological risk at a mixed hazardous and radioactive waste site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stair, D.M. Jr.; Keller, L.J. [Bechtel Environmental Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Remediation Center; Hensel, T.W. [OGDEN Environmental and Energy Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    As residents of contaminated soils and as prey for many species of wildlife, earthworms can serve as integrative biomonitors of soil contamination, which is biologically available to the terrestrial food chain. The assessment of contaminants within earthworm tissue provides a more realistic measurement of the potential biological hazards and ecological risks than physical and chemical measurements of soil. A unique sampling procedure using a mixture of ground mustard powder and water was implemented for cost-effectively collecting earthworms without digging; the procedure minimized occupational exposure to soil contaminants and reduced the quantity of investigation-derived wastes. The study site is located at a closed burial ground for low-level radioactive waste and transuranic waste that lies within the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of East Tennessee. Earthworms were maintained in the laboratory for four days to allow passage of the contents of the digestive tract. Earthworm body burdens, castings, and soil were analyzed for gamma-emitting radioisotopes (potassium 40, cobalt 60, cesium 137), strontium 90, trace metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, and selenium), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Ecological effects of soil contamination on the earthworms were also assessed through analysis of weight, abundance, and reproductive success.

  2. Ice encapsulation protects rather than disturbs the freezing lichen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerke, J W

    2009-03-01

    Arctic and alpine terricolous lichens are adapted to harsh environments and are tolerant to extremely low temperatures when metabolically inactive. However, there are reports indicating that freezing can be lethal to metabolically active lichens. With a projected warmer and more unstable climate, winter precipitation at high latitudes will fall more frequently as rain, causing snowmelt and encapsulating terricolous lichens in ice or exposing them to large temperature fluctuations. Lichens are a major winter food source for reindeer in most parts of the circumpolar region. A laboratory experiment tested how three hydrated reindeer forage lichen species covered by snow, encapsulated in ice, or uncovered responded to storage at freezing temperatures and subsequent warming. Photosynthetic performance (maximal fluorescence of dark-adapted samples and net photosynthetic rates) was significantly lower in lichens not insulated by snow or ice, whereas there were few differences between the snow and ice treatments. It is suggested that snow and ice provide sufficiently moist environments to improve extracellular and reduce intracellular ice nucleation activity. Ice encapsulation, which is often lethal to vascular plants, did not have any negative effects on the studied lichens. The results indicate that complete snow and ice melt followed by refreezing can be detrimental to terricolous lichen ecosystems. Reduced lichen biomass will have a negative effect both on reindeer winter survival and the indigenous peoples who herd reindeer. PMID:19228329

  3. Double patterning process with freezing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamatsu, Goji; Anno, Yusuke; Hori, Masafumi; Kakizawa, Tomohiro; Mita, Michihiro; Hoshiko, Kenji; Shioya, Takeo; Fujiwara, Koichi; Kusumoto, Shiro; Yamaguchi, Yoshikazu; Shimokawa, Tsutomu

    2009-03-01

    Double patterning is one of the most promising lithography techniques for sub-40nm half-pitch device manufacturing. Several variations of double patterning processes have been reported by research groups, including a dual-trench process (litho-etch-litho-etch) and a dual-line process (litho-litho-etch). Between these, the dual-line process attracts the most attention because it is a simple process and achieves high throughput. However, there is concern that the second lithography process damages the first lithography patterns in the dual-line process. Therefore, new technology must be developed to keep the configuration of first lithography patterns during the second lithography step, and to make this patterning process practical. Recently, we succeeded in forming 32 nm half-pitch LS lithography patterns by the introduction of a new "freezing" step. This step involves covering the first lithography pattern with a chemical freezing material to prevent damage by the second lithography process. This process, the so called "litho-freezing-litho-etch" process, will achieve higher throughput and lower cost compared to litho-etch-litho-etch. In this study, the performance of this chemical freezing double patterning process is investigated for various applications using a hyper NA immersion exposure tool. Imaging results including process window and etching results of sub-30nm half-pitch LS and 40nm half-pitch CH with this freezing process are shown. Additionally, items such as critical dimension uniformity and defect inspection using the freezing process were reviewed.

  4. RAPD and freezing resistance in Eucalyptus globulus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marta, Fernández R.; Sofía, Valenzuela A.; Claudio, Balocchi L..

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus globulus is the second most important forest species in Chile, after Pinus radiata. The main advantages of E. globulus are its fast growth (25 m³/ha/year) and its excellent wood quality for kraft pulp production. On the negative side, its low freezing tolerance has been an obstacle for th [...] e expansion of plantations, specifically on the foothills of the Andes. The difference in the freezing resistance between clones of E. globulus has a genetic base and, therefore, it could be detected through DNA molecular markers. Fifteen clones of E. globulus, eight classified as freezing resistant and seven as freezing sensitive were analyzed using the technique of RAPD, in order to obtain molecular markers that could differentiate between freezing sensitive and resistant clones. Eighteen primers amplified reproducible bands. Three bands were only present in freezing resistant clones, two bands of 768 bp, 602 bp obtained with UBC 218 primer and one band of 248 bp obtained with UBC 237 primer. The preliminary results indicate that polymorphism can be observed with the primers employed, but it is not possible to associate the bands with the cold resistance or susceptibility in E. globulus.

  5. Toxicokinetics of metals in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus exposed to natural polluted soils – relevance of laboratory tests to the field situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to estimate the bioavailability of essential (Zn, Cu) and non-essential metals (Cd, Pb) to the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus exposed to soils originating from a gradient of metal pollution in Southern Poland. Metal uptake and elimination kinetics were determined and related to soils properties. Experimental results were compared with tissue metal concentrations observed in earthworms from the studied transect. Cd and Pb were intensively accumulated by the earthworms, with very slow or no elimination. Their uptake rate constants, based on 0.01 M CaCl2-extractable concentrations in the soils, increased with soil pH. Internal concentrations of Cu and Zn were maintained by the earthworms at a stable level, suggesting efficient regulation of these metals by the animals. The estimated uptake and elimination kinetics parameters enabled fairly accurate prediction of metal concentrations reached within a life span of L. rubellus in nature. - Highlights: • We estimated bioavailability of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn to the earthworm L. rubellus. • Earthworms intensively accumulated Cd and Pb. • Uptake rate constants of Cd and Pb increased with soil pH. • Earthworms showed efficient regulation of Cu and Zn internal concentrations. • Toxicokinetics was predictive of metal accumulation by earthworms in the field. - Toxicokinetics tests with earthworms are indicative of metal bioavailability in the field

  6. Wolf Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduweb

    2012-01-01

    In this activity, some learners pretend to be wolves, while the other learners pretend to be the prey of the wolf. The goal of the simulation is to have the wolves work together to survive. This activity works best with a larger group of at least 25 learners, but can work with smaller groups of at least 16 learners. Use this activity to discuss predator/prey relationships and the importance of communication for both animals and people.

  7. Continuous 3D freezing transition in layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use Ginzburg-Landau theory to study the Hc2 transition in layered superconductors with field parallel to the layers, finding a continuous 3D freezing transition to a triangular vortex supersolid in the three-dimensional XY universality class. If screening effects are neglected, off-diagonal endash long-range order survives only for d approx-gt dlc=5/2. The partial breaking of the lowest Landau level degeneracy induced by layering leads to a local selection of a triangular lattice structure, in contrast to the global free energy minimization in, e.g., Abrikosov close-quote s calculation. Our results are relevant to artificially layered superconductors and to strongly anisotropic high Tc materials. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  8. Surviving the cold: molecular analyses of insect cryoprotective dehydration in the Arctic springtail Megaphorura arctica (Tullberg)

    OpenAIRE

    Popovi? Željko D; Hillyard Guy; Burns Gavin; Pura? Jelena; As, Thorne Michael; Clark Melody S; Grubor-Lajši? Gordana; Roger, Worland M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Insects provide tractable models for enhancing our understanding of the physiological and cellular processes that enable survival at extreme low temperatures. They possess three main strategies to survive the cold: freeze tolerance, freeze avoidance or cryoprotective dehydration, of which the latter method is exploited by our model species, the Arctic springtail Megaphorura arctica, formerly Onychiurus arcticus (Tullberg 1876). The physiological mechanisms underlying cryop...

  9. The Earthworm Gut: an Ideal Habitat for Ingested N2O-Producing Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Marcus A.; Schramm, Andreas; Drake, Harold L.

    2003-01-01

    The in vivo production of nitrous oxide (N2O) by earthworms is due to their gut microbiota, and it is hypothesized that the microenvironment of the gut activates ingested N2O-producing soil bacteria. In situ measurement of N2O and O2 with microsensors demonstrated that the earthworm gut is anoxic and the site of N2O production. The gut had a pH of 6.9 and an average water content of approximately 50%. The water content within the gut decreased from the anterior end to the posterior end. In contrast, the concentration of N2O increased from the anterior end to the mid-gut region and then decreased along the posterior part of the gut. Compared to the soil in which worms lived and fed, the gut of the earthworm was highly enriched in total carbon, organic carbon, and total nitrogen and had a C/N ratio of 7 (compared to a C/N ratio of 12 in soil). The aqueous phase of gut contents contained up to 80 mM glucose and numerous compounds that were indicative of anaerobic metabolism, including up to 9 mM formate, 8 mM acetate, 3 mM lactate, and 2 mM succinate. Compared to the soil contents, nitrite and ammonium were enriched in the gut up to 10- and 100-fold, respectively. The production of N2O by soil was induced when the gut environment was simulated in anoxic microcosms for 24 h (the approximate time for passage of soil through the earthworm). Anoxia, high osmolarity, nitrite, and nitrate were the dominant factors that stimulated the production of N2O. Supplemental organic carbon had a very minimal stimulatory effect on the production of N2O, and addition of buffer or ammonium had essentially no effect on the initial N2O production rates. However, a combination of supplements yielded rates greater than that obtained mathematically for single supplements, suggesting that the maximum rates observed were due to synergistic effects of supplements. Collectively, these results indicate that the special microenvironment of the earthworm gut is ideally suited for N2O-producing bacteria and support the hypothesis that the in situ conditions of the earthworm gut activate ingested N2O-producing soil bacteria during gut passage. PMID:12620857

  10. Integrated biomarker analysis of chlorpyrifos metabolism and toxicity in the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C; Narvaez, C; Sabat, P; Martínez Mocillo, S

    2014-08-15

    To increase our understanding about the mode of toxic action of organophosphorus pesticides in earthworms, a microcosm experiment was performed with Aporrectodea caliginosa exposed to chlorpyrifos-spiked soils (0.51 and 10 mg kg(-1) dry soil) for 3 and 21 d. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CbE), cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase (CYP450), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were measured in the body wall of earthworms. With short-term exposure, chlorpyrifos inhibited CbE activity (51-89%) compared with controls in both treated groups, whereas AChE activity was depressed in the 10-mg kg(-1) group (87% inhibition). With long-term exposure, chlorpyrifos strongly inhibited all esterase activities (84-97%). Native electrophoresis revealed three AChE isozymes, two of which showed a decreased staining corresponding to the level of pesticide exposure. The impact of chlorpyrifos on CbE activity was also corroborated by zymography. CYP450 activity was low in unexposed earthworms, but it increased (1.5- to 2.4-fold compared to controls) in the earthworms exposed to both chlorpyrifos concentrations for 3d. Bioactivation of chlorpyrifos was determined by incubating the muscle homogenate in the presence of chlorpyrifos and NAD(H)2. The mean (±SD, n=40) bioactivation rate in the unexposed earthworms was 0.74±0.27 nmol NAD(H)2 oxidized min(-1) mg(-1) protein, and a significant induction was detected in the low/short-term exposure group. GST activity significantly increased (33-35% of controls) in earthworms short-term exposed to both chlorpyrifos concentrations. Current data showed that CYP450 and GST activities had a prominent role in the initial exposure to the organophosphorus. With short-term exposure, CbE activity was also a key enzyme in the non-catalytic detoxification of chlorpyrifos-oxon, thereby reducing its impact on AChE activity, before it became saturated at t=21 d. Results indicate that A. caliginosa detoxify efficiently chlorpyrifos, which would explain its tolerance to relatively high exposure levels to chlorpyrifos. PMID:24867707

  11. The equilibrated state of freezing as a basis for distinguishing lethal stresses of freezing in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A model for coordination of stresses that limit winterhardiness in plants based on the thermodynamic equilibrated state of freezing and melting provides a rational basis for distinction of freeze-induced energies which can stress and injure living organisms in various ways. The departure from equili...

  12. New earthworm species of the genus Amynthas Kinberg, 1867 from Thailand (Clitellata: Megascolecidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsak Panha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of terrestrial earthworms from the zebrus-group in the genus Amynthas Kinberg, 1867, are described from Nan province, north Thailand: Amynthas phatubensis sp. n., from Tham Pha Tub Arboretum, Amynthas tontong sp. n., from Tontong Waterfall, Amynthas borealis sp. n., from Chaloemprakiat district, and Amynthas srinan sp. n., from Srinan National Park.After comparing with the two closely related Laos species Amynthas chandyi Hong, 2008 and Amynthas namphouinensis Hong, 2008, the four new species show clear morphological differences, and also it is confirmed that there are no previous records of the species described here. Amynthas phatubensis sp. n. is the largest (longest sized of these earthworms and is the only species that lives in limestone habitats. The genital characters are different among them and also from the two Laotian species. Molecular systematics would be a good method for further analysis of the diversity and species boundaries in SE Asian Amynthas.

  13. An exploration of the relationship between adsorption and bioavailability of pesticides in soil to earthworm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to determine the adsorption/desorption of butachlor, myclobutanil and chlorpyrifos on five soils using a batch equilibration technique and to study the relationship between bioavailability to Allolobophora caliginosa and the adsorption/desorption of these three pesticides. The results showed that the adsorption/desorption processes of the tested compounds were mainly controlled by soil organic matter content (OM) and octanol/water-partitioning coefficient (K ow), and that the bioavailability of the pesticides was dependent on characteristics of pesticides, properties of soils, and uptake routes of earthworms. Bioconcentration of butachlor and myclobutanil was negatively correlated with Freundlich adsorption constant K af and K df. However, only a slightly positive correlation between bioconcentration and K af and K df was observed for chlorpyrifos due to its high affinity onto soil. - Bioavailability of pesticides in soil to earthworm is governed by adsorption characteristics

  14. Histological Alterations in the Body Wall of the Tropical Earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae Exposed to Hexavalent Chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, V K; Perera, I C; Dangalle, C D; Premawansa, S; Wijesinghe, M R

    2015-06-01

    The tropical earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae was chronically exposed to hexavalent chromium (Cr) in its substrate over a concentration range from 0.24 to 893 mg kg(-1). Histological alterations in the body wall epithelium included cell fusion, reduction in thickness of the epithelial layer, a marked increase in pyknotic nuclei and epithelial sloughing. Similar changes were noted in the circular and longitudinal muscles with damage being indicated by the prominent inter-muscular cell spaces and disintegration. Many of these noted alterations intensified with increasing levels of exposure. It is significant that some of the changes recorded here were evident even at the lowest concentration of 0.24 mg kg(-1), an environmentally relevant concentration. Hence, the observed trends could be taken as an early warning to the imminent threats of heavy metal pollution to epigeic earthworm species. PMID:25634325

  15. Nutrient content of earthworms consumed by Ye'Kuana Amerindians of the Alto Orinoco of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, M G; Buscardo, E; VanderJagt, D J; Pastuszyn, A; Pizzoferrato, L; Huang, Y-S; Chuang, L-T; Millson, M; Cerda, H; Torres, F; Glew, R H

    2003-02-01

    For the Makiritare (Ye'Kuana) native people of the Alto Orinoco (Venezuela), earthworms (Anellida: Glossoscolecidae) are an important component of the diet. Two species in particular are widely consumed: 'kuru' (Andiorrhinus kuru n. sp.) and 'motto' (Andiorrhinus motto). We analysed eviscerated kuru body proper, and whole and smoked preparations of motto for their content of protein and amino acids, fatty acids and 20 minerals and trace elements. The samples contained large amounts of protein (64.5-72.9% of dry weight), essential amino acids, calcium and iron together with notable quantities of other important elements, indicating that these earthworms contain potentially useful quantities of many nutrients that are critical to the health of the humans who consume them. PMID:12614573

  16. A method for measuring element fluxes in an undisturbed soil: nitrogen and carbon from earthworms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on chemical cycles, as nitrogen or carbon cycles, are extrapolated to the fields or ecosystems without the possibility for checking conclusions; i.e. from scientific knowledge (para-ecology). A new method, by natural introduction of an earthworm compartment into an undisturbed soil, with earthworms labelled both by isotopes (15N, 14C) and by staining is described. This method allows us to measure fluxes of chemicals. The first results, gathered during the improvement of the method in partly artificial conditions, are cross-checked with other data given by direct observation in the field. Measured flux (2.2 mg N/g fresh mass empty gut/day/15 0C) is far more important than para-ecological estimations; animal metabolism plays directly an important role in nitrogen and carbon cycles. (author)

  17. Parasitism and growth in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris: fitness costs of the gregarine parasite Monocystis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, S G; Michiels, N K

    2005-04-01

    Parasites inflict fitness costs on their hosts, but often the exact reduction in fitness is not well understood. We investigated the influence of infection by the gregarine genus Monocystis sp. on growth and female investment (cocoon production) of its earthworm host, Lumbricus terrestris. Earthworms (n = 81) were observed in a laboratory setting for 8 months, after which parasite load was determined. The results revealed a significant negative relationship between parasite load and growth, yet no association to cocoon production was found. Although the exact nature, strength, and evolutionary consequence of reduced growth are still unclear, the results are the first indication for a clear, albeit weak effect of Monocystis on host fitness. PMID:15830813

  18. Comparing effects of freezing at -196 °C and -20 °C on the viability of mastitis pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge-Marie Petzer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cryopreservation at approximately -196 °C in liquid nitrogen (N and freezing at approximately -20 °C in a freezer, on the viability and survival of eight different mastitogenic bacteria inoculated in milk. Bacteria were frozen at approximately -20 °C in a freezer and cryopreserved at approximately -196 °C in liquid nitrogen. An effective preservation method was needed for follow-up samples from cows identified in the South African National Milk Recording Scheme (NMRS with somatic cell counts above 250 000 cells/mL milk. The organisation responsible for sample collection of the NMRS milk samples also provides producers with liquid nitrogen for their semen flasks at the collection sites. This existing mode of storage and transport could therefore be utilised.

    Ten samples of each organism were thawed and cultured bi-weekly until week 18 for both temperature treatments. An additional sampling was performed at week 30 for samples frozen at approximately -20 °C. Freezing and cryopreservation did not impair subsequent isolation of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus (STH (phage type lytic group III or Sta. aureus (STA (phage typed, other than lytic group III. Survival was indicated by the isolation of bacteria from samples, and viability by the strength of growth of the bacteria isolated. The survival of Streptococcus agalactiae decreased after week 12 and Escherichia coli after week 16 of freezing, but both organisms survived under cryogenic preservation until week 18. Coagulase-negative staphylococci survived until week 18 for both freezing and cryogenic preservation.

    Both storage methods could thus contribute to the improvement of a pro-active approach towards udder health management in South African dairy herds.

    How to cite this article: Petzer, I.M., Karzis, J., Van der Schans, T.J., Watermeyer, J.C., Mitchell-Innes, N., Eloff, S. & Fosgate, G.T., 2012, ‘Comparing effects of freezing at -196 °C and -20 °C on the viability of mastitis pathogens’, Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 79(1, Art. #343, 6 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v79i1.343

  19. Changes of soil structure and earthworm community under different agricultural management

    OpenAIRE

    Lemtiri, Aboulkacem

    2013-01-01

    The living soil is represented by soil biota that interacts with aboveground biota and with the abiotic constructs of soil, represented as soil structure, organic matter, and nutrients. Maintenance of soil organic matter through integrated soil fertility management is necessary for soil quality and agricultural productivity. Earthworms are key actors in soil structure formation through the formation of casts and the incorporation of soil organic matter in the soil. Little is known about the i...

  20. Nutrient content of earthworms consumed by Ye'Kuana Amerindians of the Alto Orinoco of Venezuela.

    OpenAIRE

    Paoletti, M. G.; Buscardo, E.; Vanderjagt, D. J.; Pastuszyn, A.; Pizzoferrato, L.; Huang, Y-s; Chuang, L-t; Millson, M.; Cerda, H.; Torres, F.; Glew, R. H.

    2003-01-01

    For the Makiritare (Ye'Kuana) native people of the Alto Orinoco (Venezuela), earthworms (Anellida: Glossoscolecidae) are an important component of the diet. Two species in particular are widely consumed: 'kuru' (Andiorrhinus kuru n. sp.) and 'motto' (Andiorrhinus motto). We analysed eviscerated kuru body proper, and whole and smoked preparations of motto for their content of protein and amino acids, fatty acids and 20 minerals and trace elements. The samples contained large amounts of protein...

  1. Impact of roots, mycorrhizas and earthworms on soil physical properties as assessed by shrinkage analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Milleret, Roxane; Le Bayon, Renée-Claire; Lamy, F.; Gobat, Jean-Michel; Boivin, P.

    2009-01-01

    Soil biota such as earthworms, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant roots are known to play a major role in engineering the belowground part of the terrestrial ecosystems, thus strongly influencing the water budget and quality on earth. However, the effect of soil organisms and their interactions on the numerous soil physical properties to be considered are still poorly understood. Shrinkage analysis allows quantifying a large spectrum of soil properties in a single experiment, with s...

  2. Microflora dynamics in earthworms casts in an artificial soil (biosynthesol) containing lactic acid oligomers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nathalie, Alauzet; Sevastianos, Roussos; Henri, Garreau; Michel, Vert.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Já mostramos que a minhoca Eisenia andrei é capaz de bioassimilar o OLA (oligomeros de ácido lático), uma vez que este último tenha sido pré-digerido por microorganismos. A fim de verificar a presênça de microorganismos capazes de degradar os oligomeros de ácido láctico (OLA), as minhocas foram cria [...] das num solo artificial, o biosintesol. O número de bactérias e fungos nas fezes de minhocas e no biosintesol sem minhoca foi estimado, assim como o gênero dos fungos filamentosos presentes. O resultado mostra uma fraca diminuição do número de microrganismos após sua passagem no instestino das minhocas, sugerindo que as minhocas digerem alguns deles. Os principais fungos filamentosos encontrados foram Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Fusarium e Penicillium. Resultados anteriores mostraram que algumas espécies dos gêneros Aspergillus e Fusarium são capazes de degradar o OLA e outros ésteres alifáticos. Sugere-se que esses 2 gêneros e algumas bactérias são responsáveis pela pré-degradação do OLA, antes que as minhocas os comam. Abstract in english Studies were performed to appreciate the presence of micro-organisms able to degrade OLA, in earthworms casts or in the surroundings. Worms were grown in biosynthesol, an artificial soil. The counting of bacteria and fungi in earthworms casts and in biosynthesol without earthworms suggested that ear [...] thworms ate some of the micro-organisms. The main filamentous fungi genera found were Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Fusarium and Penicillium. Previous results in the literature have shown that some species from the Aspergillus and Fusarium genera were able to degrade OLA and other aliphatic esters. It could be suggested that these two genera and some bacteria were responsible for the pre-degradation of OLA, and that earthworms might eat them.

  3. Composition of organic matter in earthworm casts depending on litter quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerbrock, R. H.; Gerke, H. H.; Schrader, S.; Leue, M.

    2009-04-01

    Earthworms contribute to decomposition and stabilization of organic matter (OM) in soil. The digestion during intestinal passage inside worms may lead to a change in the composition of OM. It is largely unknown if and how the type of litter the earthworm is feeding on is affecting the OM composition in the casts. Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is used to determine the hydrophobic CH- (A) and the hydrophilic CO- (B) functional groups in OM. The objective was to compare the A/B- ratios of litter samples with that of (i) the corresponding casts of the primary decomposer Lumbricus terrestris and (ii) the water contact angles of ground cast samples and at intact cast surfaces. Litter from 10 different plant species including leaves of birch, beech, oak, spruce, pear, mustard and wheat straw (3 replicates) was offered separately to L. terrestris in microcosms containing a Luvisol soil. The OM composition of litter and that of casts, collected from the soil surface after 4-weeks was analyzed with FTIR (DRIFT technique). The A/B ratio of casts was generally increased as compared to that of the soil. For most litter types, the A/B ratio of cast was relatively similar except for casts from birch (Betula pendula) and pear (Pyrus communis) where the OM show a 3-times higher A/B ratio as compared to wheat (Triticum aestivum) or beech (Fagus sylvatica) casts. The higher A/B ratios seem to be related to the relative higher C/N ratios in the casts from Betula pendula and Pyrus communis feeding experiments. The results indicate that digestion of litter by the worm may change OM composition. The assumption that earthworm casts may enrich hydrophobic OM components could be verified only partly. However particulate and soluble OM fractions in the earthworm casts could have contributed to such differentiation.

  4. Assessing depleted uranium (DU) contamination of soil, plants and earthworms at UK weapons testing sites

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, I.W.; Graham, M.C.; Mackenzie, A. B.; Ellam, R.M.; Farmer, J G

    2007-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) weapons testing programmes have been conducted at two locations within the UK. An investigation was therefore carried out to assess the extent of any environmental contamination arising from these test programmes using both alpha spectrometry and mass spectrometry techniques. Uranium isotopic signatures indicative of DU contamination were observed in soil, plant and earthworm samples collected in the immediate vicinity of test firing points and targets, but contamination...

  5. Balkanized Research in Ecological Engineering Revealed by a Bibliometric Analysis of Earthworms and Ecosystem Services

    OpenAIRE

    Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evolution of the association ...

  6. Underground evolution: new roots for the old tree of lumbricid earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Jorge; Aira, Manuel; Breinholt, Jesse W; Stojanovic, Mirjana; James, Samuel W; Pérez-Losada, Marcos

    2015-02-01

    Earthworms belonging to the family Lumbricidae are extremely abundant in terrestrial temperate regions. They affect soil properties and nutrient cycling, thus shaping plant community composition and aboveground food webs. Some lumbricids are also model organisms in ecology and toxicology. Despite the intense research efforts dedicated to lumbricids over the last 130years, the evolutionary relationships and taxonomic classification of these organisms are still subject to great debate. Resolution of their systematics is hampered by the structural simplicity of the earthworm body plan and the existence of cryptic species. We sampled 160 earthworm specimens belonging to 84 lumbricid species (28 genera) and 22 Lumbricoidea outgroups, sequenced two nuclear genes, four mitochondrial genes and seven mitochondrial tRNAs and examined 22 morphological characters. We then applied a combination of phylogenetic methods to generate the first robust genus-level phylogeny of the Lumbricidae. Our results show that the current Lumbricidae classification and the underlying hypotheses of character evolution must be revised. Our chronogram suggests that lumbricids emerged in the Lower Cretaceous in the holarctic region and that their diversification has been driven by tectonic processes (e.g. Laurasia split) and geographical isolation. Our chronogram and character reconstruction analysis reveal that spermathecae number does not follow a gradual pattern of reduction and that parthenogenesis arose from sexual relatives multiple times in the group; the same analysis also indicates that both epigeic and anecic earthworms evolved from endogeic ancestors. These findings emphasize the strong and multiple changes to which morphological and ecological characters are subjected, challenging the hypothesis of character stasis in Lumbricidae. PMID:25463017

  7. Earthworm and enchytraeid activity under different arable farming systems, as exemplified by biogenic structures

    OpenAIRE

    Topoliantz, Stéphanie; Ponge, Jean-François; Viaux, Philippe

    2000-01-01

    A study was conducted in order to compare soil faunal activity in four experimental farming systems using different tillage, chemical input and crop rotation practices: a conventional system with deep-ploughing (CT), an integrated system with reduced tillage and minimum chemical input (IN), a system with reduced tillage and high chemical input (RT) and a system with minimum tillage and high chemical input (MT). In nine experimental fields with two sampling points each, earthworms were sampled...

  8. Biological significance of metals partitioned to subcellular fractions within earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa).

    OpenAIRE

    Vijver, Martina G.; Gestel, Cornelis A. M.; Straalen, Nico M.; Lanno, Roman P.; Peijnenburg, Willie J. G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Metal ions in excess of metabolic requirements are potentially toxic and must be removed from the vicinity of important biological molecules to protect organisms from adverse effects. Correspondingly, metals are sequestrated in various forms, defining the accumulation pattern and the magnitude of steady-state levels reached. To investigate the subcellular fractions over which Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and As are distributed, earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) collected from the field ...

  9. Earthworm activity and soil structural changes under conservation agriculture in central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Castellanos-Navarrete, A.; Rodriguez-Aragonés, C.; De Goede, R.G.M.; Kooistra, M.J.; Sayre, K.D.; Brussaard, L.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Crop residue mulching combined with zero tillage and crop rotation, known as conservation agriculture (CA), is being promoted as an alternative system to revert soil degradation in maize-based farming in the central highlands of Mexico. The goal of this paper was to determine the effects of CA vs. conventional tillage systems on soil quality, with a special focus on the role of earthworms in affecting the soil structure morphology, and on crop yield. For the conventional tillage system, the e...

  10. Molecular characterization of the iron binding protein ferritin in Eisenia andrei earthworms.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházková, Petra; Dvo?ák, Ji?í; Šilerová, Marcela; Roubalová, Radka; Škanta, František; Halada, Petr; Bilej, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 485, ?. 2 (2011), s. 73-80. ISSN 0378-1119 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/07/0378; GA ?R GD310/08/H077; GA AV ?R IAA600200704; GA MŠk 2B06155; GA MŠk LC07017 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Earthworms * Invertebrates * Ferritin Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.341, year: 2011

  11. Earthworms as bio-indicators of metal pollution in dump sites of Abeokuta City, Nigeria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    O., Bamgbose; O., Odukoya; T.O.A., Arowolo.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Metal concentrations (Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, Cd and Cr) and contents were measured in earthworms (Libyodrilus violaceus) and soil samples from three non-contaminated sites and ten dump sites located in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Samples from control sites show (in general) levels of metals to be higher in earthwor [...] ms than in soil samples, as shown by the mean concentrations, (earthworms-soil: - Zn:7.02, 6.74, Pb:5.04, 4.94, Mn 10.54, 10.41, Cu:1.03, 1.60., Cd: 0.80, 0.81 and Cr:0.55, 0.49 µg/g) while for samples from dump sites, irrespective of the degree of pollution, the ratio of metal concentration in earthworms to soil samples were less than unity with the exception of Cd and Cr. The availability of metals in soils was also co-determined by the soil pH and soil organic matter which accounted for the trend of metal concentration at the various dump sites. For the control sites, the pH ranged from 5.40 - 6.74 and soil organic matter from 3.25% to 3.40%, while for the dump sites, values of 7.44-10.10 and 5.79% - 7.59% were obtained for soil pH and soil organic matter respectively. The metal ion concentration in both soil and earthworm samples followed the trend Pb > Zn > Mn > Cu > Cr > Cd. Dump sites with high levels of Pb were located by roadsides of busy highways.

  12. Earthworm symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae mediates natural transformation within host egg capsules using type IV pili

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Seana K.; Dulla, Glenn F.; Go, Ruth A.; Stahl, David A.; Pinel, Nicolás

    2014-01-01

    The dense microbial communities commonly associated with plants and animals should offer many opportunities for horizontal gene transfer through described mechanisms of DNA exchange including natural transformation (NT). However, studies of the significance of NT have focused primarily on pathogens. The study presented here demonstrates highly efficient DNA exchange by NT in a common symbiont of earthworms. The obligate bacterial symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae is a member of a microbial ...

  13. Community-specific impacts of exotic earthworm invasions on soil carbon dynamics in a sandy temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumsey, Jasmine M; Le Moine, James M; Capowiez, Yvan; Goodsitt, Mitchell M; Larson, Sandra C; Kling, George W; Nadelhoffer, Knute J

    2013-12-01

    Exotic earthworm introductions can alter above- and belowground properties of temperate forests, but the net impacts on forest soil carbon (C) dynamics are poorly understood. We used a mesocosm experiment to examine the impacts of earthworm species belonging to three different ecological groups (Lumbricus terrestris [anecic], Aporrectodea trapezoides [endogeic], and Eisenia fetida [epigeic]) on C distributions and storage in reconstructed soil profiles from a sandy temperate forest soil by measuring CO2 and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) losses, litter C incorporation into soil, and soil C storage with monospecific and species combinations as treatments. Soil CO2 loss was 30% greater from the Endogeic x Epigeic treatment than from controls (no earthworms) over the first 45 days; CO2 losses from monospecific treatments did not differ from controls. DOC losses were three orders of magnitude lower than CO2 losses, and were similar across earthworm community treatments. Communities with the anecic species accelerated litter C mass loss by 31-39% with differential mass loss of litter types (Acer rubrum > Populus grandidentata > Fagus grandifolia > Quercus rubra > or = Pinus strobus) indicative of leaf litter preference. Burrow system volume, continuity, and size distribution differed across earthworm treatments but did not affect cumulative CO2 or DOC losses. However, burrow system structure controlled vertical C redistribution by mediating the contributions of leaf litter to A-horizon C and N pools, as indicated by strong correlations between (1) subsurface vertical burrows made by anecic species, and accelerated leaf litter mass losses (with the exception of P. strobus); and (2) dense burrow networks in the A-horizon and the C and N properties of these pools. Final soil C storage was slightly lower in earthworm treatments, indicating that increased leaf litter C inputs into soil were more than offset by losses as CO2 and DOC across earthworm community treatments. PMID:24597228

  14. The earthworm-Verminephrobacter symbiosis : an emerging experimental system to study extracellular symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie Braad; Kjeldsen, Kasper U

    2014-01-01

    ALMOST ALL LUMBRICID EARTHWORMS (OLIGOCHAETA: Lumbricidae) harbor extracellular species-specific bacterial symbionts of the genus Verminephrobacter (Betaproteobacteria) in their nephridia. The symbionts have a beneficial effect on host reproduction and likely live on their host's waste products. They are vertically transmitted and presumably associated with earthworms already at the origin of Lumbricidae 62-136 million years ago. The Verminephrobacter genomes carry signs of bottleneck-induced genetic drift, such as accelerated evolutionary rates, low codon usage bias, and extensive genome shuffling, which are characteristic of vertically transmitted intracellular symbionts. However, the Verminephrobacter genomes lack AT bias, size reduction, and pseudogenization, which are also common genomic hallmarks of vertically transmitted, intracellular symbionts. We propose that the opportunity for genetic mixing during part of the host-symbiont life cycle is the key to evade drift-induced genome erosion. Furthermore, we suggest the earthworm-Verminephrobacter association as a new experimental system for investigating host-microbe interactions, and especially for understanding genome evolution of vertically transmitted symbionts in the presence of genetic mixing.

  15. The earthworm—Verminephrobacter symbiosis: an emerging experimental system to study extracellular symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie Braad; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup

    2014-01-01

    Almost all Lumbricid earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) harbor extracellular species-specific bacterial symbionts of the genus Verminephrobacter (Betaproteobacteria) in their nephridia. The symbionts have a beneficial effect on host reproduction and likely live on their host’s waste products. They are vertically transmitted and presumably associated with earthworms already at the origin of Lumbricidae 62–136 million years ago. The Verminephrobacter genomes carry signs of bottleneck-induced genetic drift, such as accelerated evolutionary rates, low codon usage bias, and extensive genome shuffling, which are characteristic of vertically transmitted intracellular symbionts. However, the Verminephrobacter genomes lack AT bias, size reduction, and pseudogenization, which are also common genomic hallmarks of vertically transmitted, intracellular symbionts. We propose that the opportunity for genetic mixing during part of the host—symbiont life cycle is the key to evade drift-induced genome erosion. Furthermore, we suggest the earthworm-Verminephrobacter association as a new experimental system for investigating host-microbe interactions, and especially for understanding genome evolution of vertically transmitted symbionts in the presence of genetic mixing.

  16. Earthworms and Humans in Vitro: Characterizing Evolutionarily Conserved Stress and Immune Responses to Silver Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, Yuya; Engelmann, Péter

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the potential threats of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to ecosystem health, with no detailed report existing on the stress and immune responses of soil invertebrates. Here we use earthworm primary cells, cross-referencing to human cell cultures with a particular emphasis on the conserved biological processes, and provide the first in vitro analysis of molecular and cellular toxicity mechanisms in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to AgNPs (83 ± 22 nm). While we observed a clear difference in cytotoxicity of dissolved silver salt on earthworm coelomocytes and human cells (THP-1 cells, differentiated THP-1 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells), the coelomocytes and differentiated (macrophage-like) THP-1 cells showed a similar response to AgNPs. Intracellular accumulation of AgNPs in the coelomocytes, predominantly in a phagocytic population, was evident by several methods including transmission electron microscopy. Molecular signatures of oxidative stress and selected biomarker genes probed in a time-resolved manner suggest early regulation of oxidative stress genes and subsequent alteration of immune signaling processes following the onset of AgNP exposure in the coelomocytes and THP-1 cells. Our findings provide mechanistic clues on cellular innate immunity toward AgNPs that is likely to be evolutionarily conserved across the animal kingdom.

  17. Body metal concentrations and glycogen reserves in earthworms (Dendrobaena octaedra) from contaminated and uncontaminated forest soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmstrup, Martin, E-mail: martin.holmstrup@dmu.d [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Sorensen, Jesper G. [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Overgaard, Johannes; Bayley, Mark [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Building 131, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Bindesbol, Anne-Mette [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Building 131, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Slotsbo, Stine; Fisker, Karina V.; Maraldo, Kristine [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Waagner, Dorthe [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Building 131, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Labouriau, Rodrigo [Aarhus University, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Asmund, Gert [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2011-01-15

    Stress originating from toxicants such as heavy metals can induce compensatory changes in the energy metabolism of organisms due to increased energy expenses associated with detoxification and excretion processes. These energy expenses may be reflected in the available energy reserves such as glycogen. In a field study the earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra, was collected from polluted areas, and from unpolluted reference areas. If present in the environment, cadmium, lead and copper accumulated to high concentrations in D. octaedra. In contrast, other toxic metals such as aluminium, nickel and zinc appeared to be regulated and kept at low internal concentrations compared to soil concentrations. Lead, cadmium and copper accumulation did not correlate with glycogen reserves of individual worms. In contrast, aluminium, nickel and zinc were negatively correlated with glycogen reserves. These results suggest that coping with different metals in earthworms is associated with differential energy demands depending on the associated detoxification strategy. - Detoxification and accumulation of cadmium and lead by earthworms carries little energetic expenses whereas strict internal regulation of aluminium and nickel has energetic costs.

  18. Effect of Butachlor Herbicide on Earthworm Eisenia fetidaIts Histological Perspicuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the advent of the Green Revolution, there has been a quantum leap in the use of synthetic herbicides and pesticides throughout the world to sustain high yielding crop varieties. Continuous use of these synthetic chemicals leads to loss of soil fertility and soil organisms. To explore the effect of exposure to commercial herbicide (Butachlor) on the life history parameters (biomass, clitellum development, and cocoon production) and the histological changes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida over 60 days, the dried cow dung was contaminated with 0.2575 mg/ kg-1, 0.5150 mg/ kg-1, and 2.5750 mg/ kg-1 of butachlor based on the LC 50 value, and a control was maintained. The mean earthworm biomass was found to be decreased with increasing herbicide concentration. Similarly, cocoon production was also reduced by the increasing herbicide concentration. A possible explanation is an increased demand for energy, needed for the regulation and detoxification of herbicide. All earthworms in the exposed group were found to have glandular cell enlargement and to be vacuolated

  19. The earthworm – Verminephrobacter symbiosis: an emerging experimental system to study extracellular symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MarieBraadLund

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Almost all Lumbricid earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae harbor extracellular species-specific bacterial symbionts of the genus Verminephrobacter (Betaproteobacteria in their nephridia. The symbionts have a beneficial effect on host reproduction and likely live on their host’s waste products. They are vertically transmitted and presumably associated with earthworms already at the origin of Lumbricidae 62 – 136 million years ago. The Verminephrobacter genomes carry signs of bottleneck-induced genetic drift, such as accelerated evolutionary rates, low codon usage bias, and extensive genome shuffling, which are characteristic of vertically transmitted intracellular symbionts. However, the Verminephrobacter genomes lack AT bias, size reduction, and pseudogenization, which are also common genomic hallmarks of vertically transmitted, intracellular symbionts. We propose that the opportunity for genetic mixing during part of the host – symbiont life cycle is the key to evade drift-induced genome erosion. Furthermore, we suggest the earthworm-Verminephrobacter association as new experimental system for investigating host-microbe interactions, and especially for understanding genome evolution of vertically transmitted symbionts in the presence of genetic mixing.

  20. The earthworm—Verminephrobacter symbiosis: an emerging experimental system to study extracellular symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Marie B.; Kjeldsen, Kasper U.; Schramm, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Almost all Lumbricid earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) harbor extracellular species-specific bacterial symbionts of the genus Verminephrobacter (Betaproteobacteria) in their nephridia. The symbionts have a beneficial effect on host reproduction and likely live on their host's waste products. They are vertically transmitted and presumably associated with earthworms already at the origin of Lumbricidae 62–136 million years ago. The Verminephrobacter genomes carry signs of bottleneck-induced genetic drift, such as accelerated evolutionary rates, low codon usage bias, and extensive genome shuffling, which are characteristic of vertically transmitted intracellular symbionts. However, the Verminephrobacter genomes lack AT bias, size reduction, and pseudogenization, which are also common genomic hallmarks of vertically transmitted, intracellular symbionts. We propose that the opportunity for genetic mixing during part of the host—symbiont life cycle is the key to evade drift-induced genome erosion. Furthermore, we suggest the earthworm-Verminephrobacter association as a new experimental system for investigating host-microbe interactions, and especially for understanding genome evolution of vertically transmitted symbionts in the presence of genetic mixing. PMID:24734029

  1. Effect of biochar amendment on the bioavailability of pesticide chlorantraniliprole in soil to earthworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting-Ting; Cheng, Jie; Liu, Xian-Jin; Jiang, Wayne; Zhang, Chao-Lan; Yu, Xiang-Yang

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of biochar amendment on the bioavailability of chlorantraniliprole (CAP) in soils with different physico-chemical properties, the uptake of CAP from various soils by earthworms was studied. It was observed that the biochar amendment of the soils affected the sorption of CAP, but the magnitude of the sorption enhancement by biochar amendment among the soils was varied, presumably due to the attenuation of the sorptivity of the biochar when amended in the soil. The amendment with biochars leads to a decrease in the bioavailability of CAP in the soils to earthworms, and more prominent for biochar BC850 amendment. In the soil with a CAP concentration of 10 mg kg(-1), the residue of CAP in the earthworm tissues was found to be 9.65 mg kg(-1), in comparison with that the CAP residue was 4.05 mg kg(-1) in BC450 amended soil and 0.59 mg kg(-1) in BC850, respectively. The degree of bioavailability reduction by same level of biochar amendment was different among soils with different properties. The results demonstrate that the properties of soils are important to performance of biochar in soil. PMID:22776710

  2. Searching for external sources of the riboflavin stored in earthworm eleocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sulik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Riboflavin (vitamin B2 is essential to maintain immune potency in animals and plants. So far is accepted that animals cannot synthesise riboflavin; they rely on plant-sourced diets and intestinal bacteria for their supplies. A unique feature of earthworm ‘hepatocyte-like’ chloragocytes and chloragocyte-derived eleocytes floating in celomic cavity is the storage of riboflavin within intracellular granules. The hypothesis was that vegetarian food-deprivation or antibiotic/antifungal treatment inhibits riboflavin accumulation in eleocytes of Eisenia andrei. The 7-week starvation inhibited worm body weight gain and worm reproduction but had insignificant effects on celomocytes, both amoebocytes and eleocytes, and eleocyte riboflavin accumulation. The 1 week or 3 week antibiotic exposure had insignificant effects on worm coelomocytes and riboflavin content. Thus, a vegetarian diet and intestinal bacteria are not the exclusive or perhaps even the main sources of eleocyte riboflavin. The role of endosymbionts in earthworm flavonoid economy warrants targeted investigation. Moreover, the possibility of horizontal transfer of riboflavin biosynthesis genes from bacteria/fungi to earthworm genomes cannot be neglected.

  3. Body metal concentrations and glycogen reserves in earthworms (Dendrobaena octaedra) from contaminated and uncontaminated forest soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress originating from toxicants such as heavy metals can induce compensatory changes in the energy metabolism of organisms due to increased energy expenses associated with detoxification and excretion processes. These energy expenses may be reflected in the available energy reserves such as glycogen. In a field study the earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra, was collected from polluted areas, and from unpolluted reference areas. If present in the environment, cadmium, lead and copper accumulated to high concentrations in D. octaedra. In contrast, other toxic metals such as aluminium, nickel and zinc appeared to be regulated and kept at low internal concentrations compared to soil concentrations. Lead, cadmium and copper accumulation did not correlate with glycogen reserves of individual worms. In contrast, aluminium, nickel and zinc were negatively correlated with glycogen reserves. These results suggest that coping with different metals in earthworms is associated with differential energy demands depending on the associated detoxification strategy. - Detoxification and accumulation of cadmium and lead by earthworms carries little energetic expenses whereas strict internal regulation of aluminium and nickel has energetic costs.

  4. Biomarker responses in the earthworm, Dichogaster curgensis exposed to fly ash polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markad, Vijaykumar L; Gaupale, Tekchand C; Bhargava, Shobha; Kodam, Kisan M; Ghole, Vikram S

    2015-08-01

    Earthworms are globally accepted as a model organism in terrestrial ecotoxicology for assessment of environmental pollution. This study evaluated and compared effects of fly ash polluted soils collected from two geographically different thermal power plants on biomarker responses in the earthworm, Dichogaster curgensis. To evaluate relationship between distance sampling and biomarker responses in the earthworm D. curgensis, soil samples at 0.5, 1 and 3km from thermal plant were analyzed for physico-chemical properties and metal concentrations. Biochemical alterations, lysosomal membrane stability, genotoxic effects, and histological changes were examined on 1, 7, and 14 d of exposure to fly ash contaminated soils collected from different thermal power plants. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly increased, while glutathione reductase (GR) activity was found to be decreased in treated animals. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S- transferase (GST) activities were found to be increased initially up to 7d exposure and further decreased on 14d exposure. D. curgensis exposed to fly ash contaminated soils showed significant lysosomal membrane destabilization and DNA damage. Extensive histopathological changes were observed in the tissues of the body wall and intestinal tract of the exposed D. curgensis along with accumulation of heavy metals. These results demonstrate that soil pollution around thermal power plants has adverse biological effects of on the indicator organism D. curgensis and no correlation was found between distance and extent of biological biochemical responses. PMID:25910689

  5. The Changes of Earthworm Population and Chemical Properties of Tropical Soils under Different Land Use Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Yusnaini

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Hilly area Sumberjaya, West Lampung Province, South Sumatra, Indonesia, is one of the Province where deforestation increasing in the past 30 years as a result of the implementation of agricultural systems, especially coffee plantation. it is important to study the soil fauna in these natural relicts. Six sites (3 naturals and 3 managed systems were studied in order to identify earthworm species communities, using the hand sorting method and soil chemical parameters (pH, avail-P, org-C., tot-N, and cation exchange capacity (CEC. Two species were found (Pheretima sp. and Pontoscolex sp.. All land use systems had very similar soil chemical characteristics, there can be characterised as acidic (pH between 3.6 and 5.0. A high content of organic carbon was in natural sites (bush 4.0% and primary forest 3.9%, and a low content was in managed sites (coffee plantation 2.1%. Total nitrogen (0.37% and CEC (21.84 Cmol-c kg-1 was in primary forest. However, the earthworm densities were significantly lower under primary forest than in the other sites. The acidity component explained mainly the lowest earthworm population at the primary forest (soil pH 3.6. The use of succession forest (bush and mix farming showed a positive effect on soil fertility.

  6. Alternatives to herbicides in an apple orchard, effects on yield, earthworms and plant diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L.; Kuehn, Birka Falk

    2013-01-01

    tIn a newly established apple orchard eight alternative methods to weed control in the tree row werecompared to a herbicide treatment with respect to effects on tree growth, first-quality fruit yield, earth-worms and flora. All treatments were tested at two irrigation schedules, with similar amount of water ata daily or weekly basis. In general, daily irrigation reduced first-quality fruit yield compared to weeklyirrigation. Mulching with black polypropylene (MyPex®) and rape straw had a positive effect on first-quality yield and shoot growth, only black polypropylene, compared to herbicide treatment, whereasmulching with paper wool reduced first-quality fruit yield compared to herbicide treatment. Cover cropas tagetes and weed harrowing had similar yield as herbicide treatment, whereas cover crops as grassand hop medick and weed cutting reduced first-quality yield compared to herbicide treatment. Earth-worms thrived under rape straw contrary to under black polypropylene and plots with weed harrowing.Treatments had significant effects on species numbers of plants both years, and total vegetation covergenerally increased in the second year. Rape straw supported a high production of apples and a largestock of earthworms; however, its support of wild flora is poor, when it is taken into account that a largeproportion of the flora in the rape straw was rape established from seeds left with the straw

  7. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wetterich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze — a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple “crossover model” without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space–time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe.

  8. Freezing precipitation in Russia and the Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Zavyalova

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Conditions for freezing precipitation (FP, including freezing rain (FR and freezing drizzle (FZ for 8 airports in Russia and 4 in the Ukraine are studied on the basis of 10 to 20-year series of surface observations, radiosonde and objective analysis data. Statistical characteristics are presented of the FP episode durations and of occurrence frequency dependences on surface air temperature, wind direction and speed and cloud base height. From the radiosonde data, it is found that the "classical mechanism" of FP generation (for which, stratification of "warm nose" type in the cloud layer is necessary is not frequent: most of FP cases are associated with "all cold" conditions in the lower 3-km layer, that is, with negative temperatures in and below the clouds.

  9. Directional freezing for large volume cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragusty, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is currently the method of choice when it comes to long-term preservation of viable biological samples. The process, and consequently the volume of the sample, however, is limited by the ability to achieve homogenous and efficient heat removal. When this cannot be properly managed, ice crystals will grow uncontrollably resulting in extensive damage to the cryopreserved cells or tissues. Directional freezing is a technique that can be used to precisely control heat dissipation and ice crystal growth and morphology even when freezing large volumes. The technique has been used over the years to cryopreserve spermatozoa, oocytes, embryos, tissue slices and whole organs from a wide variety of domestic and wild species. In this chapter a protocol for directional freezing of spermatozoa is described and its benefits and shortcomings are discussed. PMID:25428019

  10. Survival strategies of freshwater insects in cold environments

    OpenAIRE

    Lencioni, Valeria

    2004-01-01

    At high latitudes and altitudes, ice formation is a major variable affecting survival of freshwater fauna and hence the abundance and composition of invertebrate communities. Freezing, but also desiccation and anoxia, are lethal threats to all life stages of aquatic insects, from the eggs to the adults. During cold periods, the aquatic stages commonly remain in or move to a portion of the water body that will not freeze or dry (e.g., deep waters of lakes, springs and hyporheic zone) where the...

  11. Freeze-drying above room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesconi, M S; Sepassi, K; Yalkowsky, S H

    1999-05-01

    This study investigates the use of solid, organic compounds to lyophilize drugs without conventional freeze-drying equipment. The aim of the investigation is to find a pharmaceutically acceptable solvent or solvent combination that is appropriate for freeze-drying on the basis of its ability to (1) solubilize hydrophobic drugs, (2) provide a stable environment for water-sensitive compounds, (3) be rapidly and completely removed from the product under vacuum, and (4) produce cakes that are readily reconstituted. A eutectic formed from 1,1,1-trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol (chlorobutanol) hemihydrate and dimethyl sulfone (DMSO2) is determined to be a suitable medium. PMID:10229639

  12. The influence of freezing rates on bovine pericardium tissue Freeze-drying

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camila Figueiredo, Borgognoni; Virgilio, Tattini Junior; Ana Maria Irene Bartolomeu, Ayrosa; Bronislaw, Polakiewicz; Adolfo Alberto, Leirner; Marina Junko Shiotsu, Maizato; Olga Zazuco, Higa; Marisa Masumi, Beppu; Ronaldo Nogueira de Moraes, Pitombo.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O pericárdio bovino é um material utilizado na fabricação de biopróteses. A liofilização é um método de secagem que vem sendo estudado para a conservação de válvulas cardíacas. A preservação das características do biomaterial é de fundamental importância no bom funcionamento das válvulas. Este artig [...] o é a primeira etapa do desenvolvimento do ciclo de liofilização do pericárdio bovino. Liofilização é o processo de secagem no qual a água é removida do material congelado por sublimação e desorção da água incongelável, sob pressão reduzida. O congelamento influencia o tamanho do cristal de gelo e, consequentemente, a secagem primária e secundária. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência das taxas de congelamento nos parâmetros de liofilização do pericárdio bovino. Determinou-se a temperatura de transição vítrea e o comportamento estrutural do pericárdio bovino liofilizado. Determinou-se o tempo da secagem primária e secundária. O protocolo de liofilização utilizando-se congelamento lento com annealing apresentou os melhores resultados. Abstract in english The bovine pericardium has been used as biomaterial in developing bioprostheses. Freeze-drying is a drying process that could be used for heart valve's preservation. The maintenance of the characteristics of the biomaterial is important for a good heart valve performance. This paper describes the in [...] itial step in the development of a bovine pericardium tissue freeze-drying to be used in heart valves. Freeze-drying involves three steps: freezing, primary drying and secondary drying. The freezing step influences the ice crystal size and, consequently, the primary and secondary drying stages. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of freezing rates on the bovine pericardium tissue freeze-drying parameters. The glass transition temperature and the structural behaviour of the lyophilized tissues were determined as also primary and secondary drying time. The slow freezing with thermal treatment presented better results than the other freeze-drying protocols.

  13. The influence of freezing rates on bovine pericardium tissue Freeze-drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Figueiredo Borgognoni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The bovine pericardium has been used as biomaterial in developing bioprostheses. Freeze-drying is a drying process that could be used for heart valve's preservation. The maintenance of the characteristics of the biomaterial is important for a good heart valve performance. This paper describes the initial step in the development of a bovine pericardium tissue freeze-drying to be used in heart valves. Freeze-drying involves three steps: freezing, primary drying and secondary drying. The freezing step influences the ice crystal size and, consequently, the primary and secondary drying stages. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of freezing rates on the bovine pericardium tissue freeze-drying parameters. The glass transition temperature and the structural behaviour of the lyophilized tissues were determined as also primary and secondary drying time. The slow freezing with thermal treatment presented better results than the other freeze-drying protocols.O pericárdio bovino é um material utilizado na fabricação de biopróteses. A liofilização é um método de secagem que vem sendo estudado para a conservação de válvulas cardíacas. A preservação das características do biomaterial é de fundamental importância no bom funcionamento das válvulas. Este artigo é a primeira etapa do desenvolvimento do ciclo de liofilização do pericárdio bovino. Liofilização é o processo de secagem no qual a água é removida do material congelado por sublimação e desorção da água incongelável, sob pressão reduzida. O congelamento influencia o tamanho do cristal de gelo e, consequentemente, a secagem primária e secundária. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência das taxas de congelamento nos parâmetros de liofilização do pericárdio bovino. Determinou-se a temperatura de transição vítrea e o comportamento estrutural do pericárdio bovino liofilizado. Determinou-se o tempo da secagem primária e secundária. O protocolo de liofilização utilizando-se congelamento lento com annealing apresentou os melhores resultados.

  14. Physiological differences beween fertilized and unfertilized mouse ova: glycerol permeability and freezing sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackowski, S.C.

    1977-03-01

    The glycerol permeability and freezing sensitivity of mouse ova were studied for evidence of differences associated with fertilization. The times of ovulation, fertilization and first cleavage of ova were determined as a function of time after the administration of human chorionic gonadotropic, hormone, HCG, to female mice. Fertilization did not cause a large instantaneous change in glycerol permeability. Rather, the permeability coefficient for glycerol at approximately 3/sup 0/C gradually increased from 7.0 x 10/sup -7/ to 7.0 x 10/sup -6/ cm/min for fertilized ova isolated from about 1 hour to 16 hours after fertilization. The zonae pellucidae of fertilized and unfertilized ova did not act as detectable barriers to permeation by glycerol. No significant and immediate change was observed on the surface of the ovum as a result of fertilization. Survival after freezing was assayed by two techniques: measurement of the ability of the cells to fluoresce in the presence of fluorescein diacetate; successful development in culture. Survival of fertilized and unfertilized ova increased as a function of both the temperature and time of incubation in glycerol prior to freezing. It was concluded that permeation of a cell by glycerol enhances survival. The cooling rate that yielded optimal survival of zygotes in G/sub 2/ phase differed from that of unfertilized ova and zygotes in G/sub 1/ phase. The optimum rate for the latter cells was about 1/sup 0/C/min with survival being about 63 percent and 79 percent, respectively. The optimum rate for zygotes in G/sub 2/ ranged from 1/sup 0/C/min to 7/sup 0/C/min with survival being about 58 percent. The differences among the freezing sensitivities of unfertilized ova, zygotes in G/sub 1/ and zygotes in G/sub 2/ can be explained in terms of their differences in glycerol permeability and possibly in terms of the increased surface area associated with the number of microvilli on the G/sub 2/ zygotes.

  15. Combined effects of soil moisture and carbaryl to earthworms and plants: Simulation of flood and drought scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Maria P.R.; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M. [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Loureiro, Susana, E-mail: sloureiro@ua.pt [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2011-07-15

    Studying tolerance limits in organisms exposed to climatic variations is key to understanding effects on behaviour and physiology. The presence of pollutants may influence these tolerance limits, by altering the toxicity or bioavailability of the chemical. In this work, the plant species Brassica rapa and Triticum aestivum and the earthworm Eisenia andrei were exposed to different levels of soil moisture and carbaryl, as natural and chemical stressors, respectively. Both stress factors were tested individually, as well as in combination. Acute and chronic tests were performed and results were discussed in order to evaluate the responses of organisms to the combination of stressors. When possible, data was fitted to widely employed models for describing chemical mixture responses. Synergistic interactions were observed in earthworms exposed to carbaryl and drought conditions, while antagonistic interactions were more representative for plants, especially in relation to biomass loss under flood-simulation conditions. - Highlights: > Climate variations may cause changes on chemicals' toxicity or bioavailability. > Earthworms and plants are exposed simultaneously to carbaryl and flood and drought conditions. > The IA model and possible deviations were used to evaluate combination exposures. > Synergism was observed for earthworms exposed to carbaryl and drought conditions. > Antagonistic interactions were observed for plants, in flood conditions and carbaryl. - Soil moisture can play an important role in carbaryl toxicity towards plants and earthworms.

  16. Responses by earthworms to reduced tillage in herbicide tolerant maize and Bt maize cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, P. H.; Griffiths, B.

    2007-01-01

    Genetically modified crops (GM) may affect earthworms either directly through the plant, its root exudates and litter, or indirectly through the agricultural management changes that are associated with GM plant production. In order to investigate such possible effects we established two field studies of Bt corn and a glufosinate ammonium tolerant corn and included a reduced tillage treatment (RT) and a conventional tillage treatment (CT) as examples of a likely concomitant change in the agricultural practise. At a French study site at Varois, (Bourgogne), a field grown with the Bt-toxin producing transgenic maize line MON810 was studied for 1 year. At a Danish study site, Foulum (Jutland), one year of Bt corn was followed by 2 years of herbicide tolerant corn. At the French study site the most prominent effects observed were due to the tillage method where RT significantly reduced the earthworm populations to levels about half of CT. At the Danish study site effects of CT complied with known reduction of anecic earthworms due to this technique and likewise effects of RT were observed for endogeic earthworms. Earthworm populations were dimin-ished with the herbicide tolerant crop, probably due to exposure to the herbicide Basta® during the two consecutive autumn seasons. This study confirms the importance of including the tillage tech-niques and pesticide usage when evaluating the environmental effects of new agricultural technologies.

  17. Combined effects of soil moisture and carbaryl to earthworms and plants: Simulation of flood and drought scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studying tolerance limits in organisms exposed to climatic variations is key to understanding effects on behaviour and physiology. The presence of pollutants may influence these tolerance limits, by altering the toxicity or bioavailability of the chemical. In this work, the plant species Brassica rapa and Triticum aestivum and the earthworm Eisenia andrei were exposed to different levels of soil moisture and carbaryl, as natural and chemical stressors, respectively. Both stress factors were tested individually, as well as in combination. Acute and chronic tests were performed and results were discussed in order to evaluate the responses of organisms to the combination of stressors. When possible, data was fitted to widely employed models for describing chemical mixture responses. Synergistic interactions were observed in earthworms exposed to carbaryl and drought conditions, while antagonistic interactions were more representative for plants, especially in relation to biomass loss under flood-simulation conditions. - Highlights: ? Climate variations may cause changes on chemicals' toxicity or bioavailability. ? Earthworms and plants are exposed simultaneously to carbaryl and flood and drought conditions. ? The IA model and possible deviations were used to evaluate combination exposures. ? Synergism was observed for earthworms exposed to carbaryl and drought conditions. ? Antagonistic interactions were observed for plants, in flood conditions and carbaryl. - lood conditions and carbaryl. - Soil moisture can play an important role in carbaryl toxicity towards plants and earthworms.

  18. Impact of biotransformation and bioavailability on the toxicity of the insecticides alpha-cypermethrin and chlorfenvinphos in earthworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnik, Thomas; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2008-11-26

    Knowledge about the bioavailability and metabolism of pesticides in soil organisms facilitates interpretation of its toxicity in soil. The present study relates uptake kinetics and metabolism of two insecticides, the pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin (alpha-CYP) and the organophosphate chlorfenvinphos (CFVP), in the earthworm Eisenia fetida to their lethal and sublethal toxicity. Experiments were conducted in two soils with different organic matter contents to provide media with contrasting sorption capacity for the insecticides. The results showed that organophosphate CFVP was, when taken up by earthworms, rapidly and irreversibly bound to biomolecules and the fraction of extractable parent insecticide and metabolites was low. In contrast, alpha-CYP was rapidly metabolized by earthworms but did not form conjugates. It seems that the phase II metabolism of alpha-CYP is inhibited in earthworms, resulting in an increasing accumulation of its metabolites. Instantaneous binding of non-altered CFVP to the target site presumably resulted in a higher toxicity compared to alpha-CYP and explains the small difference between lethal and reproduction toxicity. For alpha-CYP, however, accumulation of alpha-CYP metabolites in earthworms during chronic exposure may explain the large observed difference between lethal and sublethal toxicity. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of either insecticide decreased with increasing organic matter content in soil, emphasizing the role of compound sorption on bioavailability and toxicity for soil organisms. PMID:18959415

  19. Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolomic Approach for Optimization and Toxicity Evaluation of Earthworm Sub-Lethal Responses to Carbofuran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Prem Narain

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding mechanism of toxicity, the development of biomarkers (biochemicals that vary significantly with exposure to chemicals) for pesticides and environmental contaminants exposure is still a challenging task. Carbofuran is one of the most commonly used pesticides in agriculture and said to be most toxic carbamate pesticide. It is necessary to identify the biochemicals that can vary significantly after carbofuran exposure on earthworms which will help to assess the soil ecotoxicity. Initially, we have optimized the extraction conditions which are suitable for high-throughput gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomics for the tissue of earthworm, Metaphire posthuma. Upon evaluation of five different extraction solvent systems, 80% methanol was found to have good extraction efficiency based on the yields of metabolites, multivariate analysis, total number of peaks and reproducibility of metabolites. Later the toxicity evaluation was performed to characterize the tissue specific metabolomic perturbation of earthworm, Metaphire posthuma after exposure to carbofuran at three different concentration levels (0.15, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg of soil). Seventeen metabolites, contributing to the best classification performance of highest dose dependent carbofuran exposed earthworms from healthy controls were identified. This study suggests that GC-MS based metabolomic approach was precise and sensitive to measure the earthworm responses to carbofuran exposure in soil, and can be used as a promising tool for environmental eco-toxicological studies. PMID:24324663

  20. Building the Method to Determine the Rate of Freezing Water in Penaeus monodon of the Freezing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Tan Dzung

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The method of determination the rate of freezing water in Penaeus monodon of freezing process was established on base the equation of energy balance in warming up process Penaeus monodon after freezing to determine specific heat of Penaeus monodon. The result obtained was built the mathematical model (19 to determine the rate of freezing water according to the freezing temperature of Penaeus monodon. The results indicated that when water was completely frozen (? = 1 or 100%, the optimal freezing temperature of Penaeus monodon was-22.00°C.

  1. Efectos tóxicos de los insecticidas clorpirifos y teflutrina sobre la lombriz de tierra (Lumbricus terrestris L.) / Toxic effects of the insecticides chlorpyrifos and tefluthrin on earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosana, Giménez; Angela, Della Penna; Ezequiel, Odello.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Para evaluar la ecotoxicidad de clorpirifos y teflutrina sobre Lumbricus terrestris L., se realizó una prueba de laboratorio, basado en el protocolo de la Organización Internacional de Control Biológico (IOBC). Las lombrices fueron recolectadas a mano en un suelo libre de plaguicidas, en el campo de [...] la Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina y colocadas en suelo esterilizado, en condiciones de oscuridad y 12°C durante cinco días, alimentadas con hojas secas de trébol blanco (Trifolium repens L.). Se colocó una lombriz mayor a 1,5 g sin clitelo por embudo de Daniel, con diez hojas secas de trébol blanco sobre la superficie. Los tratamientos fueron: 1) testigo, agua no clorada; 2) 30 mg L-1 de solución de cloroacetamida (97,37%); 3) clorpirifos (EC 48%) 5 L ha-1 o 50 mg L-1; 4) teflutrina (EC 5%) 2 L ha-1 o 20 mg L-1. El ensayo tuvo diseño completamente aleatorizado con diez repeticiones. Durante los 15 días de ensayo las variables analizadas fueron: variación de peso, actividad individual y supervivencia de lombrices. El incremento de peso de las lombrices fue 0,285; 0,280 y 0,300 g en 15 días en los tratamientos 1, 3 y 4 respectivamente, y no hubo diferencias significativas entre los mismos así como en la cantidad de hojas retiradas al día, que fue de 0,61; 0,369; 0,555 y 0,425, respectivamente. La supervivencia fue de 100; 20; 100; y 90% en los tratamientos 1, 2, 3 y 4, respectivamente, siendo afectada sólo por cloroacetamida. Clorpirifos y teflutrina no fueron tóxicos a las dosis evaluadas (P Abstract in english In order to evaluate the ecotoxicity of chlorpyrifos and tefluthrin on the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L., a laboratory test was carried out based on the guidelines of the International Organization of Biological Control (IOBC). The earthworms were collected by handsorting from a soil free of pes [...] ticides of the Agronomy Faculty, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina and placed in sterilized soil, in complete darkness, at 12ºC for five days, and fed with dry white clover (Trifolium repens L.) leaves. Earthworms larger than 1.5 g without clitelum were placed in a Daniel's funnel with ten dry leaves of white clover on the surface. The treatments were: 1) control, unchlorinated water; 2) chloroacetamid solution (97.37%) 30 mg L-1; 3) chlorpyrifos (emulsifiable concentrate, EC, 48%) 5 L ha-1 or 50 mg L-1; 4) tefluthrin (EC 5%) 2 L ha-1 or 20 mg L-1. A completely randomized experimental design with ten replicates was used. During 15 days of the assay the variables analyzed were: live weight change, individual activity and earthworm survival. The increase of earthworm weight was 0.285, 0.280 and 0.300 g in the 15 days of treatments 1, 3 and 4, respectively, with no significant differences between treatments, as well as the number of leaves withdrawn per day 0.61, 0.369, 0.555, and 0.425, respectively. The survival rates were: 100, 20, 100 and 90%, in treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively, being only effected by chloroacetamid. Chlorpyrifos and tefluthrin were not toxic for L. terrestris at the current dose (P

  2. Efectos tóxicos de los insecticidas clorpirifos y teflutrina sobre la lombriz de tierra (Lumbricus terrestris L. Toxic effects of the insecticides chlorpyrifos and tefluthrin on earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Giménez

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Para evaluar la ecotoxicidad de clorpirifos y teflutrina sobre Lumbricus terrestris L., se realizó una prueba de laboratorio, basado en el protocolo de la Organización Internacional de Control Biológico (IOBC. Las lombrices fueron recolectadas a mano en un suelo libre de plaguicidas, en el campo de la Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina y colocadas en suelo esterilizado, en condiciones de oscuridad y 12°C durante cinco días, alimentadas con hojas secas de trébol blanco (Trifolium repens L.. Se colocó una lombriz mayor a 1,5 g sin clitelo por embudo de Daniel, con diez hojas secas de trébol blanco sobre la superficie. Los tratamientos fueron: 1 testigo, agua no clorada; 2 30 mg L-1 de solución de cloroacetamida (97,37%; 3 clorpirifos (EC 48% 5 L ha-1 o 50 mg L-1; 4 teflutrina (EC 5% 2 L ha-1 o 20 mg L-1. El ensayo tuvo diseño completamente aleatorizado con diez repeticiones. Durante los 15 días de ensayo las variables analizadas fueron: variación de peso, actividad individual y supervivencia de lombrices. El incremento de peso de las lombrices fue 0,285; 0,280 y 0,300 g en 15 días en los tratamientos 1, 3 y 4 respectivamente, y no hubo diferencias significativas entre los mismos así como en la cantidad de hojas retiradas al día, que fue de 0,61; 0,369; 0,555 y 0,425, respectivamente. La supervivencia fue de 100; 20; 100; y 90% en los tratamientos 1, 2, 3 y 4, respectivamente, siendo afectada sólo por cloroacetamida. Clorpirifos y teflutrina no fueron tóxicos a las dosis evaluadas (P In order to evaluate the ecotoxicity of chlorpyrifos and tefluthrin on the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L., a laboratory test was carried out based on the guidelines of the International Organization of Biological Control (IOBC. The earthworms were collected by handsorting from a soil free of pesticides of the Agronomy Faculty, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina and placed in sterilized soil, in complete darkness, at 12ºC for five days, and fed with dry white clover (Trifolium repens L. leaves. Earthworms larger than 1.5 g without clitelum were placed in a Daniel's funnel with ten dry leaves of white clover on the surface. The treatments were: 1 control, unchlorinated water; 2 chloroacetamid solution (97.37% 30 mg L-1; 3 chlorpyrifos (emulsifiable concentrate, EC, 48% 5 L ha-1 or 50 mg L-1; 4 tefluthrin (EC 5% 2 L ha-1 or 20 mg L-1. A completely randomized experimental design with ten replicates was used. During 15 days of the assay the variables analyzed were: live weight change, individual activity and earthworm survival. The increase of earthworm weight was 0.285, 0.280 and 0.300 g in the 15 days of treatments 1, 3 and 4, respectively, with no significant differences between treatments, as well as the number of leaves withdrawn per day 0.61, 0.369, 0.555, and 0.425, respectively. The survival rates were: 100, 20, 100 and 90%, in treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively, being only effected by chloroacetamid. Chlorpyrifos and tefluthrin were not toxic for L. terrestris at the current dose (P < 0.05.

  3. 7 CFR 58.638 - Freezing the mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...false Freezing the mix. 58.638 Section...Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...638 Freezing the mix. After the...

  4. Experimental Evaluation of Herbivory on Live Plant Seedlings by the Earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. in the Presence and Absence of Soil Surface Litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchberger, Johannes; Eisenhauer, Nico; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Türke, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggested that the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris might act as a seedling predator by ingesting emerging seedlings, and individuals were observed damaging fresh leaves of various plant species in the field. To evaluate the significance of herbivore behavior of L. terrestris for plant and earthworm performance we exposed 23- to 33-days-old seedlings of six plant species to earthworms in two microcosm experiments. Plants belonged to the three functional groups grasses, non-leguminous herbs, and legumes. Leaf damage, leaf mortality, the number of leaves as well as mortality and growth of seedlings were followed over a period of up to 26 days. In a subset of replicates 0.1 g of soil surface litter of each of the six plant species was provided and consumption was estimated regularly to determine potential feeding preferences of earthworms. Results There was no difference in seedling growth, the number of live seedlings and dead leaves between treatments with or without worms. Fresh leaves were damaged eight times during the experiment, most likely by L. terrestris, with two direct observations of earthworms tearing off leaf parts. Another nine leaves were partly pulled into earthworm burrows. Lumbricus terrestris preferred to consume legume litter over litter of the other plant functional groups. Earthworms that consumed litter lost less weight than individuals that were provided with soil and live plants only, indicating that live plants are not a suitable substitute for litter in earthworm nutrition. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that L. terrestris damages live plants; however, this behavior occurs only rarely. Pulling live plants into earthworm burrows might induce microbial decomposition of leaves to make them suitable for later consumption. Herbivory on plants beyond the initial seedling stage may only play a minor role in earthworm nutrition and has limited potential to influence plant growth. PMID:25885861

  5. Snow Melting and Freezing on Older Townhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anker; Claesson, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The snowy winter of 2009/2010 in Scandinavia prompted many newspaper articles on icicles falling from buildings and the risk this presented for people walking below. The problem starts with snow melting on the roof due to heat loss from the building. Melt water runs down the roof and some of it will freeze on the overhang. The rest of the water will either run off or freeze in gutters and downpipes or turn into icicles. This paper describes use of a model for the melting and freezing of snow on roofs. Important parameters are roof length, overhang length, heat resistance of roof and overhang, outdoor and indoor temperature, snow thickness and thermal conductivity. If the snow thickness is above a specific limit value – the snow melting limit- some of the snow will melt. Another interesting limit value is the dripping limit. All the melt water will freeze on the overhang, if the snow thickness is between the two limit values. Only if the snow thickness is above the dripping limit, will we get icicles. The model is used on an old townhouse without much thermal insulation and compared with newer townhouses. A discussion on attic temperatures is included. The results show that better thermal insulation or ventilation with outdoor air is the best way to reduce the risk of icicles.

  6. Renormalization, Freezing Phase Transitions and Fibonacci Quasicrystals

    OpenAIRE

    Bruin, Henk; Leplaideur, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    We examine the renormalization operator determined by the Fibonacci substitution. We exhibit a fixed point and determine its stable leaf (under iteration of the operator). Then, we study the thermodynamic formalism for po- tentials in this stable leaf, and prove they have a freezing phase transition, with ground state supported on the attracting quasi-crystal associated to the Fibonacci substitution

  7. Polybutylene pipe freeze/thaw reliability testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrington, R B

    1987-04-01

    This paper discusses the ability of polybutylene pipe to withstand repeated freezing and thawing. The test apparatus, test procedure, list of chronological events, and results are discussed. Polybutylene piping has potential use in active solar heating systems and integral-collector-storage systems.

  8. Unitarity Constraints on Asymmetric Freeze-In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hook, Anson; /SLAC

    2011-08-15

    This paper considers unitarity and CPT constraints on asymmetric freeze-in, the use of freeze-in to store baryon number in a dark sector. In this scenario, Sakharov's out of equilibrium condition is satisfied by placing the visible and hidden sectors at different temperatures while a net visible baryon number is produced by storing negative baryon number in a dark sector. It is shown that unitarity and CPT lead to unexpected cancellations. In particular, the transfer of baryon number cancels completely at leading order. This note has shown that if two sectors are in thermal equilibrium with themselves, but not with each other, then the leading effect transferring conserved quantities between the two sectors is of order the the weak coupling connecting them to the third power. When freeze-in is used to produce a net baryon number density, the leading order effect comes from {Omicron}({lambda}{sup 3}) diagrams where the intermediate state that goes on-shell has a different visible baryon number than the final state visible baryon number. Models in which the correct baryon number is generated with freeze-in as the dominant source of abundance, typically require {lambda} {approx}> 10{sup -6} and m{sub bath} {approx}> TeV. m{sub bath} is the mass of the visible particle which communicates with the hidden sector. The lower window is potentially observable at the LHC.

  9. Comparing effects of freezing at -196 ºC and -20 ºC on the viability of mastitis pathogens

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Inge-Marie, Petzer; Joanne, Karzis; Theodorus J., van der Schans; Johanna C., Watermeyer; Norman, Mitchell-Innes; Stephanie, Eloff; Geoffrey T., Fosgate.

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cryopreservation at approximately -196 ºC in liquid nitrogen (N) and freezing at approximately -20 ºC in a freezer, on the viability and survival of eight different mastitogenic bacteria inoculated in milk. Bacteria were frozen at approximately -20 [...] ºC in a freezer and cryopreserved at approximately -196 ºC in liquid nitrogen. An effective preservation method was needed for follow-up samples from cows identified in the South African National Milk Recording Scheme (NMRS) with somatic cell counts above 250 000 cells/mL milk. The organisation responsible for sample collection of the NMRS milk samples also provides producers with liquid nitrogen for their semen flasks at the collection sites. This existing mode of storage and transport could therefore be utilised. Ten samples of each organism were thawed and cultured bi-weekly until week 18 for both temperature treatments. An additional sampling was performed at week 30 for samples frozen at approximately -20 ºC. Freezing and cryopreservation did not impair subsequent isolation of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus (STH) (phage type lytic group III) or Sta. aureus (STA) (phage typed, other than lytic group III). Survival was indicated by the isolation of bacteria from samples, and viability by the strength of growth of the bacteria isolated. The survival of Streptococcus agalactiae decreased after week 12 and Escherichia coli after week 16 of freezing, but both organisms survived under cryogenic preservation until week 18. Coagulase-negative staphylococci survived until week 18 for both freezing and cryogenic preservation. Both storage methods could thus contribute to the improvement of a pro-active approach towards udder health management in South African dairy herds.

  10. Remediation of PAH-contaminated soil by the combination of tall fescue, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and epigeic earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan-Fei; Lu, Mang

    2015-03-21

    A 120-day experiment was performed to investigate the effect of a multi-component bioremediation system consisting of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) (Glomus caledoniun L.), and epigeic earthworms (Eisenia foetida) for cleaning up polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soil. Inoculation with AMF and/or earthworms increased plant yield and PAH accumulation in plants. However, PAH uptake by tall fescue accounted for a negligible portion of soil PAH removal. Mycorrhizal tall fescue significantly enhanced PAH dissipation, PAH degrader density and polyphenol oxidase activity in soil. The highest PAH dissipation (93.4%) was observed in the combination treatment: i.e., AMF+earthworms+tall fescue, in which the soil PAH concentration decreased from an initial value of 620 to 41 mg kg(-1) in 120 days. This concentration is below the threshold level required for Chinese soil PAH quality (45 mg kg(-1) dry weight) for residential use. PMID:25534968

  11. DNA damage and repair process in earthworm after in-vivo and in vitro exposure to soils irrigated by wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, DNA damage to earthworms (Eisenia fetida) after in vivo exposure to contaminated soils was measured by detecting DNA strand breakages (DSBs) and causality was analyzed through fractionation based bioassays. A non-linear dose-response relationship existed between DNA damage and total soil PAHs levels. DNA damage, measured with the comet assay, and its repair process, were observed. To identify the chemical causality, an in vitro comet assay using coelomocytes was subsequently performed on the fractionated organic extracts from soils. The results showed that the PAHs in the soils were responsible for the exerting genotoxic effects on earthworms. When normalized to benzo(a)pyrene toxic equivalent (TEQBaP), the saturation dose in the dose-response curve was about 10 ng TEQBaP g-1 soil (dw). - A non-linear dose-response relationship exists between earthworm DNA damage, measured with comet assay, and total PAHs levels in soils irrigated by wastewaters

  12. BIOCONVERSION OFWATER HYACINTH (EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES TO VERMICOMPOST BY THE EARTHWORM EUDRILUS EUGENIAE: AN IDEAL METHOD FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAO,K.R

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Vermicomposting is a process in which organic waste can be converted to an energy rich byproduct by the action of microbial population present in the gut flora of earthworms. Earthworms are considered as bioengineers as they enrich the soil by adding micronutrient and macronutrients through their cast. This enriched soil will be useful for getting higher yield in the agricultural crops. The vermibiotechnology facilitates the recycling of industrial, agricultural, domestic and aquatic weeds by reducing environmental pollution and directly in solid waste management. In the present investigation an attempt has been made to recycle the water hyacinth to vermicompost by using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae .The investigations for the directed to understand mobilization of microbial populations from different treatment groups. Variations in bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes were studied from four different experimental groups for a duration of 120 days. Results are discussed in the light of available literature.

  13. VISUALIZATION OF FREEZING PROGRESSION IN TURFGRASSES USING INFRARED VIDEO THERMOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freezing injury can be a significant problem in turfgrasses. Understanding how freezing develops and ramifies throughout the plant could assist in the development of improved management or screening processes for cultivar improvemen. The development of freezing injury is not well understand due pa...

  14. Controlling the freezing process: a robotic device for rapidly freezing biological tissues with millisecond time resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikunov, Boris A; Rome, Lawrence C

    2007-10-01

    A robotic cryogenic device was developed which allows freezing of thick biological tissues with millisecond time resolution. The device consists of two horizontally oriented hammers (pre-cooled with liquid N(2)) driven by two linear servo-motors. The tissue sample is bathed in Ringers contained in a chamber which drops rapidly out of the way just as the hammers approach. A third linear motor is vertically oriented, and permits the rapidly dropping chamber to smoothly decelerate. All movements were performed by the three motors and four solenoids controlled by a PC. Mechanical adjustments, that change the size of the gap between the hammers at the end position, permit the final thickness of the frozen tissue to be varied. Here we show that the freezing time increased with the square of the final thickness of the frozen bundle. However, when bundles of different original thicknesses (up to at least 1mm) were compressed to the same final thickness (e.g., 0.2mm), they exhibited nearly equal freezing times. Hence, by being able to adjust the final thickness of the frozen bundles, the device not only speeds the rate of freezing, but standardizes the freezing time for different diameter samples. This permits the use of freezing for accurate determination of the kinetics of cellular processes in biological tissue. PMID:17640628

  15. Cryopreservation of human failed-matured oocytes followed by in vitro maturation: vitrification is superior to the slow freezing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang ZhiGuo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oocyte cryopreservation is an important method used in a number of human fertility circumstances. Here, we compared the survival, in vitro maturation, fertilization, and early embryonic development rates of frozen-thawed human immature oocytes using two different cryopreservation methods. Methods A total of 454 failed-matured oocytes [germinal vesicle (GV and metaphase I (MI stages] were collected from 135 patients (mean age 33.84 +/- 5.0 y who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles between February 2009 and December 2009 and randomly divided into a slow freezing group [1.5 mol/L-1, 2-propanediol (PROH + 0.2 mol/l sucrose] and vitrification group [20% PROH + 20% ethylene glycol (EG + 0.5 mol/l sucrose]. Results The vitrification protocol yielded a better survival rate than the slow freezing protocol at each maturation stage assessed. Regardless of the maturation stage (GV + MI, the slow freezing protocol had a significantly lower survival rate than the vitrification protocol (p in vitro maturation (21.2 vs. 54.0%, respectively; p 0.05. For the GV-matured oocytes, no fertilized eggs were obtained in the slow-freezing group, while a 19.0% (4/21 fertilization rate was observed in the vitrification group. For the MI-matured oocytes, fertilization rates for the slow freezing and vitrified groups were 36% and 61.1%, respectively, but no significant difference was found between the two groups (PIn the Methods section in the MS, all procedures were compliant with ethical guidelines, i.e. approved by the Ethical Committee of our university and Informed Consent signed by each patient. > 0.05. In the GV vitrification group, no embryo formed; however, in the MI slow freezing group, 12 oocytes were fertilized, but only two achieved cleavage and were subsequently blocked at the 2-cell stage. In the MI vitrification group, a total of 22 embryos were obtained, five of which developed to the blastocyst stage. Conclusions Vitrification is superior to the slow freezing method in terms of the survival and developmental rates for the cryopreservation of human failed-matured oocytes. In addition, GV oocytes appeared to be more resistant than MI oocytes to the low temperature and cryoprotectant used during cryopreservation.

  16. The effects of freeze drying and freeze drying additives on the prothrombin time and the international sensitivity index.

    OpenAIRE

    Poller, L.; Keown, M.; Shepherd, S. A.; Shiach, C. R.; Tabeart, S.

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether freezing, freeze drying protective additives, or freeze drying of plasma samples from patients on coumarin treatment and from normal individuals affects prothrombin times or the international sensitivity index (ISI) calibration. METHODS: The effect of the addition of the protective additives singly and combined on the prothrombin time of coumarin samples and normal samples before and after freeze drying was observed using high and low ISI reference thromboplastins. I...

  17. Survival strategies in arctic ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. C. Tyler

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Arctic ungulates usually neither freeze nor starve to death despite the rigours of winter. Physiological adaptations enable them to survive and reproduce despite long periods of intense cold and potential undernutrition. Heat conservation is achieved by excellent insulation combined with nasal heat exchange. Seasonal variation in fasting metabolic rate has been reported in several temperate and sub-arctic species of ungulates and seems to occur in muskoxen. Surprisingly, there is no evidence for this in reindeer. Both reindeer and caribou normally maintain low levels of locomotor activity in winter. Light foot loads are important for reducing energy expenditure while walking over snow. The significance and control of selective cooling of the brain during hard exercise (e.g. escape from predators is discussed. Like other cervids, reindeer and caribou display a pronounced seasonal cycle of appetite and growth which seems to have an intrinsic basis. This has two consequences. First, the animals evidently survive perfectly well despite enduring negative energy balance for long periods. Second, loss of weight in winter is not necessarily evidence of undernutrition. The main role of fat reserves, especially in males, may be to enhance reproductive success. The principal role of fat reserves in winter appears to be to provide a supplement to, rather than a substitute for, poor quality winter forage. Fat also provides an insurance against death during periods of acute starvation.

  18. [Studies of viability and vitality after freezing of the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii: physiological preconditioning effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Silvina; Galvagno, Miguel Angel; Cerrutti, Patricia

    2009-06-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the vitality and viability of the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii after freezing/thawing and the physiological preconditioning effect on these properties. The results indicate that the specific growth rate (0.3/h(-1)) and biomass (2-3 x10(8)cells/ml) of S. boulardii obtained in flasks shaken at 28 degrees C and at 37 degrees C were similar. Batch cultures of the yeast in bioreactors using glucose or sugar-cane molasses as carbon sources, reached yields of 0.28 g biomass/g sugar consumed, after 10h incubation at 28 degrees C; the same results were obtained in fed batch fermentations. On the other hand, in batch cultures, the vitality of cells recovered during the exponential growth phase was greater than the vitality of cells from the stationary phase of growth. Vitality of cells from fed-batch fermentations was similar to that of stationary growing cells from batch fermentations. Survival to freezing at -20 degrees C and subsequent thawing of cells from batch cultures was 0.31% for cells in exponential phase of growth and 11.5% for cells in stationary phase. Pre-treatment of this yeast in media with water activity (a(w)) 0.98 increased the survival to freezing of S. boulardii cells stored at -20 degrees C for 2 months by 10 fold. Exposure of the yeast to media of reduced a(w) and/or freezing/thawing process negatively affected cell vitality. It was concluded that stress conditions studied herein decrease vitality of S. boulardii. Besides, the yeast strain studied presented good tolerance to bile salts even at low pH values. PMID:19631167

  19. Late Spring Freezes in Poland in Relation to Atmospheric Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ustrnul Zbigniew

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Late spring freeze events, a significant agroclimatic hazard, are investigated for Poland. Daily minimum air temperatures from 184 stations for the period 1951-2010 were used to analyze the frequency and conditional probability of late spring freezes. In addition, three classification schemes were employed to investigate the atmospheric circulation responsible for late spring freezes events. The findings suggest that knowledge of the airflow influencing late spring freezes can help to understand the complex historical trends and projected future changes in freeze risk for perennial crops

  20. Freeze-In Dark Matter with Displaced Signatures at Colliders

    OpenAIRE

    Co, Raymond T.; D'Eramo, Francesco; Hall, Lawrence J.; Pappadopulo, Duccio

    2015-01-01

    Dark matter, $X$, may be generated by new physics at the TeV scale during an early matter-dominated (MD) era that ends at temperature $T_R \\ll {\\rm TeV}$. Compared to the conventional radiation-dominated (RD) results, yields from both Freeze-Out and Freeze-In processes are greatly suppressed by dilution from entropy production, making Freeze-Out less plausible while allowing successful Freeze-In with a much larger coupling strength. Freeze-In is typically dominated by the de...

  1. The freezing and supercooling of garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Christian; Seignemartin, Violaine; James, Stephen J. [Food Refrigeration and Process Engineering Research Centre (FRPERC), University of Bristol, Churchill Building, Langford, Bristol BS40 5DU (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    This work shows that peeled garlic cloves demonstrate significant supercooling during freezing under standard conditions and can be stored at temperatures well below their freezing point (-2.7 C) without freezing. The nucleation point or 'metastable limit temperature' (the point at which ice crystal nucleation is initiated) of peeled garlic cloves was found to be between -7.7 and -14.6 C. Peeled garlic cloves were stored under static air conditions at temperatures between -6 and -9 C for up to 69 h without freezing, and unpeeled whole garlic bulbs and cloves were stored for 1 week at -6 C without freezing. (author)

  2. Valorisation of a water hyacinth in vermicomposting using an epigeic earthworm Perionyx excavatus in Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zirbes, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of vermicomposting water hyacinth (WH [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms] mixed with pig manure (PM in different proportions was tested using tropical composting earthworm Perionyx excavatus. Earthworms grew and reproduced normally until the incorporation of 50% WH in initial substrate. Higher water hyacinth proportions induced earthworms' mortality and significantly affected the numbers of hatchlings and cocoons produced during vermicomposting period. The influence of the application of compost/vermicompost obtained from water hyacinth mixed with pig manure was also studied on seeds germination. Only water hyacinth substrate with 25% WH + 75% PM enhanced seeds germination for Oryza sp. and Nasturtium officinale. At the end of experiments, a significant decrease was observed in organic carbon content for each tested substrates (S1 to S8, in total nitrogen (N for substrates containing 70% to 100% of water hyacinth (S5 to S3 and compost substrates (S1 and S2. An important decrease was also noted in total potassium for all vermicompost substrates (S3 to S8, in total magnesium for composted substrates (S1 and S2, and in C/N ratio for substrates containing 0% to 50% of water hyacinth (S8 to S6. Whereas total N in vermicompost containing 0% to 50% of water hyacinth (S8 to S6, total phosphorus, total potassium in composted substrates (S1 and S2, total magnesium in vermicompost substrates (S3 to S8 and C:N ratio in substrates containing 70% to 100% of water hyacinth (S5 to S3 expressed a significant increase after eight weeks. The result suggested that water hyacinth could be potentially useful as raw material in vermicomposting and biofertilizing if mixed with 75% of pig manure.

  3. The role of macrosymbiont genotypes and earthworms in the enrichment of soil with biological nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazaryuk, V. M.; Kalimullina, F. R.; Klenova, M. I.

    2010-06-01

    The specific features of the symbiotic apparatus and the accumulation of the plant biomass under the influence of different genotypes of peas ( Pisum sativum L.) on gray forest soils were studied in field conditions. With the alternation of legume and grass cultures, the genotypes of plants with supernodulation were found to affect the microbial nitrogen content in the soil to a greater extent than the concentration of ammonium and nitrate nitrogen. For the growing period, the N content in the microbial biomass increased, on the average, by 1.3 to 1.5 times. The consumption of nitrogen by the plants of the supernodular mutant K-301a was found to be 2.6 and 3.0 times greater than that by the pea plants of the Ramonskii-77 variety and of the K-562a line, respectively. During the after effect of the symbiotically bound air nitrogen, a significant uptake of this element was observed only by the oat plants grown after the K-56 2a. The nitrogen fixation by these plants was 1.3 times more active than that by the peas of the Ramonskii-77 variety. The importance of earthworms (Lumbricidae) and plant residues of different genotypes for the processes of mineralization of organic compounds and accumulation of ammonium, nitrate, and microbial nitrogen in the soils under optimal hydrothermal conditions was revealed. In the experiment, two maximums of the CO2 emission were recorded; they may be related to the periodic production of organic mass by the earthworms and the creation of favorable conditions for microbial activity by them. The accumulation of nitrate nitrogen (up to 150 mg/kg) in the soil was the greatest owing to the interaction between the earthworms and the residues of the supernodular K-301a mutant.

  4. Screening of actinomycetes from earthworm castings for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vijay, Kumar; Alpana, Bharti; Yogesh Kumar, Negi; Omprakash, Gusain; Piyush, Pandey; Gajraj Singh, Bisht.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycetes from earthworm castings were isolated and screened for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes. A total of 48 isolates were obtained from 12 samples of earthworm castings. Highest numbers of isolates were recovered from forest site (58.33 %) as compared to grassland (25%) a [...] nd agricultural land (16.66%). The growth patterns, mycelial coloration of abundance actinomycetes were documented. The dominant genera Identified by cultural, morphological and physiological characteristics were Streptomyces (60.41%) followed by Streptosporangium (10.41%), Saccharopolyspora (6.25%) and Nocardia (6.25%). Besides these, other genera like Micromonospora, Actinomadura, Microbispora, Planobispora and Nocardiopsis were also recovered but in low frequency. Among the 48 isolates, 52.08% were found active against one or more test organisms. Out of 25 active isolates 16% showed activity against bacterial, human fungal as well as phytopathogens. Among 48 isolates 38, 32, 21, 20, 16 and 14 produced enzyme amylase, caseinase, cellulase, gelatinase, xylanase and lipase respectively while 10 isolates produced all the enzymes. More interestingly 2, 3, and 1 isolates produced amylase, xylanase and lipase at 45°C respectively. In the view of its antimicrobial activity as well as enzyme production capability the genus Streptomyces was dominant. The isolate EWC 7(2) was most promising on the basis of its interesting antimicrobial activity and was identified as Streptomyces rochei. The results of these findings have increased the scope of finding industrially important actinomycetes from earthworm castings and these organisms could be promising sources for industrially important molecules or enzymes.

  5. Multilevel ecotoxicity assessment of polycyclic musk in the earthworm Eisenia fetida using traditional and molecular endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun; Xue, Shengguo; Zhou, Qixing; Xie, Xiujie

    2011-11-01

    The ecotoxicity assessment of galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) was investigated in the earthworm Eisenia fetida using traditional and novel molecular endpoints. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) for 7-day and 14-day exposures was 573.2 and 436.3 ?g g(-1) for AHTN, and 489.0 and 392.4 ?g g(-1) for HHCB, respectively. There was no observed significant effect on the growth rate of E. fetida after a 28-day exposure except that at the highest concentration (100 ?g g(-1)) of AHTN and HHCB, whereas a significant decrease of cocoon production was found in earthworms exposed to 50 and 100 ?g g(-1). To assess molecular-level effect, the expression of encoding antioxidant enzymes and stress protein genes were investigated upon sublethal exposures using the quantitative real time PCR assay. The expression level of SOD, CAT and calreticulin genes was up-regulated significantly, while the level of annetocin (ANN) and Hsp70 gene expression was down-regulated in E. fetida. Importantly, the level of ANN expression had a significant positive correlation with the reproduction rate of earthworms. Furthermore, the lowest observed effect concentration (LOECs) of ANN expression level was 3 ?g g(-1) for AHTN and 10 ?g g(-1) for HHCB, suggesting that ANN gene expression can serve as a more sensitive indicator of exposure to AHTN and HHCB than traditional endpoints such as cocoon production. The transcriptional responses of these genes may provide early warning molecular biomarkers for identifying contaminant exposure, and the data obtained from this study will contribute to better understand the toxicological effect of AHTN and HHCB. PMID:21789675

  6. Investigating the Multiple Food Sources and N Chemistry of Invasive Earthworms at the Rhinelander, WI, Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top, S. M.; Filley, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 can directly and indirectly alter biogeochemical cycling in forest ecosystems through changes to plant productivity, tissue chemistry, and associated feedbacks to microbial and faunal communities. At the Rhinelander free air CO2 enrichment site (FACE), Rhinelander WI, we examined the consumption and movement of plant tissue and soil by invasive earthworm species using a multi-proxy stable isotope and amino acid chemistry analysis of plant and soil, as well as fecal matter extracted from invasive earthworms present at the site. Using an isotopic mixing model that exploits the 13C-depleted CO2 source and a previous 15N labeling in the FACE experiment, we determined potential sources to the earthworm fecal matter and the movement of amino compounds. For epigeic, surface dwelling earthworms, the stable isotope modeling showed the largest contribution to the C and N in fecal matter was from leaf litter (up to 80%) which was depleted in amino acid C under elevated CO2 conditions. Fecal matter from the endogeic, mineral soil dwelling earthworms was primarily derived from 0-5 cm soil (up to 56%) and fine root tissue (up to 70%). Additionally, amino acid C in this group of earthworms had a proportionately greater relative concentration compared to the epigeic species and the 0-5cm soil. Here we demonstrate that earthworms are incorporating multiple sources (leaf litter, root, and soil) into their fecal matter, which then get deposited throughout the soil profile, where nutrients could become available for plant use.

  7. Transcriptomic analysis of RDX and TNT interactive sublethal effects in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    OpenAIRE

    Deng Youping; Inouye Laura S; Guan Xin; Gong Ping; Pirooznia Mehdi; Perkins Edward J

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Explosive compounds such as TNT and RDX are recalcitrant contaminants often found co-existing in the environment. In order to understand the joint effects of TNT and RDX on earthworms, an important ecological and bioindicator species at the molecular level, we sampled worms (Eisenia fetida) exposed singly or jointly to TNT (50 mg/kg soil) and RDX (30 mg/kg soil) for 28 days and profiled gene expression in an interwoven loop designed microarray experiment using a 4k-cDNA ar...

  8. Remarks on the earthworm genus Helodrilus Hoffmeister, 1845 with new epigean and subterranean records (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tímea Szederjesi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The earthworm genus Helodrilus Hoffmeister, 1845 is shortly reviewed. Its special semi-aquatic and subterranean way of life and its consequences to the taxonomy of the genus is discussed. Several new occurrences of some little-known Helodrilus species are given including new country records of H. oculatus for Hungary and H. putricola putricola for Portugal. Examining a topotype of H. hachiojii revealed presence of saccular nephridial bladders consequently, here we propose its transposal to the genus Eisenia as E. hachiojii (Blakemore, 2007 comb. nov.

  9. Impact of earthworms on trace element solubility in contaminated mine soils amended with green waste compost

    OpenAIRE

    Sizmur, Tom; Palumbo-roe, Barbara; Hodson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    The common practice of remediating metal contaminated mine soils with compost can reduce metal mobility and promote revegetation, but the effect of introduced or colonising earthworms on metal solubility is largely unknown. We amended soils from an As/Cu (1150 mgAs kg?1 and 362 mgCu kg?1) and Pb/Zn mine (4550 mgPb kg?1 and 908 mgZn kg?1) with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% compost and then introduced Lumbricus terrestris. Porewater was sampled and soil extracted with water to determine trace el...

  10. Distribution of Heteromurus nitidus (Hexapoda, Collembola) according to soil acidity: interactions with earthworms and predator pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Salmon, Sandrine; Ponge, Jean-franc?ois

    1999-01-01

    Culture (8 weeks, in sieved fresh humus) and choice (16 weeks in compartmented boxes containing fresh or defaunated humus, or 5 days on compacted humus) experiments at varying pH values demonstrated that the soil-dwelling Collembolan Heteromurus nitidus (Entomobryomorpha) can live and even prefer humus with pH < 5.0, contrary to results of field studies. Choice experiments on moder (pH 3.9) and calcic mull (pH 7.8) showed that H. nitidus was significantly attracted by the earthworms Allolobop...

  11. Burrowing activity of the geophagous earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus (Oligochaeta: Glossoscolecidae) in the presence of charcoal

    OpenAIRE

    Topoliantz, Ste?phanie; Ponge, Jean-franc?ois

    2003-01-01

    The geophagous earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus is frequently found in burnt tropical soils where charcoal plays an important role in soil fertility. We studied the burrowing activity of this species in two-dimensional (2D) microcosms with one half-filled with soil and the other with a 3:2 (w/w) mixture of charcoal and soil (CHAR + soil). We measured the volume of empty burrows and those filled with black or brown casts in both substrates, as well as the initial and final fresh weights of th...

  12. Evaluation for Hsp70 as a biomarker of effect of pollutants on the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    OpenAIRE

    Nadeau, Denis; Corneau, Sophie; Plante, Isabelle; Morrow, Geneviève; Tanguay, Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    Induction of heat shock proteins (Hsps) is often associated with a cellular response to a harmful stress or to adverse life conditions. The main aims of the present study were (1) to assess if stress-induced Hsp70 could be used to monitor exposure of the earthworm species Lumbricus terrestris to various soil pollutants, (2) to assess the specificity of pollutants in their tissue targeting and in Hsp70 induction, and (3) to evaluate if dose-response relationships could be established and if th...

  13. Study of Transient Nuclei near Freezing

    CERN Document Server

    Isobe, Masaharu

    2010-01-01

    The molasses tail in dense hard core fluids is investigated by extensive event-driven molecular dynamics simulation through the orientational autocorrelation functions. Near the fluid-solid phase transition, there exist three regimes in the relaxation of the pair orientational autocorrelation function, namely the kinetic, molasses (stretched exponential), and diffusional power decay. The density dependence of both the molasses and diffusional power regimes are evaluated and the latter compares with theoretical predictions in three dimensions. The largest cluster at the freezing density of only a few sphere diameter in size persist for only about 30 picoseconds (~ 2.8 x 10^{-11}[s]). The most striking observation through the bond orientatinal order parameter is the dramatic increase of the cluster size as the freezing density is approached.

  14. Study of Transient Nuclei near Freezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Masaharu; Alder, Berni

    2011-03-01

    The molasses tail in dense hard core fluids is investigated by extensive event-driven molecular dynamics simulation through the orientational autocorrelation functions. Near the fluid- solid phase transition, there exist three regimes in the relaxation of the pair orientational autocorrelation function, namely the kinetic, molasses (stretched exponential), and diffusional power decay. The density dependence of both the molasses and diffusional power regimes are evaluated and the latter compares with theoretical predictions in three dimensions. The largest cluster at the freezing density of only a few sphere diameter in size persist for only about 30 picoseconds (˜2.8 x10-11[s]). The most striking observation through the bond orientatinal order parameter is the dramatic increase of the cluster size as the freezing density is approached.

  15. Drying a tuberculosis vaccine without freezing

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Yun-ling; Sampson, Samantha; Germishuizen, Willem Andreas; Goonesekera, Sunali; Caponetti, Giovanni; Sadoff, Jerry; Bloom, Barry R.; Edwards, David

    2007-01-01

    With the increasing incidence of tuberculosis and drug resistant disease in developing countries due to HIV/AIDS, there is a need for vaccines that are more effective than the present bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine. We demonstrate that BCG vaccine can be dried without traditional freezing and maintained with remarkable refrigerated and room-temperature stability for months through spray drying. Studies with a model Mycobacterium (Mycobacterium smegmatis) revealed that by removing s...

  16. Freeze-dried tungsten heavy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tungsten heavy alloy powders were produced from freeze-dried aqueous solutions of ammonium metatungstate and, primarily, sulfates of Ni and Fe. The freeze-dried salts were calcined and hydrogen reduced to form very fine, homogenous, low-density, W heavy alloy powders having a coral-like structure with elements of approximately 0.1 ?m in diameter. The powders yield high green strength and sinterability. Tungsten heavy alloy powders of 70%, 90%, and 97% W were prepared by freeze drying, compacted, and solid-state (SS) sintered to full density at temperatures as low as 1200 degree C and also at conventional liquid-phase (LP) sintering temperatures. Solid-state sintered microstructures contained polygonal W grains with high contiguity; the matrix did not coat and separate the W grains to form low-contiguity, high-ductility structures. Liquid-phase sintered microstructures were very conventional in appearance, having W spheroids of low contiguity. All of these materials were found to be brittle. High levels of residual S accompanied by segregation of the S to all the microstructural interfaces are principally responsible for the brittleness; problems with S could be eliminated by using Fe and Ni nitrates rather than the sulfates. Unusually high hardness, approaching 48 HRC, was obtained from sintering at 1130 degree C. As-sintered hardness decreases as grain size increases with sintering temperature during SS sintering and with time during LP sintering. 8 refs., 9 figs., e during LP sintering. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Benchmarking numerical freeze/thaw models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühaak, Wolfram; Anbergen, Hauke; Molson, John; Grenier, Christophe; Sass, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    The modeling of freezing and thawing of water in porous media is of increasing interest, and for which very different application areas exist. For instance, the modeling of permafrost regression with respect to climate change issues is one area, while others include geotechnical applications in tunneling and for borehole heat exchangers which operate at temperatures below the freezing point. The modeling of these processes requires the solution of a coupled non-linear system of partial differential equations for flow and heat transport in space and time. Different code implementations have been developed in the past. Analytical solutions exist only for simple cases. Consequently, an interest has arisen in benchmarking different codes with analytical solutions, experiments and purely numerical results, similar to the long-standing DECOVALEX and the more recent "Geothermal Code Comparison" activities. The name for this freezing/ thawing benchmark consortium is INTERFROST. In addition to the well-known so-called Lunardini solution for a 1D case (case T1), two different 2D problems will be presented, one which represents melting of a frozen inclusion (case TH2) and another which represents the growth or thaw of permafrost around a talik (case TH3). These talik regions are important for controlling groundwater movement within a mainly frozen ground. First results of the different benchmark results will be shown and discussed.

  18. Interactions between land-use history and earthworms control gross rates of soil methane production in an overwintering pasture.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bradley, R.L.; Chro?áková, Alica; Elhottová, Dana; Šimek, Miloslav

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 53, October (2012), s. 64-71. ISSN 0038-0717 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA526/09/1570 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : earthworms * gross methane transformation rates * isotope dilution * land-use history Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.654, year: 2012

  19. Genotoxic endpoints in the earthworms sub-lethal assay to evaluate natural soils contaminated by metals and radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenia andrei was exposed, for 56 days, to a contaminated soil from an abandoned uranium mine and to the natural reference soil LUFA 2.2. The organisms were sampled after 0, 1, 2, 7, 14 and 56 days of exposure, to assess metals bioaccumulation, coelomocytes DNA integrity and cytotoxicity. Radionuclides bioaccumulation and growth were also determined at 0 h, 14 and 56 days of exposure. Results have shown the bioaccumulation of metals and radionuclides, as well as, growth reduction, DNA damages and cytotoxicity in earthworms exposed to contaminated soil. The usefulness of the comet assay and flow cytometry, to evaluate the toxicity of contaminants such as metals and radionuclides in earthworms are herein reported. We also demonstrated that DNA strand breakage and immune cells frequency are important endpoints to be employed in the earthworm reproduction assay, for the evaluation of soil geno and cytotoxicity, as part of the risk assessment of contaminated areas. This is the first study that integrates DNA damage and cytotoxicity evaluation, growth and bioaccumulation of metals and radionuclides in a sub lethal assay, for earthworms exposed to soil contaminated with metals and radionuclides.

  20. Genotoxic endpoints in the earthworms sub-lethal assay to evaluate natural soils contaminated by metals and radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Joana I; Pereira, Ruth O; Silva, Ana C; Morgado, José M; Carvalho, Fernando P; Oliveira, João M; Malta, Margarida P; Paiva, Artur A; Mendo, Sónia A; Gonçalves, Fernando J

    2011-02-15

    Eisenia andrei was exposed, for 56 days, to a contaminated soil from an abandoned uranium mine and to the natural reference soil LUFA 2.2. The organisms were sampled after 0, 1, 2, 7, 14 and 56 days of exposure, to assess metals bioaccumulation, coelomocytes DNA integrity and cytotoxicity. Radionuclides bioaccumulation and growth were also determined at 0 h, 14 and 56 days of exposure. Results have shown the bioaccumulation of metals and radionuclides, as well as, growth reduction, DNA damages and cytotoxicity in earthworms exposed to contaminated soil. The usefulness of the comet assay and flow cytometry, to evaluate the toxicity of contaminants such as metals and radionuclides in earthworms are herein reported. We also demonstrated that DNA strand breakage and immune cells frequency are important endpoints to be employed in the earthworm reproduction assay, for the evaluation of soil geno and cytotoxicity, as part of the risk assessment of contaminated areas. This is the first study that integrates DNA damage and cytotoxicity evaluation, growth and bioaccumulation of metals and radionuclides in a sub lethal assay, for earthworms exposed to soil contaminated with metals and radionuclides. PMID:21146299

  1. Effects of aluminum and moisture levels on aluminum bioaccumulation and protein content in the earthworm Octodrilus complanatus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D, Bilalis; I, Tzortzi; E, Vavoulidou; A, Karkanis; N, Emmanouel; A, Efthimiadou; N, Katsenios; S, Patsiali; L, Dellaporta.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effects of soil aluminum levels and moisture content on aluminum (Al) bioaccumulation and protein content in the earthworm (Octodrilus complanatus). The experimental design was a completely randomized block with 2 factors (aluminum content [C-0: [...] 0 mg kg-1, C-1: 1000 mg kg-1, C-2: 2000 mg kg¹?, C-3: 3000 mg kg¹?] and moisture level [M1: 100% of soil water capacity, M2: 60% of soil water capacity] and 3 replications. The lowest pH was noted in the C-0 treatment. There were no significant differences in the electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity or total nitrogen in soil between the aluminum treatments. Moreover, there were no significant differences in soil properties between the moisture treatments. The highest soil Al content was noted in the C-3 treatment. No earthworm mortality was observed in soil contaminated with Al. Moreover, the highest aluminum content in earthworms was observed in the C-3 treatment. The aluminum content in the earthworms was significantly positively correlated with the aluminum content in the soil (r=0.984***, p

  2. Effects of Particle Size on Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability of Copper to Earthworms ( Eisenia fetida ) Exposed to Copper Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Unrine; O Tsyusko; S Hunyadi; J Judy; P Bertsch

    2011-12-31

    To investigate the role of particle size on the oxidation, bioavailability, and adverse effects of manufactured Cu nanoparticles (NPs) in soils, we exposed the earthworm Eisenia fetida to a series of concentrations of commercially produced NPs labeled as 20- to 40-nm or <100-nm Cu in artificial soil media. Effects on growth, mortality, reproduction, and expression of a variety of genes associated with metal homeostasis, general stress, and oxidative stress were measured. We also used X-ray absorption spectroscopy and scanning X-ray fluorescence microscopy to characterize changes in chemical speciation and spatial distribution of the NPs in soil media and earthworm tissues. Exposure concentrations of Cu NPs up to 65 mg kg{sup -1} caused no adverse effects on ecologically relevant endpoints. Increases in metallothionein expression occurred at concentrations exceeding 20 mg kg-1 of Cu NPs and concentrations exceeding 10 mg kg{sup -1} of CuSO{sub 4} Based on the relationship of Cu tissue concentration to metallothionein expression level and the spatial distribution and chemical speciation of Cu in the tissues, we conclude that Cu ions and oxidized Cu NPs were taken up by the earthworms. This study suggests that oxidized Cu NPs may enter food chains from soil but that adverse effects in earthworms are likely to occur only at relatively high concentrations (>65 mg Cu kg{sup -1} soil).

  3. Genotoxic endpoints in the earthworms sub-lethal assay to evaluate natural soils contaminated by metals and radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourenco, Joana I., E-mail: joanalourenco@ua.pt [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, Ruth O., E-mail: ruthp@ua.pt [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Silva, Ana C., E-mail: ana.cmj@ua.pt [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Morgado, Jose M., E-mail: jmtmorgado@gmail.com [Centro de Histocompatibilidade do Centro, Praceta Prof. Mota Pinto, Edificio S. Jeronimo, 4o piso, Apartado 9041, 3001-301 Coimbra (Portugal); Carvalho, Fernando P., E-mail: fernando.carvalho@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Oliveira, Joao M., E-mail: joaomota@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Malta, Margarida P., E-mail: margm@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Paiva, Artur A., E-mail: apaiva@histocentro.min-saude.pt [Centro de Histocompatibilidade do Centro, Praceta Prof. Mota Pinto, Edificio S. Jeronimo, 4o piso, Apartado 9041, 3001-301 Coimbra (Portugal); Mendo, Sonia A., E-mail: smendo@ua.pt [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Goncalves, Fernando J., E-mail: fjmg@ua.pt [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2011-02-15

    Eisenia andrei was exposed, for 56 days, to a contaminated soil from an abandoned uranium mine and to the natural reference soil LUFA 2.2. The organisms were sampled after 0, 1, 2, 7, 14 and 56 days of exposure, to assess metals bioaccumulation, coelomocytes DNA integrity and cytotoxicity. Radionuclides bioaccumulation and growth were also determined at 0 h, 14 and 56 days of exposure. Results have shown the bioaccumulation of metals and radionuclides, as well as, growth reduction, DNA damages and cytotoxicity in earthworms exposed to contaminated soil. The usefulness of the comet assay and flow cytometry, to evaluate the toxicity of contaminants such as metals and radionuclides in earthworms are herein reported. We also demonstrated that DNA strand breakage and immune cells frequency are important endpoints to be employed in the earthworm reproduction assay, for the evaluation of soil geno and cytotoxicity, as part of the risk assessment of contaminated areas. This is the first study that integrates DNA damage and cytotoxicity evaluation, growth and bioaccumulation of metals and radionuclides in a sub lethal assay, for earthworms exposed to soil contaminated with metals and radionuclides.

  4. The effect of earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus) and simulated tillage on soil organic carbon in a long-term microcosm experiment.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Špaldo?ová, A.; Fri?ová, K.; Bartuška, M.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 78, November (2014), s. 58-64. ISSN 0038-0717 Grant ostatní: GA ?R(CZ) GAP504/12/1288 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : carbon sequestration * earthworms * ergosterol * litter decomposition * microbial respiration * soil processes Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 4.410, year: 2013

  5. The effect of biochar and its interaction with the earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus on soil microbial community structure in tropical soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Liang, Chenfei; Fu, Shenglei; Mendez, Ana; Gasco, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Biochar effects on soil microbial abundance and community structure are keys for understanding the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and organic matter turnover, but are poorly understood, in particular in tropical areas. We conducted a greenhouse experiment in which we added biochars produced from four different feedstocks [sewage sludge (B1), deinking sewage sludge (B2), Miscanthus (B3) and pine wood (B4)] at a rate of 3% (w/w) to two tropical soils (an Acrisol and a Ferralsol) planted with proso millet (Panicum milliaceum L.). The interactive effect of the addition of earthworms was also addressed. For this purpose we utilized soil samples from pots with or without the earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus, which is a ubiquitous earthworm in tropical soils. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) measurements showed that biochar type, soil type and the presence of earthworms significantly affected soil microbial community size and structure. In general, biochar addition affected fungal but not bacterial populations. Overall, biochars rich in ash (B1 and B2) resulted in a marked increase in the fungi to bacteria ratio, while this ratio was unaltered after addition of biochars with a high fixed carbon content (B3 and B4). Our study remarked the contrasting effect that both, biochar prepared from different materials and macrofauna, can have on soil microbial community. Such changes might end up with ecosystem-level effects. PMID:25898344

  6. The effect of microbial environment on the innate immunity of two closely related earthworm species Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvo?ák, Ji?í; Man?íková, Veronika; Pižl, Václav; Elhottová, Dana; Šilerová, Marcela; Roubalová, Radka; Škanta, František; Procházková, Petra; Bilej, Martin

    Athens : United States Department of Agriculture , 2014. s. 26. [International Symposium on Earthworm Ecology /10./. 22.06.2014-27.06.2014, Athens] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : microbial environment * innate immunity * Eisenia andrei * Eisenia fetida Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  7. The effects of an endemic earthworm Allolobophora hrabei on soil and soil organisms in steppe fragments of central Europe.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav; Elhottová, Dana; Jirout, Ji?í; Starý, Josef; Nováková, Alena; Šustr, Vladimír

    Athens : United States Department of Agriculture , 2014. s. 137. [International Symposium on Earthworm Ecology /10./. 22.06.2014-27.06.2014, Athens] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Allolobophora hrabei * soil organisms * steppe fragments of central Europe Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  8. The Effect of Biochar and Its Interaction with the Earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus on Soil Microbial Community Structure in Tropical Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Liang, Chenfei; Fu, Shenglei; Mendez, Ana; Gasco, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Biochar effects on soil microbial abundance and community structure are keys for understanding the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and organic matter turnover, but are poorly understood, in particular in tropical areas. We conducted a greenhouse experiment in which we added biochars produced from four different feedstocks [sewage sludge (B1), deinking sewage sludge (B2), Miscanthus (B3) and pine wood (B4)] at a rate of 3% (w/w) to two tropical soils (an Acrisol and a Ferralsol) planted with proso millet (Panicum milliaceum L.). The interactive effect of the addition of earthworms was also addressed. For this purpose we utilized soil samples from pots with or without the earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus, which is a ubiquitous earthworm in tropical soils. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) measurements showed that biochar type, soil type and the presence of earthworms significantly affected soil microbial community size and structure. In general, biochar addition affected fungal but not bacterial populations. Overall, biochars rich in ash (B1 and B2) resulted in a marked increase in the fungi to bacteria ratio, while this ratio was unaltered after addition of biochars with a high fixed carbon content (B3 and B4). Our study remarked the contrasting effect that both, biochar prepared from different materials and macrofauna, can have on soil microbial community. Such changes might end up with ecosystem-level effects. PMID:25898344

  9. Early-phase immunodetection of metallothionein and heat shock proteins in extruded earthworm coelomocytes after dermal exposure to metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides direct evidence that earthworm immune cells, coelomocytes, are exposed to bio-reactive quantities of metals within 3 days after dermal exposure, and that they respond by upregulating metallothionein (MT) and heat shock protein (HSP70, HSP72) expression. Indirect support for the hypothesis that coelomocytes are capable of trafficking metals was also obtained. Coelomocytes were expelled from adult individuals of Eisenia fetida after 3-day exposure either to metal ions (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) or to distilled water (controls) via filter papers. The number of coelomocytes was significantly decreased after Cu, Pb, or Cd treatment. Cytospin preparations of coelomocytes were subjected to immunoperoxidase staining with monoclonal antibodies against human heat shock proteins (HSP70 or HSP72), or rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against metallothionein 2 (w-MT2) of Lumbricus rubellus. Applied antibodies detected the respective proteins of E. fetida and revealed that the expression of HSP70, HSP72 and w-MT2 proteins was either induced or significantly enhanced in coelomocytes from metal-exposed animals. In conclusion, stress protein expression in earthworm coelomocytes may be used as sensitive biomarkers of metal contaminations. Further experimentation is needed for quantitative analysis of kinetics of metal-induced stress protein expression in earthworm coelomocytes. - Metals upregulate stress response proteins in earthworm coelomocytesrm coelomocytes

  10. Relationship between the activity of endemic earthworm Allolobophora hrabei and microbial diversity in soils of steppe fragments of central Europe.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elhottová, Dana; Jirout, Ji?í; Chro?áková, Alica; Pižl, Václav

    Dijon : INRA, 2014. s. 333. [Global Soil Biodiversity Conference. Assessing soil biodiversity and its role for ecosystem services /1./. 02.12.2014-05.12.2014, Dijon] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : microbiota * interactions * earthworm * steppe ecosystem Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  11. Analysis of FAME for two species of earthworms Allolobophora caliginosa Savigny and Pheretima hawayana Rosa (Annelida-Oligochaeta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam El-Din Mohamed Omar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of fatty acid (FA is one of the most commonly used tools for investigating microbial populations in ecological studies. Fatty acids can be extracted and esterified to form fatty acid methyl esters (FAME when analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, the resulting profile contains some microbial biomarkers. The aim of the present study to analysis FAME present in two species of earthworms exhibit the same environment. The thin layer chromatography of earthworm Allolobophora caliginosa Savigny showed three major spots corresponding to FAME while that of earthworm Pheretima hawayana Rosa showed two major spots. The GC-MS analysis of Allolobophora caliginosa Savigny extract showed the presence of at least 23 peaks, only two peaks were identified from their Rt and Ms spectrum, hexadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecenoic acid methyl ester. While the chromatogram of Pheretima hawayana Rosa extract showed at least 20 peaks, five of them were identified; butanedioic acid dimethyl ester, pentadecanoic acid 14-methyl ester, 2-hydroxy-hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, 9-octadecenoic acid methyl ester and octadecanoic acid methyl ester. In conclusion, in spite of the two species of earthworms from the same environment, but their content of FAME was different and that may explain why the biological activity of the whole body extract was different.

  12. Distribution of aged atrazine related 14C-residues in natural soil following incubation with the earthworm Apporectodea caliginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Kostas; Semple, Kirk; Jones, Kevin

    2010-05-01

    The distribution and localisation of atrazine related 14C-residues into the different physical fractions of soil may reveal information on processes taking place in soil. Soils amended with 14C-atrazine, were aged for 22 years under environmental conditions in a lysimeter in Germany. The soil was sampled and subjected to physical and chemical fractionation before and after incubation for 7 days with the earthworm Apporectodea caliginosa. No significant change in the soil physical and chemical fractionation of the atrazine related 14C-residues and organic carbon was observed in this study due to the activity of the A. caliginosa. The smaller size soil fractions (Microaggregates and Colloids) were highly enriched with aged atrazine 14C-residues equivalents and organic carbon. Also the humic acid extracted using a simple alkaline extraction have were also enriched with aged atrazine 14C-residues equivalents. The low organic carbon content of the soil, the absence of relatively fresh organic matter and the long ageing time might explain the limited bioavailability of the atrazine related 14C-residues to the earthworm. This finding is of particular importance given that the soil used here was aged under natural environmental conditions compared to laboratory studies. Earthworms are important species in soil ecology and thus, the question of the bioavailability of aged pesticide residues to such organism is critical. The bioavalability of the atrazine 14C-residues equivalent was absent in the current study illustrating that those aged residues posed minimal risk to earthworms.

  13. Non-intentional inoculation of earthworms during forest reclamation of post mining sites change soil development and arthropod diversity.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan

    Durban : International Convention Centre, 2008. [ICE 2008. International Congress of Entomology /23./. 06.07.2008-12.07.2008, Durban] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : non-intentional inoculation of earthworms * forest reclamation * arthropod diversity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  14. Is there a relationship between earthworm energy reserves and metal availability after exposure to field-contaminated soils?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generic biomarkers are needed to assess environmental risks in metal polluted soils. We assessed the strength of the relationship between earthworm energy reserves and metal availability under conditions of cocktail of metals at low doses and large range of soil parameters. Aporrectodea caliginosa was exposed in laboratory to a panel of soils differing in Cd, Pb and Zn total and available (CaCl2 and EDTA-extractable) concentrations, and in soil texture, pH, CEC and organic-C. Glycogen, protein and lipid contents were recorded in exposed worms. Glycogen contents were not linked to the explaining variables considered. Variable selection identified CaCl2 extractable metals concentrations and soil texture as the main factors affecting protein and lipid contents. The results showed opposite effects of Pb and Zn, high inter-individual variability of biomarkers and weak relationships with easily extractable metals. Our results support the lack of genericity of energy reserves in earthworms exposed to field-contaminated soils. - Highlights: • Energy reserves were quantified in earthworms exposed to a wide panel of field soils. • Protein and lipid contents were related to CaCl2 extractable metals. • Soil texture affected protein and lipid contents. • Energy reserves were highly variable inter-individually. - Earthworm energy reserves response to low doses of available metals is not generic

  15. Tissue distribution, isozyme abundance and sensitivity to chlorpyrifos-oxon of carboxylesterases in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory-based study was conducted to determine the basal carboxylesterase (CbE) activity in different tissues of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, and its sensitivity to the organophosphate (OP) pesticide chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPx). Carboxylesterase activity was found in the pharynx, crop, gizzard, anterior intestine, wall muscle and reproductive tissues of L. terrestris, and multiple tissue-specific isozymes were observed by native gel electrophoresis. Esterase activity and sensitivity to CPx inhibition varied on a tissue- and substrate-specific basis, suggesting isoforms-specific selectivity to OP-mediated inhibition. Three practical issues are recommended for the use of earthworm CbE activity as a biomarker of pesticide exposure: (i) CbE should be measured using several routine substrates, (ii) it should be determined in selected tissues instead of whole organism homogenate, and (iii) earthworm CbE activity should be used in conjuncture with other common biomarkers (e.g., ChE) within a multibiomarker approach to assess field exposure of OPs, and potentially other agrochemicals. - The measurement of carboxylesterase inhibition in earthworm is a sensitive and complementary biomarker of pesticide exposure

  16. Survival strategies of freshwater insects in cold environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria LENCIONI

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available At high latitudes and altitudes, ice formation is a major variable affecting survival of freshwater fauna and hence the abundance and composition of invertebrate communities. Freezing, but also desiccation and anoxia, are lethal threats to all life stages of aquatic insects, from the eggs to the adults. During cold periods, the aquatic stages commonly remain in or move to a portion of the water body that will not freeze or dry (e.g., deep waters of lakes, springs and hyporheic zone where they can remain active. Less frequently they migrate to habitats that will freeze at the onset of winter. Insects have developed a complex of strategies to survive at their physiological temperature minimum, comprising (a morphological (melanism, reduction in size, hairiness/pubescence, brachyptery and aptery, (b behavioural (basking in the sun, changes in feeding and mating habit, parthenogenesis, polyploidy, ovoviviparity, habitat selection and cocoon building, (c ecological (extension of development to several years by quiescence or diapause and reduction of the number of generations per year, (d physiological and biochemical (freezing tolerance and freezing avoidance adaptations. Most species develop a combination of these survival strategies that can be different in the aquatic and terrestrial phase. Freezing avoidance and freezing tolerance may be accompanied by diapause. Both cold hardiness and diapause manifest during the unfavourable season and: (i involve storage of food resources (commonly glycogen and lipids; (ii are under hormonal control (ecdysone and juvenile hormone; (iii involve a depression or suppression of the oxidative metabolism with mitochondrial degradation. However, where the growing season is reduced to a few weeks, insects may develop cold hardiness without entering diapause, maintaining in the haemolymph a high concentration of Thermal Hysteris Proteins (THPs for the entire year and a slow but continuous growth. A synthesis of literature regarding adaptation strategies in aquatic insects is presented, highlighting the scarcity of information on freshwater insects from Alpine regions. Most references are on Diptera Chironomidae from North America and North Europe. Some recent findings on aquatic insects from Italian Alpine streams are also presented.

  17. Trade-offs between nitrous oxide emission and C-sequestration in the soil: the role of earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Groenigen, J.; Lubbers, I. M.; Giannopoulos, G.

    2008-12-01

    The rapidly rising concentrations of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere has spurred the interest in soils as a potential carbon (C) sink. However, there are many reports indicating that C- sequestration is often negated by elevated emissions of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). It is not yet clear what the driving factors behind this trade-off are, nor how it can be avoided. We suggest that earthworm activity may be partly responsible for the trade-off. Earthworm activity is increasingly recognized as being beneficial to C-sequestration through stabilization of SOM. We report experimental results suggesting that they can also lead to strongly elevated N2O-emissions. In a first experiment, dried grass residue (Lolium perenne) was applied at the top of a loamy soil or mixed through the soil, and N2O-emission was followed for three months. Treatments included presence of the epigeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus and the anecic earthworm Aporrectodea longa. Cumulative N2O-emissions increased significantly for both species. The strongest effect was measured for L. rubellus, where N2O-emissions significantly increased from 55.7 to 789.1 micro g N2O-N kg- 1 soil. This effect was only observed when residue was applied on top of the soil. In a second experiment we determined the effect of epigeic (L. rubellus) and endogeic (Aporrectodea caliginosa) earthworms on N2O-emissions for two different soil types (loam and sand) in the presence of 15N-labeled radish residue (Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus). Both species showed significant increases in N2O-emissions, which differed with residue application method and soil type. N2O- emissions were generally larger in loamy soils and the strongest effect was measured for A. caliginosa when residue was mixed into the soil, increasing emissions from 1350.1 to 2223.2 micro g N2O-N kg- 1 soil. L. rubellus only resulted in elevated N2O-emissions when residue was applied on top. These studies make it clear that elevated N2O-emissions due to earthworm activity is a widespread phenomenon, and that the nature of earthworm-induced effect is largely controlled by its feeding habit and interactions with other species. Our results contribute to understanding the important but intricate relations between (functional) biodiversity and the soil greenhouse gas balance.

  18. Earthworm cast production as a new behavioural biomarker for toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is currently a lack of ecotoxicity tests adapted to earthworm species of higher ecological relevance and whose endpoints could be directly related to their ecological role in the soil. We propose a new and relatively simple ecotoxicity test based on the estimation of cast production (CP) by Lumbricus terrestris under laboratory conditions. CP was found to be linearly correlated to earthworm biomass and to be greatly influenced by soil water content. Azinphos-methyl had no effect on CP at all the concentrations tested. Significant decreases were observed at the normal application rate for other pesticides with (imidacloprid, carbaryl, methomyl) or without (ethyl-parathion and chlorpyrifos-ethyl) a clear concentration-effect response. For the highest concentration tested, reduction in CP varied between 35 and 67%. CP is straightforward and rapidly measured and ecologically meaningful. We thus believe it to be of great use as an endpoint in ecotoxicity testing. - Cast production of Lumbricus terrestris is affected by pesticides under laboratory conditions.

  19. Riboflavin storage in earthworm chloragocytes/eleocytes in an eco-immunology perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Plytycz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Earthworm immune-competent cells, celomocytes, are easily retrieved for ex vivo analyses. Celomocytes consist of amebocytes and species-specific numbers of chloragocyte-derived eleocytes, the latter accumulating free riboflavin in their chloragosome inclusions. Autofluorescent eleocytes are abundant in Eisenia sp., Allolobophora sp., Dendrobaena sp., Dendrodrilus sp., and Octolasion sp., and their numbers and riboflavin contents are affected in species-specific ways by soil quality, as observed by flow cytometry and spectrofluorimetry. The most striking results were obtained in the case of epigeic Dendrodrilus rubidus; in unpolluted soil its riboflavin content was high, but when the earthworm was resident in metalliferous (Pb/Zn- or Ni-polluted soils, or transferred experimentally from unpolluted to the polluted field soils the riboflavin content was significantly reduced. Such extreme alterations in a cohort of immune-competent cells were not observed in E. andrei, D. veneta, or Al. chlorotica transferred into metalliferous soils. Worms from these three species were also transferred to Zn/Pb/Cd-polluted and unpolluted soils from Southern Poland. It was observed that species-specific changes in riboflavin content occurred not only due to metal pollution, but also other edaphic factors, possibly including organic matter content/quality. Hypothetically, riboflavin status (storage/mobilization may depend on parasite-immune system balance, which is disrupted by soil-derived stressors, including metals.

  20. Earthworm nano?ecotoxicology: Towards an integrated approach in toxicity testing of metal nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, Yuya; Pedersen, Henrik

    Manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) belong to an emerging class of potential environmental pollutants. Of particular interest are the characteristics of NP toxicity under different exposure conditions e.g. cell culture, aquatic or soil media. NPs are thought to behave differently depending on the media making it challenging to establish links between cause and effect. For example, natural organic matter such as humic acid is known to interact with inorganic NPs changing the surface properties and thus their colloidal stability, which cannot be seen in deionised water media. Earthworms are versatile indicator organisms that can be tested in a wide range of different exposure media providing the possibility for a mechanistic insight into exposure testing of NPs. Here we report characterisation of Ag-NPs and their toxicity to the earthworm Eisenia fetida based on soil and aquatic exposures as well as direct injection. The details of challenges regarding the methodology, including stabilisation of Ag-NPs in physiological salt solutions, are discussed. Common problems in discriminating release of free ion Ag+ from Ag-NP in environmental media and in vivo are also addressed.

  1. Uptake kinetics of metals by the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to field-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahmani, Johanne, E-mail: nahmani@univ-metz.f [Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicite, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes, CNRS UMR 7146, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, Rue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Devin, Simon [Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicite, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes, CNRS UMR 7146, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, Rue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Vijver, Martina G. [Leiden University, Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), P.O. Box 9518, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    It is well known that earthworms can accumulate metals. However, most accumulation studies focus on Cd-, Cu-, Pb- or Zn-amended soils, additionally few studies consider accumulation kinetics. Here we model the accumulation kinetics of 18 elements by Eisenia fetida, exposed to 8 metal-contaminated and 2 uncontaminated soils. Tissue metal concentration was determined after 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days. Metal elimination rate was important in determining time to reach steady-state tissue metal concentration. Uptake flux to elimination rate ratios showed less variation and lower values for essential than for non-essential metals. In theory kinetic rate constants are dependent only on species and metal. Therefore it should be possible to predict steady-state tissue metal concentrations on the basis of very few measurements using the rate constants. However, our experiments show that it is difficult to extrapolate the accumulation kinetic constants derived using one soil to another. - Earthworm metal uptake and elimination constants derived from a one-compartment model show little systematic variation with soil properties.

  2. Additional duplicated Hox genes in the earthworm: Perionyx excavatus Hox genes consist of eleven paralog groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Jin; Vallès, Yvonne; Kim, Kyong Min; Ji, Seong Chul; Han, Seock Jung; Park, Soon Cheol

    2012-02-10

    Annelida is a lophotrochozoan phylum whose members have a high degree of diversity in body plan morphology, reproductive strategies and ecological niches among others. Of the two traditional classes pertaining to the phylum Annelida (Polychaete and Clitellata), the structure and function of the Hox genes has not been clearly defined within the Oligochaeta class. Using a PCR-based survey, we were able to identify five new Hox genes from the earthworm Perionyx excavatus: a Hox3 gene (Pex-Hox3b), two Dfd genes (Pex-Lox6 and Pex-Lox18), and two posterior genes (Pex-post1 and -post2a). Our result suggests that the eleven earthworm Hox genes contain at least four paralog groups (PG) that have duplicated. We found the clitellates-diagnostic signature residues and annelid signature motif. Also, we show by semi-quantitative RT-PCR that duplicated Hox gene orthologs are differentially expressed in six different anterior-posterior body regions. These results provide essential data for comparative evolution of the Hox cluster within the Annelida. PMID:22120535

  3. Earthworm cast production as a new behavioural biomarker for toxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capowiez, Yvan, E-mail: capowiez@avignon.inra.f [INRA, UR1115 ' Plantes et Systemes Horticoles' , Domaine Saint Paul, 84914 Avignon Cedex 09 (France); Dittbrenner, Nils [INRA, UR1115 ' Plantes et Systemes Horticoles' , Domaine Saint Paul, 84914 Avignon Cedex 09 (France); Animal Physiological Ecology, University of Tuebingen, Konrad-Adenauer-Str. 20, D-72072 Tuebingen (Germany); Rault, Magali [UAPV, UMR406 ' Abeilles et Environnement' , Domaine Saint Paul, 84914 Avignon Cedex 09 (France); Triebskorn, Rita [Animal Physiological Ecology, University of Tuebingen, Konrad-Adenauer-Str. 20, D-72072 Tuebingen (Germany); Hedde, Mickael [INRA, UR251 ' PESSAC' , RD10, 78026 Versailles Cedex (France); Mazzia, Christophe [UAPV, UMR406 ' Abeilles et Environnement' , Domaine Saint Paul, 84914 Avignon Cedex 09 (France)

    2010-02-15

    There is currently a lack of ecotoxicity tests adapted to earthworm species of higher ecological relevance and whose endpoints could be directly related to their ecological role in the soil. We propose a new and relatively simple ecotoxicity test based on the estimation of cast production (CP) by Lumbricus terrestris under laboratory conditions. CP was found to be linearly correlated to earthworm biomass and to be greatly influenced by soil water content. Azinphos-methyl had no effect on CP at all the concentrations tested. Significant decreases were observed at the normal application rate for other pesticides with (imidacloprid, carbaryl, methomyl) or without (ethyl-parathion and chlorpyrifos-ethyl) a clear concentration-effect response. For the highest concentration tested, reduction in CP varied between 35 and 67%. CP is straightforward and rapidly measured and ecologically meaningful. We thus believe it to be of great use as an endpoint in ecotoxicity testing. - Cast production of Lumbricus terrestris is affected by pesticides under laboratory conditions.

  4. EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF PINEAPPLE FRUIT EXTRACT USING INDIAN EARTHWORM (PHERITIMA POSTHUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dey P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple is a favorite for the lovers of fruit in its fresh forms as well as in preserves like jams, jellies and squashes. Two varieties of Pineapples (Queen and Kew are available in Tripura during mid-May to mid-September. The plant is well known for its different folk medicines like the root and fruit are either eaten or applied topically as an anti-inflammatory, digestive and anthelmintic. It was observed that the people of Tripura especially the Tribes are use the juice of matured root or fruit in worm. Research shows that, mainly bromelain is responsible for all its therapeutic activity.The agriculture of Tripura, each year, gets a special boost from pineapple production between the middle of May and middle of September, both inclusive. Pineapple’s leaves are used as the source of a textile fiber and are employed as a component of wall paper and furnishings, amongst other uses. This allows the crop to contribute a significant proportion in the economy of the state.The present study was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of fruit extract (Aqueous of Pineapple using Indian earthworm (Pheretima posthuma.All the extracts were found not only to paralysis (vermifuge but also to kill the earthworms (vermicidal. But the concentration of 40mg/ml fruit extract showed the maximum effect in respect of 20 and 10 mg/ml.

  5. The hormetic effect of cadmium on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hormetic dose-response relationships induced by environmental toxic agents are often characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. Confirmation of the general phenomenon of hormesis may have significant implications for ecological risk assessment, although the mechanisms that underlie hormesis remain an enigma. In this study, a model-based approach for describing a dose-response relationship incorporating the hormetic effect was applied to the detection and estimation of the hormetic effect of cadmium (Cd) on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The results showed that Cd at low concentrations induced an increase in the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), but high concentrations inhibited the enzymes, and this was reflected in an inverted U-shaped curve. The maximum hormetic magnitude of SOD activity was higher than that of catalase. The presence of hormesis induced by cadmium in the earthworm may be related to activation of adaptive pathways. - A model-based approach and careful preliminary experiments are needed for detecting and estimating the hormetic effect.

  6. Nutrient changes and biodynamics of epigeic earthworm Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) during recycling of some agriculture wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Surendra

    2007-05-01

    Potential of an oriental composting earthworm: Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) to decompose waste resources generated from agricultural practices (crop residues, farm yard manure, and cattle dung) was studied for 150days under laboratory conditions. At the end of experiment, all vermibeds showed significant decrease in their organic C content ( approximately 21-29%), while increase in total N ( approximately 91-144%), available P ( approximately 63-105%), and exchangeable K ( approximately 45-90%). P. excavatus showed maximum individual live weight (662.05mg) after 120days in MIXED (mixed crop residues+cow dung in 1:1) substrate. The maximum growth rate (mg worm(-1)day(-1)) was between 3.79+/-0.08 and 2.35+/-0.16 on different substrates. The mean number of cocoon production was between 394.3+/-23.2 and 690.7+/-23.2 for different experimental beddings. MIXED bedding showed maximum reproduction rate (0.23+/-0.004 cocoons worm(-1) day(-1)), whereas farmyard manure bedding (FYM) showed least value (0.15+/-0.002 cocoons worm(-1)day(-1)). During vermicomposting, the total mortality in worms' population was recorded between 0% (in MIXED) and 21.7% (in Jowar straw (Sorghum vulgare)+millet straw (Pennisenum typhoides)+sheep manure in 1:1:2 ratio (JMS)). The waste decomposition and earthworm production was associated strongly with the quality of the substrate, especially with their chemical as well as biological composition. PMID:16901690

  7. Soil properties and grape yield affected by rock biofertilisers with earthworm compound

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N, Pereira-Stamford; I, Pereira-Andrade; S, da Silva-Junior; M, Lira-Junior; C, Silva-Santos; A, Santiago de Freitas; P, Van-Straaten.

    Full Text Available Grapes are an important crop in several countries, including Brazil. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of PK rock biofertilisers on grapes (Vitis vinif-era) grown in the San Francisco Valley of the Brazilian semi-arid region. Three sources of PK fertilisers, PK soluble fertilisers, [...] PK rock biofertilisers, and powdered PK rocks, which were all mixed with earthworm compound, and a control treatment consisting only of earthworm compound were tested at three rates. The soil pH, available P and K, exchangeable Ca+2 and Mg+2, soluble S-SO4-2, total Fe and organic carbon were analysed, and the grape yield was evaluated. The soil pH was affected by the fertilisation treatments and was reduced by the application of PK biofertiliser. The available P and K, soluble S-SO4-2, exchangeable Ca and Mg, total Fe and organic carbon in the soil increased with the application of the PK biofertilisers. The soluble fertiliser had a significant effect (p=0.01) on the recommended rate of the grape yield, but no significant difference was observed between the PK soluble fertiliser and biofertiliser at 150% of the recommended rate. Rock biofertilisers may be used as a source of P, K, S-SO4-2 and Fe for grape production in soil with low available P and K, especially if applied at a 150% recommended rate.

  8. Ternary toxicological interactions of insecticides, herbicides, and a heavy metal on the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhua; Chen, Chen; Qian, Yongzhong; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang

    2015-03-01

    The combined toxicities of five insecticides (chlorpyrifos, avermectin, imidacloprid, ?-cyhalothrin, and phoxim), two herbicides (atrazine and butachlor), and a heavy metal (cadmium) have been examined using the acute toxicity test on the earthworm. With a concentration of 2.75 mg/kg being lethal for 50% of the organisms, imidacloprid exhibited the highest acute toxicity toward the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Toxicological interactions of these chemicals in ternary mixtures were studied using the combination-index (CI) equation method. Twenty-one ternary mixtures exhibited various interactive effects, in which 11 combinations showed synergistic effects, four led to dual synergistic/additive behaviors, one exhibited an additive effect, and five showed increasing antagonism within the entire range of effects. The CI method was compared with the classical models of concentration addition and independent action, and it was found that the CI method could accurately predict combined toxicity of the chemicals studied. The predicted synergism in the majority of the mixtures, especially at low-effect levels, might have implications in the real terrestrial environment. PMID:25463238

  9. Farinha de minhoca em dietas para juvenis de jundiá / Earthworm meal in jundiá juveniles diets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrícia Inês, Mombach; Dirleise, Pianesso; Taida Juliana, Adorian; Juliano, Uczay; Rafael, Lazzari.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma das demandas, na nutrição de peixes nativos, é a avaliação de fontes proteicas alternativas, que possam ser utilizadas em dietas. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o crescimento e a composição corporal de juvenis de jundiá submetidos a dietas com diferentes níveis de farinha de minhoca. Um total d [...] e 300 exemplares, com massa inicial média de 15,6 ± 5,65 g, foram distribuídos em 15 tanques de polipropileno (250 L), durante 30 dias. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, composto por cinco tratamentos (10%, 20%, 30% e 40% de inclusão de farinha de minhoca e uma dieta controle) e três repetições, com 20 peixes por unidade experimental. Os peixes foram alimentados duas vezes ao dia, recebendo 5% do seu peso vivo em ração dia-1. Ao final do período experimental, foram avaliados a massa final, comprimento total e padrão, taxa de crescimento específico, fator de condição e ganho em massa relativo. Também foi realizada análise de composição corporal, sendo determinadas a umidade, cinzas e gordura e proteína corporal, além da glicose sanguínea. Para a massa e comprimento total e padrão, não houve influência da adição de farinha de minhoca na dieta. Os níveis de inclusão de farinha de minhoca influenciaram a taxa de crescimento específico, ganho em massa relativo e o fator de condição dos peixes. A farinha de minhoca pode ser incluída em até 30%, na dieta de juvenis de jundiá, sem comprometer o crescimento dos peixes. Abstract in english One of the greatest demands, concerning native fish nutrition, is the evaluation of alternative protein sources that can be used in diets. This study aimed at evaluating the growth rate and body composition of jundiá juveniles fed with different levels of earthworm meal. A total of 300 fish, with an [...] average initial weight of 15.6 g ± 5.65 g, were distributed in 15 polypropylene tanks (250 L), for 30 days. A completely randomized design with five treatments (10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of earthworm meal inclusion and a control treatment) and three replications, totaling 20 fish per experimental unit, was used. The fish were fed twice a day, getting 5% of their body weight in feed day-1. At the end of the experimental period, the final weight, total and standard length, specific growth rate, condition factor and relative weight gain were evaluated. The body composition was also analyzed, being determined the rates of moisture, ashes and body fat and protein, as well as blood glucose. The weight and total and standard length were not influenced by the addition of earthworm meal to the diet. The inclusion levels of earthworm meal affected the fish specific growth rate, relative weight gain and condition factor. The earthworm meal can be added up to 30%, in jundiá juveniles diets, without compromising fish growth.

  10. Bioavailability and release of nonextractable (bound) residues of chiral cycloxaprid using geophagous earthworm Metaphire guillelmi in rice paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuanqi; Xu, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Hanxue; Li, Chao; Shao, Xusheng; Ye, Qingfu; Li, Zhong

    2015-09-01

    The widespread adoption of neonicotinoids has led to a move away from integrated pest management (IPM) and caused adverse effects on non-target invertebrate species. Due to their living in close contact with and consuming large amounts of soil, earthworms are a model organism used to study bioaccumulation. We investigated the bioaccumulation and release of bound, or non-extractable, residues (BRs) of (14)C labeled racemic cycloxaprid (CYC) and its individual enantiomers by the geophagous earthworm Metaphire guillelmi. In a previous work, the fraction of BRs of (14)C-CYC individual enantiomers reached up to 70-85% of the initially spiked radioactivity after 100d of treatment. The bulk volume of the soil was then diluted by a factor of 15 with fresh soil. Here we showed that after earthworms lived in the soil-bound residues for 28d, 11-25% of the previously bound radioactivity in soil was extractable by solvent, mineralized to CO2, and accumulated in earthworm tissues. While earthworms were exposed to (14)C-CYC a two-compartment accumulation model could explain the bio-accumulation as individual enantiomers. At the end of the experiment, the biota-sediment accumulation factors were between 0.59 and 0.82, which suggested CYC immobilization in the soil resulted in its bioavailability being reduced which enhanced its degradation. Additionally, the elimination of CYC individual enantiomers from M. guillelmi was fitted to an availability-adjusted decay model with a half-life of 9d. Stereoselective release or bioavailability between CYC enantiomers was not observed. These results provide the important data about the release of BRs of CYC and potential transfer in the food chain to support the long-term environmental risk assessment of neonicotinoids. PMID:25933294

  11. Thermal properties of freezing bound water restrained by polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Tatsuko; Tanaka, Masaru; Hatakeyama, Hyoe

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the thermal properties of bound water restrained by various kinds of polysaccharides and several synthetic polymers. The characteristic features of freezing bound water which is closely related with biocompatibility of polymers are summarized based on results obtained by differential scanning calorimetry. Glass transition, cold crystallization and melting of water-polysaccharide systems were observed. Three kinds of water, non-freezing, freezing bound and free water, were quantified from the enthalpy of melting of water in the system. Freezing bound water restrained by polysaccharides is in a metastable state. The equilibrium melting temperature of freezing bound water is lower than 0°C and the temperature decreases with decreasing water content. Nucleation and growth rate of freezing bound water were calculated from isothermal crystallization and the values were compared with those of free water. PMID:20557717

  12. Genotypic variation in morphology and freezing resistance of Eucalyptus globulus seedlings subjected to drought hardening in nursery

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael E, Coopman; Jorge C, Jara; Rene, Escobar; Luis J, Corcuera; Leon A, Bravo.

    2010-01-15

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus globulus Labill is one of the most planted species in Chile, because of its fast growth and superior pulp qualities. Nevertheless, the incidence of drought and frost damage immediately after planting is frequent. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of drought hardening on fro [...] st resistance and on variations in morphological traits that may increase drought resistance at nursery phase in four genotypes of E. globulus Labill. Drought hardening treatments consisted in induced water stress by watering restriction, until pre-dawn stem xylem water potentials (?pd) reached -0.2, -1.8 and -2.6 MPa. Two water stress-rewatering cycles were applied during 54 days of hardening. Plant and root biomasses were affected by the interaction of drought hardening and genotypes. The rest of morphological and alometrical traits were affected independently by drought or genotype. Plant height, leaf area, specific leaf area (SLA), stem, and leaf biomasses decreased with drought hardening, while collar diameter was not affected. Genotypes responded differentially to drought hardening in plant height, leaf area, SLA, and stem, and leaf biomasses. Ice nucleation temperature (INT), and freezing temperatures (FRT), and 50% freezing damage index of leaves (LT50) were affected by the interaction between drought hardening and genotypes. EG-13, EG-23 and EG-22 genotypes became freezing tolerant with drought hardening (-2.6 MPa). Additionally, EG-14 genotype increased its freezing resistance at -1.8 MPa. Therefore, freezing resistance levels and mechanism depend on genotype and drought hardening treatment. The success in tree breeding by genetic selection should be facilitated by improved understanding of the physiology of stress resistance development and survival during water supply limitations. The knowledge of morphological and freezing resistance dependency on the interaction between genotype and drought hardening may be useful nursery management information to improve plantation success.

  13. Does the Cryogenic Freezing Process Cause Shorter Telomeres?

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Edmund C.; Ye, Lingling; Silverman, Wayne P.

    2012-01-01

    We have observed evidence of increased telomere shortening in short-term T-lymphocyte cultures following freezing and thawing of the original inoculum obtained by ficoll-paque gradient centrifugation, compared to T-lymphocytes that were cultured immediately without freezing and thawing from the same blood sample from 3 female and 3 male adults. Because freezing may have similar effects on other cell types, and because telomere shortening may only manifest its effects after many years or decad...

  14. Post-Siliconix Freeze-outs: Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian, Guhan

    2007-01-01

    At approximately the same time that the Sarbanes?Oxley Act increased the costs associated with being a public company, important Delaware case law created a difference in the standard of judicial review for the two basic methods of freezing out minority shareholders. While a freeze?out executed as a statutory merger is subject to stringent “entire?fairness” review, the Delaware Chancery Court held in In re Siliconix Shareholders Litigation that a freeze?out executed as a tender of...

  15. IMPACT OF FREEZING OF FCAS: THE CASE OF PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Hafiz Abdur Rashi; Ali Raz; Syed Usman Izhar; Muhammad Waqas Baig

    2011-01-01

    Foreign investment and foreign exchange reserves have ample importance for developing countries. So, there is a needed to encourage the foreign and domestic investors whose confidence was suffer by the unexpected decision of freezing of FCAs. The purpose of this study was to identify the areas that were affected after the decision of freezing of FCAs. Moreover, the impact of freezing decision on economy of Pakistan also indicated. More sophisticated impact on banking sector, balance of paym...

  16. Mathematical Modeling of Food Freezing in Air-Blast Freezer

    OpenAIRE

    Guiqiang Wang; Pinghua Zou

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical model for simulating the heat transfer during food freezing was presented. The model consists of three steps. First, the flow field inside the freezing chamber was modeled using the CFD method, based on which the freezing condition, including the temperature and velocity around the food, was calculated. Second, the heat transfer coefficient between food and air was calculated in the CFD model. Third, a finite-difference model was employed to simulate the heat transfer inside th...

  17. Anomalous freezing behavior of nanoscale liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangler, E. J.; Kumar, P. B. S.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the finite size of one-component liposomes on their phase behavior is investigated via simulations of an implicit-solvent model of self-assembled lipid bilayers. We found that the high curvature of nanoscale liposomes has a significant effect on their freezing behavior. While the location of the freezing temperature of liposomes with diameters larger than 30 nm is the same as that of a planar membrane, the transition is broadened as the liposome diameters are decreased. For very small liposomes, with diameters smaller than 30 nm, the transitions of the two leaflets become increasingly decoupled, and their respective freezing temperatures become different. In particular, the outer leaflet gels at a temperature, T-g((u)), which is higher than that of the inner leaflet, T-g((i)). We argue that this decoupling is due to the difference in configurational entropies of the lipid chains in the two leaflets. At temperatures higher than T-g((u)), the liposomes are spherical and the lipids in both leafletslack both positional and chain order. At temperatures between T-g((i)) and T-g((u)), the lipids in the outer leaflet exhibit chain order but lack positional order. In contrast the lipids in the inner leaflet lack both chain order and positional order in this temperature range. In this range of temperatures, liposomes are essentially spherical. At temperatures lower than T-g((i)), lipids in both the inner and outer leaflets exhibit chain order as well as positional order, and the liposomes become faceted. The structure of the outer leaflet for T-g((i))

  18. Investigations on freezing processes of molten cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In reactor safety analysis of fast breeder reactors the freezing behaviour of molten core materials plays an important role. This, and particularly the conditions under which stable crusts and melt-films exist were investigated in simulation experiments. Different structures (tubes, annuli, bundles) of stainless steel and quartz glass were used. The molten core was simulated by aluminum oxide and iron. In all experiments, including those with melting steel walls stable crusts were found and no intermixing of molten steel and streaming oxide was observed. The measured penetration depths and crust thicknesses were recalculated with a modified version of the code PLUGM. In most cases the agreement was good. (orig.)

  19. Mechano-freezing of the ambient water

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xi; Zou, Bo; Sun, Chang Q

    2013-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy examination of the 25 deg-C water freezing under compression revealed transition from 1.35 GPa to 0.86 GPa upon ice being formed at continued volume change. The transition is associated with a slight blue shift of the high-frequency phonon (omiga_H ~ 3120 cm-1) and creation of the low-frequency phonons (Omiga_L ~ 200 cm-1). In the liquid and in the solid phase, the increased pressure softens the Omiga_H and stiffens the Omida_L, which indicates the presence of the inter-electron-pair repulsion in both liquid and solid water.

  20. Displacement Echoes: Classical Decay and Quantum Freeze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by neutron scattering experiments, we investigate the decay of the fidelity with which a wave packet is reconstructed by a perfect time-reversal operation performed after a phase-space displacement. In the semiclassical limit, we show that the decay rate is generically given by the Lyapunov exponent of the classical dynamics. For small displacements, we additionally show that, following a short-time Lyapunov decay, the decay freezes well above the ergodic value because of quantum effects. Our analytical results are corroborated by numerical simulations

  1. A new method to measure allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) concentrations in mustard: comparison of AITC and commercial mustard solutions as earthworm extractants

    OpenAIRE

    Pelosi, Ce?line; Chiron, Franc?ois; Dubs, Florence; Hedde, Mickae?l; Ponge, Jean-franc?ois; Salmon, Sandrine; Cluzeau, Daniel; Ne?lieu, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Earthworms are target organisms both for scientists studying the biological component of soils and for farmers concerned with monitoring the quality of their soils. Different expellants are used to extract earthworms from the soil but differences in chemical properties and efficiency between commercial mustard and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) solutions remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to compare (i) the concentration of irritating product (allyl isothiocyanate AITC) in two exp...

  2. Earthworms (Lumbricidae) from a surface layer and wireworms (Elateridae) of forest stands in the anthropogenically-disturbed area of the D??ínská vrchovina Upland (Czech Republic)

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuel Kula; Petr Švarc

    2012-01-01

    In the area negatively affected by air pollution in the past, the earthworm assemblages and the occurrence of wireworms (Elateridae) in forest ecosystems were evaluated in relation to site conditions. From soil samples taken in 38 stands (Fagus, Betula, Alnus, Quercus, Pinus, Larix, Abies) earthworms and wireworms were extracted by means of Tullgren funnels. Eudominant species (Dendrobaena vejdovskyi, D. octaedra, D. illyrica) are typical representatives of forest ecosystems of the Ore Mounta...

  3. Earthworm Populations in Savannas of the Orinoco Basin. A Review of Studies in Long-Term Agricultural-Managed and Protected Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo López-Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Earthworm biomass and production in savannas are limited by seasonal precipitation and the lack of organic and nutrient resources; I hypothesize that after a long-term protection of savanna from fire and agricultural activities drastic changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil occur with a concomitant increase in earthworm abundance and activities. Similar changes might occur after a long-term fertilization of savannas with manure. This review article considers the eart...

  4. Genetic and ecological impacts of heavy metal and flooding stress on the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus in floodplains of the Rhine river

    OpenAIRE

    Simonsen, V.; Klok, T. C.

    2010-01-01

    In the highly polluted river Rhine system, earthworms face environmental stress resulting from flooding and elevated heavy metal concentrations in the floodplain soil. Previous field studies have revealed adaptation to flooding for the earthworm species Lumbricus rubellus as this species matures at a lower weight in floodplain sites with a high frequency of flooding compared to less frequently flooded sites. Also heavy metals have effects on L. rubellus and heavy metals are influencing the ge...

  5. Earthworms and in vitro physiologically-based extraction tests: complementary tools for a holistic approach towards understanding risk at arsenic-contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Mark; Watts, Michael J; Cave, Mark R; Harrington, Chris F; Jenkin, Gawen T

    2009-04-01

    The relationship of the total arsenic content of a soil and its bioaccumulation by earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrodrilus rubidus) to the arsenic fraction bioaccessible to humans, measured using an in vitro physiologically-based extraction test (PBET), was investigated. Soil and earthworm samples were collected at 24 sites at the former arsenic mine at the Devon Great Consols (DGC) in southwest England (UK), along with an uncontaminated site in Nottingham, UK, for comparison. Analysis of soil and earthworm total arsenic via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was performed following a mixed acid digestion. Arsenic concentrations in the soil were elevated (204-9,025 mg kg(-1)) at DGC. The arsenic bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for both earthworm species was found to correlate positively with the human bioaccessible fraction (HBF), although the correlation was only significant (P PBETs and earthworms as complementary tools is explored as a holistic and multidisciplinary approach towards understanding risk at contaminated sites. Arsenic resistant earthworm species such as the L. rubellus populations at DGC are presented as a valuable tool for understanding risk at highly contaminated sites. PMID:18958400

  6. Earthworm casts as a sampling medium – a case study from highly contaminated Hg roasting site Pšenk (Idrija area, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Terši?

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study an interesting sampling medium - earthworm casts was examined in a highly Hg contaminated area. Enrichment factor (EF has been applied to assess elevated concentrations of analyzed elements in earthworm casts and to determine elevated concentrations of these elements in soils and casts with regard to European average concentrations in topsoil. In a previous study (Terši? & Gosar, 2012 it was shown that Hg contents and dispersion in casts from studied roasting site are comparable to those in soil, which indicates that soil contamination is substantially reflected in contamination of earthworm casts. Therefore the comparison between elemental concentrations in earthworm casts and soil was investigated with the intention to assess the reflection of possible soil contamination in casts. Besides Hg contamination, elevated concentrations of As, Ca, Cd, Mo, Pb and U were also determined in earthworm casts. The calculated EFs show moderate enrichment of casts with Ca, Sr and P and minimal enrichment with Mg, Zn and Cu. Cast, SOM (surface organic matter rich soil layer and soil enrichments with regard to the European averages show extreme enrichment of all studied media with Hg, followed by significant enrichment with Mo and Cd and moderate enrichment with As. Spatial distributions of analyzed elements in casts mostly show similar pattern as in soil, however, because of the different nature of different earthworm species and specific properties of different elements, the data about cast contamination can only serve as an approximate prediction about the dispersion and distribution of contaminant in soil.

  7. Utilizing thin-film solid-phase extraction to assess the effect of organic carbon amendments on the bioavailability of DDT and dieldrin to earthworms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved approaches are needed to assess bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds in contaminated soils. Performance of thin-film solid-phase extraction (TF-SPE) using vials coated with ethylene vinyl acetate was compared to earthworm bioassay (Lumbricus terrestris). A DDT and dieldrin contaminated soil was amended with four organic carbon materials to assess the change in bioavailability. Addition of organic carbon significantly lowered bioavailability for all compounds except for 4,4?-DDT. Equilibrium concentrations of compounds in the polymer were correlated with uptake by earthworms after 48d exposure (R2 = 0.97; p 40yr of aging. Results show that TF-SPE can be useful in examining potential risks associated with contaminated soils and to test effectiveness of remediation efforts. -- Highlights: • Bioavailability of pesticides in soil were assessed using TF-SPE and earthworms. • Soil from a historical orchard was used to examine aged residues of dieldrin and DDT. • TF-SPE results were strongly correlated with earthworm bioaccumulation factors. • Ethylene vinyl acetate polymer has sorptive capacity similar to earthworm lipid. • TF-SPE useful to estimate bioavailability of hydrophobic organic pesticides in soil. -- Capsule A thin-film polymer sampler proved to be efficient in estimating the differences in bioavailability to earthworms in a soil treated with organic amendments

  8. PENGGUNAAN BERBAGAI JENIS BAHAN PELINDUNG UNTUK MEMPERTAHANKAN VIABILITAS BAKTERI ASAM LAKTAT YANG DI ISOLASI DARI AIR SUSU IBU PADA PROSES PENGERINGAN BEKU [Utilization of various cryogenic agents during freeze drying to Maintain the viability of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Nyoman Puspawati1*

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria are the most important bacteria having potential as probiotic. The objectives of the present study were to examine the growth of Lactic Acid Bacteria, identify the Lactic Acid Bacteria capable of surviving and evaluate the best cryogenic agents that protect the viability of Lactic Acid Bacteria during freeze drying. Four cryogenic agents, i.e. sucrose, lactose, skim milk and maltodextrin, were used in freeze drying of three species of Lactic Acid Bacteria, i.e. Pediococcus pentosaceus A16, Lactobacillus brevis A17 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus R21 isolated from breast milk. Evaluation included viability before and after freeze drying, survival of freeze dried culture in 0.5 % bile salt and low pH for 5 hours. The result showed that three of cryogenics, i.e. sucrose, lactose and skim milk improved the viability of freeze dried of all lactobacilli, except maltodextrin that did not give protection to L. rhamnosus R21. Evaluation on the survival of LAB in 0.5 % bile salt showed that cryogenic agents improved the survival rate of all Lactic Acid Bacteria during freeze drying. The cryogenic also improved the survival rate of LAB at low pH, with the best protection given by skim milk on L. rhamnosus R21.

  9. Freezing efficiency of Silver Iodide, ATD and Kaolinite in the contact freezing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagare, Baban; Marcolli, Claudia; Stetzer, Olaf; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2014-05-01

    The importance of heterogeneous ice nucleation via contact freezing is one of the open questions in the atmospheric science community. In our laboratory, we built the Collision Nucleation CHamber (CLINCH) (Ladino et al. 2011) in which falling cloud droplets can collide with aerosol particles. In this study, contact freezing experiments are conducted to investigate the ice nucleation ability of silver iodide (AgI), kaolinite and Arizona Test Dust (ATD). Silver iodide has been known for its ice nucleation ability since 1940s (Vonnegut 1947) while kaolinite is a clay mineral and known to be a moderate ice nucleus. ATD is a commercial dust sample used by many groups to compare different setups. In CLINCH, size selected aerosol particles collide with water droplets of 80 µm diameter. With the extension in chamber length it is possible to vary the interaction time of ice nuclei and the droplets. Our experiments are performed between -10 to -36 ºC for various concentrations of ice nuclei and different interaction times. The frozen fraction of the droplets is determined using the custom-made depolarization detector IODE (Nicolet et al., 2010). Depolarization of linearly polarized incident laser light is used to determine the ratio of frozen droplets to all droplets. Frozen fractions of the three particle types with different residence times from CLINCH will be presented in this study. The number of collisions between a single droplet and several aerosol particles can be calculated by accounting for the theoretical collision efficiency at the experimental conditions in order to obtain the freezing efficiency (frozen fraction/number of collisions). Nucleation efficiency is compared with other contact freezing studies and with immersion freezing

  10. Natural exopolysaccharides enhance survival of lactic acid bacteria in frozen dairy desserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S H; Marshall, R T

    2001-06-01

    Viable lactic acid-producing bacteria in frozen dairy desserts can be a source of beta-galactosidase for persons who absorb lactose insufficiently. However, freezing kills many of the cells, causing loss of enzymatic activity. Cultures selected for high beta-galactosidase activities and high survival rates in the presence of bile were examined for survivability during freezing in reduced-fat ice cream. Encapsulated S. thermophilus strains survived better than their nonencapsulated mutants in reduced-fat ice cream after freezing and frozen storage at -29 degrees C for 16 d (28 vs. 19%). However, a small nonencapsulated strain of Lactobacillus delbrueckii sp. bulgaricus survived better than the large encapsulated strain in reduced-fat ice cream. Factors that improved survival of encapsulated S. thermophilus 1068 in ice cream were 1) harvest of cells in the late-log phase of growth at 37 degrees C rather than at 40, 42.5, or 45 degrees C; 2) overrun at 50% rather than 100%; and 3) storage at -17 degrees C rather than -23 or -29 degrees C. Survival of strain ST1068 was unaffected by 1) neutralization of acid during growth or 2) substitution of nitrogen for air in building overrun. PMID:11417694

  11. Effect of Long-Term Freezing and Freeze–Thaw Cycles on Indigenous and Inoculated Microorganisms in Dewatered Blackwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur; Müller, Karoline

    2012-01-01

    Wastewater treatment in many Arctic regions is inadequate, even nonexisting. Natural freezing of wastewater in those areas may be beneficial for reduction of microorganisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term freezing, and repeated freezing and thawing, on indigenous coliforms, fecal streptococci, and antibiotic-resistant (AR) bacteria, and inoculated Salmonella Enteriditis and E. coli bacteriophage ?X174 in dewatered blackwater. At the end of the long-term freezing experiment (10 months), an MPN recovery study was done, including the microbial groups that had shown the largest reduction, using tryptone soy broth at incubation temperatures of 10 and 20 °C overnight for the coliforms and AR bacteria, and buffered peptone water at incubation temperature of 37 °C for 18–20 h for Salmonella. Fecal streptococci were more resistant to long-term freezing than the coliform group. Total number of AR bacteria decreased slowly but constantly over the 10-month freezing period. Salmonella rapidly decreased and were nondetectable within a week but exhibited some recovery after 10 months of freezing, whereas limited or no recovery of coliforms and AR-bacteria was detected. Bacteriophages showed limited reduction during the long-term freezing. Repeated freezing and thawing increased the reduction of all tested microbial groups markedly.

  12. Asset Freezing: Smart Sanction or Criminal Charge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter de Zanger

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article the question is asked whether asset freezing can be qualified as a criminal charge within the meaning of Article6 ECHR and if yes, what effects this qualification may have on the legislative framework on so called smart sanctions. Byanalysing Community and EU law and case law of the European Court of Human Rights, General Court of Instance andCourt of Justice of the European Communities the authors give an overview of the notion and possible qualification of assetfreezing as a criminal charge. The article further focusses on the consequenses of qualifying asset freezing as a criminal chargeunder ECHR and EC/EU law and concludes by answering the aforementioned question.This article is a rewrite of a research paper written under supervision of prof. dr. J.A.E. Vervaele and prof. dr. C.H. Brants(Willem Pompe Institute for Criminal Law and Criminology, Utrecht University School of Law, whom the authors wouldlike to thank for their useful comments and supervision.

  13. Spray freeze drying of YSZ nanopowder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghupathy, Bala P. C., E-mail: balapraveen2000@yahoo.com [VIT University, Center for Nanotechnology Research (India); Binner, J. G. P. [Loughborough University, Department of Materials (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    Spray freeze drying of yttria stabilised zirconia nanopowders with a primary particle size of {approx}16 nm has been undertaken using different solids content starting suspensions, with the effect of the latter on the flowability and crushability of the granules being investigated. The flowability and fill density of the granules increased with an increase in the solid content of the starting suspension, whilst the crushability decreased. The powder flowability, measured using a Hall flowmeter and model shoe-die filling tests, showed that the flowability of otherwise poorly flowable nanopowders can be improved to match that of the commercial spray dried submicron powder. The 5.5 vol.% solid content based suspension yielded soft agglomerates whilst a 28 vol.% solid content suspension formed hard agglomerates on spray freeze drying; the granule relics were visible in the fracture surface of the die pressed green compact in the latter case. The increase in granule strength is explained by the reduction in inter-particle distance based on the theories developed by Rumpf and Kendall. The flaw sizes computed using the Kendall model are comparable with those seen in the micrographs of the granule. With an optimum solid content, it is possible to have a granulated nanopowder with reasonable flowability and compactability resulting in homogeneous green bodies with {approx}54 % of theoretical density.

  14. Spray freeze drying of YSZ nanopowder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spray freeze drying of yttria stabilised zirconia nanopowders with a primary particle size of ?16 nm has been undertaken using different solids content starting suspensions, with the effect of the latter on the flowability and crushability of the granules being investigated. The flowability and fill density of the granules increased with an increase in the solid content of the starting suspension, whilst the crushability decreased. The powder flowability, measured using a Hall flowmeter and model shoe-die filling tests, showed that the flowability of otherwise poorly flowable nanopowders can be improved to match that of the commercial spray dried submicron powder. The 5.5 vol.% solid content based suspension yielded soft agglomerates whilst a 28 vol.% solid content suspension formed hard agglomerates on spray freeze drying; the granule relics were visible in the fracture surface of the die pressed green compact in the latter case. The increase in granule strength is explained by the reduction in inter-particle distance based on the theories developed by Rumpf and Kendall. The flaw sizes computed using the Kendall model are comparable with those seen in the micrographs of the granule. With an optimum solid content, it is possible to have a granulated nanopowder with reasonable flowability and compactability resulting in homogeneous green bodies with ?54 % of theoretical density.

  15. Earthworm coelomocyte phagocytosis: An in vitro assay for terrestrial toxicity identification evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, S.W.; Goven, A.J.; Fitzpatrick, L.C. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Venables, B.J. [TRAC Labs., Inc., Denton, TX (United States); Callahan, C.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    An in vitro assay has been developed for rapid (48 h) evaluation of cytotoxic effects of exposure (24 h) of earthworm coelomocytes. The assay, inhibition of phagocytosis (24 h) of stained yeast cells and cell viability, links a traditional soil bioassay organism (Lumbricus terrestris) with a laboratory protocol for use in evaluating physical/chemical fractions resulting from terrestrial TIE manipulations. The assay was developed using copper sulfate as a reference toxicant. Copper exposures as low as 2--4 pg/ml. resulted in 20--60% inhibition of phagocytosis without significant decrease in cell viability. Exposures above 10 pg/ml resulted in reduced cell viability and inhibition of phagocytosis. The assay was successfully applied to terrestrial TIE fractions derived from extractions of soil from a PCP contaminated wood treatment site.

  16. VERMITECHNOLOGY BASED BIOPROCESSING OF AGRICULTURE WASTE USING PLEUROTUS SAJORCAJU AND EARTHWORM LAMBIDO MAURTII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sathyaa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent trend of declining sustainability in agricultural production is appearing as a major threat to most of the Asian countries. Large scale availability of conventional organic manures being a big problem nowadays, major attention is being paid on recycling of different kinds of organic wastes for this purpose. Apart from abatement of environmental pollution, such reuse of organic wastes in agriculture helps in the improvement of various physical, chemical and biological properties of the soils and, thus, helps in sustaining the soil health. However, due to some short comings of traditional composting systems, the technology of recycling of organic wastes has not been widely accepted so far. Under this situation, vermicomposting has recently emerged as a simple but efficient biotechnology for recycling wide ranges of organic wastes with the help of some specific groups of earthworms. In view of the growing popularity of this biotechnology, various aspects of waste recycling in agriculture through vermicomposting have been dealt in this communication

  17. Penetration of action potentials during collision in the medial giant axon of the earthworm

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Perez, A; Mosgaard, L D; Stauning, M T; Nissen, S; Heimburg, T

    2014-01-01

    The collisions of two simultaneously generated impulses in the medial giant axon of earthworms propagating in orthodromic and antidromic direction were investigated. The experiments have been performed in the extracted ventral cord of Lumbricus terrestris by using external stimulation and recording. The collision of two nerve impulses of orthodromic and antidromic propagation didn't result in the annihilation of the two signals contrary to the common notion that is based on the existence of a refractory period in the well-known Hodgkin-Huxley theory. However, the results are in agreement with the electromechanical soliton theory for nerve pulse propagation as suggested by Heimburg and Jackson (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 9790 (2005)).

  18. Effects of earthworm casts and zeolite on the two-stage composting of green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2015-05-01

    Because it helps protect the environment and encourages economic development, composting has become a viable method for organic waste disposal. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of earthworm casts (EWCs) (at 0.0%, 0.30%, and 0.60%) and zeolite (clinoptilolite, CL) (at 0%, 15%, and 25%) on the two-stage composting of green waste. The combination of EWCs and CL improved the conditions of the composting process and the quality of the compost products in terms of the thermophilic phase, humification, nitrification, microbial numbers and enzyme activities, the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, and physico-chemical characteristics and nutrient contents of final composts. The compost matured in only 21days with the optimized two-stage composting method rather than in the 90-270days required for traditional composting. The optimal two-stage composting and the best quality compost were obtained with 0.30% EWCs and 25% CL. PMID:25792439

  19. Micro-PIXE studies of Cd distribution in the nephridia of the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsloo, M. W.; Reinecke, S. A.; Przybylowicz, W. J.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Reinecke, A. J.

    1999-10-01

    The distribution and accumulation of Cd in the nephridia of earthworms of the species Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta) was studied using the NAC nuclear microprobe. Worms were exposed to CdSO 4 in a cattle manure substrate. Elemental maps were obtained using the true elemental imaging system (dynamic analysis). It was found that at a substrate concentration of 300 mg kg -1 CdSO 4, Cd did accumulate in the nephridia, showing clear patterns in its distribution within this organ. It accumulated to the greatest extent in the region between the nephridiopore and first loop, and the urinary vasiculus, reaching values of 890 ± 40 mg kg -1 and 570 ± 20 mg kg -1 in these regions, respectively. This is in contrast to the lower concentrations in the body wall (76 ± 15 mg kg -1) of the worm.

  20. Micro-PIXE studies of Cd distribution in the nephridia of the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution and accumulation of Cd in the nephridia of earthworms of the species Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta) was studied using the NAC nuclear microprobe. Worms were exposed to CdSO4 in a cattle manure substrate. Elemental maps were obtained using the true elemental imaging system (dynamic analysis). It was found that at a substrate concentration of 300 mg kg-1 CdSO4, Cd did accumulate in the nephridia, showing clear patterns in its distribution within this organ. It accumulated to the greatest extent in the region between the nephridiopore and first loop, and the urinary vasiculus, reaching values of 890 ± 40 mg kg-1 and 570 ± 20 mg kg-1 in these regions, respectively. This is in contrast to the lower concentrations in the body wall (76 ± 15 mg kg-1) of the worm

  1. Micro-PIXE studies of Cd distribution in the nephridia of the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinsloo, M.W. E-mail: 9341188@narga.sun.ac.za; Reinecke, S.A.; Przybylowicz, W.J.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Reinecke, A.J

    1999-09-02

    The distribution and accumulation of Cd in the nephridia of earthworms of the species Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta) was studied using the NAC nuclear microprobe. Worms were exposed to CdSO{sub 4} in a cattle manure substrate. Elemental maps were obtained using the true elemental imaging system (dynamic analysis). It was found that at a substrate concentration of 300 mg kg{sup -1} CdSO{sub 4}, Cd did accumulate in the nephridia, showing clear patterns in its distribution within this organ. It accumulated to the greatest extent in the region between the nephridiopore and first loop, and the urinary vasiculus, reaching values of 890 {+-} 40 mg kg{sup -1} and 570 {+-} 20 mg kg{sup -1} in these regions, respectively. This is in contrast to the lower concentrations in the body wall (76 {+-} 15 mg kg{sup -1}) of the worm.

  2. Three new earthworm species of the genus Polypheretima Michaelsen, 1934 (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae) from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tung T; Tran, Binh T T; Nguyen, Anh D

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides descriptions of three new species of the earthworm genus Polypheretima Michaelsen, 1934 from Dong Nai Province, South Vietnam. They are named Po. cattienensis sp. nov., Po. militium sp. nov., and Po. cordata sp. nov.. All three species are characterized by spermathecal pores in 5/6/7 and the absence of genital markings. Po. cattienensis sp. nov. is distinguished by paired spermathecal pores and seven spermathecae per porus. Po. militium sp. nov. is diagnosed by paired spermathecal pores and a variable number of spermathecae, 21-40 altogether, with 7-17 in 5/6 and 11-23 in 6/7. Po. cordata sp. nov. is recognized by one pair of spermathecal pores in 5/6 and two in 6/7, by only one spermatheca per porus, and by a heart-shaped spermathecal ampulla.  PMID:25661234

  3. Monocystis apporectodae sp. nov. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida), from an Indian earthworm Apporectodea trapezoides Duges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Probir K; Mallik, Partha; Göçmen, Bayram; Mitra, Amlan Kumar

    2006-01-01

    A survey aimed at exploring the endoparasitic acephaline gregarine diversity in South-western Bengal, detected a new species of the genus Monocystis Stein, 1848, that resides in the seminal vesicles of the earthworm, Apporectodea trapezoides Duges collected in the district of Bankura from alluvial soil. Monocystis apporectodae sp. nov. is a ribbon-like organism with one or more prominent constric-tions especially in some mature forms and measures 178.0-224.0 (203.0+/-5.0) microm x 37.0-58.0 (46.0+/-1.5) microm. The extreme ends are pointed. Its gametocysts are ovoid and measure 108.0-118.0 microm (113.0+/-1.1) x 79.0-89.0 (83.0+/-1.1) microm. Oocysts are navicular in shape. The length of the oocysts ranges from 10.0-14.6 and the width, from 5.5-8.1 microm. PMID:17106856

  4. Evaluation of three methods for preservation of Azotobacter: freeze-drying, cryopreservation, and immobilization in dry polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fernando Rojas Tapias

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Because the use of bacteria for biotechnological processes requires maintaining their viability and geneticstability, preserving them becomes essential. Here, we evaluated three preservation methods for A.chroococcum C26 and A. vinelandii C27; preservation methods: cryopreservation and immobilization in drypolymers for 60 days, and freeze-drying for 30. We evaluated their efficiency by counting viable cells andmeasuring nitrogen fixation activity. Additionally, we assessed the effect of three protective agents forfreeze-drying, three for cryopreservation, and four polymers. Freeze-drying proved the best technique tomaintain viability and activity, followed by immobilization and cryopreservation. Bacterial nitrogen fixingability remained unchanged using the freeze-drying method, and bacterial survival exceeded 80%; S/BSAwas the best protective agent. Immobilization maintained bacterial survival over 80%, but nitrogen fixationwas decreased by 20%. Lastly, cryopreservation resulted in a dramatic loss of viability for C26 (BSRapprox. 70%, whereas C27 was well preserved. Nitrogen fixation for both strains decreased regardless ofthe cryoprotective agent used (P < 0.05. In conclusion, the success of Azotobacter preservation methodsdepend on the technique, the protective agent, and the strain used. Our results also indicated that freezedryingusing S/BSA is the best technique to preserve bacteria of this genus.

  5. Freezing tolerance and low molecular weight cryoprotectants in an invasive parasitic fly, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Petteri; Paakkonen, Tommi; Eerilä, Harri; Puukka, Katri; Riikonen, Joakim; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2012-01-01

    Insect cold hardiness is often mediated by low molecular weight cryoprotectants, such as sugars, polyols, and amino acids (AA). While many free-living northern insects must cope with extended periods of freezing ambient temperatures (Ta), the ectoparasitic deer ked Lipoptena cervi imago can encounter subfreezing Ta only during a short autumnal period between hatching and host location. Subsequently, it benefits from the body temperature of the cervid host for survival in winter. This study investigated the cold tolerance of the species by determining its lower lethal temperature (100% mortality, LLT100) during faster and slower cold acclimation, by determining the supercooling point (SCP) and by measuring the concentrations of potential low molecular weight cryoprotectants. The LLT100 of the deer ked was approximately -16 ° C, which would enable it to survive freezing nighttime Ta not only in its current area of distribution but also further north. The SCP was -7.8 ° C, clearly higher than the LLT100 , indicating that the deer ked displays freezing tolerance. The concentrations of free AA, especially nonessential AA, were higher in the cold-acclimated deer keds similar to several other insects. The concentrations of proline increased together with ?-aminobutyrate, arginine, asparagine, cystine, glutamate, glutamine, hydroxylysine, sarcosine, serine, and taurine. AA could be hypothesized to act as cryoprotectants by, e.g., protecting enzymes and lipid membranes from damage caused by cold. PMID:22076947

  6. Ecotoxicological assessment of TiO{sub 2} byproducts on the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigorgne, Emilie, E-mail: emilie.bigorgne@umail.univ-metz.fr [Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicite, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Rue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Foucaud, Laurent [Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicite, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Rue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Lapied, Emmanuel [Bioforsk, Soil and Environment, Fredrik A. Dahls vei 20, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Labille, Jerome; Botta, Celine [CEREGE UMR 6635 CNRS/Aix-Marseille Universite, Europole de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology iCEINT, Europole de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Sirguey, Catherine [Nancy Universite, INPL/INRA, UMR 1120, Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, BP 172-2, Avenue de la foret de Haye, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Falla, Jairo [Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicite, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Rue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Rose, Jerome [CEREGE UMR 6635 CNRS/Aix-Marseille Universite, Europole de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology iCEINT, Europole de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Joner, Erik J. [Nancy Universite, INPL/INRA, UMR 1120, Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, BP 172-2, Avenue de la foret de Haye, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Rodius, Francois; Nahmani, Johanne [Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicite, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Rue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France)

    2011-10-15

    The increasing production of nanomaterials will in turn increase the release of nanosized byproducts to the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour, uptake and ecotoxicity of TiO{sub 2} byproducts in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Worms were exposed to suspensions containing 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/L of byproducts for 24 h. Size of TiO{sub 2} byproducts showed aggregation of particles up to 700 {mu}m with laser diffraction. Only worms exposed at 10 mg/L showed bioaccumulation of titanium (ICP-AES), increasing expression of metallothionein and superoxide dismutase mRNA (Real-time PCR) and induction of apoptotic activity (Apostain and TUNEL). TiO{sub 2} byproducts did not induce cytotoxicity on coelomocytes, but a significant decrease of phagocytosis was observed starting from 0.1 mg/L. In conclusion, bioaccumulation of byproducts and their production of reactive oxygen species could be responsible for the alteration of the antioxidant system in worms. - Highlights: > Aggregation of TiO{sub 2} byproducts up to 700 {mu}m in the medium of exposure. > Bioaccumulation of titanium in worms exposed at 10 mg/L of TiO{sub 2} byproducts. > Increasing expression of metallothionein and superoxide dismutase mRNA. > Induction of apoptotic activity in worms exposed at 10 mg/L of TiO{sub 2} byproducts. > Decrease of coelomocytes phagocytosis starting from 0.1 mg/L of TiO{sub 2} byproducts. - A short time exposure to TiO{sub 2} byproducts can induce sublethal effects on the earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

  7. [Polycyclic musks exposure affects gene expression of specific proteins in earthworm Eisenia fetida].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun; Liu, Xiao-wei; Zheng, Shun-an; Zhou, Qi-xing; Li, Song

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the changes in gene expression of earthworm specific proteins following long-term exposure to low-dose polycyclic musks in soil, the mRNA expression levels of the four representative protein-coding genes (HSP70, CRT, cyPA, TCTP) were examined in earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to polycyclic musks using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The purpose of this study was to investigate mRNA expression profiles of test protein genes in response to sublethal galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) for 28 d exposure. The analysis results of both sequence alignment and melting curves of RT-qPCR reactions showed that the selected primers were appropriately qualified for quantitative mRNA analysis. mRNA expressions of HSP70 gene were not significantly changed in Eisenia fetida exposed to low concentrations of AHTN (less than 30 microg x g(-1)) and HHCB (less than 50 microg x g(-1)). But HSP70 gene expressions were significantly down-regulated at concentrations of AHTN or HHCB equal to or greater than 30 or 50 microg x g(-1). However, up-regulation of CRT gene expressions was induced in response to all test concentrations of AHTN and HHCB. Both cyPA and TCTP gene expressions were not varied compared to control groups after 28 days of exposure. Overall, the results indicated that HSP70 and CRT genes expression patterns might be potential early molecular biomarkers for predicting the harmful exposure level and ecotoxicological effects of polycyclic musks contaminated soil. PMID:23914539

  8. Using infrared thermography to study freezing in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factors that determine when and to what extent a plant will freeze are complex. While thermocouples have served as the main method of monitoring the freezing process in plants, infrared thermography offers distinct advantages, and the use of this latter technology has provided new insights on the p...

  9. Logistic Regression Analysis of Freezing Tolerance in Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four winter wheat cultivars, Eltan, Froid, Kestrel, and Tiber, were cold-acclimated for five weeks and then tested for freezing tolerance in a programmable freezer. The temperature of the soil was recorded every two minutes and the freezing episode was described as five parameters: the minimum temp...

  10. Research Progress of Porous Ceramics Produced by Freeze Casting Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Gang, YAN Yan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Freeze casting, a novel technique for ceramics achieving unique porous microstructures with excellent mechanical properties, progressed very quickly in the past decade and has become a very hot research field. The present review summarizes the freeze casting history and introduces the basic principles, characteristics, processing affecting factors, and potential applications. Furthermore, several perspectives are given in the end.

  11. Understanding freeze stress in biological tissues: thermodynamics of interfacial water

    Science.gov (United States)

    A thermodynamic approach to distinguish forms of freeze energy that injure plants as the temperature decreases is developed. The pattern resulting from this analysis dictated the sequence of thermal requirements for water to exist as an independent state. Improvement of freezing tolerance in biolo...

  12. Observation of a freezing drizzle episode: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-González, S.; Valero, F.; Sanchez, Jose L.; Gascón, E.; López, L.; García-Ortega, E.; Merino, A.

    2014-11-01

    On 5 February 2012 an episode of freezing precipitation took place in the Guadarrama Mountains, at the center of the Iberian Peninsula. This precipitation affected high elevations, where temperatures remained below freezing because of snow cover that had accumulated from snowfall during the previous days. The case study was recorded by surface synoptic observations (SYNOP) at Navacerrada Pass meteorological observatory (belonging to the National Weather Service of Spain). To study winter cloud systems during the TEcoAgua project, a multichannel ground-based microwave radiometer (MMWR), Micro Rain Radar (MRR-2), and isothermal cloud chamber were installed in the study area, thus permitting the monitoring of the freezing precipitation event. Analysis using Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite data and observations permitted the determination of factors that triggered the freezing precipitation event. Freezing drizzle was interspersed with the passage of a warm and cold front. During frontal passage, mid-level clouds inhibited the generation of freezing drizzle, with snowfall recorded in the study area. However, during the period between the two fronts, an absence of mid-level clouds permitted low-level orographic clouds to persist upwind of the mountain system, producing freezing drizzle at the surface. The decisive factors for the generation of freezing drizzle were high humidity at low levels, weak mesoscale updrafts caused by the topography, stability at mid levels, cloud-top temperatures warmer than - 15 °C, and low concentrations of ice nuclei.

  13. Determination of freeze-out conditions from lattice QCD calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsch, Frithjof

    2012-12-01

    Freeze-out conditions in Heavy Ion Collisions are generally determined by comparing experimental results for ratios of particle yields with theoretical predictions based on applications of the Hadron Resonance Gas model. We discuss here how this model dependent determination of freeze-out parameters may eventually be replaced by theoretical predictions based on equilibrium QCD thermodynamics.

  14. Determination of Freeze-out Conditions from Lattice QCD Calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Karsch, Frithjof

    2012-01-01

    Freeze-out conditions in Heavy Ion Collisions are generally determined by comparing experimental results for ratios of particle yields with theoretical predictions based on applications of the Hadron Resonance Gas model. We discuss here how this model dependent determination of freeze-out parameters may eventually be replaced by theoretical predictions based on equilibrium QCD thermodynamics.

  15. Photomicrographic Investigation of Spontaneous Freezing Temperatures of Supercooled Water Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsch, R. G.; Hacker, P. T.

    1950-01-01

    A photomicrographic technique for investigating eupercooled. water droplets has been devised and. used. to determine the spontaneous freezing temperatures of eupercooled. water droplets of the size ordinarily found. in the atmosphere. The freezing temperatures of 4527 droplets ranging from 8.75 to 1000 microns in diameter supported on a platinum surface and 571 droplets supported on copper were obtained. The average spontaneous freezing temperature decreased with decrease in the size of the droplets. The effect of size on the spontaneous freezing temperature was particularly marked below 60 microns. Frequency-distribution curves of the spontaneous freezing temperatures observed for droplets of a given size were obtained. Although no droplet froze at a temperature above 20 0 F, all droplets melted at 32 F. Results obtained with a copper support did not differ essentially from those obtained with a platinum surface.

  16. Multiple glass transitions and freezing events of aqueous citric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Anatoli; Molina, Mario J; Tenhu, Heikki; Loerting, Thomas

    2015-05-14

    Calorimetric and optical cryo-microscope measurements of 10-64 wt % citric acid (CA) solutions subjected to moderate (3 K/min) and slow (0.5 and 0.1 K/min) cooling/warming rates and also to quenching/moderate warming between 320 and 133 K are presented. Depending on solution concentration and cooling rate, the obtained thermograms show one freezing event and from one to three liquid-glass transitions upon cooling and from one to six liquid-glass and reverse glass-liquid transitions, one or two freezing events, and one melting event upon warming of frozen/glassy CA/H2O. The multiple freezing events and glass transitions pertain to the mother CA/H2O solution itself and two freeze-concentrated solution regions, FCS1 and FCS2, of different concentrations. The FCS1 and FCS2 (or FCS22) are formed during the freezing of CA/H2O upon cooling and/or during the freezing upon warming of partly glassy or entirely glassy mother CA/H2O. The formation of two FCS1 and FCS22 regions during the freezing upon warming to our best knowledge has never been reported before. Using an optical cryo-microscope, we are able to observe the formation of a continuous ice framework (IF) and its morphology and reciprocal distribution of IF/(FCS1 + FCS2). Our results provide a new look at the freezing and glass transition behavior of aqueous solutions and can be used for the optimization of lyophilization and freezing of foods and biopharmaceutical formulations, among many other applications where freezing plays a crucial role. PMID:25482069

  17. Observation on Monocystis constricta n. sp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Monocystidae) from an Indian earthworm, Eutyphoeus quaripapillatus Michelsen, 1907.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Probir K; Mitra, Amlan Kumar; Göçmen, Bayram

    2009-01-01

    A biodiversity survey of aseptate gregarines in earthworm hosts in the Calcutta district of West Bengal State revealed the existence of a new species of aseptate gregarine under the genus Monocystis Stein, 1848. The monocystid gregarines obtained from the earthworm host, Eutyphoeus quaripapillatus Michelsen, 1907 have been identified as a new species. The mucron was indistinct. The gamonts are elongated, ovoid, have a hood like structure at the anterior end and measure 150.1-212.4 (188.1+/-2.1) micromx66.1-112.1 (72.3+/-1.1) microm. The gametocysts are ellipsoid and measure 92.3-136.3 microm (111.2+/-2.1)x78.3-114.4 microm (82.6+/-3.6) microm. Prominent syzygy was apparent. Oocysts are navicular, measuring 14.1-22.3 (18.1+/-3.2) micromx9.1-15.2 (11.9+/-1.1) microm. PMID:19851977

  18. Toxicity of mixtures of ?-cyhalothrin, imidacloprid and cadmium on the earthworm Eisenia fetida by combination index (CI)-isobologram method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhua; Chen, Chen; Qian, Yongzhong; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang; Kong, Xiangzhen

    2015-01-01

    Contaminants in the environment do not appear singly and usually occur as mixtures. We applied the combination index (CI)-isobologram method which allows computerized quantitation of synergism, additive effect and antagonism to determine the nature of toxicological interactions of two pesticides ?-cyhalothrin, imidacloprid, and heavy metal cadmium towards earthworm Eisenia fetida. In an artificial soil test, ?-cyhalothrin and Cd combination was slightly synergistic at low effect levels which turned into a slight antagonism above f(a) values of 0.6, while the binary mixtures containing imidacloprid exhibited antagonism. The presence of imidacloprid in the ternary mixture also resulted in an antagonistic effect to the earthworms. This behavior became more antagonistic in the ternary mixture in filter paper tests. PMID:25450940

  19. Cryogenic pipe freezing - A theoretical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical simplified model for cryogenic pipe freezing, which is based on a steady-state approximation, has been developed in this work. A comparison with experimental results shows a relatively good agreement with the heat flux data obtained from direct temperature measurements in the ice. Direct measurements of the heat flux show, on the contrary, a very large deviation from theory. Several indications place the origin of this disagreement in the heat flux sensors themselves since, among other things, their data are not able to give the correct amount of energy to satisfy the energy budget of the system. The conclusion of this study is that this theoretical model may be used, together with the heat flux sensors, to develop a method for plug detection, provided that some suggested improvements are included in the model, and that the behaviour of the heat flux sensors is well investigated and understood. (author)

  20. Crystal structures and freezing of dipolar fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Groh, B

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the crystal structure of classical systems of spherical particles with an embedded point dipole at T=0. The ferroelectric ground state energy is calculated using generalizations of the Ewald summation technique. Due to the reduced symmetry compared to the nonpolar case the crystals are never strictly cubic. For the Stockmayer (i.e., Lennard-Jones plus dipolar) interaction three phases are found upon increasing the dipole moment: hexagonal, body-centered orthorhombic, and body-centered tetragonal. An even richer phase diagram arises for dipolar soft spheres with a purely repulsive inverse power law potential $\\sim r^{-n}$. A crossover between qualitatively different sequences of phases occurs near the exponent $n=12$. The results are applicable to electro- and magnetorheological fluids. In addition to the exact ground state analysis we study freezing of the Stockmayer fluid by density-functional theory.