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1

Small Dendrobaena earthworms survive freezing better than large worms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dendrobaena octaedra is a freeze tolerant earthworm widely distributed in boreal regions. Specimens collected in Sweden were cold acclimated and then frozen at -7 degrees C to examine the influence of body mass on survival of freezing. Results showed that survival was negatively correlated to body mass. Glycogen content of the worms was variable and seemed to decrease with increasing body mass consistent with the hypothesis that freeze survival is dependent on the ability to rapidly break down glycogen and accumulate high concentrations of glucose. The results suggest that large worms (subadults and adults) invest energy in production of cocoons at the expense of glycogen storage for cryoprotectant production, whereas juvenile worms increase their survival chances by investing energy in glycogen storage at the expense of growth as a preparation for winter.

Holmstrup, Martin; Overgaard, Johannes

2007-01-01

2

Freeze tolerance in Aporrectodea caliginosa and other earthworms from Finland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Earthworms that live in subarctic and cold temperate areas must deal with frost even though winter temperatures in the soil are often more moderate than air temperatures. Most lumbricid earthworms can survive temperatures down to the melting point of their body fluids but only few species are freeze tolerant, i.e. tolerate internal ice formation. In the present study, earthworms from Finland were tested for freeze tolerance, and the glycogen reserves and glucose mobilization (as a cryoprotectant) was investigated. Freeze tolerance was observed in Aporrectodea caliginosa, Dendrobaena octaedra, and Dendrodrilus rubidus, but not in Lumbricus rubellus. A. caliginosa tolerated freezing at -5 degrees C with about 40% survival. Some individuals of D. octaedra tolerated freezing even at -20 degrees C. Glycogen storage was largest in D. octaedra where up to 13% of dry weight consisted of this carbohydrate, whereas the other species had only 3-4% glycogen of tissue dry weight. Also glucose accumulation was largest in D. octaedra which was the most freeze-tolerant species, but occurred in all four species upon freezing. It is discussed that freeze tolerance may be a more common phenomenon in earthworms than previously thought.

Holmstrup M; Overgaard J

2007-08-01

3

Freeze tolerance in Aporrectodea caliginosa and other earthworms from Finland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworms that live in subarctic and cold temperate areas must deal with frost even though winter temperatures in the soil are often more moderate than air temperatures. Most lumbricid earthworms can survive temperatures down to the melting point of their body fluids but only few species are freeze tolerant, i.e. tolerate internal ice formation. In the present study, earthworms from Finland were tested for freeze tolerance, and the glycogen reserves and glucose mobilization (as a cryoprotectant) was investigated. Freeze tolerance was observed in Aporrectodea caliginosa, Dendrobaena octaedra, and Dendrodrilus rubidus, but not in Lumbricus rubellus. A. caliginosa tolerated freezing at -5 degrees C with about 40% survival. Some individuals of D. octaedra tolerated freezing even at -20 degrees C. Glycogen storage was largest in D. octaedra where up to 13% of dry weight consisted of this carbohydrate, whereas the other species had only 3-4% glycogen of tissue dry weight. Also glucose accumulation was largest in D. octaedra which was the most freeze-tolerant species, but occurred in all four species upon freezing. It is discussed that freeze tolerance may be a more common phenomenon in earthworms than previously thought. PMID:17618617

Holmstrup, M; Overgaard, J

2007-06-09

4

Can earthworms survive fire retardants?  

Science.gov (United States)

Most common fire retardants are foams or are similar to common agricultural fertilizers, such as ammonium sulfate and ammonium phosphate. Although fire retardants are widely applied to soils, we lack basic information about their toxicities to soil organisms. We measured the toxicity of five fire retardants (Firetrol LCG-R, Firetrol GTS-R, Silv-Ex Foam Concentrate, Phos-chek D-75, and Phos-chek WD-881) to earthworms using the pesticide toxicity test developed for earthworms by the European Economic Community. None was lethal at 1,000 ppm in the soil, which was suggested as a relatively high exposure under normal applications. We concluded that the fire retardants tested are relatively nontoxic to soil organisms compared with other environmental chemicals and that they probably do not reduce earthworm populations when applied under usual firefighting conditions.

Beyer, W.N.; Olson, A.

1996-01-01

5

Multivariate metabolic profiling using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of freeze-tolerant and freeze-intolerant earthworms exposed to frost.  

Science.gov (United States)

Individuals of the freeze-tolerant earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra, and four freeze-intolerant earthworm species (Dendrodrilus rubidus, Aporrectodea icterica, A. caliginosa, and A. longa) were frozen at -2 degree C. Control earthworms were exposed to +2 degree C. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based metabolic profiling in combination with multivariate pattern recognition methods (metabonomics) was used to produce a cross-species comparison. Several biochemical changes were detected as a result of freezing in all worm species, including an increase in relative free alanine concentrations, and an apparent conversion of adenosine to inosine. It was also possible to determine a number of biochemical changes that were unique to the freeze-tolerant species, D. octaedra. The most obvious difference was that, although all species showed an increase in glucose concentrations, the increase was largest in D. octaedra, and was coupled with a concomitant decrease in glycogen. This confirms that--like previously studied freeze-tolerant earthworm species--tolerance is effected by rapid glucose production from glycogen reserves. An additional difference noted was that succinate increased in all species on freezing, but the increase was least in D. octaedra. Furthermore there was no lactate accumulation in D. octaedra, whereas three of the other four species accumulated lactate. This indicates that anoxic metabolism was lowest in the freeze-tolerant species. PMID:14671686

Bundy, Jacob G; Ramløv, Hans; Holmstrup, Martin

6

Multivariate metabolic profiling using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of freeze-tolerant and freeze-intolerant earthworms exposed to frost.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Individuals of the freeze-tolerant earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra, and four freeze-intolerant earthworm species (Dendrodrilus rubidus, Aporrectodea icterica, A. caliginosa, and A. longa) were frozen at -2 degree C. Control earthworms were exposed to +2 degree C. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based metabolic profiling in combination with multivariate pattern recognition methods (metabonomics) was used to produce a cross-species comparison. Several biochemical changes were detected as a result of freezing in all worm species, including an increase in relative free alanine concentrations, and an apparent conversion of adenosine to inosine. It was also possible to determine a number of biochemical changes that were unique to the freeze-tolerant species, D. octaedra. The most obvious difference was that, although all species showed an increase in glucose concentrations, the increase was largest in D. octaedra, and was coupled with a concomitant decrease in glycogen. This confirms that--like previously studied freeze-tolerant earthworm species--tolerance is effected by rapid glucose production from glycogen reserves. An additional difference noted was that succinate increased in all species on freezing, but the increase was least in D. octaedra. Furthermore there was no lactate accumulation in D. octaedra, whereas three of the other four species accumulated lactate. This indicates that anoxic metabolism was lowest in the freeze-tolerant species.

Bundy JG; Ramløv H; Holmstrup M

2003-11-01

7

Comparative proteomic analysis of the sun- and freeze-dried earthworm Eisenia fetida with differentially thrombolytic activities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: The dried earthworm is a traditional thrombolytic medicine in East Asia. Its thrombolytic mechanism has been extensively studied. However, the effects of drying process on thrombolysis were rarely investigated. Herein, we compared the thrombolytic activity of earthworm Eisenia fetida processed by sun-drying to that by freeze-drying. Fibrin plate and blood clot lysis assays showed that freeze-dried earthworms gave dramatically higher fibrinolytic and thrombolytic activities than the sun-dried earthworms. To address the thrombolytic difference, comparative proteomic analysis was carried out using fibrin zymography and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The freeze- and sun-dried earthworms generated remarkably different 2-DE protein spot patterns. A total of 126 differential protein spots were detected, 83 of them were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry and database searching with 13 quantitative changes and 70 qualitative changes. Five of these differential proteins were identified as fibrinolytic proteases (lumbrokinases), responsible for dissolving fibrin, the main protein component of thrombus. The total abundance of these fibrinolytic proteases in the freeze-dried earthworms was significantly higher, consistent with the results of fibrin zymography. Therefore, the higher concentration of fibrinolytic enzymes along with their broad substrate specificity explained the stronger fibrinolytic and thrombolytic activities of the freeze-dried earthworms. This study suggests that freeze-drying represents an improved processing method for earthworm as the thrombolytic therapy in the future. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Thrombosis has become one of the biggest concerns all over the world. The dried earthworms have been intensively used as thrombolytic agents. Its thrombotic mechanism has been studied by the modern pharmacological researches. However, the drying procedure of the earthworm and its effects on the thrombolysis were rarely investigated. The present study compared the thrombolytic effects of the freeze-dried and the normal dried earthworm E. fetida. To better understand the underlying mechanisms for differential thrombolytic effects, the fibrin zymography and the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) were employed to identify sets of differential proteins. Therefore, this study provides not only the comparative proteomic analysis but also molecular mechanism underlying the differential thrombolytic effects.

Fu Z; Zhang L; Liu X; Zhang Y; Zhang Q; Li X; Zheng W; Sun L; Tian J

2013-05-01

8

Toxicity of organoclays to microbial processes and earthworm survival in soils.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Organoclays have wide spread application in environmental remediation and nanocomposites synthesis. Some of the quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) commonly used to prepare organoclays are toxic to biota. However, information on the toxicity of organoclays is rarely available in the literature. This study assessed the toxicity of three laboratory prepared bentonite organoclays on the soil microbially mediated processes (such as dehydrogenase activity and potential nitrification) and soil inhabiting animals, such as earthworms. Toxicity to both microbial processes and earthworm followed the order: hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium modified bentonite>octadecyltrimethyl ammonium modified bentonite>arquad modified bentonite>unmodified bentonite. The organoclays were able to cause slight improvement (up to 25%) in the potential nitrification in some soils when they were added at low application rates up to 5%, but caused reduction (3-86%) in the dehydrogenase activity in all the soils irrespective of loading rates. The organoclays were extremely toxic to the survival and vigour of the earthworms. The average body weight loss of the worms reached as high as 62% in hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium modified bentonite treated soil even at 1% loading. This study holds utmost importance in assessing the toxicity of organoclays to soil microbially mediated processes and earthworms.

Sarkar B; Megharaj M; Shanmuganathan D; Naidu R

2012-12-01

9

Toxicity of organoclays to microbial processes and earthworm survival in soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organoclays have wide spread application in environmental remediation and nanocomposites synthesis. Some of the quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) commonly used to prepare organoclays are toxic to biota. However, information on the toxicity of organoclays is rarely available in the literature. This study assessed the toxicity of three laboratory prepared bentonite organoclays on the soil microbially mediated processes (such as dehydrogenase activity and potential nitrification) and soil inhabiting animals, such as earthworms. Toxicity to both microbial processes and earthworm followed the order: hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium modified bentonite>octadecyltrimethyl ammonium modified bentonite>arquad modified bentonite>unmodified bentonite. The organoclays were able to cause slight improvement (up to 25%) in the potential nitrification in some soils when they were added at low application rates up to 5%, but caused reduction (3-86%) in the dehydrogenase activity in all the soils irrespective of loading rates. The organoclays were extremely toxic to the survival and vigour of the earthworms. The average body weight loss of the worms reached as high as 62% in hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium modified bentonite treated soil even at 1% loading. This study holds utmost importance in assessing the toxicity of organoclays to soil microbially mediated processes and earthworms. PMID:23347724

Sarkar, Binoy; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Shanmuganathan, Devarajan; Naidu, Ravi

2012-12-01

10

Effects of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on the avoidance response, survival, growth and reproduction of earthworms (Eisenia fetida).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on avoidance response, survival, growth, and reproduction of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were investigated under laboratory conditions using natural and artificial soils as substrate. Results showed that no significant avoidance response was observed when earthworms were exposed to 0.1-1000 mg/kg of BDE-209 for 48 h. After 28-days exposure, no significant effects on survival and growth of adult earthworms was induced by 0.1-1000 mg/kg of BDE-209 indicating the Lowest Observed Effect Level (LOEL) of BDE-209 on their survival and body weight was more than 1000 mg/kg. Except for a significant decrease in the number of juveniles per hatched cocoon in artificial soils at 1000 mg/kg of BDE-209, no significant effects on reproductive parameters (e.g. cocoon production per earthworms, weight per cocoon and cocoon hatchability) were observed. These results suggest that adult earthworms have a strong tolerance for BDE-209 exposure in soils, but a potential toxicity does exist for earthworm embryos or juveniles.

Xie X; Qian Y; Wu Y; Yin J; Zhai J

2013-04-01

11

Effects of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on the avoidance response, survival, growth and reproduction of earthworms (Eisenia fetida).  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on avoidance response, survival, growth, and reproduction of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were investigated under laboratory conditions using natural and artificial soils as substrate. Results showed that no significant avoidance response was observed when earthworms were exposed to 0.1-1000 mg/kg of BDE-209 for 48 h. After 28-days exposure, no significant effects on survival and growth of adult earthworms was induced by 0.1-1000 mg/kg of BDE-209 indicating the Lowest Observed Effect Level (LOEL) of BDE-209 on their survival and body weight was more than 1000 mg/kg. Except for a significant decrease in the number of juveniles per hatched cocoon in artificial soils at 1000 mg/kg of BDE-209, no significant effects on reproductive parameters (e.g. cocoon production per earthworms, weight per cocoon and cocoon hatchability) were observed. These results suggest that adult earthworms have a strong tolerance for BDE-209 exposure in soils, but a potential toxicity does exist for earthworm embryos or juveniles. PMID:23312040

Xie, Xianchuan; Qian, Yan; Wu, Yingxin; Yin, Jun; Zhai, Jianping

2013-01-09

12

Method of freezing living cells and tissues with improved subsequent survival  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention relates to an improved method for freezing red blood cells, ther living cells, or tissues with improved subsequent survival, wherein constant-volume freezing is utilized that results in significantly improved survival compared with constant-pressure freezing; optimization is attainable through the use of different vessel geometries, cooling baths and warming baths, and sample concentrations.

Senkan, Selim M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hirsch, Gerald P. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1980-01-01

13

Method of freezing living cells and tissues with improved subsequent survival. [US patent  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention relates to an improved method for freezing red blood cells, other living cells, or tissues with improved subsequent survival, wherein constant-volume freezing is utilized that results in significantly improved survival compared with constant-pressure freezing; optimization is attainable through the use of different vessel geometries, cooling baths and warming baths, and sample concentrations.

Senkan, S.M.; Hirsch, G.P.

1980-04-22

14

Expression of freeze-responsive proteins, Fr10 and Li16, from freeze-tolerant frogs enhances freezing survival of BmN insect cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

To date, two novel freeze-responsive proteins, Fr10 and Li16, have been discovered in the wood frog, Rana sylvatica, and likely support freezing survival. Although previous studies have established tissue distribution of each protein, there have been no studies that explore their functional consequences in intolerant cells. To assess the ability of Fr10 and Li16 to confer freeze tolerance, we transfected each protein into a freeze-intolerant silkworm cell line (BmN). Selected controls were the transfection of an unrelated protein (CAT) and a no-transfection sample. Li16 and Fr10 showed 1.8 ± 0.1- and 1.7 ± 0.2-fold, respectively, greater survival after freezing at -6°C for 1 h than did transfection controls. To investigate how these novel proteins protect cells from freezing damage, protein structures were predicted from primary amino acid sequences. Analysis of the structures indicated that Fr10 is a secreted protein and may be a new type IV antifreeze protein, whereas Li16 may have intracellular membrane associated functions. This study shows that freezing protection can be provided to intolerant cells by the overexpression of transfected Li16 and Fr10 frog proteins. Results from this study will provide new insights into adapting intolerant cells for medical organ cryoprotection using a natural vertebrate model of tolerance. PMID:23657819

Biggar, Kyle K; Kotani, Eiji; Furusawa, Toshiharu; Storey, Kenneth B

2013-05-08

15

The elemental composition of the chloragosomes of two earthworm species (Lumbricus terrestris and Allolobophora longa) determined by electron probe X-ray microanalysis of freeze-dried cryosections.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The elemental composition of the chloragosomes of the two earth-worm species, one with complex highly active Ca-secreting calciferous glands (L. terrestris) and the other with non-secretory glands (A. longa), was determined by the electron probe X-ray microanalysis of unfixed freeze-dried cryosections. The predominant constituents of the chloragosomes of both species were P, Ca, Zn and S, with lesser quantities of K, Cl and Fe. The most striking species differences in chloragosomal chemistry were the higher concentrations (expressed as relative mass fractions) of P(x 2.1), Ca(x 1.5), and Zn(x 2.3) in L. terrestris, and the much higher S(x 19.6) in A. longa. These differences were discussed in relation to the general ecophysiology of the two species, and more specifically in relation to heavy metal uptake and binding.

Morgan AJ; Winters C

1982-01-01

16

Effects of a constructed Technosol on mortality, survival and reproduction of earthworms  

Science.gov (United States)

Soils, whose properties and pedogenesis are dominated by artificial materials or transported materials, are classified as Technosols. Some of these Technosols are used in soil engineering, which is the voluntary action to combine technical materials in a given objective to restore an ecosystem. Primary by products that are used to build these Technosols need to be assessed on an ecotoxicological point of view. The following study aims to assess the effects of a constructed Technosol made from different primary by-products on the mortality, survival and reproductions of two earthworm species. The model of Technosol used here is a combination of green-waste compost (GWC) and papermill sludge (PS) mixed with thermally treated industrial soil (TIS). OECD soil is used as a control soil. Three different experiments have been managed: i) the first, to assess the potential toxicity effect on Eisenia foetida biomass (28 days) and reproduction (56 days), ii) the second to assess the short-term effect (7 days) on Lumbricus terrestris biomass, iii) and the third to assess the medium-term effect (30 days) on L. terrestris biomass. Reproduction of E. foetida is enhanced with high proportions of GWC. For biomass, GWC seems to improve body mass contrary to other materials which lead to losses of body mass. Thus, for E. foetida, GWC seems to be a high-quality and long-term source of food. Body mass of L. terrestris decreased with GWC and OECD. At short-term only, TIS/PS leads to a gain of body mass. Only equilibrium of 25% GWC - 75% TIS/PS allows a gain of body mass at medium term. TIS/PS appears to be a low-quality and short-term food resource but an excellent water tank. It can be concluded that the constructed Technosol is not toxic for fauna but some differences appear between different tested material combinations, depending on nature, proportion and trophic properties of materials.

Pey, Benjamin; Cortet, Jerome; Capowiez, Yvan; Mignot, Lenaic; Nahmani, Johanne; Watteau, Francoise; Schwartz, Christophe

2010-05-01

17

Soil salinity increases survival of freezing in the enchytraeid Enchytraeus albidus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enchytraeus albidus is a freeze-tolerant enchytraeid found in diverse habitats, ranging from supralittoral to terrestrial and spanning temperate to arctic regions. Its freeze tolerance is well known but the effect of salinity in this strategy is still poorly understood. We therefore studied the combined effect of salinity (0, 15, 35, 50‰ NaCl) and sub-zero temperatures (-5, -14, -20°C) on the freeze tolerance of E. albidus collected from two distinct geographical regions (Greenland and Germany). A full factorial design was used to study survival, and physiological and biochemical end points. The effect of salinity on the reproduction of German E. albidus was also assessed. Exposure for 48 h to saline soils prior to cold exposure triggered an increase in osmolality and decrease in water content. Worms exposed to saline soils had an improved survival of freezing compared to worms frozen in non-saline soils, particularly at -20°C (survival more than doubled). Differential scanning calorimetry measurements showed that the fraction of water frozen at -5 and -14°C was lower in worms exposed to 35‰ NaCl than in control worms. The lowering of ice content by exposure to saline soils was probably the main explanation for the better freeze survival in saline-exposed worms. Glucose increased with decreasing temperature, but was lower in saline than in non-saline soils. Thus, glucose accumulation patterns did not explain differences in freeze survival. Overall, the physiological responses to freezing of E. albidus from Greenland and Germany were similar after exposure to saline soils. Soil salinity up to 30‰ improved reproduction by a factor of ca. 10. PMID:23531829

Silva, A L Patrício; Holmstrup, M; Kostal, V; Amorim, M J B

2013-03-26

18

Soil salinity increases survival of freezing in the enchytraeid Enchytraeus albidus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Enchytraeus albidus is a freeze-tolerant enchytraeid found in diverse habitats, ranging from supralittoral to terrestrial and spanning temperate to arctic regions. Its freeze tolerance is well known but the effect of salinity in this strategy is still poorly understood. We therefore studied the combined effect of salinity (0, 15, 35, 50‰ NaCl) and sub-zero temperatures (-5, -14, -20°C) on the freeze tolerance of E. albidus collected from two distinct geographical regions (Greenland and Germany). A full factorial design was used to study survival, and physiological and biochemical end points. The effect of salinity on the reproduction of German E. albidus was also assessed. Exposure for 48 h to saline soils prior to cold exposure triggered an increase in osmolality and decrease in water content. Worms exposed to saline soils had an improved survival of freezing compared to worms frozen in non-saline soils, particularly at -20°C (survival more than doubled). Differential scanning calorimetry measurements showed that the fraction of water frozen at -5 and -14°C was lower in worms exposed to 35‰ NaCl than in control worms. The lowering of ice content by exposure to saline soils was probably the main explanation for the better freeze survival in saline-exposed worms. Glucose increased with decreasing temperature, but was lower in saline than in non-saline soils. Thus, glucose accumulation patterns did not explain differences in freeze survival. Overall, the physiological responses to freezing of E. albidus from Greenland and Germany were similar after exposure to saline soils. Soil salinity up to 30‰ improved reproduction by a factor of ca. 10.

Silva AL; Holmstrup M; Kostal V; Amorim MJ

2013-07-01

19

Formulations for Freeze-drying of Bacteria and Their Influence on Cell Survival.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cellular water can be removed to reversibly inactivate microorganisms to facilitate storage. One such method of removal is freeze-drying, which is considered a gentle dehydration method. To facilitate cell survival during drying, the cells are often formulated beforehand. The formulation forms a matrix that embeds the cells and protects them from various harmful stresses imposed on the cells during freezing and drying. We present here a general method to evaluate the survival rate of cells after freeze-drying and we illustrate it by comparing the results obtained with four different formulations: the disaccharide sucrose, the sucrose derived polymer Ficoll PM400, and the respective polysaccharides hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), on two strains of bacteria, P. putida KT2440 and A. chlorophenolicus A6. In this work we illustrate how to prepare formulations for freeze-drying and how to investigate the mechanisms of cell survival after rehydration by characterizing the formulation using of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), surface tension measurements, X-ray analysis, and electron microscopy and relating those data to survival rates. The polymers were chosen to get a monomeric structure of the respective polysaccharide resembling sucrose to a varying degrees. Using this method setup we showed that polymers can support cell survival as effectively as disaccharides if certain physical properties of the formulation are controlled(1). PMID:23963171

Wessman, Per; Håkansson, Sebastian; Leifer, Klaus; Rubino, Stefano

2013-08-03

20

Formulations for Freeze-drying of Bacteria and Their Influence on Cell Survival.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cellular water can be removed to reversibly inactivate microorganisms to facilitate storage. One such method of removal is freeze-drying, which is considered a gentle dehydration method. To facilitate cell survival during drying, the cells are often formulated beforehand. The formulation forms a matrix that embeds the cells and protects them from various harmful stresses imposed on the cells during freezing and drying. We present here a general method to evaluate the survival rate of cells after freeze-drying and we illustrate it by comparing the results obtained with four different formulations: the disaccharide sucrose, the sucrose derived polymer Ficoll PM400, and the respective polysaccharides hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), on two strains of bacteria, P. putida KT2440 and A. chlorophenolicus A6. In this work we illustrate how to prepare formulations for freeze-drying and how to investigate the mechanisms of cell survival after rehydration by characterizing the formulation using of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), surface tension measurements, X-ray analysis, and electron microscopy and relating those data to survival rates. The polymers were chosen to get a monomeric structure of the respective polysaccharide resembling sucrose to a varying degrees. Using this method setup we showed that polymers can support cell survival as effectively as disaccharides if certain physical properties of the formulation are controlled(1).

Wessman P; Håkansson S; Leifer K; Rubino S

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Effects of petroleum and metal contaminated soil on plants and earthworms: Survival and bioaccumulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Earthworms, Eisenia foetida, and bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon, were used in the laboratory to test the toxicity of contaminated sediment taken from a small fresh water lake in North Carolina. This work was part of an investigation to determine the potential effects of upland disposal of this sediment. The contaminated sediment contained As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, Zn and petroleum hydrocarbons at concentrations much greater than nearby soils. Test cylinders were planted with bermudagrass; earthworms were added 30 days later. Both species were harvested at 60 days, weighed and submitted for chemical analyses. Cynodon was affected by the contaminated sediment but grew well in the mixtures of sediment and upland soil. Similar results were obtained with the Eisenia. These species did not accumulate hydrocarbons from the sediment with the possible exception of pyrene. The metals Cd, Pb, and Zn were elevated in plants exposed to the contaminated sediment. Earthworms exposed to this sediment accumulated Pb to concentrations greater than animals exposed to the manure control. This work demonstrated that a contaminated freshwater sediment was not toxic to plants or earthworms and that most petroleum hydrocarbons were not accumulated. The only metal that may be of some concern was Pb

1993-01-01

22

Effects of Freeze Branding on Growth and Survival of Coho Salmon Fry.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the effect of freeze branding on the survival and growth of coho salmon fry. At the time of marking, fry averaged 42.9 mm in length and weighed 0.87 g. Although initial handling mortalities were relatively high (8.3%), branding did not signifi...

E. E. Knudsen G. B. Pauley R. J. Peters

1994-01-01

23

Why people 'freeze' in an emergency: temporal and cognitive constraints on survival responses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Many witnesses attest that victims of a disaster often perish despite reasonable possibilities for escaping because their behavior during the initial moments of the accident was inappropriate to the situation. Frequently witnesses report victims 'freezing' in the face of danger. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to identify the possible factors underpinning 'freezing' behavior in disaster victims. METHODS: Witness testimonies, survivor debriefings, and official inquiry reports from shipwreck and aircraft emergencies were analyzed for their behavioral content. RESULTS: It was found that 'freezing' behavior was a frequently cited response by witnesses to a disaster. 'Freezing' causes evacuation delays which increase the danger, establishing a closed loop process and further extending evacuation delays. This behavior can be accounted for by considering the temporal constraints on cognitive information processing in a rapidly unfolding, real-time environment. CONCLUSION: Cognitive limitations help to explain why survival training works and why there is a need for a survival culture to be developed. They also highlight the need to understand the behavior of children under threat as being different from that of adults due to the different stages of their neurological and cognitive development. There are implications for the development of proactive, rather than passive, life support equipment.

Leach J

2004-06-01

24

Effects of pentachlorophenol on survival of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) and phagocytosis by their immunoactive coelomocytes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris, exposed for 96 h to filter paper saturated with five nominal concentrations of pentachlorophenol, exhibited a 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of 25.0 {micro}g PCP/cm{sup 2} and corresponding whole worm body burden-based 50% lethal dose (LD50) of 877.7 {micro}g PCP/g dry mass. Linear regression modeling showed that worms increased body concentrations (BC = {micro}g PCP/g dry tissue mass) with increasing exposure concentrations (EC) according to BC = 113.5 + 29.5EC. Phagocytosis of yeast cells by immunoactive coelomocytes was suppressed only at body concentrations (863.3 {micro}g PCP/g dry mass) that approximated the calculated LD50 and overlapped those demonstrating lethality, indicating a sharp transition between sublethal and lethal toxicity. An exposure concentration of 15 {micro}g PCP/cm{sup 2} produced significant suppression of phagocytosis of yeast cells by immunoactive coelomocytes. However, the average measured body burden from this group approximated the estimated LD50, indicating a sharp toxic response slope. Exposure to 10 {micro}g PCP/cm{sup 2} with a corresponding body concentration of 501.3 {micro}g PCP/g dry mass did not affect phagocytosis. The importance of body burden data is emphasized.

Giggleman, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Venables, B.J. [TRAC Labs., Denton, TX (United States)

1998-12-01

25

Inflorescences of alpine cushion plants freeze autonomously and may survive subzero temperatures by supercooling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Freezing patterns in the high alpine cushion plants Saxifraga bryoides, Saxifraga caesia, Saxifraga moschata and Silene acaulis were studied by infrared thermography at three reproductive stages (bud, anthesis, fruit development). The single reproductive shoots of a cushion froze independently in all four species at every reproductive stage. Ice formation caused lethal damage to the respective inflorescence. After ice nucleation, which occurred mainly in the stalk or the base of the reproductive shoot, ice propagated throughout that entire shoot, but not into neighboring shoots. However, anatomical ice barriers within cushions were not detected. The naturally occurring temperature gradient within the cushion appeared to interrupt ice propagation thermally. Consequently, every reproductive shoot needed an autonomous ice nucleation event to initiate freezing. Ice nucleation was not only influenced by minimum temperatures but also by the duration of exposure. At moderate subzero exposure temperatures (-4.3 to -7.7 °C) the number of frozen inflorescences increased exponentially. Due to efficient supercooling, single reproductive shoots remained unfrozen down to -17.4 °C (cooling rate 6 K h?¹). Hence, the observed freezing pattern may be advantageous for frost survival of individual inflorescences and reproductive success of high alpine cushion plants, when during episodic summer frosts damage can be avoided by supercooling. PMID:21151351

Hacker, Jürgen; Ladinig, Ursula; Wagner, Johanna; Neuner, Gilbert

2011-01-01

26

Inflorescences of alpine cushion plants freeze autonomously and may survive subzero temperatures by supercooling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Freezing patterns in the high alpine cushion plants Saxifraga bryoides, Saxifraga caesia, Saxifraga moschata and Silene acaulis were studied by infrared thermography at three reproductive stages (bud, anthesis, fruit development). The single reproductive shoots of a cushion froze independently in all four species at every reproductive stage. Ice formation caused lethal damage to the respective inflorescence. After ice nucleation, which occurred mainly in the stalk or the base of the reproductive shoot, ice propagated throughout that entire shoot, but not into neighboring shoots. However, anatomical ice barriers within cushions were not detected. The naturally occurring temperature gradient within the cushion appeared to interrupt ice propagation thermally. Consequently, every reproductive shoot needed an autonomous ice nucleation event to initiate freezing. Ice nucleation was not only influenced by minimum temperatures but also by the duration of exposure. At moderate subzero exposure temperatures (-4.3 to -7.7 °C) the number of frozen inflorescences increased exponentially. Due to efficient supercooling, single reproductive shoots remained unfrozen down to -17.4 °C (cooling rate 6 K h?¹). Hence, the observed freezing pattern may be advantageous for frost survival of individual inflorescences and reproductive success of high alpine cushion plants, when during episodic summer frosts damage can be avoided by supercooling.

Hacker J; Ladinig U; Wagner J; Neuner G

2011-01-01

27

Earthworm survival and behavior results from a Clark Fork River Superfund site: Grant-Kohrs Ranch N.H.S., Montana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concentrations of heavy metals in sediments and soils deposited along the floodplain of the Clark Fork River, within the boundaries of the Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site, have exceeded those typically found in uncontaminated soils. Upstream mining activities along the Clark Fork River in the Deer Lodge Valley, Montana, have produced substantial quantities of mine waste which have been deposited throughout the watershed. Releases and re-releases of these contaminated substances continue to occur, and appear to be preventing the germination and establishment of critical riparian plant species and depressing soil microbe activity. Slickens, bare spots devoid of all vegetation, occur frequently in the floodplain along the Clark Fork River. This research investigates the toxicity of slicken soils using a series of earthworm (Eisenia foetida andrei) survival and behavior tests. In dilution tests, earthworm survival was reduced significantly in as little as 12.5% slicken soil. Results from earthworm behavior tests currently being conducted using non-lethal slicken soil dilutions will also be presented.

Rader, B.R.; Nimmo, D.R.; Chapman, P.L. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1995-12-31

28

Survival of freeze dried Lactobacillus plantarum in instant fruit powders and reconstituted fruit juices  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to investigate the survival of freeze dried Lactobacillus plantarum cells mixed with several freeze dried instant fruit powders (strawberry, pomegranate, blackcurrant and cranberry) during storage for 12months as well as after reconstitution with water each month. Inulin and gum arabic were also added to the instant fruit powders at two levels (10% and 20% w/w of dry weight) to improve the cell survival and functional properties of the product. The best cell survival over the 12months of storage was observed for the blackcurrant powder (almost no decrease) followed by strawberry (~0.3 log decrease), pomegranate (~0.9 log decrease), whereas the worst survival was obtained in cranberry powder (~4.5 logs). To explain these results multiple regression analysis was conducted with the log decrease [log10N0month?log10N12months] as the dependent variable and water activity, pH, citric acid, dietary fibre and total phenol as the independent variables. The results indicated that among all the examined factors, the [log10N0month?log10N12months] depended only on the water activity (P<0.05). Inulin and gum arabic demonstrated a substantial protective effect on cell survival (1–1.5 log) in the case of cranberry, which was likely due to a physical interaction between the cells and the carbohydrates. After reconstituting the dried fruit powders at room temperature and measuring cell viability for up to 4h, it was shown that in the case of strawberry juice there was no decrease, and very little in the case of pomegranate and blackcurrant juices (<0.5 log). On the other hand, a significant decrease was observed for cranberry juice (P<0.05), which increased as the storage time of the dried cranberry powder increased, indicating that the cells became more susceptible with prolonged storage. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the main factors influencing cell survival were water activity and pH, while citric acid, dietary fibre and total phenol did not have an effect. Furthermore, inulin and gum arabic addition did not have a significant (P>0.05) effect upon reconstitution of the dried fruit powder. This study showed that instant juice powders are very good carriers of probiotic cells and constitute good alternatives to highly acidic fruit juices.

Nualkaekul S; Deepika G; Charalampopoulos D

2012-10-01

29

Freeze tolerance, supercooling points and ice formation: comparative studies on the subzero temperature survival of limno-terrestrial tardigrades.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many limno-terrestrial tardigrades live in unstable habitats where they experience extreme environmental conditions such as drought, heat and subzero temperatures. Although their stress tolerance is often related only to the anhydrobiotic state, tardigrades can also be exposed to great daily temperature fluctuations without dehydration. Survival of subzero temperatures in an active state requires either the ability to tolerate the freezing of body water or mechanisms to decrease the freezing point. Considering freeze tolerance in tardigrades as a general feature, we studied the survival rate of nine tardigrade species originating from polar, temperate and tropical regions by cooling them at rates of 9, 7, 5, 3 and 1 degrees C h(-1) down to -30 degrees C then returning them to room temperature at 10 degrees C h(-1). The resulting moderate survival after fast and slow cooling rates and low survival after intermediate cooling rates may indicate the influence of a physical effect during fast cooling and the possibility that they are able to synthesize cryoprotectants during slow cooling. Differential scanning calorimetry of starved, fed and cold acclimatized individuals showed no intraspecific significant differences in supercooling points and ice formation. Although this might suggest that metabolic and biochemical preparation are non-essential prior to subzero temperature exposure, the increased survival rate with slower cooling rates gives evidence that tardigrades still use some kind of mechanism to protect their cellular structure from freezing injury without influencing the freezing temperature. These results expand our current understanding of freeze tolerance in tardigrades and will lead to a better understanding of their ability to survive subzero temperature conditions.

Hengherr S; Worland MR; Reuner A; Brümmer F; Schill RO

2009-03-01

30

Freeze tolerance, supercooling points and ice formation: comparative studies on the subzero temperature survival of limno-terrestrial tardigrades.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many limno-terrestrial tardigrades live in unstable habitats where they experience extreme environmental conditions such as drought, heat and subzero temperatures. Although their stress tolerance is often related only to the anhydrobiotic state, tardigrades can also be exposed to great daily temperature fluctuations without dehydration. Survival of subzero temperatures in an active state requires either the ability to tolerate the freezing of body water or mechanisms to decrease the freezing point. Considering freeze tolerance in tardigrades as a general feature, we studied the survival rate of nine tardigrade species originating from polar, temperate and tropical regions by cooling them at rates of 9, 7, 5, 3 and 1 degrees C h(-1) down to -30 degrees C then returning them to room temperature at 10 degrees C h(-1). The resulting moderate survival after fast and slow cooling rates and low survival after intermediate cooling rates may indicate the influence of a physical effect during fast cooling and the possibility that they are able to synthesize cryoprotectants during slow cooling. Differential scanning calorimetry of starved, fed and cold acclimatized individuals showed no intraspecific significant differences in supercooling points and ice formation. Although this might suggest that metabolic and biochemical preparation are non-essential prior to subzero temperature exposure, the increased survival rate with slower cooling rates gives evidence that tardigrades still use some kind of mechanism to protect their cellular structure from freezing injury without influencing the freezing temperature. These results expand our current understanding of freeze tolerance in tardigrades and will lead to a better understanding of their ability to survive subzero temperature conditions. PMID:19251996

Hengherr, S; Worland, M R; Reuner, A; Brümmer, F; Schill, R O

2009-03-01

31

Water sorption properties, molecular mobility and probiotic survival in freeze dried protein-carbohydrate matrices.  

Science.gov (United States)

The moisture uptake and molecular mobility of freeze-dried powders containing whey protein isolate-carbohydrate matrices (1WPI:2maltodextrin; 1WPI:1maltodextrin:1d-glucose; and 1WPI:1maltodextrin:1l-glucose) and encapsulated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) in these matrices were investigated at 25 °C and 33% and 70% relative humidity (RH). The inactivation rate constant for probiotics in freeze-dried matrices were positively correlated (R(2) = 0.98) to moisture uptake and molecular mobility measured by NMR relaxometry. The stability of probiotics in glassy protein-carbohydrate matrices was dependent on the composition of the matrix. The partial substitution of maltodextrin with glucose (d- or l-) which improved microbial survival at 33% RH was related to the reduced molecular mobility and lower water uptake of the matrix. This study suggests that moisture uptake properties and molecular mobility of the matrix composition, as opposed to the relative humidity of the environment, are better determinants of probiotic viability during storage. Dynamic vapour sorption and NMR relaxometry are promising tools to assist in the selection of protein-carbohydrate matrices for enhancing probiotic viability during storage. PMID:23851914

Hoobin, Pamela; Burgar, Iko; Zhu, Shouchuang; Ying, Danyang; Sanguansri, Luz; Augustin, Mary Ann

2013-08-21

32

Water sorption properties, molecular mobility and probiotic survival in freeze dried protein-carbohydrate matrices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The moisture uptake and molecular mobility of freeze-dried powders containing whey protein isolate-carbohydrate matrices (1WPI:2maltodextrin; 1WPI:1maltodextrin:1d-glucose; and 1WPI:1maltodextrin:1l-glucose) and encapsulated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) in these matrices were investigated at 25 °C and 33% and 70% relative humidity (RH). The inactivation rate constant for probiotics in freeze-dried matrices were positively correlated (R(2) = 0.98) to moisture uptake and molecular mobility measured by NMR relaxometry. The stability of probiotics in glassy protein-carbohydrate matrices was dependent on the composition of the matrix. The partial substitution of maltodextrin with glucose (d- or l-) which improved microbial survival at 33% RH was related to the reduced molecular mobility and lower water uptake of the matrix. This study suggests that moisture uptake properties and molecular mobility of the matrix composition, as opposed to the relative humidity of the environment, are better determinants of probiotic viability during storage. Dynamic vapour sorption and NMR relaxometry are promising tools to assist in the selection of protein-carbohydrate matrices for enhancing probiotic viability during storage.

Hoobin P; Burgar I; Zhu S; Ying D; Sanguansri L; Augustin MA

2013-09-01

33

Survival of Ice Nucleation-Active and Genetically Engineered Non-Ice-Nucleating Pseudomonas syringae Strains after Freezing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The survival after freezing of ice nucleation-active (INA) and genetically engineered non-INA strains of Pseudomonas syringae was compared. Each strain was applied to oat seedlings and allowed to colonize for 3 days, and the plants were subjected to various freezing temperatures. Plant leaves were harvested before and after freezing on two consecutive days, and bacterial populations were determined. Populations of the INA wild-type strain increased 15-fold in the 18 h after the oat plants incurred frost damage at -5 and -12 degrees C. Plants colonized by the non-INA strain were undamaged at -5 degrees C and exhibited no changes in population size after two freeze trials. As freezing temperatures were lowered (-7, -9, and -12 degrees C), oat plants colonized by the non-INA strain suffered increased frost damage concomitant with bacterial population increases following 18 h. At -12 degrees C, both strains behaved identically. The data show a relationship between frost damage to plants and increased bacterial population size during the following 18 h, indicating a potential competitive advantage of INA strains of P. syringae over non-INA strains in mild freezing environments.

Buttner MP; Amy PS

1989-07-01

34

Effect of microencapsulation methods on the survival of freeze-dried Bifidobacterium bifidum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Six kinds of Bifidobacterium bifidum microcapsules were prepared by extrusion methods, emulsion methods and coacervation methods. Effects of preparation methods on the survival of encapsulated B. bifidum were examined. Results showed that microcapsules prepared by emulsion method with alginate and chitosan exhibited the best protection for B. bifidum. The diameter was 10-20 µm, encapsulation efficiency was 90.36% and the live cell amount was 3.01 × 10? cfu/g after freeze-drying. Encapsulated cells exhibited significantly higher resistance to artificial gastrointestinal juice and the cell numbers were above 10? cfu/g after exposure to simulated gastric (pH 1.2) and bile salt (1%, w/v). Cell numbers of microencapsulated B. bifidum was 8.61 × 10? cfu/g after storage at 37°C, relative humidity 60%-65% for 3 months. Results indicated microcapsules prepared with alginate and chitosan by emulsion method could successfully protect B. bifidum against adverse conditions and it might be useful in the delivery of probiotic cultures as a functional food.

Zhang F; Li XY; Park HJ; Zhao M

2013-01-01

35

Survival and behaviour of the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrodrilus rubidus from arsenate-conaminated and non-contaminated sites.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two arsenic- and heavy metal-contaminated mine-spoil sites, at Carrock Fell, Cumbria and Devon Great Consols Mine, Devon, were found to support populations of the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister and Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny). L. rubellus and D. rubidus collected from the Devon site and an uncontaminated site were kept for 28 days in uncontaminated soil and in soil containing sodium arsenate (494 mg As kg(-1)). The state of the specimens was recorded every 7 days using a semi-quantitative assessment of earthworm health (condition index, C. I.). The C. I. remained high for all specimens except those of L. rubellus and D. rubidus from uncontaminated sites, which displayed 60 and 10% mortality, respectively. L. rubellus collected from the Carrock Fell site, and L. rubellus and D. rubidus from an uncontaminated site, burrowed as rapidly into soil containing up to 1235 mg As kg(-1) in the form of sodium arsenate as into uncontaminated soil when placed on the soil surface. When earthworms were allowed a choice between uncontaminated soil and soil contaminated with sodium arsenate in concentrations of up to 1235 mg As kg(-1), the threshold concentration for avoidance of contaminated soil was lower for L. rubellus and D. rubidus from uncontaminated soil than for specimens from contaminated soil. There was no significant effect of pH on soil discrimination. The LC50 concentration of As for L. rubellus from Devon Great Consols was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than for L. rubellus from the uncontaminated site: 1510 and 96 mg As kg(-1), respectively.

Langdon CJ; Piearce TG; Meharg AA; Semple KT

2001-07-01

36

Anatomical regulation of ice nucleation and cavitation helps trees to survive freezing and drought stress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Water in the xylem, the water transport system of plants, is vulnerable to freezing and cavitation, i.e. to phase change from liquid to ice or gaseous phase. The former is a threat in cold and the latter in dry environmental conditions. Here we show that a small xylem conduit diameter, which has previously been shown to be associated with lower cavitation pressure thus making a plant more drought resistant, is also associated with a decrease in the temperature required for ice nucleation in the xylem. Thus the susceptibility of freezing and cavitation are linked together in the xylem of plants. We explain this linkage by the regulation of the sizes of the nuclei catalysing freezing and drought cavitation. Our results offer better understanding of the similarities of adaption of plants to cold and drought stress, and offer new insights into the ability of plants to adapt to the changing environment.

Lintunen A; Hölttä T; Kulmala M

2013-01-01

37

Anatomical regulation of ice nucleation and cavitation helps trees to survive freezing and drought stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water in the xylem, the water transport system of plants, is vulnerable to freezing and cavitation, i.e. to phase change from liquid to ice or gaseous phase. The former is a threat in cold and the latter in dry environmental conditions. Here we show that a small xylem conduit diameter, which has previously been shown to be associated with lower cavitation pressure thus making a plant more drought resistant, is also associated with a decrease in the temperature required for ice nucleation in the xylem. Thus the susceptibility of freezing and cavitation are linked together in the xylem of plants. We explain this linkage by the regulation of the sizes of the nuclei catalysing freezing and drought cavitation. Our results offer better understanding of the similarities of adaption of plants to cold and drought stress, and offer new insights into the ability of plants to adapt to the changing environment. PMID:23778457

Lintunen, A; Hölttä, T; Kulmala, M

2013-01-01

38

Freeze tolerance and accumulation of cryoprotectants in the enchytraeid Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta) from Greenland and Europe  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The freeze tolerance and accumulation of cryoprotectants was investigated in three geographically different populations of the enchytraeid Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta). E. albidus is widely distributed from the high Arctic to temperate Western Europe. Our results show that E. albidus is freeze tolerant, with freeze tolerance varying extensively between Greenlandic and European populations. Two populations from sub Arctic (Nuuk) and high Arctic Greenland (Zackenberg) survived freezing at -15 degrees C, whereas only 30% of a German population survived this temperature. When frozen, E. albidus responded by catabolising glycogen to glucose, which likely acted as a cryoprotectant. The average glucose concentrations were similar in the three populations when worms were frozen at -2 degrees C, approximately 50 microg glucose mg(-1) tissue dry weight (DW). At -14 degrees C the glucose concentrations increased to between 110 and 170 microg mg(-1) DW in worms from Greenland. The average glycogen content of worms from Zackenberg and Nuuk were about 300 microg mg(-1) DW, but only 230 microg mg(-1) DW in worms from Germany showing that not all glycogen was catabolised during the experiment. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR) was used to screen for other putative cryoprotectants. Proline, glutamine and alanine were up regulated in frozen worms at -2 degrees C but only in relatively small concentrations suggesting that they were of little significance for freeze survival. The present study confirms earlier reports that freeze tolerant enchytraeids, like other freeze tolerant oligochaete earthworms, accumulate high concentrations of glucose as a primary cryoprotectant.

Slotsbo, Stine; Maraldo, Kristine

2008-01-01

39

The effect of protective ingredients on the survival of immobilized cells of Streptococcus thermophilus to air and freeze-drying  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Streptococcus thermophilus cultures were grown either on trehalose or lactose, immobilized in alginate beads, dipped in various protective solutions and dried by either convection air-drying (CAD) or freeze-drying (FD). Immobilized cultures dipped in the 0.1% peptone solution did not show good survival to CAD or FD, as mortality was over 99%. There was no significant difference in mortality levels, in both methods of drying, when lactose or trehalose were used as protecti (more) ve ingredients. The highest survival levels (50 to 98%) were with a whey-sucrose protective medium, but this was potentially related to a higher pH and solids of the solution. Mortality levels were higher in FD than CAD, and this did not appear to be related to the fact that FD cultures had lower residual moisture contents than those dried under CAD. Cells grown on lactose had slightly higher survival rates to drying than those obtained from CAD. Trehalose-positive and trehalose-negative cultures of S. thermophilus did not show different mortality patterns to CAD or FD.

Champagne, Claude P.; Gardner, Nancy J.

2001-12-01

40

Effect of NaHCO3, MgSO4, Sodium Ascorbate, Sodium Glutamate, Phosphate Buffer on Survival of Lactobacillus bulgaricus During Freeze-drying  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, the experiments were investigated the effects of different concentrations of cryoprotective agents, such as NaHCO3, MgSO4, sodium ascorbate, sodium glutamate, phosphate buffer, respectively, which used on survival of Lactobacillus bulgaricus during freeze drying. The number of viable cells and survival ratio were measured by the plate count method. The results were as follows: cryoprotective agents played important roles in survival of Lactobacillus bulgaricus during freeze drying. When the relative volume of phosphate buffer was 1.5 (v/v), the number of viable cells was highest, while the survival ratio reached highest, the concentration of sodium ascorbate was 4.5%.

He Chen; Juan Wang; Qian Luo; Guowei Shu

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Responses of earthworm to aluminum toxicity in latosol.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Excess aluminum (Al) in soils due to acid rain leaching is toxic to water resources and harmful to soil organisms and plants. This study investigated adverse impacts of Al levels upon earthworms (Eisenia fetida) from the latosol (acidic red soil). Laboratory experiments were performed to examine the survival and avoidance of earthworms from high Al concentrations and investigate the response of earthworms upon Al toxicity at seven different Al concentrations that ranged from 0 to 300 mg kg(-1) over a 28-day period. Our study showed that the rate of the earthworm survival was 100 % within the first 7 days and decreased as time elapsed, especially for the Al concentrations at 200 and 300 mg kg(-1). A very good linear correlation existed between the earthworm avoidance and the soil Al concentration. There was no Al toxicity to earthworms with the Al concentration ? 50 mg kg(-1), and the toxicity started with the Al concentration ? 100 mg kg(-1). Low Al concentration (i.e., <50 mg kg(-1)) enhanced the growth of the earthworms, while high Al concentration (>100 mg kg(-1)) retarded the growth of the earthworms. The weight of earthworms and the uptake of Al by earthworms increased with the Al concentrations from 0 to 50 mg kg(-1) and decreased with the Al concentrations from 50 to 300 mg kg(-1). The protein content in the earthworms decreased with the Al concentrations from 0 to 100 mg kg(-1) and increased from 100 to 300 mg kg(-1). In contrast, the catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in the earthworms increased with the Al concentrations from 0 to 100 mg kg(-1) and decreased from 100 to 300 mg kg(-1). The highest CAT and SOD activities and lowest protein content were found at the Al concentration of 100 mg kg(-1). Results suggest that a high level of Al content in latosol was harmful to earthworms.

Zhang J; Yu J; Ouyang Y; Xu H

2013-02-01

42

Radioactive elements and earthworms in contaminated soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Earthworms are one of the indispensable soil animals which treat soil with letting it through their gut and help increasing soil fertility. The effect of radioactive elements and comparative effect of heavy metals to the vital functions of earthworms were determined in laboratory conditions. Experiments were continued for a month, and first of all, each soil type, grey-brown soil from Ramana iodine plant territory of Baku city, brown soil from Aluminum plant territory of Ganja city, aborigine grey-brown soil of Absheron peninsula, treated with Ra and U salts as model variants and brown soil of Ganja city was analyzed by gamma-spectrometer for radionuclide determining at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. Earthworms (Nicodrilus Caliginosus Sav.trapezoides) aboriginal for Absheron peninsula and plant residues were added to the soil. At the end of the month the biomass, survival value, coprolite allocation value, food activity and catalase value in earthworms and in soil were determined. The gamma-spectrometric analysis results gave interesting values in coprolites, soils which had been treated through the earthworms' gut. In comparison with the initial variants in experimental results more percent of radioactivity was gathered in coprolites. By this way earthworms absorbed most of radioactive elements and allocated them as coprogenous substances on the upper layer of soil. During absorbing, some percents of radioactive elements were also gathered in gut cells of the earthworms. Thereby determination of some vital functions of earthworms was expedient. Thus, by the instrumentality of these experiments we can use earthworms for biodiagnosis and for bioremediation of contaminated soils with radionuclides and heavy metals.

2010-01-01

43

Responses of earthworm to aluminum toxicity in latosol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Excess aluminum (Al) in soils due to acid rain leaching is toxic to water resources and harmful to soil organisms and plants. This study investigated adverse impacts of Al levels upon earthworms (Eisenia fetida) from the latosol (acidic red soil). Laboratory experiments were performed to examine the survival and avoidance of earthworms from high Al concentrations and investigate the response of earthworms upon Al toxicity at seven different Al concentrations that ranged from 0 to 300 mg kg(-1) over a 28-day period. Our study showed that the rate of the earthworm survival was 100 % within the first 7 days and decreased as time elapsed, especially for the Al concentrations at 200 and 300 mg kg(-1). A very good linear correlation existed between the earthworm avoidance and the soil Al concentration. There was no Al toxicity to earthworms with the Al concentration ? 50 mg kg(-1), and the toxicity started with the Al concentration ? 100 mg kg(-1). Low Al concentration (i.e., 100 mg kg(-1)) retarded the growth of the earthworms. The weight of earthworms and the uptake of Al by earthworms increased with the Al concentrations from 0 to 50 mg kg(-1) and decreased with the Al concentrations from 50 to 300 mg kg(-1). The protein content in the earthworms decreased with the Al concentrations from 0 to 100 mg kg(-1) and increased from 100 to 300 mg kg(-1). In contrast, the catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in the earthworms increased with the Al concentrations from 0 to 100 mg kg(-1) and decreased from 100 to 300 mg kg(-1). The highest CAT and SOD activities and lowest protein content were found at the Al concentration of 100 mg kg(-1). Results suggest that a high level of Al content in latosol was harmful to earthworms. PMID:22645004

Zhang, Jia'en; Yu, Jiayu; Ouyang, Ying; Xu, Huaqin

2012-05-30

44

Teacher's Guide for Earthworms.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This teacher's guide on earthworms includes four major sections: (1) introduction, (2) caring for earthworms in the classroom, (3) classroom activities, and (4) the appendix. The introduction includes information concerning grade level, scheduling, materials, obtaining earthworms, field study, classroom clean-up, and records. Caring for…

Bruno, Merle S.; And Others

45

Earthworms and Soil Pollutants  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short review, we describe recent studies concerning the relationship between earthworms and soil pollutants, and discuss the possibility of using the earthworm as a bio-monitoring organism for soil pollution.

Hirano, Takeshi; Tamae, Kazuyoshi

2011-01-01

46

Earthworms and Soil Pollutants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short review, we describe recent studies concerning the relationship between earthworms and soil pollutants, and discuss the possibility of using the earthworm as a bio-monitoring organism for soil pollution.

Takeshi Hirano; Kazuyoshi Tamae

2011-01-01

47

Determination of multi-walled carbon nanotube bioaccumulation in earthworms measured by a microwave-based detection technique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reliable quantification techniques for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are limited. In this study, a new procedure was developed for quantifying multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) based on freeze drying and microwave-induced heating. Specifically, earthworms were first processed into a powder by freeze drying. Then, samples were measured by utilizing 10 s exposure to 30 W microwave power. This method showed the potential to quantitatively measure MWNTs in earthworms at low concentrations (~0.1 ?g in 20 mg of earthworm). Also, a simple MWNT bioaccumulation study in earthworms indicated a low bioaccumulation factor of 0.015±0.004. With an appropriate sample processing method and instrumental parameters (power and exposure time), this technique has the potential to quantify MWNTs in a variety of sample types (plants, earthworms, human blood, etc.).

Li S; Irin F; Atore FO; Green MJ; Cañas-Carrell JE

2013-02-01

48

EARTHWORMS AS ECOTOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT TOOLS  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased interest for earthworm research and the need for soil assessment methods has encouraged the use of earthworms as assessment organisms. Earthworms exhibit many advantages for use in assessing the impact of toxic and hazardous materials on soil systems. Earthworms are kno...

49

Survival of Freeze-dried Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus plantarum Related to Their Cellular Fatty Acids Composition during Storage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lactic acid bacteria strains Lactobacillus plantarum CWBI-B534 and Leuconostoc ssp. mesenteroïdes (L. mesenteroïdes) Kenya MRog2 were produced in bioreactor, concentrated, with or without cryoprotectants. In general, viable population did not change significantly after freeze-drying (p>0.05). In mos...

Coulibaly, Ibourahema; Yao, Amenan Anastasie; Lognay, Georges; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Thonart, Philippe

50

Effects of earthworms density on growth, development and reproduction in Lumbricus rubellus (Hoffm.) and possible consequences for the intrinsic rate of population increase  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, the influence of earthworm density is assessed on the life-history parameters: growth, development, reproduction, and survival of Lumbricus rubellus (Hoffm.). Density ranges from two to nine earthworms in 1-l containers, corresponding to field densities of 300–1350 earthworms m?2. Ear...

Klok, C.

51

Nutrition Studies with Earthworms.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Describes experiments which demonstrate how different diets affect the growth rate of earthworms. Procedures for feeding baby worms are outlined, the analysis of results are discussed, and various modifications of the exercise are provided. (CS)|

Tobaga, Leandro

1980-01-01

52

Determination of arsenic compounds in earthworms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Earthworms and soil collected from six sites in Styria, Austria, were investigated for total arsenic concentrations by ICP-MS and for arsenic compounds by HPLC-ICP-MS. Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 3.2 to 17.9 mg/kg dry weight in the worms and from 5.0 to 79.7 mg/kg dry weight in the soil samples. There was no strict correlation between the total arsenic concentrations in the worms and soil. Arsenic compounds were extracted from soil and a freeze-dried earthworm sample with a methanol/water mixture (9:1, v/v). The extracts were evaporated to dryness, redissolved in water, and chromatographed on an anion- and a cation-exchange column. Arsenic compounds were identified by comparison of the retention times with known standards. Only traces of arsenic acid could be extracted from the soil with the methanol/water (9:1, v/v) mixture. The major arsenic compounds detected in the extracts of the earthworms were arsenous acid and arsenic acid. Arsenobetaine was present as a minor constituent, and traces of dimethylarsinic acid were also detected. Two dimethylarsinoyltribosides were also identified in the extracts by co-chromatography with standard compounds. This is the first report of the presence of dimethylarsinoylribosides in a terrestrial organism. Two other minor arsenic species were present in the extract, but their retention times did not match with the retention times of the available standards.

Geiszinger, A.; Goessler, W.; Kuehnelt, D.; Kosmus, W. [Karl-Franzens-Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. for Analytical Chemistry; Francesconi, K. [Odense Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Biology

1998-08-01

53

Impact of Chlorine, Temperature and Freezing Shock on the Survival Behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Ready-to-Eat Meats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foodborne pathogens continue to pose a potential food safety hazard in ready-to-eat (RTE) meat. Chlorine is commonly used to sanitize processing equipment where Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Ec) may survive and contaminate food products. The objective of this study was to characterize the survival behavior of Ec with different stresses on RTE meats. A multi-strain cocktail of Ec was pre-treated with freezing shock for 15 - 20 h and/or chlorine (0, 25, and 50 ppm) for one hour, and then inoculated onto RTE meat surfaces to obtain about 3.0 log CFU/g. Samples were stored at three abuse temperatures (12?, 18?, and 24?) and Ec was enumerated during the storage. The freezing shock impact was studied using the Ec cocktail stored in a freezer overnight followed by chlorine exposure for one hour. The lag phase and growth rate of Ec were estimated using DMFit (Combase, Baranyi’s model). Results indicated that Ec growth was suppressed by chlorine treatment. Freezing shock was found to have little impact in terms of lag time and growth rate. The lag phase of Ec after exposure to 0 ppm of chlorine (50.3 h) was shorter than that of Ec treated with 25 ppm (54.6 h) and 50 ppm (164.1 h) at 12?. However, the lag phase decreased with an increase in temperature, e.g. at 25 ppm, lag times were 54.6, 51.1 and 48.9 h for 12?, 18? and 24?, respectively. Lag times increased with an increase in chlorine concentration. At 24?, lag times were 15.8, 48.9, and 52.4 h for 0, 25, and 50 ppm, respectively. The growth rate increased with an increase in temperature for 0 and 25 ppm chlorine levels, but decreased at 50 ppm level. Growth rate and lag phase as a function of temperature and chlorine concentration can be described by polynomial models and modified Ratkowsky-type and Zwietering-type models. Results of this study will contribute to risk assessment of RTE meats.

Shiowshuh Sheen; Cheng-An Hwang; Vijay K. Juneja

2012-01-01

54

Functions of earthworm in ecosystem  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As one of the key soil invertebrates, earthworms can greatly impact soil processes, and thus was named as ecosystem engineer . Earthworm activities such as feeding, digestion, excretion, and burrowing, facilitate the formation of various drilosphere in their guts or soils around, through which they alter the biological, chemical and physical processes of the ecosystem. Earthworms act as consumer, decomposer and modulator in ecosystem. The ecological functions of earthworm include: (1) effects on key soil ecosystem processes such as decomposition of soil organic matters and nutrient cycling; (2) effects on soil chemical and physical properties; and (3) interaction with plants, microorganisms and other animals. Earthworm activities and their functions in ecosystem are determined by various factors such as ecological groups of earthworms, population size, vegetation, parent materials of soil, climate, time scale, and history of soil utilization. The development of earthworm ecology was constrained by the complex feature of soil, the scarce knowledge of natural history and biogeography of earthworms, and the low efficiency of approaches in field manipulation of earthworm community. We suggest that new technologies such as the C and N isotope technique for nu-trient cycling and the image analysis approaches for soil micro-structure should be applied on earthworm ecological research in order to better understand the functions of earthworms.

Zhang Weixin; Chen Dima; Zhao Cancan

55

Exposure to extremely low frequency (50 Hz) electromagnetic field changes the survival rate and morphometric characteristics of neurosecretory neurons of the earthworm Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta) under illumination stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An in vivo model was set up to establish the behavioral stress response (rate of survival) and morphometric characteristics of A1 protocerebral neurosecretory neurons (cell size) of Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta) as a result of the synergetic effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF - 50 Hz, 50 ?T, 17 V/m and 50 Hz, 150 ?T, 17 V/m, respectively) and constant illumination (420-450 lux). If combined, these two stressors significantly (p<0.05) increased the survival rate of E. foetida in the 150 ?T-exposed animals, because of delayed caudal autotomy reflex, an indicator of stress response. In addition, morphometric analysis indicated that there were changes in the protocerebral neurosecretory cells after exposure to the ELF-EMF. The present data support the view that short-term ELF-EMF exposure in “windows” of intensity is likely to stimulate the immune and neuroendocrine response of E. foetida.

Banova?ki Zorana; Matavulj Milica

2013-01-01

56

Earthworm invasions in the tropics  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects and implications of invasive species in belowground terrestrial ecosystems are not well known in comparison with above-ground terrestrial and marine environments. The study of earthworm invasions in the tropics is limited by a lack of taxonomic knowledge and the potential for loss of species in native habitats due to anthropogenic land use change. Alteration of land use plays a major role in determining the abundance and community structure of earthworms and the establishment of exotic earthworms in areas previously inhabited by worms. Once an exotic species has become established into a new place, site and species characteristics seem to be key factors determining their spread. We reviewed the literature on the distribution and effects of exotic earthworms to understand the interactions of earthworm invasion and land use history in the tropics. Patterns in the abundance, effects and mechanisms of earthworm invasions on ecosystem processes in the tropics are elucidated using Pontoscolex corethrurus as a case study.

Gonza?lez Grizelle; Huang ChingYu; Zou Xiaoming; Rodri?guez Carlos

2006-09-01

57

Removal of mercury from soil with earthworms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Earthworms can live in soils containing high quantities of mercury, lead, and zinc. The worms (Lumbricus terrestris) concentrate these heavy metals in their tissues. The use of these worms to reduce the quantities of mercury and other heavy metals in soils may be practical. In July, 1993, a preliminary study was made using earthworms and soils with differing amounts of mercury, The quantities were 0.0 grams, 0.5 grams, and 1.0 grams of mercury as mercuric chloride. Earthworms were placed into these soils for two or more weeks, then harvested. The worms were rinsed with deionized water, then dissolved in nitric acid. Each sample was prepared for analysis with the addition of HNO{sub 3}, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, potassium permanganate, and hydrozylamine hydrochloride. A Jerome Instrument gold foil analyzer was used to determine levels of mercury after volatilizing the sample with stannous chloride. Worms exposed to contaminated soils remove 50 to 1,400 times as much mercury as do worms in control soils. In a hypothetical case, a site contaminated with one pound of mercury, 1,000 to 45,000 worms would be required to reduce mercury levels to background levels in the soil (about 250 ppb). After harvesting worms in contaminated soil they could be dried (90% of their weight is water), and the mercury regained by chemical processes. Soil conducive to earthworm survival is required. This includes a well aerated loamy soil, proper pH (7.0), and periodic watering and feeding. There are several methods of harvesting worms, including flooding and electricity. Large numbers of worms can be obtained from commercial growers.

Dorfman, D. [Monmouth Coll., West Long Branch, NJ (United States)

1994-12-31

58

Science Sampler: Inquiry with earthworms  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworms wiggle their way into your science curriculum in this fun and hands-on activity. Students experiment with earthworms to gain a better understanding of the process of scientific inquiry and hone their research skills using books and the Internet (see Resources).

Jeanpierre, Bobby; Babyak, Joanne

2006-02-01

59

Potential negative effects of earthworm prey on damage to turfgrass by omnivorous mole crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The severity of damage to host plants by omnivorous pests can vary according to the availability of plant and animal prey. Two omnivorous mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder and S. borellii Giglio-Tos, were used to determine if the availability of prey influences damage to hybrid bermudagrass by adult mole crickets. Experiments were conducted in arenas with either grass alone (control), grass plus one mole cricket, grass plus earthworms (Eisenia fetida Savigny), or grass with earthworms and a mole cricket. Root growth variables (e.g., volume, dry weight) after 4 wk and weekly measurements of top growth were compared among the treatments. Surprisingly, bermudagrass infested with either mole cricket species caused no significant reduction in root growth and a minimal reduction on top growth with S. vicinus compared with controls. Survival of earthworms with S. borellii was significantly lower than survival in the earthworm-only treatment suggesting predation. Survival of earthworms with S. vicinus, however, was not different from the earthworm-only treatment. The addition of earthworm prey with mole crickets did not significantly impact bermudagrass root or shoot growth relative to grass with only mole crickets. Despite no negative impacts from earthworms or mole crickets separately, earthworms plus mole crickets negatively impact several root parameters (e.g., length) suggesting an interaction between these two soil-dwelling invertebrates. Increased use of more target-selective insecticides in turfgrass may increase available prey. This work suggests that alternative prey, when present, may result in a negative impact on turfgrass roots from foraging omnivorous mole crickets. PMID:23068170

Xu, Yao; Held, David W; Hu, Xing Ping

2012-10-01

60

METHOD OF EARTHWORM WITHDRAWAL FROM HABITAT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: agriculture. ^ SUBSTANCE: method includes physical action over substrate with earthworms by using a device of low-power direct current flow supply and further separation of earthworms from the substrate. Electrodes are put in the substrate with earthworms and electric current which has irritating effect over bodies of earthworms is supplied. Earthworms move away from the substrate and they are withdrawn manually. ^ EFFECT: simplification of construction, decrease of material costs, mobility with using various methods of vermiculture. ^ 1 dwg

KUDRJAVTSEV KONSTANTIN ALEKSANDROVICH; SMOLENTSEV VADIM BORISOVICH

 
 
 
 
61

Effects of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc on growth, reproduction and survival of the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny): Assessing the environmental impact of point-source metal contamination in terrestrial ecosystems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The earthworm Eisenia fetida (Annelida: Oligochaeta) was exposed to a geometric series of concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in artificial soil using the OECD recommended protocol. Mortality, growth and cocoon production were measured over 56 days to determine LC50 and EC50 values. No observed effect concentrations (NOECs) were also estimated. Furthermore, the percentage of viable cocoons and number of juveniles emerging per cocoon was recorded. Cocoon production was more sensitive than mortality for all the metals, particularly cadmium and copper for which NOEC reproduction values were an order of magnitude lower than those for NOEC mortality. However, there was no significant effect of metals on the viability of cocoons. The weights of earthworms declined in all treatments (including the controls) during the experiment. This was probably due to the lack of suitable food in the OECD standard soil medium used. It was concluded that future experiments should include animal manure in the test medium. The LC50, EC50 and NOEC values determined in this study were compared with concentrations of metals in soils in the vicinity of a smelting works at Avonmouth, southwest England. The 14-day LC50 for zinc in Eisenia fetida was exceeded in soils covering an area of 75 km2 around the works, compared to 4.2 km2 for copper and 4.7 km2 for lead. Soil values for cadmium did not exceed the LC50 value anywhere in the region. Similar estimates of relative effects on reproduction confirmed that zinc is most likely to be responsible for the absence of earthworms from sites close to the Avonmouth works. However, the OECD standard test overestimated the potential effects of metals on populations, since earthworms can be found as close as 1 km from the smelting works. The discrepancy between test and field observations was probably due to the greater availability of the metals in the artificial soil. PMID:15091707

Spurgeon, D J; Hopkin, S P; Jones, D T

1994-01-01

62

Effects of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc on growth, reproduction and survival of the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny): Assessing the environmental impact of point-source metal contamination in terrestrial ecosystems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The earthworm Eisenia fetida (Annelida: Oligochaeta) was exposed to a geometric series of concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in artificial soil using the OECD recommended protocol. Mortality, growth and cocoon production were measured over 56 days to determine LC50 and EC50 values. No observed effect concentrations (NOECs) were also estimated. Furthermore, the percentage of viable cocoons and number of juveniles emerging per cocoon was recorded. Cocoon production was more sensitive than mortality for all the metals, particularly cadmium and copper for which NOEC reproduction values were an order of magnitude lower than those for NOEC mortality. However, there was no significant effect of metals on the viability of cocoons. The weights of earthworms declined in all treatments (including the controls) during the experiment. This was probably due to the lack of suitable food in the OECD standard soil medium used. It was concluded that future experiments should include animal manure in the test medium. The LC50, EC50 and NOEC values determined in this study were compared with concentrations of metals in soils in the vicinity of a smelting works at Avonmouth, southwest England. The 14-day LC50 for zinc in Eisenia fetida was exceeded in soils covering an area of 75 km2 around the works, compared to 4.2 km2 for copper and 4.7 km2 for lead. Soil values for cadmium did not exceed the LC50 value anywhere in the region. Similar estimates of relative effects on reproduction confirmed that zinc is most likely to be responsible for the absence of earthworms from sites close to the Avonmouth works. However, the OECD standard test overestimated the potential effects of metals on populations, since earthworms can be found as close as 1 km from the smelting works. The discrepancy between test and field observations was probably due to the greater availability of the metals in the artificial soil.

Spurgeon DJ; Hopkin SP; Jones DT

1994-01-01

63

New methodology for determining chronic effects on the earthworm, Eisenia foetida  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study design incorporates the exposure of two generations of earthworms, Eisenia foetida, and includes the sensitive developmental stage following emergence from the cocoon. Adult earthworms (F{sub 0} generation) were exposed to nominal concentrations of 16, 31, 63, 125 and 250 mg A.I. copper sulfate/kg in composted cattle manure for 14 days. Cocoons were collected six times throughout the F{sub 0} generation exposure. Upon collection, individual cocoons were weighed and transferred to separate aliquots of treated and untreated exposure manure and were allowed to hatch. Hatched F{sub 1} earthworms were allowed to mature for 21 days before being counted and individually weighed. Parameters monitored and statistically analyzed were: F{sub 0} burrowing time at initiation, F{sub 0} survival following 7 and 14 days of exposure, cocoon production, cocoon weight, cocoon viability, number and weight of F{sub 1} earthworms at 21 days post-hatch. The following endpoints clearly demonstrated chronic effects in at least the highest exposure concentration: cocoon production, mean cocoon weight, sum of cocoon weights, cocoon viability, number and weight of surviving earthworms (F{sub 1}) at 21 days post-hatch, mean and total earthworm (F{sub 1}) biomass at 21 days post-hatch. Although the acute LC50 of copper sulfate to Eisenia foetida was previously determined to be 1,100 {+-} 380 mg copper sulfate/kg, this methodology indicates that chronic toxicity effects can be observed at substantially lower concentrations.

Garvey, N.A. [Springborn Labs., Inc., Wareham, MA (United States)

1994-12-31

64

For Better Soil, Let Earthworms Toil.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This activity involves elementary students in investigating how earthworms affect soil fertility. An introduction discusses topsoil loss and the connections between soil and earthworm ecology. Materials needed and step-by-step procedure are provided. (LZ)|

Swinehart, Rebecca, Ed.

1995-01-01

65

STUDIES ON THE NATURE OF THE AGENT TRANSMITTING LEUCOSIS OF FOWLS : III. RESISTANCE TO DESICCATION, TO GLYCERIN, TO FREEZING AND THAWING; SURVIVAL AT ICE BOX AND INCUBATOR TEMPERATURES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The filterable agent transmitting leucosis resists drying, retaining its activity for at least 54 days. The conditions of successful desiccation have not been precisely ascertained. By the addition of glycerin the agent can be preserved for at least 104 days. It is not inactivated by freezing in li...

Furth, J.

66

INVASION OF EXOTIC EARTHWORMS INTO ECOSYSTEMS INHABITED BY NATIVE EARTHWORMS  

Science.gov (United States)

The most conspicuous biological invasions in terrestrial ecosystems have been by exotic plants, insects and vertebrates. Invasions by exotic earthworms, although not as well studied, may be increasing with global commerce in agriculture, waste management and bioremediation. A number of cases have be...

67

Effects of Antimicrobial Coatings and Cryogenic Freezing on Survival and Growth of Listeria innocua on Frozen Ready-to-Eat Shrimp during Thawing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes could pose a health risk on frozen ready-to-eat (RTE) shrimp as the pathogen could grow following thawing. In this study, antimicrobial-coating treatments alone, or in combination with cryogenic freezing, were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of Listeria innocua, a surrogate for L. monocytogenes, on RTE shrimp. Cooked RTE shrimp were inoculated with L. innocua at 3 population levels and treated with coating solutions consisting of chitosan, allyl isothiocyanate (AIT), or lauric arginate ester (LAE). The treated shrimp were then stored at -18 °C for 6 d before being thawed at 4, 10, or 22 °C for either 24 or 48 h. Results revealed that antimicrobial coatings achieved approximately 5.5 to 1 log CFU/g reduction of L. innocua on RTE shrimp after the treatments, depending on the inoculated population levels. The coating-treated shrimp samples had significantly (P < 0.05) less L. innocua than controls at each thawing temperature and time. Cryogenic freezing in combination with coating treatments did not achieve synergistic effects against L. innocua. Antimicrobial coatings can help to improve product safety by reducing Listeria on RTE shrimp.

Guo M; Jin TZ; Scullen OJ; Sommers CH

2013-08-01

68

New records of earthworms (Oligochaeta) from Madagascar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available New records of earthworms from Madagascar are presented. This is the first taxonomic report on the earthwormfauna of Madagascar since the last paper of Michaelsen (1931). Altogether data on 14 peregrine earthworm species belonging tofive families are summarized. Together with the native taxa, 33 valid earthworm species have so far been recorded fromMadagascar of which 18 (55%) are endemic in the Island and 15 (45%) introduced.

Razafindrakoto, M.; Csuzdi, Cs.; Rakotofiringa, S.; Blanchart, E.

2010-01-01

69

Earthworm contamination by PCBs and heavy metals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparison is made of soil and earthworm contamination by PCBs and heavy metals between a nature reserve and two sites conditioned by the addition of sewage sludge and compost. The tissues and gut content of the earthworms shows a higher PCB concentration than that of the surrounding soil and also a difference in the fingerprint of some single PCB compounds. Earthworms display a selective accumulation of cadmium and zinc in their tissues and gut content.

Diercxsens, P.; de Weck, D.; Borsinger, N.; Rosset, B.; Tarradellas, J.

1985-01-01

70

Comparison of earthworm responses to petroleum hydrocarbon exposure in aged field contaminated soil using traditional ecotoxicity endpoints and (1)H NMR-based metabolomics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

(1)H NMR metabolomics and conventional ecotoxicity endpoints were used to examine the response of earthworms exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in soil samples collected from a site that was contaminated with crude oil from a pipeline failure in the mid-1990s. The conventional ecotoxicity tests showed that the soils were not acutely toxic to earthworms (average survival ?90%), but some soil samples impaired reproduction endpoints by >50% compared to the field control soil. Additionally, metabolomics revealed significant relationships between earthworm metabolic profiles (collected after 2 or 14 days of exposure) and soil properties including soil PHC concentration. Further comparisons by partial least squares regression revealed a significant relationship between the earthworm metabolomic data (collected after only 2 or 14 days) and the reproduction endpoints (measured after 63 days). Therefore, metabolomic responses measured after short exposure periods may be predictive of chronic, ecologically relevant toxicity endpoints for earthworms exposed to soil contaminants.

Whitfield Åslund M; Stephenson GL; Simpson AJ; Simpson MJ

2013-11-01

71

Comparison of earthworm responses to petroleum hydrocarbon exposure in aged field contaminated soil using traditional ecotoxicity endpoints and (1)H NMR-based metabolomics.  

Science.gov (United States)

(1)H NMR metabolomics and conventional ecotoxicity endpoints were used to examine the response of earthworms exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in soil samples collected from a site that was contaminated with crude oil from a pipeline failure in the mid-1990s. The conventional ecotoxicity tests showed that the soils were not acutely toxic to earthworms (average survival ?90%), but some soil samples impaired reproduction endpoints by >50% compared to the field control soil. Additionally, metabolomics revealed significant relationships between earthworm metabolic profiles (collected after 2 or 14 days of exposure) and soil properties including soil PHC concentration. Further comparisons by partial least squares regression revealed a significant relationship between the earthworm metabolomic data (collected after only 2 or 14 days) and the reproduction endpoints (measured after 63 days). Therefore, metabolomic responses measured after short exposure periods may be predictive of chronic, ecologically relevant toxicity endpoints for earthworms exposed to soil contaminants. PMID:23938450

Whitfield Åslund, Melissa; Stephenson, Gladys L; Simpson, André J; Simpson, Myrna J

2013-08-10

72

The effect of radioecological condition to earthworms and the problems of ecosystems related with them  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The soil and fertility was evident and breathe regarding to living materials which are composed of billions of microorganisms and pedobionts also earthworms; throughout of it plants get all chemical elements. Living materials inhabit in lamella of soil, essentially within the scope of 5 to 15 cm of depth. Soil is a main source of carbon in nature. There is for about 10 times more carbone dioxide here (the breath product of soil biota) than in atmosphere. From carbonic acid of air, plants by its terrestrial part extract carbone and by the help of photosynthesis transform it to carbohydrates and tissues. Nowadays investigations about earthworms which live in strongly polluted soils has appeared that earthworms have found a way of a survival even in such extreme conditions. Earthworms have adapted to the polluted soils. However, bait attractive in appearance to dig in such places it is not necessary: in such a way the worm accumulates heavy metals in the organism. Though earthworms aren't so attractive, and for many are simply unpleasant, for an ecosystem they are invaluable. Thus even dying they don't leave after itself any traces, and digest itself by means of cages containing in them - lysis. This process is called autolysis. Thereby for investigation of strongly polluted areas of Ramana iodine plant as an ecosystem and there is significant point to determine the effect of radiation on earthworms as one of the most important chain of soil bionetwork. So, in this way it was investigated an effect of radioactive pollution to earthworms aboriginal for Absheron peninsula. By the experimentation of earthworms in contaminated soil (with 226Ra, 228Ra, U) in respectively 1 percent, 2,5 percent, 5 percent and 10 percent soil examples during a month, it was established that the earthworms so sensible to the high level of radioactive pollution. Regarding to the data received it has a point that usage of earthworms as bio indicators, in future should help people to apply this original objects in case of remediation of strongly polluted areas of Absheron peninsula.

2010-01-01

73

Molecular biology of freezing tolerance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Winter survival for many kinds of animals involves freeze tolerance, the ability to endure the conversion of about 65% of total body water into extracellular ice and the consequences that freezing imposes including interruption of vital processes (e.g., heartbeat and breathing), cell shrinkage, elevated osmolality, anoxia/ischemia, and potential physical damage from ice. Freeze-tolerant animals include various terrestrially hibernating amphibians and reptiles, many species of insects, and numerous other invertebrates inhabiting both terrestrial and intertidal environments. Well-known strategies of freezing survival include accumulation of low molecular mass carbohydrate cryoprotectants (e.g., glycerol), use of ice nucleating agents/proteins for controlled triggering of ice growth and of antifreeze proteins that inhibit ice recrystallization, and good tolerance of anoxia and dehydration. The present article focuses on more recent advances in our knowledge of the genes and proteins that support freeze tolerance and the metabolic regulatory mechanisms involved. Important roles have been identified for aquaporins and transmembrane channels that move cryoprotectants, heat shock proteins and other chaperones, antioxidant defenses, and metabolic rate depression. Genome and proteome screening has revealed many new potential targets that respond to freezing, in particular implicating cytoskeleton remodeling as a necessary facet of low temperature and/or cell volume adaptation. Key regulatory mechanisms include reversible phosphorylation control of metabolic enzymes and microRNA control of gene transcript expression. These help to remodel metabolism to preserve core functions while suppressing energy expensive metabolic activities such as the cell cycle. All of these advances are providing a much more complete picture of life in the frozen state.

Storey KB; Storey JM

2013-07-01

74

Earthworm activity as a determinant for N2O emission from crop residue  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Earthworm activity may have an effect on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from crop residue. However, the importance of this effect and its main controlling variables are largely unknown. The main objective of this study was to determine under which conditions and to what extent earthworm activity impacts N2O emissions from grass residue. For this purpose we initiated a 90-day (experiment I) and a 50-day (experiment II) laboratory mesocosm experiment using a Typic Fluvaquent pasture soil with silt loam texture. In all treatments, residue was applied, and emissions of N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured. In experiment I the residue was applied on top of the soil surface and we tested (a) the effects of the anecic earthworm species Aporrectodea longa (Ude) vs. the epigeic species Lumbricus rubellus (Hoffmeister) and (b) interactions between earthworm activity and bulk density (1.06 vs. 1.61 g cm-3). In experiment II we tested the effect of L. rubellus after residue was artificially incorporated in the soil. In experiment I, N2O emissions in the presence of earthworms significantly increased from 55.7 to 789.1 ?g N2O-N kg-1 soil (L. rubellus; p<0.001) or to 227.2 ?g N2O-N kg-1 soil (A. longa; p<0.05). This effect was not dependent on bulk density. However, if the residue was incorporated into the soil (experiment II) the earthworm effect disappeared and emissions were higher (1064.2 ?g N2O-N kg-1 soil). At the end of the experiment and after removal of earthworms, a drying/wetting and freezing/thawing cycle resulted in significantly higher emissions of N2O and CO2 from soil with prior presence of L. rubellus. Soil with prior presence of L. rubellus also had higher potential denitrification. We conclude that the main effect of earthworm activity on N2O emissions is through mixing residue into the soil, switching residue decomposition from an aerobic and low denitrification pathway to one with significant denitrification and N2O production. Furthermore, A. longa activity resulted in more stable soil organic matter than L. rubellus.

Rizhiya E; Bertora C; Vliet PCJvan; Kuikman PJ; Faber JH; Groenigen JWvan

2007-08-01

75

Impact of Thermal History on Tolerance of Meloidogyne hapla Second-stage Juveniles to External Freezing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Low temperature induced physiological changes that increased the ability of second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne hapla to survive external freezing. Second-stage juveniles in polyethylene glycol solution were exposed to -4 , 0, 4, or 24 C, and then their survival was determined after ice-induced freezing of the suspensions at - 4 C for 24 hours. Survival was greatest for juveniles exposed to 4 C before freezing. Some juveniles were killed by exposure to - 4 C before freezing of the suspensions. The percentage of juveniles surviving freezing increased from about 30% to 80% within 12 hours of exposure to 4 C. This tolerance of external freezing was lost during subsequent exposure to 24 C. Longer exposures, of 1 to 15 days, to low temperature did not increase the percentage surviving external freezing, as compared to the 12-hour exposure, but reduced the tolerance of external freezing lost during subsequent exposure to 24 C for 48 hours.

Forge TA; Macguidwin AE

1992-06-01

76

Impact of Thermal History on Tolerance of Meloidogyne hapla Second-stage Juveniles to External Freezing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low temperature induced physiological changes that increased the ability of second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne hapla to survive external freezing. Second-stage juveniles in polyethylene glycol solution were exposed to -4 , 0, 4, or 24 C, and then their survival was determined after ice-induced freezing of the suspensions at - 4 C for 24 hours. Survival was greatest for juveniles exposed to 4 C before freezing. Some juveniles were killed by exposure to - 4 C before freezing of the suspensions. The percentage of juveniles surviving freezing increased from about 30% to 80% within 12 hours of exposure to 4 C. This tolerance of external freezing was lost during subsequent exposure to 24 C. Longer exposures, of 1 to 15 days, to low temperature did not increase the percentage surviving external freezing, as compared to the 12-hour exposure, but reduced the tolerance of external freezing lost during subsequent exposure to 24 C for 48 hours. PMID:19282993

Forge, T A; Macguidwin, A E

1992-06-01

77

New earthworm records from Bulgaria (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Elaboration of a small earthworm material collected in different parts of Bulgaria resulted in recording altogether 15 species. Surprisingly, the peregrine Dendrobaena veneta veneta proved to be new to the fauna of Bulgaria and with this, the present list of Bulgarian earthworms consists of 42 confirmed species and subspecies.

Szederjesi, T.

2013-01-01

78

EARTHWORMS AND THEIR IMPACT ON SLUG CONTROL  

Science.gov (United States)

Increases in the anecic earthworm species, Lumbricus terrestris L., have occurred in western Oregon grass fields due to increases in surface residue since the phase-out of open field burning. The use of earthworm toxic chemicals has been reduced through concerns for other important vertebrate and in...

79

Metal accumulation in earthworms inhabiting floodplain soils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main factors contributing to variation in metal concentrations in earthworms inhabiting floodplain soils were investigated in three floodplains differing in inundation frequency and vegetation type. Metal concentrations in epigeic earthworms showed larger seasonal variations than endogeic earthworms. Variation in internal levels between sampling intervals were largest in earthworms from floodplain sites frequently inundated. High and low frequency flooding did not result in consistent changes in internal metal concentrations. Vegetation types of the floodplains did not affect metal levels in Lumbricus rubellus, except for internal Cd levels, which were positively related to the presence of organic litter. Internal levels of most essential metals were higher in spring. In general, no clear patterns in metal uptake were found and repetition of the sampling campaign will probably yield different results. - Metal levels in earthworms show large variation among sites, among seasons and among epigeic and endogeic species.

Vijver, Martina G. [Institute of Ecological Science, Dept. Animal Ecology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands) and Institute for Inland Water Management and Waste Water Treatment (RIZA), Dept. Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Lelystad (Netherlands)]. E-mail: vijver@cml.leidenuniv.nl; Vink, Jos P.M. [Institute for Inland Water Management and Waste Water Treatment (RIZA), Dept. Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Lelystad (Netherlands); Miermans, Cornelis J.H. [Institute for Inland Water Management and Waste Water Treatment (RIZA), Dept. Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Lelystad (Netherlands); Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Institute of Ecological Science, Dept. Animal Ecology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2007-07-15

80

Metal accumulation in earthworms inhabiting floodplain soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main factors contributing to variation in metal concentrations in earthworms inhabiting floodplain soils were investigated in three floodplains differing in inundation frequency and vegetation type. Metal concentrations in epigeic earthworms showed larger seasonal variations than endogeic earthworms. Variation in internal levels between sampling intervals were largest in earthworms from floodplain sites frequently inundated. High and low frequency flooding did not result in consistent changes in internal metal concentrations. Vegetation types of the floodplains did not affect metal levels in Lumbricus rubellus, except for internal Cd levels, which were positively related to the presence of organic litter. Internal levels of most essential metals were higher in spring. In general, no clear patterns in metal uptake were found and repetition of the sampling campaign will probably yield different results. - Metal levels in earthworms show large variation among sites, among seasons and among epigeic and endogeic species.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Effect of C60 fullerenes on the accumulation of weathered p,p'-DDE by plant and earthworm species under single and multispecies conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of engineered nanomaterials has increased dramatically in recent years, but an understanding of nanomaterial fate and effects in the environment is lacking. In particular, the interaction of nanomaterials with coexisting organic contaminants and the subsequent implications for sensitive biota is almost completely unknown. Here, the effect of C60 fullerenes on the accumulation of weathered dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE; DDT metabolite) by Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin) and Eisenia fetida (earthworm) was determined under single and multispecies conditions. The plants, in the presence or absence of earthworms, were grown in soil containing weathered DDE (200 ng/g) and 0 or 1,670 mg/kg?C60 fullerenes. Plants and earthworms were added either simultaneously or sequentially (earthworms after plants). Neither DDE nor C60 had an impact on survival or biomass of plants and earthworms, although fullerenes significantly decreased (29.6-39.0%) the relative root mass. Under single or multispecies conditions, C60 had little impact on DDE bioaccumulation by either species. The DDE concentrations in non-fullerene-exposed shoots, roots, and earthworms were 181, 7,400, and 8,230 ng/g, respectively. On fullerene exposure, the DDE content was nonsignificantly lower at 163, 7280, and 7540 ng/g, respectively. In the presence of the earthworms, C60 significantly decreased the shoot DDE content (28.6%), but no impact on root concentrations was observed. Root DDE content was unaffected by the presence of fullerenes and decreased by 21.6 to 37.5% during coexposure with earthworms. Earthworm DDE content was decreased by plant presence. Earthworms added to soils after plant harvest accumulated more DDE but were unaffected by the C60 exposure. Additional work is necessary, but these findings suggest that fullerenes may have minimal impact on the bioaccumulation of weathered cocontaminants in soil. PMID:23401244

Kelsey, Jason W; White, Jason C

2013-04-01

82

Effect of C60 fullerenes on the accumulation of weathered p,p'-DDE by plant and earthworm species under single and multispecies conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of engineered nanomaterials has increased dramatically in recent years, but an understanding of nanomaterial fate and effects in the environment is lacking. In particular, the interaction of nanomaterials with coexisting organic contaminants and the subsequent implications for sensitive biota is almost completely unknown. Here, the effect of C60 fullerenes on the accumulation of weathered dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE; DDT metabolite) by Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin) and Eisenia fetida (earthworm) was determined under single and multispecies conditions. The plants, in the presence or absence of earthworms, were grown in soil containing weathered DDE (200 ng/g) and 0 or 1,670 mg/kg?C60 fullerenes. Plants and earthworms were added either simultaneously or sequentially (earthworms after plants). Neither DDE nor C60 had an impact on survival or biomass of plants and earthworms, although fullerenes significantly decreased (29.6-39.0%) the relative root mass. Under single or multispecies conditions, C60 had little impact on DDE bioaccumulation by either species. The DDE concentrations in non-fullerene-exposed shoots, roots, and earthworms were 181, 7,400, and 8,230 ng/g, respectively. On fullerene exposure, the DDE content was nonsignificantly lower at 163, 7280, and 7540 ng/g, respectively. In the presence of the earthworms, C60 significantly decreased the shoot DDE content (28.6%), but no impact on root concentrations was observed. Root DDE content was unaffected by the presence of fullerenes and decreased by 21.6 to 37.5% during coexposure with earthworms. Earthworm DDE content was decreased by plant presence. Earthworms added to soils after plant harvest accumulated more DDE but were unaffected by the C60 exposure. Additional work is necessary, but these findings suggest that fullerenes may have minimal impact on the bioaccumulation of weathered cocontaminants in soil.

Kelsey JW; White JC

2013-04-01

83

Earthworm introduction on calcareous minesoils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Burrowing activity of the nightcrawler, Lumbricus terrestis (L.t.), incorporates organic matter into mineral soil while creating long-lasting macropores. Thus L.t. has potential as a biological means of improving physical and chemical properties of surface mined areas. Efforts to establish L.t. population on forested acidic or calcareous minesoils have been successful, but thus far have not been able to establish L.t. in grassland ecosystems on calcareous minesoils. In May, 1989, the authors put 11 clitellate L.t. under sphagnum moss on calcareous gray cast overburden on standard graded topsoil, or on ripped and disked topsoil. All soils had cover of agronomic grasses and legumes. They found no L.t. at the 24 points of inoculation during sampling in fall of 1990 with formalin extractant, although smaller species, Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrobaena spp., were found. At another location, in May, 1990, they put 25 clitellate L.t. at 16 points in grasslands growing on gray cast overburden. Using formalin extraction, they found no L.t. in May 1992 at these locations. Working in this same area in November, 1992, they released 10 clitellate L.t. at 16 points under 10 cm of moist Alnus glutinosa leaf litter. Careful examination of the surface inoculation points in spring and fall of 1993 did not show obvious signs of earthworm activity. Their next step will be to use Earthworm Inoculation Units (earthworm-minesoil microcosms containing L.t. adults, immatures, and cocoons) as the source of the new populations

1994-01-01

84

Earthworm in the 21st century  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworm (Johnson et al., 1995) is a fully open-source earthquake data acquisition and processing package that is in widespread use through out the world. Earthworm includes basic seismic data acquistion for the majority of the dataloggers currently available and provides network transport mechanisms and common formats as output for data transferral. In addition, it comes with network seismology tools to compute network detections, perform automated arrival picking, and automated hypocentral and magnitude estimations. More importantly it is an open and free framework in the C-programming language that can be used to create new modules that process waveform and earthquake data in near real time. The number of Earthworm installations is growing annually as are the number of contributions to the system. Furthermore its growth into other areas of waveform data acquistion (namely Geomagnetic observatories and Infrasound arrays) show its adaptability to other waveform technologies and processing strategies. In this presentation we discuss the coming challenges to growing Earthworm and new developments in its use; namely the open source add-ons that have become interfaces to Earthworm's core. These add-ons include GlowWorm, MagWorm, Hydra, SWARM, Winston, EarlyBird, Iworm, and most importantly, AQMS (formerly known as CHEETAH). The AQMS, ANSS Quake Monitoring System, is the Earthworm system created in California which has now been installed in the majority of Regional Seismic Networks (RSNs) in the United States. AQMS allows additional real-time and post-processing of Earthworm generated data to be stored and manipulated in a database using numerous database oriented tools. The use of a relational database for persistence provides users with the ability to implement configuration control and research capabilities not available in earlier Earthworm add-ons. By centralizing on AQMS, the RSNs will be able to leverage new developments by easily sharing Earthworm and AQMS modules and avoid the duplication and one-off/custom developments of the past.

Friberg, Paul; Lisowski, Stefan; Dricker, Ilya; Hellman, Sidney

2010-05-01

85

Freezing processes. Gefrierverfahren  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During recent years freezes in their various types have steadily gained importance in the food processing industry. The decision about the optimum freezing process primarily depends on the product to be frozen. Further criterions are freezing time, capacity, productional flow and certainly costs. (orig.)

Bruder, T. (YORK International GmbH, Mannheim (Germany))

1993-10-01

86

Nanomaterials: Earthworms lit with quantum dots  

Science.gov (United States)

Yeast, bacteria and fungi have been used to synthesize a variety of nanocrystals. Now, the metal detoxification process in the gut of an earthworm is exploited to produce biocompatible cadmium telluride quantum dots.

Tilley, Richard D.; Cheong, Soshan

2013-01-01

87

COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF CHEMICALS TO EARTHWORMS  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentration-response (mortality) relationships of four species of earthworms, Eisentia fetida, Allolobophora tuberculata, Eudrilus eugeniae, and Perionyx excavatus are summarized for 62 chemicals and two test protocols. eibull function is used to summarize these data for ea...

88

Alarm pheromone in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Noxious stimulation of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris elicits secretion of a mucus that is aversive to other members of the species, as well as to the stimulated animal when it is encountered later. This alarm pheromone is not readily soluble in water and retains its aversive properties for at least several months if not disturbed. Its influence may be responsible for some features of the data on instrumental learning in earthworms.

Ressler RH; Cialdini RB; Ghoca ML; Kleist SM

1968-08-01

89

Avoidance and tolerance of freezing in ectothermic vertebrates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ectothermic vertebrates have colonized regions that are seasonally or perpetually cold, and some species, particularly terrestrial hibernators, must cope with temperatures that fall substantially below 0°C. Survival of such excursions depends on either freeze avoidance through supercooling or freeze tolerance. Supercooling, a metastable state in which body fluids remain liquid below the equilibrium freezing/melting point, is promoted by physiological responses that protect against chilling injury and by anatomical and behavioral traits that limit risk of inoculative freezing by environmental ice and ice-nucleating agents. Freeze tolerance evolved from responses to fundamental stresses to permit survival of the freezing of a substantial amount of body water under thermal and temporal conditions of ecological relevance. Survival of freezing is promoted by a complex suite of molecular, biochemical and physiological responses that limit cell death from excessive shrinkage, damage to macromolecules and membranes, metabolic perturbation and oxidative stress. Although freeze avoidance and freeze tolerance generally are mutually exclusive strategies, a few species can switch between them, the mode used in a particular instance of chilling depending on prevailing physiological and environmental conditions.

Costanzo JP; Lee RE Jr

2013-06-01

90

Stopping biological time: The freezing of living cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fundamental physical-chemical events that occur during the freezing and thawing of cells are outlined and the manner in which cell permeability determines the response of the cell to freezing is discussed both in terms of physical response and in terms of survival. 40 refs., 12 figs.

Mazur, P.

1987-01-01

91

COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF TEN ORGANIC CHEMICALS TO FOUR EARTHWORM SPECIES  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten organic chemicals were tested for toxicity to four earthworm species: Allolobophora tuberculata, Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae and Perionyx excavatus, using the European Economic Community's (EEC) earthworm artificial soil and contact testing procedure. The phenols were t...

92

Microscale interactions between earthworms and microorganisms: a review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microorganisms are well adapted to their soil microhabitat where they live together in consortia, interacting with other living members, including earthworms. This literature review consists of four sections that focus on microscale interactions between earthworms and microorganisms. The first part ...

Zirbes, L.; Thonart, P.; Haubruge, E.

93

Biological assessment of contaminated land using earthworm biomarkers in support of chemical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biological indicators can be used to assess polluted sites but their success depends on the availability of suitable assays. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of two earthworm biomarkers, lysosomal membrane stability measured using the neutral red retention assay (NRR-T) and the total immune activity (TIA) assay, that have previously been established as responsive to chemical exposure. Responses of the two assays were measured following in situ exposure to complexly contaminated field soils at three industrial sites as well as urban and rural controls. The industrial sites were contaminated with a range of metal (cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, nickel and cobalt) and organic (including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) contaminants, but at concentrations below the 'New Dutch List' Intervention concentrations. Exposed earthworms accumulated both metals and organic compounds at the contaminated sites, indicating that there was significant exposure. No effect on earthworm survival was found at any of the sites. Biomarker measurements, however, indicated significant effects, with lower NRR-T and TIA found in the contaminated soils when compared to the two controls. The results demonstrate that a comparison of soil pollutant concentrations with guideline values would not have unequivocally identified chemical exposure and toxic effect for soil organisms living in these soils. However, the earthworm biomarkers successfully identified significant exposure and biological effects caused by the mixture of chemicals present.

Hankard, Peter K.; Svendsen, Claus; Wright, Julian; Wienberg, Claire; Fishwick, Samantha K.; Spurgeon, David J.; Weeks, Jason M

2004-09-01

94

Biological assessment of contaminated land using earthworm biomarkers in support of chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Biological indicators can be used to assess polluted sites but their success depends on the availability of suitable assays. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of two earthworm biomarkers, lysosomal membrane stability measured using the neutral red retention assay (NRR-T) and the total immune activity (TIA) assay, that have previously been established as responsive to chemical exposure. Responses of the two assays were measured following in situ exposure to complexly contaminated field soils at three industrial sites as well as urban and rural controls. The industrial sites were contaminated with a range of metal (cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, nickel and cobalt) and organic (including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) contaminants, but at concentrations below the 'New Dutch List' Intervention concentrations. Exposed earthworms accumulated both metals and organic compounds at the contaminated sites, indicating that there was significant exposure. No effect on earthworm survival was found at any of the sites. Biomarker measurements, however, indicated significant effects, with lower NRR-T and TIA found in the contaminated soils when compared to the two controls. The results demonstrate that a comparison of soil pollutant concentrations with guideline values would not have unequivocally identified chemical exposure and toxic effect for soil organisms living in these soils. However, the earthworm biomarkers successfully identified significant exposure and biological effects caused by the mixture of chemicals present

2004-09-01

95

Combined effects of copper, desiccation, and frost on the viability of earthworm cocoons  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of heavy metal pollution on earthworms have been extensively studied, but no studies have examined how earthworms react if they are simultaneously exposed to metal pollution and climatic stress. This question has been addressed in a laboratory study where cocoons of Aporrectodea caliginosa and Dendrobaena octaedra were initially exposed to copper in aqueous solutions of copper chloride and thereafter exposed to realistic degrees of either desiccation or frost. Earthworm embryos absorbed copper in amounts comparable to concentrations found in various tissues of earthworms from metal-polluted soils. Desiccation and copper exposure in combination had synergistic effects on survival rates for both species. For example, at full saturation, the NOEC (the highest tested concentration with no statistically significant effect) for copper of A. caliginosa was 12 mg/L, whereas at 97% relative humidity it was only 6 mg/L. Frost and copper exposure in combination also showed synergistic effects in some experiments. No cocoons of A. caliginosa exposed to 20 mg copper/L were viable after exposure to {minus}3 C but at 0 C viability was as high as 95%. The same tendency was seen in D. octaedra but not as clearly as in A/. caliginosa. A change of the environmental conditions (moisture, temperature) to increasing severity caused a shift in the statistically derived NOEC toward lower critical values of copper. The involvement of combination effects in ecotoxicological tests could therefore improve risk assessment of soil-polluting compounds.

Holmstrup, M. [National Environmental Research Inst., Silkeborg (Denmark). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology; Petersen, B.F. [National Environmental Research Inst., Silkeborg (Denmark). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology]|[Univ. of Aarhus (Denmark); Larsen, M.M. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark). Dept. of Marine Ecology and Microbiology

1998-01-01

96

Earthworms, Dirt, and Rotten Leaves: An Exploration in Ecology.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article provides a model for inviting children to "an exploration in ecology" by observing earthworms. It gives reasons to explore earthworms and guides the investigator through a detailed examination of the worms to answer 21 observation questions. Explores the ways in which earthworms interact with their environment. (LZ)|

McLaughlin, Molly

1994-01-01

97

Vulnerable Earthworm Species Identified from Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diversity of earthworms at Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is less known even though it is one among the biodiversity hot spots. Unless an authentic record of available earthworm species is made, the consequences of human alternation or climate change on the earthworm species diversity cannot be assessed....

Mahesh Mohan; M.S. Shylesh Chandran; E.V. Ramasamy

98

Freezing resistance of overwintering buds of four perennial weeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The freezing resistance of overwintering buds of four perennial weed species was evaluated in artificial freezing experiments conducted in the winters of 1986 and 1987. Survival, dry weight of surviving shoots, and number of shoots produced/surviving section were determined at -4, -8, -12, -16, and -20 C for Canada thistle roots, leafy spurge roots, leafy spurge crowns, perennial sowthistle roots, and quackgrass rhizomes. The temperature required to reduce survival (LT50) and total dry weight (GR50) by 50% was determined. The response to freezing temperatures varied among species and in some cases between years. The LT50 was -7, -13, colder than -20, -17, and colder than -20, and the GR50 was -5, -11, -14, -15, and -13 for Canada thistle roots, leafy spurge roots, leafy spurge crowns, perennial sowthistle roots, and quackgrass rhizomes, respectively. The relative susceptibility to freezing among species appears to be directly related to the depth at which the overwintering buds generally are located.

Schimming WK; Messersmith CG

1988-09-01

99

Tracking earthworm communities from soil DNA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Earthworms are known for their important role within the functioning of an ecosystem, and their diversity can be used as an indicator of ecosystem health. To date, earthworm diversity has been investigated through conventional extraction methods such as handsorting, soil washing or the application of a mustard solution. Such techniques are time consuming and often difficult to apply. We showed that combining DNA metabarcoding and next-generation sequencing facilitates the identification of earthworm species from soil samples. The first step of our experiments was to create a reference database of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 16S gene for 14 earthworm species found in the French Alps. Using this database, we designed two new primer pairs targeting very short and informative DNA sequences (about 30 and 70 bp) that allow unambiguous species identification. Finally, we analysed extracellular DNA taken from soil samples in two localities (two plots per locality and eight samples per plot). The two short metabarcode regions led to the identification of a total of eight earthworm species. The earthworm communities identified by the DNA-based approach appeared to be well differentiated between the two localities and are consistent with results derived from inventories collected using the handsorting method. The possibility of assessing earthworm communities from hundreds or even thousands of localities through the use of extracellular soil DNA will undoubtedly stimulate further ecological research on these organisms. Using the same DNA extracts, our study also illustrates the potential of environmental DNA as a tool to assess the diversity of other soil-dwelling animal taxa.

Bienert F; De Danieli S; Miquel C; Coissac E; Poillot C; Brun JJ; Taberlet P

2012-04-01

100

Tracking earthworm communities from soil DNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworms are known for their important role within the functioning of an ecosystem, and their diversity can be used as an indicator of ecosystem health. To date, earthworm diversity has been investigated through conventional extraction methods such as handsorting, soil washing or the application of a mustard solution. Such techniques are time consuming and often difficult to apply. We showed that combining DNA metabarcoding and next-generation sequencing facilitates the identification of earthworm species from soil samples. The first step of our experiments was to create a reference database of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 16S gene for 14 earthworm species found in the French Alps. Using this database, we designed two new primer pairs targeting very short and informative DNA sequences (about 30 and 70 bp) that allow unambiguous species identification. Finally, we analysed extracellular DNA taken from soil samples in two localities (two plots per locality and eight samples per plot). The two short metabarcode regions led to the identification of a total of eight earthworm species. The earthworm communities identified by the DNA-based approach appeared to be well differentiated between the two localities and are consistent with results derived from inventories collected using the handsorting method. The possibility of assessing earthworm communities from hundreds or even thousands of localities through the use of extracellular soil DNA will undoubtedly stimulate further ecological research on these organisms. Using the same DNA extracts, our study also illustrates the potential of environmental DNA as a tool to assess the diversity of other soil-dwelling animal taxa. PMID:22250728

Bienert, Friederike; De Danieli, Sébastien; Miquel, Christian; Coissac, Eric; Poillot, Carole; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Taberlet, Pierre

2012-01-17

 
 
 
 
101

The temperature requirements of the epigeic earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae (Oligochaeta)--a laboratory study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Juvenile specimens of the epigeic earthworm species, Eudrilus eugeniae were subjected to a range of different constant temperatures in a temperature gradient trough over a period of 80 days. Other environmental factors and food availability were maintained at a constant, optimal level. Survival, growth rate, maturation and cocoon production were monitored regularly. No worms survived at temperatures < 12 degrees C and all succumbed after 50 days at temperatures of 30 degrees C and above. A steady increase in growth rate was observed with higher temperatures and the highest mean biomass per worm was attained at 29 degrees C. The highest maturation rate was obtained at 22 and 25 degrees C was found to be the optimal temperature for cocoon production. The results indicate that this earthworm species is very sensitive to low temperatures and can survive temperatures up to 30 degrees C. It was also noted that although higher temperatures favoured growth, fecundity would be higher at temperatures ranging from 22 to 25 degrees C. It is concluded that this earthworm species would be a better candidate for vermiculture in regions with a tropical or moderate climate as it exhibited a fairly narrow tolerance range for temperature with a high degree of intolerance for temperatures below 16 degrees C.

Viljoen SA; Reinecke AJ

1992-12-01

102

Toxicity of diesel contaminated soils to the subantarctic earthworm Microscolex macquariensis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several fuel spills have occurred on subantarctic Macquarie Island (54°30' S 158°57' E) associated with storing fuel and generating power for the island's research station. The Australian Antarctic Division began full-scale, on-site remediation of these sites in 2009. To develop appropriate target concentrations for remediation, acute and chronic tests were developed with the endemic earthworm, Microscolex macquariensis, using avoidance, survival, and reproduction as endpoints. Uncontaminated low (3%), medium (11%), and high (38-48%) carbon content soils from Macquarie Island were used to examine the influence of soil carbon on toxicity. Soils were spiked with Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) diesel and used either immediately to simulate a fresh spill or after four weeks to simulate an aged spill. Earthworms were sensitive to fresh SAB, with significant avoidance at 181?mg/kg; acute 14-d survival median lethal concentration (LC50) of 103?mg/kg for low carbon soil; and juvenile production median effective concentration (EC50) of 317?mg/kg for high carbon soil. Earthworms were less sensitive to aged SAB than to fresh SAB in high carbon soil for juvenile production (EC50 of 1,753 and 317?mg/kg, respectively), but were more sensitive for adult survival (LC50 of 2,322 and 1,364?mg/kg, respectively). Using M. macquariensis as a surrogate for soil quality, approximately 50 to 200?mg SAB/kg soil would be a sufficiently protective remediation target.

Mooney TJ; King CK; Wasley J; Andrew NR

2013-02-01

103

Toxicity of diesel contaminated soils to the subantarctic earthworm Microscolex macquariensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several fuel spills have occurred on subantarctic Macquarie Island (54°30' S 158°57' E) associated with storing fuel and generating power for the island's research station. The Australian Antarctic Division began full-scale, on-site remediation of these sites in 2009. To develop appropriate target concentrations for remediation, acute and chronic tests were developed with the endemic earthworm, Microscolex macquariensis, using avoidance, survival, and reproduction as endpoints. Uncontaminated low (3%), medium (11%), and high (38-48%) carbon content soils from Macquarie Island were used to examine the influence of soil carbon on toxicity. Soils were spiked with Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) diesel and used either immediately to simulate a fresh spill or after four weeks to simulate an aged spill. Earthworms were sensitive to fresh SAB, with significant avoidance at 181?mg/kg; acute 14-d survival median lethal concentration (LC50) of 103?mg/kg for low carbon soil; and juvenile production median effective concentration (EC50) of 317?mg/kg for high carbon soil. Earthworms were less sensitive to aged SAB than to fresh SAB in high carbon soil for juvenile production (EC50 of 1,753 and 317?mg/kg, respectively), but were more sensitive for adult survival (LC50 of 2,322 and 1,364?mg/kg, respectively). Using M. macquariensis as a surrogate for soil quality, approximately 50 to 200?mg SAB/kg soil would be a sufficiently protective remediation target. PMID:23147807

Mooney, Thomas J; King, Catherine K; Wasley, Jane; Andrew, Nigel R

2012-12-07

104

Correlations between Lumbricus terrestris survival and gut microbiota  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The interplay between diet, gut bacteria and health still remain enigmatic. Here, we addressed this issue through the investigation of the effect of crystalline cellulose on the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris gut microbiota composition and survival. Methods : Earthworm gut contents were analyzed after 14 days of feeding using a mixed 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach, in addition to direct measurements of cellulase activity. The survival of earthworms was followed each week for 17 weeks. Results : We found a tendency that the crystalline cellulose fed earthworms survived better than the high energy fed earthworms (p=0.08). Independent of feeding we found that the bacterial group related to Ferrimonadaceae was correlated to an increased lifespan (p=0.01). We also found a positive correlation between Ruminococcaceae related bacteria and cellulase activity in the earthworm gut (p=0.05). Surprisingly, however, the cellulase activity was not correlated to the feeding regime. Conclusion : Taken together, the interactions between diet, gut microbiota and lifespan seem complex.

Knut Rudi; Knut Olav Strætkvern

2012-01-01

105

Freeze Preservation of Red Blood Cells with Hydroxyethyl Starch as a Cryoprotective Agent.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pre-freeze washing increases the saline stability of red cells frozen with 14% hydroxyethyl starch (30 ml units). However, the presence of plasma in the freezing mixture does not improve the ability of the cells to survive a freeze-thaw cycle. This would ...

L. Weatherbee

1975-01-01

106

The 2007 California Citrus Freeze: Vulnerability, Poverty, and Unemployment Issues of Farmworkers  

Science.gov (United States)

In January of 2007, freezing temperatures destroyed citrus and vegetable crops in California. By May 2007, more than 9,000 freeze-related unemployment applications had been fled. Through face-to-face interviews, this study documents the experience of 63 farmworkers to find out how they survived the freeze and accessed services. Findings revealed…

Orozco, Graciela Leon

2010-01-01

107

Freezing and Melting  

Science.gov (United States)

This article tells how the freezing point of a substance is also its melting point. The energy of the substance's molecules changes with temperature, thus with changes in state. Also described is how freezing points can be lowered, or depressed, by adding a substance.

2010-01-01

108

[Survival of microorganisms frozen on solid medium (author's transl)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Different freezing methods have been studied for 12 microorganisms. This study has been carried out on solid support in the conditions near the freezing of foods. The survival rates are on relation with species and freezing methods. The survival of some microorganisms during a storage at -20 degrees C has been studied.

Defives C; Catteau M

1977-02-01

109

Earthworms and their Nephridial Symbionts: Co-diversification and Maintenance of the Symbiosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Earthworms harbor in their nephridia (excretory organs) symbiotic bacteria which densely colonize a specific part of the nephridia, called the ampulla [1]. The symbiosis is species-specific and the symbionts form their own monophyletic genus Verminephrobacter (?-proteobacteria) [2] and are vertically transmitted [3]. For these reasons we hypothesized that the earthworm-Verminephrobacter association evolved by co-diversification. This hypothesis was investigated by a comparison of earthworm and symbiont phylogenies. The earthworm phylogeny was based on Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and Histone H3 and the symbiont phylogeny was based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and RNA polymerase ? subunit (rpoB). The phylogenies were found to be largely congruent, however, leaving possibility for horizontal symbiont transfer events. In addition symbiont losses have occurred. The overall congruency suggests that the symbiosis has been stably maintained over evolutionary time dating back to the last common lumbricid earthworm ancestor. How this evolutionarily stable association is maintained is unknown; symbiont-free worms can be reared in lab culture and therefore the symbionts are not essential to the survival of the worms, but at the same time the symbionts are consistently found in almost all Lumbricid worm species. The symbionts have been hypothesized to be proteolytically active during excretion, thereby enhancing the earthworm’s absorption of nitrogenous compounds otherwise lost in the urine; such protein recycling should therefore increase worm fitness under nitrogen-limited conditions [4]. To test this hypothesis we conducted a comparative fitness study of worms with and without symbionts; the worms were grown in soil and fed with either a nitrogen-rich or a nitrogen-poor diet. The experiment showed no significant differences in growth rate and fecundity between symbiotic and aposymbiotic worms. Thus the symbionts do not appear to have an effect on worm fitness, under growth conditions tested. The underlying functional and maintaining mechanisms of this symbiosis remain a conundrum. [1] Knop,J. 1926. Z Morph Ökol Tiere, 6(3):588-624. [2] Schramm,A. et al. 2003. Environ Microbiol 5(9):804-809. [3] Davidson,S.K. & Stahl,D.A. 2006. Appl Environ Microbiol 72(1):769-775. [4] Pandazis,G. 1931. Zentralbl Bakteriol 120:440-453.

Lund, Marie Braad; Holmstrup, Martin

110

Freeze drying method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

1999-01-01

111

Freeze drying apparatus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

2001-01-01

112

Biodiversity of earthworm resources of arid environment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biodiversity of earthworms was studied in arid zone of Jodhpur district of Rajasthan. A total nine species of earthworms were recorded from different pedoecosystems of desert environment. These species were Pontoscolex corethrurus, Amynthas morrisi, Metaphire posthuma, Lampito mauritii, Perionyx sansibaricus, Ocnerodrilus occidentalis, Dichogaster bolaui, Octochaetona paliensis and Ramiella bishambari. They belonged to the families Glossoscolicidae, Megascolicidae, Ocnerodrilidae and Octochaetidae. The species P. sansibaricus, O. paliensis and P. corethrurus were reported for the first time from Rajasthan. The earthworm fauna of Jodhpur district were either exotic peregrine or native peregrine. Exotic species like A. morrisi and M. posthuma, and native peregrine species like L. mauritii were widely distributed in arid region. They appear to be better adapted to withstand drought conditions, as they have enteronephric meronephridia and excrete their urine into the guts for conservation of water in their bodies.

Tripathi G; Bhardwaj P

2005-01-01

113

Revising lysenin expression of earthworm coelomocytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lysenin is a species-specific bioactive molecule of Eisenia andrei earthworms. This protein is a potent antimicrobial factor; however its cellular expression and induction against pathogens are still not fully understood. We developed a novel monoclonal antibody against lysenin and applied this molecular tool to characterize its production and antimicrobial function. We demonstrated by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry that one subgroup of earthworm immune cells (so called coelomocytes), the chloragocytes expressed the highest amount of lysenin. Then, we compared lysenin expression with earlier established coelomocyte (EFCC) markers. In addition, we determined by immunohistology of earthworm tissues that lysenin production is only restricted to free-floating chloragocytes. Moreover, we observed that upon in vitro Staphylococcus aureus but not Escherichia coli challenged coelomocytes over-expressed and then secreted lysenin. These results indicate that among subpopulations of coelomocytes, lysenin is mainly produced by chloragocytes and its expression can be modulated by Gram-positive bacterial exposure.

Opper B; Bognár A; Heidt D; Németh P; Engelmann P

2013-03-01

114

Revising lysenin expression of earthworm coelomocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lysenin is a species-specific bioactive molecule of Eisenia andrei earthworms. This protein is a potent antimicrobial factor; however its cellular expression and induction against pathogens are still not fully understood. We developed a novel monoclonal antibody against lysenin and applied this molecular tool to characterize its production and antimicrobial function. We demonstrated by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry that one subgroup of earthworm immune cells (so called coelomocytes), the chloragocytes expressed the highest amount of lysenin. Then, we compared lysenin expression with earlier established coelomocyte (EFCC) markers. In addition, we determined by immunohistology of earthworm tissues that lysenin production is only restricted to free-floating chloragocytes. Moreover, we observed that upon in vitro Staphylococcus aureus but not Escherichia coli challenged coelomocytes over-expressed and then secreted lysenin. These results indicate that among subpopulations of coelomocytes, lysenin is mainly produced by chloragocytes and its expression can be modulated by Gram-positive bacterial exposure. PMID:23201038

Opper, Balázs; Bognár, András; Heidt, Diána; Németh, Péter; Engelmann, Péter

2012-11-28

115

Autofluorescence in eleocytes of some earthworm species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Immunocompetent cells of earthworms, coelomocytes, comprise adherent amoebocytes and granular eleocytes (chloragocytes). Both cell populations can be expelled via dorsal pores of adult earthworms by exposure to an electric current (4.5 V) for 1 min. Analysis by phase contrast/fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry demonstrated that eleocyte population of several species exhibits a strong autofluorescence. A high percentage (11-35%) of autofluorescent eleocytes was recorded in Allolobophora chlorotica, Dendrodrilus rubidus, Eisenia fetida, and Octolasion sp. (O. cyaneum, O. tyrtaeum tyrtaeum and O. tyrtaeum lacteum). In contrast, autofluorescent coelomocytes were exceptionally scarce (less than 1%) in representative Aporrectodea sp. (A. caliginosa and A. longa) and Lumbricus sp. (L. castaneus, L. festivus, L. rubellus, L. terrestris). Thus, this paper for the first time describes profound intrinsic fluorescence of eleocytes in some--but not all--earthworm species. The function (if any) and inter-species differences of the autofluorescent coelomocytes still remain elusive.

Cholewa J; Feeney GP; O'Reilly M; Stürzenbaum SR; Morgan AJ; P?ytycz B

2006-01-01

116

Autofluorescence in eleocytes of some earthworm species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immunocompetent cells of earthworms, coelomocytes, comprise adherent amoebocytes and granular eleocytes (chloragocytes). Both cell populations can be expelled via dorsal pores of adult earthworms by exposure to an electric current (4.5 V) for 1 min. Analysis by phase contrast/fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry demonstrated that eleocyte population of several species exhibits a strong autofluorescence. A high percentage (11-35%) of autofluorescent eleocytes was recorded in Allolobophora chlorotica, Dendrodrilus rubidus, Eisenia fetida, and Octolasion sp. (O. cyaneum, O. tyrtaeum tyrtaeum and O. tyrtaeum lacteum). In contrast, autofluorescent coelomocytes were exceptionally scarce (less than 1%) in representative Aporrectodea sp. (A. caliginosa and A. longa) and Lumbricus sp. (L. castaneus, L. festivus, L. rubellus, L. terrestris). Thus, this paper for the first time describes profound intrinsic fluorescence of eleocytes in some--but not all--earthworm species. The function (if any) and inter-species differences of the autofluorescent coelomocytes still remain elusive. PMID:16584095

Cholewa, Justyna; Feeney, Graham P; O'Reilly, Michael; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R; Morgan, A John; P?ytycz, Barbara

2006-01-01

117

Autofluorescence in eleocytes of some earthworm species.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Immunocompetent cells of earthworms, coelomocytes, comprise adherent amoebocytes and granular eleocytes (chloragocytes). Both cell populations can be expelled via dorsal pores of adult earthworms by exposure to an electric current (4.5 V) for 1 min. Analysis by phase contrast/fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry demonstrated that eleocyte population of several species exhibits a strong autofluorescence. A high percentage (11-35%) of autofluorescent eleocytes was recorded in Allolobophora chlorotica, Dendrodrilus rubidus, Eisenia fetida, and Octolasion sp. (O. cyaneum, O. tyrtaeum tyrtaeum and O. tyrtaeum lacteum). In contrast, autofluorescent coelomocytes were exceptionally scarce (less than 1%) in representative Aporrectodea sp. (A. caliginosa and A. longa) and Lumbricus sp. (L. castaneus, L. festivus, L. rubellus, L. terrestris). Thus, this paper for the first time describes profound intrinsic fluorescence of eleocytes in some--but not all--earthworm species. The function (if any) and inter-species differences of the autofluorescent coelomocytes still remain elusive.

Justyna Cholewa; Graham P Feeney; Michael O' Reilly; Stephen R St??rzenbaum; A John Morgan; Barbara P?ytycz

2006-01-01

118

Biodiversity of earthworm resources of arid environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biodiversity of earthworms was studied in arid zone of Jodhpur district of Rajasthan. A total nine species of earthworms were recorded from different pedoecosystems of desert environment. These species were Pontoscolex corethrurus, Amynthas morrisi, Metaphire posthuma, Lampito mauritii, Perionyx sansibaricus, Ocnerodrilus occidentalis, Dichogaster bolaui, Octochaetona paliensis and Ramiella bishambari. They belonged to the families Glossoscolicidae, Megascolicidae, Ocnerodrilidae and Octochaetidae. The species P. sansibaricus, O. paliensis and P. corethrurus were reported for the first time from Rajasthan. The earthworm fauna of Jodhpur district were either exotic peregrine or native peregrine. Exotic species like A. morrisi and M. posthuma, and native peregrine species like L. mauritii were widely distributed in arid region. They appear to be better adapted to withstand drought conditions, as they have enteronephric meronephridia and excrete their urine into the guts for conservation of water in their bodies. PMID:16114463

Tripathi, G; Bhardwaj, P

2005-01-01

119

Assessing the impact of organic and inorganic amendments on the toxicity and bioavailability of a metal-contaminated soil to the earthworm Eisenia andrei.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Metal-contaminated soil, from the El Arteal mining district (SE Spain), was remediated with organic (6 % compost) and inorganic amendments (8 % marble sludge) to reduce the mobility of metals and to modify its potential environmental impact. Different measures of metal bioavailability (chemical analysis; survival, growth, reproduction and bioaccumulation in the earthworm Eisenia andrei), were tested in order to evaluate the efficacy of organic and inorganic amendments as immobilizing agents in reducing metal (bio)availability in the contaminated soil. The inorganic amendment reduced water and CaCl2-extractable concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn, while the organic amendment increased these concentrations compared to the untreated soil. The inorganic treatment did not significantly reduce toxicity for the earthworm E. andrei after 28 days exposure. The organic amendment however, made the metal-contaminated soil more toxic to the earthworms, with all earthworms dying in undiluted soil and completely inhibiting reproduction at concentrations higher than 25 %. This may be due to increased available metal concentrations and higher electrical conductivity in the compost-amended soil. No effects of organic and inorganic treatments on metal bioaccumulation in the earthworms were found and metal concentrations in the earthworms increased with increasing total soil concentrations.

González V; Díez-Ortiz M; Simón M; van Gestel CA

2013-11-01

120

Assessing the impact of organic and inorganic amendments on the toxicity and bioavailability of a metal-contaminated soil to the earthworm Eisenia andrei.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Metal-contaminated soil, from the El Arteal mining district (SE Spain), was remediated with organic (6 % compost) and inorganic amendments (8 % marble sludge) to reduce the mobility of metals and to modify its potential environmental impact. Different measures of metal bioavailability (chemical analysis; survival, growth, reproduction and bioaccumulation in the earthworm Eisenia andrei), were tested in order to evaluate the efficacy of organic and inorganic amendments as immobilizing agents in reducing metal (bio)availability in the contaminated soil. The inorganic amendment reduced water and CaCl2-extractable concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn, while the organic amendment increased these concentrations compared to the untreated soil. The inorganic treatment did not significantly reduce toxicity for the earthworm E. andrei after 28 days exposure. The organic amendment however, made the metal-contaminated soil more toxic to the earthworms, with all earthworms dying in undiluted soil and completely inhibiting reproduction at concentrations higher than 25 %. This may be due to increased available metal concentrations and higher electrical conductivity in the compost-amended soil. No effects of organic and inorganic treatments on metal bioaccumulation in the earthworms were found and metal concentrations in the earthworms increased with increasing total soil concentrations.

González V; Díez-Ortiz M; Simón M; van Gestel CA

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
121

Productivity Potentials and Nutritional Values of Semi-arid Zone Earthworm (Hyperiodrilus euryaulos; Clausen, 1967) Cultured in Organic Wastes as Fish Meal Supplement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study 60 Adult Earthworms (H. euryaulos) of weight and length range 1.7-3.0 g (mean-2.34±0.91 g) and 13.0-28.0 cm (mean-21.5±5.8 cm), respectively were cultured for 12 weeks. The productivity potential and nutrient composition of earthworm (H. euryaulos) cultured in two rearing substrata (Cellulose Substrate (Control) - Coded Hs1 and Dry Neem and leaves and soil Substrate - Coded Hs2) were assessed using six wooden boxes stocked in triplicates at the rate of 92.7 g earthworms per box. The higher total final weight, weekly weight gain, relative growth rate, specific growth rate and survival of 400.6 g kg-1 of substrate, 25.7 g/week/substrate, 332.5, 0.76/day and 99.0% while the lower of 367.5 g kg-1 of substrate, 22.9 g/week, 296.4, 0.71/day and 98.0% were recorded in earthworm cultured in cellulose substrate and the soil substrate respectively. The proximate analyses, mineral compositions and amino acids indices were comparable to those of conventional fish meal. Based on the results of this study, the utilization of cellulose substrate is recommended for the culture of earthworm and the inclusion of the earthworm meal is guarantee as a reliable and nutritional dependable fish meal supplement.

A.O. Sogbesan; A.A.A. Ugwumba; C.T. Madu

2007-01-01

122

Freeze dryer shelf  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention provides a shelf for a freeze dryer which includes a pair of first and second flat plates spaced apart from one another, and a plurality of ribs located between the first and second plates and spaced from one another so as to define flow channels for circulating a diathermic fluid. The ribs are preferably formed of hollow tubes that are brazed to the first and second plates and the hollow tubes and plates are stress relieved so that the first plate presents a flat surface at which heat is transferred from articles to be freeze dried and the diathermic fluid. A freeze dryer shelf constructed in such manner has less thermal mass than prior art design which have solid ribs and plates welded to the ribs with a thickness sufficient to prevent the formation of surface deformations that would interrupt the flat surface of the first plate. Additionally, the freeze dryer shelf of the present invention can have a diathermic fluid section on which the articles are supported and a refrigerant section in good thermal contact therewith. A diathermic fluid circulated through the diathermic fluid section cools the articles to the freezing point of water while the diathermic fluid is cooled by a refrigerant circulating through the refrigerant section. Such heat exchange provided for in the freeze dryer shelf helps eliminate heat leeks that are involved in prior art freeze driers using external heat exchangers.

RENZI ERNESTO

123

Heavy metal concentrations in soil and earthworms in a floodplain grassland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We determined accumulated heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) of earthworms in moderately contaminated floodplain soils. Both soil and mature earthworms were sampled before and after flooding and earthworm species were identified to understand species specific differences in bioconcentration...

Vliet, P.C.J., van; Zee, S.E.A.T.M., van der; Ma, W.C.

124

Correlation of lethal concentrations of heavy metals with tissue levels of earthworms. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of this research are: To establish the LC50 of the heavy metals cadmium, copper, arsenic, and mercury as well as a Cu/Cd mixture in a ratio equal to LC50 Cd/LC50 Cu, employing a chemically defined medium such as Aristol; To improve procedures for heavy-metal bioavailability studies in the field; To improve/develop test procedures using a chemically defined medium and food in 28-day uptake studies; To analyze the tissues of the surviving test earthworms as well as those from media of lesser concentrations, blanks, and background worm stock; To relate the LC50 concentrations of contaminants with the tissue-contaminant levels in the earthworms utilized in the toxicity test; and To develop first-generation interpretations relating soil-contaminant levels and bioavailability, and to interpret the fate and transport of heavy-metal contaminants.

Gal, J.Y.; Bouche, M.B.

1988-08-01

125

Stability of Freeze-Dried Lactobacillus acidophilus in Banana, Soybean and Pearl Barley Powders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Effect of banana, soybean, pearl barley powders and nonfat dry milk on the viability of freeze-dried Lactobacillus acidophilus at 4 and 25°C was studied during 30 days of storage. The survival of freeze-dried L. acidophilus at 4°C was greater than that at 25°C. The survival of L. ac...

Nathanon Trachoo; Panomkorn Wechakama; Anuchita Moongngarm; Maitree Suttajit

126

Cryopreservation of rabbit semen: comparing the effects of different cryoprotectants, cryoprotectant-free vitrification, and the use of albumin plus osmoprotectants on sperm survival and fertility after standard vapor freezing and vitrification.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to improve current freezing protocols for rabbit sperm by examining: (1) the toxicity of different permeable cryoprotectants (CPAs) used for standard vapor freezing (conventional freezing); (2) the feasibility of ultrarapid nonequilibrium freezing (vitrification) of sperm in the absence of permeating CPAs; and (3), the addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA), alone or with sucrose or trehalose as osmoprotectants. First, we evaluated the effects on sperm motility of the incubation time (5 to 60 minutes) with different final concentrations (5% to 20%) of glycerol, N-N-dimethylacetamide, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, and methanol. N-N-dimethylacetamide (5%) and DMSO (5% and 10%) showed the least toxic effects; the use of 10% DMSO producing the best postthaw sperm motility and membrane integrity results (P < 0.05) after conventional freezing. For vitrification, semen was diluted in the absence of permeable CPAs and frozen by dropping semen directly in liquid nitrogen. However, this led to the low or null cryosurvival of sperm postvitrification (0.16 ± 0.4%, 1.8 ± 1.6%, and 94.5 ± 1.4% of motile, membrane-, and DNA-intact sperm cells, respectively). To assess the effects of albumin and osmoprotectants on sperm cryosurvival, sperm was conventionally frozen with 10% DMSO or vitrified in the absence of permeable CPAs without or with 0.5% BSA alone or combined with sucrose or trehalose (range, 0-0.25 M). In the conventional freezing procedure, the addition of BSA alone failed to improve sperm cryosurvival, however, in the presence of BSA plus either sucrose or trehalose, the postthaw motility (using 0.1 M sucrose or trehalose) and DNA integrity (using all additive concentrations) of sperm were significantly better (P < 0.05) than control. Higher numbers of motile and membrane-intact cells were observed when semen was vitrified with BSA alone or with BSA and sucrose (0.1 and 0.25 M) or BSA and trehalose (0.25 M) and a best recovery of DNA-intact sperm was recorded for BSA plus sucrose compared with semen vitrified without osmoprotectants (P < 0.05). Finally, the cryodiluent combinations BSA/sucrose and BSA/trehalose were compared in an insemination trial. Rabbit does were inseminated with fresh semen (N = 56), semen conventionally cryopreserved in the BSA-based cryodiluents containing 0.1 M sucrose or trehalose (N = 56 per group), or semen vitrified in the presence of 0.25 M sucrose or trehalose (N = 8 per group). Fertility rates and live born kids were similar for semen cryopreserved with BSA/sucrose (77% and 7.6) compared with fresh semen (84% and 8.1) and significantly higher than the figures recorded for the conventionally frozen semen in the BSA/trehalose group (52% and 6.1; P ? 0.05). In contrast, only one doe inseminated with semen vitrified in the presence of BSA/sucrose became pregnant, though no kids were delivered. The conclusions to be drawn from our study are: (1) incubation times and concentration toxicities established for the main permeable CPAs used for conventional freezing of rabbit sperm indicated that DMSO 10% was the least damaging; (2) CPA-free vitrification of rabbit semen led to a low or null sperm cryosurvival; and (3) enriching the freezing medium with BSA plus adequate amounts of sucrose or trehalose can improve the cryosurvival of rabbit sperm after conventional freezing or vitrification. In our working conditions, BSA/sucrose was more effective than BSA/trehalose at preserving the in vivo fertilization capacity of rabbit sperm cryopreserved using the standard procedure. PMID:23218394

Rosato, Maria Pina; Iaffaldano, Nicolaia

2012-12-04

127

Cryopreservation of rabbit semen: comparing the effects of different cryoprotectants, cryoprotectant-free vitrification, and the use of albumin plus osmoprotectants on sperm survival and fertility after standard vapor freezing and vitrification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was designed to improve current freezing protocols for rabbit sperm by examining: (1) the toxicity of different permeable cryoprotectants (CPAs) used for standard vapor freezing (conventional freezing); (2) the feasibility of ultrarapid nonequilibrium freezing (vitrification) of sperm in the absence of permeating CPAs; and (3), the addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA), alone or with sucrose or trehalose as osmoprotectants. First, we evaluated the effects on sperm motility of the incubation time (5 to 60 minutes) with different final concentrations (5% to 20%) of glycerol, N-N-dimethylacetamide, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, and methanol. N-N-dimethylacetamide (5%) and DMSO (5% and 10%) showed the least toxic effects; the use of 10% DMSO producing the best postthaw sperm motility and membrane integrity results (P < 0.05) after conventional freezing. For vitrification, semen was diluted in the absence of permeable CPAs and frozen by dropping semen directly in liquid nitrogen. However, this led to the low or null cryosurvival of sperm postvitrification (0.16 ± 0.4%, 1.8 ± 1.6%, and 94.5 ± 1.4% of motile, membrane-, and DNA-intact sperm cells, respectively). To assess the effects of albumin and osmoprotectants on sperm cryosurvival, sperm was conventionally frozen with 10% DMSO or vitrified in the absence of permeable CPAs without or with 0.5% BSA alone or combined with sucrose or trehalose (range, 0-0.25 M). In the conventional freezing procedure, the addition of BSA alone failed to improve sperm cryosurvival, however, in the presence of BSA plus either sucrose or trehalose, the postthaw motility (using 0.1 M sucrose or trehalose) and DNA integrity (using all additive concentrations) of sperm were significantly better (P < 0.05) than control. Higher numbers of motile and membrane-intact cells were observed when semen was vitrified with BSA alone or with BSA and sucrose (0.1 and 0.25 M) or BSA and trehalose (0.25 M) and a best recovery of DNA-intact sperm was recorded for BSA plus sucrose compared with semen vitrified without osmoprotectants (P < 0.05). Finally, the cryodiluent combinations BSA/sucrose and BSA/trehalose were compared in an insemination trial. Rabbit does were inseminated with fresh semen (N = 56), semen conventionally cryopreserved in the BSA-based cryodiluents containing 0.1 M sucrose or trehalose (N = 56 per group), or semen vitrified in the presence of 0.25 M sucrose or trehalose (N = 8 per group). Fertility rates and live born kids were similar for semen cryopreserved with BSA/sucrose (77% and 7.6) compared with fresh semen (84% and 8.1) and significantly higher than the figures recorded for the conventionally frozen semen in the BSA/trehalose group (52% and 6.1; P ? 0.05). In contrast, only one doe inseminated with semen vitrified in the presence of BSA/sucrose became pregnant, though no kids were delivered. The conclusions to be drawn from our study are: (1) incubation times and concentration toxicities established for the main permeable CPAs used for conventional freezing of rabbit sperm indicated that DMSO 10% was the least damaging; (2) CPA-free vitrification of rabbit semen led to a low or null sperm cryosurvival; and (3) enriching the freezing medium with BSA plus adequate amounts of sucrose or trehalose can improve the cryosurvival of rabbit sperm after conventional freezing or vitrification. In our working conditions, BSA/sucrose was more effective than BSA/trehalose at preserving the in vivo fertilization capacity of rabbit sperm cryopreserved using the standard procedure.

Rosato MP; Iaffaldano N

2013-02-01

128

Bacterial Diversity in the Digestive Tract of Earthworms (Oligochaeta)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anecic, epigeous and endogeous earthworms stimulate or inhibit the growth of bacteria of agricultural importance inside their digestive tracts. It is possible that these bacteria establish a mutual symbiosis within the digestive tract of the earthworm. The bacterial species reported within the intestines of the earthworms belong to the genuses Bacillus, Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Nocardia, Gordonia, Vibrio, Clostridium, Proteus, Serratia, Mycobacterium, Klebsiella, Azotobacte and Enterobacter. These bacteria inhabit the soil and develop considerably when there are easily degradable organic soil nutrients. The bacterial community inside the digestive tract of earthworms pertains to at least four physiological groups: plant growth promoters, free-living nitrogen fixers, biocides and phosphate solubilizers. The diversity of bacterial communities within the digestive tracts of earthworms depends on climate, soil type and organic matter. The objective of this present study was to analyze the state of art on the bacterial diversity within the digestive tracts of earthworms.

Hortensia Brito-Vega; David Espinosa-Victoria

2009-01-01

129

Dynamics of earthworms in some Colombian Andean hillsides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Samples were taken from 40 year old forest and from Pennisetum clandestinum pastures in hillside soil, with the aim of determining the temporal dynamics of earthworm diversity, abundance and biomass. The methodology consisted in manually taking two soil samples per week of a volume of 1 x 1 x 0.6 m each. The parameters vary depending on land use and time of sampling. In total 17 earthworm species were found in the soil. Earthworm diversity and biomass were higher in S+40 years than in P. clandestinum (11 vs 9), while earthworm density was higher in P. clandestinum

2000-01-01

130

Earthworm diversity at Nilgiri biosphere reserve, Western Ghats, India  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Species diversity of earthworms in tropics is less studied compared to those of the temperate regions. Despite the fact that there have been numerous studies on earthworm diversity in the Western Ghats of India, there still exists scope for more earthworm species which are yet to be described. The present work involves a survey of earthworms in the Nilgiri biosphere reserve (NBR)—a part of a biodiversity hot spot of Western Ghats. Despite being a part of the biodiversity hot spot, studies on earthworm diversity at NBR are very limited. Unless an authentic record of earthworm species is made available, the consequence of human interference, habitat alteration or climate change on the species diversity cannot be assessed. An attempt has been made in this study to conduct a survey of earthworm species available in the selected forest ecosystems of the NBR. The findings of this study have shown that 84.67 % of the earthworm species identified is native, while the rest are exotic. On the basis of total number of earthworms collected, exotics accounted for 1.55 %, indicating the predominance of native species in the study area and indicating that this habitat is less disturbed. Among the species identified from Mukurthi, Priodochaeta pellucida is listed as vulnerable and has never been encountered since its discovery about 100 years ago. Shannon–Weiner indices showed that evergreen forests of Silent Valley have a high species diversity as do shola/grasslands of Mukurthi and moist deciduous forests of Muthanga.

Shylesh Chandran MS; Sujatha S; Mohan Mahesh; Julka JM; Ramasamy EV

2012-12-01

131

Greenhouse-gas emissions from soils increased by earthworms  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworms play an essential part in determining the greenhouse-gas balance of soils worldwide, and their influence is expected to grow over the next decades. They are thought to stimulate carbon sequestration in soil aggregates, but also to increase emissions of the main greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. Hence, it remains highly controversial whether earthworms predominantly affect soils to act as a net source or sink of greenhouse gases. Here, we provide a quantitative review of the overall effect of earthworms on the soil greenhouse-gas balance. Our results suggest that although earthworms are largely beneficial to soil fertility, they increase net soil greenhouse-gas emissions.

Lubbers, Ingrid M.; van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Fonte, Steven J.; Six, Johan; Brussaard, Lijbert; van Groenigen, Jan Willem

2013-03-01

132

ECOTOXICOLOGICAL BIOASSAYS OF THE EARTHWORMS ALLOLOBOPHORA CALIGINOSA SAVIGNY AND PHERETIMA HAWAYANA ROSA TREATED WITH ARSENATE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Little research has been carried out on the effect of arsenate on earthworms. Ecotoxicological laboratory tests are fundamental tools for assessing the toxicity of arsenate to soil organisms. In this study, the impact of arsenate on the survival, reproduction and behaviour of the endogenic earthworms Allolobophora caliginosa and the anecic earthworms Pheretima hawayana has been quantified. The 96-h LC 50 of arsenate was estimated as 233.43 mg arsenate Kg-1 soil. d.w. for P. hawayana which is significantly higher than that of A. caliginosa 147.24±27.16 mg arsenate kg-1 soil d.w. The number of juveniles of P. hawayana was significantly higher than that of A. caliginosa at the arsenate concentrations 180, 240 and 400 mg kg-1 soil dry weight. With the exception of the control (6.5 mg arsenate kg-1 soil.d.w.), P. hawayana showed an avoidance behaviour for soils treated with all tested concentrations. A. caliginosa preferred soils treated with 6.5, 60, 110, 180 mg arsenate kg-1 soil d.w., while the avoidance behaviour has been recorded only at 240 and 400 mg arsenate kg-1 soil. d.w. This means that A. caliginosa individuals feed less when exposed to arsenate. On the contrary, the P. hawayana worms could be escaped into their deep vertical burrows when exposed to arsenate.

Abdelmonem Mohamed Khalil

2013-01-01

133

Analysis of earthworm Eisenia fetida proteomes during cadmium exposure: An ecotoxicoproteomics approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Identification of differential proteomic responses to cadmium (Cd) would provide a means for better understanding the survival mechanisms of the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, living in a Cd-polluted environment, and the stress responses can be assessed by ecotoxiptoromics approaches. Extracts of whole earthworm collected at days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after Cd exposure were analyzed by 2-DE and quantitative image analysis. In total, 143 proteins demonstrated significant regulation in at least at one time point, and 56 proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and database searching. Compared with control samples, 28 protein spots were up-regulated and 28 were down-regulated during at least one time point. The identified proteins, including chaperonine protein HSP60, caspase-8, calcium ion-binding protein, zinc ion-binding protein, actin-binding protein, proteolysis, fibrinolytic protease, glutamate dehydrogenase, gelsolin-like protein, lombricine kinase, coelomic cytolytic factor 1, manganous superoxide dismutase, extracellular globin-4, lysenin, intermediate filament protein, and tubulin, are involved in several processes, including transcription, translation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the cellular amino acid metabolic process, protein amino acid phosphorylation, glycolysis, and the glucose metabolic process. Thus, our study provides a functional profile of the Cd-responsive proteins in earthworms.

Wang X; Chang L; Sun Z; Zhang Y; Yao L

2010-10-01

134

Analysis of earthworm Eisenia fetida proteomes during cadmium exposure: An ecotoxicoproteomics approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identification of differential proteomic responses to cadmium (Cd) would provide a means for better understanding the survival mechanisms of the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, living in a Cd-polluted environment, and the stress responses can be assessed by ecotoxiptoromics approaches. Extracts of whole earthworm collected at days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after Cd exposure were analyzed by 2-DE and quantitative image analysis. In total, 143 proteins demonstrated significant regulation in at least at one time point, and 56 proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and database searching. Compared with control samples, 28 protein spots were up-regulated and 28 were down-regulated during at least one time point. The identified proteins, including chaperonine protein HSP60, caspase-8, calcium ion-binding protein, zinc ion-binding protein, actin-binding protein, proteolysis, fibrinolytic protease, glutamate dehydrogenase, gelsolin-like protein, lombricine kinase, coelomic cytolytic factor 1, manganous superoxide dismutase, extracellular globin-4, lysenin, intermediate filament protein, and tubulin, are involved in several processes, including transcription, translation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the cellular amino acid metabolic process, protein amino acid phosphorylation, glycolysis, and the glucose metabolic process. Thus, our study provides a functional profile of the Cd-responsive proteins in earthworms. PMID:21136600

Wang, Xing; Chang, Li; Sun, Zhenjun; Zhang, Yufeng; Yao, Lan

2010-11-23

135

Analysis of earthworm Eisenia fetida proteomes during cadmium exposure: An ecotoxicoproteomics approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Identification of differential proteomic responses to cadmium (Cd) would provide a means for better understanding the survival mechanisms of the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, living in a Cd-polluted environment, and the stress responses can be assessed by ecotoxiptoromics approaches. Extracts of whole earthworm collected at days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after Cd exposure were analyzed by 2-DE and quantitative image analysis. In total, 143 proteins demonstrated significant regulation in at least at one time point, and 56 proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and database searching. Compared with control samples, 28 protein spots were up-regulated and 28 were down-regulated during at least one time point. The identified proteins, including chaperonine protein HSP60, caspase-8, calcium ion-binding protein, zinc ion-binding protein, actin-binding protein, proteolysis, fibrinolytic protease, glutamate dehydrogenase, gelsolin-like protein, lombricine kinase, coelomic cytolytic factor 1, manganous superoxide dismutase, extracellular globin-4, lysenin, intermediate filament protein, and tubulin, are involved in several processes, including transcription, translation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the cellular amino acid metabolic process, protein amino acid phosphorylation, glycolysis, and the glucose metabolic process. Thus, our study provides a functional profile of the Cd-responsive proteins in earthworms.

Wang X; Chang L; Sun Z; Zhang Y; Yao L

2010-12-01

136

PEM Fuel Cell Freeze Durability and Cold Start Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

UTC has taken advantage of the unique water management opportunities inherent in micro-porous bipolar-plates to improve the cold-start performance of its polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). Diagnostic experiments were used to determine the limiting factors in micro-porous plate PEFC freeze performance and the causes of any performance decay. Alternative cell materials were evaluated for their freeze performance. Freeze-thaw cycling was also performed to determine micro-porous plate PEFC survivability. Data from these experiments has formed the basis for continuing development of advanced materials capable of supporting DOE's cold-start and durability objectives.

Patterson, T.; O' Neill, Jonathan

2008-01-02

137

Dry Phase of Life: Freeze-Drying and Storage Stability of 'Lactobacillus Coryniformis' Si3 in Sucrose-Based Formulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Freeze-drying is a commonly used drying technique for sensitive biologicals, such as lactic acid bacteria. Freeze-drying survival and storage viability of freeze-dried lactic acid bacteria have been shown to depend upon many factors includiing species, fe...

A. Schoug

2009-01-01

138

"Earthworms Downunder": a survey of the earthworm fauna of urban and agricultural soils in Australia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

"Earthworms Downunder" was a national survey of the earthworm fauna of urban and agricultural soils in Australia in which 1450 school children measured earthworm abundance and sent specimens to taxonomists for identification. Abundance varied between habitats with highest numbers found in pastures and orchards (means >140 m-2) and least in cereal crops (mean <50 m-2). The most common species were the introduced Aporrectodea caliginosa, A. trapezoide, A. rosea, Lumbricus rubellus (Lumbricidae), Microscolex dubius (Acanthodrilidae), Amynthas rodericensis (Megacolecidae) and Pontoscolex corethrurus(Glossoscolecidae). Spencerilla sp. (Megascolecidae) was the most common native species. Species richness was least in soils used for cereal cropping and greatest in urban gardens. Some introduced species (e.g. A. trapezoides and A. caliginosa) were widespread across southern Australia, but rarely found in the northern tropics, whilst other species had the opposite distribution (e.g. P. corethrurus). Closest associations between species were recorded for A. caliginosa, A. trapezoides and L. rubellus.

Baker GH; Thumlert TA; Meisel LS; Carter PJ; Kilpin GP

1997-04-01

139

Contact tests for pentachlorophenol toxicity to earthworms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The standardized contact filter paper test (EEC and OECD) provides an effective screening test for toxicity to earthworms in a laboratory setting. A need exists for a reliable and inexpensive technique for non-laboratory settings where screening is desired, but facilities cannot provide for the acquisition and maintenance of the glass vials required by the standardized test. This study evaluated two modifications of the standardized test using clear polyethylene bags, with and without filter paper, with Eisenia fetida and domesticated surface-feeding earthworms. The tests were conducted according to EEC and OECD guidelines. Results of the modified tests corresponded in dose and effect to the standardized contact filter paper test indicating the usefulness of the modified tests.

Spontak, D.A. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

1994-12-31

140

Hox genes from the earthworm Perionyx excavatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Hox genes of the oligochaete, Perionyx excavatus, were surveyed using PCR and phylogenetic analysis. We were able to identify 11 different Hox gene fragments. Comparative and phylogenetic analyses revealed that this oligochaete would have at least five Hox genes of the anterior group, including three copies of labial-type, five of the central group and one of the posterior group. This is the first report regarding sequence information and phylogenetic analysis of Hox genes in the earthworm. PMID:12684774

Cho, Sung Jin; Cho, Pyo Yun; Lee, Myung Sik; Hur, So Young; Lee, Jong Aa; Kim, Seong Ki; Koh, Ki Seok; Na, Young Eun; Choo, Jong Kil; Kim, Chang-Bae; Park, Soon Cheol

2003-04-03

 
 
 
 
141

Hox genes from the earthworm Perionyx excavatus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Hox genes of the oligochaete, Perionyx excavatus, were surveyed using PCR and phylogenetic analysis. We were able to identify 11 different Hox gene fragments. Comparative and phylogenetic analyses revealed that this oligochaete would have at least five Hox genes of the anterior group, including three copies of labial-type, five of the central group and one of the posterior group. This is the first report regarding sequence information and phylogenetic analysis of Hox genes in the earthworm.

Cho SJ; Cho PY; Lee MS; Hur SY; Lee JA; Kim SK; Koh KS; Na YE; Choo JK; Kim CB; Park SC

2003-05-01

142

Teaching basic neurophysiology using intact earthworms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Introductory neurobiology courses face the problem that practical exercises often require expensive equipment, dissections, and a favorable student-instructor ratio. Furthermore, the duration of an experiment might exceed available time or the level of required expertise is too high to successfully complete the experiment. As a result, neurobiological experiments are commonly replaced by models and simulations, or provide only very basic experiments, such as the frog sciatic nerve preparation, which are often time consuming and tedious. Action potential recordings in giant fibers of intact earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) circumvent many of these problems and result in a nearly 100% success rate. Originally, these experiments were introduced as classroom exercises by Charles Drewes in 1978 using awake, moving earthworms. In 1990, Hans-Georg Heinzel described further experiments using anesthetized earthworms. In this article, we focus on the application of these experiments as teaching tools for basic neurobiology courses. We describe and extend selected experiments, focusing on specific neurobiological principles with experimental protocols optimized for classroom application. Furthermore, we discuss our experience using these experiments in animal physiology and various neurobiology courses at the University of Bonn.

Kladt N; Hanslik U; Heinzel HG

2010-01-01

143

Biochemical diversity of betaines in earthworms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to accumulate osmoprotectant compounds, such as betaines, is an important evolutionary feature in many organisms. This is particularly the case for organisms that live in variable environments, which may have fluctuations in moisture and salinity levels. There is, surprisingly, very little known about betaines in soil invertebrates in general, and there is almost no information about earthworms - a group that are important 'ecosystem engineers' and key indicators of soil health. Here, we describe a fast and reliable (1)H-(13)C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) 2D NMR approach for the metabolic profiling of a series of betaines and related metabolites in tissue extracts, and list (1)H and (13)C chemical shifts for the trimethylammonium signal for 23 such compounds. The analysis of ten different species from three different families (Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Glossoscolecidae) showed an unexpected diversity of betaines present in earthworms. In total ten betaines were identified, including hydroxyproline-betaine, proline-betaine, taurine-betaine, GABA-betaine and histidine-betaine, and a further eleven as-yet unassigned putative betaine metabolites detected. The findings clearly indicate a hitherto-unappreciated important role for betaine metabolism in earthworms. PMID:23261439

Liebeke, Manuel; Bundy, Jacob G

2012-12-19

144

Biochemical diversity of betaines in earthworms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ability to accumulate osmoprotectant compounds, such as betaines, is an important evolutionary feature in many organisms. This is particularly the case for organisms that live in variable environments, which may have fluctuations in moisture and salinity levels. There is, surprisingly, very little known about betaines in soil invertebrates in general, and there is almost no information about earthworms - a group that are important 'ecosystem engineers' and key indicators of soil health. Here, we describe a fast and reliable (1)H-(13)C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) 2D NMR approach for the metabolic profiling of a series of betaines and related metabolites in tissue extracts, and list (1)H and (13)C chemical shifts for the trimethylammonium signal for 23 such compounds. The analysis of ten different species from three different families (Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Glossoscolecidae) showed an unexpected diversity of betaines present in earthworms. In total ten betaines were identified, including hydroxyproline-betaine, proline-betaine, taurine-betaine, GABA-betaine and histidine-betaine, and a further eleven as-yet unassigned putative betaine metabolites detected. The findings clearly indicate a hitherto-unappreciated important role for betaine metabolism in earthworms.

Liebeke M; Bundy JG

2013-01-01

145

Cell-Freeze® Cryogenic Storage  

Science.gov (United States)

... Cell-Freeze® Cryogenic Storage. Applicant: Charter Medical, Ltd,. 510(k) number: BK100049. Product: Cell-Freeze® Cryogenic Storage. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

146

Further contribution to knowledge of the earthworms of Šumadija, Serbia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The authors present the results of recent investigations of earthworms from Šumadija. Research was carried out during 1996-2003 and included natural and cultivated biotopes from various parts of Šumadija. We found 27 taxa including six species new for the earthworm fauna of Šumadija: Dendrobaena alp...

Stojanovi? Mirjana M.; Karaman Spasenija D.

147

Effects of Earthworms on the Dispersal of Steinernema spp.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Previous studies indicated that dispersal of S. carpocapsae may be enhanced in soil with earthworms. The objective of this research was to determine and compare the effects of earthworms on dispersal of other Steinernema spp. Vertical dispersal of Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, and S. glaseri ...

Shapiro, D. I.; Tylka, G. L.; Berry, E. C.; Lewis, L. C.

148

Hibernation physiology, freezing adaptation and extreme freeze tolerance in a northern population of the wood frog.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigated hibernation physiology and freeze tolerance in a population of the wood frog, Rana sylvatica, indigenous to Interior Alaska, USA, near the northernmost limit of the species' range. Winter acclimatization responses included a 233% increase in the hepatic glycogen depot that was subsidized by fat body and skeletal muscle catabolism, and a rise in plasma osmolality that reflected accrual of urea (to 106±10 ?mol ml(-1)) and an unidentified solute (to ~73 ?mol ml(-1)). In contrast, frogs from a cool-temperate population (southern Ohio, USA) amassed much less glycogen, had a lower uremia (28±5 ?mol ml(-1)) and apparently lacked the unidentified solute. Alaskan frogs survived freezing at temperatures as low as -16°C, some 10-13°C below those tolerated by southern conspecifics, and endured a 2-month bout of freezing at -4°C. The profound freeze tolerance is presumably due to their high levels of organic osmolytes and bound water, which limits ice formation. Adaptive responses to freezing (-2.5°C for 48 h) and subsequent thawing (4°C) included synthesis of the cryoprotectants urea and glucose, and dehydration of certain tissues. Alaskan frogs differed from Ohioan frogs in retaining a substantial reserve capacity for glucose synthesis, accumulating high levels of cryoprotectants in brain tissue, and remaining hyperglycemic long after thawing. The northern phenotype also incurred less stress during freezing/thawing, as indicated by limited cryohemolysis and lactate accumulation. Post-glacial colonization of high latitudes by R. sylvatica required a substantial increase in freeze tolerance that was at least partly achieved by enhancing their cryoprotectant system.

Costanzo JP; do Amaral MC; Rosendale AJ; Lee RE Jr

2013-09-01

149

Hibernation physiology, freezing adaptation and extreme freeze tolerance in a northern population of the wood frog.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated hibernation physiology and freeze tolerance in a population of the wood frog, Rana sylvatica, indigenous to Interior Alaska, USA, near the northernmost limit of the species' range. Winter acclimatization responses included a 233% increase in the hepatic glycogen depot that was subsidized by fat body and skeletal muscle catabolism, and a rise in plasma osmolality that reflected accrual of urea (to 106±10 ?mol ml(-1)) and an unidentified solute (to ~73 ?mol ml(-1)). In contrast, frogs from a cool-temperate population (southern Ohio, USA) amassed much less glycogen, had a lower uremia (28±5 ?mol ml(-1)) and apparently lacked the unidentified solute. Alaskan frogs survived freezing at temperatures as low as -16°C, some 10-13°C below those tolerated by southern conspecifics, and endured a 2-month bout of freezing at -4°C. The profound freeze tolerance is presumably due to their high levels of organic osmolytes and bound water, which limits ice formation. Adaptive responses to freezing (-2.5°C for 48 h) and subsequent thawing (4°C) included synthesis of the cryoprotectants urea and glucose, and dehydration of certain tissues. Alaskan frogs differed from Ohioan frogs in retaining a substantial reserve capacity for glucose synthesis, accumulating high levels of cryoprotectants in brain tissue, and remaining hyperglycemic long after thawing. The northern phenotype also incurred less stress during freezing/thawing, as indicated by limited cryohemolysis and lactate accumulation. Post-glacial colonization of high latitudes by R. sylvatica required a substantial increase in freeze tolerance that was at least partly achieved by enhancing their cryoprotectant system. PMID:23966588

Costanzo, Jon P; do Amaral, M Clara F; Rosendale, Andrew J; Lee, Richard E

2013-09-15

150

Ecotoxicity of aged uranium in soil using plant, earthworm and microarthropod toxicity tests.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Discrepancies about probable no effect concentrations (PNEC) for uranium in soils may be because toxicity tests used freshly contaminated soils. This study used 3 soils amended with a range of uranium concentrations 10 years previously. The toxicity tests with northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus); earthworm (Eisenia andrei) were not affected below ~1,000 mg U kg(-1), and the soil arthropod Folsomia candida was not affected below ~350 mg U kg(-1). Survival of Orthonychiurus folsomi was diminished 20% (EC(20)) by ~85-130 mg U kg(-1), supporting a PNEC in the range of 100-250 mg U kg(-1) as derived previously.

Sheppard SC; Stephenson GL

2012-01-01

151

Microscale interactions between earthworms and microorganisms: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microorganisms are well adapted to their soil microhabitat where they live together in consortia, interacting with other living members, including earthworms. This literature review consists of four sections that focus on microscale interactions between earthworms and microorganisms. The first part is devoted to nephridia symbiosis. Recent discoveries show that Verminephrobacter spp. is present as a symbiont in earthworm nephridia. The second section deals with earthworm food preference and focuses on the major hypotheses of foraging strategies. The third section presents evidence of gut symbionts and highlights the need for additional studies in this field. The last section of this review explains why microorganism activities are enhanced in burrows and casts of earthworms.

Zirbes, L.; Thonart, P.; Haubruge, E.

2012-01-01

152

Vulnerable Earthworm Species Identified from Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diversity of earthworms at Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is less known even though it is one among the biodiversity hot spots. Unless an authentic record of available earthworm species is made, the consequences of human alternation or climate change on the earthworm species diversity cannot be assessed. In this regard, the present study is relevant. Earthworms were collected from twenty three sites of NBR. The findings of this study showed that out of the total earthworm species identified from selected areas of NBR, 83.4% are native species and 16.6% are exotic. This indicates the predominance of native species in the study area possibly due to low level of disturbance in the area. Among the species identified from Mukurthi, Priodichaeta pellucida (Bourne) which is listed as vulnerable and has not been encountered since its discovery about 100 years ago.

Mahesh Mohan; M.S. Shylesh Chandran; E.V. Ramasamy

2011-01-01

153

Effect of Soil Physical State on the Earthworms in Hungary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Hungarian authors have long been discussing the role of earthworms in improving soil productivity. Earthworm counts in our higher quality soils are similar to those found in soils where more attention is paid to earthworm activity. Negative impacts that are independent of farming such as sustained dry spells in the summer also affect earthworm counts. Negative impacts that definitely depend on farming include land use causing soil moisture loss, deep stubble treatment leaving the soil without cover, and ploughing in the summer without subsequent pressing. The climate change is having both positive and negative impacts. Weather patterns are causing losses but adopting climate mitigating tillage are generating benefits. In the trials results so far show that tillage focusing on preserving soil moisture, structure, and organic materials, covering the surface in the critical months as well as adequate soil loosening are fundamental pre-requisites for making the soil a favourable habitat for earthworms.

2010-01-01

154

Gene Expression Analysis of CL-20-induced Reversible Neurotoxicity Reveals GABAA Receptors as Potential Target in the Earthworm Eisenia fetida  

Science.gov (United States)

The earthworm Eisenia fetida is one of the most used species in standardized soil ecotoxicity tests. Endpoints such as survival, growth and reproduction are eco-toxicologically relevant but provide little mechanistic insight into toxicity pathways, especially at the molecular level. Here we applied a toxicogenomic approach to investigate the mode of action underlying the reversible neurotoxicity of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), a cyclic nitroamine explosives compound. We developed an E. fetida-specific shotgun microarray targeting 15119 unique E. fetida transcripts. Using this array we profiled gene expression in E. fetida in response to exposure to CL-20. Eighteen earthworms were exposed for 6 days to 0.2 ?g/cm2 of CL-20 on filter paper, half of which were allowed to recover in a clean environment for 7 days. Nine vehicle control earthworms were sacrificed at day 6 and 13, separately. Electrophysiological measurements indicated that the conduction velocity of earthworm medial giant nerve fiber decreased significantly after 6-day exposure to CL-20, but was restored after 7 days of recovery. Total RNA was isolated from the four treatment groups including 6-day control, 6-day exposed, 13-day control and 13-day exposed (i.e. 6-day exposure followed by 7-day recovery), and was hybridized to the 15K shot-gun oligo array. Statistical and bioinformatic analyses suggest that CL-20 initiated neurotoxicity by non-competitively blocking the ligand-gated GABAA receptor ion channel, leading to altered expression of genes involved in GABAergic, cholinergic, and Agrin-MuSK pathways. In the recovery phase, expression of affected genes returned to normality, possibly as a result of autophagy and CL-20 dissociation/metabolism. This study provides significant insights into potential mechanisms of CL-20-induced neurotoxicity and the recovery of earthworms from transient neurotoxicity stress.

Gong, Ping; Guan, Xin; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Liang, Chun; Perkins, Edward J.

2012-01-01

155

Ecological transfer of radionuclides and metals to free-living earthworm species in natural habitats rich in NORM.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Transfer of radionuclides ((232)Th and (238)U) and associated metals (As, Cd, Pb and Cr) from soil to free-living earthworm species was investigated in a thorium ((232)Th) rich area in Norway. Sampling took place within former mining sites representing the technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM), at undisturbed site with unique bedrock geology representing the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and at site outside the (232)Th rich area taken as reference Background site. Soil analysis revealed the elevated levels of investigated elements at NORM and TENORM sites. Based on sequential extraction, uranium ((238)U) and cadmium (Cd) were quite mobile, while the other elements were strongly associated with mineral components of soil. Four investigated earthworm species (Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Dendrodrilus rubidus and Lumbricus rubellus) showed large individual variability in the accumulation of radionuclides and metals. Differences in uptake by epigeic and endogeic species, as well as differences within same species from the NORM, TENORM and Background sites were also seen. Based on total concentrations in soil, the transfer factors (TF) were in ranges 0.03-0.08 and 0.09-0.25, for (232)Th and (238)U, respectively. TFs for lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) were low (less than 0.5), while TFs for Cd were higher (about 10). Using the ERICA tool, the estimated radiation exposure dose rate of the earthworms ranged from 2.2 to 3.9 ?Gy/h. The radiological risk for investigated earthworms was low (0.28). The obtained results demonstrated that free-living earthworm species can survive in soil containing elevated (232)Th and (238)U, as well As, Cd, Pb and Cr levels, although certain amount of radionuclides was accumulated within their bodies. The present investigation contributes to general better understanding of complex soil-to-biota transfer processes of radionuclides and metals and to assessment of risk for non-human species in the ecosystem with multiple contaminants.

Mrdakovic Popic J; Salbu B; Skipperud L

2012-01-01

156

Earthworm’s immunity in the nanomaterial world: new room, future challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the advent of the nanotechnology era, the environmental sink has been continuously receiving engineered nanomaterials as well as their derivatives. Our current understanding of the potential impact of nanomaterials on invertebrate immunity is limited to only a handful of initial studies including those on earthworms. Recently, we reported selective accumulation of silver nanoparticles in the amoebocyte population of Eisenia fetida coelomocytes in vitro. In this review, we give an overview of available literature on the life-history impacts on earthworms, and what we have learnt of the immune responses to nanoparticles with references to other invertebrate species and vertebrate counterparts. We discuss the significant contribution of amoebocytes as nanoparticle scavengers and suggest a possibility of studying inter-cellular communications in coelomocytes. Implications from the leading researches in vertebrate models tell us that study of the nanoparticle recognition involved in cellular uptake as well as sub- and inter-cellular events may uncover further intriguing insights into earthworm’s immunity in the nanomaterial world

Y Hayashi; P Engelmann

2013-01-01

157

Comparative efficacy of three epigeic earthworms under different deciduous forest litters decomposition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An experiment was conducted during 1998-1999, in a deciduous forest located in the semi-arid tropics of central India, to evaluate the suitability of different forest litters as food material for the tropical epigeic earthworms i.e. Eisenia fetida (Savigny), Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) and Dicogaster bolaui (michaelsen). The aim was to examine the influence of these earthworms on the decomposition processes of three types of forest litters i.e. Tectona grandis (teak), Madhuca indica (mahua) and Butea monosperma (palas), on the maintenance of quality in a vermicomposting system, and to assess the effect of applications of in situ prepared vermicomposts on the growth of forest trees. The results indicated that T. grandis litter was the most suitable food material for the earthworms possibly because it contained high reserves of mineral nutrients. Comparisons of the survival and reproduction rates of the three epigeic earthworm species indicated that a higher reproduction rate was maintained for E. fetida compared to P. excavatus and D. bolaui in the decomposition of these forest litters. The rates of growth and population increases of E. fetida approximately doubled after 12 weeks of litter decomposition. The litter decomposition process was associated strongly with the quality of the materials and their chemical composition. Irrespective of earthworm inoculations, the levels of available nutrient such as NH(4)-N, NO(3)-N, available P and K increased significantly (pM. indica litter compost>B. monosperma litter compost. The mature decomposed litter had lower C/N ratios (11.3-24.8:1), water-soluble carbon (0.30-0.58%), water-soluble carbohydrates (0.35-0.71%) and larger cation exchange capacity/total organic carbon ratios than the values in the parent forest litter. The lignin content increased with maturation with a concomitant decrease in cellulose resulting in higher lignin/cellulose ratios. Application of all three vermicomposts to forest trees significantly improved their heights and diameters over those of control trees, although the increases were lower than those resulting from the chemical fertilizer applications. However, soil biological activities i.e. soil respiration, soil microbial biomass carbon and dehydrogenase activity were greater by application of vermicomposts over that after application of inorganic fertilizer in a new plantation of T. grandis.

Manna MC; Jha S; Ghosh PK; Acharya CL

2003-07-01

158

Comparative efficacy of three epigeic earthworms under different deciduous forest litters decomposition.  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment was conducted during 1998-1999, in a deciduous forest located in the semi-arid tropics of central India, to evaluate the suitability of different forest litters as food material for the tropical epigeic earthworms i.e. Eisenia fetida (Savigny), Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) and Dicogaster bolaui (michaelsen). The aim was to examine the influence of these earthworms on the decomposition processes of three types of forest litters i.e. Tectona grandis (teak), Madhuca indica (mahua) and Butea monosperma (palas), on the maintenance of quality in a vermicomposting system, and to assess the effect of applications of in situ prepared vermicomposts on the growth of forest trees. The results indicated that T. grandis litter was the most suitable food material for the earthworms possibly because it contained high reserves of mineral nutrients. Comparisons of the survival and reproduction rates of the three epigeic earthworm species indicated that a higher reproduction rate was maintained for E. fetida compared to P. excavatus and D. bolaui in the decomposition of these forest litters. The rates of growth and population increases of E. fetida approximately doubled after 12 weeks of litter decomposition. The litter decomposition process was associated strongly with the quality of the materials and their chemical composition. Irrespective of earthworm inoculations, the levels of available nutrient such as NH(4)-N, NO(3)-N, available P and K increased significantly (pM. indica litter compost>B. monosperma litter compost. The mature decomposed litter had lower C/N ratios (11.3-24.8:1), water-soluble carbon (0.30-0.58%), water-soluble carbohydrates (0.35-0.71%) and larger cation exchange capacity/total organic carbon ratios than the values in the parent forest litter. The lignin content increased with maturation with a concomitant decrease in cellulose resulting in higher lignin/cellulose ratios. Application of all three vermicomposts to forest trees significantly improved their heights and diameters over those of control trees, although the increases were lower than those resulting from the chemical fertilizer applications. However, soil biological activities i.e. soil respiration, soil microbial biomass carbon and dehydrogenase activity were greater by application of vermicomposts over that after application of inorganic fertilizer in a new plantation of T. grandis. PMID:12618041

Manna, M C; Jha, S; Ghosh, P K; Acharya, C L

2003-07-01

159

Freezing increment in keratophakia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In homoplastic keratomileusis, keratophakia, and epikeratophakia, the corneal tissue that provides the final refractive lenticule undergoes a conformational change when frozen. Because corneal tissue is composed primarily of water, an assumed value of 9.08% (approximate volumic percentage expansion of water when frozen) is frequently used for the increase in thickness, or freezing increment, rather than measuring it directly. We evaluated 32 cases of clinical keratophakia and found the increase in thickness to average 37 +/- 21%. In this series of 32 cases, the percentage of patients with a greater than 4 D residual refractive error was 16%. If an assumed freezing increment of 9.08% had been used, the percentage would have been 28%, with two-thirds of these 28% manifesting a marked undercorrection. Because of a lack of studies documenting the behavior of corneal tissue following cryoprotection and freezing, it is suggested that measurements be taken during homoplastic surgery to minimize the potential for significant inaccuracy in obtaining the desired optic result. PMID:3915238

Swinger, C A; Wisnicki, H J

160

Multi-element analyses of earthworms for radioecology and ecotoxicology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasing concern about environmental radiation protection has raised awareness that more information is required on the transfer and accumulation of radionuclides in the biological compartments of ecosystems. ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) selected earthworm as one of the reference organisms in their radiation protection recommendations. Earthworms play an important role in ecosystems, and might be a good indicator of soil contamination and its effect on the ecosystem. The elemental composition of earthworms gives useful information on background levels and possible accumulation of metals as well as related radionuclides. In addition, a change of the elemental composition itself might be a possible indicator of the effect on the earthworm and/or ecosystem. However, data for the elemental composition of earthworms are limited except for some specific heavy metals such as Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. In this study, earthworms and their growth media were analyzed for more than 30 elements, including radionuclide related elements such as Cs, Sr, Th and U, in order to obtain the basic information on the transfer parameters of the elements. The earthworms analyzed were fed in the laboratory or collected in the environment. The concentrations and transfer factors of the elements were determined both for laboratory and natural conditions. The controlling factors on the transfer parameters such as the bioavailability of the elements in the soils will also be discussed. (author)

Yoshida, S.; Peijnenburg, W.; Muramatsu, Y. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Environmental and Toxicological Sciences Research Group, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi (Japan)

2004-07-01

 
 
 
 
161

Status, Trends, and Advances in Earthworm Research and Vermitechnology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this special issue reflect the developments in the fields of earthworm research and vermitechnology. Charles Darwins observation on earthworms is a milestone in understanding the soil biology and enormous contribution to some aspects of the genesis of humus and of its role in soils. Earthworms are the best known soil inhabiting animals commonly called friends of farmers due to the beneficial role they play in soil. The research on earthworms has gained importance in India as well as in other countries. In the year 1981, an international symposium entitled Earthworm Ecology: Darwin to Vermiculture was held at Cumbria, UK, to commemorate the centenary celebration of Darwins book The Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of Worms, with Observations on Their Habits that was published in 1881 by Murray, London, UK. In the year 2000, Vermillenium-an international workshop and symposium- was held at Kalamazoo, USA, to realize the progress achieved in this field after a decade (since 1991). Recently, Ninth International Symposium on Earthworm Ecology (ISEE-9) that was held at Xalapa, Mexico, during the 5th to 10th of September 2010 clearly proved the importance of earthworms and vermitechnology by the participation of scientists from different countries. About 300 papers were received from the researchers across the world

162

Multi-element analyses of earthworms for radioecology and ecotoxicology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Increasing concern about environmental radiation protection has raised awareness that more information is required on the transfer and accumulation of radionuclides in the biological compartments of ecosystems. ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) selected earthworm as one of the reference organisms in their radiation protection recommendations. Earthworms play an important role in ecosystems, and might be a good indicator of soil contamination and its effect on the ecosystem. The elemental composition of earthworms gives useful information on background levels and possible accumulation of metals as well as related radionuclides. In addition, a change of the elemental composition itself might be a possible indicator of the effect on the earthworm and/or ecosystem. However, data for the elemental composition of earthworms are limited except for some specific heavy metals such as Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. In this study, earthworms and their growth media were analyzed for more than 30 elements, including radionuclide related elements such as Cs, Sr, Th and U, in order to obtain the basic information on the transfer parameters of the elements. The earthworms analyzed were fed in the laboratory or collected in the environment. The concentrations and transfer factors of the elements were determined both for laboratory and natural conditions. The controlling factors on the transfer parameters such as the bioavailability of the elements in the soils will also be discussed. (author)

2004-01-01

163

Metabolic changes during estivation in the common earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The common earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa survives drought by forming estivation chambers in the topsoil under even very slight reductions in soil water activity. We induced estivation in a soil of a consistency that allowed the removal of intact soil estivation chambers containing a single worm. These estivation chambers were exposed to 97% relative humidity for 30 d to simulate the effect of a severe summer drought. Gas exchange, body fluid osmolality, water balance, urea, and alanine were quantified, and whole-body homogenates were screened for changes in small organic molecules via (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Formation of estivation chambers was associated with a dramatic increase in body fluid osmolality, from 175 to 562 mOsm kg(-1), accompanied by a 20% increase in water content. Dehydration for 1 mo caused a further increase to 684 mOsm kg(-1), while the worms lost 50% of their water content. Gas exchange was depressed by 50% after worms entered estivation and by 80% after a further 30 d of dehydration. Urea concentrations increased from 0.3 to 1 micromol g(-1) dry mass during this time. Although (1)H-NMR did not provide the identity of the osmolytes responsible for the initial increase in osmolality after estivation, it showed that alanine increased to more than 80 mmol L(-1) in the long-term-estivation group. We propose that alanine functions as a nitrogen depot during dehydration and is not an anaerobe product in this case.

Bayley, Mark; Overgaard, Johannes

2011-01-01

164

Bilateral nuclear-weapon freeze  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A bilateral nuclear-weapons freeze to stop the arms race is, next to the economy, the major public issue. The author feels that a freeze would lessen the risk of launch-on-warning errors that could lead to nuclear war. Further, a bilateral freeze would preserve the parity of existing US-Soviet arms, but prevent the destabilization of a new counterforce capability. It must be a complete freeze on production, testing, and deployment in order to facilitate verification by on-site and satellite observation. The freeze should allow some facilities to operate with special safeguards to deal with the aging of nuclear weapons. Forsberg describes how a freeze would work and what it can accomplish. 5 figures, 2 tables. (DCK)

Forsberg, R.

1982-11-01

165

Magnetic freezing of confined water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report results from molecular dynamic simulations of the freezing transition of liquid water in the nanoscale hydrophobic confinement under the influence of a homogeneous external magnetic field of 10 T along the direction perpendicular to the parallel plates. A new phase of bilayer crystalline ice is obtained at an anomalously high freezing temperature of 340 K. The water-to-ice translation is found to be first order. The bilayer ice is built from alternating rows of hexagonal rings and rhombic rings parallel to the confining plates, with a large distortion of the hydrogen bonds. We also investigate the temperature shifts of the freezing transition due to the magnetic field. The freezing temperature, below which the freezing of confined water occurs, shifts to a higher value as the magnetic field enhances. Furthermore, the temperature of the freezing transition of confined water is proportional to the denary logarithm of the external magnetic field.

Zhang G; Zhang W; Dong H

2010-10-01

166

Magnetic freezing of confined water  

Science.gov (United States)

We report results from molecular dynamic simulations of the freezing transition of liquid water in the nanoscale hydrophobic confinement under the influence of a homogeneous external magnetic field of 10 T along the direction perpendicular to the parallel plates. A new phase of bilayer crystalline ice is obtained at an anomalously high freezing temperature of 340 K. The water-to-ice translation is found to be first order. The bilayer ice is built from alternating rows of hexagonal rings and rhombic rings parallel to the confining plates, with a large distortion of the hydrogen bonds. We also investigate the temperature shifts of the freezing transition due to the magnetic field. The freezing temperature, below which the freezing of confined water occurs, shifts to a higher value as the magnetic field enhances. Furthermore, the temperature of the freezing transition of confined water is proportional to the denary logarithm of the external magnetic field.

Zhang, Guangyu; Zhang, Weiwei; Dong, Huijuan

2010-10-01

167

Freezing of Coulomb liquids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Recent progress in the theory of liquid-solid coexistence as approached from the liquid phase in systems with Coulomb forces is reviewed. Main attention is given to (i) Wigner crystallization of the electron gas in the degenerate and classical limits, and (ii) localization of bond particles leading to freezing in a pseudoclassical liquid-state version of the bond-charge model for elemental semiconductors. These models serve to illustrate crystallization driven by pure Coulomb repulsions and crystallization resulting from the interplay of attraction and repulsions in multicomponent systems, respectively. (author). 29 refs, 4 figs

1989-01-01

168

Comparative toxicity of ten organic chemicals to four earthworm species  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ten organic chemicals were tested for toxicity to four earthworm species: Allolobophora tuberculata, Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae and Perionyx excavatus, using the European Economic Community's (EEC) earthworm artificial soil and contact testing procedure. The phenols were the most toxic chemicals tested, followed by the amine, substituted benzenes, halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and phthalate as the least toxic chemical tested. Correlations among species within each type of test for a given chemical were extremely high, suggesting that the selection of earthworm test species does not markedly affect the assessment of a chemical's toxicity. The correlation between the two tests was low for all test species. The contact test LC50 for a given chemical cannot be directly correlated to an artificial soil test LC50 for the same earthworm species.

Neuhauser, E.F.; Durkin, P.R.; Malecki, M.R.; Anatra, M.

1986-01-01

169

Identification and Classification of Earthworm Species in Guyana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Earthworms are very important organisms, they are both environmentally and economically beneficial and hence their correct identification and classification is very vital. Taxonomy aims to classify organisms based on their similarities and differences. The present study was carried out during the year 2006-2007 at University of Guyana, Georgetown focusing on identification and classification of local earthworm species of Guyana and comparison with a known non-native species (California red). The earthworms were collected (using hand sorting method), cultured and then carefully examined (worms were washed with water, preserved in 10% formalin solution). The two species studied were identified based on their external morphology and internal anatomy as well as their ecological features. The California red earthworm was grouped under the family Lumbricidae and identified as Eisenia foetida, while the local species was grouped under the family Eudrilidae and identified as Eudrilus eugenia.

Abdullah Adil Ansari; Preeta Saywack

2011-01-01

170

Further contribution to knowledge of the earthworms of Šumadija, Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors present the results of recent investigations of earthworms from Šumadija. Research was carried out during 1996-2003 and included natural and cultivated biotopes from various parts of Šumadija. We found 27 taxa including six species new for the earthworm fauna of Šumadija: Dendrobaena alpina, Helodrilus cernosvitovianus, Octolasion cyaneum, Octodrilus complanatus, Serbiona serbica, and Serbiona paratuleskovi. Up to 1995, the total number of earthworm taxa in Šumadija was 37. After our present study this number has risen to 43 taxa. As for the zoogeographical position of the earthworms of Šumadija, the established taxa have the following types of distribution: European (11 taxa), cosmopolitan (10), Holarctic (eight) Palearctic (two), South European (five), Balkan (three) and endemic (four).

Stojanovi? Mirjana M.; Karaman Spasenija D.

2005-01-01

171

Touching and Fair Tests with Pill Bugs and Earthworms  

Science.gov (United States)

This unit shows students how to humanely handle pill bugs ("roly polies") and earthworms while observing their characteristics. Students will explore the types of conditions that each bug prefers to live in (eg., wet or dry, dark or light).

Schools, Orange C.

2010-07-27

172

Vermistabilization of Biosolids and Organic Solid Wastes Using Earthworms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vermistabilization, also known as vermicomposting, is a biodegradation process for stabilization of biosolids and organic solid wastes using earthworms. The worms maintain aerobic conditions in the organic substances and accelerate and enhance the biologi...

L. K. Wang

1997-01-01

173

Performance Characteristics of an Isothermal Freeze Valve  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document discusses performance characteristics of an isothermal freeze valve. A freeze valve has been specified for draining the DWPF melter at the end of its lifetime. Two freeze valve designs have been evaluated on the Small Cylindrical Melter-2 (SCM-2). In order to size the DWPF freeze valve, the basic principles governing freeze valve behavior need to be identified and understood.

Hailey, A.E.

2001-08-22

174

Toxicity of chlorpyrifos, carbofuran, mancozeb and their formulations to the tropical earthworm Perionyx excavatus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Effects of chlorpyrifos, carbofuran, mancozeb and their formulated products on survival, growth and reproduction of the tropical earthworm Perionyx excavatus were investigated in standard artificial soil. The toxicity of the three chemicals decreased in the order carbofuran>chlorpyrifos>mancozeb. In general, formulations were more toxic than the active ingredients, but differences in LC?? and EC x values were significant only in two cases and not more than a factor of 2.0. This could mainly be due to masking of the effects of additives in the soil. Comparison with available survival data revealed that P. excavatus is more sensitive than the standard test species Eisenia andrei or E. fetida. The use of tropical species in the risk assessment of pesticides in tropical regions should therefore be encouraged.

De Silva PMangalaCS; Pathiratne Asoka; van Gestel CornelisAM

2010-01-01

175

Earthworm (Eisenia andrei) Avoidance of Soils Treated with Cypermethrin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin is used for agricultural and public health campaigns. Its residues may contaminate soils and the beneficial soil organisms, like the earthworms, that may ingest the contaminated soil particles. Due to its ecological relevance, earthworms Eisenia andrei/fetida have been used in different ecotoxicological tests. The avoidance of soils treated with cypermethrin by compost worms Eisenia andrei was studied here as a bioindicator of the influence of treatment dosage and the pesticide formulation in three different agricultural soils indicated by the Brazilian environmental authorities for ecotoxicological tests. This earthworms’ behavior was studied here as a first attempt to propose the test for regulation purposes. The two-compartment test systems, where the earthworms were placed for a two-day exposure period, contained samples of untreated soil alone or together with soil treated with technical grade or wettable powder formulation of cypermethrin. After 48 h, there was no mortality, but the avoidance was clear because all earthworms were found in the untreated section of each type of soil (p < 0.05). No differences were found by the Fisher’s exact test (p ? 1.000) for each soil and treatment, demonstrating that the different soil characteristics, the cypermethrin concentrations and formulation, as well as the smaller amounts of soil and earthworms did not influence the avoidance behavior of the earthworms to cypermethrin. The number and range of treatments used in this study do not allow a detailed recommendation of the conditions applied here, but to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported attempt to identify the avoidance of pesticide treated tropical soils by earthworms.

Ana Paula A. de Sousa; Mara M. de Andréa

2011-01-01

176

A global survey of the bacteria within earthworm nephridia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Earthworms comprise 16 described families in the Crassiclitellata plus a few other minor groups. Microscopy studies of the early 20th century detected bacteria within the excretory organs, the nephridia, of species within a few of these families. More recent evidence for the consistent and specific association of bacteria with nephridia within the Lumbricidae has been well documented, but the presence and identity of nephridial bacteria among the rest of the Crassiclitellata families had not been explored. The study presented here aimed to identify members of Crassiclitellata families that harbor bacteria in their nephridia, and identify these bacteria based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Eleven earthworm families were surveyed from countries of six continents, and two island nations. The results revealed members of four bacterial orders commonly occurred within nephridia of genera within nine Crassiclitellata families. Members of the bacterial phyla Bacteroidetes (order Sphingobacteriales), Betaproteobacteria (order Burkholderiales; family Comamonadaceae), and Alphaproteobacteria (orders Rhodospirillales and Rhizobiales) were detected in the nephridia of basal Crassiclitellata, as well as in derived families. Earthworm genera with meronephridia, multiple small nephridia per segment, lacked bacteria, whereas bacteria were often detected in holonephridia, single pairs of large nephridia with a distinct morphology and external excretory pore. The Acanthodrilidae members, a large derived family of earthworms, did not appear to possess nephridial bacteria regardless of nephridial form. Although earthworms from a variety of habitat types were sampled, there were no clear correlations of lifestyle with symbiont types, with the exception of the aquatic earthworms that contained bacteria unrelated to those in any other earthworms. The findings support an evolutionarily long association of bacteria within the Crassiclitellata, and suggest a contribution to nitrogen conservation for the earthworms.

Davidson SK; Powell R; James S

2013-04-01

177

Earthworms lost from pesticides application in potato crops  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioturbation from earthworm's activity contributes to soil creep and soil carbon dynamics, and provide enough aeration conditions for agricultural practices all over the world. In developing countries where there is a long term misuse of pesticides for agricultural purposes, lost of these benefits from earthworms activity might already yielded negative effects in the current crop production. Little research has been performed on earthworms avoidance to pesticides in developing countries located in the tropics. Furthermore, the complete avoidance reaction (from attraction to 100% avoidance) from earthworms to most of the pesticides used in potato cultivation in developing countries like Colombia is incomplete as yet. Hence the aim of this study is to assess the lost of earthworm on the soils caused by different concentrations of pesticides and associated agricultural impacts caused by a lost in the soil bioturbation. As a first stage, we have studied earthworm's avoidance to pesticide concentration in a potato agricultural area located in Colombia. Local cultivated Eisenia fetida were exposed to four of the most frequent applied active ingredients in potato crops i.e. carbofuran, mancozeb, methamidophos and chlorpyriphos. Adult earthworm toxicity experiments were carried out in two soils, untreated grasslands under standard (ISO guidelines) and undisturbed conditions, and exposed to six different concentrations of the active ingredients. The results of the avoidance reaction on the standard soils were significant for carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos. For each of the three active ingredients, we found i) overuse of pesticide, ii) applied dose of carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos by the farmers potentially caused 20%, 11% and 9% of earthworms avoidance on the cultivated soils, respectively.

Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Forrer, Karin; Binder, Claudia R.

2010-05-01

178

Imaging of food freezing  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

X-ray micro-computed tomography (X-ray micro-CT) has been applied to visualise ice crystal structures formed during freezing of a number of foods. Materials were frozen unidirectionally at -5 °C and then freeze-dried to remove the ice crystal structure and leave voids that can be measured by the X-ray. The system reconstructs the 3-D image based on a set of 2-D images, and is capable of micrometre-scale visualisation. This study demonstrates the capability of the technique to characterise the internal ice crystal microstructure of a range of frozen materials; meat, fish, chicken, potato, cheese and carrot. Results show the voids corresponding to the ice crystals formed within these materials at different directions to the heat flux and various axial positions. Electron microscopy of the same materials, both fresh and frozen at -5 °C, indicates the same shape of voids seen by the tomographic technique. Ice crystal parameters such as size, area and width can be quantified by the technique. Ice crystals in carrot were larger than in the other materials, while cheese and potato had the lowest values. The ice crystal distribution of all the experimental materials varied with axial distance from cooling surface; the closer the measurement was to the cooling surface, the smaller the crystal size. The results demonstrate that X-ray micro-CT might be useful in the analysis of frozen foods.

Mousavi Reza; Miri Taghi; Cox PhilipW; Fryer PeterJ

2007-06-01

179

Menadione enhances oxyradical formation in earthworm extracts: vulnerability of earthworms to quinone toxicity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase activities have been determined in the earthworms, L. rubellus and A. chlorotica, extracts. Menadione (0.35 mM, maximum concentration tested) was found to stimulate the rates of NADPH- and NADH-dependent cytochrome c reduction by three- and twofold, respectively. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibited completely this menadione-mediated stimulation, suggesting that ·O2- is involved in the redox cycling of menadione. However, SOD had no effect on the basal activity (activity in the absence of quinone) in the case of NADH-dependent cytochrome c reduction, whereas it partially inhibited the basal activity of NADPH-cytochrome c reduction. This indicates direct electron transfer in the former case and the formation of superoxide anion in the latter. DT-diaphorase, measured as the dicumarol-inhibitable part of menadione reductase activity, was not detectable in the earthworms' extracts. In contrast, it was found that DT-diaphorase represents about 70% of the menadione reductase activities in the freshwater mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. The results of this work suggest that earthworms, compared with mussels, could be more vulnerable to oxidative stress from quinones due to lack, or very low level of DT-diaphorase, an enzyme considered to play a significant role in the detoxification of quinones. On the contrary, mussels have efficient DT-diaphorase, which catalyzes two-electron reduction of menadione directly to hydroquinone, thus circumventing the formation of semiquinone

2003-10-08

180

Menadione enhances oxyradical formation in earthworm extracts: vulnerability of earthworms to quinone toxicity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase activities have been determined in the earthworms, L. rubellus and A. chlorotica, extracts. Menadione (0.35 mM, maximum concentration tested) was found to stimulate the rates of NADPH- and NADH-dependent cytochrome c reduction by three- and twofold, respectively. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibited completely this menadione-mediated stimulation, suggesting that {center_dot}O{sub 2}{sup -} is involved in the redox cycling of menadione. However, SOD had no effect on the basal activity (activity in the absence of quinone) in the case of NADH-dependent cytochrome c reduction, whereas it partially inhibited the basal activity of NADPH-cytochrome c reduction. This indicates direct electron transfer in the former case and the formation of superoxide anion in the latter. DT-diaphorase, measured as the dicumarol-inhibitable part of menadione reductase activity, was not detectable in the earthworms' extracts. In contrast, it was found that DT-diaphorase represents about 70% of the menadione reductase activities in the freshwater mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. The results of this work suggest that earthworms, compared with mussels, could be more vulnerable to oxidative stress from quinones due to lack, or very low level of DT-diaphorase, an enzyme considered to play a significant role in the detoxification of quinones. On the contrary, mussels have efficient DT-diaphorase, which catalyzes two-electron reduction of menadione directly to hydroquinone, thus circumventing the formation of semiquinone.

Osman, A.M.; Besten, P.J. den; Noort, P.C.M. van

2003-10-08

 
 
 
 
181

Freeze-drying wet digital prints: An option for salvage?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] On the occasion of the collapse of the Historical Archive of the City of Cologne in March 2009 and the ensuing salvage effort, questions were raised about the use of freeze-drying for soaked digital prints, a technique that has not yet been evaluated for these materials. This study examines the effects of immersion, air-drying, drying in a blotter stack, freezing and freeze-drying on 35 samples of major digital printing processes. The samples were examined visually before, during and after testing; evaluation of the results was qualitative. Results show that some prints were already damaged by immersion alone (e.g. bleeding inks and soluble coatings) to the extent that the subsequent choice of drying method made no significant difference any more. For those samples that did survive immersion, air-drying proved to be crucial for water-sensitive prints, since any contact with the wet surface caused serious damage. Less water-sensitive prints showed no damage throughout the entire procedure, regardless of drying method. Some prints on coated media suffered from minor surface disruption up to total delamination of the surface coating due to the formation of ice crystals during shock-freezing. With few exceptions, freeze-drying did not cause additional damage to any of the prints that hadn't already been damaged by freezing. It became clear that an understanding of the process and materials is important for choosing an appropriate drying method.

2009-03-00

182

Disposal of dredged sediments in tropical soils: ecotoxicological effects on earthworms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The upper limit concentrations of metals established by international legislations for dredged sediment disposal and soil quality do not take into consideration the properties of tropical soils (generally submitted to more intense weathering processes) on metal availability and ecotoxicity. Aiming to perform an evaluation on the suitability of these threshold values in tropical regions, the ecotoxicity of metal-contaminated dredged sediment from the Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) was investigated. Acute and avoidance tests with Eisenia andrei were performed with mixtures of dredged sediment with a ferralsol (0.00, 6.66, 13.12, 19.98, and 33.30 %) and a chernosol (0.00, 6.58, 13.16, 19.74, and 32.90 %). Mercury, lead, nickel, chromium, copper, and zinc concentrations were measured in test mixtures and in tissues of surviving earthworms from the acute tests. While ferralsol test mixtures provoked significant earthworm avoidance response at concentrations ?13.31 %, the chernosol mixtures showed significant avoidance behavior only at the 19.74 % concentration. The acute tests showed higher toxicity in ferralsol mixtures (LC50?=?9.9 %) compared to chernosol mixtures (LC50?=?16.5 %), and biomass increased at the lowest sediment doses in treatments of both test soils. Most probably, the expansive clay minerals present in chernosol contributed to reduce metal availability in chernosol mixtures, and consequently, the ecotoxicity of these treatments. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) for zinc and copper were lower with increasing concentrations of the dredged sediment, indicating the existence of internal regulating processes. Although the BCF for mercury also decreased with the increasing test concentrations, the known no biological function of this metal in the earthworms metabolism lead to suppose that Hg measured was not present in bioaccumulable forms. BCFs estimated for the other metals were generally higher in the highest dredged sediment doses.

Cesar R; Natal-da-Luz T; Sousa JP; Colonese J; Bidone E; Castilhos Z; Egler S; Polivanov H

2013-10-01

183

Recycled water sources influence the bioavailability of copper to earthworms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Re-use of wastewaters can overcome shortfalls in irrigation demand and mitigate environmental pollution. However, in an untreated or partially treated state, these water sources can introduce inorganic contaminants, including heavy metals, to soils that are irrigated. In this study, earthworms (Eisenia fetida) have been used to determine copper (Cu) bioavailability in two contrasting soils irrigated with farm dairy, piggery and winery effluents. Soils spiked with varying levels of Cu (0-1000mg/kg) were subsequently irrigated with recycled waters and Milli-Q (MQ) water and Cu bioavailability to earthworms determined by mortality and avoidance tests. Earthworms clearly avoided high Cu soils and the effect was more pronounced in the absence than presence of recycled water irrigation. At the highest Cu concentration (1000mg/kg), worm mortality was 100% when irrigated with MQ-water; however, when irrigated with recycled waters, mortality decreased by 30%. Accumulation of Cu in earthworms was significantly less in the presence of recycled water and was dependent on CaCl(2)-extractable free Cu(2+) concentration in the soil. Here, it is evident that organic carbon in recycled waters was effective in decreasing the toxic effects of Cu on earthworms, indicating that the metal-organic complexes decreased Cu bioavailability to earthworms. PMID:23122192

Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Bolan, Nanthi S; Naidu, Ravi; Kim, Won-Il

2012-10-13

184

Multi-element analyses of earthworms for radioecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Increasing attention on the environmental radiation protection realizes that more information is required on the transfer and accumulation of radionuclides in the biological compartments of the ecosystems. Earthworms play an important role in ecosystems, and might be a good indicator of soil contamination and its effect on the ecosystem. The elemental composition of earthworms gives useful information on background levels and possible accumulation of metals as well as related radionuclides. However, data for the elemental composition of earthworms are limited except for some specific heavy metals such as Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. In this study, earthworms and their growth media were analyzed for 35 elements, including radionuclide related elements such as Cs, Sr, Th and U, in order to obtain the basic information on the transfer parameters of the elements. The earthworms analyzed were fed in the laboratory or collected in the environment. The concentrations and transfer factors (TFs) of the elements were determined both for laboratory and natural conditions. Relatively high TFs were observed for Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Mo and Cd. The TFs for Al, Sc, Ti, Y, Nb and lanthanide elements were low. The TFs of Cs were different depending on the medium (soil type), indicating that bioavailability of Cs in the medium might be one of the important controlling factors of Cs concentration in earthworm. (author)

2004-01-01

185

Recycled water sources influence the bioavailability of copper to earthworms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Re-use of wastewaters can overcome shortfalls in irrigation demand and mitigate environmental pollution. However, in an untreated or partially treated state, these water sources can introduce inorganic contaminants, including heavy metals, to soils that are irrigated. In this study, earthworms (Eisenia fetida) have been used to determine copper (Cu) bioavailability in two contrasting soils irrigated with farm dairy, piggery and winery effluents. Soils spiked with varying levels of Cu (0-1000mg/kg) were subsequently irrigated with recycled waters and Milli-Q (MQ) water and Cu bioavailability to earthworms determined by mortality and avoidance tests. Earthworms clearly avoided high Cu soils and the effect was more pronounced in the absence than presence of recycled water irrigation. At the highest Cu concentration (1000mg/kg), worm mortality was 100% when irrigated with MQ-water; however, when irrigated with recycled waters, mortality decreased by 30%. Accumulation of Cu in earthworms was significantly less in the presence of recycled water and was dependent on CaCl2-extractable free Cu(2+) concentration in the soil. Here, it is evident that organic carbon in recycled waters was effective in decreasing the toxic effects of Cu on earthworms, indicating that the metal-organic complexes decreased Cu bioavailability to earthworms.

Kunhikrishnan A; Bolan NS; Naidu R; Kim WI

2013-10-01

186

Treating swine wastewater by integrating earthworms into constructed wetlands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to investigate the application of integrating earthworms (Pheretima peguana) into two-stage pilot-scale subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs) receiving swine wastewater in terms of their treatment performance, namely organic content, total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and solid reduction as well as the quantity of sludge production. There was a minor difference in terms of removal efficiency according to each parameter when comparing the unit with earthworms to the one without earthworms. Both achieved the TKN, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total volatile suspended solids (TVSS), suspended solids (SS), and total solids (TS) removal by more than 90 %. The earthworms helped in reducing the sludge production on the surface of constructed wetlands 40 % by volume, which resulted in lowering operational costs required to empty and treat the sludge. The plant biomass production was higher in the wetlands without earthworms. Further research could be undertaken in order to effectively apply earthworms inside the wetlands.

Nuengjamnong C; Chiarawatchai N; Polprasert C; Otterpohl R

2011-01-01

187

Freeze concentration of aqueous solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Freeze concentration is a process by which aqueous solutions of e.g. citric juices, coffee extract, beer and milk are thickened by freezing out of water. The history of this technology is dealt with and a description is given of the process and its equipment. 4 figs., 2 photographs

Van Pelt, W.H.; Roodenrijs, J.P.

1987-11-01

188

Effect of earthworms on the performance and microbial communities of excess sludge treatment process in vermifilter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have shown that the stabilization of excess sludge by vermifiltration can be improved significantly through the use of earthworms. To investigate the effect of earthworms on enhancing sludge stabilization during the vermifiltration process, a vermifilter (VF) with earthworms and a conventional biofilter (BF) without earthworms were compared. The sludge reduction capability of the VF was ?85% higher than that of the BF. Specifically, elemental analysis indicated that earthworms enhanced the stabilization of organic matter. Furthermore, earthworm predation strongly regulated microbial biomass while improving microbial activity. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that the most abundant microbes in the VF biofilms and earthworm casts were Flavobacterium, Myroides, Sphingobacterium, and Myxococcales, all of which are known to be highly effective at degrading organic matter. These results indicate that earthworms can improve the stabilization of excess sludge during vermifiltration, and reveal the processes by which this is achieved. PMID:22613898

Liu, Jing; Lu, Zhibo; Yang, Jian; Xing, Meiyan; Yu, Fen; Guo, Meiting

2012-05-03

189

Effect of earthworms on the performance and microbial communities of excess sludge treatment process in vermifilter.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous studies have shown that the stabilization of excess sludge by vermifiltration can be improved significantly through the use of earthworms. To investigate the effect of earthworms on enhancing sludge stabilization during the vermifiltration process, a vermifilter (VF) with earthworms and a conventional biofilter (BF) without earthworms were compared. The sludge reduction capability of the VF was ?85% higher than that of the BF. Specifically, elemental analysis indicated that earthworms enhanced the stabilization of organic matter. Furthermore, earthworm predation strongly regulated microbial biomass while improving microbial activity. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that the most abundant microbes in the VF biofilms and earthworm casts were Flavobacterium, Myroides, Sphingobacterium, and Myxococcales, all of which are known to be highly effective at degrading organic matter. These results indicate that earthworms can improve the stabilization of excess sludge during vermifiltration, and reveal the processes by which this is achieved.

Liu J; Lu Z; Yang J; Xing M; Yu F; Guo M

2012-08-01

190

Earthworm and belowground competition effects on plant productivity in a plant diversity gradient  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Diversity is one major factor driving plant productivity in temperate grasslands. Although decomposers like earthworms are known to affect plant productivity, interacting effects of plant diversity and earthworms on plant productivity have been neglected in field studies. We investiga...

Eisenhauer, Nico; Milcu, Alexandru; Nitschke, Norma; Sabais, Alexander C. W.; Scherber, Christoph; Scheu, Stefan

191

Heavy metal concentrations in soil and earthworms in a floodplain grassland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We determined accumulated heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) of earthworms in moderately contaminated floodplain soils. Both soil and mature earthworms were sampled before and after flooding and earthworm species were identified to understand species specific differences in bioconcentration. Accumulated metal concentrations in floodplain earthworms differed before and after flooding. Differences in uptake and elimination mechanisms, in food choice and living habitat of the different earthworm species and changes in speciation of the heavy metals are possible causes for this observation. Regression equations taken from literature, that relate metal accumulation by earthworms in floodplains as a function of metal concentration in soil, performed well when all species specific data were combined in an average accumulation, but did not address differences in accumulation between earthworm species. - The accumulation of metals by earthworms is species dependent and affected by flooding.

Vliet, P.C.J. van [Wageningen University, Department of Soil Quality, P.O. Box 8005, 6700 EC Wageningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: petra.vanvliet@wur.nl; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der [Wageningen University, Department of Soil Quality, P.O. Box 8005, 6700 EC Wageningen (Netherlands); Ma, W.C. [Alterra, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

2005-12-15

192

Heavy metal concentrations in soil and earthworms in a floodplain grassland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We determined accumulated heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) of earthworms in moderately contaminated floodplain soils. Both soil and mature earthworms were sampled before and after flooding and earthworm species were identified to understand species specific differences in bioconcentration. Accumulated metal concentrations in floodplain earthworms differed before and after flooding. Differences in uptake and elimination mechanisms, in food choice and living habitat of the different earthworm species and changes in speciation of the heavy metals are possible causes for this observation. Regression equations taken from literature, that relate metal accumulation by earthworms in floodplains as a function of metal concentration in soil, performed well when all species specific data were combined in an average accumulation, but did not address differences in accumulation between earthworm species. - The accumulation of metals by earthworms is species dependent and affected by flooding.

2005-01-01

193

Organochlorine insecticide residues in soil and earthworms in the Delhi area, India, August-October 1974  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

DDT residues in soil and earthworms from 50 sites in Delhi were monitored. DDT was detected in all but two samples each of soil and earthworms. Among DDT residues, p,p'-DDE was most common and was found in 48 samples each of soil and earthworms; p,p'-DDT was detected in only 43 soil samples and 46 earthworm samples. p,p'-TDE and o,p'-DDT were also present in smaller concentrations in 29 and 15 soil samples and in 43 and 25 earthworm samples, respectively. Maximum total DDT concentration of 2.6 ppm was detected in the soil from Durga Nagar in the vicinity of a DDT factory. The highest concentration of 37.7 ppm total DDT in earthworms was also obtained from the same site. The maximum concentration factor found in the earthworms was 551. The total DDT concentration in the earthworms and soil showed significant correlation.

Yadav, D.V.; Mittal, P.K.; Agarwal, H.C.; Pillai, M.K.

1981-09-01

194

Use of plant and earthworm bioassays to evaluate remediation of soil from a site contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was treated with a pilot-scale, solvent extraction technology. Bioassays in earthworms and plants were used to examine the efficacy of the remediation process for reducing the toxicity of the soil. The earthworm toxicity bioassays were the 14-d survival test and 21-d reproduction test, using Lumbricus terrestris and Eisenia fetida andrei. The plant bioassays included phytotoxicity tests for seed germination and root elongation in lettuce and oats, and a genotoxicity test (anaphase aberrations) in Allium cepa (common onion). Although the PCB content of the soil was reduced by 99% (below the remediation goal), toxicity to earthworm reproduction remained essentially unchanged following remediation. Furthermore, phytotoxicity and genotoxicity were higher for the remediated soil compared to the untreated soil. The toxicity remaining after treatment appeared to be due to residual solvent introduced during the remediation process, and/or to heavy metals or other inorganic contaminants not removed by the treatment. Mixture studies involving isopropanol and known toxicants indicated possible synergistic effects of the extraction solvent and soil contaminants. The toxicity in plants was essentially eliminated by a postremediation, water-rinsing step. These results demonstrate a need for including toxicity measurements in the evaluation of technologies used in hazardous waste site remediations, and illustrate the potential value of such measurements for making modifications to remediation processes.

Meier, J.R.; Chang, L.W.; Meckes, M.C.; Smith, M.K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Jacobs, S. [DynCorp, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Torsella, J. [Oak Ridge Inst. of Science and Education, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1997-05-01

195

Earthworm responses to Cd and Cu under fluctuating environmental conditions: a comparison with results from laboratory exposures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Laboratory toxicity tests are usually conducted under stable ambient conditions, while exposures in ecosystems occur in a fluctuating climate. To assess how climate influences the toxicity of Cu and Cd for the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus, this study compared effects for life-cycle parameters (survival, reproduction), cellular status (lysosomal membrane stability), gene expression (transcript of the metal binding protein metallothionein-2) and tissue metal concentration measured under outdoor conditions, with the same responses under constant conditions as measured by Spurgeon et al. [Spurgeon, D.J., Svendsen, C., Weeks, J.M., Hankard, P.K., Stubberud, H.E., Kammenga, J.E., 2003. Quantifying copper and cadmium impacts on intrinsic rate of population increase in the terrestrial oligochaete Lumbricus rubellus. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22, 1465-1472]. Both metals were found to significantly influence earthworm reproduction, compromise lysosomal membrane stability and induce MT-2 gene expression in the outdoor system. Comparison with physiological and life-cycle responses in the laboratory indicated similar response patterns and effect concentrations for Cu. For Cd, lysosomal membrane stability and MT-2 expression showed comparable responses in both exposures. Juvenile production rate, however, gave different dose response relationships, with the EC-(50) in the outdoor test approximately half that in the laboratory test. A difference in Cd accumulation was also seen. Overall, however, the comparison indicated only a marginal effect of environmental fluctuations typical for northern temperate Europe on earthworm sensitivity to the two metals.

Spurgeon DJ; Svendsen C; Lister LJ; Hankard PK; Kille P

2005-08-01

196

Generalized structural theory of freezing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The first-principles order parameter theory of freezing, proposed in an earlier work, has been successful in yielding quantitative agreement with known freezing parameters for monoatomic liquids forming solids with one atom per unit cell. A generalization of this theory is presented here to include the effects of a basis set of many atoms per unit cell. The basic equations get modified by the 'density structure factors' fsub(i) which arise from the density variations within the unit cell. Calculations are presented for the important case of monoatomic liquids freezing into hexagonal close packed solids. It is concluded that all freezing transitions can be described by using structural correlations in the liquid instead of the pair potential; and that the three body correlations are important in deciding the type of solid formed after freezing. (author)

1980-01-01

197

Earthworms newly from Mongolia (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae, Eisenia)  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Two new megadrile earthworms from the steppes, the first species wholly from Outer Mongolia, are ascribed to the partially parthenogenetic Eisenia nordenskioldi (Eisen, 1879) species-complex. Taxonomic justification of sympatric Eisenia nordenskioldi mongol and Eisenia nordenskioldi onon ssp. n. are supported by mtDNA COI barcodes. The unreliability of molecular differentiation based on voucher names compared to definitive types is again demonstrated, as pertains to the ultimate Eisenia andrei Bouché, 1972 synonym of the Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826) sibling species-complex composed of more than a dozen prior names. Similar species described from Northeast China [formerly Manchuria] and North Korea are briefly considered, albeit they are intermittently held in synonymy of cosmopolitan Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) along with many other taxa including some exotic lumbricids initially found in India. Japanese and North American lumbricids are also mentioned. Distributions are discussed and an annotated checklist of all nine Siberian/sub-arctic Eisenia nordenskioldi ssp. is appended.

Blakemore, Robert J.

2013-01-01

198

Comparative proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in the earthworm Eisenia fetida during Escherichia coli O157:H7 stress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an intestine-inhabiting bacterium associated with many severe disease outbreaks worldwide. It may enter the soil environment with the excreta of infected animals (e.g., horses, cattle, chickens) and humans. Earthworms can protect themselves against invading pathogens because of their efficient innate defense system. Identification of differential proteomic responses to E. coli O157:H7 may provide a better understanding of the survival mechanisms of the earthworm Eisenia fetida that lives in E. coli O157:H7-polluted environments. Whole earthworm extracts, collected at days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after E. coli O157:H7 stress, were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and quantitative image analysis. In total, 124 proteins demonstrated significant regulation at least at one time point, and 52 proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry and database searching. Compared with control samples, 11 protein spots were up-regulated and 41 were down-regulated for at least one time point. The identified proteins, including heat shock protein 90, fibrinolytic protease 0, gelsolin-like protein, lombricine kinase, coelomic cytolytic factor-1, manganous superoxide dismutase, catalase, triosephosphate isomerase, extracellular globin-4, lysenin, intermediate filament protein, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, are involved in several processes, including transcription, translation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the glucose metabolic process. Thus, our study provides a functional profile of the E. coli O157:H7-responsive proteins in earthworms. We suggest that the variable levels and trends in these spots on the gel may be useful as biomarker profiles to investigate E. coli O157:H7 contamination levels in soils.

Wang X; Chang L; Sun Z; Zhang Y

2010-12-01

199

Comparative proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in the earthworm Eisenia fetida during Escherichia coli O157:H7 stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an intestine-inhabiting bacterium associated with many severe disease outbreaks worldwide. It may enter the soil environment with the excreta of infected animals (e.g., horses, cattle, chickens) and humans. Earthworms can protect themselves against invading pathogens because of their efficient innate defense system. Identification of differential proteomic responses to E. coli O157:H7 may provide a better understanding of the survival mechanisms of the earthworm Eisenia fetida that lives in E. coli O157:H7-polluted environments. Whole earthworm extracts, collected at days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after E. coli O157:H7 stress, were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and quantitative image analysis. In total, 124 proteins demonstrated significant regulation at least at one time point, and 52 proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry and database searching. Compared with control samples, 11 protein spots were up-regulated and 41 were down-regulated for at least one time point. The identified proteins, including heat shock protein 90, fibrinolytic protease 0, gelsolin-like protein, lombricine kinase, coelomic cytolytic factor-1, manganous superoxide dismutase, catalase, triosephosphate isomerase, extracellular globin-4, lysenin, intermediate filament protein, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, are involved in several processes, including transcription, translation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the glucose metabolic process. Thus, our study provides a functional profile of the E. coli O157:H7-responsive proteins in earthworms. We suggest that the variable levels and trends in these spots on the gel may be useful as biomarker profiles to investigate E. coli O157:H7 contamination levels in soils. PMID:20863058

Wang, Xing; Chang, Li; Sun, Zhenjun; Zhang, Yufeng

2010-10-26

200

Effect of temperature and season on reproduction, neutral red retention and metallothionein responses of earthworms exposed to metals in field soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This study investigated the short-term survival, reproduction and physiological (lysosomal membrane stability, metallothionein transcript copy number, body tissue metal concentrations) responses of Lumbricus rubellus exposed to metal contaminated field soils under different laboratory temperatures (10, 15 and 20 oC) and physiological responses of earthworms collected from the field in three different seasons (spring, autumn, winter). In the laboratory, metal contaminated soils had significant effects on reproduction (p

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Earthworm populations in a traditional village landscape in Central Himalaya, India  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Scientific knowledge of belowground biodiversity in the Himalaya, a biodiversity hotspot, is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate density and biomass of earthworm populations and soil properties (texture, bulk density, organic C, total N and pH) in the full range of land use types viz., moderately degraded natural forests (MDNF), highly degraded natural forests (HDNF), rehabilitated forest land (RFL), traditional pure crop system (TPCS), traditional agroforestry system (TAS), abandoned agricultural land (AAL) and rehabilitated agricultural land (RAL) in a village landscape in Central Himalayan region of India. Of the 8 species present in the landscape, Amynthas alexandri and Metaphire anomala were the most widely distributed taxa, with the former absent only in RAL and the latter only in HDNF, while Bimastos parvus and Perionyx excavatus were confined to MDNF. TPCS and TAFS harboured the same species. AAL had only one (endogeics) and RAL all the three functional groups (endogeics, epigeics and anecics). All species except B. parvus showed a strong effect of season on population size, with the highest abundance and biomass values observed during rainy season. Only D. nepalensis and M. birmanica were a little bit abundant during dry season in TAFS. In the peak month of September, total density showed a trend of TAFS>TPCS>MDNF>RAL>AAL>RFL>HDNF (147, 132, 63, 27, 14, 8 and 5 individuals m?2, respectively) and biomass of TAFS>TPCS>MDNF>RFL>RAL>AAL>HDNF (266, 199, 51, 24, 21, 16 and 11gm?2, respectively). The study shows that (i) a change from TPCS to TAFS follows a substantial increase in earthworm density/biomass but not in species richness, (ii) TPCS/TAFS and MDNF host equal number of species but different species composition, with the former having much larger abundance than the latter, (iii) conversion of TPCS to AAL and of MDNF to HDNF cause drastic reduction in species richness and soil organic carbon (SOC), (iv) rehabilitation (change from AAL to RAL and HDNF to RFL) only partly recuperates SOC and earthworm fauna over a period of 20 years, (v) native species fail to survive in highly perturbed environment in HDNF and also in recuperating RFL but coexist with exotics in all other land use types, (vi) SOC explained around 60% of the variation in total density/biomass and (vii) heterogeneous landscapes with agriculture-forest mixed land uses are likely to support greater species richness than homogeneous agriculture/forest ones. Huge variability in land use histories, management practices and biophysical conditions warrant more research on spatio-temporal dynamics of earthworm communities and the linkages between belowground biodiversity, aboveground biodiversity and ecosystem functions.

Bhadauria T; Kumar P; Kumar R; Maikhuri RK; Rao KS; Saxena KG

2012-02-01

202

Earthworm excreta attract soil springtails: laboratory experiments on Heteromurus nitidus (Collembola : Entomobryidae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microarthropods are often found more abundantly in soils with earthworms than in soils without. Earthworms probably create a favourable environment for microarthropods but few studies have aimed to explain this earthworm effect. The soil collembolan (Hexapoda) Heteromurus nitidus, living in soils at...

Salmon, Sandrine; Ponge, Jean-François

203

Abundance, Biomass and Vertical Distribution of Earthworms in Ecosystem Units of Hornbeam Forest  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objectives of this study were to investigate the abundance, biomass and practical distribution of earthworms in ecosystem and tried to identify the factors affecting earthworm populations during different environmental conditions. Density and biomass of earthworms were studied in ecosystem u...

Y. Kooch; H. Jalilvand; M.A. Bahmanyar; M.R. Pormajidian

204

Darwin, Earthworms & Circadian Rhythms: A Fertile Field for Science Fair Experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article discusses why the study of earthworms has fascinated many scientists, and why earthworms make ideal experimental animals for students to test in the laboratory. Although earthworms may appear to be primitive, they are governed by both circadian and seasonal rhythms, just as more advanced organisms are. They possess an intelligence…

Burns, John T.; Scurti, Paul J.; Furda, Amy M.

2009-01-01

205

Earthworms and collembola relationships: effects of predatory centipedes and humus forms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Relationships between anecic earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea giardi) and the collembolan species Heteromurus nitidus (Templeton, 1835), which is known to be attracted to earthworms, were investigated in an 8-week laboratory experiment. Our aims were (1) to assess whether earthworms...

Salmon, Sandrine; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Ponge, Jean-François

206

Establishing principal soil quality parameters influencing earthworms in urban soils using bioassays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Potential contamination at ex-industrial sites means that, prior to change of use, it will be necessary to quantify the extent of risks to potential receptors. To assess ecological hazards, it is often suggested to use biological assessment to augment chemical analyses. Here we investigate the potential of a commonly recommended bioassay, the earthworm reproduction test, to assess the status of urban contaminated soils. Sample points at all study sites had contaminant concentrations above the Dutch soil criteria Target Values. In some cases, the relevant Intervention Values were exceeded. Earthworm survival at most points was high, but reproduction differed significantly in soil from separate patches on the same site. When the interrelationships between soil parameters and reproduction were studied, it was not possible to create a good model of site soil toxicity based on single or even multiple chemical measurements of the soils. We thus conclude that chemical analysis alone is not sufficient to characterize soil quality and confirms the value of biological assays for risk assessment of potentially contaminated soils. - Bioassays must be applied for the risk assessment complexly-polluted sites to complement chemical analysis of soils.

2005-01-01

207

A metabolomics based test of independent action and concentration addition using the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A major challenge in ecotoxicology is to understand the effects of multiple toxicants on organisms. Here we assess the effects on survival, weight change, cocoon production and metabolism caused by exposure to two similarly acting (imidacloprid/thiacloprid) and two dissimilarly acting (chlorpyrifos/Nickel) chemicals on the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. We assessed the standard models of concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA), in conjunction with a metabolomics based approach to elucidate mechanisms of effect. For imidacloprid and thiacloprid the reproductive effects indicated probable additivity. Although this suggests joint effects through a similar mechanism, metabolite changes for each pesticide actually indicated distinct effects. Further, earthworms exposed to a 0.5 toxic unit equitoxic mixture demonstrated metabolic effects intermediate between those for each pesticide, indicating a non-interactive, independent joint effect. For higher effect level mixtures (1 and 1.5 toxic units), metabolite changes associated with thiacloprid exposure began to dominate. The metabolomic effects of the two dissimilarly acting chemicals were distinct, confirming separate modes of action and both proved more toxic than anticipated from previous studies. In the mixtures, phenotypic effects were in accordance with IA estimates, while metabolite changes were dominated by Ni effects, even though chlorpyrifos contributed most to reproductive toxicity. This could be attributed to the greater systematic effect of Ni when compared to the more specifically acting chlorpyrifos. PMID:22476697

Baylay, A J; Spurgeon, D J; Svendsen, C; Griffin, J L; Swain, Suresh C; Sturzenbaum, Stephen R; Jones, O A H

2012-04-04

208

A metabolomics based test of independent action and concentration addition using the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A major challenge in ecotoxicology is to understand the effects of multiple toxicants on organisms. Here we assess the effects on survival, weight change, cocoon production and metabolism caused by exposure to two similarly acting (imidacloprid/thiacloprid) and two dissimilarly acting (chlorpyrifos/Nickel) chemicals on the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. We assessed the standard models of concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA), in conjunction with a metabolomics based approach to elucidate mechanisms of effect. For imidacloprid and thiacloprid the reproductive effects indicated probable additivity. Although this suggests joint effects through a similar mechanism, metabolite changes for each pesticide actually indicated distinct effects. Further, earthworms exposed to a 0.5 toxic unit equitoxic mixture demonstrated metabolic effects intermediate between those for each pesticide, indicating a non-interactive, independent joint effect. For higher effect level mixtures (1 and 1.5 toxic units), metabolite changes associated with thiacloprid exposure began to dominate. The metabolomic effects of the two dissimilarly acting chemicals were distinct, confirming separate modes of action and both proved more toxic than anticipated from previous studies. In the mixtures, phenotypic effects were in accordance with IA estimates, while metabolite changes were dominated by Ni effects, even though chlorpyrifos contributed most to reproductive toxicity. This could be attributed to the greater systematic effect of Ni when compared to the more specifically acting chlorpyrifos.

Baylay AJ; Spurgeon DJ; Svendsen C; Griffin JL; Swain SC; Sturzenbaum SR; Jones OA

2012-07-01

209

Literature-derived bioaccumulation models for earthworms: Development and validation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Estimation of contaminant concentrations in earthworms is a critical component in many ecological risk assessments. Without site-specific data, literature-derived uptake factors or models are frequently used. Although considerable research has been conducted on contaminant transfer from soil to earthworms, most studies focus on only a single location. External validation of transfer models has not been performed. The authors developed a database of soil and tissue concentrations for nine inorganic and two organic chemicals. Only studies that presented total concentrations in departed earthworms were included. Uptake factors and simple and multiple regression models of natural-log-transformed concentrations of each analyte in soil and earthworms were developed using data from 26 studies. These models were then applied to data from six additional studies. Estimated and observed earthworm concentrations were compared using nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Relative accuracy and quality of different estimation methods were evaluated by calculating the proportional deviation of the estimate from the measured value. With the exception of Cr, significant, single-variable (e.g., soil concentration) regression models were fit for each analyte. Inclusion of soil Ca improved model fits for Cd and Pb. Soil pH only marginally improved model fits. The best general estimates of chemical concentrations in earthworms were generated by simple ln-ln regression models for As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Zn, and polychlorinated biphenyls. No method accurately estimated Cr or Ni in earthworms. Although multiple regression models including pH generated better estimates for a few analytes, in general, the predictive utility gained by incorporating environmental variables was marginal.

Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II; Beauchamp, J.J.; Efroymson, R.A.

1999-09-01

210

Freeze and its critics. [US nuclear freeze campaign  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Notwithstanding some journalistic misinterpretations and administration misunderstandings, those supporting the Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign do not endorse unilateral arms reduction. The proposal is for a mutual, verifiable agreement. The Campaign emphasizes legislative restraints on pending weapons development. Popular support for the freeze movement continues to grow and pressure the administration to incorporate the concept into current arms negotiations. Administration spokesmen admit that the nuclear arsenal will increase by several thousand warheads under the President's modernization and expansion programs. The Campaign seeks a bilateral weapon freeze and legislation denying funds for weapons development that would preclude agreement on a freeze. The technological and security benefits of this approach are the bases for its justification. (DCK)

Paine, C.

1983-04-01

211

Freeze. How you can help prevent nuclear war  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In their book the Senators Kennedy and Hatfield prove that the United States will not be able to survive a nuclear war. The report on the freeze movement is followed by a chapter on the history of the efforts for disarmament which had been abruptly ended by President Reagan's call for the enhanced modernization of nuclear arms. But ''we have reached the unique moment in the history of the atomic age where it is possible and where it must be tried to freeze nuclear armament'', as Kennedy and Hatfield write, for ''the present nuclear balance is relatively stable''. Only by freezing the standard of armament can this balance which decides on worldwide peace be granted. (orig.)

1982-01-01

212

Cold tolerance and freeze-induced glucose accumulation in three terrestrial slugs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cold tolerance and metabolic responses to freezing of three slug species common in Scandinavia (Arion ater, Arion rufus and Arion lusitanicus) are reported. Autumn collected slugs were cold acclimated in the laboratory and subjected to freezing conditions simulating likely winter temperatures in their habitat. Slugs spontaneously froze at about -4 °C when cooled under dry conditions, but freezing of body fluids was readily induced at -1 °C when in contact with external ice crystals. All three species survived freezing for 2 days at -1 °C, and some A. rufus and A. lusitanicus also survived freezing at -2 °C. (1)H NMR spectroscopy revealed that freezing of body fluids resulted in accumulation of lactate, succinate and glucose. Accumulation of lactate and succinate indicates that ATP production occurred via fermentative pathways, which is likely a result of oxygen depletion in frozen tissues. Glucose increased from about 6 to 22 µg/mg dry tissue upon freezing in A. rufus, but less so in A. ater and A. lusitanicus. Glucose may thus act as a cryoprotectant in these slugs, although the concentrations are not as high as reported for other freeze tolerant invertebrates.

Slotsbo, Stine; Hansen, Lars Monrad

2012-01-01

213

Earthworm bioassays and seedling emergence for monitoring toxicity, aging and bioaccumulation of anthropogenic waste indicator compounds in biosolids-amended soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Land application of biosolids (treated sewage sludge) can be an important route for introducing xenobiotic compounds into terrestrial environments. There is a paucity of available information on the effects of biosolids amendment on terrestrial organisms. In this study, the influence of biosolids and biosolids aging on earthworm (Eisenia fetida) reproduction and survival and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedling emergence was investigated. Earthworms were exposed to soils amended with varying quantities of biosolids (0, 1, 2, 3, or 4% dry mass). To investigate the influence of biosolids aging, the biosolids used in the study were aged for differing lengths of time (2 or 8 weeks) prior to exposure. All of the adult earthworms survived in the biosolids-amended soils at all concentrations that were aged for 2 weeks; however, only 20% of the adults survived in the soil amended with the highest concentration of biosolids and aged for 8 weeks. Reproduction as measured by mean number of juveniles and unhatched cocoons produced per treatment correlated inversely with biosolids concentration, although the effects were generally more pronounced in the 8-week aged biosolids-soil samples. Latent seedling emergence and reduced seedling fitness correlated inversely with biosolids concentration, but these effects were tempered in the 8-week aged versus the 2-week aged soil-biosolids mixtures. Anthropogenic waste indicator compounds (AWIs) were measured in the biosolids, biosolids-soil mixtures, and earthworm samples. Where possible, bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated or estimated. A wide variety of AWIs were detected in the biosolids (51 AWIs) and earthworm samples (?19 AWI). The earthworms exposed to the 8-week aged biosolids-soil mixtures tended to accumulate greater quantities of AWIs compared to the 2-week aged mixture, suggesting that the bioavailability of some AWIs was enhanced with aging. The BAFs for a given AWI varied with treatment. Notably large BAFs were determined for some AWIs. For example, the maximum BAF determined for para-cresol, methyl salicylate, bisphenol-A, and cholesterol was greater than 100 in some treatments. PMID:22832088

Kinney, Chad A; Campbell, Bryan R; Thompson, Regina; Furlong, Edward T; Kolpin, Dana W; Burkhardt, Mark R; Zaugg, Steven D; Werner, Stephen L; Hay, Anthony G

2012-07-24

214

Influence of ultraviolet radiation on selected physiological responses of earthworms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the adverse effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on earthworms. Earthworms that crawl out of the soil may die within a few hours after sunrise. This study shows that UV exposure can be lethal. In general, UV-B had a stronger damaging effect than UV-A. Different species of earthworms had different tolerances to UV exposure. In this study, Pontoscolex corethrurus showed the highest tolerance of the three tested species to UV radiation, while Amynthas gracilis was the most sensitive. UV radiation induced both acute and chronic responses. The acute response, which occurred immediately on or after UV exposure, was characterized by the appearance of abnormally strong muscle contractions, including S-shaped movements and jumping behavior, possibly caused by bad coordination between the circular and longitudinal muscles. The chronic response included damage to the skin and muscle cells, which resulted in a high mortality rate. Oxygen consumption by A. gracilis was significantly decreased after exposure to UV-A or UV-B. Since the circulation in earthworms is mediated by muscle contraction and the skin is the main organ of respiration, it is reasonable to expect that abnormal muscle contraction and a damaged epithelium could cause suffocation. Because of their sensitive responses, we propose that some earthworms, such as A. gracilis, could serve as a new model for studying UV-induced photodamage. PMID:17050845

Chuang, Shu-Chun; Lai, Wei-Shan; Chen, Jiun-Hong

2006-11-01

215

Influence of ultraviolet radiation on selected physiological responses of earthworms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the adverse effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on earthworms. Earthworms that crawl out of the soil may die within a few hours after sunrise. This study shows that UV exposure can be lethal. In general, UV-B had a stronger damaging effect than UV-A. Different species of earthworms had different tolerances to UV exposure. In this study, Pontoscolex corethrurus showed the highest tolerance of the three tested species to UV radiation, while Amynthas gracilis was the most sensitive. UV radiation induced both acute and chronic responses. The acute response, which occurred immediately on or after UV exposure, was characterized by the appearance of abnormally strong muscle contractions, including S-shaped movements and jumping behavior, possibly caused by bad coordination between the circular and longitudinal muscles. The chronic response included damage to the skin and muscle cells, which resulted in a high mortality rate. Oxygen consumption by A. gracilis was significantly decreased after exposure to UV-A or UV-B. Since the circulation in earthworms is mediated by muscle contraction and the skin is the main organ of respiration, it is reasonable to expect that abnormal muscle contraction and a damaged epithelium could cause suffocation. Because of their sensitive responses, we propose that some earthworms, such as A. gracilis, could serve as a new model for studying UV-induced photodamage.

Chuang SC; Lai WS; Chen JH

2006-11-01

216

Freezing Stochastic Travelling Waves  

CERN Document Server

We consider in this paper travelling wave solutions to stochastic partial differential equations and corresponding wave speed. As a particular example we consider the Nagumo equation with multiplicative noise which we mainly consider in the Stratonovich sense. A standard approach to determine the position and hence speed of a wave is to compute the evolution of a level set. We compare this approach against an alternative where the wave position is found by minimizing the $L^2$ norm against a fixed profile. This approach can also be used to stop (or freeze) the wave and obtain a stochastic partial differential algebraic equation that we then discretize and solve. Although attractive as it leads to a smaller domain size it can be numerically unstable due to large convection terms. We compare numerically the different approaches for estimating the wave speed. Minimization against a fixed profile works well provided the support of the reference function is not too narrow. We then use these techniques to investiga...

Lord, G J

2010-01-01

217

Freezing characteristics of wastewater droplets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of droplet size, impurity concentration and pH on the freezing temperature of droplets from supercooled piggery wastewater, pulp mill effluent and oil sands tailings pond water, were experimentally studied. The study showed that freezing temperatures were different for all three types of wastewaters, and were volume size dependent. Large droplets froze at warmer temperatures and small droplets froze at colder temperatures. Wastewater droplets with acidic pH of 4 froze at a colder temperature than droplets with a basic pH of 11. Freezing temperature was also dependent on the amount of impurity contents of the water, decreasing as water impurity concentration decreased. The extent of the effect of size, impurity concentration and pH varied with each wastewater. Further studies are needed in order to optimize spray freezing operations for contaminant separation. 20 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

Gao, W.; Smith, D.W.; Sego, D.C. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1996-09-01

218

Freeze concentration of dairy products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Freeze concentration as a separation process was discussed. It separates mixed liquids by converting one or more of them to a solid. The process is more energy efficient in many applications than either evaporation or distillation, the most common industrial separation methods today. An EPRI report has shown that annual heat energy consumption would decrease an estimated 1.4 quads if industry replaced evaporation and distillation in every feasible case where freezing can be used. The freeze concentration process was employed to replace thermal evaporation in the dairy industry. The goals of the project were to save energy by converting concentration processes to an efficient electrically powered refrigeration system, and to create higher quality dairy products. Tests showed equal or superior quality from freeze concentrates. 2 tabs.

Amarnath, K.R. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States). Systems and Materials Dept.; Swinkels, W. [Holland Energy Technology BV (Netherlands)

1992-12-31

219

Freeze Chromatography Method and Apparatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A freeze chromatography method and apparatus are provided which enable separation of the solutes contained in a sample. The apparatus includes an annular column construction comprising cylindrical inner and outer surfaces defining an annular passage there...

C. D. Scott

1987-01-01

220

Bilateral nuclear-weapon freeze  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In many of the current elections in the U.S. there is a referendum on whether to urge a halt in the production of new nuclear weapons and delivery systems. The nature of such a freeze is discussed here.

Forsberg, R.

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Freezing of supercooled water nanodroplets  

Science.gov (United States)

All three states of water play important roles in nature, from thermostating the atmosphere to providing reactive surfaces environments. The rates at which transitions between the phases occur, the degree to which pure liquid water can be supercooled, and the solid phases that form are all fundamentally interesting questions with strong atmospheric relevance. We have followed and characterized the nucleation, growth, and subsequent freezing of pure water droplets formed in a supersonic nozzle apparatus using both Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Because the droplets have radii r between 3 nm and 6 nm, and the cooling rates are on the order of 5E5 K/s, liquid water only begins to freeze below approximately 215 K. These temperatures are well below the homogeneous freezing limit for bulk water. The experiments show the expected decrease in freezing temperature with decreasing droplet size, or alternatively, with increasing droplet internal pressure.

Wyslouzil, Barbara

2013-03-01

222

Gene expression analysis of CL-20-induced reversible neurotoxicity reveals GABA(A) receptors as potential targets in the earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The earthworm Eisenia fetida is one of the most used species in standardized soil ecotoxicity tests. End points such as survival, growth, and reproduction are eco-toxicologically relevant but provide little mechanistic insight into toxicity pathways, especially at the molecular level. Here we apply a toxicogenomic approach to investigate the mode of action underlying the reversible neurotoxicity of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), a cyclic nitroamine explosives compound. We developed an E. fetida-specific shotgun microarray targeting 15119 unique E. fetida transcripts. Using this array we profiled gene expression in E. fetida in response to exposure to CL-20. Eighteen earthworms were exposed for 6 days to 0.2 ?g/cm(2) of CL-20 on filter paper, half of which were allowed to recover in a clean environment for 7 days. Nine vehicle control earthworms were sacrificed at days 6 and 13, separately. Electrophysiological measurements indicated that the conduction velocity of earthworm medial giant nerve fiber decreased significantly after 6-day exposure to CL-20, but was restored after 7 days of recovery. Total RNA was isolated from the four treatment groups including 6-day control, 6-day exposed, 13-day control, and 13-day exposed (i.e., 6-day exposure followed by 7-day recovery), and was hybridized to the 15K shotgun oligo array. Statistical and bioinformatic analyses suggest that CL-20 initiated neurotoxicity by noncompetitively blocking the ligand-gated GABA(A) receptor ion channel, leading to altered expression of genes involved in GABAergic, cholinergic, and Agrin-MuSK pathways. In the recovery phase, expression of affected genes returned to normality, possibly as a result of autophagy and CL-20 dissociation/metabolism. This study provides significant insights into potential mechanisms of CL-20-induced neurotoxicity and the recovery of earthworms from transient neurotoxicity stress.

Gong P; Guan X; Pirooznia M; Liang C; Perkins EJ

2012-01-01

223

Heritage roundtable: the nuclear freeze  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transcript of a panel of foreign policy experts, chaired by former National Security Adviser Richard Allen, debates the proposed nuclear freeze. They consider whether a freeze is a step in the right direction, acting to slow the arms race and contribute to world security, or whether it would aggravate strategic problems by perpetuating an umbalanced situation. Disagreement among the participants makes clear that no one favors nuclear war, but there are differing perspectives on how to continue preventing such a war.

Allen, R.V.; Gray, C.; Kalicki, J.; Pfaltzgraff, R.; Scoville, H.

1982-01-01

224

FREEZE DRYING PROCESS: A REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among the various methods of drying, this article has mentioned only one most important method, “Freeze drying”. This method is mainly used for the drying of thermo labile materials. This method works on the principle of sublimation. This method is divided into 3 steps for its better understanding; these are Freezing, Primary drying, and secondary drying. There are many advantages and disadvantages of this method, but still this is the most useful drying method nowadays.

Soham Shukla

2011-01-01

225

Methylation of mercury in earthworms and the effect of mercury on the associated bacterial communities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methylmercury compounds are very toxic for most organisms. Here, we investigated the potential of earthworms to methylate inorganic-Hg. We hypothesized that the anaerobic and nutrient-rich conditions in the digestive tracts of earthworm's promote the methylation of Hg through the action of their gut bacteria. Earthworms were either grown in sterile soils treated with an inorganic (HgCl2) or organic (CH3HgCl) Hg source, or were left untreated. After 30 days of incubation, the total-Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations in the soils, earthworms, and their casts were analyzed. The impact of Hg on the bacterial community compositions in earthworms was also studied. Tissue concentrations of methyl-Hg in earthworms grown in soils treated with inorganic-Hg were about six times higher than in earthworms grown in soils without Hg. Concentrations of methyl-Hg in the soils and earthworm casts remained at significantly lower levels suggesting that Hg was mainly methylated in the earthworms. Bacterial communities in earthworms were mostly affected by methyl-Hg treatment. Terminal-restriction fragments (T-RFs) affiliated to Firmicutes were sensitive to inorganic and methyl-Hg, whereas T-RFs related to Betaproteobacteria were tolerant to the Hg treatments. Sulphate-reducing bacteria were detected in earthworms but not in soils.

Rieder SR; Brunner I; Daniel O; Liu B; Frey B

2013-01-01

226

Methylation of mercury in earthworms and the effect of mercury on the associated bacterial communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methylmercury compounds are very toxic for most organisms. Here, we investigated the potential of earthworms to methylate inorganic-Hg. We hypothesized that the anaerobic and nutrient-rich conditions in the digestive tracts of earthworm's promote the methylation of Hg through the action of their gut bacteria. Earthworms were either grown in sterile soils treated with an inorganic (HgCl2) or organic (CH3HgCl) Hg source, or were left untreated. After 30 days of incubation, the total-Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations in the soils, earthworms, and their casts were analyzed. The impact of Hg on the bacterial community compositions in earthworms was also studied. Tissue concentrations of methyl-Hg in earthworms grown in soils treated with inorganic-Hg were about six times higher than in earthworms grown in soils without Hg. Concentrations of methyl-Hg in the soils and earthworm casts remained at significantly lower levels suggesting that Hg was mainly methylated in the earthworms. Bacterial communities in earthworms were mostly affected by methyl-Hg treatment. Terminal-restriction fragments (T-RFs) affiliated to Firmicutes were sensitive to inorganic and methyl-Hg, whereas T-RFs related to Betaproteobacteria were tolerant to the Hg treatments. Sulphate-reducing bacteria were detected in earthworms but not in soils. PMID:23577209

Rieder, Stephan Raphael; Brunner, Ivano; Daniel, Otto; Liu, Bian; Frey, Beat

2013-04-05

227

Methylation of Mercury in Earthworms and the Effect of Mercury on the Associated Bacterial Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

Methylmercury compounds are very toxic for most organisms. Here, we investigated the potential of earthworms to methylate inorganic-Hg. We hypothesized that the anaerobic and nutrient-rich conditions in the digestive tracts of earthworm's promote the methylation of Hg through the action of their gut bacteria. Earthworms were either grown in sterile soils treated with an inorganic (HgCl2) or organic (CH3HgCl) Hg source, or were left untreated. After 30 days of incubation, the total-Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations in the soils, earthworms, and their casts were analyzed. The impact of Hg on the bacterial community compositions in earthworms was also studied. Tissue concentrations of methyl-Hg in earthworms grown in soils treated with inorganic-Hg were about six times higher than in earthworms grown in soils without Hg. Concentrations of methyl-Hg in the soils and earthworm casts remained at significantly lower levels suggesting that Hg was mainly methylated in the earthworms. Bacterial communities in earthworms were mostly affected by methyl-Hg treatment. Terminal-restriction fragments (T-RFs) affiliated to Firmicutes were sensitive to inorganic and methyl-Hg, whereas T-RFs related to Betaproteobacteria were tolerant to the Hg treatments. Sulphate-reducing bacteria were detected in earthworms but not in soils.

Rieder, Stephan Raphael; Brunner, Ivano; Daniel, Otto; Liu, Bian; Frey, Beat

2013-01-01

228

Interactions between the nematode parasite of pigs, Ascaris suum, and the earthworm Aporrectodea longa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pig faeces in which Ascaris suum eggs had been embryonating for 57 days were placed in buckets of soil containing either 30 or no earth-worms (Aporrectodea longa). When present, earthworms consumed the faeces and transported the eggs down into the soil, without inflicting any visible damage on the eggs. In later experiments 10 earthworms from the above experiment were fed to each of ten pigs, and another 40 earthworms were dissected. None of the 10 pigs became infected with A. suum through consumption of earthworms, and none of the dissected earthworms were found to contain A. suum larvae. This experiment indicates that A. longa did not act as a paratenic host for A. suum but shows that earthworms are very efficient in transporting A. suum eggs from faeces deposited on the soil surface into the soil.

Kraglund HO; Grønvold J; Roepstorff A; Rawat H

1998-01-01

229

Earthworms facilitate carbon sequestration through unequal amplification of carbon stabilization compared with mineralization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A recent review concluded that earthworm presence increases CO2 emissions by 33% but does not affect soil organic carbon stocks. However, the findings are controversial and raise new questions. Here we hypothesize that neither an increase in CO2 emission nor in stabilized carbon would entirely reflect the earthworms' contribution to net carbon sequestration. We show how two widespread earthworm invaders affect net carbon sequestration through impacts on the balance of carbon mineralization and carbon stabilization. Earthworms accelerate carbon activation and induce unequal amplification of carbon stabilization compared with carbon mineralization, which generates an earthworm-mediated 'carbon trap'. We introduce the new concept of sequestration quotient to quantify the unequal processes. The patterns of CO2 emission and net carbon sequestration are predictable by comparing sequestration quotient values between treatments with and without earthworms. This study clarifies an ecological mechanism by which earthworms may regulate the terrestrial carbon sink.

Zhang W; Hendrix PF; Dame LE; Burke RA; Wu J; Neher DA; Li J; Shao Y; Fu S

2013-01-01

230

Effect of earthworms on the biochemical characterization of biofilms in vermifiltration treatment of excess sludge.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the biofilms formed in a vermifilter (VF) with earthworms and a conventional biofilter (BF) without earthworms were compared to investigate the effects of earthworms on the characteristics of biofilms during an excess sludge treatment period of 4months. Typical macrographs and micrographs of the biofilms showed that the feeding and casting actions of earthworms remarkably modified the VF morphology. Elemental analysis and fluorescence spectra indicated that earthworms enhanced the stabilization of organic matter by accelerating the mineralization and humification of organic materials during vermiconversion. In addition, bacterial communities inhabiting the VF biofilm showed that earthworms increased both bacterial diversity and metabolic activities in the film, as revealed by automatic testing bacteriology (ATB) expression and sequencing data. These results demonstrate that earthworms influence the structure and biochemical characteristics of biofilms and enhance their bacterial diversity and functions for improved sludge stabilization. PMID:23774291

Yang, Jian; Liu, Jing; Xing, Meiyan; Lu, Zhibo; Yan, Qiong

2013-05-31

231

Effect of earthworms on the biochemical characterization of biofilms in vermifiltration treatment of excess sludge.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, the biofilms formed in a vermifilter (VF) with earthworms and a conventional biofilter (BF) without earthworms were compared to investigate the effects of earthworms on the characteristics of biofilms during an excess sludge treatment period of 4months. Typical macrographs and micrographs of the biofilms showed that the feeding and casting actions of earthworms remarkably modified the VF morphology. Elemental analysis and fluorescence spectra indicated that earthworms enhanced the stabilization of organic matter by accelerating the mineralization and humification of organic materials during vermiconversion. In addition, bacterial communities inhabiting the VF biofilm showed that earthworms increased both bacterial diversity and metabolic activities in the film, as revealed by automatic testing bacteriology (ATB) expression and sequencing data. These results demonstrate that earthworms influence the structure and biochemical characteristics of biofilms and enhance their bacterial diversity and functions for improved sludge stabilization.

Yang J; Liu J; Xing M; Lu Z; Yan Q

2013-09-01

232

Surviving the cold: molecular analyses of insect cryoprotective dehydration in the Arctic springtail Megaphorura arctica (Tullberg)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Insects provide tractable models for enhancing our understanding of the physiological and cellular processes that enable survival at extreme low temperatures. They possess three main strategies to survive the cold: freeze tolerance, freeze avoidance or cryoprotective dehydration, of which the latter method is exploited by our model species, the Arctic springtail Megaphorura arctica, formerly Onychiurus arcticus (Tullberg 1876). The physiological mechanisms underlying cryoprotective dehydration have been well characterised in M. arctica and to date this process has been described in only a few other species: the Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi, an enchytraied worm, the larvae of the Antarctic midge Belgica antarctica and the cocoons of the earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra. There are no in-depth molecular studies on the underlying cold survival mechanisms in any species. Results A cDNA microarray was generated using 6,912 M. arctica clones printed in duplicate. Analysis of clones up-regulated during dehydration procedures (using both cold- and salt-induced dehydration) has identified a number of significant cellular processes, namely the production and mobilisation of trehalose, protection of cellular systems via small heat shock proteins and tissue/cellular remodelling during the dehydration process. Energy production, initiation of protein translation and cell division, plus potential tissue repair processes dominate genes identified during recovery. Heat map analysis identified a duplication of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) gene in M. arctica and also 53 clones co-regulated with TPS, including a number of membrane associated and cell signalling proteins. Q-PCR on selected candidate genes has also contributed to our understanding with glutathione-S-transferase identified as the major antioxdidant enzyme protecting the cells during these stressful procedures, and a number of protein kinase signalling molecules involved in recovery. Conclusion Microarray analysis has proved to be a powerful technique for understanding the processes and genes involved in cryoprotective dehydration, beyond the few candidate genes identified in the current literature. Dehydration is associated with the mobilisation of trehalose, cell protection and tissue remodelling. Energy production, leading to protein production, and cell division characterise the recovery process. Novel membrane proteins, along with aquaporins and desaturases, have been identified as promising candidates for future functional analyses to better understand membrane remodelling during cellular dehydration.

Clark Melody S; Thorne Michael AS; Pura? Jelena; Burns Gavin; Hillyard Guy; Popovi? Željko D; Grubor-Lajši? Gordana; Worland M Roger

2009-01-01

233

Fundamentals of freeze-drying.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Given the increasing importance of reducing development time for new pharmaceutical products, formulation and process development scientists must continually look for ways to "work smarter, not harder." Within the product development arena, this means reducing the amount of trial and error empiricism in arriving at a formulation and identification of processing conditions which will result in a quality final dosage form. Characterization of the freezing behavior of the intended formulation is necessary for developing processing conditions which will result in the shortest drying time while maintaining all critical quality attributes of the freeze-dried product. Analysis of frozen systems was discussed in detail, particularly with respect to the glass transition as the physical event underlying collapse during freeze-drying, eutectic mixture formation, and crystallization events upon warming of frozen systems. Experiments to determine how freezing and freeze-drying behavior is affected by changes in the composition of the formulation are often useful in establishing the "robustness" of a formulation. It is not uncommon for seemingly subtle changes in composition of the formulation, such as a change in formulation pH, buffer salt, drug concentration, or an additional excipient, to result in striking differences in freezing and freeze-drying behavior. With regard to selecting a formulation, it is wise to keep the formulation as simple as possible. If a buffer is needed, a minimum concentration should be used. The same principle applies to added salts: If used at all, the concentration should be kept to a minimum. For many proteins a combination of an amorphous excipient, such as a disaccharide, and a crystallizing excipient, such as glycine, will result in a suitable combination of chemical stability and physical stability of the freeze-dried solid. Concepts of heat and mass transfer are valuable in rational design of processing conditions. Heat transfer by conduction--the dominant mechanism of heat transfer in freeze-drying--is inefficient at the pressures used in freeze-drying. Steps should be taken to improve the thermal contact between the product and the shelf of the freeze dryer, such as eliminating metal trays from the drying process. Quantitation of the heat transfer coefficient for the geometry used is a useful way of assessing the impact of changes in the system such as elimination of product trays and changes in the vial. Because heat transfer by conduction through the vapor increases with increasing pressure, the commonly held point of view that "the lower the pressure, the better" is not true with respect to process efficiency. The optimum pressure for a given product is a function of the temperature at which freeze-drying is carried out, and lower pressures are needed at low product temperatures. The controlling resistance to mass transfer is almost always the resistance of the partially dried solids above the submination interface. This resistance can be minimized by avoiding fill volumes of more than about half the volume of the container. The development scientist should also recognize that very high concentrations of solute may not be appropriate for optimum freeze-drying, particularly if the resistance of the dried product layer increases sharply with concentration. Although the last 10 years has seen the publication of a significant body of literature of great value in allowing development scientists and engineers to "work smarter," there is still much work needed in both the science and the technology of freeze-drying. Scientific development is needed for improving analytical methodology for characterization of frozen systems and freeze-dried solids. A better understanding of the relationship between molecular mobility and reactivity is needed to allow accurate prediction of product stability at the intended storage temperature based on accelerated stability at higher temperatures. This requires that the temperature dependence of glass transition-associated mobili

Nail SL; Jiang S; Chongprasert S; Knopp SA

2002-01-01

234

Second contribution to the knowledge of earthworms (Lumbricidae) in Montenegro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper contains the results of qualitative analysis of Lumbricidae (Oligochaeta) in Montenegro, during the period 1997-2003. The research has included natural and cultivated biotopes. The presence of 15 species was established and the habitats, localities and their zoogeographical position are given. In Montenegro we found four species for the first time Dendrobaena jastrebensis, D. vejdovskyi, Octodrilus bretcheri and Lumbricus terrestris. The complete list of earthworm species in Montenegro includes 45 taxa. With respects to the zoogeographic situation of the earthworms in Montenegro, the largest number belongs to endemic (10) and European (10) species. But 8 taxa are south-European, 9 Holarctic, 7 cosmopolitan, and 1 Palearctic. The degree of endemism of the earthworm fauna of Montenegro is quite high, exceeding 22.2%.

Stojanovi? Mirjana M.; Karaman Spasenija D.

2003-01-01

235

Interactions of intracellular calcium and immune response in earthworms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intracellular calcium level has a definite role in innate and adaptive immune signaling but its evolutionary aspects are not entirely clear yet. Very few information are accessible about calcium contents of invertebrate immunocytes, especially of celomocytes, the effector cells of earthworm immunity. Different basal and induced Ca2+ levels characterize the various celomocyte subgroups. Intracellular calcium is mostly located in the endoplasmic reticulum and celomocytes exert intracellular Ca2+ ATPase activity to maintain their calcium homeostasis. Immune molecules such as phytohemagglutinin and the chemoattractant fMLP caused the elevation of intracellular Ca2+ level in celomocytes. All the evidence suggests that Ca2+ influx may play a crucial role in the signal transduction of the earthworm’s innate immunity.

P Engelmann; B Opper; P Németh

2011-01-01

236

Impact of Thermal History on Tolerance of Meloidogyne hapla Second-stageJuveniles to External Freezing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Low temperature induced physiological changes that increased the ability of second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne hapla to survive external freezing. Second-stage juveniles in polyethylene glycol solution were exposed to -4 , 0, 4, or 24 C, and then their survival was determined after ice-induced fr...

Forge, T. A.; MacGuidwin, A. E.

237

Enantioseletive bioaccumulation of tebuconazole in earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methods of extraction and determination of tebuconazole enantiomers in earthworm (Eisenia fetida) were developed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Both CE and HPLC have excellent resolution and recovery. The linearity ranges were 2.9-102.4 mg/kg and 3.0-99.6 mg/kg for (+)-R-tebuconazole and (-)-S-tebuconazole respectively in CE, and from 0.56 to 1000 mg/kg for both enantiomers in HPLC. Enantioselective bioaccumulation in earthworms from soil was investigated under laboratory condition at concentrations of 10 and 50 mg/kg dw in soil. The uptake kinetics of (+)-R-tebuconazole fitted the first-order kinetics well with r2 0.97 and 0.94 under 10 and 50 mg/kg dw exposure condition, respectively, while (-)-S-tebuconazole with r2 0.75 and 0.22 did not show the same. Bioaccumulation of tebuconazole in earthworm tissues was enantioselective with a preferential accumulation of (+)-R-tebuconazole. The (+)-R-tebuconazole might also have biomagnifying effect potential in earthworm food chain with biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) of 1.64 kg OC/kg lip in 10 mg/kg dw exposure group and 2.61 kg OC/kg lip in 50 mg/kg dw exposure group from soil to earthworm after 36 days. Although (-)-S-tebuconazole shares the same physicochemical properties with (+)-R-tebuconazole, it did not biomagnify. BSAFs of (-)-S-tebuconazole were 0.50 kg OC/kg lip (10 mg/kg dw tebuconazole exposure) and 0.28 kg OC/kg lip (50 mg/kg dw tebuconazole exposure) after 36 days, which was possibly owing to biotransformation or metabolism in earthworm tissues.

Yu D; Li J; Zhang Y; Wang H; Guo B; Zheng L

2012-01-01

238

Soil contamination evaluations: Earthworms as indicators of soil quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Earthworms have frequently been evaluated in the field and laboratory as representatives of the soil community that are indicative of their habitat`s quality. Within a landscape or at a contaminated site, soil quality, or soil health, has become increasingly critical to cleanup-related issues that revolve around questions of ``how clean is clean`` and the bioaccumulation of soil contaminants. Through an overview of numerous field and laboratory studies, the role that earthworms have played in evaluating soil contamination will be reviewed with a particular focus on evaluations of the bioaccumulation potential of chemicals in soil. Within ecological contexts, earthworms can provide information regarding immediately observable adverse affects related, for example, to acute toxicity. Additionally, earthworms can provide information directly related to the bioaccumulation potential of a chemical and trophic transfer of environmental chemicals, especially through the food-chain. Within the decision-making process, soil contamination evaluations must consider future land-use, as well as current and future expressions of adverse biological and ecological effects under field conditions, potentially following remediation. Through integrated field and laboratory studies using earthworms, the authors have been able to identify adversely affected soil communities and have been able to provide information for assessing adverse ecological effects potentially caused by contaminants. Field surveys and on-site or in situ biological testing with earthworms, however, can not alone identify causes of effects. As such, standardized biological tests have been routinely completed in the laboratory so linkages between expression of effects and contaminants could be more readily addressed in conjunction with appropriate chemical data from the field.

Linder, G.; Wilbom, D. [HeronWorks Farm, Brooks, OR (United States)

1995-12-31

239

Ecological transfer of radionuclides and metals to free-living earthworm species in natural habitats rich in NORM.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transfer of radionuclides ((232)Th and (238)U) and associated metals (As, Cd, Pb and Cr) from soil to free-living earthworm species was investigated in a thorium ((232)Th) rich area in Norway. Sampling took place within former mining sites representing the technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM), at undisturbed site with unique bedrock geology representing the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and at site outside the (232)Th rich area taken as reference Background site. Soil analysis revealed the elevated levels of investigated elements at NORM and TENORM sites. Based on sequential extraction, uranium ((238)U) and cadmium (Cd) were quite mobile, while the other elements were strongly associated with mineral components of soil. Four investigated earthworm species (Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Dendrodrilus rubidus and Lumbricus rubellus) showed large individual variability in the accumulation of radionuclides and metals. Differences in uptake by epigeic and endogeic species, as well as differences within same species from the NORM, TENORM and Background sites were also seen. Based on total concentrations in soil, the transfer factors (TF) were in ranges 0.03-0.08 and 0.09-0.25, for (232)Th and (238)U, respectively. TFs for lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) were low (less than 0.5), while TFs for Cd were higher (about 10). Using the ERICA tool, the estimated radiation exposure dose rate of the earthworms ranged from 2.2 to 3.9 ?Gy/h. The radiological risk for investigated earthworms was low (0.28). The obtained results demonstrated that free-living earthworm species can survive in soil containing elevated (232)Th and (238)U, as well As, Cd, Pb and Cr levels, although certain amount of radionuclides was accumulated within their bodies. The present investigation contributes to general better understanding of complex soil-to-biota transfer processes of radionuclides and metals and to assessment of risk for non-human species in the ecosystem with multiple contaminants. PMID:22115612

Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena; Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis

2011-11-23

240

Comparative toxicity of chemicals to earthworms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concentration-response (mortality) relationships of four species of earthworms, Eisenia fetida (Savigny), Allolobophora tuberculata (Eisen), Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg), and Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) are summarized for 62 chemicals and two test protocols. A Weibull function is used to summarize these data for each chemical in terms of sensitivity and toxicity, in addition to the LC50. The estimation of the Weibull parameters a and k summarize the entire concentration-response relationship. This technique should be applicable to a variety of testing protocols with different species whenever the goal is summarizing the shape of the concentration-response curves to fully evaluate chemical impact on organisms. In some cases for these data four orders of magnitude separate LC50s of the soil test and the contact test for the same chemical and species. All four species appear to be similar in range of toxicity and tolerance to these chemicals, suggesting that Eisenia fetida and may be representative of these four species and these chemicals.

Callahan, C.A.; Shirazi, M.A. (Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States)); Neuhauser, E.F. (Niagara Mohawk Power Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States))

1994-02-01

 
 
 
 
241

Differential expression of three labial genes during earthworm head regeneration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The earthworm provides an excellent model for investigating regeneration. Here we report the full-length cloning of three labial genes (Pex-lab01, Pex-lab02, and Pex-lab03) in the earthworm Perionyx excavatus. To analyze their expression pattern during head and tail regeneration, we used the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Our results indicate that the three labial genes were expressed only in the head-regenerating tissues. Also, we found that the expression of Pex-lab01 and Pex-lab02 is up-regulated, and this indicates their involvement in wound healing and the blastema formation processes during early head regeneration.

Cho SJ; Koh KS; Lee E; Park SC

2009-12-01

242

Abundance, Biomass and Vertical Distribution of Earthworms in Ecosystem Units of Hornbeam Forest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate the abundance, biomass and practical distribution of earthworms in ecosystem and tried to identify the factors affecting earthworm populations during different environmental conditions. Density and biomass of earthworms were studied in ecosystem unit`s khanikan forests (North of Iran) in July 2006. Eighteen soil profiles (50x50 cm) to the depth of 30 cm were digged and soil samples were taken from organic horizon (litter layer) and mineral layers (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm). Earthworms were collected by hand sorting method, then oven-dried at 60°C and weighed. Comparison number and biomass of earthworms in various layers of soil have showed that most number was in third layer (63.63%) and the least number was in second layer (13.63%). Also, biomass of earthworms in third layer was the most (79.39%) and was the least in second layer (7.57%). Results of this research indicated that correlation between number and biomass of earthworms with C/N, biomass of earthworms with carbon of soil and number of earthworms with theirs biomass were significant. Correlation between number and biomass of earthworms with the other soil properties investigated was no significant.

Y. Kooch; H. Jalilvand; M.A. Bahmanyar; M.R. Pormajidian

2008-01-01

243

Earth-worm and snail ecology breeding and processing all-in-one production system  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model relates to an earthworm and snail ecological breeding and processing integral production system which is characterized in that an earthworm charging area is connected to an earthworm and snail ecological breeding farm via an earthworm species conveyer belt, a snail charging area is connected to the earthworm and snail ecological breeding farm via a snail species conveyer belt, and a breeding base material charging area is connected to the earthworm and snail ecological breeding farm via a breeding base material conveyer belt the earthworm and snail ecological breeding farm is connected to a product separation farm via a mixed conveyer belt the product separation farm is connected to an earthworm finished product processing space via a earthworm conveyer belt, and the product separation farm is connected to a snail finished product processing space via a snail conveyer belt, and is also connected to an organic compound fertilizer processing space via an earthworm and snail droppings conveyer belt. The utility model realizes ecological treatment to the urban and rural faeces and the organic dirt, and is a cyclic economy industrial chain with self-purification counteraction and biological energy transformation.

KUN GUO; QIANG GUO; SHANCAI ZHANG; YIHAO CHEN; WEI GUO

244

Heavy metal concentrations in earthworms from soil amended with sewage slude  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Metal concentrations in soil may be elevated considerably when metal-laden sewage sludge is spread on land. Metals in earthworms (Lumbricidae) from agicultural fields amended with sewage sludge and from experimental plots were examined to determine if earthworms are important in transferring metals in soil to wildlife. Earthworms from four sites amended with sludge contained significantly (P<0.05) more Cd (12 times), Cu (2.4 times), Zn (2.0 times), and Pb (1.2 times) than did earthworms from control sites, but the concentrations detected varied greatly and depended on the particular sludge application. Generally, Cd and Zn were concentrated by earthworms relative to soil, and Cu, Pb, and Ni were not concentrated. Concentrations of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb in earthworms were correlated (P<0.05) with those in soil. The ratio of the concentration of metals in earthworms to the concentration of metals in soil tended to be lower in contaminated soil than in clean soil. Concentrations of Cd as high as 100 ppm (dry wt) were detected in earthworms from soil containing only 2 ppm Cd. These concentrations are considered hazardous to wildlife that eat worms. Liming soil decreased Cd concentrations in earthworms slightly (P<0.05) but had no discernible effect on concentrations of the other metals studied. High Zn concentrations in soil substantially reduced Cd concentrations in earthworms.

Beyer, W.N. (United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Laurel, MD); Chaney, R.L.; Mulhern, B.M.

1982-07-01

245

Arsenic resistance and cycling in earthworms residing at a former gold mine in Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Earthworms (Lumbricus castaneous and Dendrodrilus rubidus), their host soils and leaf litter were collected from a former gold mine with widespread arsenic (As) contamination in Nova Scotia, Canada and determined for total and speciated As. Resistance to As toxicity was investigated by measurement of DNA damage in exposed earthworm populations using the comet assay. Arsenobetaine (AB) was observed at low concentration in the earthworms but not in the host soil or leaf litter. Several different organoarsenic species were observed in the leaf litter and only inorganic As was found in the host soils. The results suggest that 1) adaptation to As toxicity in earthworms is widespread and not particular to a single species, 2) AB originates in the earthworm and not the consumed soil or leaf litter and 3) as previously hypothesised (), biotransformation of inorganic As to AB is not likely involved in the adaptation. - Highlights: ? Adaptation to toxicity and cycling of arsenic in earthworms investigated at Canadian gold mine. ? Earthworms resistant to highly contaminated, genotoxic soils. ? Arsenobetaine present in earthworms but not soil or leaf litter. ? Arsenic resistance in earthworms is widespread and not species specific. - Adaptation of earthworms to arsenic contaminated soils is widespread and not species specific.

2012-01-01

246

Freeze-in through portals  

CERN Document Server

The popular freeze-out paradigm for Dark Matter (DM) production, relies on DM-baryon couplings of the order of the weak interactions. However, different search strategies for DM have failed to provide a conclusive evidence of such (non-gravitational) interactions, while greatly reducing the parameter space of many representative models. This motivates the study of alternative mechanisms for DM genesis. In the freeze-in framework, the DM is slowly populated from the thermal bath while never reaching equilibrium. In this work, we analyse in detail the possibility of producing a frozen-in DM via a mediator particle which acts as a portal. We give analytical estimates of different freeze-in regimes and support them with full numerical analyses, taking into account the proper distribution functions of bath particles. Finally, we constrain the parameter space of generic models by requiring agreement with DM relic abundance observations.

Blennow, Mattias; Zaldivar, Bryan

2013-01-01

247

Freeze Protection in Gas Holders  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In cold weather, the water seals of gasholders need protection from freez- ing to avoid compromising the seal. These holders have a large reservoir of “tank water” at the base which is below ground. At present freeze- protection is achieved by external heating of the seal water which is in a slotted channel called a cup. Electrical heating or circulation of heated tank water to the cup are examples of systems presently used. The tank water has a large thermal capacity and National Grid wishes to inves- tigate whether circulation of the tank water without external heating could provide su?cient energy input to avoid freezing. Only tanks in which the tank water is below ground are investigated in the report. The soil temperature under the reservoir at depth of 10m and lower is almost constant.

Hjorth, Poul G.; Duursma, Gail

2008-01-01

248

Freezing singularities in water drops  

CERN Multimedia

In this fluid dynamics video we show how a drop of water freezes into a singular shape when deposited on a cold surface. The process of solidification can be observed very clearly due to the change in refraction when water turns into ice. The drop remains approximately spherical during most of the process, with a freezing front moving upwards and smoothly following the interface. However, at the final stage of freezing, when the last cap of liquid turns into ice, a singular tip develops spontaneously. Interestingly, the sharp tip of the ice drop acts as a preferential site for deposition of water vapour, and a beautiful "tree" of ice crystals develops right at the tip. The tip singularity attracts the vapour in analogy to a sharp lightning rod attracting lightning.

Enriquez, Oscar R; Winkels, Koen G; Snoeijer, Jacco H

2011-01-01

249

Urea is not a universal cryoprotectant among hibernating anurans: evidence from the freeze-tolerant boreal chorus frog (Pseudacris maculata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Freeze-tolerant organisms accumulate a diversity of low molecular weight compounds to combat negative effects of ice formation. Previous studies of anuran freeze tolerance have implicated urea as a cryoprotectant in the wood frog (Lithobates sylvatica). However, a cryoprotective role for urea has been identified only for wood frogs, though urea accumulation is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for coping with osmotic stress in amphibians. To identify whether multiple solutes are involved in freezing tolerance in the boreal chorus frog (Pseudacris maculata), we examined seasonal and freezing-induced variation in several potential cryoprotectants. We further tested for a cryoprotective role for urea by comparing survival and recovery from freezing in control and urea-loaded chorus frogs. Tissue levels of glucose, urea, and glycerol did not vary significantly among seasons for heart, liver, or leg muscle. Furthermore, no changes in urea or glycerol levels were detected with exposure to freezing temperatures in these tissues. Urea-loading increased tissue urea concentrations, but failed to enhance freezing survival or facilitate recovery from freezing in chorus frogs in this study, suggesting little role for urea as a natural cryoprotectant in this species. These data suggest that urea may not universally serve as a primary cryoprotectant among freeze-tolerant, terrestrially hibernating anurans. PMID:23142424

Higgins, Steven A; Swanson, David L

2012-11-09

250

Structural changes in acclimated and unacclimated leaves during freezing and thawing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Freeze-induced damage to leaf tissues was studied at different states of acclimation to low temperatures in snow gum, Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieber ex Sprengel. Intact, attached leaves of plants grown under glasshouse or field conditions were frozen at natural rates (frost-freezing) and thawed under laboratory conditions. Leaves were cryo-fixed unfrozen, during frost-freezing or after thawing for observation in a cryo-scanning electron microscope. Frost-freezing in unacclimated tissues caused irreversible tissue damage consistent with tissue death. Intracellular ice formed in the cambium and phloem, killing the cells and leaving persistent gaps between xylem and phloem. Many other cells were damaged by frost-freeze-induced dehydration and failed to resorb water from thawed extracellular ice, leaving substantial amounts of liquid water in intercellular spaces. In contrast, acclimated leaves showed reversible tissue displacements consistent with leaf survival. In these leaves during freezing, massive extracellular ice formed in specific expansion zones within the midvein. On thawing, water was resorbed by living cells, restoring the original tissue shapes. Possible evolutionary significance of these expansion zones is discussed. Acclimated leaves showed no evidence of intracellular freezing, nor tissue lesions caused by extracellular ice. While the observations accord with current views of freeze-sensitivity and tolerance, cryo-microscopy revealed diverse responses in different tissue types.

Ball MC; Canny MJ; Huang CX; Heady RD

2004-01-01

251

TOXICITY OF METALS TO THE EARTHWORM 'EISENIA FETIDA'  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of methods to measure the effect of man's residuals on soil ecosystems is desirable. Earthworms, as one of the largest and most easily obtained components of the soil biota, are suitable for evaluating perturbations to soil ecosystems. The impact of five metals (Cd, C...

252

Identification and Classification of Earthworm Species in Guyana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Earthworms are very important organisms, they are both environmentally and economically beneficial and hence their correct identification and classification is very vital. Taxonomy aims to classify organisms based on their similarities and differences. The present study was carried out during the ye...

Abdullah Adil Ansari; Preeta Saywack

253

Metabolic fate of earthworm cadmium-binding proteins in rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three different molecular weight cadmium-binding proteins isolated from the earthworm, Eisenia foetida, were injected intraperitoneally into young female rats. Cadmium bound to earthworm protein-I (estimated molecular weight, 63,000-70,000 daltons) and -II (estimated molecular weight about 7,000 daltons) was recovered from the kidney supernatants as metallothionein, which indicated that the proteins were degraded and that the cadmium liberated from the degraded proteins induced metallothionein biosynthesis in the kidneys. However, cadmium bound to earth-worm protein-III (estimated apparent molecular weight about 2,000 daltons) was recovered primarily from urine as a form bound to the protein. Compared with cadmium bound to albumin, metallothionein, and the low molecular weight cadmium-binding protein in Chlorella, the metabolic fates of cadmium bound to the three earthworm proteins were explained by the differences of molecular sizes and stability constants. Induced metallothioneins showed different chromatographic properties with time after injections on a Sephadex G-75 column and on a gel permeation column (TSK GEL SW 3,000).

Suzuki KT; Yamamura M; Mori T

1980-01-01

254

Cadmium and lead accumulation in three endogeic earthworm species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to assess the capability of earthworms from the same ecological group as heavy metal bioindicators. Three earthworm species from the endogeic group were studied: Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny, 1826), Perelia kaznakovi (Michaelsen, 1910) and Octolasion lacteum (Örley, 1885). Their accumulation of the heavy metals lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were studied from three stations in Tehran province, Iran. O. lacteum was used to compare metal accumulations in two sites located next to a highway. A. caliginosa and P. kaznakovi were used at a third site located near the edge of a sewage system to compare metal accumulations between the two endogeic species in this area. At both locations, the concentrations of Cd and Pb in earthworms were higher than in the surrounding soil. The results of the study revealed that P. kaznakovi and A. caliginosa were better bioindicators for Pb, but O. lacteum was a better bioindicator for Cd. These earthworms can therefore be used as Cd and Pb bioindicators in environmental assessment.

Latif R; Malek M; Mirmonsef H

2013-04-01

255

Diversity and host specificity of the Verminephrobacter–earthworm symbiosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Symbiotic bacteria of the genus Verminephrobacter (Betaproteobacteria) were detected in the nephridia of 19 out of 23 investigated earthworm species (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). While all four Lumbricus species and three out of five Aporrectodea species were densely colonized by a mono-species culture of Verminephrobacter, other earthworm species contained mixed bacterial populations with varying proportions of Verminephrobacter; four species did not contain Verminephrobacter at all. The Verminephrobacter symbionts could be grouped into earthworm species-specific sequence clusters based on their 16S rRNA and RNA polymerase subunit B (rpoB) genes. Closely related host species harboured more closely related symbionts than did distantly related hosts. Co-diversification of the symbiotic partners could not be demonstrated unambiguously due to the poor resolution of the host phylogeny [based on histone H3 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequence analyses]. However, there was a pattern of symbiont diversification within four groups of closely related hosts. The mean rate of symbiont 16S rRNA gene evolution was determined using a relaxed clock model, and the rate was calibrated with paleogeographical estimates of the time of origin of Lumbricid earthworms. The calibrated rates of symbiont 16S rRNA gene evolution are 0.012–0.026 substitutions per site per 50 million years and thus similar to rates reported from other symbiotic bacteria.

Lund, Marie Braad; Davidson, Seana

2010-01-01

256

Bioaccumulation in earthworm exposed to uranium particles and anions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study contains information about the bioaccumulation of uranium (U) in earthworms following exposure of the worms exposed to different uranium species in food (horse manure). Three different uranium species were used: synthesized uranium nano-micrometer particles (UO2 and U3O8) and uranyl ions ...

Basnet, Pabitra

257

The Earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae)of Wyoming, USA, Revisited.  

Science.gov (United States)

This survey of the earthworms from 22 of the 23 counties of Wyoming recorded 13 species of terrestrial Oligochaeta, all members of the family Lumbricidae. One of these species, Aporrectodea limicola, is reported for the first time from the state. Current nomenclature is applied to historical records...

258

Further records of non-cryptic New Zealand earthworms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Current descriptions add natives Aporodrilus aotea sp. n., Aporodrilus ponga sp. n. and Notoscolex repanga sp. n., plus new exotic records to the numbers of megadrile earthworms known from New Zealand, which are now raised from 193 to 222 species in five families, viz: Acanthodrilidae, Octochaetidae...

Blakemore, Robert

259

EARTHWORMS OF THE WESTERN UNITED STATES. PART 1. LUMBRICIDAE  

Science.gov (United States)

The earthworm fauna of the western United States is an amalgam of native and introduced elements. While the native species are mostly members of the family Megascolecidae, and closely related to those of Australia and Southeast Asia, the introduced species are, at least in the No...

260

QUANTIFYING THE EFFECTS OF EARTHWORMS ON SOIL AGGREGATION AND POROSITY  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential for earthworms to improve soil aggregation and porosity and the subsequent effects of these changes in soil structure on plant growth and soil hydrology were first recognized by Gilbert White and Charles Darwin. Despite the large number of scientific studies that have been conducted si...

 
 
 
 
261

ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL DETECTION OF SUBLETHAL NEUROTOXIC EFFECTS IN INTACT EARTHWORMS  

Science.gov (United States)

The nervous system of earthworms is a logical site for studying the deleterious effects of many toxic substances because neural functions are often more sensitive to disruption than other physiological processes. However, the sublethal effects of toxicants on neural and behaviora...

262

Effects of Earthworms on Phosphorus Dynamics – A Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Belowground biotic interactions are known to influence soil fertility and plant growth by changing the physical environment and the soil nutrient cycles. Among the great diversity of soil biota, earthworms are keystone soil organisms in regulating nutrient cycling through: (i) their own metabolism t...

Le Bayon, Renée-Claire; Milleret, Roxane

263

Identification of bacteria community associated with earthworm gut  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The role of earthworms in soil fertility and transformation of organic waste was regulary cited to be of first importance. Associated to these macro-invertebrates, a large diversity of micro-orgnisms are found indirectly in their closed environment or directly in their gut. Functional aspects of the...

Lemtiri, Aboulkacem; Alabi, Taofic; Bodson, Bernard; Brostaux, Yves; Destain, Marie-France; Aubinet, Marc; Colinet, Gilles

264

Earthworms as vectors of viable propagules of mycorrhizal fungi.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Casts of 13 earthworm species with differing ecological strategies were collected from more than 60 sites and examined for the presence of propagules of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi. Intact spores of VAM fungi were found in all but one collection. VAM root fragments were also present in some cast samples. The diversity of VAM spore types found in casts was similar to that in adjacent, uningested soils. However, the relative concentration of spores (No. g-1 dry wt) in casts was higher than in the general soil for the two earthworm species (Pontoscolex corethrurus and Diplotrema heteropora) for which this was assessed. There was a strong seasonality in the number of spores recovered from casts of D. heteropora and this reflected seasonal patterns of spore production in soil. Glasshouse experiments demonstrated that spores recovered from casts of P. corethrurus and D. heteropora maintained viability and initiated mycorrhizal infection on Sorghum bicolor. Similarly, some VAM root fragments found in casts were also able to infect S. bicolor. Spores of ectomycorrhizal fungi and fragments of ectomycorrhizal roots were observed at low frequencies in some cast samples from sites dominated by sclerophyllous vegetation. The infectivity of these propagules was not determined. The ubiquity and ecological significance of short distance transport of VAM propagules by earthworms is discussed in relation to the ecological strategies of earthworms.

Reddell P; Spain AV

1991-01-01

265

Earthworm's immunity in the nanomaterial world: new room, future challenges  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Since the advent of the nanotechnology era, the environmental sink has been continuously receiving engineered nanomaterials as well as their derivatives. Our current understanding of the potential impact of nanomaterials on invertebrate immunity is limited to only a handful of initial studies including those on earthworms. Recently, we reported selective accumulation of silver nanoparticles in the amoebocyte population of Eisenia fetida coelomocytes in vitro. In this review, we give an overview of available literature on the life-history impacts on earthworms, and what we have learnt of the immune responses to nanoparticles with references to other invertebrate species and vertebrate counterparts. We discuss the significant contribution of amoebocytes as nanoparticle scavengers and suggest a possibility of studying inter-cellular communications in coelomocytes. Implications from the leading researches in vertebrate models tell us that study of the nanoparticle recognition involved in cellular uptake as well as sub- and inter-cellular events may uncover further intriguing insights into earthworm’s immunity in the nanomaterial world.

Hayashi, Yuya; Engelmann, Péter

2013-01-01

266

Freezing of simple liquid metals  

CERN Multimedia

Freezing of simple liquid metals and the relative stabilities of competing crystalline solids are investigated using thermodynamic perturbation theory, the interactions between ions being modeled by effective pair potentials derived from pseudopotential theory. The ionic free energy of the solid phase is calculated, to first order in the perturbation potential, using classical density-functional theory and an accurate approximation to the hard-sphere radial distribution function. Free energy calculations for Na, Mg, and Al yield well-defined freezing transitions and structural free energy differences for bcc, fcc, and hcp crystals in qualitative agreement with experiment.

Denton, A R; Hafner, J H

1999-01-01

267

Influence of earthworm humus on sweet potato yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Paraíba State is the higher producer of the northeast region and the fourth brazilian producer of sweet potato, where this crop has a very fodder, economic and social importance, promoting the creation of joy and rent, as well contributing for the fixation of man on rural zone. The purpose of the experiment was to evaluate the influence of organic fertilization on components of production and productivity of sweet potato. The experiment was carried out from May to September of 2005, at State of Paraíba, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with six treatments (0; 3; 6; 9; 12 and 15 t ha-1 of earthworm humus), in four replications. The evaluated variables were total and marketable roots number, raw yield and total and marketable yield of roots. The maximum total yield of roots, of commercial and non-commercial roots of sweet potato, estimated by models (curves) were respectively 18.76; 16.29 and 2.46 t ha-1, obtained with a dosage of 15.00 t ha-1 of earthworm humus. The maximum yield of raw sweet potato-estimated the equation was 12.82 t ha-1 obtained with 15 t ha-1 of the earthworm humus. The application of 15 t ha-1 of earthworm humus increased from 9.96 t ha-1 (109.69%) and 8.50 t ha-1 (105.20%) in total yield and commercial roots sweet potato, respectively, in relation to the treatment without fertilizer. For every R$ 1.00 invested in earthworm humus there was a return of R$ 2.17 from the sale of sweet potato roots.Key-words: Ipomoea batatas, organic fertilization, root production.

João Felinto dos Santos; José Ivan Tavares Grangeiro; Luciano de Medeiros Pereira Brito; Marinevea Medeiros de Oliveira; Maria do Carmo Cardoso Almeida Santos

2009-01-01

268

Urban soil biomonitoring by beetle and earthworm populations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two macro invertebrate groups were chosen for biomonitoring environmental changes. The beetle population was pitfall trapped (five month in 1994) at five downtown sites (parks) of Budapest and in a hilly original woodland as a control site 33km NW of Budapest. Earthworms were collected by using formol solution. Five heavy metals were measured (Pb, Co, Hg, Zn, Cu) in the upper soil layer at the same sampling sites. Pb, Hg, Zn and Cu was over the tolerable limit in a park near the railway, extreme high Pb (530 mg/kg dry soil) and Zn content was measured in one park. Roads are also salted in wintertime. The number of beetle species in the downtown parks varied 10 to 22 (226--462 specimen). Near to the edge of the city up to 45 beetle species were found in a park with 1,027 specimen. In the woodland area 52 beetle species with 1,061 specimen were found. Less dominance and higher specific diversity showed the direction from downtown to woodland. Only 2 or 3 cosmopolitan earthworm species existed in downtown parks with 30--35 specimen/m{sup 2}, in the control woodland area 7 mostly endemic earthworm species were found with 74 specimens/m{sup 2}. But earthworm biomass was higher in three well fertilized parks (43--157 g/m{sup 2}), than in the original woodland (25-g/m{sup 2}). The beetle populations seem to be good tools for biomonitoring. Earthworms are susceptible to environmental changes but they also strongly depend on the leaf litter and the organic matter of the soil. The change in the animal populations is the result of summarized environmental impacts in such a big city like Budapest.

Janossy, L.; Bitto, A. [ELTE Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

1995-12-31

269

C?? exposure induced tissue damage and gene expression alterations in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Effects of C?? exposure (0, 15 or 154 mg/kg soil) on the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus were assessed at the tissue and molecular level, in two experiments. In the first experiment, earthworms were exposed for four weeks, and in the second lifelong. In both experiments, gene expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) decreased. For catalase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), no significant trends in gene expression or enzyme activity were observed. Gene expression of coelomic cytolytic factor-1 (CCF-1) did not alter in earthworms exposed for four weeks, but was significantly down-regulated in the lifelong exposure. Histology of earthworms exposed to C?? in both experiments showed a damaged cuticle, with underlying pathologies of epidermis and muscles, as well as effects on the gut barrier. However, tissue repair was also observed in these earthworms. Overall, these data show that sub-lethal C?? exposure to earthworms via the soil affects gene expression and causes tissue pathologies.

Van Der Ploeg MJ; Handy RD; Heckmann LH; Van Der Hout A; Van Den Brink NW

2013-06-01

270

Heavy Metals Bioaccumulation by Iranian and Australian Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in the Sewage Sludge Vermicomposting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vermicomposting of organic waste has an important part to play in an integrated waste management strategy. In this study, the possibility of heavy metals accumulation with two groups of Iranian and Australian earthworms in sewage sludge vermicompost was investigated. Eisenia fetida was the species of earthworms used in the vermicomposting process. The bioaccumulation of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn as heavy metals by Iranian and Australian earthworms was studied. The results indicated that heavy metals concentration decreased with increasing vermicomposting time. Comparison of the two groups of earthworms showed that the Iranian earthworms consumed higher quantities of micronutrients such as Cu and Zn comparing with the Australian earthworms, while the bioaccumulation of non-essential elements such as Cr, Cd, and Pb by the Australian group was higher. The significant decrease in heavy metal concentrations in the final vermicompost indicated the capability of both Iranian and Australian E.fetida species in accumulating heavy metals in their body tissues.

MR Shahmansouri, H Pourmoghadas, AR Parvaresh, H Alidadi

2005-01-01

271

Earthworm effects on gaseous emissions during vermifiltration of pig fresh slurry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Treatment of liquid manure can result in the production of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane. Earthworms mix and transform nitrogen and carbon without consuming additional energy. The objective of this paper is to analyse whether earthworms modify the emissions of NH(3), N(2)O, CH(4) and CO(2) during vermifiltration of pig slurry. The experiment used mesocosms of around 50 L, made from a vermifilter treating the diluted manure of a swine house. Three levels of slurry were added to the mesocosms, with or without earthworms, during one month, in triplicate. Earthworm abundance and gas emissions were measured three and five times, respectively. There was a decrease in emissions of ammonia and nitrous oxide and a sink of methane in treatments with earthworms. We suggest that earthworm abundance can be used as a bioindicator of low energy input, and low greenhouse gas and ammonia output in systems using fresh slurry with water recycling.

Luth; Robin P; Germain P; Lecomte M; Landrain B; Li Y; Cluzeau D

2011-02-01

272

Earthworm effects on gaseous emissions during vermifiltration of pig fresh slurry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Treatment of liquid manure can result in the production of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane. Earthworms mix and transform nitrogen and carbon without consuming additional energy. The objective of this paper is to analyse whether earthworms modify the emissions of NH(3), N(2)O, CH(4) and CO(2) during vermifiltration of pig slurry. The experiment used mesocosms of around 50 L, made from a vermifilter treating the diluted manure of a swine house. Three levels of slurry were added to the mesocosms, with or without earthworms, during one month, in triplicate. Earthworm abundance and gas emissions were measured three and five times, respectively. There was a decrease in emissions of ammonia and nitrous oxide and a sink of methane in treatments with earthworms. We suggest that earthworm abundance can be used as a bioindicator of low energy input, and low greenhouse gas and ammonia output in systems using fresh slurry with water recycling. PMID:21185175

Luth; Robin, Paul; Germain, Philippe; Lecomte, Marcel; Landrain, Brigitte; Li, Yinsheng; Cluzeau, Daniel

2010-11-12

273

Do earthworms impact metal mobility and availability in soil? - A review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The importance of earthworms to ecosystem functioning has led to many studies on the impacts of metals on earthworms. Far less attention has been paid to the impact that earthworms have on soil metals both in terms of metal mobility and availability. In this review we consider which earthworms have been used in such studies, which soil components have been investigated, which types of soil have been used and what measures of mobility and availability applied. We proceed to review proposed reasons for effects: changes in microbial populations, pH, dissolved organic carbon and metal speciation. The balance of evidence suggests that earthworms increase metal mobility and availability but more studies are required to determine the precise mechanism for this. - We review the impact of earthworms on metal mobility and availability and suggest areas for further investigation.

2009-01-01

274

Do earthworms impact metal mobility and availability in soil? - A review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The importance of earthworms to ecosystem functioning has led to many studies on the impacts of metals on earthworms. Far less attention has been paid to the impact that earthworms have on soil metals both in terms of metal mobility and availability. In this review we consider which earthworms have been used in such studies, which soil components have been investigated, which types of soil have been used and what measures of mobility and availability applied. We proceed to review proposed reasons for effects: changes in microbial populations, pH, dissolved organic carbon and metal speciation. The balance of evidence suggests that earthworms increase metal mobility and availability but more studies are required to determine the precise mechanism for this. - We review the impact of earthworms on metal mobility and availability and suggest areas for further investigation.

Sizmur, Tom, E-mail: t.p.sizmur@reading.ac.u [Department of Soil Science, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E., E-mail: m.e.hodson@reading.ac.u [Department of Soil Science, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

2009-07-15

275

Agronomic potential of earthworms in brigalow soils of south-east Queensland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The potential of earthworms to enhance the productivity of sown pastures was investigated in the brigalow region of Queensland where such pastures are often devoid of earthworms. Wider surveys in eastern Australia recorded 75 native or exotic earthworm species and 27 of these were screened in a series of glasshouse trials to find candidates for field introduction. Whereas some earthworm populations declined in glasshouse soil cores, a maximum increase in numbers in six months was 10-fold. Increases in yield of oats or grass test crops associated with earthworm activity were as high as 60 or 80%, while yield of grain sorghum doubled. Not all species were equally effective: a few were found to depress plant yield. However, 12 species were selected for field trials. One year after earthworm introduction to brigalow pasture, plot yields had increased by an average of 64.4%, and survivors of Aporrectodea trapezoides, Eisenia rosea, Pontoscolex corethrurus and of a native Diplotrema sp. were recovered.

Blakemore RJ

1997-04-01

276

Freezing Tolerance in Mytilus Edulis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mytilus edulis tolerates freezing to a tissue temperature of -10 deg C, while Venus mercenaria tolerates only -6 deg C. In both species, tissues are injured when 64 per cent of cellular water has been moved to form ice. In Mytilus, 20 percent of cell wate...

R. J. Williams

1969-01-01

277

Freeze out in hydrodynamical models  

CERN Multimedia

We study the problem of negative contributions to final momentum distribution during the freeze out through 3-dimensional hypersurfaces with space-like normal. We suggest a solution for this problem based on the mechanism of continuous emission of particles. We show how the final particle spectrum is obtained in a simple one-dimensional model.

Anderlik, C; Grassi, Frédérique; Hama, Y; Kodama, T; Lázár, Z I; Lazar, Zs.I.

1999-01-01

278

Accumulation of methylmercury in the earthworm, Eisenia foetida, and its effect on regeneration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Earthworms provide an appropriate model for evaluating the environmental hazards of metals in soil, and they are also excellent organisms for studying the process of regeneration. Two studies have found that concentrations of mercury in earthworms were higher than those in the soil where they lived. This study investigates the accumulation of methylmercury in the earthworm, Eisenia foetida (Savigny), and its effect on regeneration after excision of the caudal end.

Beyer, W.N.; Cromartie, E.; Moment, G.B.

1985-08-01

279

Intracavitary bendable imbedding apparatus with freeze probe  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A tubular inserter with freezing probe and able to be curved in cavity for the freeze therapy in seophagus cavity and bronchus cavity has a regulating valve, a connector connected to said regulating valve and with tube inlet, air exhaust outlet and electric plug, an inserted flexible tube containing a freezing tube and the electric line, and a freezing probe at the front end of said flexible tube and with a temp sensor on its inner surface.

YANG RUISEN LIU

280

Cold tolerance of Littorinidae from southern Africa: intertidal snails are not constrained to freeze tolerance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

All intertidal gastropods for which cold tolerance strategies have been assessed have been shown to be freeze tolerant. Thus, freeze tolerance is considered an adaptation to the intertidal environment. We investigated the cold tolerance strategies of three species of subtropical and temperate snails (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) to determine whether this group is phylogenetically constrained to freeze tolerance. We exposed 'dry' acclimated and 'wet' rehydrated snails to low temperatures to determine temperature of crystallisation (Tc), lower lethal temperature and LT(50) and to examine the relationship between ice formation and mortality. Tc was lowest in dry Afrolittorina knysnaensis (-13.6+/-0.4 degrees C), followed by dry Echinolittorina natalensis (-10.9+/-0.2 degrees C) and wet A. knysnaensis (-10.2+/-0.2 degrees C) . The Tc of both A. knysnaensis and E. natalensis increased with rehydration, whereas Tc of dry and wet Afrolittorina africana did not differ (-9.6+/-0.2 and -9.0+/-0.2 degrees C respectively). Wet snails of all species exhibited no or low survival of inoculative freezing, whereas dry individuals of A. knysnaensis could survive subzero temperatures above -8 degrees C when freezing was inoculated with ice . In the absence of external ice, Afrolittorina knysnaensis employs a freeze-avoidance strategy of cold tolerance, the first time this has been reported for an intertidal snail, indicating that there is no family-level phylogenetic constraint to freeze tolerance. Echinolittorina natalensis and A. africana both showed pre-freeze mortality and survival of some internal ice formation, but were not cold hardy in any strict sense.

Sinclair BJ; Marshall DJ; Singh S; Chown SL

2004-11-01

 
 
 
 
281

Prevalence of Bacillus anthracis-like organisms and bacteriophages in the intestinal tract of the earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stable infection of Bacillus anthracis laboratory strains with environmental bacteriophages confers survival phenotypes in soil and earthworm intestinal niches (R. Schuch and V. A. Fischetti, PLoS One 4:e6532, 2009). Here, the natural occurrence of two such B. anthracis-infective bacteriophages, Wip1 and Wip4, was examined in the intestines of Eisenia fetida earthworms as part of a 6-year longitudinal study at a Pennsylvania forest site. The Wip1 tectivirus was initially dominant before being supplanted by the Wip4 siphovirus, which was then dominant for the next 3 years. In a host range analysis of a wide-ranging group of Bacillus species and related organisms, Wip1 and Wip4 were both infective only toward B. anthracis and certain B. cereus strains. The natural host of Wip4 remained constant for 3 years and was a B. cereus strain that expressed a B. anthracis-like surface polysaccharide at septal positions on the cell surface. Next, a novel metagenomic approach was used to determine the extent to which such B. cereus- and B. anthracis-like strains are found in worms from two geographical locations. Three different enrichment strategies were used for metagenomic DNA isolation, based either on the ability of B. cereus sensu lato to form heat-resistant spores, the sensitivity of B. anthracis to the PlyG lysin, or the selective amplification of environmental phages cocultured with B. anthracis. Findings from this work indicate that B. cereus sensu lato and its phages are common inhabitants of earthworm intestines. PMID:20118353

Schuch, R; Pelzek, A J; Kan, S; Fischetti, V A

2010-01-29

282

Prevalence of Bacillus anthracis-like organisms and bacteriophages in the intestinal tract of the earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Stable infection of Bacillus anthracis laboratory strains with environmental bacteriophages confers survival phenotypes in soil and earthworm intestinal niches (R. Schuch and V. A. Fischetti, PLoS One 4:e6532, 2009). Here, the natural occurrence of two such B. anthracis-infective bacteriophages, Wip1 and Wip4, was examined in the intestines of Eisenia fetida earthworms as part of a 6-year longitudinal study at a Pennsylvania forest site. The Wip1 tectivirus was initially dominant before being supplanted by the Wip4 siphovirus, which was then dominant for the next 3 years. In a host range analysis of a wide-ranging group of Bacillus species and related organisms, Wip1 and Wip4 were both infective only toward B. anthracis and certain B. cereus strains. The natural host of Wip4 remained constant for 3 years and was a B. cereus strain that expressed a B. anthracis-like surface polysaccharide at septal positions on the cell surface. Next, a novel metagenomic approach was used to determine the extent to which such B. cereus- and B. anthracis-like strains are found in worms from two geographical locations. Three different enrichment strategies were used for metagenomic DNA isolation, based either on the ability of B. cereus sensu lato to form heat-resistant spores, the sensitivity of B. anthracis to the PlyG lysin, or the selective amplification of environmental phages cocultured with B. anthracis. Findings from this work indicate that B. cereus sensu lato and its phages are common inhabitants of earthworm intestines.

Schuch R; Pelzek AJ; Kan S; Fischetti VA

2010-04-01

283

Accumulation of mercury and methylmercury by mushrooms and earthworms from forest soils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accumulation of total and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms was studied in thirty-four natural forest soils strongly varying in soil physico-chemical characteristics. Tissue Hg concentrations of both receptors did hardly correlate with Hg concentrations in soil. Both total and methyl-Hg concentrations in tissues were species-specific and dependent on the ecological groups of receptor. Methyl-Hg was low accounting for less than 5 and 8% of total Hg in tissues of mushrooms and earthworms, respectively, but with four times higher concentrations in earthworms than mushrooms. Total Hg concentrations in mushrooms averaged 0.96 mg Hg kg{sup -1} dw whereas litter decomposing mushrooms showed highest total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations. Earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations (1.04 mg Hg kg{sup -1} dw) whereas endogeic earthworms accumulated highest amounts of Hg and methyl-Hg. - Highlights: > Hg and MeHg concentrations in mushrooms and earthworms at unpolluted forest soils. > Mushrooms and earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations. > MeHg was present in traces but four times higher in earthworms than in mushrooms. > Ecophysiological group influenced Hg and MeHg concentration in both receptors. - Accumulation of Hg and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms is species- and ecophysiological group dependent.

Rieder, Stephan R. [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Institute for Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zuerich, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Brunner, Ivano [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Horvat, Milena [Jozef Stefan Institute, 1001 Ljubliana (Slovenia); Jacobs, Anna [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Department of Environmental Chemistry, University of Kassel, 37213 Witzenhausen (Germany); Frey, Beat, E-mail: beat.frey@wsl.ch [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

2011-10-15

284

Heavy Metal-Induced Oxidative DNA Damage in Earthworms: A Review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Earthworms can be used as a bio-indicator of metal contamination in soil, Earlier reports claimed the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in earthworm tissues, while the metal-induced mutagenicity reared in contaminated soils for long duration. But we examined the metal-induced mutagenicity in earthworms reared in metal containing culture bedding. In this experiment we observed the generation of 8-oxo guanine (8-oxo-Gua) in earthworms exposed to cadmium and nickel in soil. 8-oxo-Gua is a major pre mutagenic form of oxidative DNA damage that induces GC-to-TA point mutations, leading to carcinogenesis.

2010-01-01

285

Earthworms - role in soil fertility to the use in medicine and as a food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Earthworms are important regulators of soil structure and dynamics of soil organic matter. They are a major component of soil fauna communities in most ecosystems and comprise a large proportion of macro fauna biomass. Their activities are beneficial because they can enhance soil nutrient cycling through the rapid incorporation of detritus into mineral soil. However, mucus production associated with water excretion in earthworm guts also enhances the activity of other beneficial soil microorganisms. Earthworms alter soil structure, water movement, nutrient dynamics and plant growth. The medical value of earthworms has been known for centuries. The extracts prepared from earthworm tissues have been used for the treatment of numerous diseases since they are valuable source of proteins, peptides, enzymes and physiologically active substances. Several studies have shown that the earthworm extracts contain different macromolecules which exhibited the variety of activities, such as antioxidative, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, anticancer etc. Some of these activities are involved in wound healing process, using the earthworm preparation. In some countries the earthworms are used as a part of healthy food. They have very high nutritive value because their bodies contain the high percentage of various proteins. Besides the human food, the earthworms are used in the feeding of animals (fish, chicken, etc.).

M Grdiša; K Grši?; MD Grdiša

2013-01-01

286

Accumulation of mercury and methylmercury by mushrooms and earthworms from forest soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accumulation of total and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms was studied in thirty-four natural forest soils strongly varying in soil physico-chemical characteristics. Tissue Hg concentrations of both receptors did hardly correlate with Hg concentrations in soil. Both total and methyl-Hg concentrations in tissues were species-specific and dependent on the ecological groups of receptor. Methyl-Hg was low accounting for less than 5 and 8% of total Hg in tissues of mushrooms and earthworms, respectively, but with four times higher concentrations in earthworms than mushrooms. Total Hg concentrations in mushrooms averaged 0.96 mg Hg kg-1 dw whereas litter decomposing mushrooms showed highest total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations. Earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations (1.04 mg Hg kg-1 dw) whereas endogeic earthworms accumulated highest amounts of Hg and methyl-Hg. - Highlights: ? Hg and MeHg concentrations in mushrooms and earthworms at unpolluted forest soils. ? Mushrooms and earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations. ? MeHg was present in traces but four times higher in earthworms than in mushrooms. ? Ecophysiological group influenced Hg and MeHg concentration in both receptors. - Accumulation of Hg and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms is species- and ecophysiological group dependent.

2011-01-01

287

Stability of Freeze-Dried Lactobacillus acidophilus in Banana, Soybean and Pearl Barley Powders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of banana, soybean, pearl barley powders and nonfat dry milk on the viability of freeze-dried Lactobacillus acidophilus at 4 and 25°C was studied during 30 days of storage. The survival of freeze-dried L. acidophilus at 4°C was greater than that at 25°C. The survival of L. acidophilus in banana, pearl barley, soybean powders and nonfat dry milk powder was higher than that in control (0.1% peptone water) at both temperatures indicating that addition of banana, soybean and pearl barley powders improved survival of L. acidophilus. The survival of L. acidophilus at 25°C in banana, pearl barley, soybean extract and nonfat dry milk was up to 6, 16, 20 and 25 days, respectively, while the organisms survived in samples stored at 4°C. The variation of viability may relate to hygroscopicity of different powders. Similar to nonfat dry milk, soybean powder preserved freeze-dried L. acidophilus during storage. The present study showed the potential of banana, soybean and pearl barley powders as cryoprotectants in freeze-dried probiotic preparations.

Nathanon Trachoo; Panomkorn Wechakama; Anuchita Moongngarm; Maitree Suttajit

2008-01-01

288

Influence of a static magnetic field on the slow freezing of human erythrocytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to test whether or not a strong static magnetic field (SMF) had a positive effect on the survival rate of frozen erythrocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human erythrocytes were slow freezing at a rate of -1°C/min, to a final temperature of -20°C. During the freezing process, the cells were simultaneously exposed to an SMF with a magnetic induction of 0.2 or 0.4 T. After the cells were thawed, the survival rate, morphology, and function of the thawed erythrocytes were evaluated. Furthermore, tests of membrane fluidity were performed to assess the effect of the SMF on the cell membrane. RESULTS: The slow freezing process coupled with an SMF increased the survival rate of frozen erythrocytes, without any negative effect on the cell morphology or function. The increases in relative survival rates of frozen erythrocytes were 5.7% and 9.1% when the cells were frozen in 0.2 T and 0.4 T groups, respectively. In addition, the 0.4 T group significantly increased the membrane rigidity of the erythrocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Slow freezing coupled with a strong SMF produced positive effects on the survival rate of thawed erythrocytes, without changing their normal function.

Lin CY; Chang WJ; Lee SY; Feng SW; Lin CT; Fan KS; Huang HM

2013-01-01

289

Freeze protection valve and system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention is a device for a solar heating system having a solar collector, a storage tank connected to the solar collector, a pump for circulating liquid from the tank to the solar collector, a supply of liquid at a temperature above freezing and a connection from the supply of liquid to the solar collector for replacing any liquid lost from said solar collector. The device comprises a sensor for sensing the temperature of liquid in the solar collector, and a valve for bleeding liquid from the solar collector when the sensed temperature falls below a predetermined minimum whereby cool liquid in the solar collector is automatically replaced by liquid at a temperature above freezing.

Dinh, K.

1985-12-10

290

Freeze chromatography method and apparatus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A freeze chromatography method and apparatus are provided which enable separation of the solutes contained in a sample. The apparatus includes an annular column construction comprising cylindrical inner and outer surfaces defining an annular passage therebetween. One of the surfaces is heated and the other cooled while passing an eluent through the annular passageway so that the eluent in contact with the cooled surface freezes and forms a frozen eluent layer thereon. A mixture of solutes dissolved in eluent is passed through the annular passageway in contact with the frozen layer so that the sample solutes in the mixture will tend to migrate either toward or away the frozen layer. The rate at which the mixture flows through the annular passageway is controlled so that the distribution of the sample solutes approaches that at equilibrium and thus a separation between the sample solutes occurs. 3 figs.

Scott, C.D.

1987-04-16

291

Promotion of leaf degradation by earthworms under laboratory conditions. Paper presented at Joint Organic Congress, Odense, Denemarken  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Organic materials were applied to leaves from organic apple trees. Then, leaves were fed to earthworms in a laboratory culture. The objective was to select materials which promote leaf degradation by earthworms and consequently reduce the inoculum pressure of apple scab in orchards. Used earthworms ...

Heijne, B.; Jager, A., de; Jong, P.F., de

292

Interactions between residue placement and earthworm ecological strategy affect aggregate turnover and N2O dynamics in agricultural soil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Previous laboratory studies using epigeic and anecic earthworms have shown that earthworm activity can considerably increase nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from crop residues in soils. However, the universality of this effect across earthworm functional groups and its underlying mechanisms remain unc...

Giannopoulos, G.; Pulleman, M.M.; Groenigen, J.W., van

293

Earthworm-induced N2O emissions in a sandy soil with surface-applied crop residues  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Earlier research with endogeic and epigeic earthworm species in loamy arable soil has shown that both earthworm groups can increase nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, provided that crop residue placement matches the feeding strategy of the earthworm ecological group(s). However, it is not yet clear whet...

Giannopoulos, G.; Groenigen, J.W., van; Pulleman, M.M.

294

Earthworm Population Density in Sugarcane Cropping System Applied with Various Quality of Organic Matter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Earthworms population in the soil are greatly impacted by agricultural management, yet little is known about how the quality and quantity of organic matter addition interact in sugarcane cropping system to earthworm population. This study describes the effect of various organic matter and application rates on earthworms in sugarcane cropping system. Earthworms were collected in April, July and December from 48 experimental plots under five kinds of organic matter application : (1) cattle manure, (2) filter cake of sugar mill, (3) sugarcane trash, (4) mixture of cattle manure+filter cake, and (5) mixture of cattle manure+sugarcane trash. There were three application rates of the organic matter (5, 10, and 15 ton ha-1). The treatments were arranged in factorial block randomize design with three replications and one treatment as a control (no organic input). Earthworms were collected using monolith sampling methods and hand-sorted from each plot, and measured its density (D) (indiv.m-2), biomass (B) (g m-2) and B/D ratio (g/indiv.). All the plots receiving organic matter input had higher earthworm density, biomass, and B/D ratio than the control. The highest earthworm population density was found in the plot receiving application of sugarcane trash (78 indiv.m-2) and the mixture of cattle manure+sugarcane trash (84 indiv.m-2). The increase in application rates of organic matter could increase the earthworm density and biomass. Earthworm population density also appeared to be strongly influenced by the quality of organic matter, such as the C-organic, N, C/N ratio, lignin, polyphenols, and cellulose content. Earthworm preferred low quality organic matter. It was caused by the higher energy of low quality organic matter than high quality organic matter. Our findings suggest that the input of low quality organic matter with application rate as 10 ton ha-1 is important for maintaining earthworm population and soil health in sugarcane land.

Nurhidayati Nurhidayati; Endang Arisoesilaningsih; Didik Suprayogo; Kurniatun Hairiah

2012-01-01

295

Abscisic acid induced freezing tolerance in chilling-sensitive suspension cultures and seedlings of rice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The role of abscisic acid (ABA) as a possible activator of cold acclimation process was postulated since endogenous levels of ABA increase temporarily or constitutively during cold-hardening. Exogenous application of ABA has been known to induce freezing tolerance at ambient temperatures in in vitro systems derived from cold hardy plants. Yet, some cell cultures acquired much greater freezing tolerance by ABA than by cold whilst maintaining active growth, which raises questions about how ABA-induced freezing tolerance. To address this question, we attempted to 1) determine whether exogenous ABA can confer freezing tolerance in chilling sensitive rice suspension cells and seedlings, which obviously lack the mechanisms to acquire freezing tolerance in response to cold; 2) characterize this phenomenon by optimizing the conditions and compare with the case of cold hardy bromegrass cells. RESULTS: Non-embryogenic suspension cells of rice suffered serious chilling injury when exposed to 4[degree sign]C. When incubated with ABA at the optimal conditions (0.5-1 g cell inoculum, 75 muM ABA, 25-30[degree sign]C, 7--10 days), they survived slow freezing (2[degree sign]C/h) to -9.0 ~ -9.3[degree sign]C (LT50: 50% killing temperature) while control cells were mostly injured at -3[degree sign]C (LT50: -0.5 ~ -1.5[degree sign]C). Ice-inoculation of the cell suspension at -3[degree sign]C and survival determination by regrowth confirmed that ABA-treated rice cells survived extracellular freezing at -9[degree sign]C. ABA-induced freezing tolerance did not require any exposure to cold and was best achieved at 25-30[degree sign]C where the rice cells maintained high growth even in the presence of ABA. ABA treatment also increased tolerance to heat (43[degree sign]C) as determined by regrowth. ABA-treated cells tended to have more augmented cytoplasm and/or reduced vacuole sizes compared to control cultures with a concomitant increase in osmolarity and a decrease in water content. ABA-treated (2--7 days) in vitro grown seedlings and their leaves survived slow freezing to -3[degree sign]C with only marginal injury (LT50: -4[degree sign]C) whereas untreated seedlings were killed at -3[degree sign]C (LT50: -2[degree sign]C). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that exogenous ABA can induce some levels of freezing tolerance in chilling sensitive rice cells and seedlings, probably by eliciting mechanisms different from low temperature-induced cold acclimation.

Shinkawa R; Morishita A; Amikura K; Machida R; Murakawa H; Kuchitsu K; Ishikawa M

2013-09-01

296

Optimal freeze cycle length for renal cryotherapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To our knowledge the optimal freeze cycle length in renal cryotherapy is unknown. Ten-minute time based freeze cycles were compared to temperature based freeze cycles to -20C. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Laparoscopic renal cryotherapy was performed on 16 swine. Time based trials consisted of a double 10-minute freeze separated by a 5-minute thaw. Temperature based trials were double cycles of 1, 5 or 10-minute freeze initiated after 1 of 4 sensors indicated -20C. A 5-minute active thaw was used between freeze cycles. Control trials consisted of cryoneedle placement for 25 minutes without freeze or thaw. Viability staining and histological analysis were done. RESULTS: There was no difference in cellular necrosis between any of the temperature based freeze cycles (p = 0.1). Time based freeze cycles showed more nuclear pyknosis, indicative of necrosis, than the 3 experimental freeze cycles for the renal cortex (p = 0.05) but not for the renal medulla (p = 0.61). Mean time to -20C for freeze cycle 1 was 19 minutes 10 seconds (range 9 to 46 minutes). In 4 of 21 trials (19%) -20C was never attained despite freezing for 25 to 63 minutes. CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference in immediate cellular necrosis among double 1, 5 or 10-minute freeze cycles. Cellular necrosis was evident on histological analysis for trials in which -20C was attained and in freeze cycles based on time alone. With a standard 10-minute cryoablation period most treated parenchyma 1 cm from the probe never attained -20C. Cell death appeared to occur at temperatures warmer than -20C during renal cryotherapy.

Young JL; Khanifar E; Narula N; Ortiz-Vanderdys CG; Kolla SB; Pick DL; Sountoulides PG; Kaufmann OG; Osann KE; Huynh VB; Kaplan AG; Andrade LA; Louie MK; McDougall EM; Clayman RV

2011-07-01

297

Toxicity of coelomic fluid of the earthworm Eisenia foetida to vertebrates but not invertebrates: probable role of sphingomyelin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The coelomic fluid (CF) of the earthworm Eisenia foetida exhibits a wide variety of biological activities. We found that the CF was not toxic to 42 species, belonging to seven invertebrate phyla, almost all in aquatic adults and larvae exposed to CF. Eleven teleostean species tested died in 0.2-1% CF mostly between 10 and 120 min and the effects were dose-dependent. Tadpoles of the toad Bufo japonicus formosus died in 0.4-2% CF between 80 and 225 min depending upon size, with larger tadpoles surviving longer. Before dying, all experimental tadpoles developed curled and shrunken tails. The Okinawa tree lizard, soft-shelled turtle, Japanese quail, mouse and rat all died after i.v. injection of CF (above 20 microl/kg). Thus, CF was not toxic to invertebrates, but toxic to vertebrates. After heating, CF lost its toxicity to fish, tadpoles and mice. Both CF and lysenin incubated with sphingomyelin-liposomes (SM-liposomes) were no longer toxic, suggesting the involvement of SM in the toxicity. Lysenin, which is a constituent of CF and known to bind specifically to sphingomyelin, exhibited toxicity similar to that of CF. Thus, lysenin in CF is probably responsible for the toxic effects of CF by binding to SM in vertebrate tissues. The bodies of invertebrates might contain little or no SM, while those of vertebrates do contain SM. The coelomic fluid of the earthworm Pheretima communissima has no toxicity to mouse.

Kobayashi H; Ohtomi M; Sekizawa Y; Ohta N

2001-03-01

298

Toxicity of coelomic fluid of the earthworm Eisenia foetida to vertebrates but not invertebrates: probable role of sphingomyelin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The coelomic fluid (CF) of the earthworm Eisenia foetida exhibits a wide variety of biological activities. We found that the CF was not toxic to 42 species, belonging to seven invertebrate phyla, almost all in aquatic adults and larvae exposed to CF. Eleven teleostean species tested died in 0.2-1% CF mostly between 10 and 120 min and the effects were dose-dependent. Tadpoles of the toad Bufo japonicus formosus died in 0.4-2% CF between 80 and 225 min depending upon size, with larger tadpoles surviving longer. Before dying, all experimental tadpoles developed curled and shrunken tails. The Okinawa tree lizard, soft-shelled turtle, Japanese quail, mouse and rat all died after i.v. injection of CF (above 20 microl/kg). Thus, CF was not toxic to invertebrates, but toxic to vertebrates. After heating, CF lost its toxicity to fish, tadpoles and mice. Both CF and lysenin incubated with sphingomyelin-liposomes (SM-liposomes) were no longer toxic, suggesting the involvement of SM in the toxicity. Lysenin, which is a constituent of CF and known to bind specifically to sphingomyelin, exhibited toxicity similar to that of CF. Thus, lysenin in CF is probably responsible for the toxic effects of CF by binding to SM in vertebrate tissues. The bodies of invertebrates might contain little or no SM, while those of vertebrates do contain SM. The coelomic fluid of the earthworm Pheretima communissima has no toxicity to mouse. PMID:11255113

Kobayashi, H; Ohtomi, M; Sekizawa, Y; Ohta, N

2001-03-01

299

Differential expression of three labial genes during earthworm head regeneration.  

Science.gov (United States)

The earthworm provides an excellent model for investigating regeneration. Here we report the full-length cloning of three labial genes (Pex-lab01, Pex-lab02, and Pex-lab03) in the earthworm Perionyx excavatus. To analyze their expression pattern during head and tail regeneration, we used the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Our results indicate that the three labial genes were expressed only in the head-regenerating tissues. Also, we found that the expression of Pex-lab01 and Pex-lab02 is up-regulated, and this indicates their involvement in wound healing and the blastema formation processes during early head regeneration. PMID:19966495

Cho, Sung-Jin; Koh, Ki Seok; Lee, Eun; Park, Soon Cheol

2009-12-07

300

Riboflavin content in autofluorescent earthworm coelomocytes is species-specific.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have recently shown that a large proproportion of earthworm coelomocytes exhibit strong autofluorescence in some species (Dendrobaena veneta, Allolobophora chlorotica, Dendrodrilus rubidus, Eisenia fetida, and Octolasion spp.), while autofluorescent coelomocytes are very scarce in representatives of Lumbricus spp. and Aporrectodea spp. Riboflavin (vitamin B2) was identified as a major fluorophore in Eisenia jetida coelomocytes. The main aim of the present experiments was to quantify riboflavin content in autofluorescent coelomocytes (eleocytes) from several earthworm species through a combination of flow cytometric and spectrofluorometric measurements. Spectrofluorometry of coelomocyte lysates showed that riboflavin was non-detectable in the coelomocytes of Aporrectodea spp. and Lumbricus spp., but was a prominent constituent of lysates from species with autofluorescent eleocytes. In the latter case, riboflavin content was the highest in E. fetida, followed by Octolasion spp. > A. chlorotica > D. rubidus. The riboflavin content of coelomocytes correlates positively with eleocyte autofluorescence intensity measured by flow cytometry and visible with fluorescence microscopy.

P?ytycz B; Homa J; Kozio? B; Rózanowska M; Morgan AJ

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Riboflavin content in autofluorescent earthworm coelomocytes is species-specific.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have recently shown that a large proproportion of earthworm coelomocytes exhibit strong autofluorescence in some species (Dendrobaena veneta, Allolobophora chlorotica, Dendrodrilus rubidus, Eisenia fetida, and Octolasion spp.), while autofluorescent coelomocytes are very scarce in representatives of Lumbricus spp. and Aporrectodea spp. Riboflavin (vitamin B2) was identified as a major fluorophore in Eisenia jetida coelomocytes. The main aim of the present experiments was to quantify riboflavin content in autofluorescent coelomocytes (eleocytes) from several earthworm species through a combination of flow cytometric and spectrofluorometric measurements. Spectrofluorometry of coelomocyte lysates showed that riboflavin was non-detectable in the coelomocytes of Aporrectodea spp. and Lumbricus spp., but was a prominent constituent of lysates from species with autofluorescent eleocytes. In the latter case, riboflavin content was the highest in E. fetida, followed by Octolasion spp. > A. chlorotica > D. rubidus. The riboflavin content of coelomocytes correlates positively with eleocyte autofluorescence intensity measured by flow cytometry and visible with fluorescence microscopy. PMID:17219722

P?ytycz, Barbara; Homa, Joanna; Kozio?, Beata; Rózanowska, Ma?gorzata; Morgan, A John

2006-01-01

302

Riboflavin content in autofluorescent earthworm coelomocytes is species-specific.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have recently shown that a large proproportion of earthworm coelomocytes exhibit strong autofluorescence in some species (Dendrobaena veneta, Allolobophora chlorotica, Dendrodrilus rubidus, Eisenia fetida, and Octolasion spp.), while autofluorescent coelomocytes are very scarce in representatives of Lumbricus spp. and Aporrectodea spp. Riboflavin (vitamin B2) was identified as a major fluorophore in Eisenia jetida coelomocytes. The main aim of the present experiments was to quantify riboflavin content in autofluorescent coelomocytes (eleocytes) from several earthworm species through a combination of flow cytometric and spectrofluorometric measurements. Spectrofluorometry of coelomocyte lysates showed that riboflavin was non-detectable in the coelomocytes of Aporrectodea spp. and Lumbricus spp., but was a prominent constituent of lysates from species with autofluorescent eleocytes. In the latter case, riboflavin content was the highest in E. fetida, followed by Octolasion spp. > A. chlorotica > D. rubidus. The riboflavin content of coelomocytes correlates positively with eleocyte autofluorescence intensity measured by flow cytometry and visible with fluorescence microscopy.

Barbara P?ytycz; Joanna Homa; Beata Kozio?; Ma?gorzata Rózanowska; A John Morgan

2007-01-01

303

The toxicity of a ternary biocide mixture to two consecutive earthworm (Eisenia fetida) Generations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to determine the toxicity of a mixture containing the biocides picoxystrobin, esfenvalerate, and triclosan to the reproduction and adult survival of two consecutive generations of Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826). Concentration addition and independent action were used to predict mixture toxicity. Due to degradation of mixture components during the course of the experiment, predictions were based both on the mixture composition at the beginning and the end of the exposure period. As degradations were dose-dependent, none of the calculated predictions were precise for the entire concentration range, although combining both predictions led us to conclude that lethal toxicity was well predicted by concentration addition and sublethal toxicity by independent action. Reproduction of the F1 generation was inhibited more (p?survival did not differ between generations. The accuracy of the mixture toxicity predictions thus depended on both the time-dependent mixture composition and the earthworm generation. The results of this study underline the need for more advanced mixture toxicity prediction models that consider degradation kinetics and changes in toxic effects over time. PMID:23371808

Schnug, Lisbeth; Jakob, Lena; Hartnik, Thomas

2013-04-01

304

The toxicity of a ternary biocide mixture to two consecutive earthworm (Eisenia fetida) Generations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the present study was to determine the toxicity of a mixture containing the biocides picoxystrobin, esfenvalerate, and triclosan to the reproduction and adult survival of two consecutive generations of Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826). Concentration addition and independent action were used to predict mixture toxicity. Due to degradation of mixture components during the course of the experiment, predictions were based both on the mixture composition at the beginning and the end of the exposure period. As degradations were dose-dependent, none of the calculated predictions were precise for the entire concentration range, although combining both predictions led us to conclude that lethal toxicity was well predicted by concentration addition and sublethal toxicity by independent action. Reproduction of the F1 generation was inhibited more (p?survival did not differ between generations. The accuracy of the mixture toxicity predictions thus depended on both the time-dependent mixture composition and the earthworm generation. The results of this study underline the need for more advanced mixture toxicity prediction models that consider degradation kinetics and changes in toxic effects over time.

Schnug L; Jakob L; Hartnik T

2013-04-01

305

Composition analysis of sugar of the earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Te earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme was prepared by affinity chromatography using soy bean trypsin inhibitor as a ligand. It was a set of glycoproteins. The protocols used were phenol sulfuric acid method, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid method and thin-layer chromatography of silic gel G. It was shown that the sugar the enzyme contained was about 15% and mainly neutrol hexose. The enzyme was lost its activity after sugar being deleted with TFMS.

Zhang Wei; Liu Xiuli; Zhao Xiaoyu

1997-01-01

306

New earthworm records from the former Yugoslav countries (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A rich earthworm material from different countries of the former Yugoslavia has been elaborated. Altogether 39 species and subspecies are reported including six new records. Aporrectodea cemernicensis proved to be new to the fauna of Serbia, Eisenia spelaea to Bosnia-Herzegovina, Aporrectodea sineporis is new to Croatia and Denrobaena hrabei to Macedonia. Dendrobaena cognettii represents a new record to the fauna of Croatia and Macedonia. Dendrodrilus rubidus subrubicundus is new to the fauna of Montenegro.

Szederjesi, T.

2013-01-01

307

PREDICTION OF BIOAVAILABILITY OF CHLORPYRIFOS RESIDUES IN SOIL TO EARTHWORMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An incubation test was conducted to investigate the effect of aging on bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil and to assess the feasibility of chemical extraction techniques for predicting bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil. Chlorpyrifos was spiked into sterilized soil and aged in microcosms for up to 120 days. The earthworms were incubated in the spiked soils, at 0, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 120 days after spiking, for a period of 7 days. After exposure, chlorpyrifos concentrations in the earthworm tissues were determined. Change in chemical extractability of soil-chlorpyrifos was measured using a several solvent systems including methanol, methanol-water (9:1), acetone-water (5:3), and water. The results show that chemical extractability and earthworm bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil decreased with aging. The amount of aged and unaged chlorpyrifos recovered from soil varied with the individual chemical extractant and extraction method. Concentrations of chlorpyrifos in Eisenia foetida were significantly higher than in Allolobophora caliginosa, suggesting that the bioavailability of chlorpyrifos was a species-dependent process. The extractability of chlorpyrifos by chemical solvents was significantly correlated with bioavailability fraction of E. foetida and A. caliginosa, showing that these extraction techniques may be efficient for predicting bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil.

X.M Wu; Y.L Yu; M Li; Y.H Long; H Fang; S.N Li

2011-01-01

308

Comparative Genomics of Symbiotic Bacteria in Earthworm Nephridia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The excretory and osmoregulatory organs (nephridia) of lumbricid earthworms are densely colonized by extracellular bacterial symbionts belonging to the newly established betaproteobacterial genus Verminephrobacter. The nephridial symbiont of the earthworm Eisenia fetida was subjected to full genome sequencing along with two of its closest relatives; the plant pathogenic Acidovorax avena subsp. citrulli and the free-living Acidovorax sp. JS42. In addition, the genome of the nephridial symbiont of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata was partially sequenced. In order to resolve the functional and evolutionary basis of the symbiosis we annotated and compared the genomes. The genomes ranged in size from 4.4 to 5.6 Mbp, the E. fetida symbiont genome being the largest. The symbiont genomes showed no evidence of gene-loss related to any particular type of functional gene category. In contrast, genes predicted to be involved in transport processes were highly overrepresented in the symbiont genomes due to massive paralogous expansion of genes encoding ABC-type amino acid and peptide uptake systems. Thus, symbionts seem well-adapted to the nephridial environment being able to profit from proteinaceous excretion products. Gene order was highly conserved between the genomes of Acidovorax avena and Acidovorax sp. JS42, whereas the E. fetida symbiont genome held very little conservation of gene order compared to either of the latter two. Repetitive sequences were excessively abundant throughout the genomes of both symbionts. Together, this is indicative of high recombinatorial frequency in the symbiont genomes the function of which is presently poorly understood.

Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Pinel, Nicolas

309

Modeling of the accumulation of organic lipophilic chemicals in earthworms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For aquatic and terrestrial species living in contaminated sediments and soils it is assumed that the major route of uptake of organic lipophilic compounds is by passive diffusion of the compound dissolved in the interstitial water. Dietary uptake will only be important for extremely lipophilic compounds with log K{sub ow} larger than 5--6. An accumulation study with earthworms in OECD artificial soil confirmed this hypothesis. However, the authors also observed dietary uptake in earthworms after feeding them with food contaminated with three chlorobenzenes, PCB153 and octachloronaphthalene. Still, the question remained whether dietary uptake is an important route of exposure. Therefore, a model was developed that, unlike for example the equilibrium partition theory, incorporates two routes of uptake. The model can be used to estimate the accumulation of inert organic chemicals with log Kow 2--7 in earthworms, but also to determine the relative contribution of the two routes of uptake to the total body burden. It will be shown that the relative contribution depends on the lipophilicity of the compound and also on the type of soil.

Belfroid, A.; Seinen, W.; Leeuwen, K. van; Hermens, J. [Univ. of Utrecht (Netherlands). Research Inst. of Toxicology; Gestel, K. van [Vrije Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Ecology and Ecotoxicology

1994-12-31

310

PREDICTION OF BIOAVAILABILITY OF CHLORPYRIFOS RESIDUES IN SOIL TO EARTHWORMS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english An incubation test was conducted to investigate the effect of aging on bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil and to assess the feasibility of chemical extraction techniques for predicting bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil. Chlorpyrifos was spiked into sterilized soil and aged in microcosms for up to 120 days. The earthworms were incubated in the spiked soils, at 0, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 120 days after spiking, for a period of 7 days. After exposure, chlorpyrifos conc (more) entrations in the earthworm tissues were determined. Change in chemical extractability of soil-chlorpyrifos was measured using a several solvent systems including methanol, methanol-water (9:1), acetone-water (5:3), and water. The results show that chemical extractability and earthworm bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil decreased with aging. The amount of aged and unaged chlorpyrifos recovered from soil varied with the individual chemical extractant and extraction method. Concentrations of chlorpyrifos in Eisenia foetida were significantly higher than in Allolobophora caliginosa, suggesting that the bioavailability of chlorpyrifos was a species-dependent process. The extractability of chlorpyrifos by chemical solvents was significantly correlated with bioavailability fraction of E. foetida and A. caliginosa, showing that these extraction techniques may be efficient for predicting bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil.

Wu, X.M; Yu, Y.L; Li, M; Long, Y.H; Fang, H; Li, S.N

2011-01-01

311

Earthworms of the banana groves from Tenerife (Canary Islands).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A total of 20 earthworm species were identified. Two of them, Metaphire californica and Pontoscolex corethrurus, are recorded for the first time on Tenerife. The discovery of the latter species constitutes also a new record for the Canary Islands, and thus the geographical area of its distribution in Macaronesia is enlarged. Furthermore, two species groups are recognized, the first comprises exotic earthworms clearly associated with tropical plantations (Amynthas corticis, A. gracilis, A. morrisi, A. rodericensis and Pithemera bicincta), introduced by man from the 15th century onwards, and thus forming part of modern Canarian fauna. The second group includes a considerable number of lumbricids which are widely distributed throughout the subhumid thermo-canarian zone (Allolobophora chlorotica, Eisenia andrei and E. eiseni, among others) which were able to adapt themselves to the prevailing conditions in areas of banana production. The present article also includes information concerning the chemical characteristics of the soils where the studied species live. The soils of the South-Southwest slopes of Tenerife are principally alkaline and harbour a considerably poorer earthworm fauna.

Talavera Sosa JA

1992-12-01

312

Accumulation, subcellular distribution and toxicity of copper in earthworm (Eisenia fetida) in the presence of ciprofloxacin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Land application of wastes from concentrated animal feeding operations results in accumulation of copper (Cu) and antimicrobials in terrestrial systems. Interaction between Cu and antimicrobials may change Cu speciation in soil solution, and affect Cu bioavailability and toxicity. In this study, earthworms were exposed to quartz sand percolated with different concentrations of Cu and ciprofloxacin (CIP). Copper uptake by earthworms, its subcellular partition, and toxicity were studied. An increase in the applied CIP decreased the free Cu ion concentration in external solution and mortalities of earthworm, while Cu contents in earthworms increased. Copper and CIP in earthworms were fractionated into five fractions: a granular fraction (D), a fraction consisting of tissue fragments, cell membranes, and intact cells (E), a microsomal fraction (F), a denatured proteins fraction (G), and a heat-stable proteins fraction (H). Most of the CIP in earthworms was in fraction H. Copper was redistributed from the metal-sensitive fraction E to fractions D, F, G, and H with increasing CIP concentration. These results challenge the free ion activity model and suggested that Cu may be partly taken up as Cu-CIP complexes in earthworms, changing the bioavailability, subcellular distribution, and toxicity of Cu to earthworms.

Huang R; Wen B; Pei Z; Shan XQ; Zhang S; Williams PN

2009-05-01

313

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MASS OF NEWLY HATCHED INDIVIDUALS AND COCOON MASS IN LUMBRICID EARTHWORMS  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Earthworm cocoons from laboratory cultures were collected and their mass was determined. When hatched, the mass of the young worms was found. Cocoon mass and the mass of hatchlings varied considerably within species. The hygromass of newly hatched earthworms was found to correlate linearly with cocoon hygromass. It is concluded that cocoon hygromass may offer a prediction for hygromass of hatchlings.

Bruus, Marianne; Bjerre, Arne

1991-01-01

314

Temperature-dependent alterations in metabolic enzymes and proteins of three ecophysiologically different species of earthworms  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The effects of varying temperatures (12 - 44° C) on the specific activity of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase ((cMDH), mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of some earthworms (Metaphire posthuma, Perionyx sansibaricus and Lampito mauritii) were studied. The effects of different temperatures on supernatant and mitochondrial protein contents were also investigated. The specific activities of cMDH, mMDH and LDH of the earthworms decrease (more) d gradually as a function of increasing temperature from 12 to 44°C. Higher metabolic energy was needed to maintain the activity at low temperatures. Hence, the earthworms showed increased enzyme specific activity at low temperatures. However, the protein content increased upto 28°C. Afterwards, with the increase in the temperature from 28 to 42°C, the proteins in the earthworms showed a significant decrease. The temperature-associated changes in the protein content could be explained by the fact that protein synthesizing capacity was hampered above and below the optimum temperature range. The most pronounced effects of varying temperatures were on P. sansibaricus. It might be due to the epigeic nature of the earthworm species. Then minimum effect was on the endogeic earthworm M. posthuma. Virtually, the differences in the enzymes physiology were associated with the differences in the ecological categories of the earthworms. This clearly demonstrate a possible link between the physiology and ecology at aerobic (cMDH, mMDH) and anaerobic (LDH) levels in the tropical earthworms.

Tripathi, G; Kachhwaha, N.; Dabi, I.; Bandooni, N.

2011-08-01

315

Influence of earthworm mucus and amino acids on tomato seedling growth and cadmium accumulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects on the growth of tomato seedlings and cadmium accumulation of earthworm mucus and a solution of amino acids matching those in earthworm mucus was studied through a hydroponic experiment. The experiment included four treatments: 5 mg Cd L-1 (CC), 5 mg Cd L-1 + 100 mL L-1 earthworm mucus (CE), 5 mg Cd L-1 + 100 mL L-1 amino acids solution (CA) and the control (CK). Results showed that, compared with CC treatment, either earthworm mucus or amino acids significantly increased tomato seedling growth and Cd accumulation but the increase was much higher in the CE treatment compared with the CA treatment. This may be due to earthworm mucus and amino acids significantly increasing the chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement uptake and transport in the tomato seedlings. The much greater increase in the effect of earthworm mucus compared with amino acid treatments may be due to IAA-like substances in earthworm mucus. - Earthworm mucus increased tomato seedlings growth and Cd accumulation through increasing chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement accumulation.

2009-01-01

316

Influence of earthworm mucus and amino acids on tomato seedling growth and cadmium accumulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects on the growth of tomato seedlings and cadmium accumulation of earthworm mucus and a solution of amino acids matching those in earthworm mucus was studied through a hydroponic experiment. The experiment included four treatments: 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} (CC), 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} + 100 mL L{sup -1} earthworm mucus (CE), 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} + 100 mL L{sup -1} amino acids solution (CA) and the control (CK). Results showed that, compared with CC treatment, either earthworm mucus or amino acids significantly increased tomato seedling growth and Cd accumulation but the increase was much higher in the CE treatment compared with the CA treatment. This may be due to earthworm mucus and amino acids significantly increasing the chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement uptake and transport in the tomato seedlings. The much greater increase in the effect of earthworm mucus compared with amino acid treatments may be due to IAA-like substances in earthworm mucus. - Earthworm mucus increased tomato seedlings growth and Cd accumulation through increasing chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement accumulation.

Zhang Shujie [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Hu Feng, E-mail: fenghu@njau.edu.c [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li Huixin; Li Xiuqiang [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

2009-10-15

317

USING THE EARTHWORM, EISENIA FETIDA, TO ASSESS THE ECOTOXICITY OF WASTE FOUNDRY SANDS  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworms are often used to monitor the toxicity of contaminated soils. In this experiment, the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, was utilized to assess the ecotoxicity of waste foundry sands. Each year the U.S. foundry industry generates several million tons of waste sand that is no longer useful to pr...

318

Effects of treatment with sodium fluoride and subsequent starvation on fluoride content of earthworms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The two experiments described here originated during a long-term investigation into the occurrence and movement of pollutant fluoride in a terrestrial ecosystem. Moles (Talpa europaea) whose diet consist largely of various species of earthworm Lumbricidae, are one of the species under investigation. Bone fluoride in moles was found to be higher, on average, than in foxes or small rodents. Moles probably acquire fluoride from their earthworm diet. Earthworms do not have any readily identifiable tissue in which to store large amounts of fluoride but, for their size, they have a considerable amount of soil in their gut, up oto 20% of their dry weight. Preliminary measurements of fluoride in whole earthworms suggested that observed levels could probably be accounted for by fluoride bound in the mineral part of contained soil and released during preparatory ashing. Two experiments to investigate this situation are described; here their aims were: to expose earthworms kept in soil to different concentrations of sodium fluoride; to measure resulting fluoride in earthworms when soil was removed from their gut by starvation for varying periods of time; and to compare amounts of fluoride in whole starved earthworms with those in starved earthworms from which remaining soil had also been physically removed by dissection and washing.

Walton, K.C.

1987-01-01

319

Earthworms Use Odor Cues to Locate and Feed on Microorganisms in Soil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Earthworms are key components of temperate soil ecosystems but key aspects of their ecology remain unexamined. Here we elucidate the role of olfactory cues in earthworm attraction to food sources and document specific chemical cues that attract Eisenia fetida to the soil fungi Geotrichum candidum. F...

Zirbes, Lara; Mescher, Mark; Vrancken, Véronique; Wathelet, Jean-Paul; Verheggen, François J.; Thonart, Philippe

320

Earthworms as colonisers: Primary colonisation of contaminated land, and sediment and soil waste deposits  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reviews the role of earthworms in the early colonisation of contaminated soils as well as sediment and waste deposits, which are worm-free because of anthropogenic activities such as open-cast mining, soil sterilisation, consistent pollution or remediation of contaminated soil. Earthworms...

Eijsackers, H.J.P.

 
 
 
 
321

Emission of Methane by Eudrilus eugeniae and Other Earthworms from Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Earthworms emit denitrification-derived nitrous oxide and fermentation-derived molecular hydrogen. The present study demonstrated that the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae, obtained in Brazil, emitted methane. Other worms displayed a lesser or no capacity to emit methane. Gene and transcript analyses of ...

Depkat-Jakob, Peter S.; Hunger, Sindy; Schulz, Kristin; Brown, George G.; Tsai, Siu M.; Drake, Harold L.

322

The use of earthworms in ecological soil classification and assessment concepts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Without doubt, earthworms are the most important soil invertebrates in most soils worldwide, in terms of both biomass and activity. Several species are even considered to be ecosystem engineers. Earthworms are also known to influence soil structure, soil chemistry, and, in particular, processes like...

Rombke, J.; Jansch, S.; Didden, W.A.M.

323

Is earthworms' dispersal facilitated by the ecosystem engineering activities of conspecifics?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work, we documented the influence of earthworm's galleries on their speed of movements during dispersal events in the soil. We quantified, by using X-rays, the dispersal behaviour of earthworms in the soil. The observations were conducted in mesocosms in controlled conditions for 12 h. Our e...

Caro, Gael; Abourachid, Anick; Decaens, Thibaud; Buono, Lorenza; Mathieu, Jérôme

324

Earthworms Dilong: Ancient, Inexpensive, Noncontroversial Models May Help Clarify Approaches to Integrated Medicine Emphasizing Neuroimmune Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Earthworms have provided ancient cultures with food and sources of medicinal cures. Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and practices in Japan, Vietnam, and Korea have focused first on earthworms as sources of food. Gradually fostering an approach to potential beneficial healing properties...

Cooper, Edwin L.; Balamurugan, Mariappan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Tsao, Clara R.; Heredia, Jesus; Tommaseo-Ponzetta, Mila

325

Earthworm communities in alluvial forests: Influence of altitude, vegetation stages and soil parameters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In many terrestrial ecosystems, soil parameters usually regulate the distribution of earthworm communities.In alluvial ecosystems, few studies have investigated the impact of periodic floods and alluvium deposition on soil fauna. In this context, we assumed that earthworm communities may vary depend...

Salomé, Clémence; Guenat, Claire; Bullinger-Weber, Géraldine; Gobat, Jean-Michel; Le Bayon, Renée-Claire

326

Earthworms, Microbes and the Release of C and N in Biochar Amended Soil  

Science.gov (United States)

Land application of biochar has the potential to increase soil fertility and sequester carbon. It is unclear how soil microbes and earthworms interact with biochar and affect release or retention of nutrients. In order to determine the effects and interactions among soil microbes, earthworms, and bi...

327

Earthworms as phoretic hosts for Steinernema carpocapsae and Beauveria bassiana: Implications for enhanced biological control  

Science.gov (United States)

Prior research indicated that earthworms may serve as phoretic hosts to entomopathogenic nematodes. Therefore, we hypothesized that biocontrol efficacy of nematodes could be enhanced in the presence of earthworms based on increased nematode dispersal through the soil. We also hypothesized that ear...

328

In Vivo Emission of Dinitrogen by Earthworms via Denitrifying Bacteria in the Gut  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Earthworms emit the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), and ingested denitrifiers in the gut appear to be the main source of this N2O. The primary goal of this study was to determine if earthworms also emit dinitrogen (N2), the end product of complete denitrification. When [15N]nitrate was injected ...

Horn, Marcus A.; Mertel, Ralph; Gehre, Matthias; Kästner, Matthias; Drake, Harold L.

329

Impact of earthworms on the diversity of microarthropods in a vertisol (Martinique)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a study of a 15-year-old pasture in Martinique (French West Indies), abundance and organization of microarthropod communities were correlated with the spatial distribution of the earthworm Polypheretima elongata (Megascolecidae). In patches of high earthworm density (133 individuals m-2), microar...

Loranger, Gladys; Ponge, Jean-François; Blanchart, Eric; Lavelle, Patrick

330

Earthworms: Charles Darwin’s ‘Unheralded Soldiers of Mankind’: Protective & Productive for Man & Environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Earthworms promises to provide cheaper solutions to several social, economic and environmental problems plaguing the human society. Earthworms can safely manage all municipal and industrial organic wastes including sewage sludge and divert them from ending up in the landfills. Their body work as a ‘...

Rajiv K. Sinha; Krunal Chauhan; Dalsukh Valani; Vinod Chandran; Brijal Kiran Soni; Vishal Patel

331

Invasion by Exotic Earthworms Alters Biodiversity and Communities of Litter- and Soil-dwelling Oribatid Mites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Exotic earthworms are drivers of biotic communities in invaded North American forest stands. Here we used ecologically important oribatid mite (Arachnida: Acari) communities, as model organisms to study the responses of litter- and soil-dwelling microarthropod communities to exotic earthworm invasio...

Jordan L. Burke; John C. Maerz; Joseph R. Milanovich; Melany C. Fisk; Kamal J.K. Gandhi

332

Temperature-dependent alterations in metabolic enzymes and proteins of three ecophysiologically different species of earthworms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of varying temperatures (12 - 44° C) on the specific activity of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase ((cMDH), mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of some earthworms (Metaphire posthuma, Perionyx sansibaricus and Lampito mauritii) were studied. The effects of different temperatures on supernatant and mitochondrial protein contents were also investigated. The specific activities of cMDH, mMDH and LDH of the earthworms decreased gradually as a function of increasing temperature from 12 to 44°C. Higher metabolic energy was needed to maintain the activity at low temperatures. Hence, the earthworms showed increased enzyme specific activity at low temperatures. However, the protein content increased upto 28°C. Afterwards, with the increase in the temperature from 28 to 42°C, the proteins in the earthworms showed a significant decrease. The temperature-associated changes in the protein content could be explained by the fact that protein synthesizing capacity was hampered above and below the optimum temperature range. The most pronounced effects of varying temperatures were on P. sansibaricus. It might be due to the epigeic nature of the earthworm species. Then minimum effect was on the endogeic earthworm M. posthuma. Virtually, the differences in the enzymes physiology were associated with the differences in the ecological categories of the earthworms. This clearly demonstrate a possible link between the physiology and ecology at aerobic (cMDH, mMDH) and anaerobic (LDH) levels in the tropical earthworms.

G Tripathi; N. Kachhwaha; I. Dabi; N. Bandooni

2011-01-01

333

Earthworms change the distribution and availability of phosphorous in organic substrates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In laboratory controlled soil microcosms, the distribution and availability of phosphorous (P) were determined in the surface-casts and the burrows-linings of the anecic earthworm L. terrestris and were compared with non-ingested soil. To simulate more realistic earthworm community conditions...

Le Bayon, Renée-Claire; Binet, F.

334

The implications of copper fungicide usage in vineyards for earthworm activity and resulting sustainable soil quality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To investigate the impact of copper-containing fungicides (copper oxychloride) on earthworms in South African vineyards, field inventories of earthworms in and between vine rows were carried out and compared to directly adjacent grassland. Also copper content, pH, organic matter content, and soil po...

Eijsackers, H.J.P.; Beneke, P.; Maboeta, M.; Louw, J.P.E.; Reinecke, A.J.

335

Phagocytosis in earthworms: An environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess immunotoxic potential of contaminated soils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Phagocytosis, a host-defense mechanism phylogenetically conserved throughout the animal kingdom, by earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) coelomocytes has potential as a surrogate for vertebrates to be used as an environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess sublethal immunotoxic risks of contaminated soils to environmental (eg. higher wildlife) and public health. Coelomocytes can be exposed in vivo to complex contaminated parent soils by placing earthworms in situ at hazardous waste sites (HWS) or into soil samples and their dilutions with artificial soil (AS) in the laboratory, or in vitro to soil extracts and their fractionations. Here the authors report on phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils from a wood treatment HWS, PCP-spiked AS and PCP treated filter paper (FP). HWS soil was diluted to 25% with AS to a sublethal concentration (ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) and earthworms exposed for 14d at 10 C under light conditions. AS was spiked at ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1} PCP and earthworms were similarly exposed. Controls for both consisted of earthworms exposed to 100% AS. Earthworms were exposed to FP treated with a sublethal PCP concentration (15 {micro}g cm{sup {minus}2}) at 10 C under dark conditions for 96H. Controls were similarly exposed without PCP. Phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to HWS soil, spiked AS and treated FP was suppressed 37, 41 and 29%, respectively. Results are discussed in terms of PCP body burdens and exposure protocols.

Giggleman, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Venables, B.J. [TRAC Labs., Inc., Denton, TX (United States); Callahan, C.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, San Francisco, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

336

Estimation of the freezing point of concentrated fruit juices for application in freeze concentration  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In freeze concentration operations the fluids remain at temperatures below 0°C. For a good study of this concentration operation is very important to know the values of freezing point. The aim of this work was to establish a model that predicts the freezing point of fruit juices at various concentrations within the range of interest for freeze concentration (10-40 °Brix). The model proposed relates the freezing point of a juice with the concentrations of main sugars present in the juice: sucrose, glucose and fructose. The freezing point of apple juice, pear juice and peach juice was determined experimentally at various concentrations, and experimental results were well correlated with model calculations.

Auleda JM; Raventós M; Sánchez J; Hernández E

2011-07-01

337

Distribution of bacteria and fungi in the earthworm Libyodrillus violaceous (Annelida: Oligochaeta), a native earthworm from Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Earthworms are soil invertebrates that play a key role in recycling organic matter in soils.In Nigeria, earthworms include Libyodrillus violaceous. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial counts, as well as fungal counts of viable microorganisms in soils and gut sections, were made on twenty L. violaceous collected from different sites on the campus of the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. The samples were collected between April and November, 2002. Numbers of microor (more) ganisms were higher in castings and gut sections than in uningested soil samples. The guts and their contents also had higher moisture and total nitrogen contents than the uningested soils. Bacteria and fungi isolated from the samples were identified by standard microbiological procedures on the bases of their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Isolated bacteria were identified as Staphylococcus, Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus mutans, Clostridium, Spirocheata spp., Azotobacter spp., Micrococcus lylae, Acinetobacter spp., Halobacterium for bacteria. Yeast isolates were identified as Candida spp., Zygosaccharomyces spp., Pichia spp., and Saccharomyces spp while molds were identified as, Aspergillus spp., Pytium spp., Penicillium spp., Fusarium spp and Rhizopus spp. Of the five locations examined, the refuse dump area had the highest numbers of both aerobic and anaerobic organisms, followed by the arboretum while the cultivated land area recorded the lowest counts. The higher numbers of microorganisms observed in the gut sections and casts of the earthworms examined in this work reinforce the general concept that the gut and casts of earthworms show higher microbial diversity and activity than the surrounding soil. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (1): 49-58. Epub 2006 Mar 31.

Idowu, A. B; Edema, M. O; Adeyi, A. O

2006-03-01

338

Retrospective comparison of freeze and non-freeze myopic epikeratophakia.  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted a retrospective study of 20 eyes of 20 selected patients with preoperative myopia of -14 to -28 diopters who were treated with myopic epikeratophakia and followed for 8 weeks. Seven eyes were treated with frozen-lyophilized donor lenticules by the Kaufman-McDonald technique and 13 eyes were treated with freshly prepared donor lenticules using the Barraquer-Krumeich-Swinger (BKS) technique. All lenticules were sutured into a circular keratotomy without keratectomy. Postoperatively, all eyes had a refraction between -4.00 and +2.00 D, and there was no meaningful difference in the refractive outcome of the two groups. The freeze-lyophilized technique showed a greater overall loss of best spectacle corrected visual acuity, although no eyes in the entire series lost more than two lines of Snellen visual acuity compared to preoperative values. Uncorrected visual acuity after surgery was 20/40 or better in 5% of each group. The rate of postoperative epithelialization was slower in the freeze-lyophilized group, but all eyes were re-epithalialized by 3 weeks after surgery. No lenticules had to be removed for complications, but there was one case of epithelial ingrowth into the interface that required a second operative procedure. Our clinical experience with this small group of eyes shows that both techniques of myopic epikeratophakia can safely and effectively reduce high amounts of myopia, but that the refractive outcome is less predictable than desired. The technical requirements for the non-freeze (BKS) technique are high, but the rate of visual recovery is faster. PMID:2488793

Buratto, L; Ferrari, M

339

Retrospective comparison of freeze and non-freeze myopic epikeratophakia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We conducted a retrospective study of 20 eyes of 20 selected patients with preoperative myopia of -14 to -28 diopters who were treated with myopic epikeratophakia and followed for 8 weeks. Seven eyes were treated with frozen-lyophilized donor lenticules by the Kaufman-McDonald technique and 13 eyes were treated with freshly prepared donor lenticules using the Barraquer-Krumeich-Swinger (BKS) technique. All lenticules were sutured into a circular keratotomy without keratectomy. Postoperatively, all eyes had a refraction between -4.00 and +2.00 D, and there was no meaningful difference in the refractive outcome of the two groups. The freeze-lyophilized technique showed a greater overall loss of best spectacle corrected visual acuity, although no eyes in the entire series lost more than two lines of Snellen visual acuity compared to preoperative values. Uncorrected visual acuity after surgery was 20/40 or better in 5% of each group. The rate of postoperative epithelialization was slower in the freeze-lyophilized group, but all eyes were re-epithalialized by 3 weeks after surgery. No lenticules had to be removed for complications, but there was one case of epithelial ingrowth into the interface that required a second operative procedure. Our clinical experience with this small group of eyes shows that both techniques of myopic epikeratophakia can safely and effectively reduce high amounts of myopia, but that the refractive outcome is less predictable than desired. The technical requirements for the non-freeze (BKS) technique are high, but the rate of visual recovery is faster.

Buratto L; Ferrari M

1989-03-01

340

Physiological and molecular responses of the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) to soil chlortetracycline contamination.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to evaluate toxic effects of exposure to chlortetracycline (CTC) in soil on reproductive endpoints (juvenile counts and cocoon counts), biochemical responses, and genotoxic potentials of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Results showed that juvenile counts and cocoon counts of the tested earthworms were reduced after exposure to CTC. The effective concentrations (EC(50) values) for juvenile and cocoon counts were 96.1 and 120.3 mg/kg, respectively. Treatment of earthworms with CTC significantly changed the activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). An increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) indicated that CTC could cause cellular lipid peroxidation in the tested earthworms. The percentage of DNA in the tail of single-cell gel electrophoresis of coelomocytes as an indication of DNA damage increased after treatment with different doses of CTC, and a dose-dependent DNA damage of coelomocytes was found. In conclusion, CTC induces physiological responses and genotoxicity on earthworms. PMID:22868346

Lin, Dasong; Zhou, Qixing; Xu, Yingming; Chen, Chun; Li, Ye

2012-08-04

 
 
 
 
341

Microflora dynamics in earthworms casts in an artificial soil (biosynthesol) containing lactic acid oligomers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies were performed to appreciate the presence of micro-organisms able to degrade OLA, in earthworms casts or in the surroundings. Worms were grown in biosynthesol, an artificial soil. The counting of bacteria and fungi in earthworms casts and in biosynthesol without earthworms suggested that earthworms ate some of the micro-organisms. The main filamentous fungi genera found were Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Fusarium and Penicillium. Previous results in the literature have shown that some species from the Aspergillus and Fusarium genera were able to degrade OLA and other aliphatic esters. It could be suggested that these two genera and some bacteria were responsible for the pre-degradation of OLA, and that earthworms might eat them.

Alauzet Nathalie; Roussos Sevastianos; Garreau Henri; Vert Michel

2001-01-01

342

Fluoride accumulation in different earthworm species near an industrial emission source in southern Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The information on fluorides (F)-pollution of soil invertebrates is sparse and only a few recent publications deal with F accumulation in some taxonomic groups of soil fauna. Earthworms in particular become the focus of soil-soil fauna interactions in F-polluted sites, even more so since a significant relationship between soil pollution and F load in earthworms was observed. Earthworms coat their burrowings and this may be a mechanism of F-dissemination and subsoil contamination. Evidence is growing that fluorides pass through food chains. Earthworms as the preferred prey of a wide range of animals are therefore in the center of interest as a possible way of F-bioaccumulation in higher trophic levels. For a risk assessment of F-pollution and pathways of F through organisms and ecosystems, detailed knowledge of F-accumulation in soil fauna, and in earthworms in particular is required.

Vogel, J.; Ottow, J.C.G. (Justus-Liebig Univ., Giessen (Germany))

1991-10-01

343

Metal content of earthworms in sludge-amended soils: uptake and loss  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The widespread practice of landspreading of sludge has raised concern about increasing concentrations of potentially toxic metals in soils, with the possibility of these metals adversely impacting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Earthworms, as one of the largest components of the soil biota, are useful indicators of potentially toxic soil metal concentrations. The study describes the metal content of five metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in one earthworm species, Allolobophora tuberculata, as a function of varying soil metal concentrations in the same soil type and the ability of the earthworms to bioconcentrate the five metals. The rate of uptake of the five metals in earthworms with initially low concentrations of metals placed in a soil with high metal concentrations was evaluated for a 112 day period. The rate of loss of the five metals in earthworms with initially high metal concentrations placed in soil with low metal concentrations was also examined.

Neuhauser, E.F.; Malecki, M.R.; Cukic, Z.V.

1985-11-01

344

Mercury, cadmium and lead concentrations in different ecophysiological groups of earthworms in forest soils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd and Pb by eight ecophysiologically distinct earthworm species was studied in 27 polluted and uncontaminated forest soils. Lowest tissue concentrations of Hg and Cd occurred in epigeic Lumbricus rubellus and highest in endogeic Octolasion cyaneum. Soils dominated by Dendrodrilus rubidus possess a high potential of risk of Pb biomagnification for secondary predators. Bioconcentration factors (soil-earthworm) followed the sequence ranked Cd > Hg > Pb. Ordination plots of redundancy analysis were used to compare HM concentrations in earthworm tissues with soil, leaf litter and root concentrations and with soil pH and CEC. Different ecological categories of earthworms are exposed to Hg, Cd and Pb in the topsoil by atmospheric deposition and accumulate them in their bodies. Species differences in HM concentrations largely reflect differences in food selectivity and niche separation. - Accumulation of non-essential heavy metals by earthworms is species-dependent and is affected by soil characteristics in natural forest soils.

Ernst, Gregor; Zimmermann, Stefan [Soil Sciences, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Christie, Peter [Agricultural and Environmental Science Department, Queen' s University Belfast, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Frey, Beat [Soil Sciences, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)], E-mail: beat.frey@wsl.ch

2008-12-15

345

Arsenic resistance and cycling in earthworms residing at a former gold mine in Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworms (Lumbricus castaneous and Dendrodrilus rubidus), their host soils and leaf litter were collected from a former gold mine with widespread arsenic (As) contamination in Nova Scotia, Canada and determined for total and speciated As. Resistance to As toxicity was investigated by measurement of DNA damage in exposed earthworm populations using the comet assay. Arsenobetaine (AB) was observed at low concentration in the earthworms but not in the host soil or leaf litter. Several different organoarsenic species were observed in the leaf litter and only inorganic As was found in the host soils. The results suggest that 1) adaptation to As toxicity in earthworms is widespread and not particular to a single species, 2) AB originates in the earthworm and not the consumed soil or leaf litter and 3) as previously hypothesised (Button et al., 2010), biotransformation of inorganic As to AB is not likely involved in the adaptation. PMID:22683483

Button, Mark; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

2012-06-08

346

Influence of dough freezing on Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The need to freeze dough is increasing in bakery production. Frozen dough can be stored for a long time without quality change. The capacity of bakery production can be increased in this way, and in the same time, the night shifts can be decreased. Yeast cells can be damaged by freezing process resulting in poor technological quality of dough after defrostation (longer fermentation of dough). The influence of frozen storage time of dough on survival percentage of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. Dough samples were taken after 1, 7, 14 and 28 days of frozen storage at -20°C. After defrosting, at room temperature, samples were taken from the surface and the middle part of dough (under aseptic conditions), and the percentage of living S. cerevisiae cells was determined. During frozen storage of dough, the number of living S. cerevisiae decreased. After 28 days of frozen storage, the percentage of live cells on the surface and inside the dough was 53,1% and 54,95%, respectively. The addition of k-carragenan to dough increased the percentage of living cells in the middle part of dough up to 64,63%. Pure cultures, isolated from survived S. cerevisia cells in frozen dough by agar plates method (Koch's method), were multiplied in optimal liquid medium for yeasts. The content of cytochromes in S. cerevisiae cells was determined by spectrophotometric method. The obtained results showed that the content of cytochromes in survived S. cerevisiae cells was not affected by dough freezing process. Growth rate and fermentative activity (Einchor's method) were determined in multiplied cells.

Pejin Dušanka J.; Došanovi? Irena S.; Popov Stevan D.; Suturovi? Zvonimir J.; Rankovi? Jovana A.; Dodi? Siniša N.; Dodi? Jelena M.; Vu?urovi? Vesna M.

2007-01-01

347

Transcriptomic analysis of RDX and TNT interactive sublethal effects in the earthworm Eisenia fetida  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Explosive compounds such as TNT and RDX are recalcitrant contaminants often found co-existing in the environment. In order to understand the joint effects of TNT and RDX on earthworms, an important ecological and bioindicator species at the molecular level, we sampled worms (Eisenia fetida) exposed singly or jointly to TNT (50 mg/kg soil) and RDX (30 mg/kg soil) for 28 days and profiled gene expression in an interwoven loop designed microarray experiment using a 4k-cDNA array. Lethality, growth and reproductive endpoints were measured. Results Sublethal doses of TNT and RDX had no significant effects on the survival and growth of earthworms, but significantly reduced cocoon and juvenile counts. The mixture exhibited more pronounced reproductive toxicity than each single compound, suggesting an additive interaction between the two compounds. In comparison with the controls, we identified 321 differentially expressed transcripts in TNT treated worms, 32 in RDX treated worms, and only 6 in mixture treated worms. Of the 329 unique differentially expressed transcripts, 294 were affected only by TNT, 24 were common to both TNT and RDX treatments, and 3 were common to all treatments. The reduced effects on gene expression in the mixture exposure suggest that RDX might interact in an antagonistic manner with TNT at the gene expression level. The disagreement between gene expression and reproduction results may be attributed to sampling time, absence of known reproduction-related genes, and lack of functional information for many differentially expressed transcripts. A gene potentially related to reproduction (echinonectin) was significantly depressed in TNT or RDX exposed worms and may be linked to reduced fecundity. Conclusions Sublethal doses of TNT and RDX affected many biological pathways from innate immune response to oogenesis, leading to reduced reproduction without affecting survival and growth. A complex interaction between mixtures of RDX and TNT was observed at the gene expression level that requires further study of the dynamics of gene expression and reproductive activities in E. fetida. These efforts will be essential to gain an understanding of the additive reproductive toxicity between RDX and TNT.

Gong Ping; Guan Xin; Inouye Laura S; Deng Youping; Pirooznia Mehdi; Perkins Edward J

2008-01-01

348

Impact of age of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation on earthworm communities of West Tripura (India).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A comparative analysis of earthworm communities was carried out in the rubber plantations (Hevea brasiliensis) of different age groups in West Tripura to understand the impact of such exotic and monoculture plantation in biodiversity conservation. Earthworm communities were studied on monthly basis over a period of one year (2006-2007) in the 3, 10, 14, 20 and 25 year-old plantations. Among twelve earthworm species collected from the studied sites, six species belonged to Octochaetidae [Eutyphoeus assomensis Stephenson, Eutyphoeus comillahnus Michaelsen, Lennogaster chittagongensis (Stephensen), Octochaetona beatrix Gates, Dichogaster offinis Michaelsen, Lennogaster yeicus (Stephensen)], two species each to Megascolecidae [Metaphire houlleti (Perrier), Konchurio sp. 1] and Moniligastridae [Drowida nepalensis Michaelsen, Drawida papillifer papillifer Stephenson], one species each to Glossoscolecidae [Pontoscolex corethrurus (Muller)] and Ocnerodrilidae [Gordiodrilus elegans Beddard]. Exotic species P corethrurus, M. houlleti and native peregrine species like D. nepolensis and D. papillifer papillifer were distributed in all the age groups of plantation, while other species showed restricted distribution. P. corethrurus contributed more than 60% biomass and 70% density of earthworm communities in rubber plantation. With aging of rubber plantations both the densities and biomasses of earthworms increased. High contents of polyphenol, flavonoid and lignin in the litters of 3 and 10 year-old-rubber plantations through their effects on food intake, probably resulted to low biomass values of earthworms in those age groups of plantation. With further increase in the age of plantations beyond 10 years, polyphenol, flavonoid and lignin contents decreased. Accordingly the biomass of earthworms increased with increase in the age of plantation. Soil moisture increased with increase in the age of plantation and there was a good positive correlation between soil moisture and earthworm biomass (p < 0.01). Density, biomass and dominance of earthworms increased while species diversity, species richness and species evenness of earthworm community were decreased with increase in the age of rubber plantation.

Chaudhuri PS; Bhattacharjee S; Dey A; Chattopadhyay S; Bhattacharya D

2013-01-01

349

Effect of mulch quality on earthworm activity and nutrient supply in the humid tropics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An experiment was conducted in 1990 and 1991 at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria to study the role of earthworms in the decomposition of plant residue mulches with different qualities. Five mulches of Dactyladenia barteri, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala prunings, maize (Zea mays) stover and rice (Oryza sativa) straw, which had a wide range of C-to-N ratio, lignin and polyphenol concentrations were studied. Based on their chemical compositions, Dactyladenia prunings were defined as low-quality mulch, Leucaena and Gliricidia prunings as high quality-mulches, and maize stover and rice straw as intermediate-quality mulches. The mean density of earthworms (Hyperiodrilus africanus and Eudrilus eugeniae) in the experimental plots decreased in the following order: high quality> intermediate quality> low quality mulches. High quality mulch (Leucaena and Gliricidia prunings) supported 54% higher earthworm populations than the (no mulch) control, whereas low-quality mulch (Daclyladenki prunings) only increased earthworm density by 15%, compared to the control in 1990. Plots with Leucaena and Gliricidia prunings had the highest earthworm populations at the initial stage of the experiment, while the other treatments showed increased earthworm numbers at a later stage. Effects of earthworms on mulch decomposition were examined in the field in large pots with or without earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae). The effects of earthworms were more pronounced for Dactyladenia prunings (low quality), than for Leucaena and Gliricidia prunings (high quality). The results indicate that manipulation of earthworm activity with application of high-and low-quality mulches may improve the synchronization of soil nutrient supply and crop nutrient demand.

Tian G; Kang BT; Brussaard L

1997-04-01

350

Impact of age of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation on earthworm communities of West Tripura (India).  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparative analysis of earthworm communities was carried out in the rubber plantations (Hevea brasiliensis) of different age groups in West Tripura to understand the impact of such exotic and monoculture plantation in biodiversity conservation. Earthworm communities were studied on monthly basis over a period of one year (2006-2007) in the 3, 10, 14, 20 and 25 year-old plantations. Among twelve earthworm species collected from the studied sites, six species belonged to Octochaetidae [Eutyphoeus assomensis Stephenson, Eutyphoeus comillahnus Michaelsen, Lennogaster chittagongensis (Stephensen), Octochaetona beatrix Gates, Dichogaster offinis Michaelsen, Lennogaster yeicus (Stephensen)], two species each to Megascolecidae [Metaphire houlleti (Perrier), Konchurio sp. 1] and Moniligastridae [Drowida nepalensis Michaelsen, Drawida papillifer papillifer Stephenson], one species each to Glossoscolecidae [Pontoscolex corethrurus (Muller)] and Ocnerodrilidae [Gordiodrilus elegans Beddard]. Exotic species P corethrurus, M. houlleti and native peregrine species like D. nepolensis and D. papillifer papillifer were distributed in all the age groups of plantation, while other species showed restricted distribution. P. corethrurus contributed more than 60% biomass and 70% density of earthworm communities in rubber plantation. With aging of rubber plantations both the densities and biomasses of earthworms increased. High contents of polyphenol, flavonoid and lignin in the litters of 3 and 10 year-old-rubber plantations through their effects on food intake, probably resulted to low biomass values of earthworms in those age groups of plantation. With further increase in the age of plantations beyond 10 years, polyphenol, flavonoid and lignin contents decreased. Accordingly the biomass of earthworms increased with increase in the age of plantation. Soil moisture increased with increase in the age of plantation and there was a good positive correlation between soil moisture and earthworm biomass (p < 0.01). Density, biomass and dominance of earthworms increased while species diversity, species richness and species evenness of earthworm community were decreased with increase in the age of rubber plantation. PMID:24006808

Chaudhuri, P S; Bhattacharjee, Subhalaxmi; Dey, Animesh; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila; Bhattacharya, Dipto

2013-01-01

351

Earthworms influenced by reduced tillage, conventional tillage and energy forest in Swedish agricultural field experiments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We compared earthworm density, depth distribution and species composition in three soil cultivation experiments including the treatments ploughless tillage and mouldboard ploughing. Sampling was done in September 2005 and for one experiment also in 1994. By yearly sampling 1995-2005, earthworms in an energy forest of Salix viminalis were compared with those in an adjacent arable field. Sampling method was digging of soil blocks and hand sorting and formalin sampling in one cultivation experiment. Both methods were used in the energy forest and arable land comparison. In two soil cultivation experiments, highest abundances or biomass were found in ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was higher in the upper 10 cm, especially in the ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was significantly higher in the energy forest than in the arable field. Formalin sampling revealed c. 36% of the earthworm numbers found by digging in the energy forest and gave almost no earthworms in the arable field. In all treatments with soil cultivation, species living and feeding in the rhizosphere and soil dominated. One such species, Allolobophora chlorotica, was more abundant under mouldboard ploughing than ploughless tillage. Lumbricus terrestris, browsing on the surface and producing deep vertical burrows, was more common in the ploughless tillage. Species living and feeding close to the soil surface were almost only found in the energy forest, which had not been soil cultivated since 1984. The findings support earlier studies pointing out possibilities to encourage earthworms by reduced soil cultivation. This is one of the first published studies that followed earthworm populations in an energy forest plantation during several years. Explanation of earthworm reactions to management and environmental impacts should be done with consideration of the ecology of species or species groups. Earthworm sampling by formalin must always be interpreted with caution and calibrated by digging and hand-sorting sampling

Lagerloef, Jan (SLU, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)), Email: Jan.Lagerlof@ekol.slu.se; Paalsson, Olof; Arvidsson, Johan (SLU, Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

2012-03-15

352

Ice nucleation, propagation, and deep supercooling: the lost tribes of freezing studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Prior to the emphasis on the molecular biology of cold acclimation, a considerable amount of research was conducted on the processes of ice nucleation and deep supercooling. In many species, these two processes are critical to surviving episodes of freezing temperatures. Over the past two decades,...

353

Split-sample comparison of directional and liquid nitrogen vapour freezing method on post-thaw semen quality in white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum simum and Ceratotherium simum cottoni).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To increase the quality of cryopreserved sperm in white rhinoceros, the liquid nitrogen vapour (LN vapour) freezing and the multi-thermal gradient directional freezing methods were compared. Sixteen white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum sp.) were electro-ejaculated. Semen samples were diluted with cryoextender (Tris, lactose, egg-yolk, DMSO) and aliquoted into straws for LN vapour freezing, and glass hollow tubes for directional freezing. The sperm quality was evaluated before and after freezing by assessing the following parameters: motility, morphologic state, acrosomal integrity and plasma membrane function and integrity (i.e. sperm viability) as defined by the hypo-osmotic swelling. Directional freezing improved the sperm viability by 5.6% (p<0.005), progressive motility score by 34.7% and sperm motility index (SMI) by 8.1% (p<0.005) versus LN vapour freezing. When data was categorized into groups of low (<19%), moderate (20-39%) and high (>40%) percentages of morphologically normal, directional freezing (DF) resulted in 31.4% less abnormal acrosomes for the low quality group as well as 18.7% increase in intact acrosomes and 10.9% increase in motility for the high quality group compared to LN vapour freezing (LN) (p<0.01, p<0.03, p<0.01, respectively). LN showed a significant reduction in sperm head volume (5.7%, p<0.05) compared to the prefreeze; whereas, no significant reduction in head volume was demonstrated after DF. Several additives (xanthenuric acid, cytochalasin D, potassium, EDTA) to the basic cryoextender provided no significant improvement in spermatozoal survival after directional freezing. In conclusion, directional freezing proved to facilitate higher gamete survival compared to LN vapour freezing. This is especially effective in ejaculates of low sperm quality and is important in endangered species where high quality semen donors are often not accessible. These results suggest that directional freezing could be valuable particularly for species with limited freezability of spermatozoa.

Reid CE; Hermes R; Blottner S; Goeritz F; Wibbelt G; Walzer C; Bryant BR; Portas TJ; Streich WJ; Hildebrandt TB

2009-01-01

354

Comparison of heavy-metal uptake by Eisenia foetida with that of other common earthworms. Final technical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Earthworms have been used in the field to indicate levels of soil pollution and in the laboratory for the ecotoxicological testing of industrial chemicals. An earthworm bioassay procedure developed at the Waterways Experiment Station (Vicksburg, Mississippi) was modified and evaluated as a method of providing information on heavy-metal bioavailability in contaminated soils and sediments from Europe. Eight soils/sediments containing elevated levels of a least one of the elements Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb were selected as well as a control and a reference soil. Six species of earthworm, including the WES bioassay earthworm E. foetida, and five field species were grown in the soils/sediments for periods of 15, 28 or 56 days. Concentrations of the elements Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb present in the earthworm samples (corrected for the presence of soil-derived metals within the earthworm gut) were compared between earthworm species from the same soil and for each earthworm species from a range of metal contaminated soils/sediments. A close linear relationship between metal uptake by E.foetida and the field species of earthworm emerged and good correlation between total (HNO3/HC104) soil Pb and Cd levels and earthworm tissue concentrations and between DTPA extractable soil Cu and Cc levels and earthworm tissue concentrations was observed.

Stafford, E.A.; Edwards, C.A.

1986-01-01

355

Abscisic acid induced freezing tolerance in chilling-sensitive suspension cultures and seedlings of rice  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The role of abscisic acid (ABA) as a possible activator of cold acclimation process was postulated since endogenous levels of ABA increase temporarily or constitutively during cold-hardening. Exogenous application of ABA has been known to induce freezing tolerance at ambient temperatures in in vitro systems derived from cold hardy plants. Yet, some cell cultures acquired much greater freezing tolerance by ABA than by cold whilst maintaining active growth. This raises questions about the relationships among ABA, cold acclimation and growth cessation. To address this question, we attempted to 1) determine whether exogenous ABA can confer freezing tolerance in chilling-sensitive rice suspension cells and seedlings, which obviously lack the mechanisms to acquire freezing tolerance in response to cold; 2) characterize this phenomenon by optimizing the conditions and compare with the case of cold hardy bromegrass cells. Results Non-embryogenic suspension cells of rice suffered serious chilling injury when exposed to 4°C. When incubated with ABA at the optimal conditions (0.5-1 g cell inoculum, 75 ?M ABA, 25-30°C, 7–10 days), they survived slow freezing (2°C/h) to ?9.0?~??9.3°C (LT50: 50% killing temperature) while control cells were mostly injured at ?3°C (LT50: -0.5?~??1.5°C). Ice-inoculation of the cell suspension at ?3°C and survival determination by regrowth confirmed that ABA-treated rice cells survived extracellular freezing at ?9°C. ABA-induced freezing tolerance did not require any exposure to cold and was best achieved at 25-30°C where the rice cells maintained high growth even in the presence of ABA. ABA treatment also increased tolerance to heat (43°C) as determined by regrowth. ABA-treated cells tended to have more augmented cytoplasm and/or reduced vacuole sizes compared to control cultures with a concomitant increase in osmolarity and a decrease in water content. ABA-treated (2–7 days) in vitro grown seedlings and their leaves survived slow freezing to ?3°C with only marginal injury (LT50: -4°C) whereas untreated seedlings were killed at ?3°C (LT50: -2°C). Conclusions The results indicate that exogenous ABA can induce some levels of freezing tolerance in chilling-sensitive rice cells and seedlings, probably by eliciting mechanisms different from low temperature-induced cold acclimation.

2013-01-01

356

Freezing Transition of Compact Polyampholytes  

CERN Multimedia

Polyampholytes (PAs) are heteropolymers with long range Coulomb interactions. Unlike polymers with short range forces, PA energy levels have non-vanishing correlations and are thus very different from the Random Energy Model (REM). Nevertheless, if charges in the PA globule are screened as in a regular plasma, PAs freeze in REM fashion. Our results shed light on the potential role of Coulomb interactions in folding and evolution of {\\it proteins}, which are weakly charged PAs, in particular making connection with the finding that sequences of charged amino acids in proteins are not random.

Pande, V S; Joerg, C; Kardar, M; Tanaka, T; Pande, Vijay S.; Grosberg, Alexander Yu.; Joerg, Chris; Kardar, Mehran; Tanaka, Toyoichi

1996-01-01

357

[Social egg freezing: Which problems?].  

Science.gov (United States)

In today's society, many women push pregnancy further away from the "right" childbearing age. Assisted reproduction, except egg donation, is unable to fully overcome the effect of age on fertility loss. The effectiveness of oocyte vitrification is demonstrated, and oocyte vitrification is allowed in the French Bioethics law of 2011. In the French law, oocyte' s cryopreservation is proposed to oocyte donors without child. Social egg freezing for non-medical reason is already legal in some countries, but leads to new debates and discussions. PMID:23972923

Belaisch-Allart, J; Brzakowski, M; Chouraqui, A; Grefenstette, I; Mayenga, J-M; Muller, E; Belaid, Y; Kulski, O

2013-08-21

358

Mechanism of freeze-drying drug nanosuspensions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drug nanoparticles prepared in a liquid medium are commonly freeze-dried for the preparation of an oral dosage in solid dosage form. The freezing rate is known to be a critical parameter for redispersible nanoformulations. However, there has been controversy as to whether a fast or slow freezing rate prevents irreversible aggregation. A systematic investigation is presented herein regarding the effect of both the molecular weight of the cryoprotectant and the freezing rate in order to elucidate the mechanism underlying irreversible aggregation. It was found that irreversible aggregation occurred during drying rather than freezing, although a proper freezing rate is critical. A more homogeneous distribution of the cryoprotectant and drug nanoparticles led to more redispersible powders. Thus, keeping the local concentration distribution of the nanoparticles and cryoprotectant fixed during the freezing step plays a critical role in how the freezing rate affects the redispersibility. The kinetic approach of excluding the tendency of ice crystal growth permitted an explanation of the controversial results. This study will facilitate an in-depth understanding of the aggregation process of nanoparticles or proteins during freeze-drying. PMID:22877696

Chung, Nae-Oh; Lee, Min Kyung; Lee, Jonghwi

2012-08-07

359

Mechanism of freeze-drying drug nanosuspensions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Drug nanoparticles prepared in a liquid medium are commonly freeze-dried for the preparation of an oral dosage in solid dosage form. The freezing rate is known to be a critical parameter for redispersible nanoformulations. However, there has been controversy as to whether a fast or slow freezing rate prevents irreversible aggregation. A systematic investigation is presented herein regarding the effect of both the molecular weight of the cryoprotectant and the freezing rate in order to elucidate the mechanism underlying irreversible aggregation. It was found that irreversible aggregation occurred during drying rather than freezing, although a proper freezing rate is critical. A more homogeneous distribution of the cryoprotectant and drug nanoparticles led to more redispersible powders. Thus, keeping the local concentration distribution of the nanoparticles and cryoprotectant fixed during the freezing step plays a critical role in how the freezing rate affects the redispersibility. The kinetic approach of excluding the tendency of ice crystal growth permitted an explanation of the controversial results. This study will facilitate an in-depth understanding of the aggregation process of nanoparticles or proteins during freeze-drying.

Chung NO; Lee MK; Lee J

2012-11-01

360

Method for producing sliced type freezing beverage  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a method for preparing sheet-like freeze beverage. Said beverage comprises more than two freezing layers, and each layer comprises more than one freezing unit. At least two of said freezing units are different from color and/ or taste, the taste is in relevant with color, and the position distribution for different color is different, so each surface of the product is like artistic with colorful unit grid. Said beverage is shaped after several cutting and overlapping process in line of hitch of tunnel. The product is packed with transparent tray or something like that, and becomes more attractive to consumers.

HONGRUI WEN; CHONG ZHANG; XIAOQING GU; GUILIN CAI; LEKAI WANG; JINGGANG REN

 
 
 
 
361

When hot water freezes before cold  

CERN Multimedia

I suggest that the origin of the Mpemba effect (the freezing of hot water before cold) is freezing-point depression by solutes, either gaseous or solid, whose solubility decreases with increasing temperature so that they are removed when water is heated. They are concentrated ahead of the freezing front by zone refining in water that has not been heated, reduce the temperature of the freezing front, and thereby reduce the temperature gradient and heat flux, slowing the progress of the front. I present a simple calculation of this effect, and suggest experiments to test this hypothesis.

Katz, J I

2006-01-01

362

Calcium-lead interactions involving earthworms. Part 1: The effect of exogenous calcium on lead accumulation by earthworms under field and laboratory conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrodrilus rubidus) were collected from several acidic and calcareous abandoned ferrous metalliferous mine sites. Tissue lead concentrations were substantially lower than the total soil lead concentrations, except at one site (Cwmystwyth) where the tissue lead concentrations of both species were approximately 5 to 10 times higher than that of the soil. Soil lead was the major factor in determining the tissue lead concentration, although it was demonstrated that both soil pH and soil calcium concentration could markedly increase the % variance in tissue lead concentration. These findings help explain the apparent anomaly in tissue lead concentrations of earthworms from Cwmystwyth, where the soil is acidic and has exceptionally low calcium concentrations. Soil-liming experiments provided supportive evidence that soil pH, coupled with soil calcium, influences lead accumulation by earthworms, but a filter paper feeding experiment provided unequivocal evidence that soil calcium concentration alone can influence lead accumulation by earthworms. It is concluded that, although lead accumulation by earthworms is influenced by both physico-chemical and biochemical mechanisms, the latter over-rides the former, i.e. soil calcium is more important factor in determining the accumulation of lead earthworms than is soil pH. PMID:15092534

Morgan, J E; Morgan, A J

1988-01-01

363

Calcium-lead interactions involving earthworms. Part 1: The effect of exogenous calcium on lead accumulation by earthworms under field and laboratory conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrodrilus rubidus) were collected from several acidic and calcareous abandoned ferrous metalliferous mine sites. Tissue lead concentrations were substantially lower than the total soil lead concentrations, except at one site (Cwmystwyth) where the tissue lead concentrations of both species were approximately 5 to 10 times higher than that of the soil. Soil lead was the major factor in determining the tissue lead concentration, although it was demonstrated that both soil pH and soil calcium concentration could markedly increase the % variance in tissue lead concentration. These findings help explain the apparent anomaly in tissue lead concentrations of earthworms from Cwmystwyth, where the soil is acidic and has exceptionally low calcium concentrations. Soil-liming experiments provided supportive evidence that soil pH, coupled with soil calcium, influences lead accumulation by earthworms, but a filter paper feeding experiment provided unequivocal evidence that soil calcium concentration alone can influence lead accumulation by earthworms. It is concluded that, although lead accumulation by earthworms is influenced by both physico-chemical and biochemical mechanisms, the latter over-rides the former, i.e. soil calcium is more important factor in determining the accumulation of lead earthworms than is soil pH.

Morgan JE; Morgan AJ

1988-01-01

364

Elemental and mineralogical changes in soils due to bioturbation along an earthworm invasion chronosequence in Northern Minnesota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Minnesota forested soils have evolved without the presence of earthworms since the last glacial retreat. When exotic earthworms arrive, enhanced soil bioturbation often results in dramatic morphological and chemical changes in soils with negative implications for the forests' sustainability. However, the impacts of earthworm invasion on geochemical processes in soils are not well understood. This study attempts to quantify the role of earthworm invasion in mineral chemical weathering and nutrient dynamics along an earthworm invasion chronosequence in a sugar maple forest in Northern Minnesota. Depth and rates of soil mixing can be tracked with atmospherically derived short lived radioisotopes 210Pb and 137Cs. Their radioactivities increase in the lower A horizon at the expense of the peak activities near the soil surface, which indicate that soil mixing rate and its depth reach have been enhanced by earthworms. Enhanced soil mixing by earthworms is consistent with the ways that the vertical profiles of elemental and mineralogical compositions were affected by earthworm invasion. Biologically cycled Ca and P have peak concentrations near the soil surface prior to earthworm invasion. However, these peak abundances significantly declined in the earthworm invaded soils presumably due to enhanced soil mixing. It is clear that enhanced soil mixing due to earthworms also profoundly altered the vertical distribution of most mineral species within A horizons. Though the mechanisms are not clear yet, earthworm invasion appears to have contributed to net losses of clay mineral species and opal from the A horizons. As much as earthworms vertically relocated minerals and elements, they also intensify the contacts between organic matter and cations as shown in the increased amount of Ca and Fe in organically complexed and in exchangeable pools. With future studies on soil mixing rates and elemental leaching, this study will quantitatively and mechanically address the role of earthworms in geochemical evolution of soils and forests' nutrient dynamics.

2011-01-01

365

Herbivory of an invasive slug is affected by earthworms and the composition of plant communities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Biodiversity loss and species invasions are among the most important human-induced global changes. Moreover, these two processes are interlinked as ecosystem invasibility is considered to increase with decreasing biodiversity. In temperate grasslands, earthworms serve as important ecosystem engineers making up the majority of soil faunal biomass. Herbivore behaviour has been shown to be affected by earthworms, however it is unclear whether these effects differ with the composition of plant communities. To test this we conducted a mesocosm experiment where we added earthworms (Annelida: Lumbricidae) to planted grassland communities with different plant species composition (3 vs. 12 plant spp.). Plant communities had equal plant densities and ratios of the functional groups grasses, non-leguminous forbs and legumes. Later, Arion vulgaris slugs (formerly known as A. lusitanicus; Gastropoda: Arionidae) were added and allowed to freely choose among the available plant species. This slug species is listed among the 100 worst alien species in Europe. We hypothesized that (i) the food choice of slugs would be altered by earthworms' specific effects on the growth and nutrient content of plant species, (ii) slug herbivory will be less affected by earthworms in plant communities containing more plant species than in those with fewer plant species because of a more readily utilization of plant resources making the impacts of earthworms less pronounced. RESULTS: Slug herbivory was significantly affected by both earthworms and plant species composition. Slugs damaged 60% less leaves when earthworms were present, regardless of the species composition of the plant communities. Percent leaf area consumed by slugs was 40% lower in communities containing 12 plant species; in communities containing only three species earthworms increased slug leaf area consumption. Grasses were generally avoided by slugs. Leaf length and number of tillers was increased in mesocosms containing more plant species but little influenced by earthworms. Overall shoot biomass was decreased, root biomass increased in plant communities with more plant species. Earthworms decreased total shoot biomass in mesocosms with more plant species but did not affect biomass production of individual functional groups. Plant nitrogen concentrations across three focus species were 18% higher when earthworms were present; composition of plant communities did not affect plant quality. CONCLUSIONS: Given the important role that both herbivores and earthworms play in structuring plant communities the implications of belowground-aboveground linkages should more broadly be considered when investigating global change effects on ecosystems.

Zaller JG; Parth M; Szunyogh I; Semmelrock I; Sochurek S; Pinheiro M; Frank T; Drapela T

2013-01-01

366

Shock freezing berries. Effective freezing with liquid nitrogen; Beeren unter Frostschock. Tiefgefrieren mit Fluessigstickstoff  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sensitive foods such as fruit do not freeze well at regular sub-zero temperatures. Quick freezing at extremely low temperatures is the only way of ensuring that high-value foodstuffs retain their shape and taste. Linde supplies cryogenic gases for deep freezing and also a broad portfolio of dedicated freezers. (orig.)

Anon.

2011-07-01

367

Vacuolar membrane lesions induced by a freeze-thaw cycle in protoplasts isolated from deacclimated tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

The processes of freezing injury in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers were studied using protoplasts isolated from cold-acclimated and deacclimated tubers. Prior to freezing, protoplasts were preloaded with 10 microM fluorescein diacetate (FDA) in an isotonic sorbitol solution. After freeze-thawing at various temperatures, cell viability was evaluated under a fluorescence microscope. In cold-acclimated tubers, more than 80% of protoplasts survived freezing to -20 degrees C. By contrast, in deacclimated tubers, the cell survival abruptly declined after freezing to temperatures below -5 degrees C. Thus, freezing tolerance differed significantly between protoplasts isolated from cold-acclimated and deacclimated tubers. Two distinct types of cell injury, which were caused by either damage to plasma membrane (cell-lysis type) or by damage to the vacuolar membrane (abnormal-staining type), were observed, depending on the cold hardiness and freezing temperature. In the cells of the abnormal-staining type, shrinkage of the central vacuolar space and simultaneous acidification of the cytoplasmic space were characteristically observed immediately before complete cell-rehydration during thawing. The decrease in freezing tolerance of protoplasts after deacclimation was suggested to be due mainly to destabilization of the vacuolar membrane by freeze-induced dehydration stress. PMID:9517005

Murai, M; Yoshida, S

1998-01-01

368

Vacuolar membrane lesions induced by a freeze-thaw cycle in protoplasts isolated from deacclimated tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The processes of freezing injury in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers were studied using protoplasts isolated from cold-acclimated and deacclimated tubers. Prior to freezing, protoplasts were preloaded with 10 microM fluorescein diacetate (FDA) in an isotonic sorbitol solution. After freeze-thawing at various temperatures, cell viability was evaluated under a fluorescence microscope. In cold-acclimated tubers, more than 80% of protoplasts survived freezing to -20 degrees C. By contrast, in deacclimated tubers, the cell survival abruptly declined after freezing to temperatures below -5 degrees C. Thus, freezing tolerance differed significantly between protoplasts isolated from cold-acclimated and deacclimated tubers. Two distinct types of cell injury, which were caused by either damage to plasma membrane (cell-lysis type) or by damage to the vacuolar membrane (abnormal-staining type), were observed, depending on the cold hardiness and freezing temperature. In the cells of the abnormal-staining type, shrinkage of the central vacuolar space and simultaneous acidification of the cytoplasmic space were characteristically observed immediately before complete cell-rehydration during thawing. The decrease in freezing tolerance of protoplasts after deacclimation was suggested to be due mainly to destabilization of the vacuolar membrane by freeze-induced dehydration stress.

Murai M; Yoshida S

1998-01-01

369

Stability evaluation of freeze-dried Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in oral capsules.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Freeze-drying is a common preservation technology in the pharmaceutical industry. Various studies have investigated the effect of different cryoprotectants on probiotics during freeze-drying. However, information on the effect of cryoprotectants on the stability of some Lactobacillus strains during freeze-drying seems scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish production methods for preparation of oral capsule probiotics containing Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus. It was also of interest to examine the effect of various formulations of cryoprotectant media containing skim milk, trehalose and sodium ascorbate on the survival rate of probiotic bacteria during freeze-drying at various storage temperatures. Without any cryoprotectant, few numbers of microorganisms survived. However, microorganisms tested maintained higher viability after freeze-drying in media containing at least one of the cryoprotectants. Use of skim milk in water resulted in an increased viability after lyophilization. Media with a combination of trehalose and skim milk maintained a higher percentage of live microorganisms, up to 82%. In general, bacteria retained a higher number of viable cells in capsules containing freeze-dried bacteria with sodium ascorbate after three months of storage. After this period, a marked decline was observed in all samples stored at 23°C compared to those stored at 4°C. The maximum survival rate (about 72-76%) was observed with media containing 6% skim milk, 8% trehalose and 4% sodium ascorbate.

Jalali M; Abedi D; Varshosaz J; Najjarzadeh M; Mirlohi M; Tavakoli N

2012-01-01

370

Stability evaluation of freeze-dried Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in oral capsules.  

Science.gov (United States)

Freeze-drying is a common preservation technology in the pharmaceutical industry. Various studies have investigated the effect of different cryoprotectants on probiotics during freeze-drying. However, information on the effect of cryoprotectants on the stability of some Lactobacillus strains during freeze-drying seems scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish production methods for preparation of oral capsule probiotics containing Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus. It was also of interest to examine the effect of various formulations of cryoprotectant media containing skim milk, trehalose and sodium ascorbate on the survival rate of probiotic bacteria during freeze-drying at various storage temperatures. Without any cryoprotectant, few numbers of microorganisms survived. However, microorganisms tested maintained higher viability after freeze-drying in media containing at least one of the cryoprotectants. Use of skim milk in water resulted in an increased viability after lyophilization. Media with a combination of trehalose and skim milk maintained a higher percentage of live microorganisms, up to 82%. In general, bacteria retained a higher number of viable cells in capsules containing freeze-dried bacteria with sodium ascorbate after three months of storage. After this period, a marked decline was observed in all samples stored at 23°C compared to those stored at 4°C. The maximum survival rate (about 72-76%) was observed with media containing 6% skim milk, 8% trehalose and 4% sodium ascorbate. PMID:23181077

Jalali, M; Abedi, D; Varshosaz, J; Najjarzadeh, M; Mirlohi, M; Tavakoli, N

2012-01-01

371

Drought increases freezing tolerance of both leaves and xylem of Larrea tridentata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Drought and freezing are both known to limit desert plant distributions, but the interaction of these stressors is poorly understood. Drought may increase freezing tolerance in leaves while decreasing it in the xylem, potentially creating a mismatch between water supply and demand. To test this hypothesis, we subjected Larrea tridentata juveniles grown in a greenhouse under well-watered or drought conditions to minimum temperatures ranging from -8 to -24 °C. We measured survival, leaf retention, gas exchange, cell death, freezing point depression and leaf-specific xylem hydraulic conductance (k?). Drought-exposed plants exhibited smaller decreases in gas exchange after exposure to -8 °C compared to well-watered plants. Drought also conferred a significant positive effect on leaf, xylem and whole-plant function following exposure to -15 °C; drought-exposed plants exhibited less cell death, greater leaf retention, higher k? and higher rates of gas exchange than well-watered plants. Both drought-exposed and well-watered plants experienced 100% mortality following exposure to -24 °C. By documenting the combined effects of drought and freezing stress, our data provide insight into the mechanisms determining plant survival and performance following freezing and the potential for shifts in L. tridentata abundance and range in the face of changing temperature and precipitation regimes.

Medeiros JS; Pockman WT

2011-01-01

372

Cross-tolerance between osmotic and freeze-thaw stress in microbial assemblages from temperate lakes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osmotic stress can accompany increases in solute concentrations because of freezing or high-salt environments. Consequently, microorganisms from environments with a high-osmotic potential may exhibit cross-tolerance to freeze stress. To test this hypothesis, enrichments derived from the sediment and water of temperate lakes with a range of salt concentrations were subjected to multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Surviving isolates were identified and metagenomes were sampled prior to and following selection. Enrichments from alkali lakes were typically the most freeze-thaw resistant with only 100-fold losses in cell viability, and those from freshwater lakes were most susceptible, with cell numbers reduced at least 100,000-fold. Metagenomic analysis suggested that selection reduced assemblage diversity more in freshwater samples than in those from saline lakes. Survivors included known psychro-, halo- and alkali-tolerant bacteria. Characterization of freeze-thaw-resistant isolates from brine and alkali lakes showed that few isolates had ice-associating activities such as antifreeze or ice nucleation properties. However, all brine- and alkali-derived isolates had high intracellular levels of osmolytes and/or appeared more likely to form biofilms. Conversely, these phenotypes were infrequent amongst the freshwater-derived isolates. These observations are consistent with microbial cross-tolerance between osmotic and freeze-thaw stresses. PMID:22551442

Wilson, Sandra L; Frazer, Corey; Cumming, Brian F; Nuin, Paulo A S; Walker, Virginia K

2012-06-13

373

Cross-tolerance between osmotic and freeze-thaw stress in microbial assemblages from temperate lakes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Osmotic stress can accompany increases in solute concentrations because of freezing or high-salt environments. Consequently, microorganisms from environments with a high-osmotic potential may exhibit cross-tolerance to freeze stress. To test this hypothesis, enrichments derived from the sediment and water of temperate lakes with a range of salt concentrations were subjected to multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Surviving isolates were identified and metagenomes were sampled prior to and following selection. Enrichments from alkali lakes were typically the most freeze-thaw resistant with only 100-fold losses in cell viability, and those from freshwater lakes were most susceptible, with cell numbers reduced at least 100,000-fold. Metagenomic analysis suggested that selection reduced assemblage diversity more in freshwater samples than in those from saline lakes. Survivors included known psychro-, halo- and alkali-tolerant bacteria. Characterization of freeze-thaw-resistant isolates from brine and alkali lakes showed that few isolates had ice-associating activities such as antifreeze or ice nucleation properties. However, all brine- and alkali-derived isolates had high intracellular levels of osmolytes and/or appeared more likely to form biofilms. Conversely, these phenotypes were infrequent amongst the freshwater-derived isolates. These observations are consistent with microbial cross-tolerance between osmotic and freeze-thaw stresses.

Wilson SL; Frazer C; Cumming BF; Nuin PA; Walker VK

2012-11-01

374

Earthworms Use Odor Cues to Locate and Feed on Microorganisms in Soil  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworms are key components of temperate soil ecosystems but key aspects of their ecology remain unexamined. Here we elucidate the role of olfactory cues in earthworm attraction to food sources and document specific chemical cues that attract Eisenia fetida to the soil fungi Geotrichum candidum. Fungi and other microorganisms are major sources of volatile emissions in soil ecosystems as well as primary food sources for earthworms, suggesting the likelihood that earthworms might profitably use olfactory cues to guide foraging behavior. Moreover, previous studies have documented earthworm movement toward microbial food sources. But, the specific olfactory cues responsible for earthworm attraction have not previously been identified. Using olfactometer assays combined with chemical analyses (GC-MS), we documented the attraction of E. fetida individuals to filtrate derived from G. candidum colonies and to two individual compounds tested in isolation: ethyl pentanoate and ethyl hexanoate. Attraction at a distance was observed when barriers prevented the worms from reaching the target stimuli, confirming the role of volatile cues. These findings enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying key trophic interactions in soil ecosystems and have potential implications for the extraction and collection of earthworms in vermiculture and other applied activities.

Zirbes, Lara; Mescher, Mark; Vrancken, Veronique; Wathelet, Jean-Paul; Verheggen, Francois J.; Thonart, Philippe; Haubruge, Eric

2011-01-01

375

Earthworms use odor cues to locate and feed on microorganisms in soil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Earthworms are key components of temperate soil ecosystems but key aspects of their ecology remain unexamined. Here we elucidate the role of olfactory cues in earthworm attraction to food sources and document specific chemical cues that attract Eisenia fetida to the soil fungi Geotrichum candidum. Fungi and other microorganisms are major sources of volatile emissions in soil ecosystems as well as primary food sources for earthworms, suggesting the likelihood that earthworms might profitably use olfactory cues to guide foraging behavior. Moreover, previous studies have documented earthworm movement toward microbial food sources. But, the specific olfactory cues responsible for earthworm attraction have not previously been identified. Using olfactometer assays combined with chemical analyses (GC-MS), we documented the attraction of E. fetida individuals to filtrate derived from G. candidum colonies and to two individual compounds tested in isolation: ethyl pentanoate and ethyl hexanoate. Attraction at a distance was observed when barriers prevented the worms from reaching the target stimuli, confirming the role of volatile cues. These findings enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying key trophic interactions in soil ecosystems and have potential implications for the extraction and collection of earthworms in vermiculture and other applied activities.

Zirbes L; Mescher M; Vrancken V; Wathelet JP; Verheggen FJ; Thonart P; Haubruge E

2011-01-01

376

Earthworms use odor cues to locate and feed on microorganisms in soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworms are key components of temperate soil ecosystems but key aspects of their ecology remain unexamined. Here we elucidate the role of olfactory cues in earthworm attraction to food sources and document specific chemical cues that attract Eisenia fetida to the soil fungi Geotrichum candidum. Fungi and other microorganisms are major sources of volatile emissions in soil ecosystems as well as primary food sources for earthworms, suggesting the likelihood that earthworms might profitably use olfactory cues to guide foraging behavior. Moreover, previous studies have documented earthworm movement toward microbial food sources. But, the specific olfactory cues responsible for earthworm attraction have not previously been identified. Using olfactometer assays combined with chemical analyses (GC-MS), we documented the attraction of E. fetida individuals to filtrate derived from G. candidum colonies and to two individual compounds tested in isolation: ethyl pentanoate and ethyl hexanoate. Attraction at a distance was observed when barriers prevented the worms from reaching the target stimuli, confirming the role of volatile cues. These findings enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying key trophic interactions in soil ecosystems and have potential implications for the extraction and collection of earthworms in vermiculture and other applied activities. PMID:21799756

Zirbes, Lara; Mescher, Mark; Vrancken, Véronique; Wathelet, Jean-Paul; Verheggen, François J; Thonart, Philippe; Haubruge, Eric

2011-07-20

377

Impact of earthworms on trace element solubility in contaminated mine soils amended with green waste compost  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The common practice of remediating metal contaminated mine soils with compost can reduce metal mobility and promote revegetation, but the effect of introduced or colonising earthworms on metal solubility is largely unknown. We amended soils from an As/Cu (1150 mgAs kg{sup -1} and 362 mgCu kg{sup -1}) and Pb/Zn mine (4550 mgPb kg{sup -1} and 908 mgZn kg{sup -1}) with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% compost and then introduced Lumbricus terrestris. Porewater was sampled and soil extracted with water to determine trace element solubility, pH and soluble organic carbon. Compost reduced Cu, Pb and Zn, but increased As solubility. Earthworms decreased water soluble Cu and As but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. The effect of the earthworms decreased with increasing compost amendment. The impact of the compost and the earthworms on metal solubility is explained by their effect on pH and soluble organic carbon and the environmental chemistry of each element. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Compost reduced the mobility of Cu, Pb and Zn. > Compost increased the mobility of As. > Earthworms decreased water soluble As and Cu but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. > These effects are explained by the impact of the earthworms and compost on pH and DOC. - The effect of earthworms on metal solubility was due to changes in dissolved organic carbon and pH but was reduced with increasing compost amendments.

Sizmur, Tom, E-mail: t.p.sizmur@reading.ac.uk [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Palumbo-Roe, Barbara [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E. [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

2011-07-15

378

Effects of heavy metals on the litter consumption by the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus in field soils  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim of this study was to determine effects of heavy metals on litter consumption by the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus in National Park the "Brabantsche Biesbosch", the Netherlands. Adult L. rubellus were collected from 12 polluted and from one unpolluted field site. Earthworms collected at the unpolluted site were kept in their native soil and in soil from each of the 12 Biesbosch sites. Earthworms collected in the Biesbosch were kept in their native soils. Non-polluted poplar (Populus sp.) litter was offered as a food source and litter consumption and earthworm biomass were determined after 54 days. Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations were determined in soil, pore water and 0.01 M CaCl2 extracts of the soil and in earthworms. In spite of low available metal concentrations in the polluted soils, Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations in L. rubellus were increased. The litter consumption rate per biomass was positively related to internal Cd and Zn concentrations of earthworms collected from the Biesbosch and kept in native soil. A possible explanation is an increased demand for energy, needed for the regulation and detoxification of heavy metals. Litter consumption per biomass of earthworms from the reference site and kept in the polluted Biesbosch soils, was not related to any of the determined soil characteristics and metal concentrations. ?? 2005 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

Hobbelen, P. H. F.; Koolhaas, J. E.; Van Gestel, C. A. M.

2006-01-01

379

Earthworms drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities in post-mining sites  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous field observations indicated that earthworms promote late-successional plant species and reduce collembolan numbers at post-mining sites in the Sokolov coal mining district (Czech Republic). Here, we established a laboratory pot experiment to test the effect of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm.) and litter of low, medium, and high quality (the grass Calamagrostis epigejos, the willow Salix caprea, and the alder Alnus glutinosa, respectively) on late successional plants (grasses Arrhenatherum elatius and Agrostis capillaris, legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium medium, and non-leguminous dicots Centaurea jacea and Plantago lanceolata) in spoil substrate originating from Sokolov post-mining sites and naturally inhabited by abundant numbers of Collembola. The earthworms increased plant biomass, especially that of the large-seeded A. elatius, but reduced the number of plant individuals, mainly that of the small-seeded A. capillaris and both legumes. Litter quality affected plant biomass, which was highest with S. caprea litter, but did not change the number of plant individuals. Litter quality did not modify the effect of earthworms on plants; the effect of litter quality and earthworms was only additive. Species composition of Collembola community was altered by litter quality, but earthworms reduced the number of individuals, increased the number of species, and increased species evenness consistently across the litter qualities. Because the results of this experiment were consistent with the field observations, we conclude that earthworms help drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities on post-mining sites.

Mudrák O; Uteseny K; Frouz J

2012-11-01

380

A review of studies performed to assess metal uptake by earthworms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Earthworms perform a number of essential functions in soil; the impacts of metals on earthworms are often investigated. In this review we consider the range of earthworm species, types of soil and forms of metal for which metal uptake and accumulation have been studied, the design of these experiments and the quantitative relationships that have been derived to predict earthworm metal body burden. We conclude that there is a need for more studies on earthworm species other than Eisenia fetida in order to apply the large existing database on this earthworm to other, soil dwelling species. To aid comparisons between studies agreement is needed on standard protocols that define exposure and depuration periods and the parameters, such as soil solution composition, soil chemical and physical properties to be measured. It is recommended that more field or terrestrial model ecosystem studies using real contaminated soil rather than metal-amended artificial soils are performed. - We review species, soil and experimental designs used to study metal uptake and accumulation by earthworms and suggest priorities for further studies.

Nahmani, Johanne [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Berkshire, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: j.y.nahmani@reading.ac.uk; Hodson, Mark E. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Berkshire, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: m.e.hodson@reading.ac.uk; Black, Stuart [Department of Archaeology, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Whiteknights, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

2007-01-15

 
 
 
 
381

The Role of Earthworms in Tropics with Emphasis on Indian Ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The paper highlights the research carried out by different scientists in India on aspects of earthworm population dynamics and species diversity, associated with other soil fauna and microflora. It also deals with the importance of earthworm activity on physicochemical properties of soil with reference to India and other tropical countries. Stress is laid on the earthworm plant association and importance of the secretions of earthworms as plant growth stimulators. Moreover, the earthworm species reported and being utilized for vermicomposting in India are discussed, since vermicomposting is the ultimate technology which renders for the improvement of soil fertility status and plant growth. Earthworms serve as indicators of soil status such as the level of contamination of pollutants: agrochemicals, heavy metals, toxic substances, and industrial effluents; human-induced activities: land-management practices and forest degradation. In all these fields there is lacuna with respect to contributions from India when compared to the available information from other tropical countries. There is lot of scope in the field of research on earthworms to unravel the importance of these major soil macro fauna from holistic ecological studies to the molecular level.

2010-01-01

382

A simple and effective method to keep earthworms confined to open-top mesocosms  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Earthworms can have a profound effect on a myriad of soil physical, chemical and microbial parameters. To better understand their role in the soil, they are often studied under controlled conditions. However, a persistent problem in such controlled experiments is the ability of earthworms to escape from experimental units with open tops (e.g. for plant growth). Here, we tested whether adhesive hook tape applied to the inside of mesocosms is effective in confining them to their experimental units. A mesocosm study was set up with hook tape treatments (control, one layer, two layers), mesocosm material (polyvinylchloride – PVC, polypropylene – PP) and earthworm species (Lumbricus rubellus (Hoffmeister), Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny), Lumbricus terrestris (L.)+Aporrectodea longa (Ude)) as different factors to study the escape of earthworms during 24h. In the treatments without hook tape, individuals of L. rubellus and A. caliginosa escaped, with highest escape rates (80%) for L. rubellus from the PP mesocosms, and lowest escape rates (20%) for A. caliginosa from the PVC mesocosms. When hook tape was applied, in either one or two layers, no individuals of those species escaped. The two anecic earthworm species, L. terrestris and A. longa did not escape from any mesocosms, irrespective of the presence of hook tape. As not a single earthworm escaped from the hook tape treatments, we conclude that applying hook tape is a simple, inexpensive and effective method to keep earthworms confined to experimental units.

Lubbers IM; van Groenigen JW

2013-02-01

383

Earthworm compound and rock biofertilizer enriched in nitrogen by inoculation with free living diazotrophic bacteria  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Free living diazotrophic bacteria are known to enrich nitrogen of organic matter sources. In this paper we report of experiments using rock biofertilizers mixed with two types of organic matter (earthworm compound and ice cream waste) inoculated with free living diazotrophic bacteria. The earthworm compound and P and K biofertilizers were mixed to form substrates S? (earthworm compound 3 dm³ + PK biofertilizer 1 dm³ and waste ice cream 1 dm³); S? (earthworm compound 2.5 dm³ + PK biofertilizer 1.5 dm³ and waste ice cream 1 dm³L) and S? earthworm compound 2.0 dm³ + PK biofertilizer 2.0 dm³ and waste ice cream 1 dm³), and subsequently inoculated (100 mL pot?¹) with 3 free living diazotrophic bacteria isolated from different Brazilian soils. The control was an uninoculated earthworm compound. Samples were collected at various incubation time (0; 15; 30 and 45 days) and analyzed for total N. Total N concentrations were highest in S?, S? and S? substrates at 34, 27 and 29 days, respectively. The isolate NFB 1001 increased total N in all substrates and the best results were obtained at 34 days in S? substrate which contained the highest amount of earthworm compound. The isolates promoted a decline in N content after 30 days of growth, indicating the best time to pro