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1

Small Dendrobaena earthworms survive freezing better than large worms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dendrobaena octaedra is a freeze tolerant earthworm widely distributed in boreal regions. Specimens collected in Sweden were cold acclimated and then frozen at -7 degrees C to examine the influence of body mass on survival of freezing. Results showed that survival was negatively correlated to body mass. Glycogen content of the worms was variable and seemed to decrease with increasing body mass consistent with the hypothesis that freeze survival is dependent on the ability to rapidly break down glycogen and accumulate high concentrations of glucose. The results suggest that large worms (subadults and adults) invest energy in production of cocoons at the expense of glycogen storage for cryoprotectant production, whereas juvenile worms increase their survival chances by investing energy in glycogen storage at the expense of growth as a preparation for winter.

Holmstrup, Martin; Overgaard, Johannes

2007-01-01

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Dual roles of glucose in the freeze-tolerant earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra: cryoprotection and fuel for metabolism  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ectothermic animals inhabiting the subarctic and temperate regions have evolved strategies to deal with periods of continuous frost during winter. The earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra is freeze tolerant and accumulates large concentrations of glucose upon freezing. The present study investigates the roles of glucose accumulation for long-term freeze tolerance in worms kept frozen at -2 degrees C for 47 days. During this period, worms were sampled periodically for determination of survival and for measurements of glucose, glycogen, lactate, alanine and succinate. In addition we performed calorimetric measurements to assess metabolic rate of frozen and unfrozen worms. Long-term freezing was associated with a gradual depletion of glucose and worms that succumbed during this period were always characterised by low glucose and glycogen levels. The anaerobic waste products lactate and alanine increased slightly whereas succinate levels remained constant. However, it is argued that other waste products (particularly propionate) could be the primary end product of a continued anaerobic metabolism. Calorimetric measures of the metabolic rate of frozen worms were in accord with values calculated from the reduction in glucose assuming that most (similar to 90%) glucose was metabolised anaerobically. Both estimates of metabolic rate demonstrated a 10-fold metabolic depression associated with freezing. Thus, in addition to the suspected role of glucose as cryoprotectant, the present study demonstrates that glucose accumulation is vital to ensure substrate for long-term anaerobic metabolism in frozen worms. On the basis of the estimated metabolite levels, we calculate that the combined effect of metabolic depression and large glucose stores enables a projected 3 months survival of freezing at -2 degrees C of the 'average' D. octaedra. Such conditions are very likely to occur in the northern distribution ranges of this stress-tolerant earthworm.

Calderon, Sofia; Holmstrup, Martin

2009-01-01

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Survival of freeze-dried Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

No significant differences were observed in the viability of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus cells during freeze-drying in the presence or absence of inositol, sorbitol, fructose, trehalose, monosodium glutamate and propyl gallate. However, survival was higher during storage when drying took place in the presence of these compounds. Sorbitol produced more significant effects than the other compounds toward maintaining viability of freeze-dried L. plantarum and ...

Carvalho, A. Sofia; Silva, Joana; Ho, Peter; Teixeira, Paula; Malcata, F. Xavier; Gibbs, Paul

2002-01-01

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Toxicity of organoclays to microbial processes and earthworm survival in soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organoclays have wide spread application in environmental remediation and nanocomposites synthesis. Some of the quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) commonly used to prepare organoclays are toxic to biota. However, information on the toxicity of organoclays is rarely available in the literature. This study assessed the toxicity of three laboratory prepared bentonite organoclays on the soil microbially mediated processes (such as dehydrogenase activity and potential nitrification) and soil inhabiting animals, such as earthworms. Toxicity to both microbial processes and earthworm followed the order: hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium modified bentonite>octadecyltrimethyl ammonium modified bentonite>arquad modified bentonite>unmodified bentonite. The organoclays were able to cause slight improvement (up to 25%) in the potential nitrification in some soils when they were added at low application rates up to 5%, but caused reduction (3-86%) in the dehydrogenase activity in all the soils irrespective of loading rates. The organoclays were extremely toxic to the survival and vigour of the earthworms. The average body weight loss of the worms reached as high as 62% in hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium modified bentonite treated soil even at 1% loading. This study holds utmost importance in assessing the toxicity of organoclays to soil microbially mediated processes and earthworms. PMID:23347724

Sarkar, Binoy; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Shanmuganathan, Devarajan; Naidu, Ravi

2013-10-15

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Effects of a constructed Technosol on mortality, survival and reproduction of earthworms  

Science.gov (United States)

Soils, whose properties and pedogenesis are dominated by artificial materials or transported materials, are classified as Technosols. Some of these Technosols are used in soil engineering, which is the voluntary action to combine technical materials in a given objective to restore an ecosystem. Primary by products that are used to build these Technosols need to be assessed on an ecotoxicological point of view. The following study aims to assess the effects of a constructed Technosol made from different primary by-products on the mortality, survival and reproductions of two earthworm species. The model of Technosol used here is a combination of green-waste compost (GWC) and papermill sludge (PS) mixed with thermally treated industrial soil (TIS). OECD soil is used as a control soil. Three different experiments have been managed: i) the first, to assess the potential toxicity effect on Eisenia foetida biomass (28 days) and reproduction (56 days), ii) the second to assess the short-term effect (7 days) on Lumbricus terrestris biomass, iii) and the third to assess the medium-term effect (30 days) on L. terrestris biomass. Reproduction of E. foetida is enhanced with high proportions of GWC. For biomass, GWC seems to improve body mass contrary to other materials which lead to losses of body mass. Thus, for E. foetida, GWC seems to be a high-quality and long-term source of food. Body mass of L. terrestris decreased with GWC and OECD. At short-term only, TIS/PS leads to a gain of body mass. Only equilibrium of 25% GWC - 75% TIS/PS allows a gain of body mass at medium term. TIS/PS appears to be a low-quality and short-term food resource but an excellent water tank. It can be concluded that the constructed Technosol is not toxic for fauna but some differences appear between different tested material combinations, depending on nature, proportion and trophic properties of materials.

Pey, Benjamin; Cortet, Jerome; Capowiez, Yvan; Mignot, Lenaic; Nahmani, Johanne; Watteau, Francoise; Schwartz, Christophe

2010-05-01

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Soil salinity increases survival of freezing in the enchytraeid Enchytraeus albidus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enchytraeus albidus is a freeze-tolerant enchytraeid found in diverse habitats, ranging from supralittoral to terrestrial and spanning temperate to arctic regions. Its freeze tolerance is well known but the effect of salinity in this strategy is still poorly understood. We therefore studied the combined effect of salinity (0, 15, 35, 50‰ NaCl) and sub-zero temperatures (-5, -14, -20°C) on the freeze tolerance of E. albidus collected from two distinct geographical regions (Greenland and Germany). A full factorial design was used to study survival, and physiological and biochemical end points. The effect of salinity on the reproduction of German E. albidus was also assessed. Exposure for 48 h to saline soils prior to cold exposure triggered an increase in osmolality and decrease in water content. Worms exposed to saline soils had an improved survival of freezing compared to worms frozen in non-saline soils, particularly at -20°C (survival more than doubled). Differential scanning calorimetry measurements showed that the fraction of water frozen at -5 and -14°C was lower in worms exposed to 35‰ NaCl than in control worms. The lowering of ice content by exposure to saline soils was probably the main explanation for the better freeze survival in saline-exposed worms. Glucose increased with decreasing temperature, but was lower in saline than in non-saline soils. Thus, glucose accumulation patterns did not explain differences in freeze survival. Overall, the physiological responses to freezing of E. albidus from Greenland and Germany were similar after exposure to saline soils. Soil salinity up to 30‰ improved reproduction by a factor of ca. 10. PMID:23531829

Silva, A L Patrício; Holmstrup, M; Kostal, V; Amorim, M J B

2013-07-15

7

Effects of petroleum and metal contaminated soil on plants and earthworms: Survival and bioaccumulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Earthworms, Eisenia foetida, and bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon, were used in the laboratory to test the toxicity of contaminated sediment taken from a small fresh water lake in North Carolina. This work was part of an investigation to determine the potential effects of upland disposal of this sediment. The contaminated sediment contained As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, Zn and petroleum hydrocarbons at concentrations much greater than nearby soils. Test cylinders were planted with bermudagrass; earthworms were added 30 days later. Both species were harvested at 60 days, weighed and submitted for chemical analyses. Cynodon was affected by the contaminated sediment but grew well in the mixtures of sediment and upland soil. Similar results were obtained with the Eisenia. These species did not accumulate hydrocarbons from the sediment with the possible exception of pyrene. The metals Cd, Pb, and Zn were elevated in plants exposed to the contaminated sediment. Earthworms exposed to this sediment accumulated Pb to concentrations greater than animals exposed to the manure control. This work demonstrated that a contaminated freshwater sediment was not toxic to plants or earthworms and that most petroleum hydrocarbons were not accumulated. The only metal that may be of some concern was Pb

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Survival of freezing by hydrated tardigrades inhabiting terrestrial and freshwater habitats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The seasonality and unpredictability of environmental conditions at high altitudes and latitudes govern the life cycle patterns of organisms, giving rise to stresses that cause death or development of specific adaptations. Ice formation is a major variable affecting the survival of both freshwater fauna and fauna inhabiting lichens, mosses and leaf litter. Tardigrades occupy a wide range of niches in marine, freshwater and terrestrial environments. The highest number of species is found in terrestrial habitats thanks to their ability to enter anhydrobiosis and cryobiosis. The cryobiotic ability of tardigrade species from polar regions is well known. Consequently, we focused our research on the ability to survive freezing in the active hydrated state using seven tardigrade species differing in phylogenetic position and collected at various altitudes and from different habitats in a temperate area. Specimens were cooled at different cooling rates (from 0.31° C min(-1) to 3.26° C min(-1)). Even though the final survival and the time required by animals to recover to active life were both inversely related to the cooling rate, highly significant interspecific differences were found. Species survival ability ranged from excellent to none. Species living in xeric habitats withstood freezing better than those living in hygrophilous habitats, while true limnic species did not exhibit any cryobiotic ability. The ability to withstand freezing seems linked to the anhydrobiotic ability. The differences in cryptobiotic performance among tardigrade species seem more influenced by selective pressures linked to local adaptation to habitat characteristics than by phylogenetic relationships. PMID:21429723

Guidetti, Roberto; Altiero, Tiziana; Bertolani, Roberto; Grazioso, Pasqualina; Rebecchi, Lorena

2011-04-01

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Influence of freeze-drying conditions on survival of Oenococcus oeni for malolactic fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malolactic fermentation (MLF) is an important process in wine production. Oenococcus oeni is most often responsible for MLF. Starter culture technology, involving the inoculation of O. oeni into wines, has been developed for inducing MLF. In this study, the effects of cell washing, pH of suspension medium, preincubation in sodium glutamate, initial cell concentration and freezing temperature on viability of freeze-dried O. oeni H-2 were investigated. The cell viability of samples without washing with potassium phosphate buffer was significantly lower than those samples undergone washing. When pH of suspension medium was 7.0 the cell survival was the highest. The cell viability was enhanced when the cells were preincubated at 25 degrees C before freezing. When 2.5% sodium glutamate was used as protective agent in suspension medium, the optimal initial cell concentration was 10(9) CFU/ml. The cell viability increased by 21.6% as freezing temperature decreased from -20 degrees C to -65 degrees C. However, when the cells were frozen in liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C), the cell survival significantly decreased. PMID:19695726

Zhao, Guoqun; Zhang, Gui

2009-09-30

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Effects of freezing on the survival of Escherichia coli and Bacillus and response to UV and chlorine after freezing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus megaterium bacteria were frozen at -15 degrees C using a freezer and a spray freezing method. The frozen Bacillus spores were also exposed to UV and free chlorine. An average of 4.7-log inactivation was obtained from the spray ice with 2-day storage time, while the freezer freezing only caused 0.84-log reduction with the same storage time. Significantly higher inactivation levels were observed for the E. coli cells with 2-day storage compared with those without storage. The spray freezing was found more effective in killing the E. coli cells, while more cells were sublethally injured by the freezer freezing. Freezing did not kill the Bacillus megaterium spores, but affected their response to UV and chlorine. Greater inactivation levels were observed at higher free chlorine doses or longer contact time, and the UV fluence-response curve showed initial rapid kill followed by tailing for the frozen spores. PMID:17571840

Gao, W; Smith, D W; Li, Y

2007-05-01

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Water sorption properties, molecular mobility and probiotic survival in freeze dried protein-carbohydrate matrices.  

Science.gov (United States)

The moisture uptake and molecular mobility of freeze-dried powders containing whey protein isolate-carbohydrate matrices (1WPI:2maltodextrin; 1WPI:1maltodextrin:1d-glucose; and 1WPI:1maltodextrin:1l-glucose) and encapsulated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) in these matrices were investigated at 25 °C and 33% and 70% relative humidity (RH). The inactivation rate constant for probiotics in freeze-dried matrices were positively correlated (R(2) = 0.98) to moisture uptake and molecular mobility measured by NMR relaxometry. The stability of probiotics in glassy protein-carbohydrate matrices was dependent on the composition of the matrix. The partial substitution of maltodextrin with glucose (d- or l-) which improved microbial survival at 33% RH was related to the reduced molecular mobility and lower water uptake of the matrix. This study suggests that moisture uptake properties and molecular mobility of the matrix composition, as opposed to the relative humidity of the environment, are better determinants of probiotic viability during storage. Dynamic vapour sorption and NMR relaxometry are promising tools to assist in the selection of protein-carbohydrate matrices for enhancing probiotic viability during storage. PMID:23851914

Hoobin, Pamela; Burgar, Iko; Zhu, ShouChuang; Ying, DanYang; Sanguansri, Luz; Augustin, Mary Ann

2013-09-01

12

Earthworm Protease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The alimentary tract of earthworm secretes a group of proteases with a relative wide substrate specificity. In 1983, six isozymes were isolated from earthworm with fibrinolytic activities and called fibrinolytic enzymes. So far, more isozymes have been found from different earthworm species such as Lumbricus rubellus and Eisenia fetida. For convenience, the proteases are named on the basis of the earthworm species and the protein function, for instance, Eisenia fetida protease (EfP). The proteases have the abilities not only to hydrolyze fibrin and other protein, but also activate pro enzymes such as plasminogen and prothrombin. In the light of recent studies, eight of the EfPs contain oligosaccharides chains which are thought to support the enzyme structure. Interestingly, EfP-II has a broader substrate specificity presenting alkaline trypsin, chymotrypsin and elastase activities, but EfP-III-1 has a stricter specificity. The protein crystal structures show the characteristics in their specificities. Earthworm proteases have been applied in several areas such as clinical treatment of clotting diseases, anti-tumor study, environmental protection and nutritional production. The current clinical utilizations and some potential new applications of the earthworm protease will be discussed in this paper.

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Human Wharton's jelly stem cell conditioned medium enhances freeze-thaw survival and expansion of cryopreserved CD34+ cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from umbilical cord blood have been successfully used to treat blood disorders but one major hurdle is the relatively low cell dose available. Double cord blood unit transplantation results in elevated engraftment failure because one unit predominates over the other. Various approaches are thus being undertaken to expand HSCs ex vivo from single cord blood units. We report here a protocol involving slow freezing (-1 °C per minute to -120 °C) + freezing medium containing DMSO + FBS + 24 h-50% hWJSC-CM that enhances thaw-survival of CD34+ cells. Post-thawing, the fold, percentage and colony forming unit numbers of CD34+ cells were significantly increased (2.08?±?0.3; 102?±?1.17%; 1.07?±?0.02 respectively) while the percentages of apoptotic, necrotic, dead and sub-G1 phase cells (91.06?±?3.63%; 91.80?±?5.01%; 95.6?±?3.61 %; 86.1?±?16.26% respectively) were significantly decreased compared to controls. Post-thaw culture in 24 h-50% hWJSC-CM+FBS for 72 h showed further significant increases in CD34+ cells (fold: 2.28?±?0.17; percentage: 153.3?±?21.99%, CFU: 1.6?±?0.19) and significant decreases in apoptotic, necrotic, dead and sub-G1 cells (49.2?±?3.59%; 62.0?±?4.30%; 56.6?±?5.06%; 28.6?±?5.74 % respectively) compared to controls. We hypothesize that these improvements are probably related to the high levels of cytokines, cell adhesion molecules and growth factors in hWJSC-CM that help to preserve cell membrane integrity during freezing and stimulate mitosis post-thaw. A 24 h-50% hJWSC-CM may be a useful supplement for freezing CD34+ cells in cord blood banks. PMID:23314930

Lin, Hao Daniel; Bongso, Ariff; Gauthaman, Kalamegam; Biswas, Arijit; Choolani, Mahesh; Fong, Chui-Yee

2013-04-01

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Effects of various sugars added to growth and drying media upon thermotolerance and survival throughout storage of freeze-dried lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this research effort was to investigate the role of various sugar substrates in the growth medium upon thermotolerance and upon survival during storage after freeze-drying of Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Addition of the sugars tested to the growth medium, and of these and sorbitol to the drying medium (skim milk) was investigated so as to determine whether a relationship exists between growth and drying media, in terms of protection of freeze-dried cells throughout stor...

Carvalho, Ana S.; Silva, Joana; Ho, Peter; Teixeira, P.; Malcata, F. Xavier; Gibbs, Paul

2004-01-01

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Effect of NaHCO3, MgSO4, Sodium Ascorbate, Sodium Glutamate, Phosphate Buffer on Survival of Lactobacillus bulgaricus During Freeze-drying  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, the experiments were investigated the effects of different concentrations of cryoprotective agents, such as NaHCO3, MgSO4, sodium ascorbate, sodium glutamate, phosphate buffer, respectively, which used on survival of Lactobacillus bulgaricus during freeze drying. The number of viable cells and survival ratio were measured by the plate count method. The results were as follows: cryoprotective agents played important roles in survival of Lactobacillus bulgaricus during freeze drying. When the relative volume of phosphate buffer was 1.5 (v/v, the number of viable cells was highest, while the survival ratio reached highest, the concentration of sodium ascorbate was 4.5%.

He Chen

2013-06-01

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Effects of addition of sucrose and salt, and of starvation upon thermotolerance and survival during storage of freeze-dried Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp bulgaricus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increased survival of freeze-dried cells of Lactobacillus bulgaricus was observed when the drying medium was supplemented with sucrose; however, the magnitude of such protection was dependent on the growth medium used. Supplementing the growth medium with NaCl markedly increased survival of dried cells, and only a small effect was exerted by the composition of the drying medium or prior to starvation of cells. The D57 values of Lactobacillus bulgaricus cells grown in MRS were about half of th...

Carvalho, A. S.; Silva, J.; Ho, P.; Teixeira, P.; Malcata, F. X.; Gibbs, P.

2003-01-01

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The effect of protective ingredients on the survival of immobilized cells of Streptococcus thermophilus to air and freeze-drying  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Streptococcus thermophilus cultures were grown either on trehalose or lactose, immobilized in alginate beads, dipped in various protective solutions and dried by either convection air-drying (CAD) or freeze-drying (FD). Immobilized cultures dipped in the 0.1% peptone solution did not show good survi [...] val to CAD or FD, as mortality was over 99%. There was no significant difference in mortality levels, in both methods of drying, when lactose or trehalose were used as protective ingredients. The highest survival levels (50 to 98%) were with a whey-sucrose protective medium, but this was potentially related to a higher pH and solids of the solution. Mortality levels were higher in FD than CAD, and this did not appear to be related to the fact that FD cultures had lower residual moisture contents than those dried under CAD. Cells grown on lactose had slightly higher survival rates to drying than those obtained from CAD. Trehalose-positive and trehalose-negative cultures of S. thermophilus did not show different mortality patterns to CAD or FD.

Claude P., Champagne; Nancy J., Gardner.

2001-12-15

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Survival, Pb-uptake and behaviour of three species of earthworm in Pb treated soils determined using an OECD-style toxicity test and a soil avoidance test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mature (clitellate) Eisenia andrei Bouche (ultra epigeic), Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister (epigeic), and Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny) (endogeic) earthworms were placed in soils treated with Pb(NO3)2 to have concentrations in the range 1000 to 10 000 mg Pb kg-1. After 28 days LC50-95%confidencelimit+95%confidencelimit values were E. andrei5824-361+898 mg Pb kg-1, L. rubellus2867-193+145 mg Pb kg-1 and A. caliginosa2747-304+239 mg Pb kg-1 and EC50s for weight change were E. andrei2841-68+150 mg Pb kg-1, L. rubellus1303-201+240 mg Pb kg-1 and A. caliginosa1208-206+212 mg Pb kg-1. At any given soil Pb concentration, Pb tissue concentrations after 28 days were the same for all three earthworm species. In a soil avoidance test there was no difference between the behaviour of the different species. The lower sensitivity to Pb exhibited by E. andrei is most likely due to physiological adaptations associated with the modes of life of the earthworms, and could have serious implications for the use of this earthworm as the species of choice in standard toxicological testing.

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Survival, Pb-uptake and behaviour of three species of earthworm in Pb treated soils determined using an OECD-style toxicity test and a soil avoidance test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mature (clitellate) Eisenia andrei Bouche (ultra epigeic), Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister (epigeic), and Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny) (endogeic) earthworms were placed in soils treated with Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} to have concentrations in the range 1000 to 10 000 mg Pb kg{sup -1}. After 28 days LC50{sub -95%confidencelimit}{sup +95%confidencelimi}= {sup t} values were E. andrei5824{sub -361}{sup +898} mg Pb kg{sup -1}, L. rubellus2867{sub -193}{sup +145} mg Pb kg{sup -1} and A. caliginosa2747{sub -304}{sup +239} mg Pb kg{sup -1} and EC50s for weight change were E. andrei2841{sub -68}{sup +150} mg Pb kg{sup -1}, L. rubellus1303{sub -201}{sup +240} mg Pb kg{sup -1} and A. caliginosa1208{sub -206}{sup +212} mg Pb kg{sup -1}. At any given soil Pb concentration, Pb tissue concentrations after 28 days were the same for all three earthworm species. In a soil avoidance test there was no difference between the behaviour of the different species. The lower sensitivity to Pb exhibited by E. andrei is most likely due to physiological adaptations associated with the modes of life of the earthworms, and could have serious implications for the use of this earthworm as the species of choice in standard toxicological testing.

Langdon, Caroline J. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: clangdon@uclan.ac.uk; Hodson, Mark E. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: m.e.hodson@reading.ac.uk; Arnold, Rebecca E. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Black, Stuart [Department of Archaeology, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6AB (United Kingdom)

2005-11-15

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Earthworms and Soil Pollutants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short review, we describe recent studies concerning the relationship between earthworms and soil pollutants, and discuss the possibility of using the earthworm as a bio-monitoring organism for soil pollution.

Kazuyoshi Tamae

2011-11-01

 
 
 
 
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Survival at refrigeration and freezing temperatures of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin applied as axenic and mixed inoculums.  

Science.gov (United States)

Campylobacter is considered to be the most common cause of bacterial diarrhoeal illness in the developed world. Many cases are thought to be acquired from consumption of undercooked poultry. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the rate of cooling on the survival, at 4 degrees C and -20 degrees C, of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni strains, inoculated on chicken skin from axenic culture or as mixed inoculums. Strains chilled in a domestic refrigerator varied in their tolerance to storage at 4 degrees C. Statistically significant differences between strains applied as axenic or mixed inoculums were observed for specific strain combinations using two-way ANOVA, including the enhanced survival of antibiotic resistant C. coli 99/367 at 4 degrees C. The use of rapid cooling (at -20 degrees C/min) enhanced the survival of all the Campylobacter strains chilled to 4 degrees C compared to standard refrigeration. Freezing to -20 degrees C reduced viable counts by 2.2-2.6 log10 CFU/cm(2) in 24 h. Rapid cooling to -20 degrees C (at -30 degrees C/min) enhanced the survival of C. coli 99/367 compared to freezing in a domestic freezer. Statistically significant interaction terms between specific strains were observed in mixed inoculums chilled to -20 degrees C by freezing in a domestic freezer and by rapid chilling to -20 degrees C. Rapid chilling of poultry, particularly for 4 degrees C storage may enhance survival of Campylobacter and although this is an issue that affects meat quality, it should be considered by poultry processors. PMID:19324444

El-Shibiny, Ayman; Connerton, Phillippa; Connerton, Ian

2009-05-31

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The Resistance to Freeze-Drying and to Storage Was Determined as the Cellular Ability to Recover Its Survival Rate and Acidification Activity  

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Full Text Available The protective effects of the fatty acid composition and membrane action of the acidification activity of two strains of Lactobacillus kept at 20?C were studied. The addition of sorbitol, monosodium glutamate and glycerol during storage is causing the decline of acidification and increased concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids observed in both strains. The addition of sorbitol and monosodium glutamate does not alter the fatty acid composition, whatever the strain, but increases the resistance to freeze-drying of L. plantarum CWBI-B1419 and improves survival during storage. The addition of these preservatives and decreased activity of acidification improves the ratio unsaturated. These results indicate that the survival during storage and freeze-drying resistance are closely related to the composition of membrane fatty acids. This behaviour can be interpreted as an adaptation of L. plantarum B1419-CWBI supplemented by cryoprotectant additives such as sorbitol or monosodium glutamate sorbitol and monosodium glutamate as an additive. L. plantarum CWBI-B1419 presents a greater adaptation to culture conditions than L. paracasei ssp. paracasei LMG9192T.

Georges Lognay

2010-01-01

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Survival of Freeze-dried Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus plantarum Related to Their Cellular Fatty Acids Composition during Storage  

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Lactic acid bacteria strains Lactobacillus plantarum CWBI-B534 and Leuconostoc ssp. mesenteroïdes (L. mesenteroïdes) Kenya MRog2 were produced in bioreactor, concentrated, with or without cryoprotectants. In general, viable population did not change significantly after freeze-drying (p>0.05). In most cases, viable population for cells added with cryoprotectants was significantly lower than those without (p<0.05). Cellular fatty acids (CFAs) from the two strains in this study were analyzed b...

Coulibaly, Ibourahema; Yao, Amenan Anastasie; Lognay, Georges; Fauconnier, Marie-laure; Thonart, Philippe

2009-01-01

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Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus plantarum (mtcc 5422) by spray-freeze-drying method and evaluation of survival in simulated gastrointestinal conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spray-drying (SD) and freeze-drying (FD) are widely used methods for microencapsulation of heat-sensitive materials like probiotics for long-term preservation and transport. Spray-freeze-drying (SFD) is relatively a new technique that involves spraying a solution into a cold medium and removal of solvent (water) by conventional vacuum FD method. In this study, the SFD microencapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum powder (1:1 and 1:1.5 core-to-wall ratios of whey protein) is compared with the microencapsulated powders produced by FD and SD methods. The SFD and FD processed microencapsulated powder show 20% higher cell viability than the SD samples. In simulated gastrointestinal conditions, the SFD and FD cells show up to 4?h better tolerance than SD samples and unencapsulated cells in acidic and pepsin condition. The morphology of SFD samples shows particles almost in spherical shape with numerous fine pores, which in turn results in good rehydration behaviour of the powdered product. PMID:21827359

Dolly, Priyanka; Anishaparvin, A; Joseph, G S; Anandharamakrishnan, C

2011-01-01

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Impact of Chlorine, Temperature and Freezing Shock on the Survival Behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Ready-to-Eat Meats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foodborne pathogens continue to pose a potential food safety hazard in ready-to-eat (RTE meat. Chlorine is commonly used to sanitize processing equipment where Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Ec may survive and contaminate food products. The objective of this study was to characterize the survival behavior of Ec with different stresses on RTE meats. A multi-strain cocktail of Ec was pre-treated with freezing shock for 15 - 20 h and/or chlorine (0, 25, and 50 ppm for one hour, and then inoculated onto RTE meat surfaces to obtain about 3.0 log CFU/g. Samples were stored at three abuse temperatures (12?, 18?, and 24? and Ec was enumerated during the storage. The freezing shock impact was studied using the Ec cocktail stored in a freezer overnight followed by chlorine exposure for one hour. The lag phase and growth rate of Ec were estimated using DMFit (Combase, Baranyi’s model. Results indicated that Ec growth was suppressed by chlorine treatment. Freezing shock was found to have little impact in terms of lag time and growth rate. The lag phase of Ec after exposure to 0 ppm of chlorine (50.3 h was shorter than that of Ec treated with 25 ppm (54.6 h and 50 ppm (164.1 h at 12?. However, the lag phase decreased with an increase in temperature, e.g. at 25 ppm, lag times were 54.6, 51.1 and 48.9 h for 12?, 18? and 24?, respectively. Lag times increased with an increase in chlorine concentration. At 24?, lag times were 15.8, 48.9, and 52.4 h for 0, 25, and 50 ppm, respectively. The growth rate increased with an increase in temperature for 0 and 25 ppm chlorine levels, but decreased at 50 ppm level. Growth rate and lag phase as a function of temperature and chlorine concentration can be described by polynomial models and modified Ratkowsky-type and Zwietering-type models. Results of this study will contribute to risk assessment of RTE meats.

Vijay K. Juneja

2012-04-01

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Exposure to extremely low frequency (50 Hz electromagnetic field changes the survival rate and morphometric characteristics of neurosecretory neurons of the earthworm Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta under illumination stress  

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Full Text Available An in vivo model was set up to establish the behavioral stress response (rate of survival and morphometric characteristics of A1 protocerebral neurosecretory neurons (cell size of Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta as a result of the synergetic effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF - 50 Hz, 50 ?T, 17 V/m and 50 Hz, 150 ?T, 17 V/m, respectively and constant illumination (420-450 lux. If combined, these two stressors significantly (p<0.05 increased the survival rate of E. foetida in the 150 ?T-exposed animals, because of delayed caudal autotomy reflex, an indicator of stress response. In addition, morphometric analysis indicated that there were changes in the protocerebral neurosecretory cells after exposure to the ELF-EMF. The present data support the view that short-term ELF-EMF exposure in “windows” of intensity is likely to stimulate the immune and neuroendocrine response of E. foetida.

Banova?ki Zorana

2013-01-01

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Cryoprotectants are metabolic fuels during long term frost exposure in the earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ectothermic animals that live in the subarctic and temperate regions must have strategies to deal with periods of frost during winter. The earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra is a freeze tolerant species that accumulates large concentrations of the cryoprotectant glucose upon ice formation in the extracellular fluid. This study investigates if D. octaedra metabolizes its primary cryoprotectant as an energy source when frozen for longer periods. In this study D. octaedra were exposed to frost at 2 °C for 47 days. The results clearly demonstrate a gradual decrease in the level of glucose and simultaneously an accumulation of lactate, alanine and succinate as a result of the continuous anaerobic metabolism. Freeze mortality (~ 30%) did not increase with time suggesting that the accumulation of waste products were not toxic to the worms. Instead dead worms were always characterised by low glucose and glycogen levels indicating that depletion of fermentable resources was the primary cause of death. Calorimetric measurements of metabolic rate showed a 15-fold metabolic depression in frozen versus unfrozen worms and this reduction in metabolic rate is clearly of importance for long term survival of frozen worms. On the basis of metabolic rate measurements we calculated that the “average” worms would be able to survive for a total of 83 days before the glucose storage becomes exhausted. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the large accumulations of glucose during frost may be more important as anaerobic fuel source than as a cryoprotectant.

C. JØrgensen, Sofia; Overgaard, Johannes

2008-01-01

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Impact of Parthenium weeds on earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae) during vermicomposting.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of Parthenium-mediated compost on Eudrilus eugeniae during the process of vermicomposting. Nine different concentrations of Parthenium hysterophorus and cow dung mixtures were used to assess toxicity. The earthworms' growth, fecundity and antioxidant enzyme levels were analysed every 15 days. The antioxidant activities of enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)], considered as biomarkers, indicate the biochemical and oxidative stresses due to the toxin from Parthenium weeds. The earthworms' growth, biomass gain, cocoon production and antioxidant enzymes were in a low level in a high concentration of P. hysterophorus (without cow dung). The results clearly indicated that appropriate mixing of P. hysterophorus quantity is an essential factor for the survival of earthworms without causing any harm. PMID:24938809

Rajiv, P; Rajeshwari, Sivaraj; Rajendran, Venckatesh

2014-11-01

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Production and utilization of earthworms as feeds for broilers in the Philippines  

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Full Text Available A study on the production of earthworms was conducted using a 50 : 50 by volume of animal manures in combination with Leucaena leucocephala. A combination of sawdust, rice hull and rice bran at a proportion of 55, 35 and 10 respectively was also used as a substrate. The earthworms in each box were supplemented with either 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 g kitchen scraps. On harvesting, hand picking the earthworms from the castings and arranging the contents of the box in a pyramid were tested. Blanching, direct heating, freezing and using an oven-drier were likewise tested on "killing" earthworms prior to drying. On broiler utilization, eighty four one-day old broiler chicks were fed with the six rations formulated where in 6 %, 10 % and 14 % levels of vermimeal and fish meal were used with the commercial mash as the control. Results revealed that goat manure in combination with Leucaena leucocephala with 100 to 400g feed supplement produced the highest gain and largest population. The pyramid method for harvesting and freezing for processing earthworms were found to be the best. Commercial broiler mash was significantly better than the home-mixed rations. In the home-mixed rations, 10 to 14 % levels of vermimeal were comparable to 6 % vermimeal and 6-10 % fish meal.

Barcelo P., M.

1988-01-01

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Ketahanan dan viabilitas probiotik bakteri asam laktat selama proses pembuatan kultur kering dengan metode freeze dan spray drying [Survival and Viability of Lactid Acid Bacteria Probiotic during production of Dried Culture Using Freeze and Spray Drying Methods  

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Full Text Available Selection on 36 lactid aid bacteria isolate from various source (dadih, sausage, infant faces, gato, chinese leaf pickle, growol and yoghurt has been carried out based on their potency to reduce choresterol. Based on their ability to assimilate choresterol, conjugate bile solt, restency on bile salt and low pH, three isolates i.e. Lactobacillus sp. Dad 13, L. asidophillus D2 and L. plantarum Mut 7 have been chosen for further study. Viability of selected cultures during biomass production using coconut water with addition of 0.5% yeast extract, and during production of dried starter culture using freeze and spray dried were investigated. The results show that the growth patern of the three isolates selected were almost similar i.e. reaching maximum amount after 16 hours fermentation at 37°C. biomass production using coconut water produced 109 cfu/ml after 16-18 hours incubation at 37°C. decrease on viability after drying using freeze drier ranged between 0.5-2 log cycles, while that of storage of freeze dried culture during 4 weeks at -20°C caused descreasing in viability of 26-56%.

Erni Harmayani 1

2001-08-01

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Impact of a changed inundation regime caused by climate change and floodplain rehabilitation on population viability of earthworms in a lower River Rhine floodplain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

River floodplains are dynamic and fertile ecosystems where soil invertebrates such as earthworms can reach high population densities. Earthworms are an important food source for a wide range of organisms including species under conservation such as badgers. Flooding, however, reduces earthworm numbers. Populations recover from cocoons that survive floods. If the period between two floods is too short such that cocoons cannot develop into reproductive adults, populations cannot sustain themsel...

Thonon, I.; Klok, C.

2007-01-01

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Effect of enzyme producing microorganisms on the biomass of epigeic earthworms (eisenia fetida) in vermicompost.  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyzed the bacterial community structure of the intestines of earthworms and determined the effect of enzyme producing microorganisms on the biomass of earthworms in vermicompost. Fifty-seven bacterial 16S rDNA clones were identified in the intestines of earthworms by using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis. Entomoplasma somnilux and Bacillus licheniformis were the dominant microorganisms; other strains included Aeromonas, Bacillus, Clostridium, Ferrimonas, and uncultured bacteria. Among these strains, Photobacterium ganghwense, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Paenibacillus motobuensis were enzyme-producing microorganisms. In the mixtures that were inoculated with pure cultures of A. hydrophila WA40 and P. motobuensis WN9, the highest survival rate was 100% and the average number of earthworms, young earthworms, and cocoons were 10, 4.00-4.33, and 3.00-3.33, respectively. In addition, P. motobuensis WN9 increased the growth of earthworms and production of casts in the vermicompost. These results show that earthworms and microorganisms have a symbiotic relationship. PMID:21421302

Hong, Sung Wook; Lee, Ju Sam; Chung, Kun Sub

2011-05-01

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Importance of earthworm-seed interactions for the composition and structure of plant communities: A review  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil seed bank composition and dynamics are crucial elements for the understanding of plant population and community ecology. Earthworms are increasingly recognized as important dispersers and predators of seeds. Through direct and indirect effects they influence either positively or negatively the establishment and survival of seeds and seedlings. Seedling establishment is affected by a variety of earthworm-mediated mechanisms, such as selective seed ingestion and digestion, acceleration or deceleration of germination, and seed transport. Earthworm casts deposited on the soil surface and the entrance of earthworm burrows often contain viable seeds and constitute important regeneration niches for plant seedlings and therefore likely favour specific seed traits. However, the role of earthworms as seed dispersers, mediators of seed bank dynamics and seed predators has not been considered in concert. The overall effect of earthworms on plant communities remains little understood. Most knowledge is based on laboratory studies on temperate species and future work has to explore the biological significance of earthworm-seed interactions under more natural conditions. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on earthworm-seed interactions and discuss factors determining these interactions. We highlight that this interaction may be an underappreciated, yet major driving force for the dynamics of soil seed banks and plant communities which most likely have experienced co-evolutionary processes. Despite the experimental bias, we hypothesize that the knowledge gathered in the present review is of crucial relevance for restoration and conservation ecology. For instance, as earthworms emerge as successful and ubiquitous invaders in various ecosystems, the summarized information might serve as a basis for realistic estimations and modelling of consequences on native plant communities. We depict promising directions of future research and point to the need to consider above- and belowground interactions in order to mechanistically understand the driving forces of plant community assembly.

Forey, Estelle; Barot, Sébastien; Decaëns, Thibaud; Langlois, Estelle; Laossi, Kam-Rigne; Margerie, Pierre; Scheu, Stefan; Eisenhauer, Nico

2011-11-01

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Radioactive elements and earthworms in contaminated soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ive elements were also gathered in gut cells of the earthworms. Thereby determination of some vital functions of earthworms was expedient. Thus, by the instrumentality of these experiments we can use earthworms for biodiagnosis and for bioremediation of contaminated soils with radionuclides and heavy metals.

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Comparison of earthworm responses to petroleum hydrocarbon exposure in aged field contaminated soil using traditional ecotoxicity endpoints and 1H NMR-based metabolomics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1H NMR metabolomics and conventional ecotoxicity endpoints were used to examine the response of earthworms exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in soil samples collected from a site that was contaminated with crude oil from a pipeline failure in the mid-1990s. The conventional ecotoxicity tests showed that the soils were not acutely toxic to earthworms (average survival ?90%), but some soil samples impaired reproduction endpoints by >50% compared to the field control soil. Additionally, metabolomics revealed significant relationships between earthworm metabolic profiles (collected after 2 or 14 days of exposure) and soil properties including soil PHC concentration. Further comparisons by partial least squares regression revealed a significant relationship between the earthworm metabolomic data (collected after only 2 or 14 days) and the reproduction endpoints (measured after 63 days). Therefore, metabolomic responses measured after short exposure periods may be predictive of chronic, ecologically relevant toxicity endpoints for earthworms exposed to soil contaminants. -- Highlights: •Earthworm response to petroleum hydrocarbon exposure in soil is examined. •Metabolomics shows significant changes to metabolic profile after 2 days. •Significant relationships observed between metabolomic and reproduction endpoints. •Metabolomics may have value as a rapid screening tool for chronic toxicity. -- Earthworm metabolomic responses measured after 2 and 14 days are compared to traditional earthworm ecotoxicity endpoints (survival and reproduction) in petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil

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Impact of Thermal History on Tolerance of Meloidogyne hapla Second-stage Juveniles to External Freezing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low temperature induced physiological changes that increased the ability of second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne hapla to survive external freezing. Second-stage juveniles in polyethylene glycol solution were exposed to -4 , 0, 4, or 24 C, and then their survival was determined after ice-induced freezing of the suspensions at - 4 C for 24 hours. Survival was greatest for juveniles exposed to 4 C before freezing. Some juveniles were killed by exposure to - 4 C before freezing of the suspensions. The percentage of juveniles surviving freezing increased from about 30% to 80% within 12 hours of exposure to 4 C. This tolerance of external freezing was lost during subsequent exposure to 24 C. Longer exposures, of 1 to 15 days, to low temperature did not increase the percentage surviving external freezing, as compared to the 12-hour exposure, but reduced the tolerance of external freezing lost during subsequent exposure to 24 C for 48 hours. PMID:19282993

Forge, T A; Macguidwin, A E

1992-06-01

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Earthworm introduction on calcareous minesoils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Burrowing activity of the nightcrawler, Lumbricus terrestis (L.t.), incorporates organic matter into mineral soil while creating long-lasting macropores. Thus L.t. has potential as a biological means of improving physical and chemical properties of surface mined areas. Efforts to establish L.t. population on forested acidic or calcareous minesoils have been successful, but thus far have not been able to establish L.t. in grassland ecosystems on calcareous minesoils. In May, 1989, the authors put 11 clitellate L.t. under sphagnum moss on calcareous gray cast overburden on standard graded topsoil, or on ripped and disked topsoil. All soils had cover of agronomic grasses and legumes. They found no L.t. at the 24 points of inoculation during sampling in fall of 1990 with formalin extractant, although smaller species, Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrobaena spp., were found. At another location, in May, 1990, they put 25 clitellate L.t. at 16 points in grasslands growing on gray cast overburden. Using formalin extraction, they found no L.t. in May 1992 at these locations. Working in this same area in November, 1992, they released 10 clitellate L.t. at 16 points under 10 cm of moist Alnus glutinosa leaf litter. Careful examination of the surface inoculation points in spring and fall of 1993 did not show obvious signs of earthworm activity. Their next step will be to use Earthworm Inoculation Units (earthworm-minesoil microcosms containing L.t. adults, immatures, and cocoons) as g L.t. adults, immatures, and cocoons) as the source of the new populations

38

Earthworms – good indicators for forest disturbance  

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Full Text Available In temperate forests, formation of canopy gaps by windthrow is a characteristic natural disturbance event. Little work has been done on the effects of canopy gaps on soil properties and fauna, especially earthworms as ecosystem engineers. We conducted a study to examine the reaction of earthworms (density/biomass and different soil properties (i.e., soil moisture, pH, organic matter, total N, and available Ca to different canopy gap areas in 25-ha areas of Liresar district beech forest located in a temperate forest of Mazandaran province in the north of Iran. Soil samples were taken at 0-15, 15-30 and 30-45 cm depths from gap center, gap edge and closed canopy using core soil sampler with 81 cm2 cross section. The earthworms were collected simultaneously with the soil sampling by hand sorting method. Our study supports that the canopy gap will create a mosaic of environmental conditions. Earthworm's density and biomass tended to be higher in small canopy gaps compared with the other canopy gap areas. Earthworm's population showed decreasing trend from closed canopy to disturbed sites (gap edge and gap center. The top soil was more appropriate to presence of earthworms although ecological groups have occupied different soil layers. As a conclusion, earthworms can be introduced as good bio-indicator of environmental changes that occur by disturbance.

YAHYA KOOCH

2014-08-01

39

The implications of copper fungicide usage in vineyards for earthworm activity and resulting sustainable soil quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the impact of copper-containing fungicides (copper oxychloride) on earthworms in South African vineyards, field inventories of earthworms in and between vine rows were carried out and compared to directly adjacent grassland. Also copper content, pH, organic matter content, and soil porosity were determined in these soils. This was combined with laboratory experiments to study the impact of vineyard soil characteristics on the burrowing and dispersal behavior of earthworms. Moreover, the direct toxic action of copper oxychloride on different endpoints of the earthworms (survival and growth) was studied. Copper oxychloride had a negative impact on these endpoints (decreased growth and survival related to increased copper body content) as well as on the behavioral aspect (decreased burrowing rate and avoidance of copper-containing soil). Moreover, there was an inverse relation between burrowing activity and soil bulk density that could also be related to the copper content. This may lead to a decrease in sustainable soil quality in vineyards. PMID:15978295

Eijsackers, H; Beneke, P; Maboeta, M; Louw, J P E; Reinecke, A J

2005-09-01

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Biochemical diversity of betaines in earthworms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: ? We develop a method for rapid untargetted analysis of betaines. ? We profile betaines in a comparative study of ten earthworm species. ? Earthworms contain a surprisingly high number of different betaine metabolites. ? Earthworms contain betaines normally seen only in plants or marine animals. -- Abstract: The ability to accumulate osmoprotectant compounds, such as betaines, is an important evolutionary feature in many organisms. This is particularly the case for organisms that live in variable environments, which may have fluctuations in moisture and salinity levels. There is, surprisingly, very little known about betaines in soil invertebrates in general, and there is almost no information about earthworms – a group that are important ‘ecosystem engineers’ and key indicators of soil health. Here, we describe a fast and reliable {sup 1}H–{sup 13}C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) 2D NMR approach for the metabolic profiling of a series of betaines and related metabolites in tissue extracts, and list {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C chemical shifts for the trimethylammonium signal for 23 such compounds. The analysis of ten different species from three different families (Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Glossoscolecidae) showed an unexpected diversity of betaines present in earthworms. In total ten betaines were identified, including hydroxyproline-betaine, proline-betaine, taurine-betaine, GABA-betaine and histidine-betaine, and a further eleven as-yet unassigned putative betaine metabolites detected. The findings clearly indicate a hitherto-unappreciated important role for betaine metabolism in earthworms.

Liebeke, Manuel [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bundy, Jacob G., E-mail: j.bundy@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2013-01-25

 
 
 
 
41

Biochemical diversity of betaines in earthworms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We develop a method for rapid untargetted analysis of betaines. ? We profile betaines in a comparative study of ten earthworm species. ? Earthworms contain a surprisingly high number of different betaine metabolites. ? Earthworms contain betaines normally seen only in plants or marine animals. -- Abstract: The ability to accumulate osmoprotectant compounds, such as betaines, is an important evolutionary feature in many organisms. This is particularly the case for organisms that live in variable environments, which may have fluctuations in moisture and salinity levels. There is, surprisingly, very little known about betaines in soil invertebrates in general, and there is almost no information about earthworms – a group that are important ‘ecosystem engineers’ and key indicators of soil health. Here, we describe a fast and reliable 1H–13C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) 2D NMR approach for the metabolic profiling of a series of betaines and related metabolites in tissue extracts, and list 1H and 13C chemical shifts for the trimethylammonium signal for 23 such compounds. The analysis of ten different species from three different families (Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Glossoscolecidae) showed an unexpected diversity of betaines present in earthworms. In total ten betaines were identified, including hydroxyproline-betaine, proline-betaine, taurine-betaine, GABA-betaine and histidine-betaine, and a further eleven as-yet unassigned putative betaine metabolites detected. The findings clearly indicate a hitherto-unappreciated important role for betaine metabolism in earthworms

42

Partitioning of habitable pore space in earthworm burrows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Earthworms affect macro-pore structure of soils. However, some studies suggest that earthworm burrow walls and casts themselves differ greatly in structure from surrounding soils, potentially creating habitat for microbivorours nematodes which accelerate the decomposition and C and N mineralization. In this study aggregates were sampled from the burrow walls of the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris and bulk soil (not altered by earthworms) from mesocosm incubated in the lab for 0, 1, 3, 5...

Gorres, Josef H.; Amador, Jose A.

2010-01-01

43

Freezing in confined geometries  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of detailed structural studies, using elastic neutron scattering, of the freezing of liquid O2 and D2 in porous vycor glass, are presented. The experimental studies have been complemented by computer simulations of the dynamics of freezing of a Lennard-Jones liquid in narrow channels bounded by molecular walls. Results point to a new simple physical interpretation of freezing in confined geometries.

Sokol, P. E.; Ma, W. J.; Herwig, K. W.; Snow, W. M.; Wang, Y.; Koplik, Joel; Banavar, Jayanth R.

1992-01-01

44

Correlations between Lumbricus terrestris survival and gut microbiota  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The interplay between diet, gut bacteria and health still remain enigmatic. Here, we addressed this issue through the investigation of the effect of crystalline cellulose on the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris gut microbiota composition and survival. Methods : Earthworm gut contents were analyzed after 14 days of feeding using a mixed 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach, in addition to direct measurements of cellulase activity. The survival of earthworms was followed each week for 17 weeks. Results : We found a tendency that the crystalline cellulose fed earthworms survived better than the high energy fed earthworms (p=0.08. Independent of feeding we found that the bacterial group related to Ferrimonadaceae was correlated to an increased lifespan (p=0.01. We also found a positive correlation between Ruminococcaceae related bacteria and cellulase activity in the earthworm gut (p=0.05. Surprisingly, however, the cellulase activity was not correlated to the feeding regime. Conclusion : Taken together, the interactions between diet, gut microbiota and lifespan seem complex.

Knut Rudi

2012-04-01

45

The 2007 California Citrus Freeze: Vulnerability, Poverty, and Unemployment Issues of Farmworkers  

Science.gov (United States)

In January of 2007, freezing temperatures destroyed citrus and vegetable crops in California. By May 2007, more than 9,000 freeze-related unemployment applications had been fled. Through face-to-face interviews, this study documents the experience of 63 farmworkers to find out how they survived the freeze and accessed services. Findings revealed…

Orozco, Graciela Leon

2010-01-01

46

Freeze drying method  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

1999-01-01

47

Freeze drying apparatus  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

2001-01-01

48

Autofluorescence in eleocytes of some earthworm species.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Immunocompetent cells of earthworms, coelomocytes, comprise adherent amoebocytes and granular eleocytes (chloragocytes. Both cell populations can be expelled via dorsal pores of adult earthworms by exposure to an electric current (4.5 V for 1 min. Analysis by phase contrast/fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry demonstrated that eleocyte population of several species exhibits a strong autofluorescence. A high percentage (11-35% of autofluorescent eleocytes was recorded in Allolobophora chlorotica, Dendrodrilus rubidus, Eisenia fetida, and Octolasion sp. (O. cyaneum, O. tyrtaeum tyrtaeum and O. tyrtaeum lacteum. In contrast, autofluorescent coelomocytes were exceptionally scarce (less than 1% in representative Aporrectodea sp. (A. caliginosa and A. longa and Lumbricus sp. (L. castaneus, L. festivus, L. rubellus, L. terrestris. Thus, this paper for the first time describes profound intrinsic fluorescence of eleocytes in some--but not all--earthworm species. The function (if any and inter-species differences of the autofluorescent coelomocytes still remain elusive.

Barbara P?ytycz

2006-04-01

49

Aquaporin-Mediated Improvement of Freeze Tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Restricted to Rapid Freezing Conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous observations that aquaporin overexpression increases the freeze tolerance of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) without negatively affecting the growth or fermentation characteristics held promise for the development of commercial baker's yeast strains used in frozen dough applications. In this study we found that overexpression of the aquaporin-encoding genes AQY1-1 and AQY2-1 improves the freeze tolerance of industrial strain AT25, but only in small doughs under laboratory conditions and not in large doughs under industrial conditions. We found that the difference in the freezing rate is apparently responsible for the difference in the results. We tested six different cooling rates and found that at high cooling rates aquaporin overexpression significantly improved the survival of yeast cells, while at low cooling rates there was no significant effect. Differences in the cultivation conditions and in the thawing rate did not influence the freeze tolerance under the conditions tested. Survival after freezing is determined mainly by two factors, cellular dehydration and intracellular ice crystal formation, which depend in an inverse manner on the cooling velocity. In accordance with this so-called two-factor hypothesis of freezing injury, we suggest that water permeability is limiting, and therefore that aquaporin function is advantageous, only under rapid freezing conditions. If this hypothesis is correct, then aquaporin overexpression is not expected to affect the leavening capacity of yeast cells in large, industrial frozen doughs, which do not freeze rapidly. Our results imply that aquaporin-overexpressing strains have less potential for use in frozen doughs than originally thought. PMID:15184134

Tanghe, An; Van Dijck, Patrick; Colavizza, Didier; Thevelein, Johan M.

2004-01-01

50

Assessing the impact of organic and inorganic amendments on the toxicity and bioavailability of a metal-contaminated soil to the earthworm Eisenia andrei.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metal-contaminated soil, from the El Arteal mining district (SE Spain), was remediated with organic (6% compost) and inorganic amendments (8% marble sludge) to reduce the mobility of metals and to modify its potential environmental impact. Different measures of metal bioavailability (chemical analysis; survival, growth, reproduction and bioaccumulation in the earthworm Eisenia andrei), were tested in order to evaluate the efficacy of organic and inorganic amendments as immobilizing agents in reducing metal (bio)availability in the contaminated soil. The inorganic amendment reduced water and CaCl2-extractable concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn, while the organic amendment increased these concentrations compared to the untreated soil. The inorganic treatment did not significantly reduce toxicity for the earthworm E. andrei after 28 days exposure. The organic amendment however, made the metal-contaminated soil more toxic to the earthworms, with all earthworms dying in undiluted soil and completely inhibiting reproduction at concentrations higher than 25%. This may be due to increased available metal concentrations and higher electrical conductivity in the compost-amended soil. No effects of organic and inorganic treatments on metal bioaccumulation in the earthworms were found and metal concentrations in the earthworms increased with increasing total soil concentrations. PMID:23677751

González, Verónica; Díez-Ortiz, María; Simón, Mariano; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

2013-11-01

51

Productivity Potentials and Nutritional Values of Semi-arid Zone Earthworm (Hyperiodrilus euryaulos; Clausen, 1967 Cultured in Organic Wastes as Fish Meal Supplement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study 60 Adult Earthworms (H. euryaulos of weight and length range 1.7-3.0 g (mean-2.34±0.91 g and 13.0-28.0 cm (mean-21.5±5.8 cm, respectively were cultured for 12 weeks. The productivity potential and nutrient composition of earthworm (H. euryaulos cultured in two rearing substrata (Cellulose Substrate (Control - Coded Hs1 and Dry Neem and leaves and soil Substrate - Coded Hs2 were assessed using six wooden boxes stocked in triplicates at the rate of 92.7 g earthworms per box. The higher total final weight, weekly weight gain, relative growth rate, specific growth rate and survival of 400.6 g kg-1 of substrate, 25.7 g/week/substrate, 332.5, 0.76/day and 99.0% while the lower of 367.5 g kg-1 of substrate, 22.9 g/week, 296.4, 0.71/day and 98.0% were recorded in earthworm cultured in cellulose substrate and the soil substrate respectively. The proximate analyses, mineral compositions and amino acids indices were comparable to those of conventional fish meal. Based on the results of this study, the utilization of cellulose substrate is recommended for the culture of earthworm and the inclusion of the earthworm meal is guarantee as a reliable and nutritional dependable fish meal supplement.

A.O. Sogbesan

2007-01-01

52

Laboratory Protocol for Measuring the Bioaccumulation of Mercury by Earthworms  

Science.gov (United States)

Protocol was developed for a series of laboratory tests to determine if Canadian earthworms ( Lumbricus terrestris) can hyperaccumulate mercury from the soil in which they live. Two batches of 300 hundred worms each were measured for mercury uptake by establishing 3 populations (one control and two of known contamination). Populations were sampled every two weeks. Worm lengths were measured as an indicator of worm age and health. Worm tissue was processed by a modified EPA Method 7470 consisting of freeze drying, vacuum extraction, oxidation and acid extraction of the mercury. Each sample needed 2.000 g dry weight of worm tissue required 5 to 6 worms to be homogenized. Mercury concentration in the extraction fluid was measured by a CETAC M-6100 cold vapor mercury analyzer with an ASX-400 Autosampler having a method detection limit of 0.05 ppb. QA/QC activities such as calibration of instrumentation, spike samples, blank samples, reagent control samples, triplicate samples, and standard samples ensure acurate and precise measurements of mercury levels in tissue samples.

Steffy, D.; Nichols, A.; McLaughlin, A.

2007-12-01

53

Acute and chronic toxicity testing of TPH-contaminated soils with the earthworm, Eisenia foetida  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Responses of Eisenia foetida to petroleum-contaminated soils are being assessed using a 21-day test described previously. The authors prepared dilutions of two soils, referred to as A and B, using their reference-soil counterparts, collected from near the contaminated sites. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of each soil was measured by latroscan before the dilutions were prepared. References for the A and B soils contained 167 and 1,869 ppm of TPH, respectively. Thus, neither reference soil was pristine. Dilutions of the A soil tested with E. foetida contained from 179 to 305 ppm TPH; dilutions of the B soil contained from 1,875 to 1,950 ppm TPH. E foetida survival was 100% in both dilution series. Mean growth of Eisenia in dilutions of the A soil ranged from 48 to 74 mg dry-weight growth per pair of worms; these values were lower than those in any dilution of the B soil series. Lipid levels of worms in higher concentrations of the A and B soils were similar to one another and to published values, suggesting little inhibition of feeding in either dilution series. Earthworm reproduction was zero in the A series, but moderately high in the B series. Thus, the A soil apparently contained materials other than TPH that inhibited earthworm growth and reproduction. This study shows that (1) TPH at concentrations as high as 1,800 ppm may not always be inhibitor to earthworm growth or reproduction and (2) that earthworm survival, as a test endpoint, is much less sensitive than either growth or reproduction

54

In The Deep Freeze  

...Mighty MountainsDeserts and Tropical OceansErupting VolcanosIn The Deep FreezeThe Age of the DinosaursEarth Science Conservation ReviewPublicationsLinksAreas of Earth Science InterestDevelopment...

55

Basic Research Tools for Earthworm Ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Earthworms are responsible for soil development, recycling organic matter and form a vital component within many food webs. For these and other reasons earthworms are worthy of investigation. Many technologically-enhanced approaches have been used within earthworm-focused research. These have their place, may be a development of existing practices or bring techniques from other fields. Nevertheless, let us not overlook the fact that much can still be learned through utilisation of more basic approaches which have been used for some time. New does not always equate to better. Information on community composition within an area and specific population densities can be learned using simple collection techniques, and burrowing behaviour can be determined from pits, resin-insertion or simple mesocosms. Life history studies can be achieved through maintenance of relatively simple cultures. Behavioural observations can be undertaken by direct observation or with low cost we became usage. Applied aspects of earthworm research can also be achieved through use of simple techniques to enhance population development and even population dynamics can be directly addressed with use of relatively inexpensive, effective marking techniques. This paper seeks to demonstrate that good quality research in this sphere can result from appropriate application of relatively simple research tools.

56

Easy Extraction of Roundworms from Earthworm Hosts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the inexpensive and safe method of using roundworms in the classroom or laboratories. Because parasitic infections are so common, students should learn about worms. Provides statistics on just how many people have a worm infection in the world. Explains how to study living nematodes, and obtain and use earthworms. (Contains 13…

Eyster, Linda S.; Fried, Bernard

2000-01-01

57

Natural freezing as a wastewater treatment method: E. coli inactivation capacity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inactivation capacity of E. coli (strain ATCC 15597) in water by natural freezing was examined via two freezing methods: spray freezing and freezing in a freezer. The effect of freezing temperature (-5, -15 and -35 degrees C), storage time, freeze-thaw cycles on the survival of the test organism were investigated. In addition, the number of cells injured by the freezing process was also examined by using different growth media. The bacteria frozen at the warmer temperature (-5 degrees C) was most sensitive to storage and freeze-thaw cycles as compared to those frozen at -15 and -35 degrees C. In general, greater inactivation efficiencies were achieved under longer storage time and warmer freezing temperature conditions. Freezing and thawing caused cell injury. More cells were injured when frozen at -15 degrees C. The percentage of cells injured decreased as freeze-thaw cycles increased. The spray-freezing process was found more effective in killing the cells. On average, the log reduction rate for the spray ice with two-day storage time was about 4 log units higher than those without any storage after freezing. The results indicated that the natural freezing processes are not only cost-effective techniques for chemical and physical contaminant removal from wastewater or enhancing sludge dewaterability in cold regions but also effective in reducing E. coli concentration. PMID:16740289

Gao, W; Smith, D W; Li, Y

2006-07-01

58

Diversity of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae in Sofia Plain, Bulgaria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A rich earthworm material from 47 different localities in Sofia Plain has been elaborated. During the investigations between the years 2010 and 2013, thirteen earthworm species and subspecies were collected altogether, belonging to seven genera. Among them, three new records are reported. Aporrectodea longa (Ude, 1885, Eisenia lucens (Waga, 1857 and Octodrilus transpadanus (Rosa, 1884 proved to be new to the earthworm fauna of Sofia plain.

Hristo

2014-10-01

59

Dynamics of earthworms in some Colombian Andean hillsides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Samples were taken from 40 year old forest and from Pennisetum clandestinum pastures in hillside soil, with the aim of determining the temporal dynamics of earthworm diversity, abundance and biomass. The methodology consisted in manually taking two soil samples per week of a volume of 1 x 1 x 0.6 m each. The parameters vary depending on land use and time of sampling. In total 17 earthworm species were found in the soil. Earthworm diversity and biomass were higher in S+40 years than in P. clandestinum (11 vs 9), while earthworm density was higher in P. clandestinum

60

Root Foraging Influences Plant Growth Responses to Earthworm Foraging  

Science.gov (United States)

Interactions among the foraging behaviours of co-occurring animal species can impact population and community dynamics; the consequences of interactions between plant and animal foraging behaviours have received less attention. In North American forests, invasions by European earthworms have led to substantial changes in plant community composition. Changes in leaf litter have been identified as a critical indirect mechanism driving earthworm impacts on plants. However, there has been limited examination of the direct effects of earthworm burrowing on plant growth. Here we show a novel second pathway exists, whereby earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) impact plant root foraging. In a mini-rhizotron experiment, roots occurred more frequently in burrows and soil cracks than in the soil matrix. The roots of Achillea millefolium L. preferentially occupied earthworm burrows, where nutrient availability was presumably higher than in cracks due to earthworm excreta. In contrast, the roots of Campanula rotundifolia L. were less likely to occur in burrows. This shift in root behaviour was associated with a 30% decline in the overall biomass of C. rotundifolia when earthworms were present. Our results indicate earthworm impacts on plant foraging can occur indirectly via physical and chemical changes to the soil and directly via root consumption or abrasion and thus may be one factor influencing plant growth and community change following earthworm invasion. More generally, this work demonstrates the potential for interactions to occur between the foraging behaviours of plants and soil animals and emphasizes the importance of integrating behavioural understanding in foraging studies involving plants. PMID:25268503

Cameron, Erin K.; Cahill, James F.; Bayne, Erin M.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Effects of cadmium and lead on the life-cycle parameters of juvenile earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

Science.gov (United States)

Juveniles Eisenia fetida were exposed to cadmium (1-500µgCdg(-1)) and lead (20-2500µgPbg(-1)) for fourteen weeks in order to evaluate the impact on life-cycle parameters (survival, growth, sexual maturation, and cocoon production) and lipid peroxidation (expressed as concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA)). Both metals were found to significantly affect survival of the juveniles (fourteen-week LC50 296±125µgCdg(-1) and 911±164µgPbg(-1)) and alter their development. Cd and Pb severely affected the weight of the juveniles, prolonged the time to sexual maturation (at the highest concentrations, earthworms did not reach sexual maturity at all), and reduced cocoon production. LC50 significantly decreased with the time of earthworm exposure, indicating that chronic exposure to the same levels of contaminants in the soil may have more detrimental consequences than short-term exposure. A survival model showed that the survival probability for the juveniles decreased significantly with time and the concentration of metals in the soil. The metals induced a significant increase in MDA concentration (2.98-fold and 1.54-fold at 250µgCdg(-1) and 2500µgPbg(-1), respectively), and the content of MDA was negatively related to the weight of the juveniles and the percentage of mature individuals (p<0.05). PMID:24561241

Žaltauskait?, J?rat?; Sodien?, Inga

2014-05-01

62

[Ecological and physiological adaptabilities of earthworm in biofilter under domestication stage].  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological and physiological adaptabilities of earthworm in biofilter under domestication stage is presented, as well as related factors. The results show that, due to the coercion of natural and filter environment, the number and biomass of earthworms present a gradual downward trend after added. But once the conditions become appropriate, hatching of larvae could add the number and biomass of earthworm in the filter. With the increase of temperature, circumjacent earthworms gradually move to the water distribution area, 58 days later earthworms distribution become more uniform. Earthworm density and moisture content exist the significant negative correlation. Temperature, precipitation and rainfall don't affect the ecological indicators of earthworms significantly. When temperature is below 15 degrees C, the earthworms' respiratory rate become more sensitive and decline significantly which is not conducive for earthworms treatment of sewage sludge. In a certain range, it's effective for improving the efficiency of sludge treatment to increase the density of earthworms and distribute earthworms evenly. PMID:19799301

Yang, Jian; Deng, De-han; Chen, Qiao-yan; Zhao, Li-min; Yi, Dang-hao

2009-08-15

63

Microbial Environment Affects Innate Immunity in Two Closely Related Earthworm Species Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida  

Science.gov (United States)

Survival of earthworms in the environment depends on their ability to recognize and eliminate potential pathogens. This work is aimed to compare the innate defense mechanisms of two closely related earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida, that inhabit substantially different ecological niches. While E. andrei lives in a compost and manure, E. fetida can be found in the litter layer in forests. Therefore, the influence of environment-specific microbiota on the immune response of both species was followed. Firstly, a reliable method to discern between E. andrei and E. fetida based on species-specific primers for cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and stringent PCR conditions was developed. Secondly, to analyze the immunological profile in both earthworm species, the activity and expression of lysozyme, pattern recognition protein CCF, and antimicrobial proteins with hemolytic function, fetidin and lysenins, have been assessed. Whereas, CCF and lysozyme showed only slight differences in the expression and activity, fetidin/lysenins expression as well as the hemolytic activity was considerably higher in E. andrei as compared to E. fetida. The expression of fetidin/lysenins in E. fetida was not affected upon the challenge with compost microbiota, suggesting more substantial changes in the regulation of the gene expression. Genomic DNA analyses revealed significantly higher level of fetidin/lysenins (determined using universal primer pairs) in E. andrei compared to E. fetida. It can be hypothesized that E. andrei colonizing compost as a new habitat acquired an evolutionary selection advantage resulting in a higher expression of antimicrobial proteins. PMID:24223917

Dvorak, Jiri; Mancikova, Veronika; Pizl, Vaclav; Elhottova, Dana; Silerova, Marcela; Roubalova, Radka; Skanta, Frantisek; Prochazkova, Petra; Bilej, Martin

2013-01-01

64

ECOTOXICOLOGICAL BIOASSAYS OF THE EARTHWORMS ALLOLOBOPHORA CALIGINOSA SAVIGNY AND PHERETIMA HAWAYANA ROSA TREATED WITH ARSENATE  

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Full Text Available Little research has been carried out on the effect of arsenate on earthworms. Ecotoxicological laboratory tests are fundamental tools for assessing the toxicity of arsenate to soil organisms. In this study, the impact of arsenate on the survival, reproduction and behaviour of the endogenic earthworms Allolobophora caliginosa and the anecic earthworms Pheretima hawayana has been quantified. The 96-h LC 50 of arsenate was estimated as 233.43 mg arsenate Kg-1 soil. d.w. for P. hawayana which is significantly higher than that of A. caliginosa 147.24±27.16 mg arsenate kg-1 soil d.w. The number of juveniles of P. hawayana was significantly higher than that of A. caliginosa at the arsenate concentrations 180, 240 and 400 mg kg-1 soil dry weight. With the exception of the control (6.5 mg arsenate kg-1 soil.d.w., P. hawayana showed an avoidance behaviour for soils treated with all tested concentrations. A. caliginosa preferred soils treated with 6.5, 60, 110, 180 mg arsenate kg-1 soil d.w., while the avoidance behaviour has been recorded only at 240 and 400 mg arsenate kg-1 soil. d.w. This means that A. caliginosa individuals feed less when exposed to arsenate. On the contrary, the P. hawayana worms could be escaped into their deep vertical burrows when exposed to arsenate.

Abdelmonem Mohamed Khalil

2013-01-01

65

Ecological transfer of radionuclides and metals to free-living earthworm species in natural habitats rich in NORM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transfer of radionuclides (232Th and 238U) and associated metals (As, Cd, Pb and Cr) from soil to free-living earthworm species was investigated in a thorium (232Th) rich area in Norway. Sampling took place within former mining sites representing the technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM), at undisturbed site with unique bedrock geology representing the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and at site outside the 232Th rich area taken as reference Background site. Soil analysis revealed the elevated levels of investigated elements at NORM and TENORM sites. Based on sequential extraction, uranium (238U) and cadmium (Cd) were quite mobile, while the other elements were strongly associated with mineral components of soil. Four investigated earthworm species (Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Dendrodrilus rubidus and Lumbricus rubellus) showed large individual variability in the accumulation of radionuclides and metals. Differences in uptake by epigeic and endogeic species, as well as differences within same species from the NORM, TENORM and Background sites were also seen. Based on total concentrations in soil, the transfer factors (TF) were in ranges 0.03–0.08 and 0.09–0.25, for 232Th and 238U, respectively. TFs for lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) were low (less than 0.5), while TFs for Cd were higher (about 10). Using the ERICA tool, the estimated radiation exposure dose rate of the earthworms ranged from 2.2 to 3.9 ?Gy/h. The radiological risk for investigated earthworms was low (0.28). The obtained results demonstrated that free-living earthworm species can survive in soil containing elevated 232Th and 238U, as well As, Cd, Pb and Cr levels, although certain amount of radionuclides was accumulated within their bodies. The present investigation contributes to general better understanding of complex soil-to-biota transfer processes of radionuclides and metals and to assessment of risk for non-human species in the ecosystem with multiple contaminants. - Highlights: ? Transfer of radionuclides (232Th, 238U) and metals (As, Cr, Cd and Pb) from soil to earthworms was investigated. ? Individual organisms’ variability and species specific accumulation were demonstrated. ? Results suggested that earthworms could survive in habitats with multiple contaminants. ? Estimated radiological risk was not significant despite high soil concentrations of radionuclides.

66

Checklist of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) from Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

A checklist of the German earthworm fauna (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) is presented, including published data, data from reports, diploma- and PhD- theses as well as unpublished data from museum collections, research institutions and private persons. Overall, 16,000 datasets were analyzed to produce the first German checklist of Lumbricidae. The checklist comprises 46 earthworm species from 15 genera and provides ecological information, zoogeographical distribution type and information on the species distribution in Germany. Only one species, Lumbricus badensis Michaelsen, 1907, is endemic to Germany, whereas 41% are peregrine. As there are 14 species occurring exclusively in the southern or eastern part of Germany, the species numbers in German regions increase from north to south. PMID:25283656

Lehmitz, Ricarda; Römbke, Jörg; Jänsch, Stephan; Krück, Stefanie; Beylich, Anneke; Graefe, Ulfert

2014-01-01

67

Gene Expression Analysis of CL-20-induced Reversible Neurotoxicity Reveals GABAA Receptors as Potential Target in the Earthworm Eisenia fetida  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The earthworm Eisenia fetida is one of the most used species in standardized soil ecotoxicity tests. Endpoints such as survival, growth and reproduction are eco-toxicologically relevant but provide little mechanistic insight into toxicity pathways, especially at the molecular level. Here we applied a toxicogenomic approach to investigate the mode of action underlying the reversible neurotoxicity of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), a cyclic nitroamine explosives compound. We developed an...

Gong, Ping; Guan, Xin; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Liang, Chun; Perkins, Edward J.

2012-01-01

68

3 CFR - Pay Freeze  

Science.gov (United States)

...Memorandum of January 21, 2009 Pay Freeze Memorandum for the...quickly to provide assistance to average Americans. Many have accepted...and in improving the lives of average Americans. In this challenging...the White House staff forgo pay increases until further...

2010-01-01

69

Freezing human ES cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we demonstrate how our lab freezes HuES human embryonic stem cell lines. A healthy, exponentially expanding culture is washed with PBS to remove residual media that could otherwise quench the Trypsin reaction. Warmed 0.05% Trypsin-EDTA is then added to cover the cells, and the plate allowed to incubate for up to 5 mins at room temperature. During this time cells can be observed rounding, and colonies lifting off the plate surface. Gentle repeated pipetting will remove cells and colonies from the plate surface. Trypsinized cells are placed in a standard conical tube containing pre-warmed hES cell media to quench remaining trypsin, and then spun. Cells are resuspended growth media at a concentration of approximately one million cells in one mL of media, a concentration such that one frozen aliquot is sufficient to resurrect a culture on a 10 cm plate. After cells are adequately resuspended, ice cold freezing media is added at equal volume. Cell suspensions are mixed thoroughly, aliquoted into freezing vials, and allowed to slowly freeze to -80 C over 24 hours. Frozen cells can then moved to the vapor phase of liquid nitrogen for long term storage, or remain at -80 for approximately six months. PMID:18704182

Trish, Erin; Dimos, John; Eggan, Kevin

2006-12-01

70

Freezing of Triangulations  

CERN Document Server

Zero temperature dynamics of two dimensional triangulations of a torus with curvature energy is described. Numerical simulations strongly suggest that the model get frozen in metastable states, made of topological defects on flat surfaces, that group into clusters of same topological charge. It is conjectured that freezing is related to high temperature structure of baby universes.

Kownacki, J P

2004-01-01

71

Variation in seedling freezing response is associated with climate in Larrea  

Science.gov (United States)

Variation in freezing severity is hypothesized to have influenced the distribution and evolution of the warm desert evergreen genus Larrea. If this hypothesis is correct, performance and survival of species and populations should vary predictably along gradients of freezing severity. If freezing environment changes in the future, the ability of Larrea to adapt will depend on the structure of variation for freezing resistance within populations. To test whether freezing responses vary among and within Larrea populations, we grew maternal families of seedlings from high and low latitude L. divaricata and high latitude L. tridentata populations in a common garden. We measured survival, projected plant area and dark-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) before and after cold acclimation and for 2 weeks following a single freeze. We detected significant variation in freezing resistance among species and populations. Maternal family lines differed significantly in their responses to cold acclimation and/or freezing for two out of the three populations: among L. tridentata maternal families and among low latitude L. divaricata maternal families. There were no significant differences across maternal families of high latitude L. divaricata. Our results indicate that increased freezing resistance in high latitude populations likely facilitated historical population expansion of both species into colder climates, but this may have occurred to a greater extent for L. tridentata than for L. divaricata. Differences in the structure of variation for cold acclimation and freezing responses among populations suggest potential differences in their ability to evolve in response to future changes in freezing severity. PMID:22068319

Marshall, Diane L.; Maherali, Hafiz; Pockman, William T.

2013-01-01

72

Earthworm Effects without Earthworms: Inoculation of Raw Organic Matter with Worm-Worked Substrates Alters Microbial Community Functioning  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with soil microorganisms. They enhance decomposition rates through the joint action of direct effects (i.e. effects due to direct earthworm activity such as digestion, burrowing, etc) and indirect effects (i.e. effects derived from earthworm activities such as cast ageing). Here we test whether indirect earthworm effects affect microbial community functioning in the substrate, as when earthworms are present (i. e., direct effects). Methodology/Principal Findings To address these questions we inoculated fresh organic matter (pig manure) with worm-worked substrates (vermicompost) produced by three different earthworm species. Two doses of each vermicompost were used (2.5 and 10%). We hypothesized that the presence of worm-worked material in the fresh organic matter will result in an inoculum of different microorganisms and nutrients. This inoculum should interact with microbial communities in fresh organic matter, thus promoting modifications similar to those found when earthworms are present. Inoculation of worm-worked substrates provoked significant increases in microbial biomass and enzyme activities (?-glucosidase, cellulase, phosphatase and protease). These indirect effects were similar to, although lower than, those obtained in pig manure with earthworms (direct and indirect earthworm effects). In general, the effects were not dose-dependent, suggesting the existence of a threshold at which they were triggered. Conclusion/Significance Our data reveal that the relationships between earthworms and microorganisms are far from being understood, and suggest the existence of several positive feedbacks during earthworm activity as a result of the interactions between direct and indirect effects, since their combination produces stronger modifications to microbial biomass and enzyme activity. PMID:21298016

Aira, Manuel; Domínguez, Jorge

2011-01-01

73

Effect of Soil Physical State on the Earthworms in Hungary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hungarian authors have long been discussing the role of earthworms in improving soil productivity. Earthworm counts in our higher quality soils are similar to those found in soils where more attention is paid to earthworm activity. Negative impacts that are independent of farming such as sustained dry spells in the summer also affect earthworm counts. Negative impacts that definitely depend on farming include land use causing soil moisture loss, deep stubble treatment leaving the soil without cover, and ploughing in the summer without subsequent pressing. The climate change is having both positive and negative impacts. Weather patterns are causing losses but adopting climate mitigating tillage are generating benefits. In the trials results so far show that tillage focusing on preserving soil moisture, structure, and organic materials, covering the surface in the critical months as well as adequate soil loosening are fundamental pre-requisites for making the soil a favourable habitat for earthworms.

74

Microscale interactions between earthworms and microorganisms: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microorganisms are well adapted to their soil microhabitat where they live together in consortia, interacting with other living members, including earthworms. This literature review consists of four sections that focus on microscale interactions between earthworms and microorganisms. The first part is devoted to nephridia symbiosis. Recent discoveries show that Verminephrobacter spp. is present as a symbiont in earthworm nephridia. The second section deals with earthworm food preference and focuses on the major hypotheses of foraging strategies. The third section presents evidence of gut symbionts and highlights the need for additional studies in this field. The last section of this review explains why microorganism activities are enhanced in burrows and casts of earthworms.

Zirbes, L.

2012-01-01

75

Carbon-Mineral Interactions along an Earthworm Invasion Gradient  

Science.gov (United States)

We broadly agree that the interactions of organic matter and minerals contribute to soils’ capacity to store carbon. Such interactions may be controlled by the processes that determine the availability of organic matter and minerals and their physical contacts. One of these processes is bioturbation, and earthworms are the best known organisms that physically mix soils. We are studying carbon mineral interactions along an approximately 200 meter long earthworm invasion transect in a hardwood forest in northern Minnesota. This transect extends from the soils where earthworms are absent to the soils that have been invaded by earthworms for ~30-40 years. Pre-invasion soils have approximately 5 cm thick litter layer, thin (~5 cm) A horizon, silt rich E horizon, and clay-rich Bt horizons. The A and E horizons formed from aeolian deposits, while the clay-rich Bt horizons developed from glacial till. With the advent of earthworm invasion, the litter layer disappears, and the A horizon thickens at the expense of the E horizons. Carbon and nitrogen concentrations in the A and E horizons significantly increased with the advent of earthworm invasion. Simultaneously, minerals’ capacities to complex the organic matter appear to be greater in the soils with active earthworm populations. Based on the data from the two end member soils along the transect, minerals’ specific surface area in the A and E horizons are larger in the earthworm invaded soil than in the pre-invasion soil. Additionally, earthworm invasion rapidly (within pits along the entire length of the transect. This growing data set, when ultimately combined with ongoing monitoring of (1) the population dynamics of earthworms along the transect and (2) dissolved organic carbon, will allow us to answer how and how much soils’ capacity to store carbon are affected by burrowing organisms who are often the key stone species of given ecosystems.

Lyttle, A.; Yoo, K.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Hale, C.; Sebestyen, S. D.

2010-12-01

76

Gene Expression Analysis of CL-20-induced Reversible Neurotoxicity Reveals GABAA Receptors as Potential Target in the Earthworm Eisenia fetida  

Science.gov (United States)

The earthworm Eisenia fetida is one of the most used species in standardized soil ecotoxicity tests. Endpoints such as survival, growth and reproduction are eco-toxicologically relevant but provide little mechanistic insight into toxicity pathways, especially at the molecular level. Here we applied a toxicogenomic approach to investigate the mode of action underlying the reversible neurotoxicity of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), a cyclic nitroamine explosives compound. We developed an E. fetida-specific shotgun microarray targeting 15119 unique E. fetida transcripts. Using this array we profiled gene expression in E. fetida in response to exposure to CL-20. Eighteen earthworms were exposed for 6 days to 0.2 ?g/cm2 of CL-20 on filter paper, half of which were allowed to recover in a clean environment for 7 days. Nine vehicle control earthworms were sacrificed at day 6 and 13, separately. Electrophysiological measurements indicated that the conduction velocity of earthworm medial giant nerve fiber decreased significantly after 6-day exposure to CL-20, but was restored after 7 days of recovery. Total RNA was isolated from the four treatment groups including 6-day control, 6-day exposed, 13-day control and 13-day exposed (i.e. 6-day exposure followed by 7-day recovery), and was hybridized to the 15K shot-gun oligo array. Statistical and bioinformatic analyses suggest that CL-20 initiated neurotoxicity by non-competitively blocking the ligand-gated GABAA receptor ion channel, leading to altered expression of genes involved in GABAergic, cholinergic, and Agrin-MuSK pathways. In the recovery phase, expression of affected genes returned to normality, possibly as a result of autophagy and CL-20 dissociation/metabolism. This study provides significant insights into potential mechanisms of CL-20-induced neurotoxicity and the recovery of earthworms from transient neurotoxicity stress. PMID:22191394

Gong, Ping; Guan, Xin; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Liang, Chun; Perkins, Edward J.

2012-01-01

77

The survival of mouse oocytes shows little or no correlation with the vitrification or freezing of the external medium, but the ability of the medium to vitrify is affected by its solute concentration and by the cooling rate.  

Science.gov (United States)

As survival of mouse oocytes subjected to vitrification depends far more on the warming rate than on the cooling rate, we wished to determine whether the lack of correlation between survival and cooling rate was mirrored by a lack of correlation between cooling rate and vitrification of the medium (EAFS), and between survival and the vitrification of the medium. The morphological and functional survival of the oocytes showed little or no relation to whether or not the EAFS medium vitrified or froze. We studied if the droplet size and the elapsed time (between placing the droplet on the Cryotop and the start of cooling) affects the result through modification of the cooling rate and solute concentration. Dehydration was rapid; consequently, the time between the placing the droplets into a Cryotop and cooling must be held to a minimum. The size of the EAFS droplet that is being cooled does not seem to affect vitrification. Finally, the degree to which samples of EAFS vitrify is firmly dependent on both its solute concentration and the cooling rate. PMID:24056038

Paredes, Estefania; Mazur, Peter

2013-12-01

78

Toxicity of sodium tungstate to earthworm, oat, radish, and lettuce.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to unknown effects of the potential exposure of the terrestrial environment to tungsten substances, a series of toxicity studies of sodium tungstate (Na(2) WO(4) ) was conducted. The effect on earthworm (Eisenia fetida) survival and reproduction was examined using Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guideline 222. No effect on either endpoint was seen at the highest concentration tested, resulting in a 56-d no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) of ?586 mg tungsten/kg dry soil (nominal concentrations). The effect of sodium tungstate on emergence and growth of plant species was examined according to OECD Guideline 208: oat (Avena sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). No effects on emergence, shoot height, and dry shoot weight were observed in oats exposed to the highest concentration, resulting in a 21-d NOEC of ?586 mg tungsten/kg dry soil. The NOECs for radish and lettuce were 65 and 21.7 mg tungsten/kg dry soil (nominal concentrations), respectively. Respective 21-d median effective concentration values (EC50) for radish and lettuce were >586 and 313 mg tungsten/kg dry soil (based on shoot height) (confidence level [CL] -8.5-615); EC25 values were 152 (CL 0-331) and 55 (CL 0-114) mg tungsten/kg dry soil. Results are consistent with the few other tungsten substance terrestrial toxicity studies in the literature. PMID:21805499

Bamford, Josie E; Butler, Alicia D; Heim, Katherine E; Pittinger, Charles A; Lemus, Ranulfo; Staveley, Jane P; Lee, K Brian; Venezia, Carmen; Pardus, Michael J

2011-10-01

79

Metabolic changes during estivation in the common earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The common earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa survives drought by forming estivation chambers in the topsoil under even very slight reductions in soil water activity. We induced estivation in a soil of a consistency that allowed the removal of intact soil estivation chambers containing a single worm. These estivation chambers were exposed to 97% relative humidity for 30 d to simulate the effect of a severe summer drought. Gas exchange, body fluid osmolality, water balance, urea, and alanine were quantified, and whole-body homogenates were screened for changes in small organic molecules via (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Formation of estivation chambers was associated with a dramatic increase in body fluid osmolality, from 175 to 562 mOsm kg(-1), accompanied by a 20% increase in water content. Dehydration for 1 mo caused a further increase to 684 mOsm kg(-1), while the worms lost 50% of their water content. Gas exchange was depressed by 50% after worms entered estivation and by 80% after a further 30 d of dehydration. Urea concentrations increased from 0.3 to 1 micromol g(-1) dry mass during this time. Although (1)H-NMR did not provide the identity of the osmolytes responsible for the initial increase in osmolality after estivation, it showed that alanine increased to more than 80 mmol L(-1) in the long-term-estivation group. We propose that alanine functions as a nitrogen depot during dehydration and is not an anaerobe product in this case.

Bayley, Mark; Overgaard, Johannes

2011-01-01

80

Status, Trends, and Advances in Earthworm Research and Vermitechnology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this special issue reflect the developments in the fields of earthworm research and vermitechnology. Charles Darwins observation on earthworms is a milestone in understanding the soil biology and enormous contribution to some aspects of the genesis of humus and of its role in soils. Earthworms are the best known soil inhabiting animals commonly called friends of farmers due to the beneficial role they play in soil. The research on earthworms has gained importance in India as well as in other countries. In the year 1981, an international symposium entitled Earthworm Ecology: Darwin to Vermiculture was held at Cumbria, UK, to commemorate the centenary celebration of Darwins book The Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of Worms, with Observations on Their Habits that was published in 1881 by Murray, London, UK. In the year 2000, Vermillenium-an international workshop and symposium- was held at Kalamazoo, USA, to realize the progress achieved in this field after a decade (since 1991). Recently, Ninth International Symposium on Earthworm Ecology (ISEE-9) that was held at Xalapa, Mexico, during the 5th to 10th of September 2010 clearly proved the importance of earthworms and vermitechnology by the participation of scientists from different countries. About 300 papers were received from the researchers across the world

 
 
 
 
81

Importance of freeze-thaw events in low temperature ecotoxicology of cold tolerant enchytraeids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Due to global warming it is predicted that freeze-thaw cycles will increase in Arctic and cold temperate regions. The effects of this variation becomes of particular ecological importance to freeze-tolerant species when it is combined with chemical pollutants. We compared the effect of control temperature (2 °C), daily freeze-thaw cycles (2 to -4 °C) and constant freezing (-2 °C) temperatures on the cold-tolerance of oligochaete worms (Enchytraeus albidus) and tested how survival was influenced by pre-exposure to 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), a common nonionic detergent found in sewage sludge amended soils. Results showed that combined effect of 4-NP and daily freeze-thaw cycles can cause higher mortality to worms as compared with sustained freezing or control temperature. Exposure to 4-NP caused a substantial depletion of glycogen reserves which is catabolized during freezing to produce cryoprotective concentrations of free glucose. Further, exposure to freeze-thaw cycles resulted in higher concentrations of 4-NP inworm tissues as compared to constant freezing or control temperature (2 °C). Thus, worms exposed to combined effect of freeze-thaw cycles and 4-NP suffer higher consequences, with the toxic effect of the chemical potentiating the deleterious effects of freezing and thawing.

Patrício Silva, Ana L; Enggrob, Kirsten

2014-01-01

82

Importance of freeze-thaw events in low temperature ecotoxicology of cold tolerant enchytraeids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to global warming it is predicted that freeze-thaw cycles will increase in Arctic and cold temperate regions. The effects of this variation becomes of particular ecological importance to freeze-tolerant species when it is combined with chemical pollutants. We compared the effect of control temperature (2 °C), daily freeze-thaw cycles (2 to -4 °C) and constant freezing (-2 °C) temperatures on the cold-tolerance of oligochaete worms (Enchytraeus albidus) and tested how survival was influenced by pre-exposure to 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), a common nonionic detergent found in sewage sludge amended soils. Results showed that combined effect of 4-NP and daily freeze-thaw cycles can cause higher mortality to worms as compared with sustained freezing or control temperature. Exposure to 4-NP caused a substantial depletion of glycogen reserves which is catabolized during freezing to produce cryoprotective concentrations of free glucose. Further, exposure to freeze-thaw cycles resulted in higher concentrations of 4-NP in worm tissues as compared to constant freezing or control temperature (2 °C). Thus, worms exposed to combined effect of freeze-thaw cycles and 4-NP suffer higher consequences, with the toxic effect of the chemical potentiating the deleterious effects of freezing and thawing. PMID:25072919

Silva, Ana L Patrício; Enggrob, Kirsten; Slotsbo, Stine; Amorim, Mónica J B; Holmstrup, Martin

2014-08-19

83

The value of a freeze  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on the rapid increase in public support for a nuclear-freeze agreement---that is, a mutual freeze on the testing, production and further deployment of nuclear weapons---which has been a remarkable political phenomenon. In less than a year, support has grown from a few volunteers collecting signatures on petitions to a congressional vote in which supporters of a freeze very nearly prevailed. This fall, eight states and the District of Columbia will vote on freeze referendums. Already Wisconsin voters have overwhelmingly voted yes in such a referendum. There are many reasons for this strong support for a freeze, including fear of nuclear war, resistance to high levels of military spending and opposition to particular military policies of the Reagan administration. But to most supporters, the chief purpose of a freeze is simple: it is to help stop an immense, continuing, dangerous and incredibly costly arms race between the two superpowers

84

Water Freezing in Nanopores  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The structure and dynamics of supercooled liquid water and of amorphous ice is a very active area of current research. Confinement induces new phenomena such as melting point suppression, and in some cases, water seems even not to freeze at all, as shown in recent differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. Micelle-templated porous silica materials, such as SBA-15 and MCM-41represent ideal model systems for studying water in nano-confinement. The pores of these materials are perfectly ordered on a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice with lattice parameter of a few Nanometers, making these materials ideal for investigations with small-angle X-ray (SAXS) and neutron (SANS) scattering methods. We performed Synchrotron-SAXS and SANS measurement on water-filled MCM-41 and SBA-15 porous materials with pore diameters ranging from 2 nm - 9 nm. The advantages of the two complementary scattering techniques, SAXS and SANS are ideally applied to our system. The high brilliance synchrotron radiation makes strain effects in the order of 10-3 resolvable. The phase contrast variation in neutron scattering allows a detailed investigation of density change of water by using a proper H2O/D2O. Two phenomena could be observed during freezing and melting of confined water. First, the water density change during phase transformation results in change of the scattering contrast and therefore changes the scattering intensity. Second, the str the scattering intensity. Second, the strain-induced contraction and expansion of the pore lattice during water phase transformation leads to a shift of the Bragg-Peak position. Both effects are observed for water in large pores exactly at the phase transition temperatures predicted by DSC. Moreover, these effects are present even for water confined in pores below 2,5 nm where water is assumed not to freeze. Additionally, we performed cooling and heating cycles on samples with different pore filling fractions. Different number of the few water layers on pore walls show different freezing and melting behaviour which is discussed together with the results from fully-filled pores with different diameters. (author)

85

Freezing vortex rivers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that the dissipative state at high current densities of superconducting samples with a periodic array of holes consist of flux rivers resulting from a short range attractive interaction between vortices. This dynamically induced vortex-vortex attraction results from the migration of quasiparticles out of the vortex core. We have directly visualized the formation of vortex chains by scanning Hall microscopy after freezing the dynamic state by a field cooling procedure at constant bias current. Similar experiments carried out in a sample without holes show no hint of flux river formation.

86

Identification and Classification of Earthworm Species in Guyana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Earthworms are very important organisms, they are both environmentally and economically beneficial and hence their correct identification and classification is very vital. Taxonomy aims to classify organisms based on their similarities and differences. The present study was carried out during the year 2006-2007 at University of Guyana, Georgetown focusing on identification and classification of local earthworm species of Guyana and comparison with a known non-native species (California red. The earthworms were collected (using hand sorting method, cultured and then carefully examined (worms were washed with water, preserved in 10% formalin solution. The two species studied were identified based on their external morphology and internal anatomy as well as their ecological features. The California red earthworm was grouped under the family Lumbricidae and identified as Eisenia foetida, while the local species was grouped under the family Eudrilidae and identified as Eudrilus eugenia.

Preeta Saywack

2011-01-01

87

Menadione enhances oxyradical formation in earthworm extracts: vulnerability of earthworms to quinone toxicity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase activities have been determined in the earthworms, L. rubellus and A. chlorotica, extracts. Menadione (0.35 mM, maximum concentration tested) was found to stimulate the rates of NADPH- and NADH-dependent cytochrome c reduction by three- and twofold, respectively. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibited completely this menadione-mediated stimulation, suggesting that {center_dot}O{sub 2}{sup -} is involved in the redox cycling of menadione. However, SOD had no effect on the basal activity (activity in the absence of quinone) in the case of NADH-dependent cytochrome c reduction, whereas it partially inhibited the basal activity of NADPH-cytochrome c reduction. This indicates direct electron transfer in the former case and the formation of superoxide anion in the latter. DT-diaphorase, measured as the dicumarol-inhibitable part of menadione reductase activity, was not detectable in the earthworms' extracts. In contrast, it was found that DT-diaphorase represents about 70% of the menadione reductase activities in the freshwater mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. The results of this work suggest that earthworms, compared with mussels, could be more vulnerable to oxidative stress from quinones due to lack, or very low level of DT-diaphorase, an enzyme considered to play a significant role in the detoxification of quinones. On the contrary, mussels have efficient DT-diaphorase, which catalyzes two-electron reduction of menadione directly to hydroquinone, thus circumventing the formation of semiquinone.

Osman, A.M.; Besten, P.J. den; Noort, P.C.M. van

2003-10-08

88

Menadione enhances oxyradical formation in earthworm extracts: vulnerability of earthworms to quinone toxicity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase activities have been determined in the earthworms, L. rubellus and A. chlorotica, extracts. Menadione (0.35 mM, maximum concentration tested) was found to stimulate the rates of NADPH- and NADH-dependent cytochrome c reduction by three- and twofold, respectively. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibited completely this menadione-mediated stimulation, suggesting that ·O2- is involved in the redox cycling of menadione. However, SOD had no effect on the basal activity (activity in the absence of quinone) in the case of NADH-dependent cytochrome c reduction, whereas it partially inhibited the basal activity of NADPH-cytochrome c reduction. This indicates direct electron transfer in the former case and the formation of superoxide anion in the latter. DT-diaphorase, measured as the dicumarol-inhibitable part of menadione reductase activity, was not detectable in the earthworms' extracts. In contrast, it was found that DT-diaphorase represents about 70% of the menadione reductase activities in the freshwater mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. The results of this work suggest that earthworms, compared with mussels, could be more vulnerable to oxidative stress from quinones due to lack, or very low level of DT-diaphorase, an enzyme considered to play a significant role in the detoxification of quinones. On the contrary, mussels have efficient DT-diaphorase, which catalyzes two-electron reduction of menadione directly to hydroquinoneion of menadione directly to hydroquinone, thus circumventing the formation of semiquinone

89

Performance Characteristics of an Isothermal Freeze Valve  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document discusses performance characteristics of an isothermal freeze valve. A freeze valve has been specified for draining the DWPF melter at the end of its lifetime. Two freeze valve designs have been evaluated on the Small Cylindrical Melter-2 (SCM-2). In order to size the DWPF freeze valve, the basic principles governing freeze valve behavior need to be identified and understood.

Hailey, A.E.

2001-08-22

90

Studies on Freezing RAM Semen in Absence of Glycerol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glycerol is widely used as a major cryoprotective agent for freezing spermatozoa of almost all species. However, it reduces fertility of sheep inseminated cervically compared with intrauterine insemination. Studies were conducted to develop a method and procedure for freezing ram semen in the absence of glycerol. Post -thaw survival of ram spermatozoa frozen in the absence of glycerol was affected by time and temperature after collection and before dilution and time after dilution and before freezing. Increase in time at 5^ circC before or after dilution and before freezing increased both post-thaw motility and number of cells passing through Sephadex filter. A cold dilution method was developed. Slow cooling of fresh ram semen and diluting at 5^circ C 2-3 hr. after collection, then freezing 1 hr. after dilution improved both post-thaw motility and number of cells passing through Sephadex filter compared with immediate dilution at 30-37^circC after collection and freezing 3-4 hr. later (P semen in the absence of glycerol. An increase in post-thaw motility was obtained when semen was extended in TES titrated with Tris to pH 7.0 (TEST) and osmotic pressure of 375-400 mOsm/kg, containing 25-30% (v/v) egg yolk and 10% (v/v) maltose. A special device (boat) for freezing was constructed to insure the same height of the sample above LN _2 and thus the same freezing rate from freeze to freeze. Freezing of semen in 0.25cc straws at 5-10 cm above LN_2 (73.8 to 49.5 ^circC/min) yielded higher post-thaw motility than the rates resulted from freezing at 15 cm above LN_2 or 1 cm above LN _2. Faster Thawing in 37^ circC water for 30 sec. (7.8^ circC/sec.) increased post-thaw motility compared with slower thawing in 5 or 20^circ C water (P semen frozen without glycerol and 17.1% in a second trial. One injection (IM) of 15 mg PGF_{2alpha}/ewe for estrus synchronization during breeding season resulted in higher heat response and lambing rate than two injections given 10 days apart.

Abdelnaby, Abdelhady Abdelhakeam

1988-12-01

91

Earthworms lost from pesticides application in potato crops  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioturbation from earthworm's activity contributes to soil creep and soil carbon dynamics, and provide enough aeration conditions for agricultural practices all over the world. In developing countries where there is a long term misuse of pesticides for agricultural purposes, lost of these benefits from earthworms activity might already yielded negative effects in the current crop production. Little research has been performed on earthworms avoidance to pesticides in developing countries located in the tropics. Furthermore, the complete avoidance reaction (from attraction to 100% avoidance) from earthworms to most of the pesticides used in potato cultivation in developing countries like Colombia is incomplete as yet. Hence the aim of this study is to assess the lost of earthworm on the soils caused by different concentrations of pesticides and associated agricultural impacts caused by a lost in the soil bioturbation. As a first stage, we have studied earthworm's avoidance to pesticide concentration in a potato agricultural area located in Colombia. Local cultivated Eisenia fetida were exposed to four of the most frequent applied active ingredients in potato crops i.e. carbofuran, mancozeb, methamidophos and chlorpyriphos. Adult earthworm toxicity experiments were carried out in two soils, untreated grasslands under standard (ISO guidelines) and undisturbed conditions, and exposed to six different concentrations of the active ingredients. The results of the avoidance reaction on the standard soils were significant for carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos. For each of the three active ingredients, we found i) overuse of pesticide, ii) applied dose of carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos by the farmers potentially caused 20%, 11% and 9% of earthworms avoidance on the cultivated soils, respectively.

Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Forrer, Karin; Binder, Claudia R.

2010-05-01

92

Earthworm (Eisenia andrei Avoidance of Soils Treated with Cypermethrin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin is used for agricultural and public health campaigns. Its residues may contaminate soils and the beneficial soil organisms, like the earthworms, that may ingest the contaminated soil particles. Due to its ecological relevance, earthworms Eisenia andrei/fetida have been used in different ecotoxicological tests. The avoidance of soils treated with cypermethrin by compost worms Eisenia andrei was studied here as a bioindicator of the influence of treatment dosage and the pesticide formulation in three different agricultural soils indicated by the Brazilian environmental authorities for ecotoxicological tests. This earthworms’ behavior was studied here as a first attempt to propose the test for regulation purposes. The two-compartment test systems, where the earthworms were placed for a two-day exposure period, contained samples of untreated soil alone or together with soil treated with technical grade or wettable powder formulation of cypermethrin. After 48 h, there was no mortality, but the avoidance was clear because all earthworms were found in the untreated section of each type of soil (p < 0.05. No differences were found by the Fisher’s exact test (p ? 1.000 for each soil and treatment, demonstrating that the different soil characteristics, the cypermethrin concentrations and formulation, as well as the smaller amounts of soil and earthworms did not influence the avoidance behavior of the earthworms to cypermethrin. The number and range of treatments used in this study do not allow a detailed recommendation of the conditions applied here, but to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported attempt to identify the avoidance of pesticide treated tropical soils by earthworms.

Mara M. de Andréa

2011-11-01

93

Freeze-drying wet digital prints: An option for salvage?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the occasion of the collapse of the Historical Archive of the City of Cologne in March 2009 and the ensuing salvage effort, questions were raised about the use of freeze-drying for soaked digital prints, a technique that has not yet been evaluated for these materials. This study examines the effects of immersion, air-drying, drying in a blotter stack, freezing and freeze-drying on 35 samples of major digital printing processes. The samples were examined visually before, during and after testing; evaluation of the results was qualitative. Results show that some prints were already damaged by immersion alone (e.g. bleeding inks and soluble coatings) to the extent that the subsequent choice of drying method made no significant difference any more. For those samples that did survive immersion, air-drying proved to be crucial for water-sensitive prints, since any contact with the wet surface caused serious damage. Less water-sensitive prints showed no damage throughout the entire procedure, regardless of drying method. Some prints on coated media suffered from minor surface disruption up to total delamination of the surface coating due to the formation of ice crystals during shock-freezing. With few exceptions, freeze-drying did not cause additional damage to any of the prints that hadn't already been damaged by freezing. It became clear that an understanding of the process and materials is important for choosing an appropriate drying method.drying method.

94

Disposal of dredged sediments in tropical soils: ecotoxicological effects on earthworms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The upper limit concentrations of metals established by international legislations for dredged sediment disposal and soil quality do not take into consideration the properties of tropical soils (generally submitted to more intense weathering processes) on metal availability and ecotoxicity. Aiming to perform an evaluation on the suitability of these threshold values in tropical regions, the ecotoxicity of metal-contaminated dredged sediment from the Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) was investigated. Acute and avoidance tests with Eisenia andrei were performed with mixtures of dredged sediment with a ferralsol (0.00, 6.66, 13.12, 19.98, and 33.30 %) and a chernosol (0.00, 6.58, 13.16, 19.74, and 32.90 %). Mercury, lead, nickel, chromium, copper, and zinc concentrations were measured in test mixtures and in tissues of surviving earthworms from the acute tests. While ferralsol test mixtures provoked significant earthworm avoidance response at concentrations ?13.31 %, the chernosol mixtures showed significant avoidance behavior only at the 19.74 % concentration. The acute tests showed higher toxicity in ferralsol mixtures (LC50?=?9.9 %) compared to chernosol mixtures (LC50?=?16.5 %), and biomass increased at the lowest sediment doses in treatments of both test soils. Most probably, the expansive clay minerals present in chernosol contributed to reduce metal availability in chernosol mixtures, and consequently, the ecotoxicity of these treatments. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) for zinc and copper were lower with increasing concentrations of the dredged sediment, indicating the existence of internal regulating processes. Although the BCF for mercury also decreased with the increasing test concentrations, the known no biological function of this metal in the earthworms metabolism lead to suppose that Hg measured was not present in bioaccumulable forms. BCFs estimated for the other metals were generally higher in the highest dredged sediment doses. PMID:24122142

Cesar, Ricardo; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo; Colonese, Juan; Bidone, Edison; Castilhos, Zuleica; Egler, Silvia; Polivanov, Helena

2014-03-01

95

Multi-element analyses of earthworms for radioecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Increasing attention on the environmental radiation protection realizes that more information is required on the transfer and accumulation of radionuclides in the biological compartments of the ecosystems. Earthworms play an important role in ecosystems, and might be a good indicator of soil contamination and its effect on the ecosystem. The elemental composition of earthworms gives useful information on background levels and possible accumulation of metals as well as related radionuclides. However, data for the elemental composition of earthworms are limited except for some specific heavy metals such as Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. In this study, earthworms and their growth media were analyzed for 35 elements, including radionuclide related elements such as Cs, Sr, Th and U, in order to obtain the basic information on the transfer parameters of the elements. The earthworms analyzed were fed in the laboratory or collected in the environment. The concentrations and transfer factors (TFs) of the elements were determined both for laboratory and natural conditions. Relatively high TFs were observed for Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Mo and Cd. The TFs for Al, Sc, Ti, Y, Nb and lanthanide elements were low. The TFs of Cs were different depending on the medium (soil type), indicating that bioavailability of Cs in the medium might be one of the important controlling factors of Cs concentration in earthworm. (author)

96

Toxicity and bioaccumulation of ethofumesate enantiomers in earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworms represent an important food source for many vertebrates and as a result, predators may encounter toxic effects via the food chain from consumption of contaminated worms. Therefore, including an assessment of xenobiotic to worms in risk assessment procedures is advisable. Here we studied the acute toxicity, bioaccumulation and elimination of ethofumesate enantiomers in earthworm, Eisenia fetida, in a soil. A slight difference in toxicity to earthworm between two enantiomers was found, and the calculated LC50 values for (+)-, rac- and (-)-ethofumesate were 4.51, 5.93 and 7.98 ?g/cm(2), respectively, indicating that the acute toxicity of ethofumesate enantiomers was enantioselective. Earthworm can uptake ethofumesate but the bioaccumulation curve did not reach the steady state. In the elimination experiment, the concentrations of ethofumesate in earthworm declined following a first-order decay model with a short half life of 1.8d. The bioaccumulation and elimination of ethofumesate in earthworm were both nonenantioselective. In combination with other studies, a linear relationship between Log BSAFs and Log Kow was observed, and the Log BSAFs increased with increasing Log Kow. But the elimination rate did not show any correlation with the Kow value. PMID:25048902

Xu, Peng; Wang, Yinghuan; Zhang, Yanfeng; Li, Jianzhong; Wang, Huili

2014-10-01

97

Understanding Slag Freeze Linings  

Science.gov (United States)

Slag freeze linings, the formation of protective deposit layers on the inner walls of furnaces and reactors, are increasingly used in industrial pyrometallurgical processes to ensure that furnace integrity is maintained in these aggressive, high-temperature environments. Most previous studies of freeze-linings have analyzed the formation of slag deposits based solely on heat transfer considerations. These thermal models have assumed that the interface between the stationary frozen layer and the agitated molten bath at steady-state deposit thickness consists of the primary phase, which stays in contact with the bulk liquid at the liquidus temperature. Recent experimental studies, however, have clearly demonstrated that the temperature of the deposit/liquid bath interface can be lower than the liquidus temperature of the bulk liquid. A conceptual framework has been proposed to explain the observations and the factors influencing the microstructure and the temperature of the interface at steady-state conditions. The observations are consistent with a dynamic steady state that is a balance between (I) the rate of nucleation and growth of solids on detached crystals in a subliquidus layer as this fluid material moves toward the stagnant deposit interface and (II) the dissolution of these detached crystals as they are transported away from the interface by turbulent eddies. It is argued that the assumption that the interface temperature is the liquidus of the bulk material represents only a limiting condition, and that the interface temperature can be between T liquidus and T solidus depending on the process conditions and bath chemistry. These findings have implications for the modeling approach and boundary conditions required to accurately describe these systems. They also indicate the opportunity to integrate considerations of heat and mass flows with the selection of melt chemistries in the design of future high temperature industrial reactors.

Fallah-Mehrjardi, Ata; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni

2014-08-01

98

Understanding Slag Freeze Linings  

Science.gov (United States)

Slag freeze linings, the formation of protective deposit layers on the inner walls of furnaces and reactors, are increasingly used in industrial pyrometallurgical processes to ensure that furnace integrity is maintained in these aggressive, high-temperature environments. Most previous studies of freeze-linings have analyzed the formation of slag deposits based solely on heat transfer considerations. These thermal models have assumed that the interface between the stationary frozen layer and the agitated molten bath at steady-state deposit thickness consists of the primary phase, which stays in contact with the bulk liquid at the liquidus temperature. Recent experimental studies, however, have clearly demonstrated that the temperature of the deposit/liquid bath interface can be lower than the liquidus temperature of the bulk liquid. A conceptual framework has been proposed to explain the observations and the factors influencing the microstructure and the temperature of the interface at steady-state conditions. The observations are consistent with a dynamic steady state that is a balance between (I) the rate of nucleation and growth of solids on detached crystals in a subliquidus layer as this fluid material moves toward the stagnant deposit interface and (II) the dissolution of these detached crystals as they are transported away from the interface by turbulent eddies. It is argued that the assumption that the interface temperature is the liquidus of the bulk material represents only a limiting condition, and that the interface temperature can be between T liquidus and T solidus depending on the process conditions and bath chemistry. These findings have implications for the modeling approach and boundary conditions required to accurately describe these systems. They also indicate the opportunity to integrate considerations of heat and mass flows with the selection of melt chemistries in the design of future high temperature industrial reactors.

Fallah-Mehrjardi, Ata; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni

2014-09-01

99

Comparison of sublethal and lethal criteria for nine different chemicals in standardized toxicity tests using the earthworm Eisenia andrei  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, the effects of nine different chemicals on the survival, growth, and reproduction of the earthworm species Eisenia andrei were determined using a recently developed method. Earthworms were exposed for 3 weeks to the test chemicals in an artificial soil substrate. Additional data on the acute toxicity of these chemicals were derived from the literature. For some chemicals, cocoon production was the most sensitive parameter (cadmium, chromium, paraquat, fentin, benomyl, phenmedipham), while for others cocoon hatchability was most sensitive (pentachlorophenol, parathion, carbendazim). In the case of parathion, growth of the worms seemed to be even more sensitive than reproduction. As an overall parameter for the effect on earthworm reproduction, the total number of juveniles produced per worm appeared to be a useful parameter. Differences between (acute) LC50 values and the lowest NOEC value for effects on growth and reproduction were different for each chemical. Difference was greatest for cadmium (a factor of greater than 100) and smallest for fentin, benomyl, and pentachlorophenol (a factor of 5-6).

Van Gestel, C.A.; Dirven-Van Breemen, E.M.; Baerselman, R.; Emans, H.J.; Janssen, J.A.; Postuma, R.; Van Vliet, P.J. (National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven, (Netherlands))

1992-04-01

100

Heavy metal concentrations in earthworms from soil amended with sewage sludge  

Science.gov (United States)

Metal concentrations in soil may be elevated considerably when metal-laden sewage sludge is spread on land. Metals in earthworms (Lumbricidae) from agricultural fields amended with sewage sludge and from experimental plots were examined to determine if earthworms are important in transferring metals in soil to wildlife. Earthworms from four sites amended with sludge contained significantly (P . soil, and Cu, Pb, and Ni were not concentrated. Concentrations of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb in earthworms were correlated (P soil. The ratio of the concentration of metals in earthworms to the concentration of metals in soil tended to be lower in contaminated soil than in clean soil. Concentrations of Cd as high as 100 ppm (dry wt) were detected in earthworms from soil containing only 2 ppm Cd. These concentrations are considered hazardous to wildlife that eat worms. Liming soil decreased Cd concentrations in earthworms slightly (P metals studied. High Zn concentrations in soil substantially reduced Cd concentrations in earthworms.

Beyer, W.N.; Chaney, R.L.; Mulhern, B.M.

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Off to the (Earthworm) Races: A Quick and Flexible Lab Experiment for Introductory Zoology Courses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a hands-on, investigative lab activity for use in an introductory zoology course. Tests the behavioral hypothesis that substrate texture affects earthworm locomotor ability. Provides background information on earthworm locomotion followed by details of the lab exercise. (NB)

Switzer, Paul V.; Fritz, Ann H.

2001-01-01

102

Effect of earthworms on the performance and microbial communities of excess sludge treatment process in vermifilter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have shown that the stabilization of excess sludge by vermifiltration can be improved significantly through the use of earthworms. To investigate the effect of earthworms on enhancing sludge stabilization during the vermifiltration process, a vermifilter (VF) with earthworms and a conventional biofilter (BF) without earthworms were compared. The sludge reduction capability of the VF was ?85% higher than that of the BF. Specifically, elemental analysis indicated that earthworms enhanced the stabilization of organic matter. Furthermore, earthworm predation strongly regulated microbial biomass while improving microbial activity. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that the most abundant microbes in the VF biofilms and earthworm casts were Flavobacterium, Myroides, Sphingobacterium, and Myxococcales, all of which are known to be highly effective at degrading organic matter. These results indicate that earthworms can improve the stabilization of excess sludge during vermifiltration, and reveal the processes by which this is achieved. PMID:22613898

Liu, Jing; Lu, Zhibo; Yang, Jian; Xing, Meiyan; Yu, Fen; Guo, Meiting

2012-08-01

103

Establishing principal soil quality parameters influencing earthworms in urban soils using bioassays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Potential contamination at ex-industrial sites means that, prior to change of use, it will be necessary to quantify the extent of risks to potential receptors. To assess ecological hazards, it is often suggested to use biological assessment to augment chemical analyses. Here we investigate the potential of a commonly recommended bioassay, the earthworm reproduction test, to assess the status of urban contaminated soils. Sample points at all study sites had contaminant concentrations above the Dutch soil criteria Target Values. In some cases, the relevant Intervention Values were exceeded. Earthworm survival at most points was high, but reproduction differed significantly in soil from separate patches on the same site. When the interrelationships between soil parameters and reproduction were studied, it was not possible to create a good model of site soil toxicity based on single or even multiple chemical measurements of the soils. We thus conclude that chemical analysis alone is not sufficient to characterize soil quality and confirms the value of biological assays for risk assessment of potentially contaminated soils. - Bioassays must be applied for the risk assessment complexly-polluted sites to complement chemical analysis of soils

104

Metallothionein response in earthworms Lampito mauritii (Kinberg) exposed to fly ash  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Among pollutants, the coal fly ash occupies a significant position in industrial wastes. The fly ash matrix is a complex mixture of various organic (polyhalogenated compounds) and inorganic (Si, Al, Fe, As, Cd, Bi, Hg, etc.) chemicals. The application of fly ash for agricultural purposes and as landfills may lead to the contamination of the land with some of the toxic chemical compounds present in fly ash. Thus prior to the application of fly ash for developmental activities, it requires bio-monitoring and risk characterization. In order to achieve this objective adult Lampito mauritii were exposed to different proportions of fly ash in soil for 30 d and the concentrations of metallothionein in earthworm were assessed. The results revealed that up to 50% of fly ash amendment does not apparently harm the earthworm in respect of their survival and growth. A significant increase in tissue metallothionein level was recorded in L mauritii exposed to fly ash amended soil without tissue metal accumulation indicating that metallothionein is involved in scavenging of free radicals and reactive oxygen species metabolites. It is concluded that this biochemical response observed in L mauritii exposed to fly ash amended soil could be used in ecotoxicological field monitoring.

Maity, S.; Hattacharya, S.; Chaudhury, S. [Visva Bharati, Santini Ketan (India)

2009-10-15

105

Freeze. How you can help prevent nuclear war  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In their book the Senators Kennedy and Hatfield prove that the United States will not be able to survive a nuclear war. The report on the freeze movement is followed by a chapter on the history of the efforts for disarmament which had been abruptly ended by President Reagan's call for the enhanced modernization of nuclear arms. But ''we have reached the unique moment in the history of the atomic age where it is possible and where it must be tried to freeze nuclear armament'', as Kennedy and Hatfield write, for ''the present nuclear balance is relatively stable''. Only by freezing the standard of armament can this balance which decides on worldwide peace be granted. (orig.)

106

Variation in seedling freezing response is associated with climate in Larrea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Variation in freezing severity is hypothesized to have influenced the distribution and evolution of the warm desert evergreen genus Larrea. If this hypothesis is correct, performance and survival of species and populations should vary predictably along gradients of freezing severity. If freezing environment changes in the future, the ability of Larrea to adapt will depend on the structure of variation for freezing resistance within populations. To test whether freezing responses vary among and within Larrea populations, we grew maternal families of seedlings from high and low latitude L. divaricata and high latitude L. tridentata populations in a common garden. We measured survival, projected plant area and dark-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence (F (v) /F (m)) before and after cold acclimation and for 2 weeks following a single freeze. We detected significant variation in freezing resistance among species and populations. Maternal family lines differed significantly in their responses to cold acclimation and/or freezing for two out of the three populations: among L. tridentata maternal families and among low latitude L. divaricata maternal families. There were no significant differences across maternal families of high latitude L. divaricata. Our results indicate that increased freezing resistance in high latitude populations likely facilitated historical population expansion of both species into colder climates, but this may have occurred to a greater extent for L. tridentata than for L. divaricata. Differences in the structure of variation for cold acclimation and freezing responses among populations suggest potential differences in their ability to evolve in response to future changes in freezing severity. PMID:22068319

Medeiros, Juliana S; Marshall, Diane L; Maherali, Hafiz; Pockman, William T

2012-05-01

107

Influence of ultraviolet radiation on selected physiological responses of earthworms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the adverse effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on earthworms. Earthworms that crawl out of the soil may die within a few hours after sunrise. This study shows that UV exposure can be lethal. In general, UV-B had a stronger damaging effect than UV-A. Different species of earthworms had different tolerances to UV exposure. In this study, Pontoscolex corethrurus showed the highest tolerance of the three tested species to UV radiation, while Amynthas gracilis was the most sensitive. UV radiation induced both acute and chronic responses. The acute response, which occurred immediately on or after UV exposure, was characterized by the appearance of abnormally strong muscle contractions, including S-shaped movements and jumping behavior, possibly caused by bad coordination between the circular and longitudinal muscles. The chronic response included damage to the skin and muscle cells, which resulted in a high mortality rate. Oxygen consumption by A. gracilis was significantly decreased after exposure to UV-A or UV-B. Since the circulation in earthworms is mediated by muscle contraction and the skin is the main organ of respiration, it is reasonable to expect that abnormal muscle contraction and a damaged epithelium could cause suffocation. Because of their sensitive responses, we propose that some earthworms, such as A. gracilis, could serve as a new model for studying UV-induced photodamage. PMID:17050845

Chuang, Shu-Chun; Lai, Wei-Shan; Chen, Jiun-Hong

2006-11-01

108

Effects of anesthetic compounds on responses of earthworms to electrostimulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworms play an important role in biomedical research, and some surgical procedures require anesthesia. Anesthetic treatments used so far usually induce convulsive body movements connected with extrusion of coelomocyte-containing coelomic fluid that may affect experimental results. Extensive movements connected with the expulsion of coelomic fluid are exploited by immunologists as a method of harvesting immunocompetent coelomocytes from worms subjected to mild electrostimulation (4.5V). The aim of the investigations was to find anesthetic drugs without unintentional coelomocyte depletion. Experiments were performed on adult specimens of Dendrobaena veneta, the coelomocytes of which consist of amoebocytes and riboflavin-storing eleocytes. Earthworm mobility was filmed and extrusion of coelomocytes was quantified by detection of eleocyte-derived riboflavin in immersion fluid. Treatments included earthworms (1) immersed either in physiological saline (controls) or in a solution of one of the tested anesthetic drugs; (2) electrostimulated immediately after anesthesia, and (3) electrostimulated a second time after a 1-hour recovery period. The well-established fish and amphibian anesthetic agent MS-222 induced coelomocyte expulsion. In contrast, solutions of the mammalian local anesthetic drug, prilocaine hydrochloride (0.25-0.5%, 5-10 min) caused temporal earthworm immobilization followed by recovery, thus showing utility as an efficient earthworm anesthetic. PMID:25134346

Podolak-Machowska, Agnieszka; Kostecka, Joanna; Librowski, Tadeusz; Santocki, Michal; Bigaj, Janusz; Plytycz, Barbara

2014-01-01

109

Freeze concentration of dairy products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Freeze concentration as a separation process was discussed. It separates mixed liquids by converting one or more of them to a solid. The process is more energy efficient in many applications than either evaporation or distillation, the most common industrial separation methods today. An EPRI report has shown that annual heat energy consumption would decrease an estimated 1.4 quads if industry replaced evaporation and distillation in every feasible case where freezing can be used. The freeze concentration process was employed to replace thermal evaporation in the dairy industry. The goals of the project were to save energy by converting concentration processes to an efficient electrically powered refrigeration system, and to create higher quality dairy products. Tests showed equal or superior quality from freeze concentrates. 2 tabs.

Amarnath, K.R. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States). Systems and Materials Dept.; Swinkels, W. [Holland Energy Technology BV (Netherlands)

1992-12-31

110

Earthworm bioassays and seedling emergence for monitoring toxicity, aging and bioaccumulation of anthropogenic waste indicator compounds in biosolids-amended soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Land application of biosolids (treated sewage sludge) can be an important route for introducing xenobiotic compounds into terrestrial environments. There is a paucity of available information on the effects of biosolids amendment on terrestrial organisms. In this study, the influence of biosolids and biosolids aging on earthworm (Eisenia fetida) reproduction and survival and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedling emergence was investigated. Earthworms were exposed to soils amended with varying quantities of biosolids (0, 1, 2, 3, or 4% dry mass). To investigate the influence of biosolids aging, the biosolids used in the study were aged for differing lengths of time (2 or 8 weeks) prior to exposure. All of the adult earthworms survived in the biosolids-amended soils at all concentrations that were aged for 2 weeks; however, only 20% of the adults survived in the soil amended with the highest concentration of biosolids and aged for 8 weeks. Reproduction as measured by mean number of juveniles and unhatched cocoons produced per treatment correlated inversely with biosolids concentration, although the effects were generally more pronounced in the 8-week aged biosolids-soil samples. Latent seedling emergence and reduced seedling fitness correlated inversely with biosolids concentration, but these effects were tempered in the 8-week aged versus the 2-week aged soil-biosolids mixtures. Anthropogenic waste indicator compounds (AWIs) were measured in the biosolids, biosolids-soil mixtures, and earthworm samples. Where possible, bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated or estimated. A wide variety of AWIs were detected in the biosolids (51 AWIs) and earthworm samples (?19 AWI). The earthworms exposed to the 8-week aged biosolids-soil mixtures tended to accumulate greater quantities of AWIs compared to the 2-week aged mixture, suggesting that the bioavailability of some AWIs was enhanced with aging. The BAFs for a given AWI varied with treatment. Notably large BAFs were determined for some AWIs. For example, the maximum BAF determined for para-cresol, methyl salicylate, bisphenol-A, and cholesterol was greater than 100 in some treatments. PMID:22832088

Kinney, Chad A; Campbell, Bryan R; Thompson, Regina; Furlong, Edward T; Kolpin, Dana W; Burkhardt, Mark R; Zaugg, Steven D; Werner, Stephen L; Hay, Anthony G

2012-09-01

111

Gene expression analysis of CL-20-induced reversible neurotoxicity reveals GABA(A) receptors as potential targets in the earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

Science.gov (United States)

The earthworm Eisenia fetida is one of the most used species in standardized soil ecotoxicity tests. End points such as survival, growth, and reproduction are eco-toxicologically relevant but provide little mechanistic insight into toxicity pathways, especially at the molecular level. Here we apply a toxicogenomic approach to investigate the mode of action underlying the reversible neurotoxicity of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), a cyclic nitroamine explosives compound. We developed an E. fetida-specific shotgun microarray targeting 15119 unique E. fetida transcripts. Using this array we profiled gene expression in E. fetida in response to exposure to CL-20. Eighteen earthworms were exposed for 6 days to 0.2 ?g/cm(2) of CL-20 on filter paper, half of which were allowed to recover in a clean environment for 7 days. Nine vehicle control earthworms were sacrificed at days 6 and 13, separately. Electrophysiological measurements indicated that the conduction velocity of earthworm medial giant nerve fiber decreased significantly after 6-day exposure to CL-20, but was restored after 7 days of recovery. Total RNA was isolated from the four treatment groups including 6-day control, 6-day exposed, 13-day control, and 13-day exposed (i.e., 6-day exposure followed by 7-day recovery), and was hybridized to the 15K shotgun oligo array. Statistical and bioinformatic analyses suggest that CL-20 initiated neurotoxicity by noncompetitively blocking the ligand-gated GABA(A) receptor ion channel, leading to altered expression of genes involved in GABAergic, cholinergic, and Agrin-MuSK pathways. In the recovery phase, expression of affected genes returned to normality, possibly as a result of autophagy and CL-20 dissociation/metabolism. This study provides significant insights into potential mechanisms of CL-20-induced neurotoxicity and the recovery of earthworms from transient neurotoxicity stress. PMID:22191394

Gong, Ping; Guan, Xin; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Liang, Chun; Perkins, Edward J

2012-01-17

112

TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ENGINEERED NANOPARTICLES ON EARTHWORMS (LUMBRICUS RUBELLUS IN SHORT EXPOSURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs types diffused into the environment are increasing, giving potential damages to terrestrial ecosystems. In this work we investigated the nanoparticles toxicity as pure metal and two oxides (Co, SnO2 and CeO2 on earthworm survival (Lumbricus rubellus. A concentration of 5000 mg kg-1 dry soil of each NP was compared to the chronic dose of 10 mg kg-1. The interaction between NPs and soil microbial biomass was also studied in 7 days length incubation. No mortality was observed at the end of the experiment, but high concentration of Co was found in the 5000 kg-1 dry soil treated. Despite low solubility of all NPs (solid-liquid partition coefficient > 2.8 log l kg-1 pure metal NPs were (Co more soluble than the metal oxides nanoparticles (SnO2 and CeO2.

Livia Vittori Antisari

2012-07-01

113

Combined effects of oxytetracycline and Pb on earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

Science.gov (United States)

Combined effects of oxytetracycline (OTC) and Pb on lysosomal membrane stability and coelomocyte apoptosis of earthworm were studied in the paper. Compared with control, the lysosomal membrane stability decreased and coelomocyte apoptosis increased in the treatments of single OTC and Pb contamination. As for compound pollution, combined effect of (5 mg/kg OTC+50 mg/kg Pb) treatment on earthworm lysosomal was synergistic (except 28 d). However, it was antagonistic at higher concentration of (10 mg/kg OTC+50 mg/kg Pb) and (20 mg/kg OTC+50 mg/kg Pb) treatment. In addition, coelomocyte apoptosis of earthworm decreased significantly compared with single OTC, indicating an antagonistic reaction. And joint toxicity of OTC and Pb decreased significantly with the increasing OTC concentration. PMID:24607684

Gao, Minling; Zhou, Qian; Song, Wenhua; Ma, Xiaojun

2014-03-01

114

Interactions of intracellular calcium and immune response in earthworms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intracellular calcium level has a definite role in innate and adaptive immune signaling but its evolutionary aspects are not entirely clear yet. Very few information are accessible about calcium contents of invertebrate immunocytes, especially of celomocytes, the effector cells of earthworm immunity. Different basal and induced Ca2+ levels characterize the various celomocyte subgroups. Intracellular calcium is mostly located in the endoplasmic reticulum and celomocytes exert intracellular Ca2+ ATPase activity to maintain their calcium homeostasis. Immune molecules such as phytohemagglutinin and the chemoattractant fMLP caused the elevation of intracellular Ca2+ level in celomocytes. All the evidence suggests that Ca2+ influx may play a crucial role in the signal transduction of the earthworm’s innate immunity.

P Engelmann

2011-05-01

115

Second contribution to the knowledge of earthworms (Lumbricidae in Montenegro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper contains the results of qualitative analysis of Lumbricidae (Oligochaeta in Montenegro, during the period 1997-2003. The research has included natural and cultivated biotopes. The presence of 15 species was established and the habitats, localities and their zoogeographical position are given. In Montenegro we found four species for the first time Dendrobaena jastrebensis, D. vejdovskyi, Octodrilus bretcheri and Lumbricus terrestris. The complete list of earthworm species in Montenegro includes 45 taxa. With respects to the zoogeographic situation of the earthworms in Montenegro, the largest number belongs to endemic (10 and European (10 species. But 8 taxa are south-European, 9 Holarctic, 7 cosmopolitan, and 1 Palearctic. The degree of endemism of the earthworm fauna of Montenegro is quite high, exceeding 22.2%.

Stojanovi? Mirjana M.

2003-01-01

116

Earthworm bioturbation influences the phytoavailability of metals released by particles in cultivated soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of earthworm activity on soil-to-plant metal transfer was studied by carrying out six weeks mesocosms experiments with or without lettuce and/or earthworms in soil with a gradient of metal concentrations due to particles fallouts. Soil characteristics, metal concentrations in lettuce and earthworms were measured and soil porosity in the mesocosms was determined. Earthworms increased the soil pH, macroporosity and soil organic matter content due to the burying of wheat straw provided as food. Earthworm activities increased the metals concentrations in lettuce leaves. Pb and Cd concentrations in lettuce leaves can increase up to 46% with earthworm activities … These results and the low correlation between estimated by CaCl2 and EDTA and measured pollutant phytoavailability suggest that earthworm bioturbation was the main cause of the increase. Bioturbation could affect the proximity of pollutants to the roots and soil organic matter. PMID:24858803

Leveque, Thibaut; Capowiez, Yvan; Schreck, Eva; Xiong, Tiantian; Foucault, Yann; Dumat, Camille

2014-08-01

117

The soil-dwelling earthworm Allolobophora chlorotica modifies its burrowing behaviour in response to carbendazim applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbendazim-amended soil was placed above or below unamended soil. Control tests comprised two layers of unamended soil. Allolobophora chlorotica earthworms were added to either the upper or the unamended soil. After 72 h vertical distributions of earthworms were compared between control and carbendazim-amended experiments. Earthworm distributions in the carbendazim-amended test containers differed significantly from the 'normal' distribution observed in the control tests. In the majority of the experiments, earthworms significantly altered their burrowing behaviour to avoid carbendazim. However, when earthworms were added to an upper layer of carbendazim-amended soil they remained in this layer. This non-avoidance is attributed to (1) the earthworms' inability to sense the lower layer of unamended soil and (2) the toxic effect of carbendazim inhibiting burrowing. Earthworms modified their burrowing behaviour in response to carbendazim in the soil. This may explain anomalous results observed in pesticide field trials when carbendazim is used as a control substance. PMID:20580088

Ellis, Sian R; Hodson, Mark E; Wege, Philip

2010-09-01

118

Genotoxic effects of glyphosate or paraquat on earthworm coelomocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential genotoxicity (nuclear anomalies, damage to single-strand DNA) and pinocytic adherence activity of two (glyphosate-based and paraquat-based) commercial herbicides to earthworm coelomocytes (immune cells in the coelomic cavity) were assessed. Coelomocytes were extracted from earthworms (Pheretima peguana) exposed to concentrations assays were performed: Micronucleus (light microscopy count of micronuclei, binuclei, and trinuclei), Comet (epifluorescent microscope and LUCIA image analyzer measure of tail DNA %, tail length, and tail moment), and Neutral Red (to detect phagocytic or pinocytic activity). The LC50 value for paraquat was 65-fold lower than for glyphosate indicating that paraquat was far more acutely toxic to P. peguana. There were significant (P micronuclei, binuclei, and trinuclei frequencies of earthworms exposed to glyphosate at 25 × 10(-1) (10(-3) LC50) and paraquat at 39 × 10(-5) (10(-4) LC50) ?g cm(-2) filter paper. In earthworms exposed to glyphosate, no differences in tail DNA%, tail length, and tail moment of coelomocytes were detected. In contrast, for paraquat at 10(-1) LC50 concentration, there were significant (P < 0.05) differences between tail DNA % and tail length, and at LC50 concentration, tail moment was also significantly different when compared with controls. A decline in pinocytic adherence activity in coelomocytes occurred on exposure to glyphosate or paraquat at 10(-3) LC50 concentration. This study showed that, at concentrations well below field application rates, paraquat induces both clastogenic and aneugenic effects on earthworm coelomocytes whereas glyphosate causes only aneugenic effects and therefore does not pose a risk of gene mutation in this earthworm. PMID:22644885

Muangphra, Ptumporn; Kwankua, Wimon; Gooneratne, Ravi

2014-06-01

119

Freezing in a vertical tube  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fundamental heat transfer experiments were performed for freezing of an initially superheated or nonsuperheated liquid in a cooled vertical tube. Measurements were made which yielded information about the freezing front and the frozen mass, about the various energy components extracted from the tube, and about the decay of the initial liquid superheat. Four component energies were identified and evaluated from the experimental data, including the latent energy released by the phase change and sensibly energies released from the subcooled frozen solid and the superheated liquid. Initial superheating of the liquid tended to moderately diminish the frozen mass and latent energy extraction at short freezing times but had little effect on these quantitites at longer times. The extracted sensible energies associated with the superheating more than compensated for the aforementioned decrease in the latent energy. Although the latent energy is the largest contributor to the total extracted energy, the aggregate sensible energies can make a significant contribution, especially at large tube wall subcooling, large initial liquid superheating, and short freezing time. Natural convection effects in the superheated liquid were modest and were confined to short freezing times

120

Recrystallization in a Freezing Tolerant Antarctic Nematode, Panagrolaimus davidi, and a Alpine Weta, Hemideina maori (Orthoptera; Stenopelmatidae)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The ability of haemolymph from the freezing tolerant weta,Hemideina maori,and supernatant from homogenates of the freezing tolerant nematodePanagrolaimus davidito inhibit the recrystallization of ice was examined using the “splat freezing” technique and annealing on a cryomicroscope stage. There was no recrystallization inhibition in weta haemolymph or in insect ringer controls. Recrystallization inhibition was present in the nematode supernatant but this was destroyed by heating and was absent in controls.P. davidisurvives intracellular freezing and recrystallization inhibition may be important for the survival of this stress.

RamlØv, Hans; Wharton, David A.

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Freeze drying of red blood cells: the use of directional freezing and a new radio frequency lyophilization device.  

Science.gov (United States)

Red blood cell (RBC) units are administered routinely into patients expressing a wide range of acute and chronic conditions (e.g., anemia, traumatic bleeding, chronic diseases, and surgery). The modern blood banking system has been designed to answer this need and assure a continuous, high quality blood supply to patients. However, RBCs units can be stored under hypothermic conditions for only up to 42 days, which leads to periodic shortages. Cryopreservation can solve these shortages, but current freezing methods employ high glycerol concentrations, which need to be removed and the cells washed prior to transfusion, resulting in a long (more than 1 hour) and cumbersome washing step. Thus, frozen RBCs have limited use in acute and trauma situations. In addition, transportation of frozen samples is complicated and costly. Freeze drying (lyophilization) of RBCs has been suggested as a solution for these problems, since it will allow for a low weight sample to be stored at room temperature, but reaching this goal is not a simple task. We studied the effect of different solutions (IMT2 and IMT3) containing trehalose and antioxidants or trehalose and human serum albumin, respectively, on freezing/thawing and freeze drying of RBCs. In addition, we evaluated the effect of cells concentrations and cooling rates on the post thaw and post rehydration recoveries of the RBCs. Finally, we developed a new radio frequency (RF) lyophilization device for a more rapid and homogeneous sublimation process of the frozen RBCs samples. Recovery and free Hb were measured as well as oxygen association/dissociation and cell's deformability. We found that IMT3 (0.3 M trehalose and 10% HSA) solution that was directionally frozen at a rapid interface velocity of 1 mm/sec (resulting in a cooling rate of 150°C/min) yielded the best results (better than IMT2 solution and slow interface velocity). Freeze thawing gave 100% survival, while freeze drying followed by rehydration with 20% dextran-40kDa solution resulted in 75% survival. However, recovery following freeze drying was possible only when 20% Dextran-40 solution was used as the rehydration medium. The rehydrated cells were not stable upon an eight-fold dilution. The RF lyophilization system increased the sublimation rate more than twice compared to conventional drying and maintained a high survival rate of the RBCs after partial drying. PMID:24849889

Arav, Amir; Natan, Dity

2012-08-01

122

Freeze Protection in Gas Holders  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In cold weather, the water seals of gasholders need protection from freez- ing to avoid compromising the seal. These holders have a large reservoir of “tank water” at the base which is below ground. At present freeze- protection is achieved by external heating of the seal water which is in a slotted channel called a cup. Electrical heating or circulation of heated tank water to the cup are examples of systems presently used. The tank water has a large thermal capacity and National Grid wishes to inves- tigate whether circulation of the tank water without external heating could provide su?cient energy input to avoid freezing. Only tanks in which the tank water is below ground are investigated in the report. The soil temperature under the reservoir at depth of 10m and lower is almost constant.

Hjorth, Poul G.

2008-01-01

123

Freezing singularities in water drops  

CERN Document Server

In this fluid dynamics video we show how a drop of water freezes into a singular shape when deposited on a cold surface. The process of solidification can be observed very clearly due to the change in refraction when water turns into ice. The drop remains approximately spherical during most of the process, with a freezing front moving upwards and smoothly following the interface. However, at the final stage of freezing, when the last cap of liquid turns into ice, a singular tip develops spontaneously. Interestingly, the sharp tip of the ice drop acts as a preferential site for deposition of water vapour, and a beautiful "tree" of ice crystals develops right at the tip. The tip singularity attracts the vapour in analogy to a sharp lightning rod attracting lightning.

Enriquez, Oscar R; Winkels, Koen G; Snoeijer, Jacco H

2011-01-01

124

Wood frog adaptations to overwintering in Alaska: new limits to freezing tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the ecological physiology and behavior of free-living wood frogs [Lithobates (Rana) sylvaticus] overwintering in Interior Alaska by tracking animals into natural hibernacula, recording microclimate, and determining frog survival in spring. We measured cryoprotectant (glucose) concentrations and identified the presence of antifreeze glycolipids in tissues from subsamples of naturally freezing frogs. We also recorded the behavior of wood frogs preparing to freeze in artificial hibernacula, and tissue glucose concentrations in captive wood frogs frozen in the laboratory to -2.5°C. Wood frogs in natural hibernacula remained frozen for 193 ± 11 consecutive days and experienced average (October-May) temperatures of -6.3°C and average minimum temperatures of -14.6 ± 2.8°C (range -8.9 to -18.1°C) with 100% survival (N=18). Mean glucose concentrations were 13-fold higher in muscle, 10-fold higher in heart and 3.3-fold higher in liver in naturally freezing compared with laboratory frozen frogs. Antifreeze glycolipid was present in extracts from muscle and internal organs, but not skin, of frozen frogs. Wood frogs in Interior Alaska survive freezing to extreme limits and durations compared with those described in animals collected in southern Canada or the Midwestern United States. We hypothesize that this enhancement of freeze tolerance in Alaskan wood frogs is due to higher cryoprotectant levels that are produced by repeated freezing and thawing cycles experienced under natural conditions during early autumn. PMID:24737762

Larson, Don J; Middle, Luke; Vu, Henry; Zhang, Wenhui; Serianni, Anthony S; Duman, John; Barnes, Brian M

2014-06-15

125

Arsenic resistance and cycling in earthworms residing at a former gold mine in Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Earthworms (Lumbricus castaneous and Dendrodrilus rubidus), their host soils and leaf litter were collected from a former gold mine with widespread arsenic (As) contamination in Nova Scotia, Canada and determined for total and speciated As. Resistance to As toxicity was investigated by measurement of DNA damage in exposed earthworm populations using the comet assay. Arsenobetaine (AB) was observed at low concentration in the earthworms but not in the host soil or leaf litter. Several different organoarsenic species were observed in the leaf litter and only inorganic As was found in the host soils. The results suggest that 1) adaptation to As toxicity in earthworms is widespread and not particular to a single species, 2) AB originates in the earthworm and not the consumed soil or leaf litter and 3) as previously hypothesised (), biotransformation of inorganic As to AB is not likely involved in the adaptation. - Highlights: ? Adaptation to toxicity and cycling of arsenic in earthworms investigated at Canadian gold mine. ? Earthworms resistant to highly contaminated, genotoxic soils. ? Arsenobetaine present in earthworms but not soil or leaf litter. ? Arsenic resistance in earthworms is widespread and not species specific. - Adaptation of earthworms to arsenic contaminated soils is widespread and not species specific.

126

Freezing of simple liquid metals  

CERN Document Server

Freezing of simple liquid metals and the relative stabilities of competing crystalline solids are investigated using thermodynamic perturbation theory, the interactions between ions being modeled by effective pair potentials derived from pseudopotential theory. The ionic free energy of the solid phase is calculated, to first order in the perturbation potential, using classical density-functional theory and an accurate approximation to the hard-sphere radial distribution function. Free energy calculations for Na, Mg, and Al yield well-defined freezing transitions and structural free energy differences for bcc, fcc, and hcp crystals in qualitative agreement with experiment.

Denton, A R; Hafner, J H

1999-01-01

127

TOXICITY OF METALS TO THE EARTHWORM 'EISENIA FETIDA'  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of methods to measure the effect of man's residuals on soil ecosystems is desirable. Earthworms, as one of the largest and most easily obtained components of the soil biota, are suitable for evaluating perturbations to soil ecosystems. The impact of five metals (Cd, C...

128

Diversity and host specificity of the Verminephrobacter–earthworm symbiosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Symbiotic bacteria of the genus Verminephrobacter (Betaproteobacteria) were detected in the nephridia of 19 out of 23 investigated earthworm species (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). While all four Lumbricus species and three out of five Aporrectodea species were densely colonized by a mono-species culture of Verminephrobacter, other earthworm species contained mixed bacterial populations with varying proportions of Verminephrobacter; four species did not contain Verminephrobacter at all. The Verminephrobacter symbionts could be grouped into earthworm species-specific sequence clusters based on their 16S rRNA and RNA polymerase subunit B (rpoB) genes. Closely related host species harboured more closely related symbionts than did distantly related hosts. Co-diversification of the symbiotic partners could not be demonstrated unambiguously due to the poor resolution of the host phylogeny [based on histone H3 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequence analyses]. However, there was a pattern of symbiont diversification within four groups of closely related hosts. The mean rate of symbiont 16S rRNA gene evolution was determined using a relaxed clock model, and the rate was calibrated with paleogeographical estimates of the time of origin of Lumbricid earthworms. The calibrated rates of symbiont 16S rRNA gene evolution are 0.012–0.026 substitutions per site per 50 million years and thus similar to rates reported from other symbiotic bacteria.

Lund, Marie Braad; Davidson, Seana

2010-01-01

129

Aggregate formation and soil carbon sequestration by earthworms at the ORNL FACE experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworms have an important role in soil carbon sequestration, but their contribution to carbon sequestration in soils exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations has been largely overlooked. Previous studies at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Free Air CO2 Experiment (ORNL FACE) site showed that the formation of soil aggregates is a key mechanism for soil carbon sequestration. We did a microcosm experiment to quantify earthworm-mediated aggregate formation and compare between two earthworm species with different feeding habits (endogeic vs. epi-edogeic). In addition, we wanted to identify the carbon source (soil, leaf litter or root litter) within aggregates formed by earthworms. We used 13C-depleted soil and 15N-enriched sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) leaf and root litter collected from the ORNL FACE site to assess soil aggregate formation of the native, endogeic earthworm Diplocardia sp. and European, epi-endogeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Both earthworm species are present at the ORNL FACE site. We crushed, sieved ( 250 ?m) were higher in treatments with earthworms (III and IV) than in treatments without earthworms (I and II) (p = 0.02). Within macroaggregates, most of the carbon was soil-derived. Leaf and root-derived carbon was found in treatment IV only. Our results suggest that earthworms at the ORNL FACE site directly contribute to the formation of soil aggregates, thus contributing to soil carbon sequestration. Carbon source within macroaggregates correspond with earthworm feeding habits, with endogeic earthworms (Diplocardia sp.) feeding mostly on mineral soil and epi-endogeic earthworm (L. rubellus) feeding on both plant residues and soil organic matter.

Sanchez-de Leon, Y.; Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.; Lugo-Perez, J.; Wise, D. H.; Jastrow, J. D.

2012-12-01

130

Invasion by Exotic Earthworms Alters Biodiversity and Communities of Litter- and Soil-dwelling Oribatid Mites  

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Full Text Available Exotic earthworms are drivers of biotic communities in invaded North American forest stands. Here we used ecologically important oribatid mite (Arachnida: Acari communities, as model organisms to study the responses of litter- and soil-dwelling microarthropod communities to exotic earthworm invasion in a northern temperate forest. Litter- and soil-dwelling mites were sampled in 2008–2009 from forest areas: (1 with no earthworms; (2 those with epigeic and endogeic species, including Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister; and (3 those with epigeic, endogeic, and anecic earthworms including L. terrestris L. Species richness and diversity of litter- and soil-dwelling (0–2 cm soil depth oribatid mites was 1–2 times higher in sites without earthworms than in sites with worms. Similarly, litter-dwelling oribatid mites were between 72 and 1,210 times more abundant in earthworm-free sites than in sites with worms. Among earthworm invaded sites, abundance of litter-dwelling oribatid mites in sites without the anecic L. terrestris was twice as high in May and 28 times higher in October, compared to sites with L. terrestris. Species richness, diversity, and abundance of oribatid mites were greater in litter-layers than in the soil-layers that showed a varied response to earthworm invasion. Species compositions of both litter- and soil-dwelling oribatid mite communities of forests with no earthworms were markedly different from those with earthworms. We conclude that exotic earthworm invasions are associated with significant declines of species diversity, numbers, and compositional shifts in litter- and soil-inhabiting communities. These faunal shifts may contribute to earthworm effects on soil processes and food web dynamics in historically earthworm-free, northern temperate forests.

John C. Maerz

2011-03-01

131

Costs and benefits of freezing behaviour in the harvestman Eumesosoma roeweri (Arachnida, Opiliones).  

Science.gov (United States)

Animals present an enormous variety of behavioural defensive mechanisms, which increase their survival, but often at a cost. Several animal taxa reduce their chances of being detected and/or recognized as prey items by freezing (remaining completely motionless) in the presence of a predator. We studied costs and benefits of freezing in immature Eumesosoma roeweri (Opiliones, Sclerosomatidae). Preliminary observations showed that these individuals often freeze in the presence of the syntopic predatory spider Schizocosa ocreata (Araneae, Lycosidae). We verified that harvestmen paired with predators spent more time freezing than when alone or when paired with a conspecific. Then, we determined that predator chemical cues alone did not elicit freezing behaviour. Next, we examined predator behaviour towards moving/non-moving prey and found that spiders attacked moving prey significantly more, suggesting an advantage of freezing in the presence of a predator. Finally, as measure of the foraging costs of freezing, we found that individuals paired with a predator for 2h gained significantly less weight than individuals paired with a conspecific or left alone. Taken together, our results suggest that freezing may protect E. roeweri harvestmen from predatory attacks by wolf spiders, but at the cost of reduced food and/or water intake. PMID:19539731

Chelini, Marie-Claire; Willemart, Rodrigo H; Hebets, Eileen A

2009-10-01

132

Spectra of colony size of CHO-fibroblastoma irradiated with 60Co gamma rays after freeze and thaw cycles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The production of reproductive lethal cell lesions by freeze and thaw cycles has been studied by means of colony size spectrometry in tetraploid CHO-fibroblastoma protected with glycerine. The verification sensitivity of this method is compared with that of the colony formation test, the survival curve of cells and the relative multiplicity. 20 days after a freeze and thaw cycle only the spectrometry of the colony size and the survival curve of the cells and colonies suggest a cell lesion. After 44 days, changes as a consequence of reproductive lethal lesions can be detected only in the spectrum of the colony size. Survival curves of the colonies, survival curves of the cells and relative multiplicities determined on cell strains 44 days after a freeze and thaw cycle are not significatively different from the results of non-frozen control cells. The relation of the average cellular multiplicity after a freeze and thaw cycle to that of the nonfrozen control cells approaches the value of 1 with increased cultivation period after a freeze and thaw cycle. The reproductive lethal lesion after a freeze and thaw cycle is also decreasing with an increased cultivation period. Proliferation lesions by means of 60Co gamma irradiation have been influenced in dependence of the dose by 20 days of freeze and thaw lesions of a cell population. (orig.)

133

The relationship of freeze tolerance with intracellular compounds in baker's yeasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Freeze-tolerant baker's yeasts are required for the processing of frozen doughs. The present study was carried out to investigate the cell survival rate after frozen storage and the change of fermentability in dough due to frozen storage, and to discuss quantitatively the relationship of freeze tolerance with intracellular trehalose, amino acids, and glycerol, using six types of baker's yeasts as the test materials. The experimental results showed that the fermentability of yeast cells in frozen dough was strongly correlated with the cell survival rate. The baker's yeast with a higher level of cell survival rate had a larger increase in the total intracellular compound content after frozen storage, and the cell survival rate increased linearly with increasing total intracellular compound content in frozen yeast cells. Trehalose was a primary compound affecting freeze tolerance, followed by glutamic acid, arginine, proline, asparagic acid, and glycerol. The basic information provided by the present study is useful for exploring the freeze-tolerance mechanisms of baker's yeast cells, breeding better freeze-tolerant baker's yeast strains, and developing more effective cryoprotectants. PMID:24482281

Shi, Xiaojian; Miao, Yelian; Chen, Jie Yu; Chen, Jun; Li, Wenli; He, Xun; Wang, Jining

2014-03-01

134

Time dependence of immersion freezing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The time dependence of immersion freezing was studied for temperatures between 236 K and 243 K. Droplets with single immersed, size-selected 400 nm and 800 nm kaolinite particles were produced at 300 K, cooled down to supercooled temperatures typical for mixed-phase cloud conditions, and the fraction of frozen droplets with increasing residence time was detected. To simulate the conditions of immersion freezing in mixed-phase clouds we used the Zurich Ice Nucleation Chamber (ZINC and its vertical extension, the Immersion Mode Cooling chAmber (IMCA. We observed that the frozen fraction of droplets increased with increasing residence time in the chamber. This suggests that there is a time dependence of immersion freezing and supports the importance of a stochastic component in the ice nucleation process. The rate at which droplets freeze was observed to decrease towards higher temperatures and smaller particle sizes. Comparison of the laboratory data with four different ice nucleation models, three based on classical nucleation theory with different representations of the particle surface properties and one singular, suggest that the classical, stochastic approach combined with a distribution of contact angles is able to reproduce the ice nucleation observed in these experiments most accurately. Using the models to calculate the increase in frozen fraction at typical mixed-phase cloud temperatures over an extended period of time, yields an equivalent effect of ?1 K temperature shift and an increase in time scale by a factor of ~10.

A. Welti

2012-05-01

135

Heavy Metals Bioaccumulation by Iranian and Australian Earthworms (Eisenia fetida in the Sewage Sludge Vermicomposting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vermicomposting of organic waste has an important part to play in an integrated waste management strategy. In this study, the possibility of heavy metals accumulation with two groups of Iranian and Australian earthworms in sewage sludge vermicompost was investigated. Eisenia fetida was the species of earthworms used in the vermicomposting process. The bioaccumulation of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn as heavy metals by Iranian and Australian earthworms was studied. The results indicated that heavy metals concentration decreased with increasing vermicomposting time. Comparison of the two groups of earthworms showed that the Iranian earthworms consumed higher quantities of micronutrients such as Cu and Zn comparing with the Australian earthworms, while the bioaccumulation of non-essential elements such as Cr, Cd, and Pb by the Australian group was higher. The significant decrease in heavy metal concentrations in the final vermicompost indicated the capability of both Iranian and Australian E.fetida species in accumulating heavy metals in their body tissues.

MR Shahmansouri, H Pourmoghadas, AR Parvaresh, H Alidadi

2005-01-01

136

Potential spread of forest soil-borne fungi through earthworm consumption and casting  

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Full Text Available To test if forest soil-borne fungi concerned with plant health can be selectively dispersed by earthworms, 10 fungal species isolated from 5 forests were presented, at 2 concentrations, to 3 ecologically distinct earthworm species in laboratory trials. Between 5 and 13 days after introduction, casts were collected, where possible, from each earthworm species fed with a different fungus. These casts were analysed, using molecular methods, for the presence of the given fungus and its vitality verified through traditional plating techniques. The research confirmed that earthworms have an important role in dispersal of soil fungi in forests, and that such activity can depend on the taxonomical position of the fungus, ecological category of the earthworm species involved and the fungal concentration. In certain instances there is a suggestion that some fungi may be toxic to some earthworms at the given concentrations, which equated to those within and outside of the rhizosphere.

Montecchio L

2014-08-01

137

Valorisation of a water hyacinth in vermicomposting using an epigeic earthworm Perionyx excavatus in Central Vietnam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The feasibility of vermicomposting water hyacinth (WH) [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] mixed with pig manure (PM) in different proportions was tested using tropical composting earthworm Perionyx excavatus. Earthworms grew and reproduced normally until the incorporation of 50% WH in initial substrate. Higher water hyacinth proportions induced earthworms' mortality and significantly affected the numbers of hatchlings and cocoons produced during vermicomposting period. The influence of the ...

Zirbes, L.; Renard, Q.; Dufey, J.; Tu, Pk; Duyet, Hn; Lebailly, P.; Francis, F.; Haubruge, E.

2011-01-01

138

Theoretical analysis of specimen cooling rate during impact freezing and liquid-jet freezing of freeze-etch specimens.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have carried out a theoretical analysis of specimen cooling rate under ideal conditions during impact freezing and liquid-jet freezing. The analysis shows that use of liquid helium instead of liquid nitrogen as cooling medium during impact freezing results in an increase in a specimen cooling rate of no more than 30-40%. We have further shown that when both impact freezing and liquid-jet freezing are conducted at liquid nitrogen temperature, the two methods give approximately the same spec...

Kopstad, G.; Elgsaeter, A.

1982-01-01

139

The effect of radioecological condition to earthworms and the problems of ecosystems related with them  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

hain of soil bionetwork. So, in this way it was investigated an effect of radioactive pollution to earthworms aboriginal for Absheron peninsula. By the experimentation of earthworms in contaminated soil (with 226Ra, 228Ra, U) in respectively 1 percent, 2,5 percent, 5 percent and 10 percent soil examples during a month, it was established that the earthworms so sensible to the high level of radioactive pollution. Regarding to the data received it has a point that usage of earthworms as bio indicators, in future should help people to apply this original objects in case of remediation of strongly polluted areas of Absheron peninsula.

140

Earthworms - role in soil fertility to the use in medicine and as a food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Earthworms are important regulators of soil structure and dynamics of soil organic matter. They are a major component of soil fauna communities in most ecosystems and comprise a large proportion of macro fauna biomass. Their activities are beneficial because they can enhance soil nutrient cycling through the rapid incorporation of detritus into mineral soil. However, mucus production associated with water excretion in earthworm guts also enhances the activity of other beneficial soil microorganisms. Earthworms alter soil structure, water movement, nutrient dynamics and plant growth. The medical value of earthworms has been known for centuries. The extracts prepared from earthworm tissues have been used for the treatment of numerous diseases since they are valuable source of proteins, peptides, enzymes and physiologically active substances. Several studies have shown that the earthworm extracts contain different macromolecules which exhibited the variety of activities, such as antioxidative, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, anticancer etc. Some of these activities are involved in wound healing process, using the earthworm preparation. In some countries the earthworms are used as a part of healthy food. They have very high nutritive value because their bodies contain the high percentage of various proteins. Besides the human food, the earthworms are used in the feeding of animals (fish, chicken, etc..

M Grdiša

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
141

Non-equilibrium freezing behaviour of aqueous systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The tendencies to non-equilibrium freezing behaviour commonly noted in representative aqueous systems derive from bulk and surface properties according to the circumstances. Supercooling and supersaturation are limited by heterogeneous nucleation in the presence of solid impurities. Homogeneous nucleation has been observed in aqueous systems freed from interfering solids. Once initiated, crystal growth is ofter slowed and, very frequently, terminated with increasing viscosity. Nor does ice first formed always succeed in assuming its most stable crystalline form. Many of the more significant measurements on a given systeatter permitting the simultaneous representation of thermodynamic and non-equilibrium properties. The diagram incorporated equilibrium melting points, heterogeneous nucleation temperatures, homogeneous nucleation temperatures, glass transition and devitrification temperatures, recrystallization temperatures, and, where appropriate, solute solubilities and eutectic temperatures. Taken together, the findings on modle systems aid the identification of the kinetic and thermodynamic factors responsible for the freezing-thawing survival of living cells. PMID:17872

MacKenzie, A P

1977-03-29

142

Stability of Freeze-Dried Lactobacillus acidophilus in Banana, Soybean and Pearl Barley Powders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of banana, soybean, pearl barley powders and nonfat dry milk on the viability of freeze-dried Lactobacillus acidophilus at 4 and 25°C was studied during 30 days of storage. The survival of freeze-dried L. acidophilus at 4°C was greater than that at 25°C. The survival of L. acidophilus in banana, pearl barley, soybean powders and nonfat dry milk powder was higher than that in control (0.1% peptone water at both temperatures indicating that addition of banana, soybean and pearl barley powders improved survival of L. acidophilus. The survival of L. acidophilus at 25°C in banana, pearl barley, soybean extract and nonfat dry milk was up to 6, 16, 20 and 25 days, respectively, while the organisms survived in samples stored at 4°C. The variation of viability may relate to hygroscopicity of different powders. Similar to nonfat dry milk, soybean powder preserved freeze-dried L. acidophilus during storage. The present study showed the potential of banana, soybean and pearl barley powders as cryoprotectants in freeze-dried probiotic preparations.

Nathanon Trachoo

2008-01-01

143

Effect of temperature and season on reproduction, neutral red retention and metallothionein responses of earthworms exposed to metals in field soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study investigated the short-term survival, reproduction and physiological (lysosomal membrane stability, metallothionein transcript copy number, body tissue metal concentrations) responses of Lumbricus rubellus exposed to metal contaminated field soils under different laboratory temperatures (10, 15 and 20 oC) and physiological responses of earthworms collected from the field in three different seasons (spring, autumn, winter). In the laboratory, metal contaminated soils had significant effects on reproduction (p < 0.001), metallothionein-2 (MT-2) expression (p = 0.033) and earthworm As (p = 0.003), Cd (p = 0.001), Pb (p < 0.001) and Zn (p < 0.001) concentration, but not lysosomal membrane stability and tissue Hg and Cu. No effect of temperature was found for any parameter. Principal component analysis of extractable and tissue metal concentrations indicated PC1 as a measure of metal stress. Both cocoon production (r = - 0.75) and MT-2 induction (r = 0.41) were correlated with PC1. A correlation was also found between cocoon production and MT-2 expression (r = - 0.41). Neutral red retention and MT-2 measurements in worms collected from the field sites in three seasons confirmed the absence of a temperature effect on these responses. - Laboratory and field studies demonstrate metal effects on earthworm life-cycle and biochemical responses are not influenced by temperature regime

144

Earthworms and litter distribution affect plant-defensive chemistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies on plant-defensive chemistry have mainly focused on plants in direct interaction with aboveground and occasionally belowground herbivores and pathogens. Here we investigate whether decomposers and the spatial distribution of organic residues in soil affect plant-defensive chemistry. Litter concentrated in a patch (vs. homogeneously mixed into the soil) led to an increase in the aucubin content in shoots of Plantago lanceolata. Earthworms increased total phytosterol content of shoots, but only when the litter was mixed homogeneously into the soil. The phytosterol content increased and aphid reproduction decreased with increasing N concentration of the shoots. This study documents for the first time that earthworms and the spatial distribution of litter may change plant-defensive chemistry against herbivores. PMID:15260217

Wurst, Susanne; Dugassa-Gobena, Dereje; Scheu, Stefan

2004-04-01

145

Riboflavin content in autofluorescent earthworm coelomocytes is species-specific.  

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Full Text Available We have recently shown that a large proproportion of earthworm coelomocytes exhibit strong autofluorescence in some species (Dendrobaena veneta, Allolobophora chlorotica, Dendrodrilus rubidus, Eisenia fetida, and Octolasion spp., while autofluorescent coelomocytes are very scarce in representatives of Lumbricus spp. and Aporrectodea spp. Riboflavin (vitamin B2 was identified as a major fluorophore in Eisenia jetida coelomocytes. The main aim of the present experiments was to quantify riboflavin content in autofluorescent coelomocytes (eleocytes from several earthworm species through a combination of flow cytometric and spectrofluorometric measurements. Spectrofluorometry of coelomocyte lysates showed that riboflavin was non-detectable in the coelomocytes of Aporrectodea spp. and Lumbricus spp., but was a prominent constituent of lysates from species with autofluorescent eleocytes. In the latter case, riboflavin content was the highest in E. fetida, followed by Octolasion spp. > A. chlorotica > D. rubidus. The riboflavin content of coelomocytes correlates positively with eleocyte autofluorescence intensity measured by flow cytometry and visible with fluorescence microscopy.

Joanna Homa

2007-01-01

146

Earthworm Is a Versatile and Sustainable Biocatalyst for Organic Synthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

A crude extract of earthworms was used as an eco-friendly, environmentally benign, and easily accessible biocatalyst for various organic synthesis including the asymmetric direct aldol and Mannich reactions, Henry and Biginelli reactions, direct three-component aza-Diels-Alder reactions for the synthesis of isoquinuclidines, and domino reactions for the synthesis of coumarins. Most of these reactions have never before seen in nature, and moderate to good enantioselectivities in aldol and Mannich reactions were obtained with this earthworm catalyst. The products can be obtained in preparatively useful yields, and the procedure does not require any additional cofactors or special equipment. This work provides an example of a practical way to use sustainable catalysts from nature. PMID:25148527

Guan, Zhi; Chen, Yan-Li; Yuan, Yi; Song, Jian; Yang, Da-Cheng; Xue, Yang; He, Yan-Hong

2014-01-01

147

Earthworm activities in cassava and egusi melon fields in the transitional zone of Benin: linking farmers' perceptions with field studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Farmers' perceptions of earthworm activities were studied in the transitional zone of Benin and linked to scientific explanations of earthworm casting activities. Earthworm activity was assessed in farmers' fields with three different cassava cultivars and in a field experiment with three different egusi melon species. The experiment included plots with cowpea and maize. The study also comprised group discussions and a survey with 91 individual farmers. All farmers were aware of earthworms, b...

Sai?dou, A.; Kossou, D.; Brussaard, L.; Richards, P.; Kuyper, T. W.

2008-01-01

148

Effects of Earthworms on Phosphorus Dynamics – A Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Belowground biotic interactions are known to influence soil fertility and plant growth by changing the physical environment and the soil nutrient cycles. Among the great diversity of soil biota, earthworms are keystone soil organisms in regulating nutrient cycling through: (i) their own metabolism that leads to high availability of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) from metabolic wastes such as urine, mucus and tissue, (ii) the dispersal and the stimulation of soil microorganism activity associated...

Le Bayon, Rene?e-claire; Milleret, Roxane

2009-01-01

149

Plasmid Transfer between Spatially Separated Donor and Recipient Bacteria in Earthworm-Containing Soil Microcosms  

Science.gov (United States)

Most gene transfer studies have been performed with relatively homogeneous soil systems in the absence of soil macrobiota, including invertebrates. In this study we examined the influence of earthworm activity (burrowing, casting, and feeding) on transfer of plasmid pJP4 between spatially separated donor (Alcaligenes eutrophus) and recipient (Pseudomonas fluorescens) bacteria in nonsterile soil columns. A model system was designed such that the activity of earthworms would act to mediate cell contact and gene transfer. Three different earthworm species (Aporrectodea trapezoides, Lumbricus rubellus, and Lumbricus terrestris), representing each of the major ecological categories (endogeic, epigeic, and anecic), were evaluated. Inoculated soil microcosms, with and without added earthworms, were analyzed for donor, recipient, and transconjugant bacteria at 5-cm-depth intervals by using selective plating techniques. Transconjugants were confirmed by colony hybridization with a mer gene probe. The presence of earthworms significantly increased dispersal of the donor and recipient strains. In situ gene transfer of plasmid pJP4 from A. eutrophus to P. fluorescens was detected only in earthworm-containing microcosms, at a frequency of (symbl)10(sup2) transconjugants per g of soil. The depth of recovery was dependent on the burrowing behavior of each earthworm species; however, there was no significant difference in the total number of transconjugants among the earthworm species. Donor and recipient bacteria were recovered from earthworm feces (casts) of all three earthworm species, with numbers up to 10(sup6) and 10(sup4) bacteria per g of cast, respectively. A. trapezoides egg capsules (cocoons) formed in the inoculated soil microcosms contained up to 10(sup7) donor and 10(sup6) recipient bacteria per g of cocoon. No transconjugant bacteria, however, were recovered from these microhabitats. To our knowledge, this is the first report of gene transfer between physically isolated bacteria in nonsterile soil, using burrowing earthworms as a biological factor to facilitate cell-to-cell contact. PMID:16535521

Daane, L. L.; Molina, J.; Sadowsky, M. J.

1997-01-01

150

Earthworm Population Density in Sugarcane Cropping System Applied with Various Quality of Organic Matter  

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Full Text Available Earthworms population in the soil are greatly impacted by agricultural management, yet little is known about how the quality and quantity of organic matter addition interact in sugarcane cropping system to earthworm population. This study describes the effect of various organic matter and application rates on earthworms in sugarcane cropping system. Earthworms were collected in April, July and December from 48 experimental plots under five kinds of organic matter application : (1 cattle manure, (2 filter cake of sugar mill, (3 sugarcane trash, (4 mixture of cattle manure+filter cake, and (5 mixture of cattle manure+sugarcane trash. There were three application rates of the organic matter (5, 10, and 15 ton ha-1. The treatments were arranged in factorial block randomize design with three replications and one treatment as a control (no organic input. Earthworms were collected using monolith sampling methods and hand-sorted from each plot, and measured its density (D (indiv.m-2, biomass (B (g m-2 and B/D ratio (g/indiv.. All the plots receiving organic matter input had higher earthworm density, biomass, and B/D ratio than the control. The highest earthworm population density was found in the plot receiving application of sugarcane trash (78 indiv.m-2 and the mixture of cattle manure+sugarcane trash (84 indiv.m-2. The increase in application rates of organic matter could increase the earthworm density and biomass. Earthworm population density also appeared to be strongly influenced by the quality of organic matter, such as the C-organic, N, C/N ratio, lignin, polyphenols, and cellulose content. Earthworm preferred low quality organic matter. It was caused by the higher energy of low quality organic matter than high quality organic matter. Our findings suggest that the input of low quality organic matter with application rate as 10 ton ha-1 is important for maintaining earthworm population and soil health in sugarcane land.

Nurhidayati Nurhidayati

2012-12-01

151

Comparative Genomics of Symbiotic Bacteria in Earthworm Nephridia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The excretory and osmoregulatory organs (nephridia) of lumbricid earthworms are densely colonized by extracellular bacterial symbionts belonging to the newly established betaproteobacterial genus Verminephrobacter. The nephridial symbiont of the earthworm Eisenia fetida was subjected to full genome sequencing along with two of its closest relatives; the plant pathogenic Acidovorax avena subsp. citrulli and the free-living Acidovorax sp. JS42. In addition, the genome of the nephridial symbiont of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata was partially sequenced. In order to resolve the functional and evolutionary basis of the symbiosis we annotated and compared the genomes. The genomes ranged in size from 4.4 to 5.6 Mbp, the E. fetida symbiont genome being the largest. The symbiont genomes showed no evidence of gene-loss related to any particular type of functional gene category. In contrast, genes predicted to be involved in transport processes were highly overrepresented in the symbiont genomes due to massive paralogous expansion of genes encoding ABC-type amino acid and peptide uptake systems. Thus, symbionts seem well-adapted to the nephridial environment being able to profit from proteinaceous excretion products. Gene order was highly conserved between the genomes of Acidovorax avena and Acidovorax sp. JS42, whereas the E. fetida symbiont genome held very little conservation of gene order compared to either of the latter two. Repetitive sequences were excessively abundant throughout the genomes of both symbionts. Together, this is indicative of high recombinatorial frequency in the symbiont genomes the function of which is presently poorly understood.

Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Pinel, Nicolas

152

PREDICTION OF BIOAVAILABILITY OF CHLORPYRIFOS RESIDUES IN SOIL TO EARTHWORMS  

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Full Text Available An incubation test was conducted to investigate the effect of aging on bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil and to assess the feasibility of chemical extraction techniques for predicting bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil. Chlorpyrifos was spiked into sterilized soil and aged in microcosms for up to 120 days. The earthworms were incubated in the spiked soils, at 0, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 120 days after spiking, for a period of 7 days. After exposure, chlorpyrifos concentrations in the earthworm tissues were determined. Change in chemical extractability of soil-chlorpyrifos was measured using a several solvent systems including methanol, methanol-water (9:1, acetone-water (5:3, and water. The results show that chemical extractability and earthworm bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil decreased with aging. The amount of aged and unaged chlorpyrifos recovered from soil varied with the individual chemical extractant and extraction method. Concentrations of chlorpyrifos in Eisenia foetida were significantly higher than in Allolobophora caliginosa, suggesting that the bioavailability of chlorpyrifos was a species-dependent process. The extractability of chlorpyrifos by chemical solvents was significantly correlated with bioavailability fraction of E. foetida and A. caliginosa, showing that these extraction techniques may be efficient for predicting bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil.

X.M Wu

2011-01-01

153

Earthworm-produced calcite granules: A new terrestrial palaeothermometer?  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we show for the first time that calcite granules, produced by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, and commonly recorded at sites of archaeological interest, accurately reflect temperature and soil water ?18O values. Earthworms were cultivated in an orthogonal combination of two different (granule-free) soils moistened by three types of mineral water and kept at three temperatures (10, 16 and 20 °C) for an acclimatisation period of three weeks followed by transfer to identical treatments and cultivation for a further four weeks. Earthworm-secreted calcite granules were collected from the second set of soils. ?18O values were determined on individual calcite granules (?18Oc) and the soil solution (?18Ow). The ?18Oc values reflect soil solution ?18Ow values and temperature, but are consistently enriched by 1.51 (± 0.12)‰ in comparison to equilibrium in synthetic carbonates. The data fit the equation 1000 ln ? = [20.21 ± 0.92] (103 T-1) - [38.58 ± 3.18] (R2 = 0.95; n = 96; p < 0.0005). As the granules are abundant in modern soils, buried soils and archaeological contexts, and can be dated using U-Th disequilibria, the developed palaeotemperature relationship has enormous potential for application to Holocene and Pleistocene time intervals.

Versteegh, Emma A. A.; Black, Stuart; Canti, Matthew G.; Hodson, Mark E.

2013-12-01

154

Short-term stabilization of grape marc through earthworms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The winery industry generates vast amounts of organic waste during the various stages of wine production. Among the possible methodological alternatives available for its treatment, vermicomposting is one of the best-known processes for the biological stabilization of solid organic wastes by transforming them into safer and more stabilized materials suitable for application to soil. In this study we carried out a mesocosm experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of the active phase of vermicomposting for the stabilization of grape marc, an enriched lignocellulosic by-product obtained after the grape crushing and pressing stages in wine production. For this we analysed the chemical, biochemical and microbiological properties of the product resulting from this phase, in comparison with those in a control treatment. Earthworm activity reduced the abundance of both bacterial and fungal PLFA biomarkers. Decreases in microbial activity and in protease and cellulase activities were also attributed to the presence of earthworms. The differences in microbial communities were accompanied by a reduction in the labile C pool and the cellulose content. These results indicate that earthworms played a key role in the stabilization of the grape marc in the short-term, via its effects on organic matter decomposition and microbial biomass and activity. PMID:21277083

Gómez-Brandón, María; Lazcano, Cristina; Lores, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge

2011-03-15

155

PREDICTION OF BIOAVAILABILITY OF CHLORPYRIFOS RESIDUES IN SOIL TO EARTHWORMS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english An incubation test was conducted to investigate the effect of aging on bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil and to assess the feasibility of chemical extraction techniques for predicting bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil. Chlorpyrifos was spiked into sterilized soil and aged in microcosms f [...] or up to 120 days. The earthworms were incubated in the spiked soils, at 0, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 120 days after spiking, for a period of 7 days. After exposure, chlorpyrifos concentrations in the earthworm tissues were determined. Change in chemical extractability of soil-chlorpyrifos was measured using a several solvent systems including methanol, methanol-water (9:1), acetone-water (5:3), and water. The results show that chemical extractability and earthworm bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil decreased with aging. The amount of aged and unaged chlorpyrifos recovered from soil varied with the individual chemical extractant and extraction method. Concentrations of chlorpyrifos in Eisenia foetida were significantly higher than in Allolobophora caliginosa, suggesting that the bioavailability of chlorpyrifos was a species-dependent process. The extractability of chlorpyrifos by chemical solvents was significantly correlated with bioavailability fraction of E. foetida and A. caliginosa, showing that these extraction techniques may be efficient for predicting bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil.

X.M, Wu; Y.L, Yu; M, Li; Y.H, Long; H, Fang; S.N, Li.

156

Distribution of bacteria and fungi in the earthworm Libyodrillus violaceous (Annelida: Oligochaeta, a native earthworm from Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Earthworms are soil invertebrates that play a key role in recycling organic matter in soils.In Nigeria, earthworms include Libyodrillus violaceous. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial counts, as well as fungal counts of viable microorganisms in soils and gut sections, were made on twenty L. violaceous collected from different sites on the campus of the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. The samples were collected between April and November, 2002. Numbers of microorganisms were higher in castings and gut sections than in uningested soil samples. The guts and their contents also had higher moisture and total nitrogen contents than the uningested soils. Bacteria and fungi isolated from the samples were identified by standard microbiological procedures on the bases of their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Isolated bacteria were identified as Staphylococcus, Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus mutans, Clostridium, Spirocheata spp., Azotobacter spp., Micrococcus lylae, Acinetobacter spp., Halobacterium for bacteria. Yeast isolates were identified as Candida spp., Zygosaccharomyces spp., Pichia spp., and Saccharomyces spp while molds were identified as, Aspergillus spp., Pytium spp., Penicillium spp., Fusarium spp and Rhizopus spp. Of the five locations examined, the refuse dump area had the highest numbers of both aerobic and anaerobic organisms, followed by the arboretum while the cultivated land area recorded the lowest counts. The higher numbers of microorganisms observed in the gut sections and casts of the earthworms examined in this work reinforce the general concept that the gut and casts of earthworms show higher microbial diversity and activity than the surrounding soil. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (1: 49-58. Epub 2006 Mar 31.

A. B Idowu

2006-03-01

157

Distribution of bacteria and fungi in the earthworm Libyodrillus violaceous (Annelida: Oligochaeta), a native earthworm from Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in english Earthworms are soil invertebrates that play a key role in recycling organic matter in soils.In Nigeria, earthworms include Libyodrillus violaceous. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial counts, as well as fungal counts of viable microorganisms in soils and gut sections, were made on twenty L. violaceous c [...] ollected from different sites on the campus of the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. The samples were collected between April and November, 2002. Numbers of microorganisms were higher in castings and gut sections than in uningested soil samples. The guts and their contents also had higher moisture and total nitrogen contents than the uningested soils. Bacteria and fungi isolated from the samples were identified by standard microbiological procedures on the bases of their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Isolated bacteria were identified as Staphylococcus, Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus mutans, Clostridium, Spirocheata spp., Azotobacter spp., Micrococcus lylae, Acinetobacter spp., Halobacterium for bacteria. Yeast isolates were identified as Candida spp., Zygosaccharomyces spp., Pichia spp., and Saccharomyces spp while molds were identified as, Aspergillus spp., Pytium spp., Penicillium spp., Fusarium spp and Rhizopus spp. Of the five locations examined, the refuse dump area had the highest numbers of both aerobic and anaerobic organisms, followed by the arboretum while the cultivated land area recorded the lowest counts. The higher numbers of microorganisms observed in the gut sections and casts of the earthworms examined in this work reinforce the general concept that the gut and casts of earthworms show higher microbial diversity and activity than the surrounding soil. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (1): 49-58. Epub 2006 Mar 31.

A. B, Idowu; M. O, Edema; A. O, Adeyi.

158

Influence of dough freezing on Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The need to freeze dough is increasing in bakery production. Frozen dough can be stored for a long time without quality change. The capacity of bakery production can be increased in this way, and in the same time, the night shifts can be decreased. Yeast cells can be damaged by freezing process resulting in poor technological quality of dough after defrostation (longer fermentation of dough. The influence of frozen storage time of dough on survival percentage of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. Dough samples were taken after 1, 7, 14 and 28 days of frozen storage at -20°C. After defrosting, at room temperature, samples were taken from the surface and the middle part of dough (under aseptic conditions, and the percentage of living S. cerevisiae cells was determined. During frozen storage of dough, the number of living S. cerevisiae decreased. After 28 days of frozen storage, the percentage of live cells on the surface and inside the dough was 53,1% and 54,95%, respectively. The addition of k-carragenan to dough increased the percentage of living cells in the middle part of dough up to 64,63%. Pure cultures, isolated from survived S. cerevisia cells in frozen dough by agar plates method (Koch's method, were multiplied in optimal liquid medium for yeasts. The content of cytochromes in S. cerevisiae cells was determined by spectrophotometric method. The obtained results showed that the content of cytochromes in survived S. cerevisiae cells was not affected by dough freezing process. Growth rate and fermentative activity (Einchor's method were determined in multiplied cells.

Pejin Dušanka J.

2007-01-01

159

Influence of earthworm mucus and amino acids on tomato seedling growth and cadmium accumulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects on the growth of tomato seedlings and cadmium accumulation of earthworm mucus and a solution of amino acids matching those in earthworm mucus was studied through a hydroponic experiment. The experiment included four treatments: 5 mg Cd L-1 (CC), 5 mg Cd L-1 + 100 mL L-1 earthworm mucus (CE), 5 mg Cd L-1 + 100 mL L-1 amino acids solution (CA) and the control (CK). Results showed that, compared with CC treatment, either earthworm mucus or amino acids significantly increased tomato seedling growth and Cd accumulation but the increase was much higher in the CE treatment compared with the CA treatment. This may be due to earthworm mucus and amino acids significantly increasing the chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement uptake and transport in the tomato seedlings. The much greater increase in the effect of earthworm mucus compared with amino acid treatments may be due to IAA-like substances in earthworm mucus. - Earthworm mucus increased tomato seedlings growth and Cd accumulation through increasing chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement accumulation.

160

Influence of earthworm mucus and amino acids on tomato seedling growth and cadmium accumulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects on the growth of tomato seedlings and cadmium accumulation of earthworm mucus and a solution of amino acids matching those in earthworm mucus was studied through a hydroponic experiment. The experiment included four treatments: 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} (CC), 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} + 100 mL L{sup -1} earthworm mucus (CE), 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} + 100 mL L{sup -1} amino acids solution (CA) and the control (CK). Results showed that, compared with CC treatment, either earthworm mucus or amino acids significantly increased tomato seedling growth and Cd accumulation but the increase was much higher in the CE treatment compared with the CA treatment. This may be due to earthworm mucus and amino acids significantly increasing the chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement uptake and transport in the tomato seedlings. The much greater increase in the effect of earthworm mucus compared with amino acid treatments may be due to IAA-like substances in earthworm mucus. - Earthworm mucus increased tomato seedlings growth and Cd accumulation through increasing chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement accumulation.

Zhang Shujie [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Hu Feng, E-mail: fenghu@njau.edu.c [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li Huixin; Li Xiuqiang [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

2009-10-15

 
 
 
 
161

Temperature-dependent alterations in metabolic enzymes and proteins of three ecophysiologically different species of earthworms  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The effects of varying temperatures (12 - 44° C) on the specific activity of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase ((cMDH), mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of some earthworms (Metaphire posthuma, Perionyx sansibaricus and Lampito mauritii) were studied. The effec [...] ts of different temperatures on supernatant and mitochondrial protein contents were also investigated. The specific activities of cMDH, mMDH and LDH of the earthworms decreased gradually as a function of increasing temperature from 12 to 44°C. Higher metabolic energy was needed to maintain the activity at low temperatures. Hence, the earthworms showed increased enzyme specific activity at low temperatures. However, the protein content increased upto 28°C. Afterwards, with the increase in the temperature from 28 to 42°C, the proteins in the earthworms showed a significant decrease. The temperature-associated changes in the protein content could be explained by the fact that protein synthesizing capacity was hampered above and below the optimum temperature range. The most pronounced effects of varying temperatures were on P. sansibaricus. It might be due to the epigeic nature of the earthworm species. Then minimum effect was on the endogeic earthworm M. posthuma. Virtually, the differences in the enzymes physiology were associated with the differences in the ecological categories of the earthworms. This clearly demonstrate a possible link between the physiology and ecology at aerobic (cMDH, mMDH) and anaerobic (LDH) levels in the tropical earthworms.

G, Tripathi; N., Kachhwaha; I., Dabi; N., Bandooni.

162

Radioresistance of aboriginal earthworms of Absheron peninsula in radioactive model systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

solutions.Thus there is different level of radioresistance for earthworms and they are among the best bioindicators of polluted soils. There was an obvious perspective of using of earthworms as bioremediators in polluted soil with radionuclides in future as well.

163

Abundance of earthworms in Nigerian ecological zones: implications for sustaining fertilizer-free soil fertility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The abundance of earthworms in the ecological zones in Nigeria has been determined and the possibility of earthworm functions replacing both mechanized land preparation and organic fertilizers discussed. The most abundant earthworms, comprising 62 % of the population, were the advantageous solid-wormcast makers. Mixed Leguminous Wooded Savanna had the highest earthworm density (1.50 million worms/ha, while Wooded Savanna had the lowest (0.23 million worms/ha. Coastal Forest and Mangrove (0.51 t/ha had the highest earthworm biomass and Afziela  Savanna/Semi-Deciduous Forest (0.03 t/ha had the least. A new soil impact index (SIINDEX is introduced, which simultaneously incorporates both earthwormbiomass and density. The highest SIINDEX was from Mixed Leguminous Wooded Savanna (0.72 and the lowest from Afziella Savanna/Semi-Deciduous Forest (0.11. Forests with SIINDEX less than 0.2 should be regarded as endangered, because their earthworm functions are too low to accomplish significant leaf-litter breakdown and recycling. We suggest that if the illegal annual bush burning is prevented, the soil surface will be naturally mulched,earthworms protected, and by their function in the soil, the need for soil mechanization and  fertilization could be replaced by earthworms to produce natural foods

S.O.A. Morafa

2011-10-01

164

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MASS OF NEWLY HATCHED INDIVIDUALS AND COCOON MASS IN LUMBRICID EARTHWORMS  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Earthworm cocoons from laboratory cultures were collected and their mass was determined. When hatched, the mass of the young worms was found. Cocoon mass and the mass of hatchlings varied considerably within species. The hygromass of newly hatched earthworms was found to correlate linearly with cocoon hygromass. It is concluded that cocoon hygromass may offer a prediction for hygromass of hatchlings.

Bruus, Marianne; Bjerre, Arne

1991-01-01

165

Temperature-dependent alterations in metabolic enzymes and proteins of three ecophysiologically different species of earthworms  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The effects of varying temperatures (12 - 44° C) on the specific activity of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase ((cMDH), mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of some earthworms (Metaphire posthuma, Perionyx sansibaricus and Lampito mauritii) were studied. The effec [...] ts of different temperatures on supernatant and mitochondrial protein contents were also investigated. The specific activities of cMDH, mMDH and LDH of the earthworms decreased gradually as a function of increasing temperature from 12 to 44°C. Higher metabolic energy was needed to maintain the activity at low temperatures. Hence, the earthworms showed increased enzyme specific activity at low temperatures. However, the protein content increased upto 28°C. Afterwards, with the increase in the temperature from 28 to 42°C, the proteins in the earthworms showed a significant decrease. The temperature-associated changes in the protein content could be explained by the fact that protein synthesizing capacity was hampered above and below the optimum temperature range. The most pronounced effects of varying temperatures were on P. sansibaricus. It might be due to the epigeic nature of the earthworm species. Then minimum effect was on the endogeic earthworm M. posthuma. Virtually, the differences in the enzymes physiology were associated with the differences in the ecological categories of the earthworms. This clearly demonstrate a possible link between the physiology and ecology at aerobic (cMDH, mMDH) and anaerobic (LDH) levels in the tropical earthworms.

G, Tripathi; N., Kachhwaha; I., Dabi; N., Bandooni.

2011-08-01

166

Portable Conduction Velocity Experiments Using Earthworms for the College and High School Neuroscience Teaching Laboratory  

Science.gov (United States)

The earthworm is ideal for studying action potential conduction velocity in a classroom setting, as its simple linear anatomy allows easy axon length measurements and the worm's sparse coding allows single action potentials to be easily identified. The earthworm has two giant fiber systems (lateral and medial) with different conduction…

Shannon, Kyle M.; Gage, Gregory J.; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Wilson, W. Jeffrey; Marzullo, Timothy C.

2014-01-01

167

Effect of different feed types on growth, spawning, hatching and larval survival in angel fish (Pterophyllum scalare Lictenstein, 1823  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study effects of commercial extruder diet (T1, earthworm (T2, 50 % commercialextruder diet + 50 % earthworm (T3 on growth, spawning, hatching and larval survival of angel fish(average weight 4.06 g (Pterophyllum scalare Lictenstein, 1823 were investigated. The experimentalgroups were fed for 60 days. According to the results of this study, the best spawning and hatching werefound in group T3 but there was no significant difference with other groups (p>0.05. Also larval survivalrate in group T3 showed significant difference with group T2 (p1 as it showed significant difference withgroup T2 (p<0.05.

Amin Farahi

2010-12-01

168

Earthworm responses to different reclamation processes in post opencast mining lands during succession.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study provides earthworm population data obtained from localities with a substantial anthropogenic impact spoils. The spoil heaps were reclaimed at the end of an opencast brown coal mining period. We studied spoils reclaimed by the two most commonly used reclamation processes: forestry and agricultural. The results show the significance of the locality age and the utilized reclamation process and treatment and their effect on earthworm communities. Our data indicate that apart from soil physical and chemical properties, the reclamation process itself may also induce viability and distribution of earthworm communities. Under standardized soil properties, the changes in earthworm populations during the succession were larger within the agricultural reclamation process as opposed to the forestry reclamation process for earthworm ecological groups and individual species. PMID:25380717

Hlava, Jakub; Hlavová, Anna; Hakl, Josef; Fér, Miroslav

2015-01-01

169

Mercury, cadmium and lead concentrations in different ecophysiological groups of earthworms in forest soils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd and Pb by eight ecophysiologically distinct earthworm species was studied in 27 polluted and uncontaminated forest soils. Lowest tissue concentrations of Hg and Cd occurred in epigeic Lumbricus rubellus and highest in endogeic Octolasion cyaneum. Soils dominated by Dendrodrilus rubidus possess a high potential of risk of Pb biomagnification for secondary predators. Bioconcentration factors (soil-earthworm) followed the sequence ranked Cd > Hg > Pb. Ordination plots of redundancy analysis were used to compare HM concentrations in earthworm tissues with soil, leaf litter and root concentrations and with soil pH and CEC. Different ecological categories of earthworms are exposed to Hg, Cd and Pb in the topsoil by atmospheric deposition and accumulate them in their bodies. Species differences in HM concentrations largely reflect differences in food selectivity and niche separation. - Accumulation of non-essential heavy metals by earthworms is species-dependent and is affected by soil characteristics in natural forest soils.

Ernst, Gregor; Zimmermann, Stefan [Soil Sciences, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Christie, Peter [Agricultural and Environmental Science Department, Queen' s University Belfast, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Frey, Beat [Soil Sciences, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)], E-mail: beat.frey@wsl.ch

2008-12-15

170

Mercury, cadmium and lead concentrations in different ecophysiological groups of earthworms in forest soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd and Pb by eight ecophysiologically distinct earthworm species was studied in 27 polluted and uncontaminated forest soils. Lowest tissue concentrations of Hg and Cd occurred in epigeic Lumbricus rubellus and highest in endogeic Octolasion cyaneum. Soils dominated by Dendrodrilus rubidus possess a high potential of risk of Pb biomagnification for secondary predators. Bioconcentration factors (soil-earthworm) followed the sequence ranked Cd > Hg > Pb. Ordination plots of redundancy analysis were used to compare HM concentrations in earthworm tissues with soil, leaf litter and root concentrations and with soil pH and CEC. Different ecological categories of earthworms are exposed to Hg, Cd and Pb in the topsoil by atmospheric deposition and accumulate them in their bodies. Species differences in HM concentrations largely reflect differences in food selectivity and niche separation. - Accumulation of non-essential heavy metals by earthworms is species-dependent and is affected by soil characteristics in natural forest soils

171

Cryoprotectant Biosynthesis and the Selective Accumulation of Threitol in the Freeze-tolerant Alaskan Beetle, Upis ceramboides*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Adult Upis ceramboides do not survive freezing in the summer but tolerate freezing to ?60 °C in midwinter. The accumulation of two cryoprotective polyols, sorbitol and threitol, is integral to the extraordinary cold-hardiness of this beetle. U. ceramboides are the only animals known to accumulate high concentrations of threitol; however, the biosynthetic pathway has not been studied. A series of 13C-labeled compounds was employed to investigate this biosynthetic pathway using 13C{1H} NMR s...

Walters, Kent R.; Pan, Qingfeng; Serianni, Anthony S.; Duman, John G.

2009-01-01

172

Freezing Out Early Dark Energy  

CERN Document Server

A phenomenological model of dark energy that tracks the baryonic and cold dark matter at early times but resembles a cosmological constant at late times is explored. In the transition between these two regimes, the dark energy density drops rapidly as if it were a relic species that freezes out, during which time the equation of state peaks at +1. Such an adjustment in the dark energy density, as it shifts from scaling to potential-domination, could be the signature of a trigger mechanism that helps explain the late-time cosmic acceleration. We show that the non-negligible dark energy density at early times, and the subsequent peak in the equation of state at the transition, leave an imprint on the cosmic microwave background anisotropy pattern and the rate of growth of large scale structure. The model introduces two new parameters, consisting of the present-day equation of state and the redshift of the freeze-out transition. A Monte Carlo Markov Chain analysis of a ten-dimensional parameter space is performe...

Bielefeld, Jannis; Caldwell, Robert R; Dore, Olivier

2013-01-01

173

Shock freezing berries. Effective freezing with liquid nitrogen; Beeren unter Frostschock. Tiefgefrieren mit Fluessigstickstoff  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sensitive foods such as fruit do not freeze well at regular sub-zero temperatures. Quick freezing at extremely low temperatures is the only way of ensuring that high-value foodstuffs retain their shape and taste. Linde supplies cryogenic gases for deep freezing and also a broad portfolio of dedicated freezers. (orig.)

Anon.

2011-07-01

174

Drought increases freezing tolerance of both leaves and xylem of Larrea tridentata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drought and freezing are both known to limit desert plant distributions, but the interaction of these stressors is poorly understood. Drought may increase freezing tolerance in leaves while decreasing it in the xylem, potentially creating a mismatch between water supply and demand. To test this hypothesis, we subjected Larrea tridentata juveniles grown in a greenhouse under well-watered or drought conditions to minimum temperatures ranging from -8 to -24 °C. We measured survival, leaf retention, gas exchange, cell death, freezing point depression and leaf-specific xylem hydraulic conductance (k?). Drought-exposed plants exhibited smaller decreases in gas exchange after exposure to -8 °C compared to well-watered plants. Drought also conferred a significant positive effect on leaf, xylem and whole-plant function following exposure to -15 °C; drought-exposed plants exhibited less cell death, greater leaf retention, higher k? and higher rates of gas exchange than well-watered plants. Both drought-exposed and well-watered plants experienced 100% mortality following exposure to -24 °C. By documenting the combined effects of drought and freezing stress, our data provide insight into the mechanisms determining plant survival and performance following freezing and the potential for shifts in L. tridentata abundance and range in the face of changing temperature and precipitation regimes. PMID:20825578

Medeiros, Juliana S; Pockman, William T

2011-01-01

175

Freezing tolerance of the European water frogs: the good, the bad, and the ugly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Survival and some physiological responses to freezing were investigated in three European water frogs (Rana lessonae, Rana ridibunda, and their hybridogen Rana esculenta). The three species exhibited different survival times during freezing (from 10 h for R. lessonae to 20 h for R. ridibunda). The time courses of percent water frozen were similar; however, because of the huge differences in body mass among species (from 10 g for Rana lessonae to nearly 100 g for Rana ridibunda), the ice mass accumulation rate varied markedly (from 0.75 +/- 0.12 to 1.43 +/- 0.11 g ice/h, respectively) and was lowest in the terrestrial hibernator Rana lessonae. The hybrid Rana esculenta exhibited an intermediate response between the two parental species; furthermore, within-species correlation existed between body mass and ice mass accumulation rates, suggesting the occurrence of subpopulations in this species (0.84 +/- 0.08 g ice/h for small R. esculenta and 1.78 +/- 0.09 g ice/h for large ones). Biochemical analyses showed accumulation of blood glucose and lactate, liver glucose (originating from glycogen), and liver alanine in Rana lessonae and Rana esculenta but not in Rana ridibunda in response to freezing. The variation of freeze tolerance between these three closely related species could bring understanding to the physiological processes involved in the evolution of freeze tolerance in vertebrates. PMID:15886357

Voituron, Yann; Joly, Pierre; Eugène, Michel; Barré, Hervé

2005-06-01

176

Supercooling, ice inoculation and freeze tolerance in the European common lizard, Lacerta vivipara.  

Science.gov (United States)

The European common lizard (Lacerta vivipara) is widely distributed throughout Eurasia and is one of the few Palaearctic reptiles occurring above the Arctic Circle. We investigated the cold-hardiness of L. vivipara from France which routinely encounter sub-zero temperatures within their shallow hibernation burrows. In the laboratory, cold-acclimated lizards exposed to subfreezing temperatures as low as -3.5 degrees C could remain unfrozen (supercooled) for at least 3 weeks so long as their microenvironment was dry. In contrast, specimens cooled in contact with ambient ice crystals began to freeze within several hours. However, such susceptibility to inoculative freezing was not necessarily deleterious since L. vivipara readily tolerated the freezing of its tissues, with body surface temperatures as low as -3.0 degrees C during trials lasting up to 3 days. Freezing survival was promoted by relatively low post-nucleation cooling rates (< or = 0.1 degrees C.h-1) and apparently was associated with an accumulation of the putative cryoprotectant, glucose. The cold-hardiness strategy of L. vivipara may depend on both supercooling and freeze tolerance capacities, since this combination would afford the greatest likelihood of surviving winter in its dynamic thermal and hydric microenvironment. PMID:7665737

Costanzo, J P; Grenot, C; Lee, R E

1995-01-01

177

Mechanisms of deterioration of nutrients. [of freeze dried foods  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods which produce freeze dried foods of improved quality were examined with emphasis on storage stability. Specific topics discussed include: microstructure of freeze dried systems, investigation of structural changes in freeze dried systems, artificial food matrices, osmotic preconcentration to yield improved quality freeze dried fruits, and storage stability of osmotically preconcentrated freeze dried fruits.

Karel, M.; Flink, J. M.

1976-01-01

178

Freezing injury and root development in winter cereals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Upon exposure to 2 degrees C, the leaves and crowns of rye (Secale cereale L. cv ;Puma') and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv ;Norstar' and ;Cappelle') increased in cold hardiness, whereas little change in root cold hardiness was observed. Both root and shoot growth were severely reduced in cold-hardened Norstar wheat plants frozen to -11 degrees C or lower and transplanted to soil. In contrast, shoot growth of plants grown in a nutrient agar medium and subjected to the same hardening and freezing conditions was not affected by freezing temperatures of -20 degrees C while root growth was reduced at -15 degrees C. Thus, it was apparent that lack of root development limited the ability of plants to survive freezing under natural conditions.Generally, the temperatures at which 50% of the plants were killed as determined by the conductivity method were lower than those obtained by regrowth. A simple explanation for this difference is that the majority of cells in the crown are still alive while a small portion of the cells which are critical for regrowth are injured or killed.Suspension cultures of Norstar wheat grown in B-5 liquid medium supplemented with 3 milligrams per liter of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid could be cold hardened to the same levels as soil growth plants. These cultures produce roots when transferred to the same growth medium supplemented with a low rate of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (<1 milligram per liter). When frozen to -15 degrees C regrowth of cultures was 50% of the control, whereas the percentage of calli with root development was reduced 50% in cultures frozen to -11 degrees C. These results suggest that freezing affects root morphogenesis rather than just killing the cells responsible for root regeneration. PMID:16663299

Chen, T H; Gusta, L V; Fowler, D B

1983-11-01

179

Unprecedented Cell-Selection Using Ultra-Quick Freezing Combined with Aquaporin Expression  

Science.gov (United States)

Freezing is usually used for preservation and storage of biological samples; however, this process may have some adverse effects such as cell membrane damage. Aquaporin (AQP), a water channel protein, has been suggested to play some roles for cryopreservation although its molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that membrane damage caused by ultra-quick freezing is rescued by the expression of AQP4. We next examine if the expression of AQP combined with ultra-quick freezing can be used to select cells efficiently under freezing conditions where most cells are died. CHO cells stably expressing AQP4 were exclusively selected from mixed cell cultures. Having identified the increased expression of AQP4 during ES cell differentiation into neuro-ectoderm using bioinformatics, we confirmed the improved survival of differentiated ES cells with AQP4 expression. Finally we show that CHO cells transiently transfected with Endothelin receptor A and Aqp4 were also selected and concentrated by multiple cycles of freezing/thawing, which was confirmed with calcium imaging in response to endothelin. Furthermore, we found that the expression of AQP enables a reduction in the amount of cryoprotectants for freezing, thereby decreasing osmotic stress and cellular toxicity. Taken together, we propose that this simple but efficient and safe method may be applicable to the selection of mammalian cells for applications in regenerative medicine as well as cell-based functional assays or drug screening protocols. PMID:24558371

Kato, Yasuhiro; Miyauchi, Takayuki; Abe, Youichiro; Kojic, Dusan; Tanaka, Manami; Chikazawa, Nana; Nakatake, Yuhki; Ko, Shigeru B. H.; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Hazama, Akihiro; Fujiwara, Shoko; Uchida, Tatsuya; Yasui, Masato

2014-01-01

180

Breeding of Freeze-tolerant Yeast and the Mechanisms of Stress-tolerance  

Science.gov (United States)

Frozen dough method have been adopted in the baking industry to reduce labor and to produce fresh breads in stores. New freeze-tolerant yeasts for frozen dough preparations were isolated from banana peel and identified. To obtain strains that have fermentative ability even after several months of frozen storage in fermented dough, we attempted to breed new freeze-tolerantstrain. The hybrid between S.cerevisiae, which is a isolated freeze-tolerant strain, and a strain isolated from bakers' yeast with sexual conjugation gave a good quality bread made from frozen dough method. Freeze-tolerant strains showed higher surviving and trehalose accumulating abilities than freeze-sensitive strains. The freeze tolerance of the yeasts was associated with the basal amount of intracellular trehalose after rapid degradation at the onset of the prefermentation period. The complicated metabolic pathway and the regulation system of trehalose in yeast cells are introduced. The trehalose synthesis may act as a metabolic buffer system which contribute to maintain the intracellular inorganic phosphate and as a feedback regulation system in the glycolysis. However, it is not known enough how the trehalose protects yeast cells from stress.

Hino, Akihiro

 
 
 
 
181

Freeze thaw: a simple approach for prediction of optimal cryoprotectant for freeze drying.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study evaluates freeze thaw as a simple approach for screening the most appropriate cryoprotectant. Freeze-thaw study is based on the principle that an excipient, which protects nanoparticles during the first step of freezing, is likely to be an effective cryoprotectant. Nanoparticles of rifampicin with high entrapment efficiency were prepared by the emulsion-solvent diffusion method using dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) as complexing agent and Gantrez AN-119 as polymer. Freeze-thaw study was carried out using trehalose and fructose as cryoprotectants. The concentration of cryoprotectant, concentration of nanoparticles in the dispersion, and the freezing temperature were varied during the freeze-thaw study. Cryoprotection increased with increase in cryoprotectant concentration. Further, trehalose was superior to fructose at equivalent concentrations and moreover permitted use of more concentrated nanosuspensions for freeze drying. Freezing temperature did not influence the freeze-thaw study. Freeze-dried nanoparticles revealed good redispersibility with a size increase that correlated well with the freeze-thaw study at 20% w/v trehalose and fructose. Transmission electron microscopy revealed round particles with a size approximately 400 nm, which correlated with photon correlation spectroscopic measurements. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction suggested amorphization of rifampicin. Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy could not confirm interaction of drug with AOT. Nanoparticles exhibited sustained release of rifampicin, which followed diffusion kinetics. Nanoparticles of rifampicin were found to be stable for 12 months. The good correlation between freeze thaw and freeze drying suggests freeze-thaw study as a simple and quick approach for screening optimal cryoprotectant for freeze drying. PMID:20182826

Date, Praveen V; Samad, Abdul; Devarajan, Padma V

2010-03-01

182

Bioconversion of herbal industry waste into vermicompost using an epigeic earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of bioconversion of industrial herbal waste to vermicompost using Eudrilus eugeniae. Vermibeds were made using a mixture of herbal waste and cowdung (1?:?1) in comparison with the use of cowdung alone as substrate, resulting in vermicomposts 1 and 2, respectively. Different parameters were studied and it was observed that the nutrient profile of vermicompost 1 strongly influenced the growth of pea (Pisum sativum) and marigold plant (Tagetus erectus). The dry and fresh weight of shoots and roots, number of flowers, total yield in terms of fruit showed significant increase with vermicompost 1. Furthermore, vermicompost 1 (herbal waste and cow dung as substrate) resulted in a significant reduction in TOC by 58% in comparison with vermicompost 2 (cowdung as substrate). The C?:?N ratio was less than 20 in vermicompost 1 as well as in vermicompost 2, which indicated an advanced degree of stabilization and mineralization. The ability of earthworms to survive, grow and breed in the vermibed fed with the herbal waste indicates the sustainability and efficiency of a heterogeneous kind of organic waste. The results of the study suggested that bulk industrial herbal waste can be utilized as a substrate for vermicomposting and this can be proposed as an alternative for waste disposal in a clean green manner, promoting the concept of organic farming. PMID:20952444

Kumari, Mamta; Kumar, Sudhir; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh; Ravikanth, K

2011-11-01

183

Metabolic changes during estivation in the common earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The common earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa survives drought by forming estivation chambers in the topsoil under even very slight reductions in soil water activity. We induced estivation in a soil of a consistency that allowed the removal of intact soil estivation chambers containing a single worm. These estivation chambers were exposed to 97% relative humidity for 30 d to simulate the effect of a severe summer drought. Gas exchange, body fluid osmolality, water balance, urea, and alanine were quantified, and whole?body homogenates were screened for changes in small organic molecules via 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Formation of estivation chambers was associated with a dramatic increase in body fluid osmolality, from 175 to 562 mOsm kg-1, accompanied by a 20% increase in water content. Dehydration for 1 mo caused a further increase to 684 mOsm kg-1, while the worms lost 50% of their water content. Gas exchange was depressed by 50% after worms entered estivation and by 80% after a further 30 d of dehydration. Urea concentrations increased from 0.3 to 1 ?mol g-1 dry mass during this time. Although 1H?NMR did not provide the identity of the osmolytes responsible for the initial increase in osmolality after estivation, it showed that alanine increased to more than 80 mmol L-1 in the long?term?estivation group. We propose that alanine functions as a nitrogen depot during dehydration and is not an anaerobe product in this case.

Bayley, Mark; Overgaard, Johannes

2010-01-01

184

La fecundidad de las lombrices rojas – (Fecundity of red earthworms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ResumenDesde fines de la década del 80 se ha ampliado sustancialmente elconocimiento acerca de la biología reproductiva de Eisenia fetida y Eisenia andrei, permitiendo optimizar las estrategias de conducción de los lombricultivos. La fecundidad es uno de los parámetros reprobiológicos que más allá de las fluctuaciones esperadas (0-9 lombrices / cocón ha generado discusión.SummarySince the late 1980s, knowledge about the reproductive biology of Eisenia fetida and Eisenia andrei has been applied to optimize management strategies in vermiculture. Among the reproductive biological parameters, fecundity, expected to fluctuate between 0-9 earthworms/cocoon, has generated much discussion.

Schuldt, Miguel

2010-10-01

185

Osmotic shrinkage as a factor in freezing injury in plant tissue cultures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Haplopappus gracilis and Acer saccharum tissue culture cells are extremely sensitive to freezing injury, and exhibit a decrease in survival from 98 percent at -1 C to 4 percent at -3 C (Haplopappus) and 92 percent at -3 C to 13 percent at -5 C (Acer) when suspended in distilled H/sub 2/O, seeded at -1 C, and then cooled by 0.1 C/minute. Similar results are obtained when cells are suspended in growth medium. The extent of shrinkage of cells during freezing can be duplicated by exposure of the cells to plasmolyzing solutions of nonpenetrating substances (..delta..T/sub f/ = 1.86 phi..nu..m). Solutions of sucrose and glycerol that produce extensive plasmolysis cause a decrease in survival within 3 to 5 minutes at room temperature, and the higher the molality to which the cell is exposed the greater the injury. Also, the rate of rehydration of the plasmolyzed cell and of the frozen cell affects its survival, with the slower rate being more beneficial. The close correlation between the decrease in survival at subzero temperatures and the decrease in survival when cells are placed in solutions having osmolalities, which could produce the same extent of shrinkage as these killing temperatures, suggests that this shrinkage is related to freezing injury in tissue culture cells.

Towill, L.E.; Mazur, P.

1976-02-01

186

The Role of Earthworms in Tropics with Emphasis on Indian Ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper highlights the research carried out by different scientists in India on aspects of earthworm population dynamics and species diversity, associated with other soil fauna and microflora. It also deals with the importance of earthworm activity on physicochemical properties of soil with reference to India and other tropical countries. Stress is laid on the earthworm plant association and importance of the secretions of earthworms as plant growth stimulators. Moreover, the earthworm species reported and being utilized for vermicomposting in India are discussed, since vermicomposting is the ultimate technology which renders for the improvement of soil fertility status and plant growth. Earthworms serve as indicators of soil status such as the level of contamination of pollutants: agrochemicals, heavy metals, toxic substances, and industrial effluents; human-induced activities: land-management practices and forest degradation. In all these fields there is lacuna with respect to contributions from India when compared to the available information from other tropical countries. There is lot of scope in the field of research on earthworms to unravel the importance of these major soil macro fauna from holistic ecological studies to the molecular level.

187

Impact of earthworms on trace element solubility in contaminated mine soils amended with green waste compost  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The common practice of remediating metal contaminated mine soils with compost can reduce metal mobility and promote revegetation, but the effect of introduced or colonising earthworms on metal solubility is largely unknown. We amended soils from an As/Cu (1150 mgAs kg-1 and 362 mgCu kg-1) and Pb/Zn mine (4550 mgPb kg-1 and 908 mgZn kg-1) with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% compost and then introduced Lumbricus terrestris. Porewater was sampled and soil extracted with water to determine trace element solubility, pH and soluble organic carbon. Compost reduced Cu, Pb and Zn, but increased As solubility. Earthworms decreased water soluble Cu and As but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. The effect of the earthworms decreased with increasing compost amendment. The impact of the compost and the earthworms on metal solubility is explained by their effect on pH and soluble organic carbon and the environmental chemistry of each element. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Compost reduced the mobility of Cu, Pb and Zn. ? Compost increased the mobility of As. ? Earthworms decreased water soluble As and Cu but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. ? These effects are explained by the impact of the earthworms and compost on pH and DOC. - The effect of earthworms on metal solubility was due to changes in dissolved organic carbon and pH but was reduced with increasing compost amendments.

188

Interactions of earthworms with indigenous and bioaugmented PCB-degrading bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Partial bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated soils has been achieved using bioaugmentation with PCB-degrading bacteria and earthworms. To further study the contribution of earthworms to bioremediation, an experiment was conducted in which the changes in indigenous and bioaugmented PCB-degrading bacteria were analyzed during treatment of contaminated soil using earthworms (Pheretima hawayana) alone or in combination with the PCB-degrading bacteria, Ralstonia eutrophus and Rhodococcus sp. ACS. Bacteria used for bioaugmentation were induced with carvone and salicylic acid in culture and were repeatedly applied every 3-4 days to the surface of unmixed, 20-cm long soil columns containing 100 ppm Aroclor 1242. After 9 weeks of treatment, the soil bacterial communities were analyzed using PCR primers for the bph genes. Results showed that approximately 50% of the PCBs were removed in the top 9 cm using a combination of earthworms and bioaugmentation, whereas bioaugmentation or earthworms applied alone were effective only for removing PCBs from the top 3 cm of the soil columns. Enhanced removal of PCBs caused by earthworms was associated with an increase in the population size of culturable, indigenous biphenyl-degrading bacteria, and an increase in the level of the bphA and bphC genes. The results suggest that earthworms facilitate PCB bioremediation by enhancing the dispersal of PCB-degrading bacteria in bioaugmented columns, as well as providing environmental conditions that favor the growth and activity of indigenous PCB-degrading bacteria. PMID:19709253

Luepromchai, Ekawan; Singer, Andrew C; Yang, Ching-Hong; Crowley, David E

2002-09-01

189

How within field abundance and spatial distribution patterns of earthworms and macropores depend on soil tillage  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworms play a key role in soil systems. They are ecosystem engineers affecting soil structure as well as the transport and availability of water and solutes through their burrowing behaviour. There are three different ecological earthworm types with different burrowing behaviour that can result in varying local infiltration patterns: from rapid deep vertical infiltration to a stronger diffuse distribution of water and solutes in the upper soil layers. The small scale variation in earthworm abundance is often very high and within fields earthworm population processes might result in an aggregated pattern. The question arises how the local distribution of earthworms affects spatial distributions of macroporosity and how both are influenced by soil tillage. Therefore we performed a total number of 430 earthworm samplings on four differently tilled agricultural fields in the Weiherbach catchment (South East Germany). Additionally, at a limited amount of 32 locations on two of the fields we performed sprinkling experiments with brilliant blue and excavated the soil to count macropores at different soil depths (10 cm, 30 cm and 50 cm) to compare macropore distributions to the earthworm distributions.

van Schaik, Loes; Palm, Juliane; Schröder, Boris

2014-05-01

190

A review of studies performed to assess metal uptake by earthworms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Earthworms perform a number of essential functions in soil; the impacts of metals on earthworms are often investigated. In this review we consider the range of earthworm species, types of soil and forms of metal for which metal uptake and accumulation have been studied, the design of these experiments and the quantitative relationships that have been derived to predict earthworm metal body burden. We conclude that there is a need for more studies on earthworm species other than Eisenia fetida in order to apply the large existing database on this earthworm to other, soil dwelling species. To aid comparisons between studies agreement is needed on standard protocols that define exposure and depuration periods and the parameters, such as soil solution composition, soil chemical and physical properties to be measured. It is recommended that more field or terrestrial model ecosystem studies using real contaminated soil rather than metal-amended artificial soils are performed. - We review species, soil and experimental designs used to study metal uptake and accumulation by earthworms and suggest priorities for further studies.

Nahmani, Johanne [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Berkshire, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: j.y.nahmani@reading.ac.uk; Hodson, Mark E. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Berkshire, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: m.e.hodson@reading.ac.uk; Black, Stuart [Department of Archaeology, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Whiteknights, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

2007-01-15

191

Antioxidant defense system responses and DNA damage of earthworms exposed to Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of earthworms as a sublethal endpoint has significantly contributed to the ecological risk assessment of contaminated soils. Few studies have focused on the potential toxicity of PFOS to earthworms in the soil. In this work, artificial soils were tested, and contact filter paper studies were used. The results showed that earthworm growth was generally inhibited. The antioxidant activities of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were initially activated and then inhibited. Reduced glutathione content was observed, and malondialdehyde content was elevated over the duration of the exposure. These results suggested that PFOS induced oxidative stress in earthworms. In addition, the values of olive tail moment, tail DNA% and tail length using SCGE showed similar frequency distributions and increased with increases in the PFOS concentration. These results suggest that all concentrations of PFOS cause DNA damage. Highlights: ? We studied the potential ecotoxicity of PFOS to earthworm in soil. ? Eisenia foetida was used as a model organism and its growth was generally inhibited. ? Antioxidant enzyme activities were initially activated and then inhibited. ? Reduced glutathione content was observed and malondialdehyde content was elevated. ? PFOS induced DNA damage in earthworms. -- Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in earthworms

192

Warming shifts 'worming': effects of experimental warming on invasive earthworms in northern North America  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future warming is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, warming-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field warming experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental warming effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by warming-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of warming effects depended on the current average SWC: warming had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that warming limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless warming is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration. PMID:25363633

Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B.

2014-01-01

193

Warming shifts 'worming': effects of experimental warming on invasive earthworms in northern North America.  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future warming is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, warming-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field warming experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental warming effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by warming-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of warming effects depended on the current average SWC: warming had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that warming limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless warming is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration. PMID:25363633

Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B

2014-01-01

194

Impact of earthworms on trace element solubility in contaminated mine soils amended with green waste compost  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The common practice of remediating metal contaminated mine soils with compost can reduce metal mobility and promote revegetation, but the effect of introduced or colonising earthworms on metal solubility is largely unknown. We amended soils from an As/Cu (1150 mgAs kg{sup -1} and 362 mgCu kg{sup -1}) and Pb/Zn mine (4550 mgPb kg{sup -1} and 908 mgZn kg{sup -1}) with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% compost and then introduced Lumbricus terrestris. Porewater was sampled and soil extracted with water to determine trace element solubility, pH and soluble organic carbon. Compost reduced Cu, Pb and Zn, but increased As solubility. Earthworms decreased water soluble Cu and As but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. The effect of the earthworms decreased with increasing compost amendment. The impact of the compost and the earthworms on metal solubility is explained by their effect on pH and soluble organic carbon and the environmental chemistry of each element. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Compost reduced the mobility of Cu, Pb and Zn. > Compost increased the mobility of As. > Earthworms decreased water soluble As and Cu but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. > These effects are explained by the impact of the earthworms and compost on pH and DOC. - The effect of earthworms on metal solubility was due to changes in dissolved organic carbon and pH but was reduced with increasing compost amendments.

Sizmur, Tom, E-mail: t.p.sizmur@reading.ac.uk [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Palumbo-Roe, Barbara [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E. [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

2011-07-15

195

Effects of heavy metals on the litter consumption by the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus in field soils  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim of this study was to determine effects of heavy metals on litter consumption by the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus in National Park the "Brabantsche Biesbosch", the Netherlands. Adult L. rubellus were collected from 12 polluted and from one unpolluted field site. Earthworms collected at the unpolluted site were kept in their native soil and in soil from each of the 12 Biesbosch sites. Earthworms collected in the Biesbosch were kept in their native soils. Non-polluted poplar (Populus sp.) litter was offered as a food source and litter consumption and earthworm biomass were determined after 54 days. Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations were determined in soil, pore water and 0.01 M CaCl2 extracts of the soil and in earthworms. In spite of low available metal concentrations in the polluted soils, Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations in L. rubellus were increased. The litter consumption rate per biomass was positively related to internal Cd and Zn concentrations of earthworms collected from the Biesbosch and kept in native soil. A possible explanation is an increased demand for energy, needed for the regulation and detoxification of heavy metals. Litter consumption per biomass of earthworms from the reference site and kept in the polluted Biesbosch soils, was not related to any of the determined soil characteristics and metal concentrations. ?? 2005 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

Hobbelen, P. H. F.; Koolhaas, J. E.; Van Gestel, C. A. M.

2006-01-01

196

Freezing transition of hard hyperspheres.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate the system of D-dimensional hard spheres in D-dimensional space, where D>3. For the fluid phase of these hyperspheres, we generalize scaled-particle theory to arbitrary D and furthermore use the virial expansion and the Percus-Yevick integral equation. For the crystalline phase, we adopt cell theory based on elementary geometrical assumptions about close-packed lattices. Regardless of the approximation applied, and for dimensions as high as D=50, we find a first-order freezing transition, which preempts the Kirkwood second-order instability of the fluid. The relative density jump increases with D, and a generalized Lindemann rule of melting holds. We have also used ideas from fundamental-measure theory to obtain a free energy density functional for hard hyperspheres. Finally, we have calculated the surface tension of a hypersphere fluid near a hard smooth (hyper-)wall within scaled-particle theory. PMID:11800737

Finken, Reimar; Schmidt, Matthias; Löwen, Hartmut

2002-01-01

197

Metallothionein gene expression differs in earthworm populations with different exposure history.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metals are persistent pollutants in soils that can harm soil organisms and decrease species diversity. Animals can cope with metal contamination with the help of metallothioneins, small metal-binding proteins involved in homeostasis and detoxification of metals. We studied the expression of metallothionein with qPCR in a small, epigeic earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra. We compared expression patterns and metal body content in earthworms collected from two sites with different metal contamination histories: Harjavalta, contaminated by a Cu-Ni smelter operational for over 50 years, and Jyväskylä, an uncontaminated site. Earthworms from both sites were also experimentally exposed to different concentrations of Cu (control, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg) or Zn (control, 75, 150 or 300 mg/kg) for 7, 14 or 28 days to determine if there is a time related dose-response in gene expression. Population comparison showed that metallothionein expression was higher in earthworms from the contaminated site. In the exposure experiment, exposure time affected expression, but only in the earthworms from the uncontaminated site, suggesting that there is a delay in the metallothionein response of earthworms in this population. In contrast, earthworms from the contaminated site showed higher and constant levels of metallothionein expression at all exposure concentrations and durations. The constant metallothionein expression in earthworms from the contaminated site suggests that inducibility of metallothionein response could be lost in earthworms with metal exposure history. Adaptation of D. octaedra to metal exposure could explain the differences between the populations and explain the persistence of this species in contaminated forest soils. PMID:25179588

Mustonen, M; Haimi, J; Väisänen, A; Knott, K E

2014-11-01

198

Geochemistry and Chemical Weathering in Soils along an Earthworm Invasion Gradient  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the central tenets in geomorphology is that a chemical denudation rate is limited by the total denudation rate, which controls how fast minerals are exposed to reactive environments of the earth’s surface. Though the mineral supply rate has been routinely tied to tectonic uplifts, in soil mantled landscapes, organisms such as earthworms may also significantly contribute to exposing minerals to varying geochemical environments and thus altering chemical denudation rates of the landscapes they inhabit through mineral translocation. In glaciated parts of North America, many forests evolved without native earthworms, since the last glacial retreat, until they were invaded by exotic earthworm species that arrived with agriculture, recreational fishing, and logging. Therefore, an earthworm invasion chronosequence in northern Minnesota--the focus of this ongoing study--provides an ideal natural laboratory to quantitatively study how burrowing organisms, by mixing soils, contribute to chemically denuding the landscapes. We are currently determining the inorganic chemistry of soils along a ~200 meter long transect that includes pre earthworm invasion soils as well as soils populated with several earthworm species with different burrowing habits. Additionally, six soils pits along the transect are densely installed with lysimeters, piezometers, and gas sampling tubes. The soils’ elemental chemistry profiles show that earthworms have significantly relocated minerals vertically, which is consistent with the 210Pb activity profiles determined with gamma spectroscopy. Major elements, depending on their solubility, biological demands, and susceptibility to be complexed with organic matter, respond to the enhanced mixing rates in different ways. To constrain the impacts of earthworm burrowing on chemical denudation, we are also measuring cations, anions, and alkalinity in the water samples collected with the lysimeters and piezometers. Ultimately, the soil and water chemistry and 210Pb activities, together with ongoing monitoring of earthworms’ species composition and population density, will allow us to understand how and to what degree the soil mixing organisms affect chemical denudation of landscapes, which is central to our efforts in finding the topographic signatures of life.

Resner, K.; Yoo, K.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Hale, C.; Sebestyen, S. D.

2010-12-01

199

Effects of metals on life cycle parameters of the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to field-contaminated, metal-polluted soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two control and eight field-contaminated, metal-polluted soils were inoculated with Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826). Three, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days after inoculation, earthworm survival, body weight, cocoon production and hatching rate were measured. Seventeen metals were analysed in E. fetida tissue, bulk soil and soil solution. Soil organic carbon content, texture, pH and cation exchange capacity were also measured. Cocoon production and hatching rate were more sensitive to adverse conditions than survival or weight change. Soil properties other than metal concentration impacted toxicity. The most toxic soils were organic-poor (1-10 g C kg-1), sandy soils (c. 74% sand), with intermediate metal concentrations (e.g. 7150-13,100 mg Pb kg-1, 2970-53,400 mg Zn kg-1). Significant relationships between soil properties and the life cycle parameters were determined. The best coefficients of correlation were generally found for texture, pH, Ag, Cd, Mg, Pb, Tl, and Zn both singularly and in multivariate regressions. Studies that use metal-amended artificial soils are not useful to predict toxicity of field multi-contaminated soils. - Soil pH, organic carbon content and texture can exert a greater influence on earthworm life cycle parameters than soil metal concentrations at metal-contaminated sites

200

Rapid bioassessment methods for assessing the toxicity of terrestrial waste sites at the Savannah River Site using the earthworm, Eisenia foetida  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies were conducted to assess the feasibility of using the earthworm, Eisenia foetida, to evaluate the toxicity of contaminated soils at the Savannah River Site. Survival was assessed in several uncontaminated soils, including sandy loams and clayey loams, as well as in soils contaminated with coal fines, ash, diesel fuel, and heavy metals. In addition, behavior responses, changes in biomass, and bioaccumulation of heavy metals were assessed as sublethal indicators of toxicity. The results indicate excellent survival of Eisenia foetida in uncontaminated sandy and clayey soils. No amendment of these uncontaminated soils or addition of food was necessary to sustain the worms for the 14-day test period. In contaminated soils, no significant mortality was observed, except in soils which have very low pH (< 3). However, sublethal responses were observed in earthworms exposed to several of the contaminated soils. These responses included worms clumping on the surface of the soil, worms clumping between the sides of the test container and the soil, increased burrowing times, reductions in biomass, and elevated concentrations of heavy metals in worm tissue

 
 
 
 
201

Effects of metals on life cycle parameters of the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to field-contaminated, metal-polluted soils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two control and eight field-contaminated, metal-polluted soils were inoculated with Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826). Three, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days after inoculation, earthworm survival, body weight, cocoon production and hatching rate were measured. Seventeen metals were analysed in E. fetida tissue, bulk soil and soil solution. Soil organic carbon content, texture, pH and cation exchange capacity were also measured. Cocoon production and hatching rate were more sensitive to adverse conditions than survival or weight change. Soil properties other than metal concentration impacted toxicity. The most toxic soils were organic-poor (1-10 g C kg{sup -1}), sandy soils (c. 74% sand), with intermediate metal concentrations (e.g. 7150-13,100 mg Pb kg{sup -1}, 2970-53,400 mg Zn kg{sup -1}). Significant relationships between soil properties and the life cycle parameters were determined. The best coefficients of correlation were generally found for texture, pH, Ag, Cd, Mg, Pb, Tl, and Zn both singularly and in multivariate regressions. Studies that use metal-amended artificial soils are not useful to predict toxicity of field multi-contaminated soils. - Soil pH, organic carbon content and texture can exert a greater influence on earthworm life cycle parameters than soil metal concentrations at metal-contaminated sites.

Nahmani, Johanne [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: nahmani@univ-metz.fr; Hodson, Mark E. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: m.e.hodson@reading.ac.uk; Black, Stuart [Department of Archaeology, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Whiteknights, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

2007-09-15

202

Profiles of organochlorine pesticides in earthworms from urban leisure areas of Beijing, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, organochlorine pesticides (HCHs and DDTs) in earthworm and soil contacted closely with it were determined for the purpose of the risk assessment of chemicals in the urban leisure environment. The level of total hexachlorocyclohexanes and (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in earthworms was 0.6500-44.78 ng g(-1) and 18.97-1.112 x 104 ng g(-1), respectively. Absolutely high levels of DDT and its metabolites in earthworm and correlative soils samples, and the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of DDTs probably presents certain risk to the higher trophic organisms through its food chain, especially birds. PMID:20238098

Li, Xing-Hong; Wang, Xi-Zhi; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Xiang-Ning; Xu, Xiao-Bai

2010-04-01

203

Scaling of the hydrostatic skeleton in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris.  

Science.gov (United States)

The structural and functional consequences of changes in size or scale have been well studied in animals with rigid skeletons, but relatively little is known about scale effects in animals with hydrostatic skeletons. We used glycol methacrylate histology and microscopy to examine the scaling of mechanically important morphological features of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris over an ontogenetic size range from 0.03 to 12.89 g. We found that L. terrestris becomes disproportionately longer and thinner as it grows. This increase in the length to diameter ratio with size means that, when normalized for mass, adult worms gain ~117% mechanical advantage during radial expansion, compared with hatchling worms. We also found that the cross-sectional area of the longitudinal musculature scales as body mass to the ~0.6 power across segments, which is significantly lower than the 0.66 power predicted by isometry. The cross-sectional area of the circular musculature, however, scales as body mass to the ~0.8 power across segments, which is significantly higher than predicted by isometry. By modeling the interaction of muscle cross-sectional area and mechanical advantage, we calculate that the force output generated during both circular and longitudinal muscle contraction scales near isometry. We hypothesize that the allometric scaling of earthworms may reflect changes in soil properties and burrowing mechanics with size. PMID:24871920

Kurth, Jessica A; Kier, William M

2014-06-01

204

Biosynthesis of luminescent quantum dots in an earthworm.  

Science.gov (United States)

The synthesis of designer solid-state materials by living organisms is an emerging field in bio-nanotechnology. Key examples include the use of engineered viruses as templates for cobalt oxide (Co(3)O(4)) particles, superparamagnetic cobalt-platinum alloy nanowires and gold-cobalt oxide nanowires for photovoltaic and battery-related applications. Here, we show that the earthworm's metal detoxification pathway can be exploited to produce luminescent, water-soluble semiconductor cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots that emit in the green region of the visible spectrum when excited in the ultraviolet region. Standard wild-type Lumbricus rubellus earthworms were exposed to soil spiked with CdCl(2) and Na(2)TeO(3) salts for 11 days. Luminescent quantum dots were isolated from chloragogenous tissues surrounding the gut of the worm, and were successfully used in live-cell imaging. The addition of polyethylene glycol on the surface of the quantum dots allowed for non-targeted, fluid-phase uptake by macrophage cells. PMID:23263722

Stürzenbaum, S R; Höckner, M; Panneerselvam, A; Levitt, J; Bouillard, J-S; Taniguchi, S; Dailey, L-A; Ahmad Khanbeigi, R; Rosca, E V; Thanou, M; Suhling, K; Zayats, A V; Green, M

2013-01-01

205

Biosynthesis of luminescent quantum dots in an earthworm  

Science.gov (United States)

The synthesis of designer solid-state materials by living organisms is an emerging field in bio-nanotechnology. Key examples include the use of engineered viruses as templates for cobalt oxide (Co3O4) particles, superparamagnetic cobalt-platinum alloy nanowires and gold-cobalt oxide nanowires for photovoltaic and battery-related applications. Here, we show that the earthworm's metal detoxification pathway can be exploited to produce luminescent, water-soluble semiconductor cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots that emit in the green region of the visible spectrum when excited in the ultraviolet region. Standard wild-type Lumbricus rubellus earthworms were exposed to soil spiked with CdCl2 and Na2TeO3 salts for 11 days. Luminescent quantum dots were isolated from chloragogenous tissues surrounding the gut of the worm, and were successfully used in live-cell imaging. The addition of polyethylene glycol on the surface of the quantum dots allowed for non-targeted, fluid-phase uptake by macrophage cells.

Stürzenbaum, S. R.; Höckner, M.; Panneerselvam, A.; Levitt, J.; Bouillard, J.-S.; Taniguchi, S.; Dailey, L.-A.; Khanbeigi, R. Ahmad; Rosca, E. V.; Thanou, M.; Suhling, K.; Zayats, A. V.; Green, M.

2013-01-01

206

Endocrine disrupting chemicals accumulate in earthworms exposed to sewage effluent.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can alter endocrine function in exposed animals. Such critical effects, combined with the ubiquity of EDCs in sewage effluent and potentially in tapwater, have led to concerns that they could be major physiological disruptors for wildlife and more controversially for humans. Although sewage effluent is known to be a rich source of EDCs, there is as yet no evidence for EDC uptake by invertebrates that live within the sewage treatment system. Here, we describe the use of an extraction method and GC-MS for the first time to determine levels of EDCs (e.g., dibutylphthalate, dioctylphthalate, bisphenol-A and 17beta-estradiol) in tissue samples from earthworms (Eisenia fetida) living in sewage percolating filter beds and garden soil. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such use of these techniques to determine EDCs in tissue samples in any organism. We found significantly higher concentrations of these chemicals in the animals from sewage percolating filter beds. Our data suggest that earthworms can be used as bioindicators for EDCs in these substrates and that the animals accumulate these compounds to levels well above those reported for waste water. The potential transfer into the terrestrial food chain and effects on wildlife are discussed. PMID:17675209

Markman, Shai; Guschina, Irina A; Barnsley, Sara; Buchanan, Katherine L; Pascoe, David; Müller, Carsten T

2007-11-01

207

Influence of oligosaccharides on the viability and membrane properties of Lactobacillus reuteri TMW1.106 during freeze-drying.  

Science.gov (United States)

Freeze-drying is a process commonly used in starter culture preparation. To improve the survival rate of bacteria during the process, cryoprotectives are usually added before freezing. This study investigated the influence of the addition of sucrose, fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), inulin and skim milk on the viability and membrane integrity of Lactobacillus reuteri TMW1.106 during freezing, freeze-drying and storage. The effect of drying adjuncts on survival was correlated to their interaction with bacterial membrane by determination of the parameters membrane fluidity and membrane lateral pressure. Sucrose, FOS and skim milk significantly enhanced survival of exponential-phase cells of L. reuteri during freeze-drying. Cellular viability during storage of exponential-phase cells remained highest for cells dried in the presence of skim milk and inulin. Membranes of these cells were completely permeabilized after freeze-drying. The application of FOS significantly improved survival of stationary phase cells of L. reuteri TMW1.106 after freeze-drying and storage. This increased viability of L. reuteri TMW1.106 in the presence of FOS correlated to improved membrane integrity. Fructo-oligosaccharides and fructans, but not gluco-oligosaccharides interacted with membrane vesicles prepared from L. reuteri TMW1.106 as indicated by increased membrane lateral pressure in the presence of FOS and fructans. Increased membrane integrity of stationary phase L. reuteri TMW1.106 was attributed to direct interactions between FOS and the membrane which leads to increased membrane fluidity and thus improved stability of the membrane during and rehydration. PMID:17651717

Schwab, Clarissa; Vogel, Rudi; Gänzle, Michael G

2007-10-01

208

Exploring the Nature of Contact Freezing  

Science.gov (United States)

The freezing of supercooled water droplets upon contact with aerosol particles (contact nucleation of ice) is the least understood mechanism of ice formation in atmospheric clouds. Although experimental evidences suggest that some aerosols can be better IN in the contact than in the immersion mode (that is, triggering ice nucleation at higher temperature), no final explanation of this phenomena currently exists. On the other hand, the contact freezing is believed to be responsible for the enhanced rate of secondary ice formation occasionally observed in LIDAR measurements in the cold mixed phase clouds. Recently we have been able to show that the freezing of supercooled droplets electrodynamically levitated in the laminar flow containing mineral dust particles (kaolinite) is a process solely governed by a rate of collisions between the supercooled droplet and the aerosol particles. We have shown that the probability of droplet freezing on a single contact with aerosol particle may differ over an order of magnitude for kaolinite particles having different genesis and morphology. In this presentation we extend the study of contact nucleation of ice and compare the IN efficiency measured for DMA-selected kaolinite, illite and hematite particles. We show that the freezing probability increases towards unity as the temperature decreases and discuss the functional form of this temperature dependence. We explore the size dependence of the contact freezing probability and show that it scales with the surface area of the particles, thus resembling the immersion freezing behavior. However, for all minerals investigated so far, the contact freezing has been shown to dominate over immersion freezing on the short experimental time scales. Finally, based on the combined ESEM and electron microprobe analysis, we discuss the significance of particle morphology and variability of chemical composition on its IN efficiency in contact mode.

Kiselev, A. A.; Hoffmann, N.; Duft, D.; Leisner, T.

2012-12-01

209

Hot big bang or slow freeze?  

Science.gov (United States)

We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze - a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple “crossover model” without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space-time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe.

Wetterich, C.

2014-09-01

210

Toxicological Responses of the Earthworm Eisenia fetida to 18-Crown-6 Under Laboratory Conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The earthworm Eisenia fetida was exposed to artificial soil supplemented with 18-crown-6 (1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaoxacyclooctadecane) to investigate its effects on earthworm mortality, growth, avoidance, burrowing behavior and respiration. The results revealed that 18-crown-6 had the potential to negatively affect the behavior of earthworms. The 7-d LC50 was 585 mg kg(-1) soil. Avoidance behavior was the most sensitive endpoint, with a 48-h EC50 of 120 mg kg(-1) soil. Growth, burrow length and respiration showed general decreases with increasing 18-crown-6 concentrations. Behavioral endpoints and respiration may be regarded as sensitive parameters in evaluating the toxicity of this chemical to earthworms. PMID:25100182

Du, Yongtao; Rao, Pinhua; Li, Yinsheng; Qiu, Jiangping; Qiu, Weiguo; Tang, Hao; Potter, Murray A

2014-10-01

211

FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIONS ARE ESTABLISHED BETWEEN GIANT NERVE FIBERS IN GRAFTED EARTHWORMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Giant fiber interconnections were examined in successful grafts between two posterior portions of earthworms (Eisenia foetida). Electrophysiological and histological results indicated that cell-specific interanimal connections were formed between the medial giant fibers (MGF) in ...

212

Antioxidant defense system responses and DNA damage of earthworms exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS).  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of earthworms as a sublethal endpoint has significantly contributed to the ecological risk assessment of contaminated soils. Few studies have focused on the potential toxicity of PFOS to earthworms in the soil. In this work, artificial soils were tested, and contact filter paper studies were used. The results showed that earthworm growth was generally inhibited. The antioxidant activities of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were initially activated and then inhibited. Reduced glutathione content was observed, and malondialdehyde content was elevated over the duration of the exposure. These results suggested that PFOS induced oxidative stress in earthworms. In addition, the values of olive tail moment, tail DNA% and tail length using SCGE showed similar frequency distributions and increased with increases in the PFOS concentration. These results suggest that all concentrations of PFOS cause DNA damage. PMID:23257261

Xu, Dongmei; Li, Chandan; Wen, Yuezhong; Liu, Weiping

2013-03-01

213

Is carbon sequestration on post mining sites driven by earthworm activity?  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbon storage was measured in seven types of forest (alder, oak, lime, willow-birch, pine, spruce and larch) about 30 years old developed in on e large post mining site as split plot design. The carbon storage in soil wary substantial and represent 10-100% of carbon storage in aboveground wood biomass. Carbon storage in soil do not show any correlation with litter input but correlate significantly and positively with earthworm abundance, and micromorphological traces of earthworm activity. Field and laboratory microcosm experiment showed that earthworm mediated soil mixing support carbon storage in soil. Detailed study of soil aggregates created by worms and other forces indicated that worm aggregates contain much larger content of POC. This indicate that soil bioturbation by earthworms may significantly increase carbon storage in soil.

Frouz, J.; Pizl, V.

2009-04-01

214

Harnessing the energy accompanying freezing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? Ice pressurization allows the burst and leak testing of practically all tubular materials. ? The assembly can be made fully portable for maintenance operations without the use of liquid CO2 and N2. ? Ice pressurization can work where conventional interference fitting, axial pressing and heat treatment fail. ? Uniform pressures can be developed in ice pressurization as opposed to Herzian distributions under plungers. -- Abstract: The progression of freezing of water inside a pipe is reviewed, with special emphasis on bursting. The process of pressure rise in confined bodies of water is discussed. The development of a method utilizing liquid carbon dioxide and liquid nitrogen, for the development of pressures inside closed containers is summarized. Then a novel method, utilizing mechanical refrigeration, is explained for the generation of high pressures. An experimental setup for the latter technique is described and results of experiments are summarized. A number of ways of utilizing the ice-pressurization technique are presented. Certain characteristics and advantages of ice-pressurization are enumerated as regards to burst and leak testing. It is noted that a number of other techniques such as shrink fitting, embossing and compaction of powders also seem to be particularly suitable. It is concluded that, with the advent of the portable and novel chilling apparatus, new vistas are approachable for undertaking maintepproachable for undertaking maintenance operations in hospitals, power plants, nuclear facilities, and other systems that require uninterrupted operation.

215

Effects of earthworms on physicochemical properties and microbial profiles during vermicomposting of fresh fruit and vegetable wastes.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to investigate the effect of earthworms on physicochemical and microbial properties during vermicomposting of fresh fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW) by contrasting two decomposing systems of FVW with and without earthworms for 5weeks. Compared to control treatment (without earthworms), vermicomposting treatment resulted in a rapid decrease of electrical conductivity and losses of total carbon and nitrogen from the 2nd week. Quantitative PCR displayed that earthworms markedly enhanced bacterial and fungal densities, showing the higher values than control, during the whole decomposition process. In addition, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis combined with sequencing analysis revealed that earthworms pronouncedly modified bacterial and fungal community structures, through broadening the community diversities of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Ascomycotina. These results suggest that the presence of earthworms promoted the activity and population of bacteria and fungi, and modified their communities, thus altering the decomposition pathway of fresh FVW. PMID:25118152

Huang, Kui; Li, Fusheng; Wei, Yongfen; Fu, Xiaoyong; Chen, Xuemin

2014-10-01

216

Influence of ground cover on earthworm communities in an unmanaged beech forest: linear gradient studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Micro-scale changes in earthworm communities and ground cover types were studied along five transect lines in an unmanaged beech forest (Fontainebleau forest, France). Spatial patterns were interpreted in the light of interactions between earthworm species and forest architecture, ground vegetation and quantity as well as quality of litter. The anecic Lumbricus terrestris was associated with patches of the grass Melica uniflora, with poor litter cover, while most epigeic species were favoured...

Campana, Cyril; Gauvin, Ste?phanie; Ponge, Jean-franc?ois

2002-01-01

217

Screening of actinomycetes from earthworm castings for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Actinomycetes from earthworm castings were isolated and screened for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes. A total of 48 isolates were obtained from 12 samples of earthworm castings. Highest numbers of isolates were recovered from forest site (58.33 %) as compared to grassland (25%) and agricultural land (16.66%). The growth patterns, mycelial coloration of abundance actinomycetes were documented. The dominant genera Identified by cultural, morphological and physiological chara...

Vijay Kumar,; Alpana Bharti; Yogesh Kumar Negi; Omprakash Gusain; Piyush Pandey; Gajraj Singh Bisht

2012-01-01

218

Earthworm communities in alluvial forests: Influence of altitude, vegetation stages and soil parameters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In many terrestrial ecosystems, soil parameters usually regulate the distribution of earthworm communities.In alluvial ecosystems, few studies have investigated the impact of periodic floods and alluvium deposition on soil fauna. In this context, we assumed that earthworm communities may vary depending on altitude (alpine, subalpine, mountain and hill levels), forest successional stage (post-pioneer to mature forests) and some soil parameters. Our results demonstrated that the composition of ...

Salome?, Cle?mence; Guenat, Claire; Bullinger-weber, Ge?raldine; Gobat, Jean-michel; Le Bayon, Rene?e-claire

2011-01-01

219

Endogeic earthworms shape bacterial functional communities and affect organic matter mineralization in a tropical soil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Priming effect (PE) is defined as a stimulation of the mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) following a supply of fresh organic matter. This process can have important consequences on the fate of SOM and on the management of residues in agricultural soils, especially in tropical regions where soil fertility is essentially based on the management of organic matter. Earthworms are ecosystem engineers known to affect the dynamics of SOM. Endogeic earthworms ingest large amounts of soil an...

Chapuis-lardy, Lydie; Razafimbelo, Tantely; Razafindrakoto, Malalatiana; Pablo, Anne-laure; Legname, Elvire; Poulain, Julie; Bru?ls, Thomas; O'donohue, Michael; Brauman, Alain; Chotte, Jean-luc; Blanchart, Eric

2012-01-01

220

Freeze-out Conditions from Lattice QCD  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe a procedure for determination of freeze-out parameters of heavy–ion collisions through direct comparisons between experimentally measured higher order cumulants of charge fluctuations and first principle (lattice) QCD calculations

 
 
 
 
221

Freeze-out Conditions from Lattice QCD  

CERN Document Server

We describe a procedure for determination of freeze-out parameters of heavy-ion collisions through direct comparisons between experimentally measured higher order cumulants of charge fluctuations and first principle (lattice) QCD calculations.

Mukherjee, Swagato

2012-01-01

222

Freeze-out Conditions from Lattice QCD  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe a procedure for determination of freeze-out parameters of heavy–ion collisions through direct comparisons between experimentally measured higher order cumulants of charge fluctuations and first principle (lattice) QCD calculations.

Mukherjee, Swagato

2013-05-02

223

Freeze Thaw: A Simple Approach for Prediction of Optimal Cryoprotectant for Freeze Drying  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study evaluates freeze thaw as a simple approach for screening the most appropriate cryoprotectant. Freeze–thaw study is based on the principle that an excipient, which protects nanoparticles during the first step of freezing, is likely to be an effective cryoprotectant. Nanoparticles of rifampicin with high entrapment efficiency were prepared by the emulsion-solvent diffusion method using dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) as complexing agent and Gantrez AN-119 as polymer. Fre...

Date, Praveen V.; Samad, Abdul; Devarajan, Padma V.

2010-01-01

224

Macropores and earthworm species affected by agronomic intensification  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Soil ecosystem services depend on water regulation both to retain soil moisture and to eliminate water excess without harmful loss of particles and nutrients. As such the combination of soil physical properties that support soil hydrological functioning is a well-recognized service delivered by soil. There is widespread recognition of soil biodiversity and biological activities that are needed to sustain soil structural properties. The detrimental consequences of a weakened functionality have been stressed in the EU Soil Strategy and hydrology in particular is related to all soil threats. Biopores and soil aggregate formation have been shown to be crucial results of soil macroorganism activities contributing to soil hydrology. In collaboration between the French “Observatoire de Recherche en Environnement – Agro-écosystèmes, Cycles Biogéochimiques et Biodiversité” (ORE-ACBB) and the FP7 EU project EcoFINDERS we investigated the relationsship between earthworm biodiversity, macropores and three agricultural landuse types. A field campaign was conducted in October-November 2011. Earthworm burrow distribution was quantified at 10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 20 cm horizontal layer intervals down the soil profile to 1 meter depth and correlated with the earthworm community consisting of 12 species dominated by the endogeics Aporrectodea caliginosa and Aporrectodea chlorotica and the anecics Aporrectodea longa and Lumbricus centralis. Medium-small macropores in the ploughing layer with diameters (Ø) less than 5 mm were significantly more abundant in permanent grassland compared to conventional rotation system with annual crops. An intermediate system with 3 year grass and 3 years with annuals was also intermediate between the two other systems. At 30 cm's depth we found no large macropores, Ø >7 mm, in the system with annuals, but increasingly more in rotations with grass. Addition of frequencies of macropores with Ø>7 mm retains the significant difference between annual and the permanent grass system. Moreover, all the large burrows, >5 mm Ø, follow this pattern and are significantly more numerous in permanent grass to annuals (P<3%). At depth 100 cm total number of macropores were more abundant in the annual crops compared with permanent grass (P=5%), due to a larger number of macropores <7 mm. We present an interpretation of the macropore patterns in relation to the anecic and endogeic lifeforms and their established role in creating burrows of different spatial distribution and density.

Krogh, Paul Henning; Pérès, Guénola

225

An enzyme from the earthworm Eisenia fetida is not only a protease but also a deoxyribonuclease.  

Science.gov (United States)

The earthworm enzyme Eisenia fetida Protease-III-1 (EfP-III-1) is known as a trypsin-like protease which is localized in the alimentary canal of the earthworm. Here, we show that EfP-III-1 also acts as a novel deoxyribonuclease. Unlike most DNases, this earthworm enzyme recognizes 5'-phosphate dsDNA (5'P DNA) and degrades it without sequence specificity, but does not recognize 5'OH DNA. As is the case for most DNases, Mg(2+) was observed to markedly enhance the DNase activity of EfP-III-1. Whether the earthworm enzyme functioned as a DNase or as a protease depended on the pH values of the enzyme solution. The protein acted as a protease under alkaline conditions whereas it exhibited DNase activity under acid conditions. At pH 7.0, the enzyme could work as either a DNase or a protease. Given the complex living environment of the earthworm, this dual function of EfP-III-1 may play an important role in the alimentary digestion of the earthworm. PMID:21362403

Pan, Rong; Zhou, Yuan; He, Hai-Jin; He, Rong-Qiao

2011-04-01

226

Enantioselective toxicity, bioaccumulation and degradation of the chiral insecticide fipronil in earthworms (Eisenia feotida).  

Science.gov (United States)

The enantioselective acute toxicity to earthworms of racemic fipronil and its individual enantiomers was studied. R-(-)-fipronil was approximately 1.5 times more toxic than the racemate and approximately 2 times more toxic than S-(+)-fipronil after 72 and 96 h of exposure, respectively. Assays of fipronil enantiomer bioaccumulation and degradation in earthworms were conducted. The bio-concentration factors (BCFs) were slightly different between the two enantiomers. The enantiomeric fraction (EF) values in earthworms in the bioaccumulation period were approximately 0.5, which indicated there was no enantioselective bioaccumulation. In contrast, the degradation of fipronil in earthworms was enantioselective: the t1/2 values for R- and S-fipronil were 3.3 and 2.5 days, respectively, in natural soil, and 2.1 and 1.4 days, respectively, in artificial soil. The results of soil analyses showed that the degradation of fipronil was not enantioselective, which suggested that the enantioselectivity of fipronil in earthworms results from the organism's metabolism. The study also demonstrated that the presence of earthworms could accelerate the degradation of fipronil in soil. PMID:24742550

Qu, Han; Wang, Peng; Ma, Rui-xue; Qiu, Xing-xu; Xu, Peng; Zhou, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Dong-hui

2014-07-01

227

Physical and chemical characterization of earthworms and humus obtained by vertical vermicomposting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Earthworms culture are usually made horizontally and it is necessary a lot of area. In order to minimize the size of earthworms culture and the possibility to be applied in residences, this paper proposed evaluate conditions for vertical vermicomposting. For this, were purchased vertical boxes and organic matter. The earthworms of species Eisenia andrei, california red earthworms, were used. There were evaluated the adaptation of earthworms and physical and chemical characterization of the humus. Results showed that there was a good adaptation of earthworms in this configuration, minimizing the space required, and it is one technique for environmentally friendly recycling of organic waste, creating a bio-product wich can used as fertilizers.Resumo Minhocários são normalmente feitoshorizontalmente sendo necessária uma área grande. A fim de minimizar o tamanho da cultura de minhocas e a possibilidade de ser aplicado em residências, este trabalho propõe avaliar as condições de vermicompostagem vertical. Para isso, foram adquiridas caixas verticais e matéria orgânica. Foram usadas minhocas da espécie Eisenia andrei, minhocas vermelhas da califórmia. Foi avaliada a adaptação das minhocas e caracterização físico-química do húmus gerado. Os resultados mostraram que houve uma boa adaptação das minhocas nesta configuração, minimizando o espaço utilizado, e é uma técnica de reciclagem ecológica de resíduos orgânicos, a criação de umbioproduto o qual pode ser usado como adubo.

Lucélia Hoehne

2013-01-01

228

Radiocesium ([sup 137]Cs) from the Chernobyl reactor in Eurasian woodcock and earthworms in Norway  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To understand the ecological effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident, we investigated radiocesium ([sup 137]Cs) levels in Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola), earthworms (Lambricidae), litter (dead organic materials lying on the ground), humus (beneath litter 2 cm deep), and mineral soil samples (3-6 cm deep) from a heavily effected (20-60 kBq/m[sup 2][1 Bq = 1 nuclear fission/sec]) area in Norway. The highest concentrations measured in earthworms (1988 median = 142 Bq/Kg) and woodcock (1986 median = 730 Bq/kg) for human food (600 Bq/kg fresh mass) only were found in woodcock during 1986. Radiocesium concentrations decreased (P < 0.001) in earthworms (40%) and woodcock (95%) from 1986 to 1990. There was no reduction in total radiocesium in soil over the same period. The relatively high radiocesium concentrations in woodcock during 1986 and the decreasing radiocesium ratio in woodcock to earthworms during the first years following fallout could have been caused by woodcock ingesting abiotic radiocesium with earthworms. The decrease in radiocesium in woodcock and earthworms during the study (1986-90) probably resulted from decreasing bioavailability of radiocesium during the first years after fallout rather than by radiocesium disappearing from the ecosystem. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Kalas, J.A. (Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim (Norway)); Bretten, S.; Njastad, O. (Univ. of Trondheim (Norway)); Byrkjedal, I. (Univ. of Bergen (Norway))

1994-01-01

229

Aporrectodea caliginosa, a suitable earthworm species for field based genotoxicity assessment?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a growing interest for the application of biomakers to field-collected earthworms. Therefore we have evaluated the usability of native populations of endogeic, widely distributed earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa in the assessment of soil genotoxicity using the Comet assay. Validation of the Comet assay on earthworm coelomocytes has been established using commercially available Eisenia fetida exposed to copper, cadmium, and pentachlorophenol, along with A. caliginosa exposed to copper in a filter paper contact test. Neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay was conducted on copper exposed and field-collected earthworms. Significant DNA and lysosomal damage was measured using Comet and NRRT assays in native populations of A. caliginosa sampled from the polluted soils in the urban area in comparison to the earthworms from the reference site. The results of this study confirm the employment of A. caliginosa as a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Research highlights: ? Native A. caliginosa has shown significant biological effect measured by the Comet and NRRT assays. ? The Comet assay on A. caliginosa and E. fetida has shown to be of similar sensitivity as the NRRT assay. ? A. caliginosa is a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Native populations of endogeic earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa can be successfully applied in the genotoxicity field surveys using Comet assaicity field surveys using Comet assay.

230

Population Dynamics Of Earthworms In Cauvery Delta Areas In Relation To Soil Properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Population dynamics of earthworms in the two different cultivable land areas – wet land cultivable areas (WLCA (including paddy, banana and sugarcane fields and dry land cultivable areas (DLCA (including coconut and groundnut fields of five different pedoecosystems in the Cauvery delta areas of Sirkazhi taluk, Nagapattinam district, Tamil Nadu state, India with reference to various soil ecological parameters have been studied, for the first time during the period from November 2011 to April 2012. The WLCA (paddy> sugarcane> banana fields harbor maximum population dynamics of earthworms whereas low in DLCA (groundnut> coconut fields. This may be due to presence of more edaphic factors - OC, N and moisture. Along with these, microorganisms as protein and N rich food support for earthworm growth and reproduction. They are involved synergistically influence the density and biomass of earthworm at maximum. In the five different pedoecosystems of Cauvery delta areas, only two types of soil namely clayloam and sandyloam are found and this variations are due to the nature of earlier agricultural activity and the nature of soil texture. Population dynamics of earthworm in different pedoecosystem are found in soil having 17.6–23.8% range of moisture and among pedoecosystems, more moisture content and more earthworm population dynamics are found in paddy field, followed by sugarcane, banana, groundnut and coconut field. This is due to adequate and frequent irrigation, more water holding capacity, higher microbial activity, OC, N and other nutrient content of the soil.

K. Parthasarathi

2013-11-01

231

The influence of earthworms on nutrient dynamics during the process of vermicomposting.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study the potential of the earthworm Eisenia andrei to modify chemical and microbiological properties, with a special focus on the nutrient content of fresh organic matter, was evaluated during 16 weeks of vermicomposting of cattle manure and sewage sludge. Samples were periodically collected in order to determine the changes in inorganic nitrogen (N), in total microbial biomass and activity, as well as in the total and available content of macro- and micronutrients. An optimal moisture level, ranging from 75% to 88%, was maintained throughout the process. The content of organic matter decreased over time, but no changes were found in this parameter as a result of earthworm activity. The carbon/N ratio rapidly decreased, but only in the manure, reflecting rapid decomposition and mineralisation of the organic matter by the earthworms. An increase in N mineralisation was also attributable to the presence of earthworms, although in the manure this effect was hardly detectable before the eighth week of vermicomposting. Earthworm activity also enhanced the total content of potassium, calcium and iron together with an increase in the availability of phosphorus and zinc. We did not detect a significant earthworm effect on microbial respiration, but their activity increased greatly microbial biomass nitrogen in sewage sludge. PMID:23831778

Domínguez, Jorge; Gómez-Brandón, María

2013-08-01

232

Physiological and molecular responses of the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) to soil chlortetracycline contamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aims to evaluate toxic effects of exposure to chlortetracycline (CTC) in soil on reproductive endpoints (juvenile counts and cocoon counts), biochemical responses, and genotoxic potentials of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Results showed that juvenile counts and cocoon counts of the tested earthworms were reduced after exposure to CTC. The effective concentrations (EC50 values) for juvenile and cocoon counts were 96.1 and 120.3 mg/kg, respectively. Treatment of earthworms with CTC significantly changed the activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). An increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) indicated that CTC could cause cellular lipid peroxidation in the tested earthworms. The percentage of DNA in the tail of single-cell gel electrophoresis of coelomocytes as an indication of DNA damage increased after treatment with different doses of CTC, and a dose-dependent DNA damage of coelomocytes was found. In conclusion, CTC induces physiological responses and genotoxicity on earthworms. - Highlights: ? Reproductive endpoints were assessed for Eisenia fetida exposed to chlortectracyline (CTC). ? CTC may induce physiological and molecular responses in E. fetida. ? A clear relationship was observed between CTC doses and DNA damage of coelomocytes. - Chlortetracycline in soil could induce physiological responses and genotoxicity on earthworms at realistic environmental concentrations.

233

Aporrectodea caliginosa, a suitable earthworm species for field based genotoxicity assessment?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is a growing interest for the application of biomakers to field-collected earthworms. Therefore we have evaluated the usability of native populations of endogeic, widely distributed earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa in the assessment of soil genotoxicity using the Comet assay. Validation of the Comet assay on earthworm coelomocytes has been established using commercially available Eisenia fetida exposed to copper, cadmium, and pentachlorophenol, along with A. caliginosa exposed to copper in a filter paper contact test. Neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay was conducted on copper exposed and field-collected earthworms. Significant DNA and lysosomal damage was measured using Comet and NRRT assays in native populations of A. caliginosa sampled from the polluted soils in the urban area in comparison to the earthworms from the reference site. The results of this study confirm the employment of A. caliginosa as a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Research highlights: > Native A. caliginosa has shown significant biological effect measured by the Comet and NRRT assays. > The Comet assay on A. caliginosa and E. fetida has shown to be of similar sensitivity as the NRRT assay. > A. caliginosa is a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Native populations of endogeic earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa can be successfully applied in the genotoxicity field surveys using Comet assay.

Klobucar, Goeran I.V., E-mail: gklobuca@zg.biol.pmf.hr [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Stambuk, Anamaria; Srut, Maja [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Husnjak, Ivana [Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction, Ulica Republike Austrije 14, Zagreb (Croatia); Merkas, Martina [Croatian Institute for Brain Research, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Salata 12, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Traven, Luka [Department of Environmental Medicine, Medical Faculty, University of Rijeka, Brace Branchetta 20a, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Teaching Institute of Public Health of the Primorsko-goranska County, Kresimirova 52a, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Cvetkovic, Zelimira [Department of Ecology, Institute of Public Health, Mirogojska c. 16, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

2011-04-15

234

Functional attributes: Compacting vs decompacting earthworms and influence on soil structure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A short term field mesocosm experiment was performed in semi-deciduous forest areas of Ivory Coast to assess the impact of a decompacting (Hyperiodrilus africanus, Eudrilidae and two compacting (Millsonia omodeoi and Dichogaster terraenigrae, Acanthodrilidae earthworm species on soil properties. These species have been selected for their predominance in the region and their contrasting impact on soil structure. The experimental design consisted of a treatment without worms (control, and treatments with one, two or three species of earthworms. Both compacting and decompacting earthworms increased water infiltration rate in all treatments, with marked impact in H. africanus and M. omodeoi+D. terraenigrae treatments. Interactions between compacting and decompacting species resulted in more large aggregates in comparison to when the compacting species D. terraenigrae was alone. This may be accounted for by their compacting attribute as compacting earthworms are responsible for producing the highest number of large aggregates. The low values of mean weight diameter in treatments combining decompacting and compacting earthworms compared with compacting "M. omodeoi" one also confirmed the trend of decline in soil compaction in the presence of the decompacting species. These results showed positive impact of species richness on soil structure regulation, which is crucial in ecosystem productivity and support consequently the insurance hypothesis. In fact, this study showed that the preservation of earthworm species belonging to these two contrasting functional groups is essential for the maintenance of stable soil structure regulation in agro-tropical ecosystems [Current Zoology 58 (4: 556–565, 2012].

Arnauth Martinez GUÉI, Yannick BAIDAI, Jérôme Ebagnerin TONDOH,Jeroen HUISING

2012-08-01

235

Influence of earthworm activity on microbial communities related with the degradation of persistent pollutants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworms may promote the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, but the mechanism through which they exert such influence is still unknown. To determine if the stimulation of PAH degradation by earthworms is related to changes in microbial communities, a microcosm experiment was conducted consisting of columns with natural uncontaminated soil covered with PAH-contaminated dredge sediment. Columns without and with low and high Eisenia andrei densities were prepared. Organic matter and PAH content, microbial biomass, and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) were measured in soil and sediment over time. Biolog Ecoplate™ and polymerase chain reaction using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were used to evaluate changes in metabolic and structural diversity of the microbial community, respectively. Earthworm activity promoted PAH degradation in soil, which was significant for biphenyl, benzo[a]pyrene, and benzo[e]pyrene. Microbial biomass and DHA activity generally did not change over the experiment. Earthworm activity did change microbial community structure, but this did not affect its functioning in terms of carbon substrate consumption. Results suggest no relationship between changes in the microbial community by earthworm activity and increased PAH disappearance. The role of shifts in soil microbial community structure induced by earthworms in PAH removal needs further investigation. PMID:22213518

Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Lee, Iwa; Verweij, Rudo A; Morais, Paula V; Van Velzen, Martin J M; Sousa, José Paulo; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M

2012-04-01

236

Radiocesium (137Cs) from the Chernobyl reactor in Eurasian woodcock and earthworms in Norway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To understand the ecological effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident, we investigated radiocesium (137Cs) levels in Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola), earthworms (Lambricidae), litter (dead organic materials lying on the ground), humus (beneath litter 2 cm deep), and mineral soil samples (3-6 cm deep) from a heavily effected (20-60 kBq/m2[1 Bq = 1 nuclear fission/sec]) area in Norway. The highest concentrations measured in earthworms (1988 median = 142 Bq/Kg) and woodcock (1986 median = 730 Bq/kg) for human food (600 Bq/kg fresh mass) only were found in woodcock during 1986. Radiocesium concentrations decreased (P < 0.001) in earthworms (40%) and woodcock (95%) from 1986 to 1990. There was no reduction in total radiocesium in soil over the same period. The relatively high radiocesium concentrations in woodcock during 1986 and the decreasing radiocesium ratio in woodcock to earthworms during the first years following fallout could have been caused by woodcock ingesting abiotic radiocesium with earthworms. The decrease in radiocesium in woodcock and earthworms during the study (1986-90) probably resulted from decreasing bioavailability of radiocesium during the first years after fallout rather than by radiocesium disappearing from the ecosystem. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

237

Feedback from Freeze-out in Hydrodynamics  

CERN Document Server

Most hydrodynamical calculations used in heavy-ion physics ignore the effect of freeze-out matter carrying energy and momentum away from the expanding fluid. In a simple one-dimensional model we compare calculated energy density and velocity profiles, with and without interaction between fluid-like and freeze-out parts of the system, in order to estimate the importance of this effect.

Neumann, J J; Fái, G; Neumann, John J.; Lavrenchuk, Boris; Fai, George

1996-01-01

238

Cryoprotectant and freezing-process alter the ability of chicken sperm to acrosome react.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sperm surviving after freezing-thawing is usually 40-50% of the initial population. Damage during this process affects both fertilizing ability and its duration in avian species. However, the effect of cryopreservation on the sperm ability to undergo the acrosome reaction, the initial event of fertilization, is still in question in birds. In this paper, the influence of cryoprotectant (glycerol and dimethylacetamide-DMA) and of two different cryopreservation processes (pellets or straws) on the ability of rooster sperm to acrosome react (AR measured with PNA-FITC) was studied. Motility parameters (CASA) and plasma membrane integrity (propidium iodide exclusion) were also measured. The addition of cryoprotectants (CPA) immediately provoked a dramatic decrease in the ability of sperm to undergo the acrosome reaction, glycerol being more harmful than DMA. The cryoprotectant removal was also harmful. The other parts of the freezing process further decreased the ability to AR. Motility was affected to a lesser extent by CPA presence although plasma membrane integrity was not altered. The DMA/rapid freezing procedure was the most harmful for plasma membrane integrity. Taken together, these results show that AR is more dramatically altered by CPA presence than motility and membrane integrity and CPA provokes a more pronounced effect than the freezing-thawing process especially in the case of using glycerol/slow freezing process. PMID:21115311

Mocé, E; Grasseau, I; Blesbois, E

2010-12-01

239

Ice crystallization and freeze tolerance in embryonic stages of the tardigrade Milnesium tardigradum.  

Science.gov (United States)

In tardigrades, tolerance to low temperature is well known and allows them to cope with subzero temperatures in their environment. Although the ability to tolerate freezing body water has been demonstrated in some tardigrades, freeze tolerance of embryonic stages has been little studied, although this has ecological significance. In this study, we evaluated the subzero temperature survival of five different developmental stages of the eutardigrade species Milnesium tardigradum after freezing to -30 degrees C. Embryos were exposed to five different cooling rates between room temperature and -30 degrees C at 1 degrees C/h, 3 degrees C/h, 5 degrees C/h, 7 degrees C/h, and 9 degrees C/h followed by a warming period at 10 degrees C/h. The results showed that the developmental stage and the cooling rate have a significant effect on the hatching rate. Less developed embryonic stages were more sensitive to freezing at higher freezing rates than more developed stages. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to determine the temperature of crystallization (Tc) in single embryos of the different developmental stages and revealed no differences between the stages. Based on the calorimetric data, we also conclude that the ice nucleation is homogeneous in embryonic stages in tardigrades, as also recently shown for fully developed tardigrades, and not triggered by nucleating agents. PMID:20116441

Hengherr, S; Reuner, A; Brümmer, F; Schill, R O

2010-05-01

240

The anti-cell death FNK protein protects cells from death induced by freezing and thawing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The FNK protein, constructed from anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL with enhanced activity, was fused with the protein transduction domain (PTD) of the HIV/Tat protein to mediate the delivery of FNK into cells. The fusion protein PTD-FNK was introduced into chondrocytes in isolated articular cartilage-bone sections, cultured neurons, and isolated bone marrow mononuclear cells to evaluate its ability to prevent cell death induced by freezing and thawing. PTD-FNK protected the cells from freeze-thaw damage in a concentration-dependent manner. Addition of PTD-FNK with conventional cryoprotectants (dimethyl sulfoxide and hydroxyethyl starch) increased surviving cell numbers around 2-fold compared with controls treated only with the cryoprotectants. Notably, PTD-FNK allowed CD34+ cells among bone marrow mononuclear cells to survive more efficiently (12-fold more than the control cells) from two successive freeze-thaw cycles. Thus, PTD-FNK prevented cell death induced by freezing and thawing, suggesting that it provides for the successful cryopreservation of biological materials

 
 
 
 
241

Double patterning process with freezing technique  

Science.gov (United States)

Double patterning is one of the most promising lithography techniques for sub-40nm half-pitch device manufacturing. Several variations of double patterning processes have been reported by research groups, including a dual-trench process (litho-etch-litho-etch) and a dual-line process (litho-litho-etch). Between these, the dual-line process attracts the most attention because it is a simple process and achieves high throughput. However, there is concern that the second lithography process damages the first lithography patterns in the dual-line process. Therefore, new technology must be developed to keep the configuration of first lithography patterns during the second lithography step, and to make this patterning process practical. Recently, we succeeded in forming 32 nm half-pitch LS lithography patterns by the introduction of a new "freezing" step. This step involves covering the first lithography pattern with a chemical freezing material to prevent damage by the second lithography process. This process, the so called "litho-freezing-litho-etch" process, will achieve higher throughput and lower cost compared to litho-etch-litho-etch. In this study, the performance of this chemical freezing double patterning process is investigated for various applications using a hyper NA immersion exposure tool. Imaging results including process window and etching results of sub-30nm half-pitch LS and 40nm half-pitch CH with this freezing process are shown. Additionally, items such as critical dimension uniformity and defect inspection using the freezing process were reviewed.

Wakamatsu, Goji; Anno, Yusuke; Hori, Masafumi; Kakizawa, Tomohiro; Mita, Michihiro; Hoshiko, Kenji; Shioya, Takeo; Fujiwara, Koichi; Kusumoto, Shiro; Yamaguchi, Yoshikazu; Shimokawa, Tsutomu

2009-03-01

242

Effect of the transit through the gut of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) on fractionation of Cu and Zn in pig manure.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the effect of the transit through the gut of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) on the fractionation of Cu and Zn in pig manure, earthworms were reared with pig manure in the greenhouse. Both the pig manure and the earthworm casts were subjected to a five-step sequential extraction of Cu and Zn. The content of Cu bound to organic matter in pig manure increased from 60% to 75% after transit through the gut of earthworm, whereas that of Zn decreased from 50% to 25%. It demonstrated that Cu had a strong affinity towards organic matter. The share of Cu and Zn in the exchangeable fraction was reduced by the transit through the gut of earthworm. Based on these changes, Cu was more bioavailable, whereas Zn was less bioavailable. The factors affecting metal fractionation, like pH, organic matter (OM) and total phosphorous (TP) contents, and total metal concentration, were also affected significantly by the transit through the gut of earthworm. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the fractionation of Cu in the earthworm casts was influenced by OM, TP and the amount of Cu in the earthworm casts. The total Zn concentration in the earthworm casts was the primary factor that explained most of the variation in Zn fractionation. The present study demonstrated that the digestive activity in the gut of E. fetida played an important role in the fraction redistribution of Cu and Zn in pig manure. PMID:19232822

Li, Lingxiangyu; Wu, Jianyang; Tian, Guangming; Xu, Zhenlan

2009-08-15

243

Effects of biochar and the geophagous earthworm Metaphire guillelmi on fate of (14)C-catechol in an agricultural soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both biochar and earthworms can exert influence on behaviors of soil-borne monomeric phenols in soil; however, little was known about the combined effects of biochar and earthworm activities on fate of these chemicals in soil. Using (14)C-catechol as a representative, the mineralization, transformation and residue distribution of phenolic humus monomer in soil amended with different amounts of biochar (0%, 0.05%, 0.5%, and 5%) without/with the geophagous earthworm Metaphire guillelmi were investigated. The results showed biochar at amendment rate biochar amendment significantly inhibited the mineralization. Earthworms did not affect the mineralization of (14)C-catechol in soil amended with biochar, but significantly enhanced the mineralization in 5% biochar amended soil when they were present in soil for 9 d. When earthworms were removed from the soil, the mineralization of (14)C-catechol was significantly lower than that of in earthworm-free soil indicating that (14)C-catecholic residues were stabilized during their passage through earthworm gut. The assimilation of (14)C by earthworms was low (1.2%), and was significantly enhanced by biochar amendment, which was attributed to the release of biochar-associated (14)C-catecholic residues during gut passage of earthworm. PMID:24875877

Shan, Jun; Wang, Yongfeng; Gu, Jianqiang; Zhou, Wenqiang; Ji, Rong; Yan, Xiaoyuan

2014-07-01

244

Lethal critical body residues as measures of Cd, Pb, and Zn bioavailability and toxicity in the earthworm Eisenia fetida  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background. Earthworm heavy metal concentrations (critical body residues, CBRs) may be the most relevant measures of heavy metal bioavailability in soils and may be linkable to toxic effects in order to better assess soil ecotoxicity. However, as earthworms possess physiological mechanisms to secrete and/or sequester absorbed metals as toxicologically inactive forms, total earthworm metal concentrations may not relate well with toxicity. Objective. The objectives of this research were to: i) develop LD{sub 50}s (total earthworm metal concentration associated with 50% mortality) for Cd, Pb, and Zn; ii) evaluate the LD{sub 50} for Zn in a lethal Zn-smelter soil; iii) evaluate the lethal mixture toxicity of Cd, Pb, and Zn using earthworm metal concentrations and the toxic unit (TU) approach; and iv) evaluate total and fractionated earthworm concentrations as indicators of sublethal exposure. Methods. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida (Savigny)) were exposed to artificial soils spiked with Cd, Pb, Zn, and a Cd-Pb-Zn equitoxic mixture to estimate lethal CBRs and mixture toxicity. To evaluate the CBR developed for Zn, earthworms were also exposed to Zn-contaminated field soils receiving three different remediation treatments. Earthworm metal concentrations were measured using a procedure devised to isolate toxicologically active metal burdens via separation into cytosolic and pellet fractions. (orig.)

Conder, J.M.; Lanno, R.P. [Oklahoma State Univ., Dept. of Zoology, Stillwater, OK (United States)

2003-07-01

245

A practical method for the restoration of clogged rural vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment using earthworm.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a simple method for the restoration of clogged vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland by earthworm. Since clogging always takes place at the top layer, epigeic earthworm is suitable for restoration of the clogged wetland. Earthworm can not only loosen the substrate, but also transform 80?90% of undissolved organic particles into dissolved matters. Accordingly, the accumulated solids in substrate with earthworm are 50% less than the one without earthworm. The wetland with earthworm removed 2?5 percentage points more nitrogen and 12 percentage points more phosphorous for its better ventilation conditions, while 2 percentage points less COD because the generation of dissolved organic matter from undissolved organic particles by earthworm. In general, the influence of earthworm on the effluent quality of the wetland could be ignored. Hydrology of six full-scale clogged wetlands was restored by Eisenia foetida. The optimal strength of earthworm addition is 0.5 kg/m2, which spend RMB six yuan/m2, less than € 0.75/m2. No specific training is required for the staffs on this method; it takes 10 days to restore the clogged wetland. PMID:21252432

Li, Huaizheng Z; Wang, Sheng; Ye, Jianfeng F; Xu, Zuxin X; Jin, Wei

2011-01-01

246

Escape and avoidance learning in the earthworm Eisenia hortensis  

Science.gov (United States)

Interest in instrumental learning in earthworms dates back to 1912 when Yerkes concluded that they can learn a spatial discrimination in a T-maze. Rosenkoetter and Boice determined in the 1970s that the “learning” that Yerkes observed was probably chemotaxis and not learning at all. We examined a different form of instrumental learning: the ability to learn both to escape and to avoid an aversive stimulus. Freely moving “master” worms could turn off an aversive white light by increasing their movement; the behavior of yoked controls had no effect on the light. We demonstrate that in as few as 12 trials the behavior of the master worms comes under the control of this contingency. PMID:24498578

Ferrara, Nicole C.; Blaker, Amanda L.; Giddings, Charisa E.

2014-01-01

247

Escape and avoidance learning in the earthworm Eisenia hortensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Interest in instrumental learning in earthworms dates back to 1912 when Yerkes concluded that they can learn a spatial discrimination in a T-maze. Rosenkoetter and Boice determined in the 1970s that the “learning” that Yerkes observed was probably chemotaxis and not learning at all. We examined a different form of instrumental learning: the ability to learn both to escape and to avoid an aversive stimulus. Freely moving “master” worms could turn off an aversive white light by increasing their movement; the behavior of yoked controls had no effect on the light. We demonstrate that in as few as 12 trials the behavior of the master worms comes under the control of this contingency.

W. Jeffrey Wilson

2014-01-01

248

Comparative Genotoxicity of Cadmium and Lead in Earthworm Coelomocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine genotoxicity to coelomocytes, Pheretima peguana earthworms were exposed in filter paper studies to cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) for 48 h, at concentrations less than the LC10 Cd: 0.09, 0.19, 0.38, 0.75, and 1.50 ?g cm-2; Pb: 1.65, 3.29, 6.58, 13.16, and 26.32 ?g cm-2. For Cd at 0.75 ?g cm-2, in the micronucleus test (detects chromosomal aberrations), significant increases (P-2. This study shows that Cd is more acutely toxic and sublethally genotoxic than Pb to P. peguana. Cadmium caused chromosomal aberrations and DNA single-strand breaks at 45% of the LC10 concentration. Lead, in contrast, did not induce DNA damage but caused cytokinesis defects.

249

Modelling spatiotemporal distribution patterns of earthworms in order to indicate hydrological soil processes  

Science.gov (United States)

Soils provide central ecosystem functions in recycling nutrients, detoxifying harmful chemicals as well as regulating microclimate and local hydrological processes. The internal regulation of these functions and therefore the development of healthy and fertile soils mainly depend on the functional diversity of plants and animals. Soil organisms drive essential processes such as litter decomposition, nutrient cycling, water dynamics, and soil structure formation. Disturbances by different soil management practices (e.g., soil tillage, fertilization, pesticide application) affect the distribution and abundance of soil organisms and hence influence regulating processes. The strong relationship between environmental conditions and soil organisms gives us the opportunity to link spatiotemporal distribution patterns of indicator species with the potential provision of essential soil processes on different scales. Earthworms are key organisms for soil function and affect, among other things, water dynamics and solute transport in soils. Through their burrowing activity, earthworms increase the number of macropores by building semi-permanent burrow systems. In the unsaturated zone, earthworm burrows act as preferential flow pathways and affect water infiltration, surface-, subsurface- and matrix flow as well as the transport of water and solutes into deeper soil layers. Thereby different ecological earthworm types have different importance. Deep burrowing anecic earthworm species (e.g., Lumbricus terrestris) affect the vertical flow and thus increase the risk of potential contamination of ground water with agrochemicals. In contrast, horizontal burrowing endogeic (e.g., Aporrectodea caliginosa) and epigeic species (e.g., Lumbricus rubellus) increase water conductivity and the diffuse distribution of water and solutes in the upper soil layers. The question which processes are more relevant is pivotal for soil management and risk assessment. Thus, finding relevant environmental predictors which explain the distribution and dynamics of different ecological earthworm types can help us to understand where or when these processes are relevant in the landscape. Therefore, we develop species distribution models which are a useful tool to predict spatiotemporal distributions of earthworm occurrence and abundance under changing environmental conditions. On field scale, geostatistical distribution maps have shown that the spatial distribution of earthworms depends on soil parameters such as food supply, soil moisture, bulk density but with different patterns for earthworm stages (adult, juvenile) and ecological types (anecic, endogeic, epigeic). On landscape scales, earthworm distribution seems to be strongly controlled by management/disturbance-related factors. Our study shows different modelling approaches for predicting distribution patterns of earthworms in the Weiherbach area, an agricultural site in Kraichtal (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). We carried out field studies on arable fields differing in soil management practices (conventional, conservational), soil properties (organic matter content, texture, soil moisture), and topography (slope, elevation) in order to identify predictors for earthworm occurrence, abundance and biomass. Our earthworm distribution models consider all ecological groups as well as different life stages, accounting for the fact that the activity of juveniles is sometimes different from those of adults. Within our BIOPORE-project it is our final goal to couple our distribution models with population dynamic models and a preferential flow model to an integrated ecohydrological model to analyse feedbacks between earthworm engineering and transport characteristics affecting the functioning of (agro-) ecosystems.

Palm, Juliane; Klaus, Julian; van Schaik, Loes; Zehe, Erwin; Schröder, Boris

2010-05-01

250

Effect of acute gamma radiation and protective action of different concentration of extracts of safora japonica and hypericum perforatum on the life of aboriginal earthworms of Absheron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text : As atomic power is increasingly recognized as a potential energy source to sustain future human development, radiological protection of the environment will become an even more important environmental safety concern. Thus, an understanding of the effects of ionizing radiation on non-human biota is required by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the radiological protection of the environment. Soil processes are vital to sustainable terrestrial ecosystems, and soil invertebrates play an important role in nutrient cycling by feeding on microbiota. Because of their ecological importance, soil invertebrates are used for ecological impact assessments of terrestrial ecosystem pollutants. For chemical substances, single-species laboratory tests are used to understand toxicity. Standard tests using earthworms and spring tails have been developed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Laboratory toxicity tests are also applicable in field contamination monitoring to determine if test organisms have been exposed to field-corrected soils. In such assays, gene expression as a biomarker has been receiving increased attention as it may produce fast, sensitive and diagnostic assays. A similar use of laboratory tests can be applied to assess the environmental impact of ionizing radiation. An understanding of the dose-effect relations of ionising radiation for non-human biota establishes important baselines for radiobiological protection of ecosystems. We used standard laboratory tests to examine dose-effect relationships of gamma radiation on the survival, biomass changing, feeding activity, coprolite excretion of aboriginal earthworms

251

Earthworms, Collembola and residue management change wheat (Triticum aestivum) and herbivore pest performance (Aphidina: Rhophalosiphum padi).  

Science.gov (United States)

Management practices of arable systems determine the distribution of soil organic matter thereby changing decomposer animal activity and their impact on nutrient mineralization, plant growth and plant-herbivore interactions. Decomposer-mediated changes in plant growth and insect pest performance were investigated in wheat-aphid model systems in the greenhouse. Three types of litter distribution were established: litter patch at the soil surface (simulating mulching), litter patch deeper in soil (simulating ploughing) and litter homogeneously mixed into soil (simulating disk cultivation). The litter was labelled with (15)N to follow the mineralization and uptake of nutrients by the plants. Earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) and Collembola (Protaphorura armata) were included as representatives of major functional groups of decomposers. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) was planted and aphids (Rhophalosiphum padi) were introduced to leaves as one of the most important pests. Earthworms, Collembola and litter distribution affected plant growth, N acquisition and aphid development in an interactive way. Earthworms and Collembola increased biomass of seeds, shoots and roots of wheat. Increased plant growth by earthworms and Collembola was mainly due to increased transfer of N from soil (rather than litter) into plants. Despite increasing plant growth, earthworms reduced aphid reproduction. Aphid reproduction was not correlated closely with plant N concentrations, but rather with the concentration of litter N in wheat. Unexpectedly, both Collembola and earthworms predominantly affected the mobilization of N from soil organic matter, and by altering the distribution of litter earthworms reduced infestation of crops by aphids via reducing plant capture of litter N, in particular if the litter was concentrated deeper in soil. The results suggest that management practices stimulating a continuous moderate increase in nutrient mobilization from soil organic matter rather than nutrient flushes from decomposing fresh organic matter result in maximum plant growth with minimum plant pest infestation. PMID:18654802

Ke, Xin; Scheu, Stefan

2008-10-01

252

Wolf Survival  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, some learners pretend to be wolves, while the other learners pretend to be the prey of the wolf. The goal of the simulation is to have the wolves work together to survive. This activity works best with a larger group of at least 25 learners, but can work with smaller groups of at least 16 learners. Use this activity to discuss predator/prey relationships and the importance of communication for both animals and people.

Eduweb; Zoo, Minnesota

2012-01-01

253

Hot big bang or slow freeze?  

CERN Document Server

We confront the hot big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze - a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the slow freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The slow freeze and hot big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple three-parameter "crossover model" without a "big bang singularity". In the infinite past space-time is flat. Our model is compatible with all present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy dominated universe.

Wetterich, C

2014-01-01

254

UltraViolet Freeze-in  

CERN Document Server

If dark matter is thermally decoupled from the visible sector, the observed relic density can potentially be obtained via freeze-in production of dark matter. Typically in such models it is assumed that the dark matter is connected to the thermal bath through feeble renormalisable interactions. Here, rather, we consider the case in which the hidden and visible sectors are coupled only via non-renormalisable operators. This is arguably a more generic realisation of the dark matter freeze-in scenario, as it does not require the introduction of diminutive renormalisable couplings. We examine general aspects of freeze-in via non-renormalisable operators in a number of toy models and present several motivated implementations in the context of Beyond the Standard Model physics. Specifically, we study models related to the Peccei-Quinn mechanism and Z' portals.

Elahi, Fatemeh; Unwin, James

2014-01-01

255

Freezing precipitation in Russia and the Ukraine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conditions for freezing precipitation (FP, including freezing rain (FR and freezing drizzle (FZ for 8 airports in Russia and 4 in the Ukraine are studied on the basis of 10 to 20-year series of surface observations, radiosonde and objective analysis data. Statistical characteristics are presented of the FP episode durations and of occurrence frequency dependences on surface air temperature, wind direction and speed and cloud base height. From the radiosonde data, it is found that the "classical mechanism" of FP generation (for which, stratification of "warm nose" type in the cloud layer is necessary is not frequent: most of FP cases are associated with "all cold" conditions in the lower 3-km layer, that is, with negative temperatures in and below the clouds.

I. A. Khomenko

2007-01-01

256

The second wave of earthworm invasion: soil organic matter dynamics from the stable isotope perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

Through transformation of plant litter into soil organic matter (SOM) and translocation of ingested organic material among different soil depths, soil organisms, especially earthworms, are one of the major factors affecting SOM dynamics. In North America temperate soil, historical human activity has lead to invasion of European earthworms into habitats that were previously earthworm-free or inhabited only by native species. By consuming leaf litter and SOM, burrowing, and casting, invasive earthworms have been known for reducing the understory vegetation and leaf litter layer while increasing the thickness of organic soil, causing changes in the soil habitat and the distribution of SOM. Recently, another group of invasive earthworm, namely Amynthas from Asia, has been reported invading habitats already dominated by European species, causing a 'second wave of invasion' where the soil ecosystem, already modified by European species, is going through another transition. The mechanisms through which these functionally (ecologically) different species affect C and N transformation could be better understood by tracing the carbon and nitrogen derived from 13C- and 15N-labeled leaf litter into earthworm tissues and SOM. The objective of this study is to understand how earthworm species that differ ecologically, including the Asian Amynthas, interact with each other and how these interactions affect SOM dynamics. We hypothesized that 1) species feeding on different food resources will have different isotopic signature and their tissue 13C and 15N values will change due to facilitation or interspecific competition on food resources, and 2) the short-term fate of litter-derived carbon differs depending on the presence or absence of different earthworm species. These hypotheses were tested by field sampling and lab mesocosm experiments using 13C and 15N double-enriched Tulip Poplar leaf litter (mean 13C = 124‰, mean 15N = 1667‰) produced from tree saplings growing in an airtight chamber. Stable isotope mass balance calculation is used to estimate the recovery of litter-derived carbon from three pools (earthworm tissue, SOM, remaining litter), the loss of litter-derived carbon through soil respiration, and the contribution of different carbon sources to soil CO2 efflux in different earthworm treatments. Our results show that earthworm species recognized as 'soil feeders' have 13C and 15N values that are 1.2‰ and 3.8‰ higher than those of 'litter feeders', and 15N also differ significantly amount different soil feeders, suggesting different food resource usage even within the same functional group. There are strong species effects on both leaf litter disappearance rate and CO2 efflux rate, both being high when Amynthas earthworms are present. Our results suggest that changing earthworm species composition leads to changing resource use, which alters the fate of organic carbon in the forest floor and soil and could potentially affect long-term SOM dynamics in temperate forests.

Chang, C.; Szlavecz, K. A.; Bernard, M.; Pitz, S.

2013-12-01

257

Mutual impacts of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and earthworms (Eisenia fetida) on the bioavailability of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wheat and earthworms were exposed individually and together to soils contaminated with 11 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Wheat accumulated PFASs from soil with root concentration factors and bioconcentration factors that decreased as the number of perfluorinated carbons in the molecule increased. Earthworms accumulated PFASs from soil with biota-to-soil accumulation factors that increased with the number of carbons. Translocation factors (TF) of perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) in wheat peaked at perfluorohexanoic acid and decreased significantly as the number of carbons increased or decreased. Perfluorohexane sulfonate produced the greatest TF of the three perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) examined. Wheat increased the bioaccumulation of all 11 PFASs in earthworms and earthworms increased the bioaccumulation in wheat of PFCAs containing seven or less perfluorinated carbons, decreased bioaccumulation of PFCAs with more than seven carbons, and decreased bioaccumulation of PFSAs. In general, the co-presence of wheat and earthworms enhanced the bioavailability of PFASs in soil. -- Highlights: • PFASs can be taken up by root of wheat from soil and translocated to shoot. • The RCFs and BCFs of PFASs in wheat decreased with perfluorinated carbon chain length. • PFHxA had the highest TF, which decreased exponentially with the carbon chain length. • The BSAFs in earthworm increased with carbon chain length. • The co-presence of wheat and earthworm enhanced the bioavailability of PFASs in soil. -- PFASs can be uptake by root of wheat from soil and translocated to shoot and co-presence of wheat and earthworm enhance the bioavailability of PFASs in soil

258

Assessing ecotoxicity and uptake of metals and metalloids in relation to two different earthworm species (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to diffuse atmospheric fallouts of process particles enriched by metals and metalloids, polluted soils concern large areas at the global scale. Useful tools to assess ecotoxicity induced by these polluted soils are therefore needed. Earthworms are currently used as biotest, however the influence of specie and earthworm behaviour, soil characteristics are poorly highlighted. Our aim was therefore to assess the toxicity of various polluted soils with process particles enriches by metals and metalloids (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, As and Sb) collected from a lead recycling facility on two earthworm species belonging to different ecological types and thus likely to have contrasted behavioural responses (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris). The combination of behavioural factors measurements (cast production and biomass) and physico-chemical parameters such as metal absorption, bioaccumulation by earthworms and their localization in invertebrate tissues provided a valuable indication of pollutant bioavailability and ecotoxicity. Soil characteristics influenced ecotoxicity and metal uptake by earthworms, as well as their soil bioturbation. -- Highlights: •Historically polluted soils collected from a lead recycling facility were studied. •Cast production is a sensitive parameter to assess ecotoxicity on earthworms. •Both soil parameters, like organic matter content and pH and earthworm specie influence metal uptake and ecotoxicity. -- Behavioural factors and inorganic pollutant uptake by earthworms provide a valuable indication of bioavailability and ecotoxicity

259

DNA damage in earthworms (Eisenia spp.) as an indicator of environmental stress in the industrial zone of Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz is one of the major industrial areas of Mexico. Presently, the Coatzacoalcos River and the areas surrounding the industrial complex are considered by various authors to be some of most polluted sites in Mexico. The objective of this study was to determine if earthworms could be used as indicators of environmental stress in the Coatzacoalcos industrial zone. Often, detritivores and decomposers such as earthworms are the first to be affected when the soil is contaminated. We collected soil samples to be used for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) quantification by gas chromatography. Concentrations of hexachlorobenzene, lindane and total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the soil were above the maximum permissible limits of the Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines (CEQG). Comet assay was conducted in coelomocytes of wild earthworms collected in Coatzacoalcos and compared with the control earthworms. We found DNA damage in earthworms from Coatzacoalcos that was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in comparison to laboratory earthworms. Earthworms are an appropriate organism to use as an indicator of environmental impact in contaminated sites. DNA damage recorded in the earthworms provides clear evidence of environmental impacts by the chemical industry on the wildlife of this region. PMID:20390841

Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Ilizaliturri, Cesar A; Gonzalez-Mille, Donaji J; Costilla, Rogelio; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Carmen Cuevas, Maria Del; Martinez, Miguel Angel; Mejia-Saavedra, Jesus

2010-01-01

260

Assessing soil ecotoxicity of methyl tert-butyl ether using earthworm bioassay; closed soil microcosm test for volatile organic compounds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An earthworm bioassay was conducted to assess ecotoxicity in methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-amended soils. Ecotoxicity of MTBE to earthworms was evaluated by a paper contact method, natural field soil test, and an OECD artificial soil test. All tests were conducted in closed systems to prevent volatilization of MTBE out of test units. Test earthworm species were Perionyx excavatus and Eisenia andrei. Mortality and abnormal morphology of earthworms exposed to different concentrations of MTBE were examined. MTBE was toxic to both earthworm species and the severity of response increased with increasing MTBE concentrations. Perionyx excavatus was more sensitive to MTBE than Eisenia andrei in filter papers and two different types of soils. MTBE toxicity was more severe in OECD artificial soils than in field soils, possibly due to the burrowing behavior of earthworms into artificial soils. The present study demonstrated that ecotoxicity of volatile organic compounds such as MTBE can be assessed using an earthworm bioassay in closed soil microcosm with short-term exposure duration. - Earthworm bioassay can be a good protocol to assess soil ecotoxicity of volatile organic compounds such as MTBE.

An, Youn-Joo [Department of Environmental Science, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: anyjoo@konkuk.ac.kr

2005-03-01

 
 
 
 
261

Effects of metal pollution on earthworm communities in a contaminated floodplain area: Linking biomarker, community and functional responses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects on earthworms in the contaminated floodplain area the Biesbosch, the Netherlands, were determined at different levels of organization using a combination of field and laboratory tests. The species Lumbricus rubellus, collected from different polluted sites in the Biesbosch, showed reduced values for the biomarker neutral red retention time (NRRT), mainly explained by high metal concentrations in the soil and the resulting high internal copper concentrations in the earthworms. Organic pollutant levels in earthworms were low and did not explain reduced NRRTs. Earthworm abundance and biomass were not correlated with pollutant levels in the soil. Litterbag decomposition and bait-lamina feeding activity, measures of the functional role of earthworms, were not affected by metal pollution and did not show any correlation with metal concentrations in soil or earthworms nor with NRRT. Effects at the biochemical level therefore did not result in a reduced functioning of earthworm communities. - Metal pollution in floodplain soils does affect earthworm biomarker response but not their activity in decomposition processes

262

Biochar and earthworm effects on soil nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biochar is the product of pyrolysis produced from feedstock of biological origin. Due to its aromatic structure and long residence time, biochar may enable long-term carbon sequestration. At the same time, biochar has the potential to improve soil fertility and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from soils. However, the effect of biochar application on GHG fluxes from soil must be investigated before recommendations for field-scale biochar application can be made. A laboratory experiment was designed to measure carbon dioxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO) emissions from two Irish soils with the addition of two different biochars, along with endogeic (soil-feeding) earthworms and ammonium sulfate, to assist in the overall evaluation of biochar as a GHG-mitigation tool. A significant reduction in NO emissions was observed from both low and high organic matter soils when biochars were applied at rates of 4% (w/w). Earthworms significantly increased NO fluxes in low and high organic matter soils more than 12.6-fold and 7.8-fold, respectively. The large increase in soil NO emissions in the presence of earthworms was significantly reduced by the addition of both biochars. biochar reduced the large earthworm emissions by 91 and 95% in the low organic matter soil and by 56 and 61% in the high organic matter soil (with and without N fertilization), respectively. With peanut hull biochar, the earthworm emissions reduction was 80 and 70% in the low organic matter soil, and only 20 and 10% in the high organic matter soil (with and without N fertilization), respectively. In high organic matter soil, both biochars reduced CO efflux in the absence of earthworms. However, soil CO efflux increased when peanut hull biochar was applied in the presence of earthworms. This study demonstrated that biochar can potentially reduce earthworm-enhanced soil NO and CO emissions. Hence, biochar application combined with endogeic earthworm activity did not reveal unknown risks for GHG emissions at the pot scale, but field-scale experiments are required to confirm this. PMID:22751063

Augustenborg, Cara A; Hepp, Simone; Kammann, Claudia; Hagan, David; Schmidt, Olaf; Müller, Christoph

2012-01-01

263

Spawn viability in edible mushrooms after freezing in liquid nitrogen without a cryoprotectant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five strains of edible mushrooms (Lentinula boryana, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus djamor, Pleurotus pulmonarius, and Volvariella volvacea) were studied. Spawn were prepared from sorghum seeds and then incubated for 14 days under optimum conditions for each species. Once covered by mycelia, the sorghum seeds were placed in polycarbonate vials for freezing in liquid nitrogen. The effect of adding a cryoprotective solution before freezing (either 10% glycerol v/v or 5% dimethylsulfoxide v/v) was evaluated as a function of mycelial growth and percent viability. Three main treatments were undertaken: (1) freezing with a glycerol or dimethylsulfoxide cryoprotectant, (2) freezing with water and (3) freezing without cryoprotectant or water. Samples were maintained frozen for a week, after which time they were thawed (10 min at 30 degrees C) and the seeds placed in Petri dishes with a culture medium. A recovery rate of 96.8% was obtained for the total number of samples summed over all strains and treatments. In contrast, 99.2% of the samples frozen without cryoprotectant were recovered. The recovery of frozen mycelia was delayed with respect to a control group, which was not frozen. However, no difference was observed in percent recovery and mycelial diameter when a new series of spawn was prepared from mycelia that had been previously frozen. Results obtained from this experiment demonstrate that an adequate recovery of mycelia can be obtained without using a cryoprotectant. This capacity might enable large quantities of commercial mushroom strains to be handled at reduced production costs. It is suggested that the mycelia survived freezing without cryoprotectants because they were embedded and protected within the sorghum seeds used to elaborate the spawn. PMID:12963408

Mata, Gerardo; Pérez-Merlo, Rosalía

2003-08-01

264

Role of Earthworms in Soil Fertility Maintenance through the Production of Biogenic Structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The soil biota benefits soil productivity and contributes to the sustainable function of all ecosystems. The cycling of nutrients is a critical function that is essential to life on earth. Earthworms (EWs) are a major component of soil fauna communities in most ecosystems and comprise a large proportion of macro fauna biomass. Their activity is beneficial because it can enhance soil nutrient cycling through the rapid incorporation of detritus into mineral soils. In addition to this mixing effect, mucus production associated with water excretion in earthworm guts also enhances the activity of other beneficial soil microorganisms. This is followed by the production of organic matter. So, in the short term, a more significant effect is the concentration of large quantities of nutrients (N, P, K, and Ca) that are easily assimilable by plants in fresh cast depositions. In addition, earthworms seem to accelerate the mineralization as well as the turnover of soil organic matter. Earthworms are known also to increase nitrogen mineralization, through direct and indirect effects on the microbial community. The increased transfer of organic C and N into soil aggregates indicates the potential for earthworms to facilitate soil organic matter stabilization and accumulation in agricultural systems, and that their influence depends greatly on differences in land management practices. This paper summarises information on published data on the described subjects.

265

Metabolism and bioaccumulation of nitroaromatic munitions by-products in earthworms and plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Previously the authors have used earthworm and plant bioassays to evaluate the toxicity of nitroaromatic ammunition by-products. In the present study, they investigated the uptake, metabolism and possible bioaccumulation of these compounds in earthworms and plants. Earthworms were maintained on artificial soil supplemented with {sup 14}[C] trinitrobenzene (TNB). The authors also studied the translocation, metabolism and bioaccumulation of {sup 14}[C] 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB) by germinating oat and lettuce seeds planted on artificial soil. Acetone extracts of tissue and gut contents of earthworms exposed to TNB for different intervals contained only a small fraction of the original radioactivity, which did not increase with time. The radioactivity extracted from earthworms co-eluted with 1,3-dinitroaniline (DNAN) on HPLC and the amount of radioactivity decreased with time. In the DNB plant studies, five day old oat seedlings accumulated 17% of {sup 14}[C] radioactivity. HPLC of acetone extracts revealed unidentified radioactive peaks but DNB radioactivity was not detected. The radioactivity from butanol extracts of both oats and lettuce coeluted with aniline and 3-nitroaniline and the radioactivity increased with time. These results suggest that oats and lettuce bioaccumulate DNB metabolites, which might result in the transfer of toxicants to herbivores.

Reddy, T.V.; Chang, L.W.; Smith, M.K.; Daniel, F.B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Wiechman, B. [Pathology Associates, Inc., West Chester, OH (United States); Reddy, G. [USABRDL, Fort Detrick, MD (United States)

1994-12-31

266

Subacute toxicity of copper and glyphosate and their interaction to earthworm (Eisenia fetida)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Glyphosate (GPS) and copper (Cu) are common pollutants in soils, and commonly co-exist. Due to the chemical structure of GPS, it can form complexes of heavy metals and interface their bioavailability in soil environment. In order to explore the interactions between GPS and Cu, subacute toxicity tests of Cu and GPS on soil invertebrate earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were conducted. The relative weight loss and whole-worm metal burdens increased significantly with the increasing exposure concentration of Cu, while the toxicity of GPS was insignificant. The joint toxicity data showed that the relative weight loss and the uptake of Cu, as well as the superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde activities, were significantly alleviated in the present of GPS, which indicated that GPS could reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cu in the soil because of its strong chelating effects. Highlights: •Cu markedly increased the weight loss ratio of earthworm. •Cu decreased the cocoon production of earthworm. •The toxicity of GPS on earthworm was insignificant. •The presence of GPS could reduce the toxicity of Cu on earthworm. -- The presence of glyphosate could reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cu in the soil because of its strong chelating effects

267

The Mechanics and Energetics of Soil Bioturbation by Plant Roots and Earthworms - Plastic Deformation Considerations  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil structure plays a critical factor in the agricultural, hydrological and ecological functions of soils. These services are adversely impacted by soil compaction, a damage that could last for many years until functional structure is restored. An important class of soil structural restoration processes are related to biomechanical activity associated with burrowing of earthworms and root proliferation in impacted soil volumes. We study details of the mechanical processes and energetics associated with quantifying the rates and mechanical energy required for soil structural restoration. We first consider plastic cavity expansion to describe earthworm and plant root radial expansion under various conditions. We then use cone penetration models as analogues to wedging induced by root tip growth and worm locomotion. The associated mechanical stresses and strains determine the mechanical energy associated with bioturbation for different hydration conditions and root/earthworm geometries. Results illustrate a reduction in strain energy with increasing water content and trade-offs between pressure and energy investment for various root and earthworm geometries. The study provides the basic building blocks for estimating rates of soil structural alteration, the associated energetic requirements (soil carbon, plant assimilates) needed to sustain structure regeneration by earthworms and roots, and highlights potential mechanical cut-offs for such activities.

Ruiz, Siul; Or, Dani; Schymanski, Stanislaus

2014-05-01

268

Changes in forest floor composition and chemistry along an invasive earthworm gradient in a hardwood forest  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies have demonstrated how invasive European earthworm species have caused large and long lasting perturbations to forest floor dynamics and soil composition in many northern hardwood forests. The type of perturbation is driven primarily by the composition and activity of the invasive species and the original state of the forest system. Over the past 4 years we have investigated an invasive earthworm front moving through the Ojibwa Red Lake Reservation (Minnesota). Significant shifts in litter and organic horizon mass were observed, similar to other gradients identified in the region, but the species of earthworms exhibited differences compared to other reservation lands in the region--possibly driven by the availability of recreation fishing near to the sites. Sharp gradients in earthworm abundance were observed exhibiting shifts from 600- 900 individuals per meter square to no observed worms within only 500 meters. The gradients in earthworm activity also influenced decay rates of litter, as was observed by placement of litter decay bags across the gradient. Our findings demonstrate the tenuous nature of many tribal reservation forests and point to the need for policies to address spread on such species to minimize impacts to soil carbon stocks as well as culturally important plant species.

Jourdain, J. N.; Filley, T. R.; Top, S. M.; Thayer, C.; Johnson, A.; Jenkins, M.; Welle, P.; Zurn-Birkhimer, S.; Kroeger, T.; Gemscholars

2010-12-01

269

[Effects of earthworm activity on phosphorus fraction and available phosphorus content in red soil].  

Science.gov (United States)

By the methods of incubation test and Hedley's phosphorus fractionation, this paper studied the effects of inoculating earthworm (Pheretinma pingi) on the phosphorus fractions and available phosphorus contents in red soil. The results showed that during a 100-day incubation, earthworm inoculation combined with organic materials (rice straw RS, peanut residue PR, and rape residue RR) amendment increased significantly the content of soil available phosphorus. Statistics analysis showed that there was a significant difference in soil available phosphorus content between treatments PR or RR with and without earthworm inoculation. Compared with the contents of anion-exchange resin P(trace), NaCO3-soluble P(14.5 mg x kg(-1)) and microbial P(1.0 mg x kg(-1)) in CK, those in treatments of earthworm inoculation plus organic materials amendment increased to 10.5 - 17.8 mg kg(-1), 23.5-35.6 mg x kg(-1), and 6.8 - 9.7 mg x kg(-1), respectively, organic phosphorus content enhanced from 37.9 mg x kg(-1) to 50.7-59.3 mg x kg(-1), whereas residual P was reduced. Earthworm performed an activated effect on the availability of phosphorus in red soil. PMID:16422511

Liu, Dehui; Hu, Feng; Hu, Pei; Cheng, Jiemin

2005-10-01

270

Enantioselective bioaccumulation and toxic effects of metalaxyl in earthworm Eisenia foetida.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge about the enantioselective bioavailability of chiral pesticides in soil invertebrates facilitates more accurate interpretation of their environmental behaviors. In this study, the acute toxicities of R-metalaxyl and rac-metalaxyl to earthworm (Eisenia foetida) were assayed by filter paper contact test. After 48 h of exposure, the calculated LC(50) values for R- and rac-metalaxyl were 0.052 and 0.022 mg cm(-2), respectively, resulting in a two fold difference in toxicity. For uptake experiment, earthworms were exposed in soil at two dose levels (10 and 50 mg kg(dwt)(-1)). The concentrations of two enantiomers in soil and earthworm were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography based on cellulose tri-(3,5-dimethylphenyl-carbamate) chiral stationary phase. The results showed that metalaxyl was taken up by earthworm rapidly, and the bioaccumulation of metalaxyl in earthworm was enantioselective with preferential accumulation of S-enantiomer. In addition, biota to soil accumulation factor (BSAF) used to express the bioaccumulation of metalaxyl enantiomers was investigated, and significant difference was observed between rac-metalaxyl and R-metalaxyl. PMID:21315406

Xu, Peng; Diao, Jinling; Liu, Donghui; Zhou, Zhiqiang

2011-05-01

271

Earthworms and structure rehabilitation in subsoils and in topsoils affected by opencast mining for coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because soil structure seems to benefit from the period under grass in a normal rotation, it is widely assumed that grass roots are primarily responsible (Strutt, 1970). Due credit is also given to efficient drainage, adequate inputs of organic matter, lime and microbial activity. However, it is not clear whether the earthworm is a passive exploiter or a causal agent of structure improvement. When the pressures of production end up in severe soil structure deterioration, or when massive soil disturbance, and stockpiling ends up in soils restored with little residual structure, experimental evidence suggests that the role of the earthworm is crucial. Evidence will be presented to show how earthworms, in association with all the other factors normally held to be responsible, initiate the development of water-stable, soil granulation. However, evidence will also be presented which shows how certain features of modern agriculture are, to some extent at least, antagonistic to earthworms. In utilizing degraded land, it may be necessary to farm initially for the benefit of the earthworm rather than for yield. This approach must be maintained despite the fact that, in the early stages, it may result in a phase of greater waterlogging and susceptibility to poaching. 30 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Stewart, V.I.; Scullion, J.; Salih, R.O.; Al-Bakri, K.H.

1988-01-01

272

Reproducing Black's experiments: freezing point depression and supercooling of water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We carried out two historical experiments referred to by Joseph Black, one on freezing mixtures of salted water with ice and another on freezing supercooled pure water by a small disturbance. The results confirm thermodynamical predictions for the depression of the freezing point of salted water and for the latent heat of freezing of supercooled water respectively, which came after Black. The depression of the freezing point can hardly be fitted in the framework of the caloric theory of heat, which was taken for granted by Black, and the instantaneous freezing of supercooled water also poses some difficulties for that theory. (author)

273

Mutual impacts of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and earthworms (Eisenia fetida) on the bioavailability of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wheat and earthworms were exposed individually and together to soils contaminated with 11 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Wheat accumulated PFASs from soil with root concentration factors and bioconcentration factors that decreased as the number of perfluorinated carbons in the molecule increased. Earthworms accumulated PFASs from soil with biota-to-soil accumulation factors that increased with the number of carbons. Translocation factors (TF) of perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) in wheat peaked at perfluorohexanoic acid and decreased significantly as the number of carbons increased or decreased. Perfluorohexane sulfonate produced the greatest TF of the three perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) examined. Wheat increased the bioaccumulation of all 11 PFASs in earthworms and earthworms increased the bioaccumulation in wheat of PFCAs containing seven or less perfluorinated carbons, decreased bioaccumulation of PFCAs with more than seven carbons, and decreased bioaccumulation of PFSAs. In general, the co-presence of wheat and earthworms enhanced the bioavailability of PFASs in soil. PMID:24158108

Zhao, Shuyan; Fang, Shuhong; Zhu, Lingyan; Liu, Li; Liu, Zhengtao; Zhang, Yahui

2014-01-01

274

Remediation of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil by using a combination of ryegrass, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and earthworms.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, a laboratory experiment was performed to investigate the influences of inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus caledoniun L. and/or epigeic earthworms (Eisenia foetida) on phytoremediation of a PCB-contaminated soil by ryegrass grown for 180d. Planting ryegrass, ryegrass inoculated with earthworms, ryegrass inoculated with AMF, and ryegrass co-inoculated with AMF and earthworms decreased significantly initial soil PCB contents by 58.4%, 62.6%, 74.3%, and 79.5%, respectively. Inoculation with AMF and/or earthworms increased the yield of plants, and the accumulation of PCBs in ryegrass. However, PCB uptake by ryegrass accounted for a negligible portion of soil PCB removal. The number of soil PCB-degrading populations increased when ryegrass was inoculated with AMF and/or earthworms. The data show that fungal inoculation may significantly increase the remedial potential of ryegrass for soil contaminated with PCBs. PMID:24457052

Lu, Yan-Fei; Lu, Mang; Peng, Fang; Wan, Yun; Liao, Min-Hong

2014-07-01

275

PCR-DGGE analysis of earthworm gut bacteria diversity in stress of Escherichia coli O157:H7  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to test if the intestinal bacteria play an important role in antibacterial ability of earthworm, we chose Escherichia coli O157:H7, an anthropozoonosis pathogen, as a biological stressor and studied the change of intestinal bacteria community of earthworm by PCR-DGGE analysis. Results showed that the pathogen merely existed 1 - 3 days, then almost disappeared after through the earthworm’s gut. In this period, the diversity and abundance index of intestinal bacteria increased first, then decreased, and finally kept stably after 7 days. The result demonstrated that the intestinal bacteria of earthworm had ability of adjust community structure to eliminate the pathogen E. coli O157:H7, and the amount of bacteria Bacillus increased significantly, which might be the positive antagonism to E. coli O157:H7.

Zhenjun Sun

2013-03-01

276

Redistribution and Destabilization of Forest Soil Carbon by Earthworm Invasion  

Science.gov (United States)

Soils of temperate forests in the northern Great Lakes region have developed in the absence of earthworms, which were largely eradicated during the last ice age. European earthworms, such as Lumbricus terrestris, are spreading and their effect on forest soil C has not been widely studied. We examined soils along a chronosequence of worm activity (wormosequence) ranging from no apparent activity (Low) to high activity over several decades (High). In the soil profile, including organic horizons, there was only a small loss (4%) of C with high worm activity. There was a 71% decrease in the Oe and no remaining Oa in the High site. Conversely, the mineral soil contained 25% more C in the High site, with most of that in the top 20 cm. We densimetrically separated the mineral soil into primarily organic free light fraction (FLF) and occluded light fraction (OLF), a mineral-associated intermediate fraction (IF), and a mineral-associated dense fraction (DF). We measured fraction mass, C, nitrogen, and 14C content. In comparison to Low sites, each depth of High worm soil had less FLF C and more IF C. With worms, more C was stored in aggregates in the upper soil but less in the lower soil. The presence of worms had a very large effect on the 14C content of soil organic matter, with shifts of > 60 per mil in several fractions presumably due to a combination of vertical redistribution and more rapid transfer into and out of some fractions. For example, from the Low to High sites OLF 14C increased 100 per mil at 0-10 cm depth, while DF 14C decreased 80 per mil at 20-50 cm. The effect of worms on C cycling can be explored using a multi-pool, multi-depth model that treats 14C as a conservative (i.e., stable) tracer. Our results suggest that worms play a major role in redistributing soil C in these forest soils by pathways that differ with depth: the upper soil loses FLF C and incorporates organic horizon C into OLF and IF, whereas in the lower depths FLF is lost and the previously stable OLF C pool is redistributed into IF and DF. We conclude that the introduction of worms to these forest soils has fundamentally changed the storage, distribution, and turnover of soil organic C.

Swanston, C. W.; Torn, M. S.; Allen, L.; Lilleskov, E. A.; Maggi, F.

2008-12-01

277

Experiences with novel approaches in earthworm testing alternatives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Goal, Scope and Background. The earthworm avoidance test is a sensitive screening test. Currently, two test designs, a two-chamber system and a six-chamber system, are under standardization. In the scope of the present study, the two test systems are compared. To assess the results, two procedures are applied, which are based on a threshold value and a statistical method. Moreover, the sensitivity of the avoidance test is compared with the sensitivity of the reproduction test. Methods. The avoidance behaviour of E. fetida towards five chemicals (Cd, Cu, PCP, TBT, TNT) was tested in a sandy and a loamy soil. The ecotoxicological test was performed according to the draft guideline ISO/DIS 17512-1. The results were compared with the number of offspring determined in the reproduction test carried out according to ISO 11268-2. Results and Discussion. The results demonstrate that the avoidance behaviour towards organic chemicals and heavy metals is a suitable screening method showing first tendencies of a chemical's effects on the habitat function of soils. Effects caused by chemical substances become visible at low concentrations and within short test periods. The sensitivity of the reproduction test and the avoidance test is principally comparable; in some cases, the avoidance test showed more sensitive reactions. The dose-response-relationships were more pronounced in the two-chamber test than in the six-chamber-system. Recommendation and Outlook. The two-chamber-system proved to be more feasible than the six-chamber-system. As the sensitivity of the avoidance test and the reproduction test is comparable, the avoidance test can be considered as a suitable screening test. A possible field of application may be the selection of soil samples for which the reproduction assay seems necessary. To assess contaminated or remediated soils, the earthworm reproduction test is recommended as an indicator for the habitat function of the soils. To reduce costs, the avoidance test and the reproduction test could be used as a stepwise system. Thereby, the labour-intensive, but environmentally more relevant reproduction test is carried out only for samples that have already been indicated as toxic in the avoidance test. (orig.)

Hund-Rinke, K.; Lindemann, M.; Simon, M. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology, Schmallenberg (Germany)

2005-11-01

278

Comparing effects of freezing at -196 °C and -20 °C on the viability of mastitis pathogens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cryopreservation at approximately -196 °C in liquid nitrogen (N and freezing at approximately -20 °C in a freezer, on the viability and survival of eight different mastitogenic bacteria inoculated in milk. Bacteria were frozen at approximately -20 °C in a freezer and cryopreserved at approximately -196 °C in liquid nitrogen. An effective preservation method was needed for follow-up samples from cows identified in the South African National Milk Recording Scheme (NMRS with somatic cell counts above 250 000 cells/mL milk. The organisation responsible for sample collection of the NMRS milk samples also provides producers with liquid nitrogen for their semen flasks at the collection sites. This existing mode of storage and transport could therefore be utilised.

Ten samples of each organism were thawed and cultured bi-weekly until week 18 for both temperature treatments. An additional sampling was performed at week 30 for samples frozen at approximately -20 °C. Freezing and cryopreservation did not impair subsequent isolation of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus (STH (phage type lytic group III or Sta. aureus (STA (phage typed, other than lytic group III. Survival was indicated by the isolation of bacteria from samples, and viability by the strength of growth of the bacteria isolated. The survival of Streptococcus agalactiae decreased after week 12 and Escherichia coli after week 16 of freezing, but both organisms survived under cryogenic preservation until week 18. Coagulase-negative staphylococci survived until week 18 for both freezing and cryogenic preservation.

Both storage methods could thus contribute to the improvement of a pro-active approach towards udder health management in South African dairy herds.

How to cite this article: Petzer, I.M., Karzis, J., Van der Schans, T.J., Watermeyer, J.C., Mitchell-Innes, N., Eloff, S. & Fosgate, G.T., 2012, ‘Comparing effects of freezing at -196 °C and -20 °C on the viability of mastitis pathogens’, Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 79(1, Art. #343, 6 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v79i1.343

Inge-Marie Petzer

2012-02-01

279

The influence of freezing rates on bovine pericardium tissue Freeze-drying  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The bovine pericardium has been used as biomaterial in developing bioprostheses. Freeze-drying is a drying process that could be used for heart valve's preservation. The maintenance of the characteristics of the biomaterial is important for a good heart valve performance. This paper describes the initial step in the development of a bovine pericardium tissue freeze-drying to be used in heart valves. Freeze-drying involves three steps: freezing, primary drying and secondary drying. The freezing step influences the ice crystal size and, consequently, the primary and secondary drying stages. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of freezing rates on the bovine pericardium tissue freeze-drying parameters. The glass transition temperature and the structural behaviour of the lyophilized tissues were determined as also primary and secondary drying time. The slow freezing with thermal treatment presented better results than the other freeze-drying protocols.O pericárdio bovino é um material utilizado na fabricação de biopróteses. A liofilização é um método de secagem que vem sendo estudado para a conservação de válvulas cardíacas. A preservação das características do biomaterial é de fundamental importância no bom funcionamento das válvulas. Este artigo é a primeira etapa do desenvolvimento do ciclo de liofilização do pericárdio bovino. Liofilização é o processo de secagem no qual a água é removida do material congelado por sublimação e desorção da água incongelável, sob pressão reduzida. O congelamento influencia o tamanho do cristal de gelo e, consequentemente, a secagem primária e secundária. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência das taxas de congelamento nos parâmetros de liofilização do pericárdio bovino. Determinou-se a temperatura de transição vítrea e o comportamento estrutural do pericárdio bovino liofilizado. Determinou-se o tempo da secagem primária e secundária. O protocolo de liofilização utilizando-se congelamento lento com annealing apresentou os melhores resultados.

Camila Figueiredo Borgognoni

2009-12-01

280

The influence of freezing rates on bovine pericardium tissue Freeze-drying  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O pericárdio bovino é um material utilizado na fabricação de biopróteses. A liofilização é um método de secagem que vem sendo estudado para a conservação de válvulas cardíacas. A preservação das características do biomaterial é de fundamental importância no bom funcionamento das válvulas. Este artig [...] o é a primeira etapa do desenvolvimento do ciclo de liofilização do pericárdio bovino. Liofilização é o processo de secagem no qual a água é removida do material congelado por sublimação e desorção da água incongelável, sob pressão reduzida. O congelamento influencia o tamanho do cristal de gelo e, consequentemente, a secagem primária e secundária. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência das taxas de congelamento nos parâmetros de liofilização do pericárdio bovino. Determinou-se a temperatura de transição vítrea e o comportamento estrutural do pericárdio bovino liofilizado. Determinou-se o tempo da secagem primária e secundária. O protocolo de liofilização utilizando-se congelamento lento com annealing apresentou os melhores resultados. Abstract in english The bovine pericardium has been used as biomaterial in developing bioprostheses. Freeze-drying is a drying process that could be used for heart valve's preservation. The maintenance of the characteristics of the biomaterial is important for a good heart valve performance. This paper describes the in [...] itial step in the development of a bovine pericardium tissue freeze-drying to be used in heart valves. Freeze-drying involves three steps: freezing, primary drying and secondary drying. The freezing step influences the ice crystal size and, consequently, the primary and secondary drying stages. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of freezing rates on the bovine pericardium tissue freeze-drying parameters. The glass transition temperature and the structural behaviour of the lyophilized tissues were determined as also primary and secondary drying time. The slow freezing with thermal treatment presented better results than the other freeze-drying protocols.

Camila Figueiredo, Borgognoni; Virgilio, Tattini Junior; Ana Maria Irene Bartolomeu, Ayrosa; Bronislaw, Polakiewicz; Adolfo Alberto, Leirner; Marina Junko Shiotsu, Maizato; Olga Zazuco, Higa; Marisa Masumi, Beppu; Ronaldo Nogueira de Moraes, Pitombo.

1493-15-01

 
 
 
 
281

An Investigation into the Anti-microbial and Anti-fungal Properties of Earthworm Powder Obtained from Eisenia fetida  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present study was carried out during the year 2006-2007 on dried earthworm powder collected from culture of Eisenia fetida in vermicomposting units and focused on the effect of the dried earthworm on microbes determining the anti-microbial and anti-fungal properties of the worms, as well as the chemical composition of worms obtain from vermicomposting units. The earthworm powder was also subjected to analysis of nitrogen and potassium using standard procedures. Antimicrobial disc diffusion suspecting tests were carried out against Bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as the fungus Candida albicans with the following treatments: Control, earthworm powder in water (1:1, earthworm powder in water (1:2 and earthworm powder in acetone (1:2. The technique involves using disk diffusion susceptibility testing where disks from both the pure and diluted honey as well as the antibiotic disk erythromycin (control were impregnated onto the surface of the Mueller Hinton agar. The study conclusively proved that the earthworm powder (all dilutions has antifungal properties which would be effective in treating fungal infections, such as candidosis whereas did not indicate the anti-microbial properties which may be attributed to different composition of elements in earthworm powder obtained from vermicomposting unit rather than garden soil. ANOVA analysis (Single factor at p = 0.05, proved that differences between the different concentrations of earthworm powder treatment containing colonies of C. albicans was significant, indicating the effect of earthworm powder by inhibiting the growth of the fungus C. albicans.

Abdullah Adil Ansari

2011-01-01

282

Building the Method to Determine the Rate of Freezing Water in Penaeus monodon of the Freezing Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The method of determination the rate of freezing water in Penaeus monodon of freezing process was established on base the equation of energy balance in warming up process Penaeus monodon after freezing to determine specific heat of Penaeus monodon. The result obtained was built the mathematical model (19 to determine the rate of freezing water according to the freezing temperature of Penaeus monodon. The results indicated that when water was completely frozen (? = 1 or 100%, the optimal freezing temperature of Penaeus monodon was-22.00°C.

Nguyen Tan Dzung

2012-10-01

283

Bioaccumulation and biological effects in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to natural and depleted uranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accumulations of both natural (U) and depleted (DU) uranium in the earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were studied to evaluate corresponding biological effects. Concentrations of metals in the experimental soil ranged from 1.86 to 600 mg kg-1. Five biological endpoints: mortality, animals' weight increasing, lysosomal membrane stability by measuring the neutral red retention time (the NRRT), histological changes and genetic effects (Comet assay) were used to evaluate biological effects in the earthworms after 7 and 28 days of exposure. No effects have been observed in terms of mortality or weight reduction. Cytotoxic and genetic effects were identified at quite low U concentrations. For some of these endpoints, in particular for genetic effects, the dose (U concentration)-effect relationships have been found to be non-linear. The results have also shown a statistically significant higher level of impact on the earthworms exposed to natural U compared to depleted U.

284

Metal accumulation in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Model predictions compared to field data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mechanistic bioaccumulation model OMEGA (Optimal Modeling for Ecotoxicological Applications) is used to estimate accumulation of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Our validation to field accumulation data shows that the model accurately predicts internal cadmium concentrations. In addition, our results show that internal metal concentrations in the earthworm are less than linearly (slope < 1) related to the total concentration in soil, while risk assessment procedures often assume the biota-soil accumulation factor (BSAF) to be constant. Although predicted internal concentrations of all metals are generally within a factor 5 compared to field data, incorporation of regulation in the model is necessary to improve predictability of the essential metals such as zinc and copper. - Earthworm metal concentrations are less than linearly related to total soil concentrations and predicted pore water concentrations.

Veltman, Karin [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University (Russian Federation) Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, Toernooiveld 1, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: k.veltman@science.ru.nl; Huijbregts, Mark A.J. [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University (RU) Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, Toernooiveld 1, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: m.a.j.huijbregts@science.ru.nl; Vijver, Martina G. [Institute for Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)]. E-mail: vijver@cml.leidenuniv.nl; Peijnenburg, Willie J.G.M. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Laboratory for Ecotoxicology, P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands)]. E-mail: wjgm.peijnenburg@rivm.nl; Hobbelen, Peter H.F. [US Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, National Wildlife Health Center, 6006 Schroeder Road, Madison WI 53711-6223 (United States)]. E-mail: phobbelen@usgs.gov; Koolhaas, Josee E. [Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: kees.van.gestel@ecology.falw.vu.nl; Vliet, Petra C.J. van [Section Soil Quality Wageningen University, Bode 5, P.O. Box 8005, 6700 EC Wageningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: petra.vanvliet@wur.nl; Jan Hendriks, A. [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University (RU) Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, Toernooiveld 1, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: a.j.hendriks@science.ru.nl

2007-03-15

285

DNA Repair Inhibition by Mercuric Chloride in Earthworms after Exposure to Radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All organisms are being exposed to harmful factors present in the environment. Ionizing radiation can damage DNA through a series of molecular events depending on the radiation energy. The biological effects due to the combined action of ionizing radiation with the other factor are hard to estimate and predict in advance. Recently International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) requires the effect data of ionizing radiation on non-human biota for the radiological protection of the environment. Earthworms have been identified by the ICRP as one of the reference animals and plants to be used in environmental radiation protection. Particularly, the earthworm Eisenia fetida can be used as a bio-indicator of pollution in soil. This study was performed to investigate the acute genotoxic effects of radiation and the synergistic effects between radiation and mercury in earthworm, E. fetida

286

Soil physical ambient and its relation ships with the earthworm's biomass in some Colombian Andean hillsides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work presented here describes on the one hand the relationship between diversity, density and biomass of the earthworm's side and humidity, total porosity and resistance to penetration in the hillsides soils (secondary forest, Inceptisol and Pennsisetum clandestinum pastured, Andisol) on the other hand side. Results indicate that there were significant differences between sites for density and biomass of earthworms, and that their presence was affected by the physical parameters. Resistance to soil penetrability and humidity were significantly different only in the first 20 cm; while in deeper soil layers these were no such difference between sites, this is of importance, since the surface of the soil suffers changes due to the management, thus affecting the conditions that regulate the earthworm populations

287

DNA Repair Inhibition by Mercuric Chloride in Earthworms after Exposure to Radiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

All organisms are being exposed to harmful factors present in the environment. Ionizing radiation can damage DNA through a series of molecular events depending on the radiation energy. The biological effects due to the combined action of ionizing radiation with the other factor are hard to estimate and predict in advance. Recently International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) requires the effect data of ionizing radiation on non-human biota for the radiological protection of the environment. Earthworms have been identified by the ICRP as one of the reference animals and plants to be used in environmental radiation protection. Particularly, the earthworm Eisenia fetida can be used as a bio-indicator of pollution in soil. This study was performed to investigate the acute genotoxic effects of radiation and the synergistic effects between radiation and mercury in earthworm, E. fetida

Ryu, Tae Ho; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nili, Mohammad [Dawnesh Radiation Research Institute, Barcelona (Spain); An, Kwang Guk [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2011-10-15

288

Bioaccumulation and biological effects in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to natural and depleted uranium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The accumulations of both natural (U) and depleted (DU) uranium in the earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were studied to evaluate corresponding biological effects. Concentrations of metals in the experimental soil ranged from 1.86 to 600 mg kg{sup -1}. Five biological endpoints: mortality, animals' weight increasing, lysosomal membrane stability by measuring the neutral red retention time (the NRRT), histological changes and genetic effects (Comet assay) were used to evaluate biological effects in the earthworms after 7 and 28 days of exposure. No effects have been observed in terms of mortality or weight reduction. Cytotoxic and genetic effects were identified at quite low U concentrations. For some of these endpoints, in particular for genetic effects, the dose (U concentration)-effect relationships have been found to be non-linear. The results have also shown a statistically significant higher level of impact on the earthworms exposed to natural U compared to depleted U.

Giovanetti, Anna, E-mail: anna.giovanetti@enea.i [ENEA, Institute of Radiation Protection, CR Casaccia Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Fesenko, Sergey [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Cozzella, Maria L. [ENEA, National Institute for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation, CR Casaccia Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Asencio, Lisbet D. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales, Carretera a Castillo de Jagua, CP. 59350 C. Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Sansone, Umberto [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

2010-06-15

289

Earthworm avoidance test for soil assessments. An alternative for acute and reproduction tests  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For ecotoxicological assessments of contaminated or remediated soils pointing to the habitat function of soils for biocenoses, standardized tests with earthworms (acute test, reproduction test) are available among others. Tests used for routine applications should be sensitive and indicate impacts on test organisms after short test periods. The usually applied earthworm tests do not satisfactorily fulfil these criteria. Therefore, in the present work, a behavioural test with earthworms (test criterion: avoidance) was investigated in detail using uncontaminated, artificially contaminated and originally contaminated soils. It was demonstrated that the avoidance behaviour is primarily determined by pollutants, and not by chemical-physical soil properties. The sensitivity of the presented test reaches the sensitivity of established tests. For waste sites, a considerably higher sensitivity was determined. An avoidance behaviour of at least 80% of the worms leaving the soil to be assessed is proposed as a criterion for toxicity. (orig.)

Hund-Rinke, K.; Wiechering, H. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Umweltchemie und Oekotoxikologie, Schmallenberg (Germany)

2001-07-01

290

Histopathological changes in the earthworm Eisenia andrei associated with the exposure to metals and radionuclides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworms were exposed for 56 d to a contaminated soil, from an abandoned uranium mine, and to the natural reference soil LUFA 2.2. Histological changes in earthworm's body wall (epidermis, circular and longitudinal muscles) and gastrointestinal tract (chloragogenous tissue and intestinal epithelium) were assessed, after 0, 14 and 56 d of exposure. Results have shown alterations in all the studied tissues after 14 d of exposure (except for the intestinal epithelium), yet more severe effects were registered after 56 d of exposure. Herein we report histopathological alterations as a good biomarker for the evaluation of soil quality. We also demonstrate that morphological changes in the body wall and gastrointestinal tract, are important endpoints that could be added to earthworm's standardized tests, for the evaluation of soil toxicity, as part of the risk assessment of contaminated areas. PMID:21911243

Lourenço, Joana; Silva, Ana; Carvalho, Fernando; Oliveira, João; Malta, Margarida; Mendo, Sónia; Gonçalves, Fernando; Pereira, Ruth

2011-11-01

291

Leavening ability and freeze tolerance of yeasts isolated from traditional corn and rye bread doughs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii isolated from traditional bread doughs displayed dough-raising capacities similar to the ones found in baker's yeasts. During storage of frozen doughs, strains of T. delbrueckii (IGC 5321, IGC 5323, and IGC 4478) presented approximately the same leavening ability for 30 days. Cell viability was not significantly affected by freezing, but when the dough was submitted to a bulk fermentation before being stored at -20 degrees C, there was a decrease in the survival ratio which depended on the yeast strain. Furthermore, the leavening ability after 4 days of storage decreased as the prefermentation period of the dough before freezing increased, except for strains IGC 5321 and IGC 5323. These two strains retained their fermentative activity after 15 days of storage and 2.5 h of prefermentation, despite showing a reduction of viable cells under the same conditions. The intracellular trehalose content was higher than 20% (wt/wt) in four of the yeasts tested: the two commercial strains of baker's yeast (S. cerevisiae IGC 5325 and IGC 5326) and the two mentioned strains of T. delbrueckii (IGC 5321 and IGC 5323). However, the strains of S. cerevisiae were clearly more susceptible to freezing damages, indicating that other factors may contribute to the freeze tolerance of these yeasts. PMID:8953712

Almeida, M J; Pais, C

1996-12-01

292

Comparison of conventional and directional freezing for the cryopreservation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells  

Science.gov (United States)

AIM To compare conventional slow equilibrium cooling and directional freezing (DF) by gauze package for cryopreservation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). METHODS HUVECs were randomly assigned to conventional freezing (CF) and DF by gauze package group. The two groups of HUVECs were incubated with a freezing liquid consisting of 10% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), 60% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 30% Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) and then put into cryopreserved tubes. CF group, slow equilibrium cooling was performed with the following program: precool in 4°C for 30min, -20°C for 1h, and then immersion in -80°C refrigerator. DF group, the tubes were packaged with gauze and then directional freezing in -80°C refrigerator straightly. One month later, the vitality of HUVECs were calculated between two groups. RESULTS There was no significant difference in the survival rate and growth curve between CF and DF groups. The DF group was significantly better than CF group in adherent rates, morphological changes and proliferative ability. CONCLUSION In the conventional cryopreserved method, cells are slow equilibrium cooling by steps (4°C, -20°C and finally -80°C), which is a complicated and time-consuming process. But the improved DF by gauze package method is better than conventional method, for which is convenient and easy to operate. PMID:25349790

Qi, Bing; Ji, Qing-Shan; Hou, Guang-Hui; Li, Liu; Cao, Xian-Fen; Wu, Jing

2014-01-01

293

Comparison of conventional and directional freezing for the cryopreservation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM:To compare conventional slow equilibrium cooling and directional freezing (DF by gauze package for cryopreservation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs.METHODS: HUVECs were randomly assigned to conventional freezing (CF and DF by gauze package group. The two groups of HUVECs were incubated with a freezing liquid consisting of 10% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, 60% fetal bovine serum(FBS and 30% Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium(DMEM and then put into cryopreserved tubes. CF group, slow equilibrium cooling was performed with the following program:precool in 4? for 30min, -20? for 1h, and then immersion in -80? refrigerator. DF group, the tubes were packaged with gauze and then directional freezing in -80? refrigerator straightly. One month later, the vitality of HUVECs were calculated between two groups.RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the survival rate and growth curve between CF and DF groups. The DF group was significantly better than CF group in adherent rates, morphological changes and proliferative ability.CONCLUSION:In the conventional cryopreserved method, cells are slow equilibrium cooling by steps (4?, -20? and finally -80?, which is a complicated and time-consuming process. But the improved DF by gauze package method is better than conventional method, for which is convenient and easy to operate.

Bing Qi

2014-10-01

294

A bilateral nuclear-weapon freeze  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In many of the current elections in the U.S. there is a referendum on whether to urge a halt in the production of new nuclear weapons and delivery systems. The nature of such a freeze is discussed here. (orig.)

295

Freeze block testing of buried waste lines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An investigation was conducted to demonstrate application of freeze blocking in waste transfer lines such that a hydrostatic pressure test can be applied. A shop test was conducted on a 20-foot length, 3-inch schedule 40, carbon steel pipe using a coolant of dry ice and Freon. The positive results from these tests prompted a similar employment of the freeze block method in hydrostatic pressure testing the feed inlet leading to 241-S-101 Waste Tank. This pipeline is a 3-inch schedule 10, stainless steel pipe approximately 800 feet long. The freeze block was formed near the lower end of the pipe as it entered the 101-S Waste Tank and a pressure hold test was applied to this pipeline. This test proved the integrity of the pipeline in question, and demonstrated the validity of freeze blocking an open-ended pipeline which could not be hydrotested in other conventional ways. The field demonstration facility, costing $30,200 was completed late in 1975.

Robbins, E.D.; Willi, J.C.

1976-05-20

296

Unitarity Constraints on Asymmetric Freeze-In  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper considers unitarity and CPT constraints on asymmetric freeze-in, the use of freeze-in to store baryon number in a dark sector. In this scenario, Sakharov's out of equilibrium condition is satisfied by placing the visible and hidden sectors at different temperatures while a net visible baryon number is produced by storing negative baryon number in a dark sector. It is shown that unitarity and CPT lead to unexpected cancellations. In particular, the transfer of baryon number cancels completely at leading order. This note has shown that if two sectors are in thermal equilibrium with themselves, but not with each other, then the leading effect transferring conserved quantities between the two sectors is of order the the weak coupling connecting them to the third power. When freeze-in is used to produce a net baryon number density, the leading order effect comes from ?(?3) diagrams where the intermediate state that goes on-shell has a different visible baryon number than the final state visible baryon number. Models in which the correct baryon number is generated with freeze-in as the dominant source of abundance, typically require ? ?> 10-6 and mbath ?> TeV. mbath is the mass of the visible particle which communicates with the hidden sector. The lower window is potentially observable at the LHC.

297

Freeze block testing of buried waste lines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An investigation was conducted to demonstrate application of freeze blocking in waste transfer lines such that a hydrostatic pressure test can be applied. A shop test was conducted on a 20-foot length, 3-inch schedule 40, carbon steel pipe using a coolant of dry ice and Freon. The positive results from these tests prompted a similar employment of the freeze block method in hydrostatic pressure testing the feed inlet leading to 241-S-101 Waste Tank. This pipeline is a 3-inch schedule 10, stainless steel pipe approximately 800 feet long. The freeze block was formed near the lower end of the pipe as it entered the 101-S Waste Tank and a pressure hold test was applied to this pipeline. This test proved the integrity of the pipeline in question, and demonstrated the validity of freeze blocking an open-ended pipeline which could not be hydrotested in other conventional ways. The field demonstration facility, costing $30,200 was completed late in 1975

298

Unitarity Constraints on Asymmetric Freeze-In  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper considers unitarity and CPT constraints on asymmetric freeze-in, the use of freeze-in to store baryon number in a dark sector. In this scenario, Sakharov's out of equilibrium condition is satisfied by placing the visible and hidden sectors at different temperatures while a net visible baryon number is produced by storing negative baryon number in a dark sector. It is shown that unitarity and CPT lead to unexpected cancellations. In particular, the transfer of baryon number cancels completely at leading order. This note has shown that if two sectors are in thermal equilibrium with themselves, but not with each other, then the leading effect transferring conserved quantities between the two sectors is of order the the weak coupling connecting them to the third power. When freeze-in is used to produce a net baryon number density, the leading order effect comes from {Omicron}({lambda}{sup 3}) diagrams where the intermediate state that goes on-shell has a different visible baryon number than the final state visible baryon number. Models in which the correct baryon number is generated with freeze-in as the dominant source of abundance, typically require {lambda} {approx}> 10{sup -6} and m{sub bath} {approx}> TeV. m{sub bath} is the mass of the visible particle which communicates with the hidden sector. The lower window is potentially observable at the LHC.

Hook, Anson; /SLAC

2011-08-15

299

Rock phosphate solubilizing and cellulolytic actinomycete isolates of earthworm casts  

Science.gov (United States)

Four microbial isolates, OP2, OP3, OP6, and OP7, of earthworm casts of Pontoscolex corethrurus were found to be acid tolerant actinomycetes and efficient rock phosphate (RP) solubilizers that could grow fast on NH4Cl-enriched or N-free carboxymethyl cellulose or glucose as sole carbon source. CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose) induced production of extracellular cellulase enzyme and the production of reducing sugar in all the isolates. RP solubilizing power was observed to be inversely related to glucose consumption. The most efficient RP solubilizer was found to consume the least glucose. Growth was faster on cellulose than on glucose media. N-free CMC induced greater glucose production than NH4Cl-enriched CMC medium. Both CMC and glucose media were acidified by all the isolates, however, RP solubilizing power decreased with acidification. Solubilization power was greatest with isolate OP7, which also produced the greatest amount of reducing sugar per gram CMC. Both RP solubilizing power and the cellulolytic efficiency varied among isolates. A minimum of 631 µg P/0.1 g RP and a maximum of 951.4 µg P/0.1 g RP was recorded.

Mba, Caroline C.

1994-03-01

300

Endosulfan degradation by a Rhodococcus strain isolated from earthworm gut.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Rhodococcus MTCC 6716 bacterial strain was isolated apparently for the first time from the gut microflora of an Indian earthworm (Metaphire posthuma). Endosulfan was used as a carbon source by the strain and degraded it up to 92.58% within 15 days. Furthermore, the isolated strain of the bacterium did not produce the persistent form of the toxic metabolite endosulfan sulfate. This strain exhibits luxury growth in minimal medium with high concentrations of endosulfan (80 microg mL(-1)). Degradation of the endosulfan occurred simultaneously with bacterial growth and an increase in chloride ion (87.1%) in the growth medium, suggesting nearly complete degradation of the insecticide. This strain is able to tolerate 45 degrees C and retain its degradation potential even under sunlight exposure. Since endosulfan is used worldwide for pest control and its residues have been retained for long periods in soil, water, and agricultural products, the strain isolated by us is valuable for bioremediation of endosulfan-contaminated soil and water. PMID:16029891

Verma, K; Agrawal, N; Farooq, M; Misra, R B; Hans, R K

2006-07-01

 
 
 
 
301

Earthworm-based miniature robot for intestinal inspection  

Science.gov (United States)

As a part of MIS (Minimally Invasive Surgery), the endoscope plays an important role in the field of diagnosis and treatment. To combine a miniature robot with an endoscope is a new dimension in the field of medical robotics in recent years. Overcoming the shortcomings of the traditional endoscope, robotic endoscope applies new materials and technologies into the design of a endoscope and booms the development of a new type of endoscope. In this paper, an earthworm based electromagnetic robotic endoscope system is introduced whose structure and locomotion mechanism are analyzed. The motion characteristics in time and frequency domain of a single component are also discussed in detail and a modified waveform and a suitable driving frequency are put forward through which an effective movement control can be achieved and the heat generation of the robot reduced. The robot, 7mm in diameter, 64mm in length and 9.8g in weight, is small enough to pass through the neck of intestine easily and flexible enough (gimbal mounts of 2 degree of freedom) to wind through the intestine. Though the running of the robot is good, there are still problems, such as heat generation and locomotion mechanism on the inner intestinal surface, to be solved.

Chi, Dongxiang; Yan, Guozheng

2001-10-01

302

Neurotropic and neuroprotective activities of the earthworm peptide Lumbricusin.  

Science.gov (United States)

We recently isolated a polypeptide from the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris that is structurally similar to defensin, a well-known antibacterial peptide. An 11-mer antibacterial peptide (NH2-RNRRWCIDQQA), designated Lumbricusin, was synthesized based on the amino acid sequence of the isolated polypeptide. Since we previously reported that CopA3, a dung beetle peptide, enhanced neuronal cell proliferation, we here examined whether Lumbricusin exerted neurotropic and/or neuroprotective effects. Lumbricusin treatment induced a time-dependent increase (?51%) in the proliferation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Lumbricusin also significantly inhibited the apoptosis and decreased viability induced by treatment with 6-hydroxy dopamine, a Parkinson's disease-mimicking agent. Immunoblot analyses revealed that Lumbricusin treatment increased ubiquitination of p27(Kip1) protein, a negative regulator of cell-cycle progression, in SH-SY5Y cells, and markedly promoted its degradation. Notably, adenoviral-mediated over-expression of p27(Kip1) significantly blocked the antiapoptotic effect of Lumbricusin in 6-hydroxy dopamine-treated SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggest that promotion of p27(Kip1) degradation may be the main mechanism underlying the neuroprotective and neurotropic effects of Lumbricusin. PMID:24796676

Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Ik Hwan; Nam, Seung Taek; Hong, Ji; Zhang, Peng; Hwang, Jae Sam; Seok, Heon; Choi, Hyemin; Lee, Dong Gun; Kim, Jae Il; Kim, Ho

2014-06-01

303

Fate and uptake of pharmaceuticals in soil-earthworm systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pharmaceuticals present a potential threat to soil organisms, yet our understanding of their fate and uptake in soil systems is limited. This study therefore investigated the fate and uptake of (14)C-labeled carbamazepine, diclofenac, fluoxetine, and orlistat in soil-earthworm systems. Sorption coefficients increased in the order of carbamazepine orlistat. Dissipation of (14)C varied by compound, and for orlistat, there was evidence of formation of nonextractable residues. Uptake of (14)C was seen for all compounds. Depuration studies showed complete elimination of (14)C for carbamazepine and fluoxetine treatments and partial elimination for orlistat and diclofenac, with greater than 30% of the (14)C remaining in the tissue at the end of the experiment. Pore-water-based bioconcentration factors (BCFs), based on uptake and elimination of (14)C, increased in the order carbamazepine orlistat. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-Fourier transform mass spectrometry indicated that the observed uptake in the fluoxetine and carbamazepine treatments was due to the parent compounds but that diclofenac was degraded in the test system so uptake was due to unidentifiable transformation products. Comparison of our data with outputs of quantitative structure-activity relationships for estimating BCFs in worms showed that these models tend to overestimate pharmaceutical BCFs so new models are needed. PMID:24762061

Carter, Laura J; Garman, Catherine D; Ryan, James; Dowle, Adam; Bergström, Ed; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Boxall, Alistair B A

2014-05-20

304

Rupture of Cylindrical Ice Model and Tuna Fish during Freezing  

Science.gov (United States)

The gape and heave produced on the surface of tuna fish during freezing were confirmed by rupture of cylindrical type ice model. The results of experiment were shown as summarized below; 1) in case of restraining the progress of ice formation of model during freezing,any rupture was produced at not only slow freezing but also quick freezing. It was the same as tuna fish; 2) in case of closing surface of ice model covered perfectly by outside shell ice during slow freezing,it was not ruptured at not only ice model but also tuna fish. On the contrary it was cracked at quick freezing not only ice model but also tuna fish; 3) therefore it was confirmed that the rupture of tuna fish during freezing had been easy to produce at quick freezing.

Ogawa, Yutaka; Uno, Mitsuyo

305

7 CFR 58.638 - Freezing the mix.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Freezing the mix. 58.638 Section...Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...638 Freezing the mix. After the...

2010-01-01

306

7 CFR 58.638 - Freezing the mix.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Freezing the mix. 58.638... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards...Inspections, Marketing Practices...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT... Freezing the mix. After...

2010-01-01

307

Preservation of flavor in freeze dried green beans  

Science.gov (United States)

Before freeze drying, green beans are heated to point at which their cell structure is altered. Beans freeze dried with altered cell structure have improved rehydration properties and retain color, flavor, and texture.

Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Davis, D.

1973-01-01

308

ENHANCING SOLUBILITY AND DISSOLUTION OF INDOMETHACIN BY FREEZE DRYING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indomethacin, an anti-inflammatory drug, exhibits poor water solubility and flow properties. Freeze dried crystals were prepared by freeze drying method. Solvent composition for freeze drying chosen were isopropyl 10 ml of alcohol: water (50:50 % mixture. Crystallization medium used for freeze drying of indomethacin consisted of isopropyl alcohol: water in the ratio of 50:50, respectively. Spherical agglomerates were characterized by DSC, IR, XRD AND SEM. Micromeritic, mechanical property, solubility study and dissolution behavior studies were carried out. Dissolution profile of the freeze drying was compared with commercial sample and recrystallized sample. Freeze drying exhibited decreased crystallinity and improved micromeritic properties. The solubility and dissolution of the freeze drying was improved compared with commercial sample. Hence this freeze drying technique can be used for formulation of tablets of indomethacin by direct compression with directly compressible tablet excipients.

Getyala Anil

2011-06-01

309

Effects of formalin on some biomarker activities of earthworms pre-exposed to temephos.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite its negative effects, formalin has been often used for the expulsion of earthworms due to its high efficiency; however it is not known whether it will affect any significant measurable molecular processes in sampled earthworms. The aim of this research was to investigate effects of formalin on the activities of chosen molecular biomarkers in Eisenia andrei earthworms previously exposed to temephos. Additionally, the inhibitory effect of temephos, hitherto evaluated only on laboratory-bred earthworm species, was confirmed on two earthworm species obtained from their natural environment -Dendrobaena octaedra and Lumbricus rubellus. Earthworms were first exposed to the sub-lethal concentration of temephos for 2h and then to formalin 15 min in order to simulate the sampling procedure. Besides acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition - a known biomarker of exposure to organophosphate insecticides - the concentration of oximes and the activities of catalase (CAT) and efflux pump were measured. Results showed that in all species temephos caused inhibition of AChE and CAT activity. Exposure of E. andrei to formalin caused inhibition of AChE, however after post-exposure to formalin for 15 min significant increase in AChE activity was recorded. Similar results were obtained with the measurement of oximes concentrations. Exposure to only formalin and combination of temephos (2h) and formalin (15 min) led to an increase in the CAT activity. The obtained results showed that exposure to formalin during the sampling could affect measured molecular biomarkers and also may change effects caused by exposure to temephos. PMID:23298666

Velki, Mirna; Stepi?, Sandra; Hackenberger, Branimir K

2013-03-01

310

Quantum dots exhibit less bioaccumulation than free cadmium and selenium in the earthworm Eisenia andrei.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study addresses the bioaccumulation behavior of cadmium selenide quantum dots by Eisenia andrei earthworms in a terrestrial environment. Earthworms were exposed to quantum dot-treated soil for up to 4 wk and analyzed for cadmium and selenium concentration using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results were compared with those from earthworms exposed to cadmium nitrate and selenious acid, as positive controls, and those exposed in untreated soil (negative control). Earthworms exposed to quantum dots showed significant bioaccumulation of cadmium and selenium (5.3- and 1.5-fold higher concentration over negative controls, respectively) after 4 wk. Over the same 4 wk, positive control earthworms accumulated 9.2- and 2.2-fold higher cadmium and selenium, respectively, than negative controls for a much more substantial final body burden of the 2 elements. The concentrations also increased with exposure time; cadmium concentrations increased from 3600?±?310?ng/g to 8080?±?660?ng/g, from 1 to 4 wk, suggesting that further bioaccumulation may take place with even longer exposure time. The molar ratio of cadmium to selenium in the quantum dot-exposed worms (6.2) is closer to the ratios seen in positive control worms (7.2) than to the pure quantum dots (1.8), which implies that quantum dots are taken up predominantly in the degraded form. The results suggest that chemical modification of quantum dots to protect them from environmental degradation could potentially reduce bioaccumulation of the nanoparticles by earthworms. PMID:23417745

Stewart, David T R; Noguera-Oviedo, Katia; Lee, Vincent; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Watson, David F; Aga, Diana S

2013-06-01

311

The equilibrated state of freezing as a basis for distinguishing lethal stresses of freezing in plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Latent heat in degrees of freedom is unavailable energy of ice versus liquid water. ? The decrease in latent heat from cooling below 275 K is balanced by adhesion. ? Fluid mechanics characterizes change in the viscous properties of interfacial water. ? Net free energy of freezing generates histologically disruptive force. - Abstract: A model for coordination of stresses that limit winterhardiness in plants based on the thermodynamic equilibrated state of freezing and melting provides a rational basis for distinction of freeze-induced energies which can stress and injure living organisms in various ways. The departure from equilibrium, other than the energy required for maintenance of the steady state, is the free energy of freeze stress when defined by forces that interfere with essential function or disrupt essential structure in plant tissue.

312

Automated Assessment of Pavlovian Conditioned Freezing and Shock Reactivity in Mice Using the Video Freeze System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Pavlovian conditioned freezing paradigm has become a prominent mouse and rat model of learning and memory, as well as of pathological fear. Due to its efficiency, reproducibility and well-defined neurobiology, the paradigm has become widely adopted in large-scale genetic and pharmacological screens. However, one major shortcoming of the use of freezing behavior has been that it has required the use of tedious hand scoring, or a variety of proprietary automated methods that are often poorl...

Anagnostaras, Stephan G.; Wood, Suzanne C.; Shuman, Tristan; Cai, Denise J.; Leduc, Arthur D.; Zurn, Karl R.; Zurn, J. Brooks; Sage, Jennifer R.; Herrera, Gerald M.

2010-01-01

313

Tandem High-pressure Freezing and Quick Freeze Substitution of Plant Tissues for Transmission Electron Microscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the 1940s transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been providing biologists with ultra-high resolution images of biological materials. Yet, because of laborious and time-consuming protocols that also demand experience in preparation of artifact-free samples, TEM is not considered a user-friendly technique. Traditional sample preparation for TEM used chemical fixatives to preserve cellular structures. High-pressure freezing is the cryofixation of biological samples under high pressures to produce very fast cooling rates, thereby restricting ice formation, which is detrimental to the integrity of cellular ultrastructure. High-pressure freezing and freeze substitution are currently the methods of choice for producing the highest quality morphology in resin sections for TEM. These methods minimize the artifacts normally associated with conventional processing for TEM of thin sections. After cryofixation the frozen water in the sample is replaced with liquid organic solvent at low temperatures, a process called freeze substitution. Freeze substitution is typically carried out over several days in dedicated, costly equipment. A recent innovation allows the process to be completed in three hours, instead of the usual two days. This is typically followed by several more days of sample preparation that includes infiltration and embedding in epoxy resins before sectioning. Here we present a protocol combining high-pressure freezing and quick freeze substitution that enables plant sample fixation to be accomplished within hours. The protocol can readily be adapted for working with other tissues or organisms. Plant tissues are of special concern because of the presence of aerated spaces and water-filled vacuoles that impede ice-free freezing of water. In addition, the process of chemical fixation is especially long in plants due to cell walls impeding the penetration of the chemicals to deep within the tissues. Plant tissues are therefore particularly challenging, but this protocol is reliable and produces samples of the highest quality. PMID:25350384

Bobik, Krzysztof; Dunlap, John R; Burch-Smith, Tessa M

2014-01-01

314

Potentiation effect of metolachlor on toxicity of organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides in earthworm Eisenia andrei.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acetylcholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase activities were determined in earthworms Eisenia andrei exposed to insecticides (endosulfan, temephos, malathion, pirimiphos-methyl) alone and in a binary combination with the herbicide metolachlor. Metolachlor individually was not acutely toxic, even at high concentrations applied; however, in the treated earthworms metolachlor enhanced the toxicity of endosulfan and temephos by significantly reducing the acetylcholinesterase activity. In binary combination with malathion and pirimiphos-methyl, metolachlor did not increase toxicity. The potentiation character of metolachlor is specific rather than general, and probably depends on the chemical structure of pesticides in the mixture. PMID:23666323

Stepi?, Sandra; Hackenberger, Branimir K; Velki, Mirna; Hackenberger, Davorka K; Lon?ari?, Zeljka

2013-07-01

315

Inhibitory of Encapsulated Earthworm Extract (Lumbricus rubellus on Pathogenic Bacteria in Vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the inhibitory of earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus extract (ECT and encapsulated earthworm extract (ECT-t as poultry feed additive against some pathogenic bacteria. Earthwom extract was prepared by dekokta method with water at 90 ºC then encapsulated by spray drying with maltodextrin as filler. In vitro antibacterial activity was performed using dilution method against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella pullorum, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The optical density results showed that started from ECT level 0.26% inhibited (P0.05 of ECT and ECT-t against S. pullorum.

L. Istiqomah

2012-04-01

316

Metal accumulation in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Model predictions compared to field data  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanistic bioaccumulation model OMEGA (Optimal Modeling for Ecotoxicological Applications) is used to estimate accumulation of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Our validation to field accumulation data shows that the model accurately predicts internal cadmium concentrations. In addition, our results show that internal metal concentrations in the earthworm are less than linearly (slope metals are generally within a factor 5 compared to field data, incorporation of regulation in the model is necessary to improve predictability of the essential metals such as zinc and copper. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Veltman, K.; Huijbregts, M. A. J.; Vijver, M. G.; Peijnenburg, W. J. G. M.; Hobbelen, P. H. F.; Koolhaas, J. E.; van, Gestel, C. A. M.; van, Vliet, P. C. J.; Jan, Hendriks, A.

2007-01-01

317

The tolerance of the field slug Deroceras reticulatum to freezing temperatures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cold hardiness of ectotherms has been widely studied in arthropods, but there is a more limited literature on the survival of molluscs at low temperatures. A number of intertidal species have been examined in detail, but terrestrial molluscs have largely been overlooked until recently. This paper reports results of laboratory experiments to evaluate the cold hardiness of the terrestrial slug, Deroceras reticulatum. The mean supercooling point (SCP) rose from -4.2 degree C in summer to -3.6 degree C in winter. The SCP that caused 50 percent mortality (LSCP50) remained constant at -4.7 to -4.8 degree C in both seasons, but slugs were able to survive the frozen state for longer in winter (LD50 of 31.8 minutes compared with 17.0 minutes in summer). Slug survival at freezing temperatures was prolonged to at least five hours when placed on a moist, absorbent substrate. D. reticulatum exhibits partial freeze tolerance, with an increased survival in winter. The results are discussed in relation to the natural environment of slugs. PMID:15216383

Cook, R T

2004-01-01

318

Lysosomal response of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) coelomocytes to the fungicide copper oxychloride and relation to life-cycle parameters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Juvenile specimens of the earthworm species Eisenia fetida Savigny, 1826, were exposed in the laboratory to a range of concentrations of the fungicide copper oxychloride. After an eight-week exposure period, the neutral-red retention (NRR) times were measured in the coelomocytes of all the worms that had matured. Life-cycle traits (survival, biomass change, cocoon production, cocoon mass, hatching of cocoons, number of hatchlings) were also monitored. Dose-related effects on NRR times, maturation, growth, and reproduction parameters were determined (one-way analysis of variance, p copper (Cu) measured for the NRR time was 8.9 mg/kg (dry wt). Growth was severely affected at the highest exposure concentration (330 mg/kg substrate dry wt), at which no worms matured and no NRR times could be measured. Negative linear correlations (p < 0.05) were apparent between the NRR times and substrate and body Cu concentrations. Positive linear relationships were found between the NRR times and some life-cycle parameters (p < 0.05). This study showed that the NRR assay can indicate toxic stress due to Cu exposure at an early stage, and that NRR times can be linked to effects on certain life-cycle traits. PMID:12013124

Reinecke, Sophiè A; Helling, Beate; Reinecke, Adriaan J

2002-05-01

319

Effectivity of the Earthworms Pheretima hupiensis, Eudrellus sp. and Lumbricus sp. on the Organic Matter Decomposition Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The earthworms are the one of soil fauna component in soil ecosystem have an important role in organic matter decomposition procces. The earthworm feed plant leaf and plant matter up to apart and dissolved. Earthworm metabolisms produce like faeces that mixed with decomposed organic matter mean vermicompost. The vermicompost fertility varies because of some kind of earthworm differ in “niche” and attitude. The experiment was to study the effectivity of earthworm on organic matter decomposition which has been conducted in Soil Biological and Healthy Laboratory and Green House of Soil Research Institute Bogor, during 2006 Budget Year. The three kind of earthworms i.e Pheretima hupiensis, Lumbricus sp. and Eudrellus sp. combined with three kind of organic matter sources i.e rice straw, trash and palm oil plant waste (compost heap. The result shows that the Lumbricus sp. are the most effective decomposer compared to Pheretima hupiensis and Eudrellus sp. and the organic matter decomposed by Lumbricus sp. as followed: market waste was decomposed of 100%, palm oil empty fruit bunch (compost heap 95.8 % and rice straw 84.9%, respectively. Earthworm effectively decreased Fe, Al, Mn, Cu dan Zn.

Ea Kosman Anwar

2009-05-01

320

Radiocesium concentrations in epigeic earthworms at various distances from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant 6 months after the 2011 accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigated the concentrations of radiocesium in epigeic earthworms, litter, and soil samples collected from forests in Fukushima Prefecture 6 months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011. Radiocesium concentrations in litter accumulated on the forest floor were higher than those in the soil (0–5 cm depth). The highest average 134+137Cs concentrations in earthworms (approximately 19 Bq g?1 of wet weight with gut contents and 108 Bq g?1 of dry weight without gut contents) were recorded from a plot that experienced an air dose rate of 3.1 ?Sv h?1, and earthworm concentrations were found to increase with litter and/or soil concentrations. Average 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations (with or without gut contents) were intermediate between accumulated litter and soil. Different species in the same ecological groups on the same plots had similar concentrations because of their use of the same habitats or their similar physiological characteristics. The contribution of global fallout 137Cs to earthworms with gut contents was calculated to be very low, and most 137Cs in earthworms was derived from the Fukushima accident. Transfer factors from accumulated litter to earthworms, based on their dry weights, ranged from 0.21 to 0.35, in agreement with previous field studies. -- Highlights: • Radiocesium concentrations in earthworms were intermediate between litter and soil. • Three earthworm species in epigeic groups had similar radiocesium concentrations. • Transfer factors from accumulated litter to earthworms ranged from 0.21 to 0.35

 
 
 
 
321

Determining the bioavailability and toxicity of lead contamination to earthworms requires using a combination of physicochemical and biological methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aimed at assessing the bioavailability and toxicity of lead to Eisenia andrei in shooting range soils representing different land uses (forest, grassland, bullet plot). Soils contained 47–2398 mg Pb/kg dry weight (dw), but also had different pH-CaCl2 (3.2–6.8) and organic matter contents (3.8–13%). Therefore artificial soils with different pH and organic matter contents and two natural soils were included as control soils. Earthworms were exposed for 28 days and toxicity and uptake of Pb were related to total, water and 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable and porewater Pb concentrations as well as to soil characteristics. Pb uptake in the earthworms linearly increased with increasing soil concentrations. At >2000 mg Pb/kg dw and pH 3.3–3.5, high earthworm mortality with significant weight loss and complete inhibition of reproduction were recorded. At <1000 mg/kg dw, earthworm reproduction was more related to differences in pH and other soil characteristics than to Pb. -- Highlights: • Availability and earthworm toxicity of Pb determined in field-contaminated soils. • Earthworm toxicity of most-polluted soils explained from available Pb levels. • Earthworm response in less polluted soils mainly determined by soil pH. • Earthworm toxicity correlated with Pb uptake from the soil. • Soil properties explained differences in earthworm Pb uptake and effects. -- Combination of physicochemical and biological assays helped explaining Pb toxicity in shooting range soils from available Pb concentrations and soil characteristics

322

Biotic interactions modify the transfer of cesium-137 in a soil-earthworm-plant-snail food web.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigated the possible influence of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata on the transfer of cesium-137 ((137)Cs) from a contaminated (130 Bq/kg) deciduous forest soil to the lettuce Lactuca sativa and to the snail Cantareus aspersus (formerly Helix aspersa) in two laboratory experiments. In the first experiment, the International Organization for Standardization 15952 test was used to expose snails for five weeks to contaminated soil with or without earthworms. In these conditions, the presence of earthworms caused a two- to threefold increase in (137)Cs concentrations in snails. Transfer was low in earthworms as well as in snails, with transfer factors (TFs) lower than 3.7 x 10(-2). Activity concentrations were higher in earthworms (2.8- 4.8 Bq/kg dry mass) than in snails (snails. Results suggest that the contribution of lettuce and soil is 80 and 20%, respectively. Microcosms also were used to study the influence of earthworms on (137)Cs accumulation in snail tissues in the most ecologically relevant treatment (soil-earthworm-plant-snail food web). In this case, soil-to-plant transfer was high, with a TF of 0.8, and was not significantly modified by earthworms. Conversely, soil-to-snail transfer was lower (TF, approximately 0.1) but was significantly increased in presence of earthworms. Dose rates were determined in the microcosm study with the EDEN (elementary dose evaluation for natural environment) model. Dose rates were lower than 5.5 x 10(-4) mGy/d, far from values considered to have effects on terrestrial organisms (1 mGy/d). PMID:18266477

Fritsch, Clémentine; Scheifler, Renaud; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Hubert, Philippe; Coeurdassier, Michaël; de Vaufleury, Annette; Badot, Pierre-Marie

2008-08-01

323

Effect of radiation and freezing on [3H]DNA of Yersinia enterocolitica  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Freezing of the enteropathogenic bacterium Yersinia enterocolitica to -18 and -750C caused 7 and 42% cell death, respectively, and 0.329 and 0.588 single-strand breaks per 108 daltons of DNA, respectively, while radiation to one D10 dose (10% cell survival) combined with freezing to 2 to 0, -18 and -750C induces 0.05, 0.75, and 5.04 single-strand breaks, respectively. The increase in the effectiveness of radiation with respect to the yield of single-strand breaks at -18 to -750C is contrary to expectation and seems to be due to arrest of repair of single-strand breaks by these low temperatures. 27 references

324

Comparing effects of freezing at -196 ºC and -20 ºC on the viability of mastitis pathogens  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cryopreservation at approximately -196 ºC in liquid nitrogen (N) and freezing at approximately -20 ºC in a freezer, on the viability and survival of eight different mastitogenic bacteria inoculated in milk. Bacteria were frozen at approximately -20 [...] ºC in a freezer and cryopreserved at approximately -196 ºC in liquid nitrogen. An effective preservation method was needed for follow-up samples from cows identified in the South African National Milk Recording Scheme (NMRS) with somatic cell counts above 250 000 cells/mL milk. The organisation responsible for sample collection of the NMRS milk samples also provides producers with liquid nitrogen for their semen flasks at the collection sites. This existing mode of storage and transport could therefore be utilised. Ten samples of each organism were thawed and cultured bi-weekly until week 18 for both temperature treatments. An additional sampling was performed at week 30 for samples frozen at approximately -20 ºC. Freezing and cryopreservation did not impair subsequent isolation of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus (STH) (phage type lytic group III) or Sta. aureus (STA) (phage typed, other than lytic group III). Survival was indicated by the isolation of bacteria from samples, and viability by the strength of growth of the bacteria isolated. The survival of Streptococcus agalactiae decreased after week 12 and Escherichia coli after week 16 of freezing, but both organisms survived under cryogenic preservation until week 18. Coagulase-negative staphylococci survived until week 18 for both freezing and cryogenic preservation. Both storage methods could thus contribute to the improvement of a pro-active approach towards udder health management in South African dairy herds.

Inge-Marie, Petzer; Joanne, Karzis; Theodorus J., van der Schans; Johanna C., Watermeyer; Norman, Mitchell-Innes; Stephanie, Eloff; Geoffrey T., Fosgate.

325

Comparative studies on tolerance of Medicago truncatula and Medicago falcata to freezing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicago falcata is a legume species that exhibits great capacity of tolerance to abiotic stresses. To elucidate the mechanism underlying tolerance of M. falcata to freezing, we compared the characteristics of M. falcata in response to cold acclimation and freezing with those of the legume model plant Medicago truncatula. M. falcata seedlings were more tolerant to freezing than M. truncatula, as evidenced by a lower value of EL(50) (temperature at which 50% electrolyte leakage after freezing) and greater survival rate for M. falcata than M. truncatula. Cold acclimation led to greater reduction in EL(50) for M. falcata than M. truncatula. Sucrose was the most abundant sugar in both M. falcta and M. truncatula, and a greater accumulation of sucrose and Pro in M. falcata than in M. truncatula during cold acclimation was observed. Cold acclimation induced small amounts of raffinose and stachyose in M. falcata, but not in M. truncatula. The activities of sucrose phosphate synthase and sucrose synthase were greater in M. falcata than in M. truncatula. In contrast, the activity of acid invertase was higher in M. truncatula than in M. falcata. There was an increase in transcript of CRT binding factor (CBF) upon exposure to low temperature in the two species. The low temperature-induced increase in transcript of CBF2 was much higher in M. truncatula than in M. falcata, while transcript of CBF3 in M. falcata was greater than that in M. truncatula. There were sustained increases in transcripts of cold acclimation specific (CAS), a downstream target of CBF, during cold acclimation and the increases were greater in M. falcata than in M. truncatula. These results demonstrate that accumulation of greater amounts of soluble sugars coupled with higher CBF3 and CAS transcript levels in M. falcata may play a role in conferring greater tolerance of M. falcata to freezing than that of M. truncatula. PMID:21523386

Zhang, Li-Li; Zhao, Min-Gui; Tian, Qiu-Ying; Zhang, Wen-Hao

2011-09-01

326

Viability and nematophagous activity of the freeze-dried fungus Arthrobotrys robusta against Ancylostoma spp. infective larvae in dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Viability and in vitro and in vivo activities of freeze-dried conidia of the predatory fungus Arthrobotrys robusta (I-31) were evaluated against infective larvae (L(3)) of Ancylostoma spp. in dogs. A. robusta conidia were lyophilized and stored at 4°C for a month. Freeze-dried conidia were diluted to 1×10(3)conidia/ml and tested in vivo. The treated group consisted of a solution containing conidia (1ml) and 1000 Ancylostoma spp. (L(3)) placed on Petri dishes plated with 2% water-agar (2% WA), at 25°C, in the dark for 10 days. The control group consisted of 1000 Ancylostoma spp. L(3), plated on 2% WA. After 10 days, Ancylostoma spp. L(3) from both the treated and the control groups were recovered and counted. The in vivo test was performed on two dogs by administering a single oral dose of freeze-dried conidia (1.5×10(5)) in aqueous solution to one animal and only water to the other. Fecal samples were collected at 12, 24 and 48h after the treatments, plated 2% WA plates and incubated at 25°C for 15 days. A thousand Ancylostoma spp. L(3) larvae were spread on these plates. At day 15, infective L(3) recovered from the treated and control groups were counted. In the in vitro test, A. robusta was able to survive the freeze-drying process, grow in the plates, form traps and capture Ancylostoma spp. L(3). There was a 75.38% decrease in the number of infective larvae recovered from the treated group. The in vivo test showed that freeze-dried A. robusta conidia survived the passage through the gastrointestinal tract of the treated dog, was able to grow in the plates and capture Ancylostoma spp. L(3), reducing the number of recovered L(3) (p<0.01). Freeze-drying can be an alternative method for conservation of conidia of nematophagous fungi. PMID:21111535

Carvalho, Rogério Oliva; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Araújo, Jackson Victor

2011-03-10

327

Effects of non-native earthworms on on below- and aboveground processes in the Mid-Atlantic region  

Science.gov (United States)

Many biotic and abiotic disturbances have shaped the structure of the deciduous forests in the Mid-Atlantic region. One major anthropogenic factor is land use history. Agricultural practices in the past undoubtedly facilitated non-native earthworm colonization and establishment. Today most secondary forests are dominated by European lumbricid earthworms, although native species also occur in some habitats. To investigate how earthworm community composition and abundance affect belowground processes and tree seedling growth we set up a field manipulation experiment at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, MD. A total of 66 experimental plots were set up in successional (70 yrs) and mature (150 yrs) Tulip-poplar-Oak associations. We manipulated earthworm abundance and leaf litter input, and planted seedlings of Tulip poplar, Red maple, Red oak, and American beech. The experiment lasted for two years during which we regularly monitored density, biomass and species composition of earthworm assemblages and measured soil respiration. Soil moisture, temperature and air temperature were also continuously monitored using a wireless sensor network. At harvest, soil bulk density, pH, N pools, C:N ratio, potential N-mineralization rates, and enzyme activity were determined. We used quantitative PCR to assess the community composition of soil fungi. We also determined the extent of mycorrhizal colonization and biomass of roots, shoots and leaves. We conducted likelihood ratio tests for random and fixed effects based on mixed model analyses of variance. Differences between soil depths and among sites and plots accounted for a large portion of the variation in many soil properties. Litter quality affected soil pH and N mineralization. Earthworm densities affected bulk density, inorganic N content, and N mineralization. Both mycorrhizal groups were more abundant in mature than in successional forests. Both ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and arbuscular (AM) fungi were less abundant in the earthworm removal plots. There was a significant positive earthworm effect on the rate and thermal sensitivity of soil respiration. Soil respiration was consistently higher in plots with tulip poplar litter than those with beech litter, indicating a strong influence of plant residue quality. However, the differences were smaller in the second year than in the first one indicating an adaptation of the soil system. Oak and beech seedlings were smaller in high density earthworm plots, while the reverse was true for maple and tulip poplar seedlings. Non-native earthworms affect below- and aboveground processes, however, these effects depend on forest type and land use history. The earthworm effects also appear to be dynamic, as witnessed by a recent invasion of an Asian earthworm species in one of our forest stands.

Szlavecz, K. A.; McCormick, M. K.; Xia, L.; Pitz, S.; O'Neill, J.; Bernard, M.; Chang, C.; Whigham, D. F.

2011-12-01

328

Elemental and mineralogical changes in soils due to bioturbation along an earthworm invasion chronosequence in Northern Minnesota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ion of most mineral species within A horizons. Though the mechanisms are not clear yet, earthworm invasion appears to have contributed to net losses of clay mineral species and opal from the A horizons. As much as earthworms vertically relocated minerals and elements, they also intensify the contacts between organic matter and cations as shown in the increased amount of Ca and Fe in organically complexed and in exchangeable pools. With future studies on soil mixing rates and elemental leaching, this study will quantitatively and mechanically address the role of earthworms in geochemical evolution of soils and forests' nutrient dynamics.

329

Chiral condensate and chemical freeze-out  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We consider a chemical freeze-out mechanism which is based on a strong medium dependence of the rates for inelastic flavor-equilibrating collisions based on the delocalization of hadronic wave functions and growing hadronic radii when approaching the chiral restoration. We investigate the role of mesonic (pion) and baryonic (nucleon) fluctuations for melting the chiral condensate in the phase diagram in the (T,?)-plane. We apply the PNJL model beyond mean field and present an effective generalization of the chiral perturbation theory result which accounts for the medium dependence of the pion decay constant while preserving the GMOR relation. We demonstrate within a schematic resonance gas model consisting of a variable number of pionic and nucleonic degrees of freedom that within the above model a quantitative explanation of the hadronic freeze-out curve and its phenomenological conditions can be given

330

Surface freezing in chain molecules: Normal alkanes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A rare surface freezing phenomenon is observed in molten normal alkanes, using x-ray and surface tension measurements. An ordered monolayer forms on the surface of the liquid alkane at temperatures up to 3 degree C above the bulk freezing temperature Tf. The structure of the monolayer was studied in detail for a wide range of molecular lengths and temperatures. The single layer formed persists down to Tf. The rare surface phase exists only for carbon numbers of 16?n?50. The molecules in the layer are hexagonally packed and show three distinct ordered phases: two rotator phases, with molecules oriented vertically (16?n?30) and tilted towards nearest neighbors (30< n<44) and one crystalline phase with molecules tilted towards next-nearest neighbors (n?44). The temperature dependence of the surface tension and the range of existence vs carbon number are satisfactorily accounted for within a simple theory based on surface energy considerations. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

331

[Non-freezing cold injury in soldiers].  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-freezing cold injury (NFCI) is an injury of the hands or feet resulting from exposure to wet conditions and temperatures just above freezing, typically found in soldiers. NFCI is due to microvascular endothelial damage, stasis and vascular occlusion. At first, the tissue is cold and anesthetic, progressing to hyperemia in 24-48 hours. Hyperemia is accompanied by an intense painful burning sensation as well as blisters, redness, and possibly, ulcerations. NFCI management raises frustration in both medical officers and commanders. Most authorities are not aware of or remain unimpressed with the severity of NFCI, nor do they realize that it produces lifelong symptomatology. The following review of the available literature attempts to clear up some issues regarding the definition, pathogenesis, symptoms and preventative measures available in NFCI, including our own experience. PMID:12534203

Melamed, E; Glassberg, E

2002-12-01

332

Freezing of water droplets colliding with kaolinite particles  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Contact freezing of single supercooled water droplets colliding with kaolinite dust particles has been investigated. The experiments were performed with droplets levitated in an electrodynamic balance at temperatures from 240 to 268 K. Under dry conditions freezing 5 was observed to occur below 249 K, while a freezing threshold of 267 K was observed at high relative humidity. The effect of relative humidity is attributed to an influence on the contact freezing process for the kaolinite-water droplet system, and it is not related to the lifetime of the droplets in the electrodynamic balance. Freezing probabilities per collision were derived assuming that collisions at the lowest temper10 ature employed had a probability of unity. The data recorded at high humidity should be most relevant to atmospheric conditions, and the results indicate that parameterizations currently used in modelling studies to describe freezing rates are appropriate for kaolinite aerosol particles. Mechanisms for contact freezing are briefly discussed.

Svensson, Erik Anders; Delval, Christophe Eric Ludovic

2009-01-01

333

Freezing of water droplets colliding with kaolinite particles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contact freezing of single supercooled water droplets colliding with kaolinite dust particles has been investigated. The experiments were performed with droplets levitated in an electrodynamic balance at temperatures from 240 to 268 K. Under dry conditions freezing was observed to occur below 249 K, while a freezing threshold of 267 K was observed at high relative humidity. The effect of relative humidity is attributed to an influence on the contact freezing process for the kaolinite-water droplet system, and it is not related to the lifetime of the droplets in the electrodynamic balance. Freezing probabilities per collision were derived assuming that collisions at the lowest temperature employed had a probability of unity. The data recorded at high humidity should be most relevant to atmospheric conditions, and the results indicate that parameterizations currently used in modelling studies to describe freezing rates are appropriate for kaolinite aerosol particles. Mechanisms for contact freezing are briefly discussed.

E. A. Svensson

2009-01-01

334

Hot water can freeze faster than cold?!?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We review the Mpemba effect, where intially hot water freezes faster than initially cold water. While the effect appears impossible at first sight, it has been seen in numerous experiments, was reported on by Aristotle, Francis Bacon, and Descartes, and has been well-known as folklore around the world. It has a rich and fascinating history, which culminates in the dramatic story of the secondary school student, Erasto Mpemba, who reintroduced the effect to the twentieth cent...

Jeng, Monwhea

2005-01-01

335

Hadron Freeze-Out and Unruh Radiation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider hadron production in high energy collisions as an Unruh radiation phenomenon. This mechanism describes the production pattern of newly formed hadrons and is directly applicable at vanishing baryochemical potential, mu = 0. It had already been found to correctly yield the hadronisation temperature, T_h = sqrt(sigma / 2 pi) = 165 MeV in terms of the string tension sigma. Here we show that the Unruh mechanism also predicts hadronic freeze-out conditions, giving s/T_...

Castorina, Paolo; Iorio, Alfredo; Satz, Helmut

2014-01-01

336

Introduction: plant cold acclimation and freezing tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

This introductory chapter provides a brief overview of plant freezing tolerance and cold acclimation and describes the basic concepts and approaches that are currently followed to investigate these phenomena. We highlight the multidisciplinary nature of these investigations and the necessity to use methodologies from different branches of science, such as ecology, genetics, physiology, biochemistry, and biophysics, to come to a complete understanding of the complex adaptive mechanisms underlying plant cold acclimation. PMID:24852623

Hincha, Dirk K; Zuther, Ellen

2014-01-01

337

Freezing and melting of vortex ice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report on the realization of artificial ice using superconducting vortices in geometrically frustrated pinning arrays. This vortex ice shows two unique properties among artificial ice systems. The first comes from the possibility to switch the array geometric frustration on/off through temperature variations, which allows "freezing" and "melting" the vortex ice. The second is that the depinning and dynamics of the frozen vortex ice are insensitive to annealing, which impl...

Trastoy, J.; Malnou, M.; Ulysse, C.; Bernard, R.; Bergeal, N.; Faini, G.; Lesueur, J.; Briatico, J.; Villegas, Javier E.

2013-01-01

338

Freezing and melting water in lamellar structures.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The manner in which ice forms in lamellar suspensions of dielaidoylphosphatidylethanolamine, dielaidoylphosphatidylcholine, and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine in water depends strongly on the water fraction. For weight fractions between 15 and 9%, the freezing and melting temperatures are significantly depressed below 0 degree C. The ice exhibits a continuous melting transition spanning as much as 20 degrees C. When the water weight fraction is below 9%, ice never forms at temperatures as low as...

Gleeson, J. T.; Erramilli, S.; Gruner, S. M.

1994-01-01

339

Vogel-Fulcher freezing in relaxor ferroelectrics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A physical mechanism for the freezing of polar nanoregions (PNRs) in relaxor ferroelectrics is presented. Assuming that the activation energy for the reorientation of a cluster of PNRs scales with the mean volume of the cluster, the characteristic relaxation time ? is found to diverge as the cluster volume reaches the percolation limit. Applying the mean field theory of continuum percolation, the familiar Vogel-Fulcher equation for the temperature dependence of ? is derived

340

SOME STUDIES ON FREEZE - DRIED ARTERIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available (1 The secondary stage of freeze - drying, particularly the last day, is not important and I suggest the whole procedure is reduced to three days, the primary stage occupying two of these. (2 The mothod used obtains the satisfactory low level of residual moisture. RESUME (3 Experiments on reconstitution with saline and distilled water show that distilled water is more satisfactory and I suggest that saline should not he used.

H. Sadeghi - Nejad

1970-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Cryopreservation of human failed-matured oocytes followed by in vitro maturation: vitrification is superior to the slow freezing method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Oocyte cryopreservation is an important method used in a number of human fertility circumstances. Here, we compared the survival, in vitro maturation, fertilization, and early embryonic development rates of frozen-thawed human immature oocytes using two different cryopreservation methods. Methods A total of 454 failed-matured oocytes [germinal vesicle (GV and metaphase I (MI stages] were collected from 135 patients (mean age 33.84 +/- 5.0 y who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles between February 2009 and December 2009 and randomly divided into a slow freezing group [1.5 mol/L-1, 2-propanediol (PROH + 0.2 mol/l sucrose] and vitrification group [20% PROH + 20% ethylene glycol (EG + 0.5 mol/l sucrose]. Results The vitrification protocol yielded a better survival rate than the slow freezing protocol at each maturation stage assessed. Regardless of the maturation stage (GV + MI, the slow freezing protocol had a significantly lower survival rate than the vitrification protocol (p in vitro maturation (21.2 vs. 54.0%, respectively; p 0.05. For the GV-matured oocytes, no fertilized eggs were obtained in the slow-freezing group, while a 19.0% (4/21 fertilization rate was observed in the vitrification group. For the MI-matured oocytes, fertilization rates for the slow freezing and vitrified groups were 36% and 61.1%, respectively, but no significant difference was found between the two groups (PIn the Methods section in the MS, all procedures were compliant with ethical guidelines, i.e. approved by the Ethical Committee of our university and Informed Consent signed by each patient. > 0.05. In the GV vitrification group, no embryo formed; however, in the MI slow freezing group, 12 oocytes were fertilized, but only two achieved cleavage and were subsequently blocked at the 2-cell stage. In the MI vitrification group, a total of 22 embryos were obtained, five of which developed to the blastocyst stage. Conclusions Vitrification is superior to the slow freezing method in terms of the survival and developmental rates for the cryopreservation of human failed-matured oocytes. In addition, GV oocytes appeared to be more resistant than MI oocytes to the low temperature and cryoprotectant used during cryopreservation.

Zhang ZhiGuo

2011-12-01

342

Characterization of the organic fraction of earthworm humus and composts taken place starting from different substrates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to evaluate the quality and the humification degree of different composted materials, the organic fraction of earthworm humus obtained from kitchen and farm residues, coffee pulp, biodegradable garbage and roses residues and of composts from roses and carnation residues were characterized chemically. Thus, determination and analysis of the C/N ratio, as well as the fractionation of the organic matter and the purification and characterization of the humic acids by C, H, N, 0 elemental analysis, UV-VIS spectroscopy were done and different humification parameters were found. The fractionation of the organic matter showed a low content of extracted carbon with respect to the normal content found in the soil humus. The elemental analysis data of the humic acids from the composts and the earthworm humus did not reveal important differences between these materials, while the E4/E6 ratio provided more evident changes. The results showed that the C/N ratio is not an absolute indicative of the Maturity State of the studied materials. The best parameters to estimate the maturity degree of the composts and the earthworm humus turned out to be the polymerization ratio, the humification index and the extracted carbon/non extracted carbon ratio. Among the evaluated materials, the earthworm of roses residues showed the best conditions with respect to content and quality of the organic matter to be added to a soil

343

Does glyphosate impact on Cu uptake by, and toxicity to, the earthworm Eisenia fetida?  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate (GPS) is a wildly-used pesticide throughout the world. It affects metal behaviors in soil-water system as its functional groups such as amine, carboxylate and phosphonate can react with metal ions to form metal complexes. The reaction will result in the decreasing of heavy metal bioavailability. A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the interactions between GPS and copper (Cu) on the acute toxicity of soil invertebrate earthworm (Eisenia fetida), which was exposed to aqueous solutions for 48 h with different mixing concentrations of Cu and GPS (technical-grade Gly acid). The mortality rates, Cu uptake by earthworm, and some biomarkers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH) content, and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity were measured. The mortality rates and whole-worm metal burdens increased significantly with the increasing Cu concentration in solution. However, toxicity of GPS to earthworms was not observed in this study. Furthermore, the presence of GPS could significantly reduce the acute toxicity of Cu to earthworms. The mortality rates decreased sharply and the uptake of Cu was nearly halted in the presence of GPS. In addition, the SOD activity, GSH content, and AchE activity almost declined to the levels of the control. These results demonstrate that GPS could control the toxicity as well as the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil solutions where both GPS and heavy metals often coexist. PMID:22975893

Zhou, Chui-Fan; Wang, Yu-Jun; Yu, Yuan-Chun; Sun, Rui-Juan; Zhu, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Zhou, Dong-Mei

2012-11-01

344

SUBLETHAL NEUROTOXIC EFFECTS OF THE FUNGICIDE BENOMYL ON EARTHWORMS ('EISENIA FETIDA')  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were treated by surface contact exposure for four days with the fungicide benomyl. Non-invasive electrophysiological recordings after treatment with sublethal concentrations of 0.2-25 mg benomyl/litre of water indicated concentration-dependent decrease...

345

TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF THE FUNGICIDE BENOMYL ON POSTERIOR SEGMENTAL REGENERATION IN THE EARTHWORM, 'EISENIA FETIDA'  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworms, Eisenia fetida, were treated by surface exposure to the fungicide benomyl at various stages of posterior segmental regeneration. Teratogenic effects of benomyl were observed when worms were treated 7-11 days after amputation (i.e. during the normal period of segmental...

346

Can commonly measurable traits explain differences in metal accumulation and toxicity in earthworm species?  

Science.gov (United States)

There is no clear consensus in the literature on the metal accumulation pattern and sensitivity of different earthworm species. In the present study, accumulation and toxicity of Cu, Cd, Ni, and Zn in the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus (epigeic), Aporrectodea longa (anecic), and Eisenia fetida (ultra-epigeic) were determined after 28 days exposure in two soils. Metal accumulation and sensitivity were interpreted using the specific traits of different earthworm species. Results showed that for all four metals tested L. rubellus was the most sensitive species, followed by A. longa and E. fetida. At the same exposure concentration, internal concentrations followed the order: L. rubellus > E. fetida > A. longa for Cu and Ni, L. rubellus ? E. fetida ? A. longa for Cd, and L. rubellus > A. longa > E. fetida for Zn. Langmuir isotherms were used to model metal accumulation at both nontoxic and toxic exposure concentrations. The Cu, Cd, and Zn concentrations in E. fetida generally leveled off at high exposure concentrations but not for the other two species. A. longa showed a high capability of regulating internal Ni concentrations. The traits-based approaches suggested that most likely a group of earthworm traits together determined (differences in) metal accumulation and sensitivity. More research is needed in this respect to build up solid relationships between species-specific responses and traits, enabling cross-species extrapolation of accumulation and toxicity data. PMID:24193403

Qiu, Hao; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Vijver, Martina G

2014-01-01

347

GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION OF THE EARTHWORM 'EISENIA FETIDA' AFTER EXPOSURE TO SUBLETHAL CONCENTRATIONS OF METALS  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of land for the treatment and disposal of various wastes has resulted in a desire for more information concerning the effects of these materials on the soil ecosystem. Earthworms are often studied as a representative organism of the soil biota that may be affected by chan...

348

Integrated assessment of oxidative stress and DNA damage in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to azoxystrobin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Azoxystrobin has been widely used in recent years. The present study investigated the oxidative stress and DNA damage effects of azoxystrobin on earthworms (Eisenia fetida). Earthworms were exposed to different azoxystrobin concentrations in an artificial soil (0, 0.1, 1, and 10mg/kg) and sampled on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured by an ultraviolet spectrophotometer to determine the antioxidant responses and lipid peroxidation. Single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) was used to detect DNA damage in the coelomocytes. Compared with these in the controls, earthworms exposed to azoxystrobin had excess ROS accumulation and greater SOD, POD, and GST activity while the opposite trend occurred for CAT activity. MDA content increased after 14-day exposure, and DNA damage was enhanced with an increase in the concentration of azoxystrobin. In conclusion, azoxystrobin caused oxidative stress leading to lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in earthworms. PMID:25011117

Han, Yingnan; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Xie, Hui; Zhang, Shumin

2014-09-01

349

NOVEL MODEL DESCRIBING TRACE METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN THE EARTHWORM, EISENIA ANDREI: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

Science.gov (United States)

NRMRL-CIN-1707 Sake, J.K., Impellitteri**, C.A., Peijnenburg, W., and Allen, H.E. Novel Model Describing Trace Metal Concentrations in the Earthworm, Eisenia andrei. Environmental Science & Technology (American Chemical Society) 35 (22):4522-4529 (2001). EPA/600/J-01/364. 12/12/2...

350

Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antioxidant activities of the earthworms extract  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Earthworms are the major biomass in soil. They have been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. However, in the past few decades with the development of biochemical technologies the research on the pharmaceutical effects of earthworms has been commencement.Aims: Experiments were conducted to recognize the therapeutic properties such as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antioxidant activities of biologically active extract isolated from two species of earthworm (Pheretima hawayana Rosa and Allolobophora caliginosa Savigny.Materials and methods: inflammation in the hind paw of albino rat, Rattus rattus, was induced by histamine, pyrexia was induced by Escherichia coli in rats and liver damage was induced by injection of rats with CCl4. Anti-inflammatory drug - indomethacin, anti-pyretic drug - paracetamol and antioxidant drug - silymarin plus were used as standard drug for comparison.Results: Administration of Eearthworms extract (100 mg/kg and indomethacin (10 mg/kg, paracetamol (150 mg/kg, silymarin plus (150 mg/kg as standard drugs reduced and restored to normal the changes that induced by histamine, Escherichia coli and CCl4 in rats.Conclusions: The present study conclude that both extract of earthworms gave result as anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic similar to the standard drugs. The extract of the two species showed various responds as antioxidants against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity.

Hossam El-Din Mohamed Omar

2012-01-01

351

Detrimental Influence of Invasive Earthworms on North American Cold-Temperate Forest Soils  

Science.gov (United States)

The topic of invasive earthworms is a timely concern that goes against many preconceived notions regarding the positive benefits of all worms. In the cold-temperate forests of North America invasive worms are threatening forest ecosystems, due to the changes they create in the soil, including decreases in C:N ratios and leaf litter, disruption of…

Enerson, Isabel

2012-01-01

352

Earthworms and Plant Residues Modify Nematodes in Tropical Cropping Soils (Madagascar): A Mesocosm Experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Free-living nematodes present several characteristics that have led to their use as bio indicators of soil quality. Analyzing the structure of nematofauna is a pertinent way to understand soil biological processes. Earthworms play an important role in soil biological functioning and organic matter dynamics. Their effects on soil nematofauna have seldom been studied. We studied the effect of the tropical endogeic earthworm, Pontoscolex corethrurus, on nematode community structure in a 5-month field mesocosm experiment conducted in Madagascar. Ten different treatments with or without earthworms and with or without organic residues (rice, soybean) were compared. Organic residues were applied on the soil surface or mixed with the soil. The abundance of nematodes (bacterial and fungal feeders) was higher in presence of P. corethrurus than in their absence. The type of plant residues as well as their localisation had significant effects on the abundance and composition of soil nematodes. The analysis of nematode community structure showed that earthworm activity led to an overall activation of the microbial compartment without specific stimulation of the bacterial or fungal compartment.

353

Chlorpyrifos causes decreased organic matter decomposition by suppressing earthworm and termite communities in tropical soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of pesticides on structural and functional properties of ecosystems are rarely studied under tropical conditions. In this study litterbag and earthworm field tests were performed simultaneously at the same tropical field site sprayed with chlorpyrifos (CPF). The recommended dose of CPF (0.6 kg a.i. ha-1) and two higher doses (4.4-8.8 kg a.i. ha-1) significantly decreased litter decomposition during the first 3 months after application, which could be explained from lower earthworm and termite abundances during this period. Species-specific effects of CPF on organism abundance and biomass were observed, with termites being mostly affected followed by the earthworm Perionyx excavatus; the earthworm Megascolex sp. was least affected. Recovery was completed within 6 months. Decomposition in the controls and lowest two treatments was completed within 4 months, which suggests the need for modification of standard test guidelines to comply with faster litter degradation under tropical conditions. - Effects of chlorpyrifos on functional and structural endpoints in soil.

354

Chlorpyrifos causes decreased organic matter decomposition by suppressing earthworm and termite communities in tropical soil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Effects of pesticides on structural and functional properties of ecosystems are rarely studied under tropical conditions. In this study litterbag and earthworm field tests were performed simultaneously at the same tropical field site sprayed with chlorpyrifos (CPF). The recommended dose of CPF (0.6 kg a.i. ha{sup -1}) and two higher doses (4.4-8.8 kg a.i. ha{sup -1}) significantly decreased litter decomposition during the first 3 months after application, which could be explained from lower earthworm and termite abundances during this period. Species-specific effects of CPF on organism abundance and biomass were observed, with termites being mostly affected followed by the earthworm Perionyx excavatus; the earthworm Megascolex sp. was least affected. Recovery was completed within 6 months. Decomposition in the controls and lowest two treatments was completed within 4 months, which suggests the need for modification of standard test guidelines to comply with faster litter degradation under tropical conditions. - Effects of chlorpyrifos on functional and structural endpoints in soil.

De Silva, P. Mangala C.S., E-mail: msilva@falw.vu.n [Department of Animal Ecology, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Ruhuna, Matara (Sri Lanka); Pathiratne, Asoka [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Kelaniya, Kelaniya (Sri Lanka); Straalen, Nico M. van; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Department of Animal Ecology, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2010-10-15

355

Vermiremediation of dyeing sludge from textile mill with the help of exotic earthworm Eisenia fetida Savigny.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of present study was for the vermiremediation of dyeing sludge from textile mill into nutrient-rich vermicompost using earthworm Eisenia fetida. The dyeing sludge was mixed with cattle dung in different ratios, i.e., 0:100 (D0), 25:75 (D25), 50:50 (D50), 75:25 (D75), and 100:0 (D100) with earthworms, and 0:100 (S0), 25:75 (S25), 50:50 (S50), 75:25 (S75), and 100:0 (S100) without earthworms. Minimum mortality and maximum population build-up were observed in a 25:75 mixture. Nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium, and pH increased from the initial to the final products with earthworms, while electrical conductivity, C/N ratio, organic carbon, and potassium declined in all the feed mixtures. Vermicomposting with E. fetida was better for composting to change this sludge into nutrient-rich manure. PMID:23508537

Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

2013-09-01

356

Earthworms facilitate carbon sequestration through unequal amplification of carbon stabilization compared with mineralization  

Science.gov (United States)

A recent review concluded that earthworm presence increases CO2 emissions by 33% but does not affect soil organic carbon stocks. However, the findings are controversial and raise new questions. Here we hypothesize that neither an increase in CO2 emission nor in stabilized carbon...

357

A better method for assessing sublethal effects of soils to the earthworm Eisenia foetida  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors have developed and tested a procedure which allows quantification of growth and reproductive effects of contaminated soils to the earthworm, Eisenia foetida. The procedure monitors isolated pairs of earthworms and generates a higher ratio of data per organism than other commonly used procedures which require larger numbers of earthworms per experimental unit. The procedure also incorporates an accurate technique for measuring adult growth. The method has high sensitivity and is cost-effective. The method was applied to a variety of soil-testing problems to demonstrate its versatility and provide validation. A food-and-substrate trial demonstrated the sensitivity of the method and the need for food supplementation in OECD artificial soil to stimulate earthworm reproduction. A trial to examine a soil bioremediation technology revealed the advantage of measuring both growth and reproduction and highlighted the usefulness of a single integrated measure of these two responses. The method then was applied as a fast-screening method for field soils in a large-scale ecological risk assessment. Finally, a reference toxicant, applied in dilution series, demonstrated that responses of Eisenia foetida to their method are similar to their responses to the OECD artificial soil test. Collectively, results of this study indicate that their procedure can be used both for regulatory and compliance needs within the framework of ecological risk assessment.

Gibbs, M.H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wicker, L.F.; Stewart, A.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-12-31

358

Interactions between earthworms and arsenic in the soil environment: a review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Relationships between earthworms and As-rich soils are discussed, examining mechanisms of tolerance, soil factors and possible trophic transfers. - Chemical pollution of the environment has become a major source of concern. In particular, many studies have investigated the impact of pollution on biota in the environment. Studies on metalliferous contaminated mine spoil wastes have shown that some soil organisms have the capability to become resistant to metal/metalloid toxicity. Earthworms are known to inhabit arsenic-rich metalliferous soils and, due to their intimate contact with the soil, in both the solid and aqueous phases, are likely to accumulate contaminants present in mine spoil. Earthworms that inhabit metalliferous contaminated soils must have developed mechanisms of resistance to the toxins found in these soils. The mechanisms of resistance are not fully understood; they may involve physiological adaptation (acclimation) or be genetic. This review discusses the relationships between earthworms and arsenic-rich mine spoil wastes, looking critically at resistance and possible mechanisms of resistance, in relation to soil edaphic factors and possible trophic transfer routes.

Langdon, Caroline J.; Piearce, Trevor G.; Meharg, Andrew A.; Semple, Kirk

2003-08-01

359

The influence of earthworms on the mobility of microelements in soil and their availability for plants  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of earthworms ( Aporrectodea caliginosa, Lumbricus rubellus, L. terrestris, and Eisenia fetida) on the mobility of microelements and their availability for plants was studied. The contents of water-soluble Fe and Mn compounds extracted from the coprolites were 5-10 times higher than that in the soil (enriched in calcium carbonate and dried) consumed by the earthworms. This digestion-induced effect became higher with the age of the coprolites (up to 9 days) and took place under their alkalization. In the excreta (surface + enteric) of earthworms, the Fe concentration exceeded those of Mn and Zn by many times. Iron and manganese were mostly concentrated (>80% and >60%, respectively) in the organic part of the excrements. In the tests with hydroponics, the excreta were found to be a source of iron compounds available for plants that were similar to Fe2(SO4)3 or Fe-citrate by their physiological effect in the case when the Fe concentration in the excretions was above 0.7 ?M. However, the single application of excreta of different earthworm species into the CaCO3 enriched soil did not significantly affect the plant (cucumber) nutrition. The analysis of the transport of microelements with xylem sap showed that this fact appeared to be due to the absence of an Fe deficit in the cucumber plants because of their high capability for the absorption of weakly soluble iron compounds.

Bityutskii, N. P.; Kaidun, P. I.

2008-12-01

360

Inhibition effect of glyphosate on the acute and subacute toxicity of cadmium to earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

Science.gov (United States)

The acute and subacute toxicities of cadmium (Cd) to earthworm Eisenia fetida in the presence and absence of glyphosate were studied. Although Cd is highly toxic to E. fetida, the presence of glyphosate markedly reduced the acute toxicity of Cd to earthworm; both the mortality rate of the earthworms and the accumulation of Cd decreased with the increase of the glyphosate/Cd molar ratio. The subcellular distribution of Cd in E. fetida tissues showed that internal Cd was dominant in the intact cells fraction and the heat-stable proteins fraction. The presence of glyphosate reduced the concentration of Cd in all fractions, especially the intact cells. During a longer period of exposure, the weight loss of earthworm and the total Cd absorption was alleviated by glyphosate. Thus, the herbicide glyphosate can reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cd in the soil ecosystems at both short- and long-term exposures. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:2351-2357. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25043609

Zhou, Chui-Fan; Wang, Yu-Jun; Sun, Rui-Juan; Liu, Cun; Fan, Guang-Ping; Qin, Wen-Xiu; Li, Cheng-Cheng; Zhou, Dong-Mei

2014-10-01

 
 
 
 
361

Bioremediation of polluted soil through the combined application of plants, earthworms and organic matter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two plant species (Paulownia tomentosa and Cytisus scoparius), earthworms (Eisenia fetida), and organic matter (horse manure) were used as an ecological approach to bioremediate a soil historically contaminated by heavy metals and hydrocarbons. The experiment was carried out for six months at a mesoscale level using pots containing 90 kg of polluted soil. Three different treatments were performed for each plant: (i) untreated planted soil as a control (C); (ii) planted soil + horse manure (20:1 w/w) (M); (iii) planted soil + horse manure + 15 earthworms (ME). Both the plant species were able to grow in the polluted soil and to improve the soil's bio-chemical conditions, especially when organic matter and earthworms were applied. By comparing the two plant species, few significant differences were observed in the soil characteristics; Cytisus scoparius improved soil nutrient content more than Paulownia tomentosa, which instead stimulated more soil microbial metabolism. Regarding the pollutants, Paulownia tomentosa was more efficient in reducing the heavy metal (Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni) content, while earthworms were particularly able to stimulate the processes involved in the decontamination of organic pollutants (hydrocarbons). This ecological approach, validated at a mesoscale level, has recently been transferred to a real scale situation to carry out the bioremediation of polluted soil in San Giuliano Terme Municipality (Pisa, Italy). PMID:22911348

Macci, Cristina; Doni, Serena; Peruzzi, Eleonora; Ceccanti, Brunello; Masciandaro, Grazia

2012-10-26

362

Toxicities of TNT and RDX to the Earthworm Eisenia fetida in Five Soils with Contrasting Characteristics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies were designed to characterize soil physicochemical parameters that can affect the toxicities of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) or hexahydro-1,3,5- trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) to Eisenia fetida earthworms and also to generate ecotoxicological benchm...

C. T. Philips, J. E. Kolakowski, M. Simini, R. G. Kuperman, R. T. Checkai

2013-01-01

363

Interactions between earthworms and arsenic in the soil environment: a review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Relationships between earthworms and As-rich soils are discussed, examining mechanisms of tolerance, soil factors and possible trophic transfers. - Chemical pollution of the environment has become a major source of concern. In particular, many studies have investigated the impact of pollution on biota in the environment. Studies on metalliferous contaminated mine spoil wastes have shown that some soil organisms have the capability to become resistant to metal/metalloid toxicity. Earthworms are known to inhabit arsenic-rich metalliferous soils and, due to their intimate contact with the soil, in both the solid and aqueous phases, are likely to accumulate contaminants present in mine spoil. Earthworms that inhabit metalliferous contaminated soils must have developed mechanisms of resistance to the toxins found in these soils. The mechanisms of resistance are not fully understood; they may involve physiological adaptation (acclimation) or be genetic. This review discusses the relationships between earthworms and arsenic-rich mine spoil wastes, looking critically at resistance and possible mechanisms of resistance, in relation to soil edaphic factors and possible trophic transfer routes

364

The effects of environmental parameters on the availability of cesium for earthworms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentrations of potassium, stable cesium, calcium and ammonium in soil, and pH are known to affect the uptake of 134Cs from soil. Uncertain is whether this is a direct effect on the uptake (e.g. through competition for binding sites) or an indirect effect through a changing distribution of 134Cs between the solid and liquid phase of the soil. The uptake of 134Cs by earthworms from solution and soil has been studied to investigate these effects. The effects of potassium and stable cesium expressed per mmol added, were comparable: 134Cs accumulation decreases with potassium and stable cesium concentration in solution. No significant effects from varying pH or calcium and ammonium concentrations on 134Cs uptake from liquid medium were observed. 134Cs concentrations in the earthworms increased with temperature, which could mainly be explained by earthworm-related factors such as increased metabolism or feeding rate. Addition of calcium, potassium, ammonium and organic matter to soil increased the amount of 134Cs in soil solution significantly. However, the overall effects of additions of K+, Ca++, NH4+ and organic matter on the 134Cs concentrations in earthworms were non-significant. Based on the experiments in liquid medium increasing the concentration of potassium in soil solution showed to be most effective and most realistic in redu most effective and most realistic in reducing 134Cs uptake. The results in soil indicate that the effect of potassium will depend on other soil characteristics as well

365

Impact of earthworms on trace element solubility in contaminated mine soils amended with green waste compost.  

Science.gov (United States)

The common practice of remediating metal contaminated mine soils with compost can reduce metal mobility and promote revegetation, but the effect of introduced or colonising earthworms on metal solubility is largely unknown. We amended soils from an As/Cu (1150 mg As kg(-1) and 362 mg Cu kg(-1)) and Pb/Zn mine (4550 mg Pb kg(-1) and 908 mg Zn kg(-1)) with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% compost and then introduced Lumbricus terrestris. Porewater was sampled and soil extracted with water to determine trace element solubility, pH and soluble organic carbon. Compost reduced Cu, Pb and Zn, but increased As solubility. Earthworms decreased water soluble Cu and As but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. The effect of the earthworms decreased with increasing compost amendment. The impact of the compost and the earthworms on metal solubility is explained by their effect on pH and soluble organic carbon and the environmental chemistry of each element. PMID:21501909

Sizmur, Tom; Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Hodson, Mark E

2011-07-01

366

Earthworm species and burrows related to agricultural management of grass-clover in rotation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Grass-clover is an important element in crop rotations due to its beneficial agronomic properties including nitrogen build-up, biodiversity stimulation and maintenance of soil macropores and it produces very high levels of earthworm biomass. We studied the relationship between crucial elements of grass-clover management in a crop rotation and earthworm diversity and macropore depth distribution. The dominance of anecics increased from an annual crop to the perennial grass-clover. Aporrectodea tuberculata decreased significantly from annuals to 3 year grass-clover. Cattle grazing favours the occurrence of coarse macropores (>5 mm ?) made by anecics, Aporrectodea longa and Lumbricus terrestris, while otherwise decreasing the number of fine-medium macropores (<5 mm ?) below the topsoil. Our study stresses the importance of considering subsoil macropores to complete the picture of earthworm influence on soil hydrology. The anecics are responsible for coarse macropores, while the smaller endogeic A. tuberculata isless important for coarse macropores and even negatively correlated with the abundant anecics and sensitive to the presence of grazing cattle compacting the topsoil. The detailed species-specific functional properties are crucial for successfully predicting the contribution to soil ecosystem services by earthworms.

Krogh, Paul Henning; Lamandé, Mathieu

2014-01-01

367

The impact of organophosphate pesticides in orchards on earthworms in the Western Cape, South Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworm population density was measured in and adjacent to an orchard in an agricultural area in the Western Cape, South Africa. Worm densities were very low in orchards (22/m(2)) compared to adjacent uncultivated fields (152/m(2)) at a distance from the orchards. The possible effect of organophosphate pesticides on the earthworms was investigated. Background soil concentrations of chlorpyrifos prior to the start of the spraying season were low (0.2-2.7 microg/kg) but persistent for up to 6 months after the last spraying event, and the pesticide was, as a result of rainfall, transported to nontarget areas by runoff. Background concentrations of azinphos methyl were higher than those of chlorpyrifos (1.6-9.8 microg/kg) but not detectable 2 weeks after a spraying event. Azinphos methyl was mostly transported by wind (spray drift) to adjacent areas. A microcosm study indicated effects of chlorpyrifos on earthworms as determined by measuring biomass change and Cholinesterase inhibition. It is concluded that earthworms were affected detrimentally by the pesticides due to chronic (chlorpyrifos) and intermittent (azinphos methyl) exposure. PMID:16318873

Reinecke, S A; Reinecke, A J

2007-02-01

368

Sperm Preservation using Freeze-Drying Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the discovery of cryopreservation method for bull semen, cryopreservation become an alternative method for maintaining gamet resources of certain animal which is threatened or near extinction. This technology was then applied to the preservation of embryo, oocyte, ovary and testis. The application of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI for which sperm motility is unnecessary had supported the effort to create simplified method such as freeze-drying for sperm preservation. Due to the benefit of ICSI over the conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF the spermatozoon could be mechanically driven to pass through the zona pellucida and entering the cytoplasm of oocytes prior to fertilization. The freeze-drying method is an alternative method in sperm preservation which ignored the motility of sperm. The sperm resulted from this technique is in drying state, therefore, it might be stored in room temperature or in refrigerator. Many reports have claimed that freeze-dried sperm which is not motile but has an intact DNA was able to fertilize oocytes, even produced offspring in mouse.

TAKDIR SAILI

2005-03-01

369

Disaggregating meteorites by automated freeze thaw.  

Science.gov (United States)

An automated freeze-thaw (AFT) instrument for disaggregating meteorites is described. Meteorite samples are immersed in 18.2 M? water and hermetically sealed in a clean 30 ml Teflon vial. This vial and its contents are dipped between baths of liquid nitrogen and hot water over a number of cycles by a dual-stepper motor system controlled by LabView. Uniform and periodic intervals of freezing and thawing induce multiple expansions and contractions, such that cracks propagate along natural flaws in the meteorite for a sufficient number of AFT cycles. For the CR2 chondrite NWA801, the boundaries between different phases (i.e., silicates, metal, matrix) became progressively weaker and allowed for an efficient recovery of 500 individual chondrules and chondrule fragments spanning 0.2-4.7 mm diameters after 243 AFT cycles over 103.3 h. Further FT experiments on a basalt analog showed that the time required for freezing and thawing the same number of cycles can be reduced by a factor of ?4. PMID:21721725

Charles, Christopher R J

2011-06-01

370

Effect of culture age, protectants, and initial cell concentration on viability of freeze-dried cells of Metschnikowia pulcherrima.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of freeze-drying using different lyoprotectants at different concentrations on the viability and biocontrol efficacy of Metschnikowia pulcherrima was evaluated. The effects of initial yeast cell concentration and culture age on viability were also considered. Yeast cells grown for 36 h were more resistant to freeze-drying than were 48 h cells. An initial concentration of 10? cells·mL?¹ favoured the highest survival after freeze-drying. When maltose (25%, m/v) was used as protectant, a high cell viability was obtained (64.2%). Cells maintained a high viability after 6 months of storage at 4 °C. The biocontrol efficacy of freeze-dried cells was similar to the activity of fresh cells on 'Gala' apples and was slightly lower on 'Golden Delicious' apples. After optimizing freeze-drying conditions, the viability of M. pulcherrima cells was similar to that obtained in other studies. The results constitute a first step towards the commercial development of M. pulcherrima as a biocontrol agent. PMID:20962903

Spadaro, Davide; Ciavorella, Annalisa Alessandra; Lopez-Reyes, Jorge Giovanny; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

2010-10-01

371

Aquaporin Expression Correlates with Freeze Tolerance in Baker's Yeast, and Overexpression Improves Freeze Tolerance in Industrial Strains  

Science.gov (United States)

Little information is available about the precise mechanisms and determinants of freeze resistance in baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genomewide gene expression analysis and Northern analysis of different freeze-resistant and freeze-sensitive strains have now revealed a correlation between freeze resistance and the aquaporin genes AQY1 and AQY2. Deletion of these genes in a laboratory strain rendered yeast cells more sensitive to freezing, while overexpression of the respective genes, as well as heterologous expression of the human aquaporin gene hAQP1, improved freeze tolerance. These findings support a role for plasma membrane water transport activity in determination of freeze tolerance in yeast. This appears to be the first clear physiological function identified for microbial aquaporins. We suggest that a rapid, osmotically driven efflux of water during the freezing process reduces intracellular ice crystal formation and resulting cell damage. Aquaporin overexpression also improved maintenance of the viability of industrial yeast strains, both in cell suspensions and in small doughs stored frozen or submitted to freeze-thaw cycles. Furthermore, an aquaporin overexpression transformant could be selected based on its improved freeze-thaw resistance without the need for a selectable marker gene. Since aquaporin overexpression does not seem to affect the growth and fermentation characteristics of yeast, these results open new perspectives for the successful development of freeze-resistant baker's yeast strains for use in frozen dough applications. PMID:12450819

Tanghe, An; Van Dijck, Patrick; Dumortier, Francoise; Teunissen, Aloys; Hohmann, Stefan; Thevelein, Johan M.

2002-01-01

372

Group 1 LEA proteins contribute to the desiccation and freeze tolerance of Artemia franciscana embryos during diapause.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water loss either by desiccation or freezing causes multiple forms of cellular damage. The encysted embryos (cysts) of the crustacean Artemia franciscana have several molecular mechanisms to enable anhydrobiosis-life without water-during diapause. To better understand how cysts survive reduced hydration, group 1 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, hydrophilic unstructured proteins that accumulate in the stress-tolerant cysts of A. franciscana, were knocked down using RNA interference (RNAi). Embryos lacking group 1 LEA proteins showed significantly lower survival than control embryos after desiccation and freezing, or freezing alone, demonstrating a role for group 1 LEA proteins in A. franciscana tolerance of low water conditions. In contrast, regardless of group 1 LEA protein presence, cysts responded similarly to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure, indicating little to no function for these proteins in diapause termination. This is the first in vivo study of group 1 LEA proteins in an animal and it contributes to the fundamental understanding of these proteins. Knowing how LEA proteins protect A. franciscana cysts from desiccation and freezing may have applied significance in aquaculture, where Artemia is an important feed source, and in the cryopreservation of cells for therapeutic applications. PMID:24846336

Toxopeus, Jantina; Warner, Alden H; MacRae, Thomas H

2014-11-01

373

Microflora dynamics in earthworms casts in an artificial soil (biosynthesol containing lactic acid oligomers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies were performed to appreciate the presence of micro-organisms able to degrade OLA, in earthworms casts or in the surroundings. Worms were grown in biosynthesol, an artificial soil. The counting of bacteria and fungi in earthworms casts and in biosynthesol without earthworms suggested that earthworms ate some of the micro-organisms. The main filamentous fungi genera found were Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Fusarium and Penicillium. Previous results in the literature have shown that some species from the Aspergillus and Fusarium genera were able to degrade OLA and other aliphatic esters. It could be suggested that these two genera and some bacteria were responsible for the pre-degradation of OLA, and that earthworms might eat them.Já mostramos que a minhoca Eisenia andrei é capaz de bioassimilar o OLA (oligomeros de ácido lático, uma vez que este último tenha sido pré-digerido por microorganismos. A fim de verificar a presênça de microorganismos capazes de degradar os oligomeros de ácido láctico (OLA, as minhocas foram criadas num solo artificial, o biosintesol. O número de bactérias e fungos nas fezes de minhocas e no biosintesol sem minhoca foi estimado, assim como o gênero dos fungos filamentosos presentes. O resultado mostra uma fraca diminuição do número de microrganismos após sua passagem no instestino das minhocas, sugerindo que as minhocas digerem alguns deles. Os principais fungos filamentosos encontrados foram Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Fusarium e Penicillium. Resultados anteriores mostraram que algumas espécies dos gêneros Aspergillus e Fusarium são capazes de degradar o OLA e outros ésteres alifáticos. Sugere-se que esses 2 gêneros e algumas bactérias são responsáveis pela pré-degradação do OLA, antes que as minhocas os comam.

Nathalie Alauzet

2001-06-01

374

Lead accumulations and toxic effects in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in the presence of decabromodiphenyl ether.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lead (Pb) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) are the main contaminants at e-waste recycling sites, and their potential toxicological effects on terrestrial organisms have received extensive attention. However, the impact on earthworms of exposure to the two chemicals remains almost unknown. Therefore, indoor incubation tests were performed on control and contaminated soil samples to determine the Pb accumulations and toxic effects by earthworms in the presence of BDE209 for the first time. The results have demonstrated that BDE209 presence can affect Pb bioaccumulation efficiency compared with exposure to Pb alone. The Pb contents in earthworms had a highly positive correlation with the Pb concentrations in soils. For different Pb doses, almost contrary response trends were found for Pb uptake examined separately on day 7 or 28, and dose-effect relationships were clearly observed in the presence of BDE209. After 7 days of exposure, the earthworm bodies receiving 1-mg kg(-1) BDE209 dose showed significantly lower Pb contents (average?=?175.85 mg kg(-1)) and bioaccumulation factor (average?=?0.574) than those receiving non-BDE209 treatments (217.39 mg kg(-1) and 1.209, respectively). As the incubation time extended, the influence of BDE209 presence on Pb uptake gradually declined. Additionally, either single or combined exposure to both chemicals can affect the protein synthesis in earthworms (p?

Zhang, Wei; Chen, Lin; Liu, Kou; Chen, Lei; Lin, Kuangfei; Guo, Jie; Liu, Lili; Cui, Changzheng; Yan, Zenguang

2014-03-01

375

Importância ecológica e ambiental das minhocas / Environmental and ecological importance of earthworms  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As minhocas correspondem a um dos principais grupos de organismos edáficos atuantes nos processos de movimenta­ção de partículas e ciclagem de nutrientes. Este trabalho tem como objetivos dis