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Sample records for earthworms survive freezing

  1. Can earthworms survive fire retardants?

    Beyer, W.N.; Olson, A.

    1996-01-01

    Most common fire retardants are foams or are similar to common agricultural fertilizers, such as ammonium sulfate and ammonium phosphate. Although fire retardants are widely applied to soils, we lack basic information about their toxicities to soil organisms. We measured the toxicity of five fire retardants (Firetrol LCG-R, Firetrol GTS-R, Silv-Ex Foam Concentrate, Phos-chek D-75, and Phos-chek WD-881) to earthworms using the pesticide toxicity test developed for earthworms by the European Economic Community. None was lethal at 1,000 ppm in the soil, which was suggested as a relatively high exposure under normal applications. We concluded that the fire retardants tested are relatively nontoxic to soil organisms compared with other environmental chemicals and that they probably do not reduce earthworm populations when applied under usual firefighting conditions.

  2. Freezing of body fluids induces metallothionein gene expression in earthworms (Dendrobaena octaedra).

    Fisker, Karina Vincents; Holmstrup, Martin; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms activated by environmental contaminants and natural stressors such as freezing need to be investigated in order to better understand the mechanisms of interaction and potential effects that combined stressors may have on organisms. Using the freeze-tolerant earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra as model species, we exposed worms to freezing and exposure to sublethal copper in a factorial design and investigated the transcription of candidate genes for metal and cold stress. We hypothesised that both freezing and copper would induce transcription of genes coding for heat shock proteins (hsp10 and hsp70), metallothioneins (mt1 and mt2), and glutathione-S-transferase (gst), and that the combined effects of these two stressors would be additive. The gene transcripts hsp10, hsp70, and gst were significantly upregulated by freezing, but only hsp10 was upregulated by copper. We found that copper at the time of sampling had no effect on transcription of two metallothionein genes whereas transcription was strongly upregulated by freezing. Moreover, there was a significant interaction causing more than additive transcription rates of mt1 in the copper/freezing treatment suggesting that freeze-induced cellular dehydration increases the concentration of free copper ions in the cytosol. This metallothionein response to freezing is likely adaptive and possibly provides protection against freeze-induced elevated metal concentrations in the cytosol and excess ROS levels due to hypoxia during freezing. PMID:26325206

  3. Hatchling turtles survive freezing during winter hibernation.

    K.B. Storey; J.M. Storey; Brooks, S. P.; Churchill, T A; Brooks, R J

    1988-01-01

    Hatchlings of the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta marginata) are unique as the only reptile and highest vertebrate life form known to tolerate the natural freezing of extracellular body fluids during winter hibernation. Turtles survived frequent exposures to temperatures as low as -6 degrees C to -8 degrees C in their shallow terrestrial nests over the 1987-1988 winter. Hatchlings collected in April 1988 had a mean supercooling point of -3.28 +/- 0.24 degrees C and survived 24 hr of freezing ...

  4. Dual roles of glucose in the freeze-tolerant earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra: cryoprotection and fuel for metabolism

    Calderon, Sofia; Holmstrup, Martin; Westh, Peter; Overgaard, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Ectothermic animals inhabiting the subarctic and temperate regions have evolved strategies to deal with periods of continuous frost during winter. The earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra is freeze tolerant and accumulates large concentrations of glucose upon freezing. The present study investigates th...

  5. Bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and survival of earthworms (Eisenia andrei) exposed to biochar amended soils.

    Malev, O; Contin, M; Licen, S; Barbieri, P; De Nobili, M

    2016-02-01

    Biochar has a charcoal polycyclic aromatic structure which allows its long half-life in soil, making it an ideal tool for C sequestration and for adsorption of organic pollutants, but at the same time raises concerns about possible adverse impacts on soil biota. Two biochars were tested under laboratory-controlled conditions on Eisenia andrei earthworms: a biochar produced at low temperature from wine tree cuttings (WTB) and a commercial low tar hardwood lump charcoal (HLB). The avoidance test (48-h exposure) showed that earthworms avoid biochar-treated soil with rates higher than 16 t ha(-1) for HLB and 64 t ha(-1) for WTB. After 42 days, toxic effects on earthworms were observed even at application rates (100 t ha(-1)) that are generally considered beneficial for most crops. The concentration of HLB and WTB required to kill half of earthworms' population (LC50; 95 % confidence limits) in the synthetic OECD soil was 338 and 580 t ha(-1), respectively. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in earthworms exposed to the two biochar types at 100 t ha(-1) was tested in two soils of different texture. In biochar-treated soils, the average earthworm survival rates were about 64 % in the sandy and 78 % clay-loam soils. PAH accumulation was larger in the sandy soil and largest in soils amended with HLB. PAH with less than four rings were preferentially scavenged from the soil by biochars, and this behaviour may mask that of the more dangerous components (i.e. four to five rings), which are preferentially accumulated. Earthworms can accumulate PAH as a consequence of exposure to biochar-treated soils and transfer them along the food chain. Soil type and biochar quality are both relevant in determining PAH transfer. PMID:26490928

  6. Survival of freeze-dried Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus

    Carvalho, A. Sofia; Silva, Joana; Ho, Peter; Teixeira, Paula; Malcata, F. Xavier; Gibbs, Paul

    2002-01-01

    No significant differences were observed in the viability of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus cells during freeze-drying in the presence or absence of inositol, sorbitol, fructose, trehalose, monosodium glutamate and propyl gallate. However, survival was higher during storage when drying took place in the presence of these compounds. Sorbitol produced more significant effects than the other compounds toward maintaining viability of freeze-dried L. plantarum and ...

  7. Survival, growth, detoxifying and antioxidative responses of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to soils with industrial DDT contamination.

    Shi, Yajuan; Zhang, Qiangbin; Huang, Dunqi; Zheng, Xiaoqi; Shi, Yajing

    2016-03-01

    The survival, growth, activity of the biotransformation system phase II enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and the oxidative defense enzyme catalase (CAT) of earthworms exposed to the contaminated soils from a former DDT plant and reference soils were investigated, and compared with the corresponding indicators in simulated soil-earthworm system, unpolluted natural soils with spiked-in DDT series, to identify the toxic effects of DDT on earthworms and their cellular defense system in complex soil system. The results indicated that DDT level in the contaminated soils was significantly higher than that in the reference soils with similar level of other pollutants and soil characters. The mortality, growth inhibition rates, GST and CST activities of earthworms exposed to the contaminated soils were significantly higher than that in reference soils. The contribution of historical DDT in contaminated soils to earthworms was confirmed by the DDT spiked tests. DDT spiked in soils at rates of higher than 200mg·kg(-1) was significantly toxic to both the survival and the growth of earthworms. DDT significantly stimulated GST and CAT activity in earthworms after 14days. The CAT and GST activities were also stimulated by DDT exposure at rates of 100mg·kg(-1) after chronic exposure (42days). The results provide implications for validating the extrapolation from laboratory simulated soils criteria to contaminated soils and for making site risk assessments. PMID:26969436

  8. Survival, Reproduction, Avoidance Behavior and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in the Earthworm Octolasion cyaneum Exposed to Glyphosate.

    Salvio, Carla; Menone, Mirta L; Rafael, Sergio; Iturburu, Fernando G; Manetti, Pablo L

    2016-03-01

    The massive use of glyphosate (GLY) in several countries has increased the interest in investigating its potential adverse effects in non-target organisms. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential effects in survival and reproduction; avoidance behavior and oxidative stress under short-term (48 h) and subchronic exposures (28 days) to GLY in the earthworm Octolasion cyaneum. After 48 h no significant changes in the behavior was observed. In addition, a lower catalase activity at 498 μg GLY kg(-1) dry soil section relative to earthworms from the control section was obtained. After 28 days of exposure inhibition of glutathione S-transferase activity was observed at 535 μg GLY kg(-1) dry soil while no changes in the other endpoints were detected. These results indicate that environmentally relevant concentrations of GLY (up to 996 µg GLY kg(-1) dry soil) did not exert a toxic effect to O. cyaneum. PMID:26754543

  9. Antifreeze proteins enable plants to survive in freezing conditions

    Ravi Gupta; Renu Deswal

    2014-12-01

    Overwintering plants secrete antifreeze proteins (AFPs) to provide freezing tolerance. These proteins bind to and inhibit the growth of ice crystals that are formed in the apoplast during subzero temperatures. Antifreeze activity has been detected in more than 60 plants and AFPs have been purified from 15 of these, including gymnosperms, dicots and monocots. Biochemical characterization of plant antifreeze activity, as determined by the high ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activities and low thermal hysteresis (TH) of AFPs, showed that their main function is inhibition of ice crystal growth rather than the lowering of freezing temperatures. However, recent studies showed that antifreeze activity with higher TH also exists in plants. Calcium and hormones like ethylene and jasmonic acid have been shown to regulate plant antifreeze activity. Recent studies have shown that plant AFPs bind to both prism planes and basal planes of ice crystals by means of two flat ice binding sites. Plant AFPs have been postulated to evolve from the OsLRR-PSR gene nearly 36 million years ago. In this review, we present the current scenario of plant AFP research in order to understand the possible potential of plant AFPs in generation of freezing-tolerant crops.

  10. Effects of petroleum and metal contaminated soil on plants and earthworms: Survival and bioaccumulation

    Earthworms, Eisenia foetida, and bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon, were used in the laboratory to test the toxicity of contaminated sediment taken from a small fresh water lake in North Carolina. This work was part of an investigation to determine the potential effects of upland disposal of this sediment. The contaminated sediment contained As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, Zn and petroleum hydrocarbons at concentrations much greater than nearby soils. Test cylinders were planted with bermudagrass; earthworms were added 30 days later. Both species were harvested at 60 days, weighed and submitted for chemical analyses. Cynodon was affected by the contaminated sediment but grew well in the mixtures of sediment and upland soil. Similar results were obtained with the Eisenia. These species did not accumulate hydrocarbons from the sediment with the possible exception of pyrene. The metals Cd, Pb, and Zn were elevated in plants exposed to the contaminated sediment. Earthworms exposed to this sediment accumulated Pb to concentrations greater than animals exposed to the manure control. This work demonstrated that a contaminated freshwater sediment was not toxic to plants or earthworms and that most petroleum hydrocarbons were not accumulated. The only metal that may be of some concern was Pb

  11. Freeze-drying of Lactobacillus coryniformis Si3--effects of sucrose concentration, cell density, and freezing rate on cell survival and thermophysical properties.

    Schoug, Asa; Olsson, Johan; Carlfors, Johan; Schnrer, Johan; Hkansson, Sebastian

    2006-08-01

    Freeze-drying is commonly used to stabilize lactic acid bacteria. Many factors have been reported to influence freeze-drying survival, including bacterial species, cell density, lyoprotectant, freezing rate, and other process parameters. Lactobacillus coryniformis Si3 has broad antifungal activity and a potential use as a food and feed biopreservative. This strain is considered more stress sensitive, with a low freeze-drying survival, compared to other commercialized antifungal lactic acid bacterial strains. We used a response surface methodology to evaluate the effects of varying sucrose concentration, cell density and freezing rate on Lb. coryniformis Si3 freeze-drying survival. The water activity of the dry product, as well as selected thermophysical properties of importance for freeze-drying; degree of water crystallization and the glass transition temperature of the maximally freeze concentrated amorphous phase (Tg') were determined. The survival of Lb. coryniformis Si3 varied from less than 6% to over 70% between the different conditions. All the factors studied influenced freeze-drying survival and the most important factor for survival is the freezing rate, with an optimum at 2.8 degrees C/min. We found a co-dependency between freezing rate and formulation ingredients, indicating a complex system and the need to use statistical tools to detect important interactions. The degree of water crystallization decreased and the final water activity increased as a function of sucrose concentration. The degree of water crystallization and Tg' was not affected by the addition of 10(8)-10(10) CFU/ml. At 10(11) CFU/ml, these thermophysical values decreased possibly due to increased amounts of cell-associated unfrozen water. PMID:16756971

  12. Survival and Growth of Epidemically Successful and Nonsuccessful Salmonella enterica Clones after Freezing and Dehydration

    Müller, Karoline; Aabo, Søren; Birk, Tina; Mordhorst, Hanne; Bjarnadóttir, Björg; Agersø, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella isolates were characterized as successful or nonsuccessful. We studied the survival and growth of stationary- and exponential-phase cells of these isolates after freezing for up to 336 days in minced meat. We also investigated survival and growth after dehydration at 10°C and 82% relative humidity...... temperature were less harmful to Salmonella than were low humidity and high temperature. Tolerance to adverse conditions was highest for Salmonella Infantis and one Salmonella Typhimurium U292 isolate and lowest for Salmonella Derby and one Salmonella Typhimurium DT170 isolate. Dehydration, in contrast to...... freezing, was differently tolerated by the Salmonella strains in this study, but tolerance to freezing and dehydration does not appear to contribute to the emergence of successful Salmonella clones....

  13. Survival and fertility of boar spermatozoa after freeze-thawing in extender supplemented with butylated hydroxytoluene.

    Roca, Jordi; Gil, Maria A; Hernandez, Marta; Parrilla, Inma; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the protective effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a lipid-soluble antioxidant, against cryopreservation injuries to boar spermatozoa. In experiment 1, the lowest BHT concentrations able to reduce lipid peroxidation in boar spermatozoa were determined. Nine BHT concentrations (ranging from 0.025 to 3.2 mM) were evaluated, and the lowest (P survivability was evaluated when BHT was added to a postthaw freezing extender by measuring the degree of sperm lipid peroxidation (using MDA production) and by measuring parameter such as motility, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity, and cell apoptosis. The ability of thawed spermatozoa to fertilize in vitro-matured oocytes and of embryos to develop to the blastocyst stage in vitro was also assessed. Pooled sperm-rich fractions collected from 3 mature Pietrain boars were frozen in 0.5-mL straws after dilution with lactose-egg yolk-glycerol-Orvus ES Paste extender supplemented with 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 mM BHT. Postthaw sperm survival, evaluated 30 and 150 minutes after thawing, was higher in BHT-treated spermatozoa, being significant (P extender was supplemented with 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mM BHT. The addition of BHT to the freezing extender resulted in a significant (P spermatozoa, irrespective of the level of BHT used. BHT had no effect on oocyte cleavage rates, but the development to blastocyst was improved for embryos derived from spermatozoa frozen in extender supplemented with 0.4 mM BHT (16% vs 29% of blastocysts per total oocytes; P extender improved the overall efficiency of thawed boar spermatozoa. PMID:15064318

  14. Effects of sugar alcohol and proteins on the survival of Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 during freeze drying

    He Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 is a bacterium which was selected in the commercial yoghurt with high angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activity. Preparation of concentrated starter cultures via freeze drying is of practical importance to dairy and food industries. Material and methods. We optimized the optimal sugar alcohol and proteins for Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 during the process of freeze drying using a Plackett-Burman design. In our initial tests survival rate and the number of viable cells were associated with the type of lyoprotectant used and so our optimization protocol focused on increasing survival rate. Substances that had previously had a protective effect during freeze drying were investigated, for example: mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol, meso-erythritol, lactitol, whey protein isolate 90, bovine serum albumin, and whey protein concentrate 80 and soy protein isolate 70. Results. We found that the optimum sugar alcohol and proteins for survival of Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 were whey protein concentrate (p = 0.0040 for survival rate, xylitol (p = 0.0067 for survival rate and sorbitol (p = 0.0073 for survival rate, they showed positive effect (whey protein concentrate and sorbitol or negative effect (xylitol. Discussion. The effectiveness of three chosen sugar alcohols and protein implied that they could be used as lyoprotectant for Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 in the further research, the optimal composition of sugar alcohol and protein for the lyoprotectant use must be established.

  15. Earthworm Protease

    The alimentary tract of earthworm secretes a group of proteases with a relative wide substrate specificity. In 1983, six isozymes were isolated from earthworm with fibrinolytic activities and called fibrinolytic enzymes. So far, more isozymes have been found from different earthworm species such as Lumbricus rubellus and Eisenia fetida. For convenience, the proteases are named on the basis of the earthworm species and the protein function, for instance, Eisenia fetida protease (EfP). The proteases have the abilities not only to hydrolyze fibrin and other protein, but also activate pro enzymes such as plasminogen and prothrombin. In the light of recent studies, eight of the EfPs contain oligosaccharides chains which are thought to support the enzyme structure. Interestingly, EfP-II has a broader substrate specificity presenting alkaline trypsin, chymotrypsin and elastase activities, but EfP-III-1 has a stricter specificity. The protein crystal structures show the characteristics in their specificities. Earthworm proteases have been applied in several areas such as clinical treatment of clotting diseases, anti-tumor study, environmental protection and nutritional production. The current clinical utilizations and some potential new applications of the earthworm protease will be discussed in this paper.

  16. Soil salinity increases survival of freezing in the enchytraeid Enchytraeus albidus

    Patrício Silva, A. L.; Holmstrup, M.; Košťál, Vladimír; Amorim, M. J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 216, č. 14 (2013), s. 2732-2740. ISSN 0022-0949 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ice content * freeze tolerance * osmolality Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.002, year: 2013

  17. Anatomical regulation of ice nucleation and cavitation helps trees to survive freezing and drought stress.

    Lintunen, A; Hölttä, T; Kulmala, M

    2013-01-01

    Water in the xylem, the water transport system of plants, is vulnerable to freezing and cavitation, i.e. to phase change from liquid to ice or gaseous phase. The former is a threat in cold and the latter in dry environmental conditions. Here we show that a small xylem conduit diameter, which has previously been shown to be associated with lower cavitation pressure thus making a plant more drought resistant, is also associated with a decrease in the temperature required for ice nucleation in the xylem. Thus the susceptibility of freezing and cavitation are linked together in the xylem of plants. We explain this linkage by the regulation of the sizes of the nuclei catalysing freezing and drought cavitation. Our results offer better understanding of the similarities of adaption of plants to cold and drought stress, and offer new insights into the ability of plants to adapt to the changing environment. PMID:23778457

  18. The effect of cryogenic freezing and gamma irradiation on the survival of Salmonella on frozen shrimp

    Unfortunately, contraction of foodborne illness due to consumption of contaminated seafood, including shrimp, is an occasional occurrence. Cryogenic freezing and gamma irradiation are safe and effective technologies that can be used to control and inactivate pathogenic bacteria in foods. In this stu...

  19. Radioactive elements and earthworms in contaminated soils

    Earthworms are one of the indispensable soil animals which treat soil with letting it through their gut and help increasing soil fertility. The effect of radioactive elements and comparative effect of heavy metals to the vital functions of earthworms were determined in laboratory conditions. Experiments were continued for a month, and first of all, each soil type, grey-brown soil from Ramana iodine plant territory of Baku city, brown soil from Aluminum plant territory of Ganja city, aborigine grey-brown soil of Absheron peninsula, treated with Ra and U salts as model variants and brown soil of Ganja city was analyzed by gamma-spectrometer for radionuclide determining at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. Earthworms (Nicodrilus Caliginosus Sav.trapezoides) aboriginal for Absheron peninsula and plant residues were added to the soil. At the end of the month the biomass, survival value, coprolite allocation value, food activity and catalase value in earthworms and in soil were determined. The gamma-spectrometric analysis results gave interesting values in coprolites, soils which had been treated through the earthworms' gut. In comparison with the initial variants in experimental results more percent of radioactivity was gathered in coprolites. By this way earthworms absorbed most of radioactive elements and allocated them as coprogenous substances on the upper layer of soil. During absorbing, some percents of radioactive elements were also gathered in gut cells of the earthworms. Thereby determination of some vital functions of earthworms was expedient. Thus, by the instrumentality of these experiments we can use earthworms for biodiagnosis and for bioremediation of contaminated soils with radionuclides and heavy metals.

  20. Teacher's Guide for Earthworms.

    Bruno, Merle S.; And Others

    This teacher's guide on earthworms includes four major sections: (1) introduction, (2) caring for earthworms in the classroom, (3) classroom activities, and (4) the appendix. The introduction includes information concerning grade level, scheduling, materials, obtaining earthworms, field study, classroom clean-up, and records. Caring for earthworms…

  1. Effect of NaHCO3, MgSO4, Sodium Ascorbate, Sodium Glutamate, Phosphate Buffer on Survival of Lactobacillus bulgaricus During Freeze-drying

    He Chen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the experiments were investigated the effects of different concentrations of cryoprotective agents, such as NaHCO3, MgSO4, sodium ascorbate, sodium glutamate, phosphate buffer, respectively, which used on survival of Lactobacillus bulgaricus during freeze drying. The number of viable cells and survival ratio were measured by the plate count method. The results were as follows: cryoprotective agents played important roles in survival of Lactobacillus bulgaricus during freeze drying. When the relative volume of phosphate buffer was 1.5 (v/v, the number of viable cells was highest, while the survival ratio reached highest, the concentration of sodium ascorbate was 4.5%.

  2. Earthworms and Soil Pollutants

    Kazuyoshi Tamae

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short review, we describe recent studies concerning the relationship between earthworms and soil pollutants, and discuss the possibility of using the earthworm as a bio-monitoring organism for soil pollution.

  3. Survival, Pb-uptake and behaviour of three species of earthworm in Pb treated soils determined using an OECD-style toxicity test and a soil avoidance test

    Mature (clitellate) Eisenia andrei Bouche (ultra epigeic), Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister (epigeic), and Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny) (endogeic) earthworms were placed in soils treated with Pb(NO3)2 to have concentrations in the range 1000 to 10 000 mg Pb kg-1. After 28 days LC50-95%confidencelimit+95%confidencelimit values were E. andrei5824-361+898 mg Pb kg-1, L. rubellus2867-193+145 mg Pb kg-1 and A. caliginosa2747-304+239 mg Pb kg-1 and EC50s for weight change were E. andrei2841-68+150 mg Pb kg-1, L. rubellus1303-201+240 mg Pb kg-1 and A. caliginosa1208-206+212 mg Pb kg-1. At any given soil Pb concentration, Pb tissue concentrations after 28 days were the same for all three earthworm species. In a soil avoidance test there was no difference between the behaviour of the different species. The lower sensitivity to Pb exhibited by E. andrei is most likely due to physiological adaptations associated with the modes of life of the earthworms, and could have serious implications for the use of this earthworm as the species of choice in standard toxicological testing.

  4. Earthworms and Soil Pollutants

    Kazuyoshi Tamae; Takeshi Hirano

    2011-01-01

    Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short...

  5. Impact of different cryoprotectants on the survival of freeze-dried Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei/paracasei during long-term storage.

    Jofré, A; Aymerich, T; Garriga, M

    2015-01-01

    The production of long shelf-life highly concentrated dried probiotic/starter cultures is of paramount importance for the food industry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of glucose, lactose, trehalose, and skim milk applied alone or combined upon the survival of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679, Lactobacillus casei/paracasei CTC1677 and L. casei/paracasei CTC1678 during freeze-drying and after 39 weeks of storage at 4 and 22 °C. Immediately after freeze-drying, the percentage of survivors was very high (≥ 94%) and only slight differences were observed among strains and cryoprotectants. In contrast, during storage, survival in the dried state depended on the cryoprotectant, temperature and strain. For all the protectants assayed, the stability of the cultures was remarkably higher when stored under refrigeration (4 °C). Under these conditions, skim milk alone or supplemented with trehalose or lactose showed the best performance (reductions ≤ 0.9 log units after 39 weeks of storage). The lowest survival was observed during non-refrigerated storage and with glucose and glucose plus milk; no viable cells left at the end of the storage period. Thus, freeze-drying in the presence of appropriate cryoprotectants allows the production of long shelf-life highly concentrated dried cultures ready for incorporation in high numbers into food products as starter/potential probiotic cultures. PMID:25380798

  6. Impact of Chlorine, Temperature and Freezing Shock on the Survival Behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Ready-to-Eat Meats

    Juneja, Vijay K; Cheng-An Hwang; Shiowshuh Sheen

    2012-01-01

    Foodborne pathogens continue to pose a potential food safety hazard in ready-to-eat (RTE) meat. Chlorine is commonly used to sanitize processing equipment where Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Ec) may survive and contaminate food products. The objective of this study was to characterize the survival behavior of Ec with different stresses on RTE meats. A multi-strain cocktail of Ec was pre-treated with freezing shock for 15 - 20 h and/or chlorine (0, 25, and 50 ppm) for one hour, ...

  7. EARTHWORMS AS ECOTOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT TOOLS

    Increased interest for earthworm research and the need for soil assessment methods has encouraged the use of earthworms as assessment organisms. Earthworms exhibit many advantages for use in assessing the impact of toxic and hazardous materials on soil systems. Earthworms are kno...

  8. Survival at refrigeration and freezing temperatures of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin applied as axenic and mixed inoculums.

    El-Shibiny, Ayman; Connerton, Phillippa; Connerton, Ian

    2009-05-31

    Campylobacter is considered to be the most common cause of bacterial diarrhoeal illness in the developed world. Many cases are thought to be acquired from consumption of undercooked poultry. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the rate of cooling on the survival, at 4 degrees C and -20 degrees C, of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni strains, inoculated on chicken skin from axenic culture or as mixed inoculums. Strains chilled in a domestic refrigerator varied in their tolerance to storage at 4 degrees C. Statistically significant differences between strains applied as axenic or mixed inoculums were observed for specific strain combinations using two-way ANOVA, including the enhanced survival of antibiotic resistant C. coli 99/367 at 4 degrees C. The use of rapid cooling (at -20 degrees C/min) enhanced the survival of all the Campylobacter strains chilled to 4 degrees C compared to standard refrigeration. Freezing to -20 degrees C reduced viable counts by 2.2-2.6 log10 CFU/cm(2) in 24 h. Rapid cooling to -20 degrees C (at -30 degrees C/min) enhanced the survival of C. coli 99/367 compared to freezing in a domestic freezer. Statistically significant interaction terms between specific strains were observed in mixed inoculums chilled to -20 degrees C by freezing in a domestic freezer and by rapid chilling to -20 degrees C. Rapid chilling of poultry, particularly for 4 degrees C storage may enhance survival of Campylobacter and although this is an issue that affects meat quality, it should be considered by poultry processors. PMID:19324444

  9. Determination of multi-walled carbon nanotube bioaccumulation in earthworms measured by a microwave-based detection technique

    Reliable quantification techniques for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are limited. In this study, a new procedure was developed for quantifying multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) based on freeze drying and microwave-induced heating. Specifically, earthw...

  10. Nutrition Studies with Earthworms.

    Tobaga, Leandro

    1980-01-01

    Describes experiments which demonstrate how different diets affect the growth rate of earthworms. Procedures for feeding baby worms are outlined, the analysis of results are discussed, and various modifications of the exercise are provided. (CS)

  11. Biometric relationships in earthworms (Oligochaeta)

    Jiménez, Juan J; Mamolar, Estefanía; Lavelle, Patrick

    2000-01-01

    Digging and hand-sorting of soil blocks is a very widespread method in the study of earthworm communities. One disadvantage of this method is that it is very time consuming and often many earthworms are incomplete because they were cut by the digging tools. When authors report earthworm biomass, no mention is made of the assessment of any relationship between the mass of those cut earthworms and their overall weight. In such cases, biomass is generally underestimated. In this paper, our objec...

  12. The Resistance to Freeze-Drying and to Storage Was Determined as the Cellular Ability to Recover Its Survival Rate and Acidification Activity

    Georges Lognay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of the fatty acid composition and membrane action of the acidification activity of two strains of Lactobacillus kept at 20∘C were studied. The addition of sorbitol, monosodium glutamate and glycerol during storage is causing the decline of acidification and increased concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids observed in both strains. The addition of sorbitol and monosodium glutamate does not alter the fatty acid composition, whatever the strain, but increases the resistance to freeze-drying of L. plantarum CWBI-B1419 and improves survival during storage. The addition of these preservatives and decreased activity of acidification improves the ratio unsaturated. These results indicate that the survival during storage and freeze-drying resistance are closely related to the composition of membrane fatty acids. This behaviour can be interpreted as an adaptation of L. plantarum B1419-CWBI supplemented by cryoprotectant additives such as sorbitol or monosodium glutamate sorbitol and monosodium glutamate as an additive. L. plantarum CWBI-B1419 presents a greater adaptation to culture conditions than L. paracasei ssp. paracasei LMG9192T.

  13. Determination of arsenic compounds in earthworms

    Geiszinger, A.; Goessler, W.; Kuehnelt, D.; Kosmus, W. [Karl-Franzens-Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. for Analytical Chemistry; Francesconi, K. [Odense Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Biology

    1998-08-01

    Earthworms and soil collected from six sites in Styria, Austria, were investigated for total arsenic concentrations by ICP-MS and for arsenic compounds by HPLC-ICP-MS. Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 3.2 to 17.9 mg/kg dry weight in the worms and from 5.0 to 79.7 mg/kg dry weight in the soil samples. There was no strict correlation between the total arsenic concentrations in the worms and soil. Arsenic compounds were extracted from soil and a freeze-dried earthworm sample with a methanol/water mixture (9:1, v/v). The extracts were evaporated to dryness, redissolved in water, and chromatographed on an anion- and a cation-exchange column. Arsenic compounds were identified by comparison of the retention times with known standards. Only traces of arsenic acid could be extracted from the soil with the methanol/water (9:1, v/v) mixture. The major arsenic compounds detected in the extracts of the earthworms were arsenous acid and arsenic acid. Arsenobetaine was present as a minor constituent, and traces of dimethylarsinic acid were also detected. Two dimethylarsinoyltribosides were also identified in the extracts by co-chromatography with standard compounds. This is the first report of the presence of dimethylarsinoylribosides in a terrestrial organism. Two other minor arsenic species were present in the extract, but their retention times did not match with the retention times of the available standards.

  14. Polysialylation of brain gangliosides as a possible molecular mechanism for survival of antarctic ice fish below the freezing point

    Becker, K.; Rahmann, H.

    In order to determine possible adaptation strategies of vertebrates to extreme low-temperature environments, we compared the concentration and composition of gangliosides from the brains of eight species of Antarctic Notothenioid ``ice'' fishes with those of warm-adapted species and those of fishes from habitats of moderate temperature. The concentration of whole-brain gangliosides in the ice fishes was comparable with that in moderate-temperature species (between 3.36 and 4.31 mg NeuAc/g protein). The composition of brain gangliosides differed, however. In particular, the relative concentrations of polysialogangliosides (= polarity) and alkali-labile gangliosides was higher in all Antarctic species investigated than in warm-adapted fish species. This difference is considered a suitable mechanism for keeping neuronal membranes functional even below the freezing point. This interpretation is supported by additional physicochemical results with artificial monolayer membranes, which give evidence for a high thermosensitivity of ganglioside complexes in connection with calcium.

  15. Structure and earthworms

    Earthworms are an important part of the soil ecosystem and an indicator of soil quality. Sometimes referred to as ecosystem engineers, they play a pivotal role in maintaining soil productivity. Their burrowing, feeding, and casting activities alter the physical, chemical, and biological properties o...

  16. Cryoprotectants are metabolic fuels during long term frost exposure in the earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra.

    C. Jørgensen, Sofia; Overgaard, Johannes; Holmstrup, Martin; Westh, Peter

    Ectothermic animals that live in the subarctic and temperate regions must have strategies to deal with periods of frost during winter. The earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra is a freeze tolerant species that accumulates large concentrations of the cryoprotectant glucose upon ice formation in the...... extracellular fluid. This study investigates if D. octaedra metabolizes its primary cryoprotectant as an energy source when frozen for longer periods. In this study D. octaedra were exposed to frost at 2 °C for 47 days. The results clearly demonstrate a gradual decrease in the level of glucose and...... worms. On the basis of metabolic rate measurements we calculated that the “average” worms would be able to survive for a total of 83 days before the glucose storage becomes exhausted. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the large accumulations of glucose during frost may be more important as...

  17. Pesticides and earthworms. A review

    Pelosi, Céline; Barot, Sebastien; Capowiez, Yvan,; Hedde, Mickaël; Vandenbulcke, Franck

    2014-01-01

    Earthworms provide key soil functions that favour many positive ecosystem services. These services are important for agroecosystem sustainability but can be degraded by intensive cultural practices such as use of pesticides. Many literature reports have investigated the effect of pesticides on earthworms. Here, we review those reports to assess the relevance of the indicators of earthworm response to pesticides, to assess their sensitivity to pesticides, and to highlight the remaining knowled...

  18. Pesticides and earthworms : a review

    Pelosi, C.; Barot, Sbastien; Capowiez, Y.; Hedde, M.; F. Vandenbulcke

    2014-01-01

    Earthworms provide key soil functions that favour many positive ecosystem services. These services are important for agroecosystem sustainability but can be degraded by intensive cultural practices such as use of pesticides. Many literature reports have investigated the effect of pesticides on earthworms. Here, we review those reports to assess the relevance of the indicators of earthworm response to pesticides, to assess their sensitivity to pesticides, and to highlight the remainin...

  19. Exposure to extremely low frequency (50 Hz electromagnetic field changes the survival rate and morphometric characteristics of neurosecretory neurons of the earthworm Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta under illumination stress

    Banova?ki Zorana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vivo model was set up to establish the behavioral stress response (rate of survival and morphometric characteristics of A1 protocerebral neurosecretory neurons (cell size of Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta as a result of the synergetic effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF - 50 Hz, 50 ?T, 17 V/m and 50 Hz, 150 ?T, 17 V/m, respectively and constant illumination (420-450 lux. If combined, these two stressors significantly (p<0.05 increased the survival rate of E. foetida in the 150 ?T-exposed animals, because of delayed caudal autotomy reflex, an indicator of stress response. In addition, morphometric analysis indicated that there were changes in the protocerebral neurosecretory cells after exposure to the ELF-EMF. The present data support the view that short-term ELF-EMF exposure in windows of intensity is likely to stimulate the immune and neuroendocrine response of E. foetida.

  20. Anhydrobiosis and Freezing-Tolerance

    McGill, Lorraine; Shannon, Adam; Pisani, Davide; Felix, Marie-Anne; Ramløv, Hans; Dix, Ilona; Wharton, David; Burnell, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Anhydrobiotic animals can survive the loss of both free and bound water from their cells. While in this state they are also resistant to freezing. This physiology adapts anhydrobiotes to harsh environments and it aids their dispersal. Panagrolaimus davidi, a bacterial feeding anhydrobiotic nematode...... Panagrolaimus strains from tropical, temperate, continental and polar habitats and we analysed their phylogenetic relationships. We found that several other Panagrolaimus isolates can also survive freezing when fully hydrated and that tissue extracts from these freezing-tolerant nematodes can inhibit the growth...

  1. For Better Soil, Let Earthworms Toil.

    Swinehart, Rebecca, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This activity involves elementary students in investigating how earthworms affect soil fertility. An introduction discusses topsoil loss and the connections between soil and earthworm ecology. Materials needed and step-by-step procedure are provided. (LZ)

  2. Ecological functions of earthworms in soil

    Andriuzzi, W.S.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological functions of earthworms in soil Walter S. Andriuzzi Abstract Earthworms are known to play an important role in soil structure and fertility, but there are still big knowledge gaps on the functional ecology of distinct earthworm species, on their own and in interaction with other species. This thesis investigated how earthworms affect soil biochemical and biophysical functioning, and other organisms such as plants and smaller soil organisms. Two field experiments with stable isotope...

  3. Mutualism between earthworms and soil microflora

    Trigo, D.; Barois, I.; Garvin, M.H.; Huerta, E.; Irisson, S.; Lavelle, P. (ed.)

    1999-01-01

    The gut mucus production of different earthworms species has been measured in order to verify the mutualistic hypothesis between earthworms and soil microflora. Earthworms of different origin (tropical and temperate) and ecological category (endogeic, anecic and epigeic), individuals of the same species occupying different soils, and earthworms of different species from the same soil, have been studied. Intestinal mucus production suggests the existence of the mutualistic digestion system. Th...

  4. Mapping earthworm communities in Europe

    Rutgers, Michiel; Orgiazzi, Alberto; Gardi, Ciro; Römbke, Jörg; Jänsch, Stephan; Keith, Aidan M.; Neilson, Roy; Boag, Brian; Schmidt, Olaf; Murchie, Archie K.; Blackshaw, Rod P.; Pérès, Guénola; Cluzeau, Daniel; Guernion, Muriel; Briones, Maria J. I.; Rodeiro, Javier; Piñeiro, Raúl; Cosín, Darío J. Díaz; Sousa, J. Paulo; Suhadolc, Marjetka; Kos, Ivan; Krogh, Paul Henning; Faber, Jack H.; Mulder, Christian; Bogte, Jaap J.; Wijnen, Harm J. van; Schouten, Anton J.; Zwart, Dick de

    Existing data sets on earthworm communities in Europe were collected, harmonized, modelled and depicted on a soil biodiversity map of Europe. Digital Soil Mapping was applied using multiple regressions relating relatively low density earthworm community data to soil characteristics, land use......, vegetation and climate factors (covariables) with a greater spatial resolution. Statistically significant relationships were used to build habitat-response models for constructing earthworm maps with abundance, species richness, and diversity data. While a good number of environmental predictors were...... country-specific data sets (France, Germany, Ireland and The Netherlands) demonstrated the importance and efficiency of large databases for the detection of large spatial patterns that could be subsequently applied at smaller (local) scales. After the first set of maps, additional datasets were used to...

  5. Effects of antimicrobial coatings and cryogenic freezing on survival and growth of Listeria innocua on frozen ready-to-eat shrimp during thawing

    Foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes could pose a health risk for frozen ready-to-eat (RTE) shrimp as the pathogen can grow following thawing. In this study, antimicrobial coating treatments alone, or in combination with cryogenic freezing, were evaluated for their ability to inhibit t...

  6. Effects of soil properties on copper toxicity to earthworm Eisenia fetida in 15 Chinese soils.

    Duan, Xiongwei; Xu, Meng; Zhou, Youya; Yan, Zengguang; Du, Yanli; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Chaoyan; Bai, Liping; Nie, Jing; Chen, Guikui; Li, Fasheng

    2016-02-01

    The bioavailability and toxicity of metals in soil are influenced by a variety of soil properties, and this principle should be recognized in establishing soil environmental quality criteria. In the present study, the uptake and toxicity of Cu to the earthworm Eisenia fetida in 15 Chinese soils with various soil properties were investigated, and regression models for predicting Cu toxicity across soils were developed. The results showed that earthworm survival and body weight change were less sensitive to Cu than earthworm cocoon production. The soil Cu-based median effective concentrations (EC50s) for earthworm cocoon production varied from 27.7 to 383.7mgkg(-1) among 15 Chinese soils, representing approximately 14-fold variation. Soil cation exchange capacity and organic carbon content were identified as key factors controlling Cu toxicity to earthworm cocoon production, and simple and multiple regression models were developed for predicting Cu toxicity across soils. Tissue Cu-based EC50s for earthworm cocoon production were also calculated and varied from 15.5 to 62.5mgkg(-1) (4-fold variation). Compared to the soil Cu-based EC50s for cocoon production, the tissue Cu-based EC50s had less variation among soils, indicating that metals in tissue were more relevant to toxicity than metals in soil and hence represented better measurements of bioavailability. PMID:26688255

  7. Comparison of earthworm responses to petroleum hydrocarbon exposure in aged field contaminated soil using traditional ecotoxicity endpoints and 1H NMR-based metabolomics

    1H NMR metabolomics and conventional ecotoxicity endpoints were used to examine the response of earthworms exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in soil samples collected from a site that was contaminated with crude oil from a pipeline failure in the mid-1990s. The conventional ecotoxicity tests showed that the soils were not acutely toxic to earthworms (average survival ≥90%), but some soil samples impaired reproduction endpoints by >50% compared to the field control soil. Additionally, metabolomics revealed significant relationships between earthworm metabolic profiles (collected after 2 or 14 days of exposure) and soil properties including soil PHC concentration. Further comparisons by partial least squares regression revealed a significant relationship between the earthworm metabolomic data (collected after only 2 or 14 days) and the reproduction endpoints (measured after 63 days). Therefore, metabolomic responses measured after short exposure periods may be predictive of chronic, ecologically relevant toxicity endpoints for earthworms exposed to soil contaminants. -- Highlights: •Earthworm response to petroleum hydrocarbon exposure in soil is examined. •Metabolomics shows significant changes to metabolic profile after 2 days. •Significant relationships observed between metabolomic and reproduction endpoints. •Metabolomics may have value as a rapid screening tool for chronic toxicity. -- Earthworm metabolomic responses measured after 2 and 14 days are compared to traditional earthworm ecotoxicity endpoints (survival and reproduction) in petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil

  8. New records of earthworms (Oligochaeta) from Madagascar

    Razafindrakoto, M.; Csuzdi, Cs.; Rakotofiringa, S.; Blanchart, E.

    2010-01-01

    New records of earthworms from Madagascar are presented. This is the first taxonomic report on the earthwormfauna of Madagascar since the last paper of Michaelsen (1931). Altogether data on 14 peregrine earthworm species belonging tofive families are summarized. Together with the native taxa, 33 valid earthworm species have so far been recorded fromMadagascar of which 18 (55%) are endemic in the Island and 15 (45%) introduced.

  9. Legacy of earthworms' engineering effects enlarges the actual effects of earthworms on plants

    Mudrák, Obdřej; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Earthworms were recognized as key factor responsible for changes from early to late successional plant communities. They incorporate organic matter into the soil and creates there persistent structures, which improves conditions for plant growth. Earthworm activity might be therefore expected to be more important in early stages of the succession, when earthworm colonization of previously earthworm free soil starts, than in the late stages of the succession, where the soil was previously modified by earthworms. However, earthworms affect plants also via other effects such as increase of nutrient availability. The relative importance of soil structure modification and other earthworm effects on plants is poorly known, despite it is important for both theoretical and applied ecology. To test the effect of earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa) on plants we performed microcosm laboratory experiment, where earthworms were affecting early successional (Poa compressa, Medicago lupulina, and Daucus carota) and late successional (Arrhenatherum elatius, Lotus corniculatus, and Plantago laceolata) plat species in soil previously unaffected by earthworms and in soil with previous long term effect of earthworms. These soils were taken from the early and late successional monitoring sites of the Sokolov coal mining district with known history. Earthworms increased plant biomass proportionally more in late successional soil. It was mainly because they increased availability of nutrients (nitrate and potassium) and plants get higher advantage out of this in late successional soil. Earthworms increased plant biomass of both early and late successional species, but late successional species suppressed early successional species in competition. This suppression was more intensive in presence of earthworms and in late successional soil. We therefore found multiplicative effect between earthworm soil engineering activity and their other effects, which might be responsible for changes in plant communities during the succession.

  10. HOST CADAVERS PROTECT ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES DURING FREEZING

    Four species of insect-killing nematodes were exposed to freezing temperatures while inside their hosts. Survival was assessed by observing live and dead nematodes inside cadavers and by counting the infective juveniles (IJs) tht emerged after freezing. We 1) measured the effects of 24 hours of fr...

  11. The effect of radioecological condition to earthworms and the problems of ecosystems related with them

    The soil and fertility was evident and breathe regarding to living materials which are composed of billions of microorganisms and pedobionts also earthworms; throughout of it plants get all chemical elements. Living materials inhabit in lamella of soil, essentially within the scope of 5 to 15 cm of depth. Soil is a main source of carbon in nature. There is for about 10 times more carbone dioxide here (the breath product of soil biota) than in atmosphere. From carbonic acid of air, plants by its terrestrial part extract carbone and by the help of photosynthesis transform it to carbohydrates and tissues. Nowadays investigations about earthworms which live in strongly polluted soils has appeared that earthworms have found a way of a survival even in such extreme conditions. Earthworms have adapted to the polluted soils. However, bait attractive in appearance to dig in such places it is not necessary: in such a way the worm accumulates heavy metals in the organism. Though earthworms aren't so attractive, and for many are simply unpleasant, for an ecosystem they are invaluable. Thus even dying they don't leave after itself any traces, and digest itself by means of cages containing in them - lysis. This process is called autolysis. Thereby for investigation of strongly polluted areas of Ramana iodine plant as an ecosystem and there is significant point to determine the effect of radiation on earthworms as one of the most important chain of soil bionetwork. So, in this way it was investigated an effect of radioactive pollution to earthworms aboriginal for Absheron peninsula. By the experimentation of earthworms in contaminated soil (with 226Ra, 228Ra, U) in respectively 1 percent, 2,5 percent, 5 percent and 10 percent soil examples during a month, it was established that the earthworms so sensible to the high level of radioactive pollution. Regarding to the data received it has a point that usage of earthworms as bio indicators, in future should help people to apply this original objects in case of remediation of strongly polluted areas of Absheron peninsula.

  12. Glycosaminoglycans from earthworms (Eisenia andrei)

    Im, A-Rang; Park, Youmie; Sim, Joon-Soo; Zhang, Zhenqing; Liu, Zhenling; Linhardt, Robert J.; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2009-01-01

    The whole tissue of the earthworm (Eisenia andrei) was lyophilized and extracted to purify glycosaminoglycans. Fractions, eluting from an anion-exchange column at 1.0 M and 2.0 M NaCl, showed the presence of acidic polysaccharides on agarose gel electrophoresis. Monosaccharide compositional analysis showed that galactose and glucose were most abundant monosaccharides in both fractions. Depolymerization of the polysaccharide mixture with glycosaminoglycandegrading enzymes confirmed the presenc...

  13. EARTHWORMS AND THEIR IMPACT ON SLUG CONTROL

    Increases in the anecic earthworm species, Lumbricus terrestris L., have occurred in western Oregon grass fields due to increases in surface residue since the phase-out of open field burning. The use of earthworm toxic chemicals has been reduced through concerns for other important vertebrate and in...

  14. Effects of glyphosate and 2,4-D on earthworms (Eisenia foetida) in laboratory tests.

    Correia, F V; Moreira, J C

    2010-09-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted to compare the effects of various concentrations of glyphosate and 2,4-D on earthworms (Eisenia foetida) cultured in Argissol during 56 days of incubation. The effects on earthworm growth, survival, and reproduction rates were verified for different exposure times. Earthworms kept in glyphosate-treated soil were classified as alive in all evaluations, but showed gradual and significant reduction in mean weight (50%) at all test concentrations. For 2,4-D, 100% mortality was observed in soil treated with 500 and 1,000 mg/kg. At 14 days, 30%-40% mortality levels were observed in all other concentrations. No cocoons or juveniles were found in soil treated with either herbicide. Glyphosate and 2,4-D demonstrated severe effects on the development and reproduction of Eisenia foetida in laboratory tests in the range of test concentrations. PMID:20658223

  15. Metal accumulation in earthworms inhabiting floodplain soils

    The main factors contributing to variation in metal concentrations in earthworms inhabiting floodplain soils were investigated in three floodplains differing in inundation frequency and vegetation type. Metal concentrations in epigeic earthworms showed larger seasonal variations than endogeic earthworms. Variation in internal levels between sampling intervals were largest in earthworms from floodplain sites frequently inundated. High and low frequency flooding did not result in consistent changes in internal metal concentrations. Vegetation types of the floodplains did not affect metal levels in Lumbricus rubellus, except for internal Cd levels, which were positively related to the presence of organic litter. Internal levels of most essential metals were higher in spring. In general, no clear patterns in metal uptake were found and repetition of the sampling campaign will probably yield different results. - Metal levels in earthworms show large variation among sites, among seasons and among epigeic and endogeic species

  16. Application of lime (CaCO3) to promote forest recovery from severe acidification increases potential for earthworm invasion

    Homan, Caitlin; Beirer, Colin M; McCay, Timothy S; Lawrence, Gregory B.

    2016-01-01

    The application of lime (calcium carbonate) may be a cost-effective strategy to promote forest ecosystem recovery from acid impairment, under contemporary low levels of acidic deposition. However, liming acidified soils may create more suitable habitat for invasive earthworms that cause significant damage to forest floor communities and may disrupt ecosystem processes. We investigated the potential effects of liming in acidified soils where earthworms are rare in conjunction with a whole-ecosystem liming experiment in the chronically acidified forests of the western Adirondacks (USA). Using a microcosm experiment that replicated the whole-ecosystem treatment, we evaluated effects of soil liming on Lumbricus terrestris survivorship and biomass growth. We found that a moderate lime application (raising pH from 3.1 to 3.7) dramatically increased survival and biomass of L. terrestris, likely via increases in soil pH and associated reductions in inorganic aluminum, a known toxin. Very few L. terrestris individuals survived in unlimed soils, whereas earthworms in limed soils survived, grew, and rapidly consumed leaf litter. We supplemented this experiment with field surveys of extant earthworm communities along a gradient of soil pH in Adirondack hardwood forests, ranging from severely acidified (pH 5). In the field, no earthworms were observed where soil pH earthworms was greatest in areas where soil pH > 4.4 and human dispersal vectors, including proximity to roads and public fishing access, were most prevalent. Overall our results suggest that moderate lime additions can be sufficient to increase earthworm invasion risk where dispersal vectors are present.

  17. Earthworm introduction on calcareous minesoils

    Burrowing activity of the nightcrawler, Lumbricus terrestis (L.t.), incorporates organic matter into mineral soil while creating long-lasting macropores. Thus L.t. has potential as a biological means of improving physical and chemical properties of surface mined areas. Efforts to establish L.t. population on forested acidic or calcareous minesoils have been successful, but thus far have not been able to establish L.t. in grassland ecosystems on calcareous minesoils. In May, 1989, the authors put 11 clitellate L.t. under sphagnum moss on calcareous gray cast overburden on standard graded topsoil, or on ripped and disked topsoil. All soils had cover of agronomic grasses and legumes. They found no L.t. at the 24 points of inoculation during sampling in fall of 1990 with formalin extractant, although smaller species, Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrobaena spp., were found. At another location, in May, 1990, they put 25 clitellate L.t. at 16 points in grasslands growing on gray cast overburden. Using formalin extraction, they found no L.t. in May 1992 at these locations. Working in this same area in November, 1992, they released 10 clitellate L.t. at 16 points under 10 cm of moist Alnus glutinosa leaf litter. Careful examination of the surface inoculation points in spring and fall of 1993 did not show obvious signs of earthworm activity. Their next step will be to use Earthworm Inoculation Units (earthworm-minesoil microcosms containing L.t. adults, immatures, and cocoons) as the source of the new populations

  18. Earthworms – good indicators for forest disturbance

    YAHYA KOOCH

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In temperate forests, formation of canopy gaps by windthrow is a characteristic natural disturbance event. Little work has been done on the effects of canopy gaps on soil properties and fauna, especially earthworms as ecosystem engineers. We conducted a study to examine the reaction of earthworms (density/biomass and different soil properties (i.e., soil moisture, pH, organic matter, total N, and available Ca to different canopy gap areas in 25-ha areas of Liresar district beech forest located in a temperate forest of Mazandaran province in the north of Iran. Soil samples were taken at 0-15, 15-30 and 30-45 cm depths from gap center, gap edge and closed canopy using core soil sampler with 81 cm2 cross section. The earthworms were collected simultaneously with the soil sampling by hand sorting method. Our study supports that the canopy gap will create a mosaic of environmental conditions. Earthworm's density and biomass tended to be higher in small canopy gaps compared with the other canopy gap areas. Earthworm's population showed decreasing trend from closed canopy to disturbed sites (gap edge and gap center. The top soil was more appropriate to presence of earthworms although ecological groups have occupied different soil layers. As a conclusion, earthworms can be introduced as good bio-indicator of environmental changes that occur by disturbance.

  19. Accumulation of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms

    Beyer, W.N.

    1996-01-01

    Chlorinated benzenes are widespread in the environment. Hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene and all isomers of dichlorobenzenes, trichlorobenzenes, and tetrachlorobenzenes, have been detected in fish, water, and sediments from the Great Lakes. This paper describes a long-term (26 week) experiment relating the concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 1) the length of exposure, and it describes three 8-week experiments relating concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 2) their concentration in soil 3) the soil organic matter content and, 4) the degree of chlorination. In the 26-week experiment, the concentration of 1,2,4 - trichlorobenzene in earthworms fluctuated only slightly about a mean of 0.63 ppm (Fig. 1). Although a statistically significant decrease can be demonstrated over the test (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = -0.62 p earthworms showed a cyclical trend that coincided with replacement of the media, and a slight but statistically significant tendency to increase from about 2 to 3 ppm over the 26 weeks (r = 0.55, p earthworms increased as the concentrations in the soil increased (Fig. 2), but leveled off at the highest soil concentrations. The most surprising result of this study was the relatively low concentrations in earthworms compared to those in soils. The average concentration of each of the six isomers of trichlorobenzene and tetrachlorobenzene in earthworms was only about 1 ppm (Table 2); the isomeric structure did not affect accumulation. The concentration of organic matter in soil had a prominent effect on hexachlorobenzene concentrations in earthworms (Fig. 3). Hexachlorobenzene concentrations decreased steadily from 9.3 ppm in earthworms kept in soil without any peat moss added to about 1 ppm in soil containing 16 or 32% organic matter.

  20. Arsenic biotransformation in earthworms from contaminated soils

    Button, Mark; Jenkin, Gawen R.T.; Harrington, Chris F.; Michael J. Watts

    2009-01-01

    Two species of arsenic (As) resistant earthworm, Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrodrillus rubidus, their host soils and soil excretions (casts) were collected from 23 locations at a former As mine in Devon, UK. Total As concentrations, measured by ICP-MS, ranged from 255 to 13,080 mg kg-1 in soils, 11 to 877 mg kg-1 in earthworms and 284 to 4221 mg kg-1 in earthworm casts from a sub-sample of 10 of the 23 investigated sites. The samples were also measured for As speciation using HPLC-ICP-MS to in...

  1. Assessment of avoidance behaviour by earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Octolasion cyaneum) in linear pollution gradients.

    Lowe, Christopher N; Butt, Kevin R; Cheynier, Kevin Yves-Marie

    2016-02-01

    Avoidance behaviour by earthworms is recognised as a valuable endpoint in soil quality assessment and has resulted in the development of a standardised test (ISO 17512-1, 2008) providing epigeic earthworms with a choice between test and control soils. This study sought to develop and evaluate an avoidance test utilising soil-dwelling earthworms in linear pollution gradients with Visible Implant Elastomer (VIE) tags used to identify individual organisms. Sequential experiments were established in laboratory-based mesocosms (0.6m×0.13m×0.1m) that determined the relative sensitivities (in terms of associated avoidance behaviour) of Octolasion cyaneum and Lumbricus rubellus at varying levels of polluted soil and also assessed the influence of introduction point on recorded movement within gradients. In an initial gradient (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% polluted soil), both species exhibited a clear avoidance response with all surviving earthworms retrieved (after 7 days) from the unpolluted soil. In a less polluted gradient (0%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75%, 25%) L. rubellus were retrieved throughout the gradient while O. cyaneum were located within the 0% and 6.25% divisions, suggesting a species-specific response to polluted soil. Results also showed that the use of a linear pollution gradient system has the potential to assess earthworm avoidance behaviour and could provide a more ecologically relevant alternative to the ISO 17512: 2008 avoidance test. However, further work is required to establish the effectiveness of this procedure, specifically in initial chemical screening and assessment of single contaminant bioavailability, where uptake of pollutants by earthworms could be measured and directly related to the point of introduction and retrieval. PMID:26590693

  2. Nanomaterials: Earthworms lit with quantum dots

    Tilley, Richard D.; Cheong, Soshan

    2013-01-01

    Yeast, bacteria and fungi have been used to synthesize a variety of nanocrystals. Now, the metal detoxification process in the gut of an earthworm is exploited to produce biocompatible cadmium telluride quantum dots.

  3. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF CHEMICALS TO EARTHWORMS

    The concentration-response (mortality) relationships of four species of earthworms, Eisentia fetida, Allolobophora tuberculata, Eudrilus eugeniae, and Perionyx excavatus are summarized for 62 chemicals and two test protocols. eibull function is used to summarize these data for ea...

  4. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara; Wiegand, Claudia

    This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from...

  5. Earthworms increase plant production: a meta- analysis

    Lubbers, I. M.; Vos, H.M.J.; Brown, G G; Deyn, de, P.P.; Groenigen, van, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    To meet the challenge of feeding a growing world population with minimal environmental impact, we need comprehensive and quantitative knowledge of ecological factors affecting crop production. Earthworms are among the most important soil dwelling invertebrates. Their activity affects both biotic and abiotic soil properties, in turn affecting plant growth. Yet, studies on the effect of earthworm presence on crop yields have not been quantitatively synthesized. Here we show, using meta-analysis...

  6. Unique metabolites protect earthworms against plant polyphenols

    Liebeke, Manuel; Strittmatter, Nicole; Fearn, Sarah; Morgan, A John; Kille, Peter; Fuchser, Jens; Wallis, David; Palchykov, Vitalii; Robertson, Jeremy; Lahive, Elma; Spurgeon, David J.; McPhail, David; Takáts, Zoltán; Bundy, Jacob G.

    2015-01-01

    All higher plants produce polyphenols, for defence against above-ground herbivory. These polyphenols also influence the soil micro- and macro-fauna that break down plant leaf litter. Polyphenols therefore indirectly affect the fluxes of soil nutrients and, ultimately, carbon turnover and ecosystem functioning in soils. It is unknown how earthworms, the major component of animal biomass in many soils, cope with high-polyphenol diets. Here, we show that earthworms possess a class of unique surf...

  7. Tracking earthworm communities from soil DNA

    Bienert, F.; De Danieli, S.; Miquel, C.; Coissac, E.; Poillot, C.; Brun, J.J.; Taberlet, P.

    2012-01-01

    Earthworms are known for their important role within the functioning of an ecosystem, and their diversity can be used as an indicator of ecosystem health. To date, earthworm diversity has been investigated through conventional extraction methods such as handsorting, soil washing or the application of a mustard solution. Such techniques are time consuming and often difficult to apply. We showed that combining DNA metabarcoding and next-generation sequencing facilitates the identification of ea...

  8. Biochemical diversity of betaines in earthworms

    Highlights: ► We develop a method for rapid untargetted analysis of betaines. ► We profile betaines in a comparative study of ten earthworm species. ► Earthworms contain a surprisingly high number of different betaine metabolites. ► Earthworms contain betaines normally seen only in plants or marine animals. -- Abstract: The ability to accumulate osmoprotectant compounds, such as betaines, is an important evolutionary feature in many organisms. This is particularly the case for organisms that live in variable environments, which may have fluctuations in moisture and salinity levels. There is, surprisingly, very little known about betaines in soil invertebrates in general, and there is almost no information about earthworms – a group that are important ‘ecosystem engineers’ and key indicators of soil health. Here, we describe a fast and reliable 1H–13C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) 2D NMR approach for the metabolic profiling of a series of betaines and related metabolites in tissue extracts, and list 1H and 13C chemical shifts for the trimethylammonium signal for 23 such compounds. The analysis of ten different species from three different families (Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Glossoscolecidae) showed an unexpected diversity of betaines present in earthworms. In total ten betaines were identified, including hydroxyproline-betaine, proline-betaine, taurine-betaine, GABA-betaine and histidine-betaine, and a further eleven as-yet unassigned putative betaine metabolites detected. The findings clearly indicate a hitherto-unappreciated important role for betaine metabolism in earthworms

  9. Effect of Soil Physical State on the Earthworms in Hungary

    Márton Jolánkai; Csaba Gyuricza; Attila Stingli; Laszlo Bottlik; Marta Birkas

    2010-01-01

    Hungarian authors have long been discussing the role of earthworms in improving soil productivity. Earthworm counts in our higher quality soils are similar to those found in soils where more attention is paid to earthworm activity. Negative impacts that are independent of farming—such as sustained dry spells in the summer—also affect earthworm counts. Negative impacts that definitely depend on farming include land use causing soil moisture loss, deep stubble treatment leaving the soil without...

  10. Microscale interactions between earthworms and microorganisms: a review

    Zirbes, L.; Thonart, P; HAUBRUGE E.

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are well adapted to their soil microhabitat where they live together in consortia, interacting with other living members, including earthworms. This literature review consists of four sections that focus on microscale interactions between earthworms and microorganisms. The first part is devoted to nephridia symbiosis. Recent discoveries show that Verminephrobacter spp. is present as a symbiont in earthworm nephridia. The second section deals with earthworm food preference and f...

  11. Promotion of leaf degradation by earthworms under laboratory conditions

    Heijne, Dr. Bart; de Jager, Anton; Jong, Peter Frans de

    2006-01-01

    Organic materials were applied to leaves from organic apple trees. Then, leaves were fed to earthworms in a laboratory culture. The objective was to select materials which promote leaf degradation by earthworms and consequently reduce the inoculum pressure of apple scab in orchards. Used earthworms were fully grown and consequently no effect of the leaf treatments was found on earthworm weights. However, leaf consumption tended to be increased by addition of amino acids and beet pulp to leave...

  12. Freezing and Food Safety

    ... Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Freezing and Food Safety What Can You Freeze? Is Frozen Food Safe? ...

  13. Biological assessment of contaminated land using earthworm biomarkers in support of chemical analysis

    Biological indicators can be used to assess polluted sites but their success depends on the availability of suitable assays. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of two earthworm biomarkers, lysosomal membrane stability measured using the neutral red retention assay (NRR-T) and the total immune activity (TIA) assay, that have previously been established as responsive to chemical exposure. Responses of the two assays were measured following in situ exposure to complexly contaminated field soils at three industrial sites as well as urban and rural controls. The industrial sites were contaminated with a range of metal (cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, nickel and cobalt) and organic (including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) contaminants, but at concentrations below the 'New Dutch List' Intervention concentrations. Exposed earthworms accumulated both metals and organic compounds at the contaminated sites, indicating that there was significant exposure. No effect on earthworm survival was found at any of the sites. Biomarker measurements, however, indicated significant effects, with lower NRR-T and TIA found in the contaminated soils when compared to the two controls. The results demonstrate that a comparison of soil pollutant concentrations with guideline values would not have unequivocally identified chemical exposure and toxic effect for soil organisms living in these soils. However, the earthworm biomarkers successfully identified significant exposure and biological effects caused by the mixture of chemicals present

  14. Bacterial Diversity in the Digestive Tract of Earthworms (Oligochaeta)

    Hortensia Brito-Vega; David Espinosa-Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Anecic, epigeous and endogeous earthworms stimulate or inhibit the growth of bacteria of agricultural importance inside their digestive tracts. It is possible that these bacteria establish a mutual symbiosis within the digestive tract of the earthworm. The bacterial species reported within the intestines of the earthworms belong to the genuses Bacillus, Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Nocardia, Gordonia, Vibrio, Clostridium, Proteus, Serratia, Mycobacterium, Klebsiella, Azotob...

  15. Earthworms, Dirt, and Rotten Leaves: An Exploration in Ecology.

    McLaughlin, Molly

    1994-01-01

    This article provides a model for inviting children to "an exploration in ecology" by observing earthworms. It gives reasons to explore earthworms and guides the investigator through a detailed examination of the worms to answer 21 observation questions. Explores the ways in which earthworms interact with their environment. (LZ)

  16. Rediscovery of Fimoscolex sporadochaetus Michaelsen 1918 (Clitellata: Glossoscolecidae, and considerations on the endemism and diversity of Brazilian earthworms

    Samuel W. JAMES

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil hosts approximately 305 earthworm species, of which 260 (85% are native and 46 (15% exotic. Most of the native species (80% are known from only one or a few sites, and two species were considered as extinct by the Ministry of Environment of Brazil in 2003, due to lack of sightings, habitat destruction and a limited prior known distribution (endemism. One of these, Fimoscolex spora-dochaetus Michaelsen, 1918 was recently found in a forest reserve (Parque Estadual do Itacolomi, near the reservoir Bacio do Custódio in Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais. With this finding, and based on earthworm collection data in Brazil up to now, we believe that the endangered and "extinct" species should have their status reviewed, and that further collecting efforts are urgently necessary to adequately determine the extent of earthworm biodiversity in Brazil and the present level of threat to their survival.

  17. Biochemical diversity of betaines in earthworms

    Liebeke, Manuel [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bundy, Jacob G., E-mail: j.bundy@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: ► We develop a method for rapid untargetted analysis of betaines. ► We profile betaines in a comparative study of ten earthworm species. ► Earthworms contain a surprisingly high number of different betaine metabolites. ► Earthworms contain betaines normally seen only in plants or marine animals. -- Abstract: The ability to accumulate osmoprotectant compounds, such as betaines, is an important evolutionary feature in many organisms. This is particularly the case for organisms that live in variable environments, which may have fluctuations in moisture and salinity levels. There is, surprisingly, very little known about betaines in soil invertebrates in general, and there is almost no information about earthworms – a group that are important ‘ecosystem engineers’ and key indicators of soil health. Here, we describe a fast and reliable {sup 1}H–{sup 13}C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) 2D NMR approach for the metabolic profiling of a series of betaines and related metabolites in tissue extracts, and list {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C chemical shifts for the trimethylammonium signal for 23 such compounds. The analysis of ten different species from three different families (Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Glossoscolecidae) showed an unexpected diversity of betaines present in earthworms. In total ten betaines were identified, including hydroxyproline-betaine, proline-betaine, taurine-betaine, GABA-betaine and histidine-betaine, and a further eleven as-yet unassigned putative betaine metabolites detected. The findings clearly indicate a hitherto-unappreciated important role for betaine metabolism in earthworms.

  18. Correlations between Lumbricus terrestris survival and gut microbiota

    Knut Rudi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The interplay between diet, gut bacteria and health still remain enigmatic. Here, we addressed this issue through the investigation of the effect of crystalline cellulose on the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris gut microbiota composition and survival. Methods : Earthworm gut contents were analyzed after 14 days of feeding using a mixed 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach, in addition to direct measurements of cellulase activity. The survival of earthworms was followed each week for 17 weeks. Results : We found a tendency that the crystalline cellulose fed earthworms survived better than the high energy fed earthworms (p=0.08. Independent of feeding we found that the bacterial group related to Ferrimonadaceae was correlated to an increased lifespan (p=0.01. We also found a positive correlation between Ruminococcaceae related bacteria and cellulase activity in the earthworm gut (p=0.05. Surprisingly, however, the cellulase activity was not correlated to the feeding regime. Conclusion : Taken together, the interactions between diet, gut microbiota and lifespan seem complex.

  19. Productivity Potentials and Nutritional Values of Semi-arid Zone Earthworm (Hyperiodrilus euryaulos; Clausen, 1967 Cultured in Organic Wastes as Fish Meal Supplement

    A.O. Sogbesan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study 60 Adult Earthworms (H. euryaulos of weight and length range 1.7-3.0 g (mean-2.34±0.91 g and 13.0-28.0 cm (mean-21.5±5.8 cm, respectively were cultured for 12 weeks. The productivity potential and nutrient composition of earthworm (H. euryaulos cultured in two rearing substrata (Cellulose Substrate (Control - Coded Hs1 and Dry Neem and leaves and soil Substrate - Coded Hs2 were assessed using six wooden boxes stocked in triplicates at the rate of 92.7 g earthworms per box. The higher total final weight, weekly weight gain, relative growth rate, specific growth rate and survival of 400.6 g kg-1 of substrate, 25.7 g/week/substrate, 332.5, 0.76/day and 99.0% while the lower of 367.5 g kg-1 of substrate, 22.9 g/week, 296.4, 0.71/day and 98.0% were recorded in earthworm cultured in cellulose substrate and the soil substrate respectively. The proximate analyses, mineral compositions and amino acids indices were comparable to those of conventional fish meal. Based on the results of this study, the utilization of cellulose substrate is recommended for the culture of earthworm and the inclusion of the earthworm meal is guarantee as a reliable and nutritional dependable fish meal supplement.

  20. Assessing the impact of organic and inorganic amendments on the toxicity and bioavailability of a metal-contaminated soil to the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    González, Verónica; Díez-Ortiz, María; Simón, Mariano; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2013-11-01

    Metal-contaminated soil, from the El Arteal mining district (SE Spain), was remediated with organic (6% compost) and inorganic amendments (8% marble sludge) to reduce the mobility of metals and to modify its potential environmental impact. Different measures of metal bioavailability (chemical analysis; survival, growth, reproduction and bioaccumulation in the earthworm Eisenia andrei), were tested in order to evaluate the efficacy of organic and inorganic amendments as immobilizing agents in reducing metal (bio)availability in the contaminated soil. The inorganic amendment reduced water and CaCl2-extractable concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn, while the organic amendment increased these concentrations compared to the untreated soil. The inorganic treatment did not significantly reduce toxicity for the earthworm E. andrei after 28 days exposure. The organic amendment however, made the metal-contaminated soil more toxic to the earthworms, with all earthworms dying in undiluted soil and completely inhibiting reproduction at concentrations higher than 25%. This may be due to increased available metal concentrations and higher electrical conductivity in the compost-amended soil. No effects of organic and inorganic treatments on metal bioaccumulation in the earthworms were found and metal concentrations in the earthworms increased with increasing total soil concentrations. PMID:23677751

  1. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF AMBIENT AND ALTERED EARTHWORM COMMUNITIES IN ROW-CROP AGROECOSYSTEMS IN OHIO, USA

    Although earthworms are known to influence agroecosystem processes, there are relatively few long-term studies addressing population dynamics under cropping systems in which earthworm populations were intentionally altered. We assessed earthworm communities from fall 1994 to spr...

  2. Soil fauna research in Poland: earthworms (Lumbricidae

    Pączka Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms are the foundation of ecosystem services. Of particular notice is zooedaphone, often underestimated and basically unknown to the general public. The present review summarizes the current state of knowledge related to earthworms occurring in natural and anthropogenically altered habitats in Poland, in the context of the requirement for protection of soil biodiversity.

  3. Basic Research Tools for Earthworm Ecology

    Earthworms are responsible for soil development, recycling organic matter and form a vital component within many food webs. For these and other reasons earthworms are worthy of investigation. Many technologically-enhanced approaches have been used within earthworm-focused research. These have their place, may be a development of existing practices or bring techniques from other fields. Nevertheless, let us not overlook the fact that much can still be learned through utilisation of more basic approaches which have been used for some time. New does not always equate to better. Information on community composition within an area and specific population densities can be learned using simple collection techniques, and burrowing behaviour can be determined from pits, resin-insertion or simple mesocosms. Life history studies can be achieved through maintenance of relatively simple cultures. Behavioural observations can be undertaken by direct observation or with low cost we became usage. Applied aspects of earthworm research can also be achieved through use of simple techniques to enhance population development and even population dynamics can be directly addressed with use of relatively inexpensive, effective marking techniques. This paper seeks to demonstrate that good quality research in this sphere can result from appropriate application of relatively simple research tools.

  4. Earthworms, pesticides and sustainable agriculture: a review.

    Datta, Shivika; Singh, Joginder; Singh, Sharanpreet; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this review is to generate awareness and understand the importance of earthworms in sustainable agriculture and effect of pesticides on their action. The natural resources are finite and highly prone to degradation by the misuse of land and mismanagement of soil. The world is in utter need of a healthy ecosystem that provides with fertile soil, clean water, food and other natural resources. Anthropogenic activities have led to an increased contamination of land. The intensification of industrial and agricultural practices chiefly the utilization of pesticides has in almost every way made our natural resources concave. Earthworms help in a number of tasks that support many ecosystem services that favor agrosystem sustainability but are degraded by exhaustive practices such as the use of pesticides. The present review assesses the response of earthworm toward the pesticides and also evaluates the relationship between earthworm activity and plant growth. We strictly need to refresh and rethink on the policies and norms devised by us on sustainable ecology. In an equivalent way, the natural resources should be utilized and further, essential ways for betterment of present and future livelihood should be sought. PMID:26951221

  5. Visualization of enzyme activities inside earthworm pores

    Hoang, Duyen; Razavi, Bahar S.

    2015-04-01

    In extremely dynamic microhabitats as bio-pores made by earthworm, the in situ enzyme activities are assumed as a footprint of complex biotic interactions. Our study focused on the effect of earthworm on the enzyme activities inside bio-pores and visualizing the differences between bio-pores and earthworm-free soil by zymography technique (Spohn and Kuzyakov, 2013). For the first time, we aimed at quantitative imaging of enzyme activities in bio-pores. Lumbricus terrestris L. was placed into transparent box (152015cm). After two weeks when bio-pore systems were formed by earthworms, we visualized in situ enzyme activities of five hydrolytic enzymes (?-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, chitinase, xylanase, leucine-aminopeptidase, and phosphatase. Zymography showed higher activity of ?-glucosidase, chitinase, xylanase and phosphatase in biopores comparing to bulk soil. However, the differences in activity of cellobiohydrolase and leucine aminopeptidase between bio-pore and bulk soil were less pronounced. This demonstrated an applicability of zymography approach to monitor and to distinguish the in situ activity of hydrolytic enzymes in soil biopores.

  6. Acute and chronic toxicity testing of TPH-contaminated soils with the earthworm, Eisenia foetida

    Responses of Eisenia foetida to petroleum-contaminated soils are being assessed using a 21-day test described previously. The authors prepared dilutions of two soils, referred to as A and B, using their reference-soil counterparts, collected from near the contaminated sites. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of each soil was measured by latroscan before the dilutions were prepared. References for the A and B soils contained 167 and 1,869 ppm of TPH, respectively. Thus, neither reference soil was pristine. Dilutions of the A soil tested with E. foetida contained from 179 to 305 ppm TPH; dilutions of the B soil contained from 1,875 to 1,950 ppm TPH. E foetida survival was 100% in both dilution series. Mean growth of Eisenia in dilutions of the A soil ranged from 48 to 74 mg dry-weight growth per pair of worms; these values were lower than those in any dilution of the B soil series. Lipid levels of worms in higher concentrations of the A and B soils were similar to one another and to published values, suggesting little inhibition of feeding in either dilution series. Earthworm reproduction was zero in the A series, but moderately high in the B series. Thus, the A soil apparently contained materials other than TPH that inhibited earthworm growth and reproduction. This study shows that (1) TPH at concentrations as high as 1,800 ppm may not always be inhibitor to earthworm growth or reproduction and (2) that earthworm survival, as a test endpoint, is much less sensitive than either growth or reproduction

  7. [Ecotoxicological effects of chlorotetracycline on earthworm in soil].

    Ji, Zhan-Hua; An, Jing; Xiao, Ming-Yue; Wei, Shu-He; Tai, Pei-Dong; Lu, Ze

    2014-10-01

    Eiseniafoetida was selected to investigate the ecotoxicological effects of chlorotetracycline on the earthworm in soil. The results showed that 1, 10 and 100 mg kg(-1) chlorotetracycline had no significant effects on earthworm's body mass after a 7-d exposure, but it was significantly inhibited by 10, 100 mg kg(-1) chlorotetracycline after 21 days. The soluble protein content of earthworm was induced by 1, 10 and 100 mg kg(-1) chlorotetracycline, and showed a positive response as the con- centration increased. Also, the earthworm treated by 1, 10 and 100 mg kg(-1) chlorotetracycline induced the increases of SOD, POD and CAT activities to different degrees. The gene expression in earthworm changed significantly after a 28-d exposure. It is suggested that chlorotetracycline had a chronic ecotoxicological effect on earthworm, and the body mass, soluble protein, antioxidant en- zyme and gene expression could be used as the biomarkers to estimate chlorotetracycline toxicity. PMID:25796913

  8. The 2007 California Citrus Freeze: Vulnerability, Poverty, and Unemployment Issues of Farmworkers

    Orozco, Graciela Leon

    2010-01-01

    In January of 2007, freezing temperatures destroyed citrus and vegetable crops in California. By May 2007, more than 9,000 freeze-related unemployment applications had been fled. Through face-to-face interviews, this study documents the experience of 63 farmworkers to find out how they survived the freeze and accessed services. Findings revealed

  9. Freeze drying method

    Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  10. Freeze drying apparatus

    Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  11. Effects of earthworms on soil structure and physical properties

    Blanchart, Eric; Albrecht, Alain; Alegre, J; Duboisset, Arnaud; Gilot, Cécile; Pashanasi, B.; Lavelle, P. (ed.); Brussaard, L.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of earthworms on soil structure and the resulting physical properties in natural or cultivated systems were studied in different sites of the Macrofauna project. Four main results were obtained from these experiments : (1) In kaolinitic soils (Lamto, Manaus, Yurimaguas), irrespective of clay content, andogeic earthworms play a major role in soil structure formation and maintenance, while in smectitic soils (Martinique), the effects of earthworms on soil structure formation and mai...

  12. Effects of Earthworms on the Dispersal of Steinernema spp.

    Shapiro, D.I.; Tylka, G. L.; Berry, E. C.; Lewis, L. C.

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that dispersal of S. carpocapsae may be enhanced in soil with earthworms. The objective of this research was to determine and compare the effects of earthworms on dispersal of other Steinernema spp. Vertical dispersal of Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, and S. glaseri was tested in soil columns in the presence and absence of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris). Dispersal was evaluated by a bioassay and by direct extraction of nematodes from soil. Upward dispersal ...

  13. The role of earthworm defense mechanisms in ecotoxicity studies

    Roubalová, R. (Radka); Procházková, P. (Petra); Dvořák, J.; Škanta, F. (František); M Bilej

    2015-01-01

    Earthworms are important soil organisms that affect the soil structure by influencing organic and inorganic matter breakdown. Earthworms are in permanent contact with soil particles via their permeable skin and digestive tract and are thus strongly affected by pollutants present in the soil. Earthworms often live in very hostile environments with an abundant microflora and therefore have developed very potent defense mechanisms. These mechanisms have been described to be influe...

  14. Earthworm mucus stimulates oviposition in a predatory fly (Diptera: Anthomyiidae).

    Morris, D E; Pivnick, K A

    1991-11-01

    Coenosia tigrina larvae feed on earthworms. We hypothesized that earthworm mucus contains a kairomone that stimulates oviposition behavior in adultC. tigrina females, thus minimizing the search area in the soil required for newly eclosed larvae to find earthworms. In bioassays, adult females responded with extension of the ovipositor 25-43% of the time to earthworm-mucus-soaked filter paper disks compared to 6-7% in response to water-soaked disks. Ovipositor extension on mucus-soaked disks was followed by egg-laying 29% of the time and 0% of the time on water-soaked disks. Egg-laying byC. tigrina followed a diurnal periodicity, with most eggs laid in the latter half of the photophase even in the absence of earthworm mucus. More eggs were deposited from 1600 to 1800 hr by females given access to earthworm mucus during that period than were deposited by females not given access. There was no difference in the number of eggs deposited from 0600 to 0800 hr, by females given access to earthworm mucus or not. This is a time of day when few eggs are normally laid. This paper is the first report of an earthworm-produced kairomone in an insect-earthworm interaction. The kairomone may have potential for enhancing biological control of the onion maggot,Delia antiqua, which is a prey of adultC. tigrina. PMID:24258588

  15. Dynamics of earthworms in some Colombian Andean hillsides

    Samples were taken from 40 year old forest and from Pennisetum clandestinum pastures in hillside soil, with the aim of determining the temporal dynamics of earthworm diversity, abundance and biomass. The methodology consisted in manually taking two soil samples per week of a volume of 1 x 1 x 0.6 m each. The parameters vary depending on land use and time of sampling. In total 17 earthworm species were found in the soil. Earthworm diversity and biomass were higher in S+40 years than in P. clandestinum (11 vs 9), while earthworm density was higher in P. clandestinum

  16. Greenhouse-gas emissions from soils increased by earthworms

    Lubbers, Ingrid M.; van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Fonte, Steven J.; Six, Johan; Brussaard, Lijbert; van Groenigen, Jan Willem

    2013-03-01

    Earthworms play an essential part in determining the greenhouse-gas balance of soils worldwide, and their influence is expected to grow over the next decades. They are thought to stimulate carbon sequestration in soil aggregates, but also to increase emissions of the main greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. Hence, it remains highly controversial whether earthworms predominantly affect soils to act as a net source or sink of greenhouse gases. Here, we provide a quantitative review of the overall effect of earthworms on the soil greenhouse-gas balance. Our results suggest that although earthworms are largely beneficial to soil fertility, they increase net soil greenhouse-gas emissions.

  17. Sensing microorganisms in the gut triggers the immune response in Eisenia andrei earthworms.

    Dvořák, Jiří; Roubalová, Radka; Procházková, Petra; Rossmann, Pavel; Škanta, František; Bilej, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The tube-within-tube body plan of earthworms is appropriate for studying the interactions of microorganisms with the immune system of body cavities such as the digestive tract and coelom. This study aims to describe the immune response on the molecular and cellular level in the coelomic cavity and the gut of the earthworm Eisenia andrei after experimental microbial challenge by administering two bacterial strains (Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis) or yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the environment. The changes in mRNA levels of defense molecules (pattern recognition receptor CCF, lysozyme, fetidin/lysenins) in the coelomocytes and gut tissue were determined by quantitative PCR. The immune response at a cellular level was captured in histological sections, and the expression of CCF was localized using in situ hybridization. Coelomocytes respond to the presence of bacteria in the coelomic cavity by increasing the mRNA levels of defense molecules, especially CCF. The immune response in gut tissue is less affected by microbial stimulation because the epithelial cells of gut exhibit basically strong mRNA synthesis of ccf as a defense against the continuous microbial load in the gut lumen. The cellular immune response is mediated by coelomocytes released from the mesenchymal lining of the coelomic cavity. These combined immune mechanisms are necessary for the survival of earthworms in the microbially rich environment of soil. PMID:26684064

  18. ECOTOXICOLOGICAL BIOASSAYS OF THE EARTHWORMS ALLOLOBOPHORA CALIGINOSA SAVIGNY AND PHERETIMA HAWAYANA ROSA TREATED WITH ARSENATE

    Abdelmonem Mohamed Khalil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Little research has been carried out on the effect of arsenate on earthworms. Ecotoxicological laboratory tests are fundamental tools for assessing the toxicity of arsenate to soil organisms. In this study, the impact of arsenate on the survival, reproduction and behaviour of the endogenic earthworms Allolobophora caliginosa and the anecic earthworms Pheretima hawayana has been quantified. The 96-h LC 50 of arsenate was estimated as 233.43 mg arsenate Kg-1 soil. d.w. for P. hawayana which is significantly higher than that of A. caliginosa 147.24±27.16 mg arsenate kg-1 soil d.w. The number of juveniles of P. hawayana was significantly higher than that of A. caliginosa at the arsenate concentrations 180, 240 and 400 mg kg-1 soil dry weight. With the exception of the control (6.5 mg arsenate kg-1 soil.d.w., P. hawayana showed an avoidance behaviour for soils treated with all tested concentrations. A. caliginosa preferred soils treated with 6.5, 60, 110, 180 mg arsenate kg-1 soil d.w., while the avoidance behaviour has been recorded only at 240 and 400 mg arsenate kg-1 soil. d.w. This means that A. caliginosa individuals feed less when exposed to arsenate. On the contrary, the P. hawayana worms could be escaped into their deep vertical burrows when exposed to arsenate.

  19. Impact of a changed inundation regime caused by climate change and floodplain rehabilitation on population viability of earthworms in a lower River Rhine floodplain.

    Thonon, Ivo; Klok, Chris

    2007-01-01

    River floodplains are dynamic and fertile ecosystems where soil invertebrates such as earthworms can reach high population densities. Earthworms are an important food source for a wide range of organisms including species under conservation such as badgers. Flooding, however, reduces earthworm numbers. Populations recover from cocoons that survive floods. If the period between two floods is too short such that cocoons cannot develop into reproductive adults, populations cannot sustain themselves. Both climate change and floodplain rehabilitation change the flooding frequency affecting earthworm populations. The present paper estimates the influence of climate change and floodplain rehabilitation on the viability of earthworm populations in a Dutch floodplain; the Afferdensche and Deestsche Waarden along the River Waal. This floodplain will be part of major river rehabilitation plans of the Dutch government. In those plans, the floodplain will experience the construction of a secondary channel and the removal of part of its minor embankment. To estimate the impact of these plans and climate change, we used a dataset of daily discharges for 1900-2003 for the River Rhine at the Dutch-German border. We perturbed this dataset to obtain two new datasets under climate change scenarios for 2050 and 2100. From the original and two projected datasets we derived the frequency distributions for the annual periods without inundations for the studied floodplain. We subsequently compared the duration of these inundation-free (dry) periods with the maturation age distribution for L. rubellus as derived from a Dynamic Energy Budget model. This comparison yielded in which parts of our study area and under which climate conditions the populations would still be viable, be able to adapt or become extinct. The results show that climate change has almost no adverse effect on earthworm viability. This is because climate change reduces the flooding frequency during the earthworms growing season. Floodplain rehabilitation, on the other hand, reduces the part of the floodplain area where populations can sustain themselves. Before rehabilitation, only 12% of the floodplain area cannot sustain a viable earthworm population. After rehabilitation, this increases to 59%, 28% of which is due to more frequent flooding. Enhanced exposure to soil contaminants may further suppress earthworm viability. This could frustrate further nature development and the viability of earthworm-dependent species such as the badger (Meles meles) or little owl (Athene noctua vidalli species), which is an objective of the river rehabilitation plans in the Netherlands. PMID:17140641

  20. Ecological transfer of radionuclides and metals to free-living earthworm species in natural habitats rich in NORM

    Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena, E-mail: jelena.mrdakovic.popic@umb.no; Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis

    2012-01-01

    Transfer of radionuclides ({sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U) and associated metals (As, Cd, Pb and Cr) from soil to free-living earthworm species was investigated in a thorium ({sup 232}Th) rich area in Norway. Sampling took place within former mining sites representing the technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM), at undisturbed site with unique bedrock geology representing the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and at site outside the {sup 232}Th rich area taken as reference Background site. Soil analysis revealed the elevated levels of investigated elements at NORM and TENORM sites. Based on sequential extraction, uranium ({sup 238}U) and cadmium (Cd) were quite mobile, while the other elements were strongly associated with mineral components of soil. Four investigated earthworm species (Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Dendrodrilus rubidus and Lumbricus rubellus) showed large individual variability in the accumulation of radionuclides and metals. Differences in uptake by epigeic and endogeic species, as well as differences within same species from the NORM, TENORM and Background sites were also seen. Based on total concentrations in soil, the transfer factors (TF) were in ranges 0.03-0.08 and 0.09-0.25, for {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, respectively. TFs for lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) were low (less than 0.5), while TFs for Cd were higher (about 10). Using the ERICA tool, the estimated radiation exposure dose rate of the earthworms ranged from 2.2 to 3.9 {mu}Gy/h. The radiological risk for investigated earthworms was low (0.28). The obtained results demonstrated that free-living earthworm species can survive in soil containing elevated {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, as well As, Cd, Pb and Cr levels, although certain amount of radionuclides was accumulated within their bodies. The present investigation contributes to general better understanding of complex soil-to-biota transfer processes of radionuclides and metals and to assessment of risk for non-human species in the ecosystem with multiple contaminants. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transfer of radionuclides ({sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U) and metals (As, Cr, Cd and Pb) from soil to earthworms was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Individual organisms' variability and species specific accumulation were demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results suggested that earthworms could survive in habitats with multiple contaminants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estimated radiological risk was not significant despite high soil concentrations of radionuclides.

  1. Ecological transfer of radionuclides and metals to free-living earthworm species in natural habitats rich in NORM

    Transfer of radionuclides (232Th and 238U) and associated metals (As, Cd, Pb and Cr) from soil to free-living earthworm species was investigated in a thorium (232Th) rich area in Norway. Sampling took place within former mining sites representing the technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM), at undisturbed site with unique bedrock geology representing the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and at site outside the 232Th rich area taken as reference Background site. Soil analysis revealed the elevated levels of investigated elements at NORM and TENORM sites. Based on sequential extraction, uranium (238U) and cadmium (Cd) were quite mobile, while the other elements were strongly associated with mineral components of soil. Four investigated earthworm species (Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Dendrodrilus rubidus and Lumbricus rubellus) showed large individual variability in the accumulation of radionuclides and metals. Differences in uptake by epigeic and endogeic species, as well as differences within same species from the NORM, TENORM and Background sites were also seen. Based on total concentrations in soil, the transfer factors (TF) were in ranges 0.03–0.08 and 0.09–0.25, for 232Th and 238U, respectively. TFs for lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) were low (less than 0.5), while TFs for Cd were higher (about 10). Using the ERICA tool, the estimated radiation exposure dose rate of the earthworms ranged from 2.2 to 3.9 μGy/h. The radiological risk for investigated earthworms was low (0.28). The obtained results demonstrated that free-living earthworm species can survive in soil containing elevated 232Th and 238U, as well As, Cd, Pb and Cr levels, although certain amount of radionuclides was accumulated within their bodies. The present investigation contributes to general better understanding of complex soil-to-biota transfer processes of radionuclides and metals and to assessment of risk for non-human species in the ecosystem with multiple contaminants. - Highlights: ► Transfer of radionuclides (232Th, 238U) and metals (As, Cr, Cd and Pb) from soil to earthworms was investigated. ► Individual organisms’ variability and species specific accumulation were demonstrated. ► Results suggested that earthworms could survive in habitats with multiple contaminants. ► Estimated radiological risk was not significant despite high soil concentrations of radionuclides.

  2. Teaching basic neurophysiology using intact earthworms.

    Kladt, Nikolay; Hanslik, Ulrike; Heinzel, Hans-Georg

    2010-01-01

    Introductory neurobiology courses face the problem that practical exercises often require expensive equipment, dissections, and a favorable student-instructor ratio. Furthermore, the duration of an experiment might exceed available time or the level of required expertise is too high to successfully complete the experiment. As a result, neurobiological experiments are commonly replaced by models and simulations, or provide only very basic experiments, such as the frog sciatic nerve preparation, which are often time consuming and tedious. Action potential recordings in giant fibers of intact earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) circumvent many of these problems and result in a nearly 100% success rate. Originally, these experiments were introduced as classroom exercises by Charles Drewes in 1978 using awake, moving earthworms. In 1990, Hans-Georg Heinzel described further experiments using anesthetized earthworms. In this article, we focus on the application of these experiments as teaching tools for basic neurobiology courses. We describe and extend selected experiments, focusing on specific neurobiological principles with experimental protocols optimized for classroom application. Furthermore, we discuss our experience using these experiments in animal physiology and various neurobiology courses at the University of Bonn. PMID:23494516

  3. Earthworm eco-physiological characteristics and quantification of earthworm feeding in vermifiltration system for sewage sludge stabilization using stable isotopic natural abundance

    Highlights: • Earthworm growth biomass and activity decreased with the VF depth. • Earthworm gut microbial communities were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. • δ15N and δ13C in earthworms decreased with time, and increased with the VF depth. • Effect of earthworm feeding in enhanced VSS reduction was analyzed quantitatively. • Earthworm feeding had low contribution to the enhanced VSS reduction. - Abstract: Previous studies showed that the presence of earthworm improves treatment performance of vermifilter (VF) for sewage sludge stabilization, but earthworm eco-physiological characteristics and effects in VF were not fully investigated. In this study, earthworm population, enzymatic activity, gut microbial community and stable isotopic abundance were investigated in the VF. Results showed that biomass, average weight, number and alkaline phosphatase activity of the earthworms tended to decrease, while protein content and activities of peroxidase and catalase had an increasing tendency as the VF depth. Earthworm gut microbial communities were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, and the percentages arrived to 76–92% of the microbial species detected. 15N and 13C natural abundance of the earthworms decreased with operation time, and increased as the VF depth. Quantitative analysis using δ15N showed that earthworm feeding and earthworm–microorganism interaction were responsible for approximately 21% and 79%, respectively, of the enhanced volatile suspended solid reduction due to the presence of earthworm. The finding provides a quantitative insight into how earthworms influence on sewage sludge stabilization in vermifiltration system

  4. Earthworm eco-physiological characteristics and quantification of earthworm feeding in vermifiltration system for sewage sludge stabilization using stable isotopic natural abundance

    Li, Xiaowei; Xing, Meiyan, E-mail: lixiaowei419@163.com; Yang, Jian; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Earthworm growth biomass and activity decreased with the VF depth. • Earthworm gut microbial communities were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. • δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 13}C in earthworms decreased with time, and increased with the VF depth. • Effect of earthworm feeding in enhanced VSS reduction was analyzed quantitatively. • Earthworm feeding had low contribution to the enhanced VSS reduction. - Abstract: Previous studies showed that the presence of earthworm improves treatment performance of vermifilter (VF) for sewage sludge stabilization, but earthworm eco-physiological characteristics and effects in VF were not fully investigated. In this study, earthworm population, enzymatic activity, gut microbial community and stable isotopic abundance were investigated in the VF. Results showed that biomass, average weight, number and alkaline phosphatase activity of the earthworms tended to decrease, while protein content and activities of peroxidase and catalase had an increasing tendency as the VF depth. Earthworm gut microbial communities were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, and the percentages arrived to 76–92% of the microbial species detected. {sup 15}N and {sup 13}C natural abundance of the earthworms decreased with operation time, and increased as the VF depth. Quantitative analysis using δ{sup 15}N showed that earthworm feeding and earthworm–microorganism interaction were responsible for approximately 21% and 79%, respectively, of the enhanced volatile suspended solid reduction due to the presence of earthworm. The finding provides a quantitative insight into how earthworms influence on sewage sludge stabilization in vermifiltration system.

  5. Gene Expression Analysis of CL-20-induced Reversible Neurotoxicity Reveals GABAA Receptors as Potential Target in the Earthworm Eisenia fetida

    GONG, PING; GUAN Xin; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Liang, Chun; Perkins, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    The earthworm Eisenia fetida is one of the most used species in standardized soil ecotoxicity tests. Endpoints such as survival, growth and reproduction are eco-toxicologically relevant but provide little mechanistic insight into toxicity pathways, especially at the molecular level. Here we applied a toxicogenomic approach to investigate the mode of action underlying the reversible neurotoxicity of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), a cyclic nitroamine explosives compound. We developed an...

  6. Effects of metals on earthworm life cycles: a review.

    Sivakumar, S

    2015-08-01

    Earthworms are abundant and ecologically very important organisms in the soil ecosystem. Impacts by pollutants on earthworm communities greatly influence the fertility of the terrestrial environment. In ecotoxicology, earthworms are good indicators of metal pollution. The observed median lethal concentrations (LC50) and the effective concentrations that cause 50% reduction of earthworm growth and reproduction (EC50) are referred to as toxicity concentrations or endpoints. In addition, the 'no observed effective concentration' (NOEC) is the estimation of the toxicity of metals on earthworms expressed as the highest concentration tested that does not show effects on growth and reproduction compared to controls. This article reviews the ecotoxicological parameters of LC50, EC50 and NOEC of a set of worms exposed to a number of metals in various tested media. In addition, this article reviews metal accumulation and the influences of soil characteristics on metal accumulation in earthworms. Morphological and behavioural responses are often used in earthworm toxicity studies. Therefore, earthworm responses due to metal toxicity are also discussed in this article. PMID:26215824

  7. Freeze-drying of lactic acid bacteria.

    Fonseca, Fernanda; Cenard, Stéphanie; Passot, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are of great importance for the food and biotechnology industry. They are widely used as starters for manufacturing food (e.g., yogurt, cheese, fermented meats, and vegetables) and probiotic products, as well as for green chemistry applications. Freeze-drying or lyophilization is a convenient method for preservation of bacteria. By reducing water activity to values below 0.2, it allows long-term storage and low-cost distribution at suprazero temperatures, while minimizing losses in viability and functionality. Stabilization of bacteria via freeze-drying starts with the addition of a protectant solution to the bacterial suspension. Freeze-drying includes three steps, namely, (1) freezing of the concentrated and protected cell suspension, (2) primary drying to remove ice by sublimation, and (3) secondary drying to remove unfrozen water by desorption. In this chapter we describe a method for freeze-drying of lactic acid bacteria at a pilot scale, thus allowing control of the process parameters for maximal survival and functionality recovery. PMID:25428024

  8. Effect of Soil Physical State on the Earthworms in Hungary

    Hungarian authors have long been discussing the role of earthworms in improving soil productivity. Earthworm counts in our higher quality soils are similar to those found in soils where more attention is paid to earthworm activity. Negative impacts that are independent of farming such as sustained dry spells in the summer also affect earthworm counts. Negative impacts that definitely depend on farming include land use causing soil moisture loss, deep stubble treatment leaving the soil without cover, and ploughing in the summer without subsequent pressing. The climate change is having both positive and negative impacts. Weather patterns are causing losses but adopting climate mitigating tillage are generating benefits. In the trials results so far show that tillage focusing on preserving soil moisture, structure, and organic materials, covering the surface in the critical months as well as adequate soil loosening are fundamental pre-requisites for making the soil a favourable habitat for earthworms.

  9. Vulnerable Earthworm Species Identified from Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve

    E.V. Ramasamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of earthworms at Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is less known even though it is one among the biodiversity hot spots. Unless an authentic record of available earthworm species is made, the consequences of human alternation or climate change on the earthworm species diversity cannot be assessed. In this regard, the present study is relevant. Earthworms were collected from twenty three sites of NBR. The findings of this study showed that out of the total earthworm species identified from selected areas of NBR, 83.4% are native species and 16.6% are exotic. This indicates the predominance of native species in the study area possibly due to low level of disturbance in the area. Among the species identified from Mukurthi, Priodichaeta pellucida (Bourne which is listed as vulnerable and has not been encountered since its discovery about 100 years ago.

  10. The role of earthworm defense mechanisms in ecotoxicity studies

    R Roubalová

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are important soil organisms that affect the soil structure by influencing organic and inorganic matter breakdown. Earthworms are in permanent contact with soil particles via their permeable skin and digestive tract and are thus strongly affected by pollutants present in the soil. Earthworms often live in very hostile environments with an abundant microflora and therefore have developed very potent defense mechanisms. These mechanisms have been described to be influenced by various types of organic and inorganic pollutants and also by the nanoparticles that reach the soil system. Reduced abilities of earthworms to protect themselves against pathogenic microorganisms result in lower reproduction rates and increased mortality. In this review, a summary of the up-to-date data describing the effects of contaminants on the natural defense barriers and immune system of earthworms is presented.

  11. The Role of Earthworms in Tropics with Emphasis on Indian Ecosystems

    Natchimuthu Karmegam; Radha D Kale

    2010-01-01

    The paper highlights the research carried out by different scientists in India on aspects of earthworm population dynamics and species diversity, associated with other soil fauna and microflora. It also deals with the importance of earthworm activity on physicochemical properties of soil with reference to India and other tropical countries. Stress is laid on the earthworm plant association and importance of the secretions of earthworms as plant growth stimulators. Moreover, the earthworm spec...

  12. Gene Expression Analysis of CL-20-induced Reversible Neurotoxicity Reveals GABAA Receptors as Potential Target in the Earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Gong, Ping; Guan, Xin; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Liang, Chun; Perkins, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    The earthworm Eisenia fetida is one of the most used species in standardized soil ecotoxicity tests. Endpoints such as survival, growth and reproduction are eco-toxicologically relevant but provide little mechanistic insight into toxicity pathways, especially at the molecular level. Here we applied a toxicogenomic approach to investigate the mode of action underlying the reversible neurotoxicity of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), a cyclic nitroamine explosives compound. We developed an E. fetida-specific shotgun microarray targeting 15119 unique E. fetida transcripts. Using this array we profiled gene expression in E. fetida in response to exposure to CL-20. Eighteen earthworms were exposed for 6 days to 0.2 μg/cm2 of CL-20 on filter paper, half of which were allowed to recover in a clean environment for 7 days. Nine vehicle control earthworms were sacrificed at day 6 and 13, separately. Electrophysiological measurements indicated that the conduction velocity of earthworm medial giant nerve fiber decreased significantly after 6-day exposure to CL-20, but was restored after 7 days of recovery. Total RNA was isolated from the four treatment groups including 6-day control, 6-day exposed, 13-day control and 13-day exposed (i.e. 6-day exposure followed by 7-day recovery), and was hybridized to the 15K shot-gun oligo array. Statistical and bioinformatic analyses suggest that CL-20 initiated neurotoxicity by non-competitively blocking the ligand-gated GABAA receptor ion channel, leading to altered expression of genes involved in GABAergic, cholinergic, and Agrin-MuSK pathways. In the recovery phase, expression of affected genes returned to normality, possibly as a result of autophagy and CL-20 dissociation/metabolism. This study provides significant insights into potential mechanisms of CL-20-induced neurotoxicity and the recovery of earthworms from transient neurotoxicity stress. PMID:22191394

  13. Optimization Of Freeze-Dried Starter For Yogurt By Full Factorial Experimental Design

    Chen He

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapidly development of fermented milk product, it is significant for enhancing the performance of starter culture. This paper not only investigated the influence of anti-freeze factors and freeze-drying protective agents on viable count, freeze-drying survival rate and yield of Lactobacillus bulgaricus (LB and Streptococcus thermophilus (ST, but also optimized the bacteria proportion of freeze-dried starter culture for yogurt by full factorial experimental design. The results showed as following: the freeze-drying protective agents or anti-freeze factors could enhanced survival rate of LB and ST; the freeze-dried LB and ST powders containing both of anti-freeze factors and freeze-drying protective agents had higher viable count and freeze-drying survival rate that were 84.7% and 79.7% respectively; In terms of fermentation performance, the best group of freeze-dried starter for yogurt was the compound of LB3 and ST2.

  14. Pellet freezing of in vitro produced bovine embryos using dry ice.

    Otoi, T; Abdoon, A SS; Omaima, M TK; Tanaka, M; Suzuki, T

    2000-01-01

    In vitro produced bovine embryos were frozen by pellet freezing or vitrification method. In the pellet freezing method, the embryos were cooled on the dry ice and then frozen as pellets. At warming, the pellets were immersed directly into 0.5 M sucrose. The survival rates of blastocysts frozen by the pellet freezing method were higher (P<0.01) in 40% ethylene glycol (EG) than those in the lower concentrations (20 and 30% EG). Higher survival rates of blastocysts frozen by the pellet freezing method were obtained but the development rates did not differ, as compared with those by the vitrification method. There were no significant differences between the pellet freezing and vitrification method in the frequencies of post-thaw survival of hatched blastocysts. These results demonstrate that the pellet freezing method using dry ice can be used successfully for the cryopreservation of blastocysts. PMID:12148062

  15. Bjorken model with Freeze Out

    Magas, V K

    2007-01-01

    The freeze out of the expanding systems, created in relativistic heavy ion collisions, is discussed. We combine Bjorken scenario with earlier developed freeze out equations into a unified model. The important feature of the proposed model is that physical freeze out is completely finished in a finite time, which can be varied from 0 (freeze out hypersurface) to infinity. The dependence of the post freeze out distribution function on this freeze out time will be studied. As an example model is completely solved and analyzed for the gas of pions.

  16. PEM Fuel Cell Freeze Durability and Cold Start Project

    Patterson, T.; O' Neill, Jonathan

    2008-01-02

    UTC has taken advantage of the unique water management opportunities inherent in micro-porous bipolar-plates to improve the cold-start performance of its polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). Diagnostic experiments were used to determine the limiting factors in micro-porous plate PEFC freeze performance and the causes of any performance decay. Alternative cell materials were evaluated for their freeze performance. Freeze-thaw cycling was also performed to determine micro-porous plate PEFC survivability. Data from these experiments has formed the basis for continuing development of advanced materials capable of supporting DOE's cold-start and durability objectives.

  17. Multi-element analyses of earthworms for radioecology and ecotoxicology

    Increasing concern about environmental radiation protection has raised awareness that more information is required on the transfer and accumulation of radionuclides in the biological compartments of ecosystems. ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) selected earthworm as one of the reference organisms in their radiation protection recommendations. Earthworms play an important role in ecosystems, and might be a good indicator of soil contamination and its effect on the ecosystem. The elemental composition of earthworms gives useful information on background levels and possible accumulation of metals as well as related radionuclides. In addition, a change of the elemental composition itself might be a possible indicator of the effect on the earthworm and/or ecosystem. However, data for the elemental composition of earthworms are limited except for some specific heavy metals such as Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. In this study, earthworms and their growth media were analyzed for more than 30 elements, including radionuclide related elements such as Cs, Sr, Th and U, in order to obtain the basic information on the transfer parameters of the elements. The earthworms analyzed were fed in the laboratory or collected in the environment. The concentrations and transfer factors of the elements were determined both for laboratory and natural conditions. The controlling factors on the transfer parameters such as the bioavailability of the elements in the soils will also be discussed. (author)

  18. Status, Trends, and Advances in Earthworm Research and Vermitechnology

    In this special issue reflect the developments in the fields of earthworm research and vermitechnology. Charles Darwins observation on earthworms is a milestone in understanding the soil biology and enormous contribution to some aspects of the genesis of humus and of its role in soils. Earthworms are the best known soil inhabiting animals commonly called friends of farmers due to the beneficial role they play in soil. The research on earthworms has gained importance in India as well as in other countries. In the year 1981, an international symposium entitled Earthworm Ecology: Darwin to Vermiculture was held at Cumbria, UK, to commemorate the centenary celebration of Darwins book The Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of Worms, with Observations on Their Habits that was published in 1881 by Murray, London, UK. In the year 2000, Vermillenium-an international workshop and symposium- was held at Kalamazoo, USA, to realize the progress achieved in this field after a decade (since 1991). Recently, Ninth International Symposium on Earthworm Ecology (ISEE-9) that was held at Xalapa, Mexico, during the 5th to 10th of September 2010 clearly proved the importance of earthworms and vermitechnology by the participation of scientists from different countries. About 300 papers were received from the researchers across the world

  19. Invasive Asian Earthworms Negatively Impact Keystone Terrestrial Salamanders

    Ziemba, Julie L.

    2016-01-01

    Asian pheretimoid earthworms (e.g. Amynthas and Metaphire spp.) are invading North American forests and consuming the vital detrital layer that forest floor biota [including the keystone species Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander)], rely on for protection, food, and habitat. Plethodon cinereus population declines have been associated with leaf litter loss following the invasion of several exotic earthworm species, but there have been few studies on the specific interactions between pheretimoid earthworms and P. cinereus. Since some species of large and active pheretimoids spatially overlap with salamanders beneath natural cover objects and in detritus, they may distinctively compound the negative consequences of earthworm-mediated resource degradation by physically disturbing important salamander activities (foraging, mating, and egg brooding). We predicted that earthworms would exclude salamanders from high quality microhabitat, reduce foraging efficiency, and negatively affect salamander fitness. In laboratory trials, salamanders used lower quality microhabitat and consumed fewer flies in the presence of earthworms. In a natural field experiment, conducted on salamander populations from “non-invaded” and “pheretimoid invaded” sites in Ohio, salamanders and earthworms shared cover objects ~60% less than expected. Earthworm abundance was negatively associated with juvenile and male salamander abundance, but had no relationship with female salamander abundance. There was no effect of pheretimoid invasion on salamander body condition. Juvenile and non-resident male salamanders do not hold stable territories centered beneath cover objects such as rocks or logs, which results in reduced access to prey, greater risk of desiccation, and dispersal pressure. Habitat degradation and physical exclusion of salamanders from cover objects may hinder juvenile and male salamander performance, ultimately reducing recruitment and salamander abundance following Asian earthworm invasion. PMID:27144403

  20. Fitness and freezing: vector biology and human health

    Dumler, J. Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Microbes transmitted to mammals by arthropods contend with many factors that could impede survival. To survive, host fitness with infection must outweigh costs. In this issue of the JCI, Neelakanta et al. demonstrate that ticks infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum show enhanced fitness against freezing injury owing to induced expression of tick “antifreeze glycoprotein.” This allows A. phagocytophilum to successfully propagate and survive to cause disease in nonnatural hosts, such as human...

  1. Macropores and earthworm species affected by agronomic intensification

    Krogh, Paul Henning; Pérès, Guénola

    project EcoFINDERS we investigated the relationsship between earthworm biodiversity, macropores and three agricultural landuse types. A field campaign was conducted in October-November 2011. Earthworm burrow distribution was quantified at 10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 20 cm horizontal layer intervals down the...... soil profile to 1 meter depth and correlated with the earthworm community consisting of 12 species dominated by the endogeics Aporrectodea caliginosa and Aporrectodea chlorotica and the anecics Aporrectodea longa and Lumbricus centralis. Medium-small macropores in the ploughing layer with diameters (Ø...

  2. Comparative Genomics of Symbiotic Bacteria in Earthworm Nephridia

    Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Pinel, Nicolas; Lund, Marie Braad; Davidson, Seana; Stolyar, Sergei; Walcott, Ron; Parales, Rebecca; Richardson, P.; Stahl, David; Schramm, Andreas

    The excretory and osmoregulatory organs (nephridia) of lumbricid earthworms are densely colonized by extracellular bacterial symbionts belonging to the newly established betaproteobacterial genus Verminephrobacter. The nephridial symbiont of the earthworm Eisenia fetida was subjected to full genome...... sequencing along with two of its closest relatives; the plant pathogenic Acidovorax avena subsp. citrulli and the free-living Acidovorax sp. JS42. In addition, the genome of the nephridial symbiont of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata was partially sequenced. In order to resolve the functional and...

  3. Cold tolerance and freeze-induced glucose accumulation in three terrestrial slugs

    Slotsbo, Stine; Hansen, Lars Monrad; Jordaens, Kurt; Backeljau, Thierry; Malmendal, Anders; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Holmstrup, Martin

    2012-01-01

    their habitat. Slugs spontaneously froze at about -4 °C when cooled under dry conditions, but freezing of body fluids was readily induced at -1 °C when in contact with external ice crystals. All three species survived freezing for 2 days at -1 °C, and some A. rufus and A. lusitanicus also survived....... Glucose increased from about 6 to 22 µg/mg dry tissue upon freezing in A. rufus, but less so in A. ater and A. lusitanicus. Glucose may thus act as a cryoprotectant in these slugs, although the concentrations are not as high as reported for other freeze tolerant invertebrates....

  4. Slow desiccation improves dehydration tolerance and accumulation of compatible osmolytes in earthworm cocoons (Dendrobaena octaedra Savigny).

    Petersen, Christina R; Holmstrup, Martin; Malmendal, Anders; Bayley, Mark; Overgaard, Johannes

    2008-06-01

    The earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra, is a common species in temperate and subarctic regions of the northern hemisphere. The egg capsules ('cocoons') of D. octaedra are deposited in the upper soil layers where they may be exposed to desiccation. Many previous studies on desiccation tolerance in soil invertebrates have examined acute exposure to harsh desiccating conditions, however, these animals are often more likely to be exposed to a gradually increasing drought stress. In the present study we slowly desiccated D. octaedra cocoons to simulate ecologically realistic drought conditions and the results clearly demonstrate that gradually dehydrated cocoons show an increased tolerance of extreme drought compared with acutely dehydrated cocoons. NMR spectroscopic analysis of compatible osmolytes revealed the presence of sorbitol, glucose, betaine, alanine and mannitol in dehydrated embryos. The superior drought survival of gradually desiccated embryos could partly be attributed to a higher accumulation of osmolytes (especially sorbitol). Thus, gradually and acutely desiccated embryos accumulated approximately 2 mol l(-1) and 1 mol l(-1) total osmolytes, respectively. However, in addition to osmolyte accumulation, the gradually desiccated cocoons also tolerated a higher degree of water loss, demonstrating that gradually dehydrated D. octaedra cocoons are able to survive loss of approximately 95% of the original water content. Although D. octaedra embryos can probably not be categorized as a truly anhydrobiotic organism we propose that they belong in a transition zone between the desiccation sensitive and the truly anhydrobiotic organisms. Clearly, these earthworm embryos share many physiological traits with anhydrobiotic organisms. PMID:18515720

  5. Response of New zealand mudsnails Potamopyrgus antipodarum to freezing and near freezing fluctuating water temperatures

    Moffitt, Christine M.; James, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    We explored the resilience of the invasive New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum to fluctuating winter freezing and near-freezing temperature cycles in laboratory tests. Our goal was to provide data to confirm field observations of mortality and presumed mortality in stream habitats with fluctuating freezing to near-freezing temperatures. We tested individuals from 2 locations with distinctly different thermal regimes and population densities. One location had low snail densities and water temperatures with strong diel and seasonal water variation. The other location had high snail densities and nearly constant water temperatures. Groups of individuals from both locations were tested in each of 3 laboratory-created diel thermal cycles around nominal temperatures of 0, 2, or 4C. Mortality occurred in cycles around 0C in both populations, and little to no mortality occurred at temperatures >0C. Individuals from both sources held in diel 0C cycles for 72 h showed 100% mortality. Our findings support observations from published field studies that survival was limited in infested habitats subject to freezing temperatures.

  6. Menadione enhances oxyradical formation in earthworm extracts: vulnerability of earthworms to quinone toxicity

    NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase activities have been determined in the earthworms, L. rubellus and A. chlorotica, extracts. Menadione (0.35 mM, maximum concentration tested) was found to stimulate the rates of NADPH- and NADH-dependent cytochrome c reduction by three- and twofold, respectively. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibited completely this menadione-mediated stimulation, suggesting that ·O2- is involved in the redox cycling of menadione. However, SOD had no effect on the basal activity (activity in the absence of quinone) in the case of NADH-dependent cytochrome c reduction, whereas it partially inhibited the basal activity of NADPH-cytochrome c reduction. This indicates direct electron transfer in the former case and the formation of superoxide anion in the latter. DT-diaphorase, measured as the dicumarol-inhibitable part of menadione reductase activity, was not detectable in the earthworms' extracts. In contrast, it was found that DT-diaphorase represents about 70% of the menadione reductase activities in the freshwater mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. The results of this work suggest that earthworms, compared with mussels, could be more vulnerable to oxidative stress from quinones due to lack, or very low level of DT-diaphorase, an enzyme considered to play a significant role in the detoxification of quinones. On the contrary, mussels have efficient DT-diaphorase, which catalyzes two-electron reduction of menadione directly to hydroquinone, thus circumventing the formation of semiquinone

  7. Interactions between Nematodes and Earthworms: Enhanced Dispersal of Steinernema carpocapsae

    Shapiro, D.I.; Berry, E. C.; Lewis, L. C.

    1993-01-01

    Dispersal of the nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (All strain), applied on the top or the bottom of soil columns, was tested in the presence or absence of two earthworm species, Lumbricus terrestris or Aporrectodea trapezoides. Nematode dispersal was estimated after a 2-week period with a bioassay against the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella. Vertical dispersal of nematodes was increased in the presence of earthworms. When nematodes were placed on the surface of soil columns, significant...

  8. Effects of earthworms on plant and herbivore performance

    Wurst, Susanne

    2004-01-01

    Effects of earthworms in combination with soil heterogeneity and other soil organisms (mycorrhiza, plant feeding nematodes) on plant and herbivore performance were investigated in greenhouse experiments. The aim of the studies was to understand the role of earthworms in terrestrial ecosystems concerning their effects on growth, competition and defensive chemistry of plants, and above-ground herbivore performance. The plant species investigated were a grass (Lolium perenne), a forb (Plantago l...

  9. Impact of Biochar on Earthworm Populations: A Review

    Spokas, Kurt A.; Weyers, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the overwhelming importance of earthworm activity in the soil system, there are a limited number of studies that have examined the impact resulting from biochar addition to soil. Biochar is part of the black carbon continuum of chemo-thermal converted biomass. This review summarizes existing data pertaining to earthworms where biochar and other black carbon substances, including slash-and-burn charcoals and wood ash, have been applied. After analyzing existing studies on black carbon,...

  10. Transmission of Nephridial Bacteria of the Earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Davidson, Seana K.; Stahl, David A.

    2006-01-01

    The lumbricid earthworms (annelid family Lumbricidae) harbor gram-negative bacteria in their excretory organs, the nephridia. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing of bacteria associated with the nephridia of several earthworm species has shown that each species of worm harbors a distinct bacterial species and that the bacteria from different species form a monophyletic cluster within the genus Acidovorax, suggesting that there is a specific association resulting from radiation from a common b...

  11. Earthworms as colonizers of natural and cultivated soil environments

    H. J.P. Eijsackers

    2011-01-01

    For cultivated soils, the important function of earthworms as ecosystem engineers and their major contribution to the composition and functioning of soil ecosystems with a varying species diversity has been extensively addressed. However, the role of earthworms as colonizers of virgin, uncultivated soil in the process of soil formation has been little researched and long underrated. To better understand this role, the following questions need to be considered: (1) what makes an early colonize...

  12. A global survey of the bacteria within earthworm nephridia.

    Davidson, Seana K; Powell, Ryan; James, Sam

    2013-04-01

    Earthworms comprise 16 described families in the Crassiclitellata plus a few other minor groups. Microscopy studies of the early 20th century detected bacteria within the excretory organs, the nephridia, of species within a few of these families. More recent evidence for the consistent and specific association of bacteria with nephridia within the Lumbricidae has been well documented, but the presence and identity of nephridial bacteria among the rest of the Crassiclitellata families had not been explored. The study presented here aimed to identify members of Crassiclitellata families that harbor bacteria in their nephridia, and identify these bacteria based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Eleven earthworm families were surveyed from countries of six continents, and two island nations. The results revealed members of four bacterial orders commonly occurred within nephridia of genera within nine Crassiclitellata families. Members of the bacterial phyla Bacteroidetes (order Sphingobacteriales), Betaproteobacteria (order Burkholderiales; family Comamonadaceae), and Alphaproteobacteria (orders Rhodospirillales and Rhizobiales) were detected in the nephridia of basal Crassiclitellata, as well as in derived families. Earthworm genera with meronephridia, multiple small nephridia per segment, lacked bacteria, whereas bacteria were often detected in holonephridia, single pairs of large nephridia with a distinct morphology and external excretory pore. The Acanthodrilidae members, a large derived family of earthworms, did not appear to possess nephridial bacteria regardless of nephridial form. Although earthworms from a variety of habitat types were sampled, there were no clear correlations of lifestyle with symbiont types, with the exception of the aquatic earthworms that contained bacteria unrelated to those in any other earthworms. The findings support an evolutionarily long association of bacteria within the Crassiclitellata, and suggest a contribution to nitrogen conservation for the earthworms. PMID:23268186

  13. Earthworms lost from pesticides application in potato crops

    Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Forrer, Karin; Binder, Claudia R.

    2010-05-01

    Bioturbation from earthworm's activity contributes to soil creep and soil carbon dynamics, and provide enough aeration conditions for agricultural practices all over the world. In developing countries where there is a long term misuse of pesticides for agricultural purposes, lost of these benefits from earthworms activity might already yielded negative effects in the current crop production. Little research has been performed on earthworms avoidance to pesticides in developing countries located in the tropics. Furthermore, the complete avoidance reaction (from attraction to 100% avoidance) from earthworms to most of the pesticides used in potato cultivation in developing countries like Colombia is incomplete as yet. Hence the aim of this study is to assess the lost of earthworm on the soils caused by different concentrations of pesticides and associated agricultural impacts caused by a lost in the soil bioturbation. As a first stage, we have studied earthworm's avoidance to pesticide concentration in a potato agricultural area located in Colombia. Local cultivated Eisenia fetida were exposed to four of the most frequent applied active ingredients in potato crops i.e. carbofuran, mancozeb, methamidophos and chlorpyriphos. Adult earthworm toxicity experiments were carried out in two soils, untreated grasslands under standard (ISO guidelines) and undisturbed conditions, and exposed to six different concentrations of the active ingredients. The results of the avoidance reaction on the standard soils were significant for carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos. For each of the three active ingredients, we found i) overuse of pesticide, ii) applied dose of carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos by the farmers potentially caused 20%, 11% and 9% of earthworms avoidance on the cultivated soils, respectively.

  14. Multi-element analyses of earthworms for radioecology

    Increasing attention on the environmental radiation protection realizes that more information is required on the transfer and accumulation of radionuclides in the biological compartments of the ecosystems. Earthworms play an important role in ecosystems, and might be a good indicator of soil contamination and its effect on the ecosystem. The elemental composition of earthworms gives useful information on background levels and possible accumulation of metals as well as related radionuclides. However, data for the elemental composition of earthworms are limited except for some specific heavy metals such as Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. In this study, earthworms and their growth media were analyzed for 35 elements, including radionuclide related elements such as Cs, Sr, Th and U, in order to obtain the basic information on the transfer parameters of the elements. The earthworms analyzed were fed in the laboratory or collected in the environment. The concentrations and transfer factors (TFs) of the elements were determined both for laboratory and natural conditions. Relatively high TFs were observed for Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Mo and Cd. The TFs for Al, Sc, Ti, Y, Nb and lanthanide elements were low. The TFs of Cs were different depending on the medium (soil type), indicating that bioavailability of Cs in the medium might be one of the important controlling factors of Cs concentration in earthworm. (author)

  15. Activity of earthworm in Latosol under simulated acid rain stress.

    Zhang, Jia-En; Yu, Jiayu; Ouyang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Acid rain is still an issue of environmental concerns. This study investigated the impacts of simulated acid rain (SAR) upon earthworm activity from the Latosol (acidic red soil). Laboratory experiment was performed by leaching the soil columns grown with earthworms (Eisenia fetida) at the SAR pH levels ranged from 2.0 to 6.5 over a 34-day period. Results showed that earthworms tended to escape from the soil and eventually died for the SAR at pH = 2.0 as a result of acid toxicity. The catalase activity in the earthworms decreased with the SAR pH levels, whereas the superoxide dismutases activity in the earthworms showed a fluctuate pattern: decreasing from pH 6.5 to 5.0 and increasing from pH 5.0 to 4.0. Results implied that the growth of earthworms was retarded at the SAR pH ≤ 3.0. PMID:25351717

  16. Freezing increment in keratophakia.

    Swinger, C A; Wisnicki, H J

    In homoplastic keratomileusis, keratophakia, and epikeratophakia, the corneal tissue that provides the final refractive lenticule undergoes a conformational change when frozen. Because corneal tissue is composed primarily of water, an assumed value of 9.08% (approximate volumic percentage expansion of water when frozen) is frequently used for the increase in thickness, or freezing increment, rather than measuring it directly. We evaluated 32 cases of clinical keratophakia and found the increase in thickness to average 37 +/- 21%. In this series of 32 cases, the percentage of patients with a greater than 4 D residual refractive error was 16%. If an assumed freezing increment of 9.08% had been used, the percentage would have been 28%, with two-thirds of these 28% manifesting a marked undercorrection. Because of a lack of studies documenting the behavior of corneal tissue following cryoprotection and freezing, it is suggested that measurements be taken during homoplastic surgery to minimize the potential for significant inaccuracy in obtaining the desired optic result. PMID:3915238

  17. Freeze tolerance and accumulation of cryoprotectants in the enchytraeid Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta) from Greenland and Europe

    Slotsbo, Stine; Maraldo, Kristine; Malmendal, Anders; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Holmstrup, Martin

    2008-01-01

    tolerant, with freeze tolerance varying extensively between Greenlandic and European populations. Two populations from sub Arctic (Nuuk) and high Arctic Greenland (Zackenberg) survived freezing at -15 degrees C, whereas only 30% of a German population survived this temperature. When frozen, E. albidus...... resonance spectrometry (NMR) was used to screen for other putative cryoprotectants. Proline, glutamine and alanine were up regulated in frozen worms at -2 degrees C but only in relatively small concentrations suggesting that they were of little significance for freeze survival. The present study confirms...

  18. Disposal of dredged sediments in tropical soils: ecotoxicological effects on earthworms.

    Cesar, Ricardo; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo; Colonese, Juan; Bidone, Edison; Castilhos, Zuleica; Egler, Silvia; Polivanov, Helena

    2014-03-01

    The upper limit concentrations of metals established by international legislations for dredged sediment disposal and soil quality do not take into consideration the properties of tropical soils (generally submitted to more intense weathering processes) on metal availability and ecotoxicity. Aiming to perform an evaluation on the suitability of these threshold values in tropical regions, the ecotoxicity of metal-contaminated dredged sediment from the Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) was investigated. Acute and avoidance tests with Eisenia andrei were performed with mixtures of dredged sediment with a ferralsol (0.00, 6.66, 13.12, 19.98, and 33.30 %) and a chernosol (0.00, 6.58, 13.16, 19.74, and 32.90 %). Mercury, lead, nickel, chromium, copper, and zinc concentrations were measured in test mixtures and in tissues of surviving earthworms from the acute tests. While ferralsol test mixtures provoked significant earthworm avoidance response at concentrations ≥13.31 %, the chernosol mixtures showed significant avoidance behavior only at the 19.74 % concentration. The acute tests showed higher toxicity in ferralsol mixtures (LC50 = 9.9 %) compared to chernosol mixtures (LC50 = 16.5 %), and biomass increased at the lowest sediment doses in treatments of both test soils. Most probably, the expansive clay minerals present in chernosol contributed to reduce metal availability in chernosol mixtures, and consequently, the ecotoxicity of these treatments. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) for zinc and copper were lower with increasing concentrations of the dredged sediment, indicating the existence of internal regulating processes. Although the BCF for mercury also decreased with the increasing test concentrations, the known no biological function of this metal in the earthworms metabolism lead to suppose that Hg measured was not present in bioaccumulable forms. BCFs estimated for the other metals were generally higher in the highest dredged sediment doses. PMID:24122142

  19. Importance of freeze-thaw events in low temperature ecotoxicology of cold tolerant enchytraeids

    Patrcio Silva, Ana L; Enggrob, Kirsten; Slotsbo, Stine; Amorim, Mnica J B; Holmstrup, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Due to global warming it is predicted that freeze-thaw cycles will increase in Arctic and cold temperate regions. The effects of this variation becomes of particular ecological importance to freeze-tolerant species when it is combined with chemical pollutants. We compared the effect of control...... temperature (2 C), daily freeze-thaw cycles (2 to -4 C) and constant freezing (-2 C) temperatures on the cold-tolerance of oligochaete worms (Enchytraeus albidus) and tested how survival was influenced by pre-exposure to 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), a common nonionic detergent found in sewage sludge amended soils...... concentrations of free glucose. Further, exposure to freeze-thaw cycles resulted in higher concentrations of 4-NP in worm tissues as compared to constant freezing or control temperature (2 C). Thus, worms exposed to combined effect of freeze-thaw cycles and 4-NP suffer higher consequences, with the toxic effect...

  20. Off to the (Earthworm) Races: A Quick and Flexible Lab Experiment for Introductory Zoology Courses.

    Switzer, Paul V.; Fritz, Ann H.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a hands-on, investigative lab activity for use in an introductory zoology course. Tests the behavioral hypothesis that substrate texture affects earthworm locomotor ability. Provides background information on earthworm locomotion followed by details of the lab exercise. (NB)

  1. Heavy metal concentrations in soil and earthworms in a floodplain grassland

    We determined accumulated heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) of earthworms in moderately contaminated floodplain soils. Both soil and mature earthworms were sampled before and after flooding and earthworm species were identified to understand species specific differences in bioconcentration. Accumulated metal concentrations in floodplain earthworms differed before and after flooding. Differences in uptake and elimination mechanisms, in food choice and living habitat of the different earthworm species and changes in speciation of the heavy metals are possible causes for this observation. Regression equations taken from literature, that relate metal accumulation by earthworms in floodplains as a function of metal concentration in soil, performed well when all species specific data were combined in an average accumulation, but did not address differences in accumulation between earthworm species. - The accumulation of metals by earthworms is species dependent and affected by flooding

  2. Use of plant and earthworm bioassays to evaluate remediation of soil from a site contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls

    Meier, J.R.; Chang, L.W.; Meckes, M.C.; Smith, M.K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Jacobs, S. [DynCorp, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Torsella, J. [Oak Ridge Inst. of Science and Education, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was treated with a pilot-scale, solvent extraction technology. Bioassays in earthworms and plants were used to examine the efficacy of the remediation process for reducing the toxicity of the soil. The earthworm toxicity bioassays were the 14-d survival test and 21-d reproduction test, using Lumbricus terrestris and Eisenia fetida andrei. The plant bioassays included phytotoxicity tests for seed germination and root elongation in lettuce and oats, and a genotoxicity test (anaphase aberrations) in Allium cepa (common onion). Although the PCB content of the soil was reduced by 99% (below the remediation goal), toxicity to earthworm reproduction remained essentially unchanged following remediation. Furthermore, phytotoxicity and genotoxicity were higher for the remediated soil compared to the untreated soil. The toxicity remaining after treatment appeared to be due to residual solvent introduced during the remediation process, and/or to heavy metals or other inorganic contaminants not removed by the treatment. Mixture studies involving isopropanol and known toxicants indicated possible synergistic effects of the extraction solvent and soil contaminants. The toxicity in plants was essentially eliminated by a postremediation, water-rinsing step. These results demonstrate a need for including toxicity measurements in the evaluation of technologies used in hazardous waste site remediations, and illustrate the potential value of such measurements for making modifications to remediation processes.

  3. Comparison of sublethal and lethal criteria for nine different chemicals in standardized toxicity tests using the earthworm Eisenia andrei

    Van Gestel, C.A.; Dirven-Van Breemen, E.M.; Baerselman, R.; Emans, H.J.; Janssen, J.A.; Postuma, R.; Van Vliet, P.J. (National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven, (Netherlands))

    1992-04-01

    In this study, the effects of nine different chemicals on the survival, growth, and reproduction of the earthworm species Eisenia andrei were determined using a recently developed method. Earthworms were exposed for 3 weeks to the test chemicals in an artificial soil substrate. Additional data on the acute toxicity of these chemicals were derived from the literature. For some chemicals, cocoon production was the most sensitive parameter (cadmium, chromium, paraquat, fentin, benomyl, phenmedipham), while for others cocoon hatchability was most sensitive (pentachlorophenol, parathion, carbendazim). In the case of parathion, growth of the worms seemed to be even more sensitive than reproduction. As an overall parameter for the effect on earthworm reproduction, the total number of juveniles produced per worm appeared to be a useful parameter. Differences between (acute) LC50 values and the lowest NOEC value for effects on growth and reproduction were different for each chemical. Difference was greatest for cadmium (a factor of greater than 100) and smallest for fentin, benomyl, and pentachlorophenol (a factor of 5-6).

  4. Earthworms and collembola relationships: effects of predatory centipedes and humus forms

    Salmon, Sandrine; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Ponge, Jean-François

    2005-01-01

    Relationships between anecic earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea giardi) and the collembolan species Heteromurus nitidus (Templeton, 1835), which is known to be attracted to earthworms, were investigated in an 8-week laboratory experiment. Our aims were (1) to assess whether earthworms influence the population dynamics of H. nitidus, and (2) to study pathways of influence and how earthworm effects are modified by humus forms and predators. Using microcosms with three defaunated ...

  5. Earthworms use odor cues to locate and feed on microorganisms in soil

    Zirbes, Lara; Mark, Mescher; Vrancken, Véronique; Wathelet, Jean-Paul; Verheggen, François; Thonart, Philippe; Haubruge, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Earthworms are key components of temperate soil ecosystems but key aspects of their ecology remain unexamined. Here we elucidate the role of olfactory cues in earthworm attraction to food sources and document specific chemical cues that attract Eisenia fetida to the soil fungi Geotrichum candidum. Fungi and other microorganisms are major sources of volatile emissions in soil ecosystems as well as primary food sources for earthworms, suggesting the likelihood that earthworms might profitably u...

  6. The earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa stimulates abundance and activity of phenoxyalkanoic acid herbicide degraders

    Liu, Ya-Jun; Zaprasis, Adrienne; Liu, Shuang-jiang; Drake, Harold L.; Horn, Marcus A.

    2010-01-01

    2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) is a widely used phenoxyalkanoic acid (PAA) herbicide. Earthworms represent the dominant macrofauna and enhance microbial activities in many soils. Thus, the effect of the model earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) on microbial MCPA degradation was assessed in soil columns with agricultural soil. MCPA degradation was quicker in soil with earthworms than without earthworms. Quantitative PCR was inhibition-corrected per nucleic ...

  7. Microflora dynamics in earthworms casts in an artificial soil (biosynthesol) containing lactic acid oligomers

    Alauzet Nathalie; Roussos Sevastianos; Garreau Henri; Vert Michel

    2001-01-01

    Studies were performed to appreciate the presence of micro-organisms able to degrade OLA, in earthworms casts or in the surroundings. Worms were grown in biosynthesol, an artificial soil. The counting of bacteria and fungi in earthworms casts and in biosynthesol without earthworms suggested that earthworms ate some of the micro-organisms. The main filamentous fungi genera found were Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Fusarium and Penicillium. Previous results in the literature have shown that some spe...

  8. Do earthworms impact metal mobility and availability in soil? A review

    Sizmur, Tom; Hodson, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of earthworms to ecosystem functioning has led to many studies on the impacts of metals on earthworms. Far less attention has been paid to the impact that earthworms have on soil metals both in terms of metal mobility and availability. In this review we consider which earthworms have been used in such studies, which soil components have been investigated, which types of soil have been used and what measures of mobility and availability applied. We proceed to review proposed rea...

  9. Earthworm Population Density in Sugarcane Cropping System Applied with Various Quality of Organic Matter

    Nurhidayati Nurhidayati; Endang Arisoesilaningsih; Didik Suprayogo; Kurniatun Hairiah

    2012-01-01

    Earthworms population in the soil are greatly impacted by agricultural management, yet little is known about how the quality and quantity of organic matter addition interact in sugarcane cropping system to earthworm population. This study describes the effect of various organic matter and application rates on earthworms in sugarcane cropping system. Earthworms were collected in April, July and December from 48 experimental plots under five kinds of organic matter application : (1) cattle manu...

  10. Mole: an open near real-time database-centric Earthworm subsystem

    Quintiliani, Matteo; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Pintore, Stefano; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia

    2012-01-01

    Mole is an open-source and cross-platform Earthworm subsystem made up of a MySQL database schema, an Earthworm module, and a web interface. Although it sprang from INGV requirements, Mole is as general-purpose as possible in order to provide a high-level communication layer to Earthworm. In this sense, Mole intends to be a starting point for the Earthworm community to fire up a development effort for a new “Open Interactive Earthworm”.

  11. Engineering of Soil Biological Quality from Nickel Mining Stockpile Using Two Earthworm Ecological Groups

    L M H Kilowasid; H Herlina; H Syaf; L Safuan; M. Tufaila; S Leomo; B Widiawan

    2015-01-01

    Earthworms have the ability in modifying soil biological quality for plant growth. Their ability is mostly depending on its ecological groups. The objectives of the research were to study the influence of two ecological groups of earthworms on soil microbial activity and soil micro-fauna abundance, and to know the potential of soil modified by earthworms as plant growth medium. Eight combination of individual earthworm from epigeic and endogeic groups was applied into pot that was filled by ...

  12. Beneficial Effect of Verminephrobacter Nephridial Symbionts on the Fitness of the Earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata?

    Lund, Marie B.; Holmstrup, Martin; Lomstein, Bente A.; Damgaard, Christian; Schramm, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Almost all lumbricid earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) harbor species-specific Verminephrobacter (Betaproteobacteria) symbionts in their nephridia (excretory organs). The function of the symbiosis, and whether the symbionts have a beneficial effect on their earthworm host, is unknown; however, the symbionts have been hypothesized to enhance nitrogen retention in earthworms. The effect of Verminephrobacter on the life history traits of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen) was inv...

  13. Darwin, Earthworms & Circadian Rhythms: A Fertile Field for Science Fair Experiments

    Burns, John T.; Scurti, Paul J.; Furda, Amy M.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses why the study of earthworms has fascinated many scientists, and why earthworms make ideal experimental animals for students to test in the laboratory. Although earthworms may appear to be primitive, they are governed by both circadian and seasonal rhythms, just as more advanced organisms are. They possess an intelligence…

  14. EARTHWORM ADDITIONS AFFECT LEACHATE PRODUCTION AND NITROGEN LOSSES IN TYPICAL MIDWESTERN AGROECOSYSTEMS

    Earthworms affect soil structure and the movement of agrochemicals. Yet, there are few field-scale studies that quantify the effect of earthworms on dissolved nitrogen fluxes in agroecosystems. We investigated the influence of biannual deep-burrowing earthworm additions on leachate production and qu...

  15. Earthworm (Eisenia andrei Avoidance of Soils Treated with Cypermethrin

    Mara M. de Andréa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin is used for agricultural and public health campaigns. Its residues may contaminate soils and the beneficial soil organisms, like the earthworms, that may ingest the contaminated soil particles. Due to its ecological relevance, earthworms Eisenia andrei/fetida have been used in different ecotoxicological tests. The avoidance of soils treated with cypermethrin by compost worms Eisenia andrei was studied here as a bioindicator of the influence of treatment dosage and the pesticide formulation in three different agricultural soils indicated by the Brazilian environmental authorities for ecotoxicological tests. This earthworms’ behavior was studied here as a first attempt to propose the test for regulation purposes. The two-compartment test systems, where the earthworms were placed for a two-day exposure period, contained samples of untreated soil alone or together with soil treated with technical grade or wettable powder formulation of cypermethrin. After 48 h, there was no mortality, but the avoidance was clear because all earthworms were found in the untreated section of each type of soil (p < 0.05. No differences were found by the Fisher’s exact test (p ≤ 1.000 for each soil and treatment, demonstrating that the different soil characteristics, the cypermethrin concentrations and formulation, as well as the smaller amounts of soil and earthworms did not influence the avoidance behavior of the earthworms to cypermethrin. The number and range of treatments used in this study do not allow a detailed recommendation of the conditions applied here, but to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported attempt to identify the avoidance of pesticide treated tropical soils by earthworms.

  16. Effects of gypsum on trace metals in soils and earthworms.

    Chen, Liming; Kost, Dave; Tian, Yongqiang; Guo, Xiaolu; Watts, Dexter; Norton, Darrell; Wolkowski, Richard P; Dick, Warren A

    2014-01-01

    Mined gypsum has been beneficially used for many years as an agricultural amendment. A large amount of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is produced by removal of SO from flue gas streams when fuels with high S content are burned. The FGD gypsum, similar to mined gypsum, can enhance crop production. However, information is lacking concerning the potential environmental impacts of trace metals, especially Hg, in the FGD gypsum. Flue gas desulfurization and mined gypsums were evaluated to determine their ability to affect concentrations of Hg and other trace elements in soils and earthworms. The study was conducted at four field sites across the United States (Ohio, Indiana, Alabama, and Wisconsin). The application rates of gypsums ranged from 2.2 Mg ha in Indiana to 20 Mg ha in Ohio and Alabama. These rates are 2 to 10 times higher than typically recommended. The lengths of time from gypsum application to soil and earthworm sampling were 5 and 18 mo in Ohio, 6 mo in Indiana, 11 mo in Alabama, and 4 mo in Wisconsin. Earthworm numbers and biomass were decreased by FGD and mined gypsums in Ohio. Among all the elements examined, Hg was slightly increased in soils and earthworms in the FGD gypsum treatments compared with the control and the mined gypsum treatments. The differences were not statistically significant except for the Hg concentration in the soil at the Wisconsin site. Selenium in earthworms in the FGD gypsum treatments was statistically higher than in the controls but not higher than in the mined gypsum treatments at the Indiana and Wisconsin sites. Bioaccumulation factors for nondepurated earthworms were statistically similar or lower for the FGD gypsum treatments compared with the controls for all elements. Use of FGD gypsum at normal recommended agricultural rates seems not to have a significant impact on concentrations of trace metals in earthworms and soils. PMID:25602559

  17. Metallothionein response in earthworms Lampito mauritii (Kinberg) exposed to fly ash

    Maity, S.; Hattacharya, S.; Chaudhury, S. [Visva Bharati, Santini Ketan (India)

    2009-10-15

    Among pollutants, the coal fly ash occupies a significant position in industrial wastes. The fly ash matrix is a complex mixture of various organic (polyhalogenated compounds) and inorganic (Si, Al, Fe, As, Cd, Bi, Hg, etc.) chemicals. The application of fly ash for agricultural purposes and as landfills may lead to the contamination of the land with some of the toxic chemical compounds present in fly ash. Thus prior to the application of fly ash for developmental activities, it requires bio-monitoring and risk characterization. In order to achieve this objective adult Lampito mauritii were exposed to different proportions of fly ash in soil for 30 d and the concentrations of metallothionein in earthworm were assessed. The results revealed that up to 50% of fly ash amendment does not apparently harm the earthworm in respect of their survival and growth. A significant increase in tissue metallothionein level was recorded in L mauritii exposed to fly ash amended soil without tissue metal accumulation indicating that metallothionein is involved in scavenging of free radicals and reactive oxygen species metabolites. It is concluded that this biochemical response observed in L mauritii exposed to fly ash amended soil could be used in ecotoxicological field monitoring.

  18. Establishing principal soil quality parameters influencing earthworms in urban soils using bioassays

    Potential contamination at ex-industrial sites means that, prior to change of use, it will be necessary to quantify the extent of risks to potential receptors. To assess ecological hazards, it is often suggested to use biological assessment to augment chemical analyses. Here we investigate the potential of a commonly recommended bioassay, the earthworm reproduction test, to assess the status of urban contaminated soils. Sample points at all study sites had contaminant concentrations above the Dutch soil criteria Target Values. In some cases, the relevant Intervention Values were exceeded. Earthworm survival at most points was high, but reproduction differed significantly in soil from separate patches on the same site. When the interrelationships between soil parameters and reproduction were studied, it was not possible to create a good model of site soil toxicity based on single or even multiple chemical measurements of the soils. We thus conclude that chemical analysis alone is not sufficient to characterize soil quality and confirms the value of biological assays for risk assessment of potentially contaminated soils. - Bioassays must be applied for the risk assessment complexly-polluted sites to complement chemical analysis of soils

  19. Earthworm species influence on carbon-mineral association in a sugar maple forest in northern Minnesota

    Lyttle, A.; Yoo, K.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Hale, C. M.; Sebestyen, S. D.

    2011-12-01

    Non-native European earthworms are invading previously earthworm-free hardwood forests in the northern Great Lakes Region. Whereas earthworms' impacts on soil morphology and geochemical properties have been well documented in agricultural settings, the role of earthworms in biogeochemical cycles of undisturbed forests remains poorly understood. The forest soils that were recently invaded by exotic earthworms, therefore, provide a unique opportunity to understand how and how much earthworms contribute to biogeochemistry of non-agricultural environments. Increased degree and extent of soil mixing is one of the better known consequences of the earthworm invasion. Our hypothesis is that invasive earthworms positively affect carbon (C) stabilization by enhancing contacts between organic matter and minerals. We are studying C-mineral complexation along a well-established earthworm chronosequence in a sugar maple forest in northern Minnesota. We have observed changes in total earthworm biomass, A horizon C storage, and total specific surface area (SSA) of minerals as the invasion progresses. Because each earthworm species has different feeding and dwelling habits, biogeochemical imprints of the invasion reflect not only earthworms' biomass but also their species composition. All earthworm species show an increase in their biomass with greater time length since the invasion, though epigeic earthworms tend to be the pioneer species. As the total earthworm biomass increases, we find greater incorporation of organic C into the A horizon; the O horizon thickness decreases from 8 to 0 cm as the A horizon thickens from ~5 cm to ~12 cm. While leaf litter biomass is negatively correlated with total earthworm biomass, dramatic decreases in litter biomass are coupled with considerable increases in the biomass of epi-endogeic species. Despite the general decrease in C storage in the A horizon with greater degree of invasion, the storages fluctuate along the transect because earthworms affect not only C concentration but also soil bulk density and A horizon thickness. Mineral's SSA in the A and E is significantly larger and greater portions of the mineral SSA are coated with C in soils with greater earthworm biomass. These results show that both mineral's capacity to complex C and the actual complexation are enhanced by earthworm invasion presumably because earthworms' ability to vertically mix soils. This growing data set will ultimately elucidate how soils' capacity to stabilize C is influenced by exotic earthworm species.

  20. The burrowing characteristics of three common earthworm species

    The burrowing characteristics of 3 common earthworm species were studied using X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning in large cylinders (24.1 cm diameter) packed with topsoil (0-25 cm) and subsoil (25-50 cm) to representative field bulk density values and sown with ryegrass. Replicated cylinders (n 3), kept under constant moisture and temperature conditions, were inoculated with mature species of Lumbricus rubellus, Aporrectodea caliginosa, or Octolasion cyaneum earthworms at rates similar to their population density in the field. A non-inoculated, unreplicated control was also included. The number, biomass, and activity of the 3 species were then examined. X-ray CT scanning of large-diameter soil cylinders offers an alternative method for obtaining information on the burrowing characteristics of earthworms (Jegou et al. 1999). As this method is non-destructive, repeat measurements can be made and the use of large cylinders minimises edge effects. The objectives of this study were to: (i) assess the burrowing characteristics of 3 earthworm species (under artificial conditions) through measurement of 2-D porosity using X-ray CT scanning, (ii) estimate the extent of burrow backfilling between sequential scans, and (iii) estimate the continuity of earthworm burrows with depth through hydraulic conductivity measurements. Copyright (2001) CSIRO Publishing

  1. Performance Characteristics of an Isothermal Freeze Valve

    Hailey, A.E.

    2001-08-22

    This document discusses performance characteristics of an isothermal freeze valve. A freeze valve has been specified for draining the DWPF melter at the end of its lifetime. Two freeze valve designs have been evaluated on the Small Cylindrical Melter-2 (SCM-2). In order to size the DWPF freeze valve, the basic principles governing freeze valve behavior need to be identified and understood.

  2. Effectivity of the Earthworms Pheretima hupiensis, Eudrellus sp. and Lumbricus sp. on the Organic Matter Decomposition Process

    Ea Kosman Anwar

    2009-01-01

    The earthworms are the one of soil fauna component in soil ecosystem have an important role in organic matter decomposition procces. The earthworm feed plant leaf and plant matter up to apart and dissolved. Earthworm metabolisms produce like faeces that mixed with decomposed organic matter mean vermicompost. The vermicompost fertility varies because of some kind of earthworm differ in “niche” and attitude. The experiment was to study the effectivity of earthworm on organic matter d...

  3. Studies on Freezing RAM Semen in Absence of Glycerol.

    Abdelnaby, Abdelhady Abdelhakeam

    1988-12-01

    Glycerol is widely used as a major cryoprotective agent for freezing spermatozoa of almost all species. However, it reduces fertility of sheep inseminated cervically compared with intrauterine insemination. Studies were conducted to develop a method and procedure for freezing ram semen in the absence of glycerol. Post -thaw survival of ram spermatozoa frozen in the absence of glycerol was affected by time and temperature after collection and before dilution and time after dilution and before freezing. Increase in time at 5^ circC before or after dilution and before freezing increased both post-thaw motility and number of cells passing through Sephadex filter. A cold dilution method was developed. Slow cooling of fresh ram semen and diluting at 5^circ C 2-3 hr. after collection, then freezing 1 hr. after dilution improved both post-thaw motility and number of cells passing through Sephadex filter compared with immediate dilution at 30-37^circC after collection and freezing 3-4 hr. later (P semen in the absence of glycerol. An increase in post-thaw motility was obtained when semen was extended in TES titrated with Tris to pH 7.0 (TEST) and osmotic pressure of 375-400 mOsm/kg, containing 25-30% (v/v) egg yolk and 10% (v/v) maltose. A special device (boat) for freezing was constructed to insure the same height of the sample above LN _2 and thus the same freezing rate from freeze to freeze. Freezing of semen in 0.25cc straws at 5-10 cm above LN_2 (73.8 to 49.5 ^circC/min) yielded higher post-thaw motility than the rates resulted from freezing at 15 cm above LN_2 or 1 cm above LN _2. Faster Thawing in 37^ circC water for 30 sec. (7.8^ circC/sec.) increased post-thaw motility compared with slower thawing in 5 or 20^circ C water (P semen frozen without glycerol and 17.1% in a second trial. One injection (IM) of 15 mg PGF_{2alpha}/ewe for estrus synchronization during breeding season resulted in higher heat response and lambing rate than two injections given 10 days apart.

  4. Earthworm bioassays and seedling emergence for monitoring toxicity, aging and bioaccumulation of anthropogenic waste indicator compounds in biosolids-amended soil

    Kinney, Chad A.; Campbell, Bryan R.; Thompson, Regina; Furlong, Edward T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Burkhardt, Mark R.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Werner, Stephen L.; Hay, Anthony G.

    2012-01-01

    Land application of biosolids (treated sewage sludge) can be an important route for introducing xenobiotic compounds into terrestrial environments. There is a paucity of available information on the effects of biosolids amendment on terrestrial organisms. In this study, the influence of biosolids and biosolids aging on earthworm (Eisenia fetida) reproduction and survival and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedling emergence was investigated. Earthworms were exposed to soils amended with varying quantities of biosolids (0, 1, 2, 3, or 4% dry mass). To investigate the influence of biosolids aging, the biosolids used in the study were aged for differing lengths of time (2 or 8 weeks) prior to exposure. All of the adult earthworms survived in the biosolids–amended soils at all concentrations that were aged for 2 weeks; however, only 20% of the adults survived in the soil amended with the highest concentration of biosolids and aged for 8 weeks. Reproduction as measured by mean number of juveniles and unhatched cocoons produced per treatment correlated inversely with biosolids concentration, although the effects were generally more pronounced in the 8-week aged biosolids–soil samples. Latent seedling emergence and reduced seedling fitness correlated inversely with biosolids concentration, but these effects were tempered in the 8-week aged versus the 2-week aged soil–biosolids mixtures. Anthropogenic waste indicator compounds (AWIs) were measured in the biosolids, biosolids–soil mixtures, and earthworm samples. Where possible, bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated or estimated. A wide variety of AWIs were detected in the biosolids (51 AWIs) and earthworm samples (≤ 19 AWI). The earthworms exposed to the 8-week aged biosolids–soil mixtures tended to accumulate greater quantities of AWIs compared to the 2-week aged mixture, suggesting that the bioavailability of some AWIs was enhanced with aging. The BAFs for a given AWI varied with treatment. Notably large BAFs were determined for some AWIs. For example, the maximum BAF determined for para-cresol, methyl salicylate, bisphenol-A, and cholesterol was greater than 100 in some treatments.

  5. Freeze-drying wet digital prints: An option for salvage?

    Jürgens, M. C.; Schempp, N.

    2010-06-01

    On the occasion of the collapse of the Historical Archive of the City of Cologne in March 2009 and the ensuing salvage effort, questions were raised about the use of freeze-drying for soaked digital prints, a technique that has not yet been evaluated for these materials. This study examines the effects of immersion, air-drying, drying in a blotter stack, freezing and freeze-drying on 35 samples of major digital printing processes. The samples were examined visually before, during and after testing; evaluation of the results was qualitative. Results show that some prints were already damaged by immersion alone (e.g. bleeding inks and soluble coatings) to the extent that the subsequent choice of drying method made no significant difference any more. For those samples that did survive immersion, air-drying proved to be crucial for water-sensitive prints, since any contact with the wet surface caused serious damage. Less water-sensitive prints showed no damage throughout the entire procedure, regardless of drying method. Some prints on coated media suffered from minor surface disruption up to total delamination of the surface coating due to the formation of ice crystals during shock-freezing. With few exceptions, freeze-drying did not cause additional damage to any of the prints that hadn't already been damaged by freezing. It became clear that an understanding of the process and materials is important for choosing an appropriate drying method.

  6. Freeze-drying wet digital prints: An option for salvage?

    On the occasion of the collapse of the Historical Archive of the City of Cologne in March 2009 and the ensuing salvage effort, questions were raised about the use of freeze-drying for soaked digital prints, a technique that has not yet been evaluated for these materials. This study examines the effects of immersion, air-drying, drying in a blotter stack, freezing and freeze-drying on 35 samples of major digital printing processes. The samples were examined visually before, during and after testing; evaluation of the results was qualitative. Results show that some prints were already damaged by immersion alone (e.g. bleeding inks and soluble coatings) to the extent that the subsequent choice of drying method made no significant difference any more. For those samples that did survive immersion, air-drying proved to be crucial for water-sensitive prints, since any contact with the wet surface caused serious damage. Less water-sensitive prints showed no damage throughout the entire procedure, regardless of drying method. Some prints on coated media suffered from minor surface disruption up to total delamination of the surface coating due to the formation of ice crystals during shock-freezing. With few exceptions, freeze-drying did not cause additional damage to any of the prints that hadn't already been damaged by freezing. It became clear that an understanding of the process and materials is important for choosing an appropriate drying method.

  7. Second contribution to the knowledge of earthworms (Lumbricidae in Montenegro

    Stojanović Mirjana M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains the results of qualitative analysis of Lumbricidae (Oligochaeta in Montenegro, during the period 1997-2003. The research has included natural and cultivated biotopes. The presence of 15 species was established and the habitats, localities and their zoogeographical position are given. In Montenegro we found four species for the first time Dendrobaena jastrebensis, D. vejdovskyi, Octodrilus bretcheri and Lumbricus terrestris. The complete list of earthworm species in Montenegro includes 45 taxa. With respects to the zoogeographic situation of the earthworms in Montenegro, the largest number belongs to endemic (10 and European (10 species. But 8 taxa are south-European, 9 Holarctic, 7 cosmopolitan, and 1 Palearctic. The degree of endemism of the earthworm fauna of Montenegro is quite high, exceeding 22.2%.

  8. Phylogenomic analyses of a Mediterranean earthworm family (Annelida: Hormogastridae).

    Novo, Marta; Fernández, Rosa; Andrade, Sónia C S; Marchán, Daniel F; Cunha, Luis; Díaz Cosín, Darío J

    2016-01-01

    Earthworm taxonomy and evolutionary biology remain a challenge because of their scarce distinct morphological characters of taxonomic value, the morphological convergence by adaptation to the uniformity of the soil where they inhabit, and their high plasticity when challenged with stressful or new environmental conditions. Here we present a phylogenomic study of the family Hormogastridae, representing also the first piece of work of this type within earthworms. We included seven transcriptomes of the group representing the main lineages as previously-described, analysed in a final matrix that includes twelve earthworms and eleven outgroups. While there is a high degree of gene conflict in the generated trees that obscure some of the internal relationships, the origin of the family is well resolved: the hormogastrid Hemigastrodrilus appears as the most ancestral group, followed by the ailoscolecid Ailoscolex, therefore rejecting the validity of the family Ailoscolecidae. Our results place the origin of hormogastrids in Southern France, as previously hypothesised. PMID:26522608

  9. Earthworms facilitate the stabilization of pelletized dewatered sludge through shaping microbial biomass and activity and community.

    Fu, Xiaoyong; Cui, Guangyu; Huang, Kui; Chen, Xuemin; Li, Fusheng; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Li, Fei

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the effect of earthworms on microbial features during vermicomposting of pelletized dewatered sludge (PDS) was investigated through comparing two degradation systems with and without earthworm E isenia fetida involvement. After 60 days of experimentation, a relatively stable product with low organic matter and high nitrate and phosphorous was harvested when the earthworms were involved. During the process, earthworms could enhance microbial activity and biomass at the initial stage and thus accelerating the rapid decomposition of PDS. The end products of vermicomposting allowed the lower values of bacterial and eukaryotic densities comparison with those of no earthworm addition. In addition, the presence of earthworms modified the bacterial and fungal diversity, making the disappearances of some pathogens and specific decomposing bacteria of recalcitrant substrates in the vermicomposting process. This study evidences that earthworms can facilitate the stabilization of PDS through modifying microbial activity and number and community during vermicomposting. PMID:26514568

  10. Heavy metal concentrations in earthworms from soil amended with sewage sludge

    Beyer, W.N.; Chaney, R.L.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    Metal concentrations in soil may be elevated considerably when metal-laden sewage sludge is spread on land. Metals in earthworms (Lumbricidae) from agricultural fields amended with sewage sludge and from experimental plots were examined to determine if earthworms are important in transferring metals in soil to wildlife. Earthworms from four sites amended with sludge contained significantly (P . metals in earthworms to the concentration of metals in soil tended to be lower in contaminated soil than in clean soil. Concentrations of Cd as high as 100 ppm (dry wt) were detected in earthworms from soil containing only 2 ppm Cd. These concentrations are considered hazardous to wildlife that eat worms. Liming soil decreased Cd concentrations in earthworms slightly (P metals studied. High Zn concentrations in soil substantially reduced Cd concentrations in earthworms.

  11. Gene expression analysis of CL-20-induced reversible neurotoxicity reveals GABA(A) receptors as potential targets in the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Gong, Ping; Guan, Xin; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Liang, Chun; Perkins, Edward J

    2012-01-17

    The earthworm Eisenia fetida is one of the most used species in standardized soil ecotoxicity tests. End points such as survival, growth, and reproduction are eco-toxicologically relevant but provide little mechanistic insight into toxicity pathways, especially at the molecular level. Here we apply a toxicogenomic approach to investigate the mode of action underlying the reversible neurotoxicity of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), a cyclic nitroamine explosives compound. We developed an E. fetida-specific shotgun microarray targeting 15119 unique E. fetida transcripts. Using this array we profiled gene expression in E. fetida in response to exposure to CL-20. Eighteen earthworms were exposed for 6 days to 0.2 μg/cm(2) of CL-20 on filter paper, half of which were allowed to recover in a clean environment for 7 days. Nine vehicle control earthworms were sacrificed at days 6 and 13, separately. Electrophysiological measurements indicated that the conduction velocity of earthworm medial giant nerve fiber decreased significantly after 6-day exposure to CL-20, but was restored after 7 days of recovery. Total RNA was isolated from the four treatment groups including 6-day control, 6-day exposed, 13-day control, and 13-day exposed (i.e., 6-day exposure followed by 7-day recovery), and was hybridized to the 15K shotgun oligo array. Statistical and bioinformatic analyses suggest that CL-20 initiated neurotoxicity by noncompetitively blocking the ligand-gated GABA(A) receptor ion channel, leading to altered expression of genes involved in GABAergic, cholinergic, and Agrin-MuSK pathways. In the recovery phase, expression of affected genes returned to normality, possibly as a result of autophagy and CL-20 dissociation/metabolism. This study provides significant insights into potential mechanisms of CL-20-induced neurotoxicity and the recovery of earthworms from transient neurotoxicity stress. PMID:22191394

  12. Generalized structural theory of freezing

    The first-principles order parameter theory of freezing, proposed in an earlier work, has been successful in yielding quantitative agreement with known freezing parameters for monoatomic liquids forming solids with one atom per unit cell. A generalization of this theory is presented here to include the effects of a basis set of many atoms per unit cell. The basic equations get modified by the 'density structure factors' fsub(i) which arise from the density variations within the unit cell. Calculations are presented for the important case of monoatomic liquids freezing into hexagonal close packed solids. It is concluded that all freezing transitions can be described by using structural correlations in the liquid instead of the pair potential; and that the three body correlations are important in deciding the type of solid formed after freezing. (author)

  13. Hepatocyte responses to in vitro freezing and β-adrenergic stimulation: Insights into the extreme freeze tolerance of subarctic Rana sylvatica.

    do Amaral, M Clara F; Lee, Richard E; Costanzo, Jon P

    2015-02-01

    The wood frog, Rana sylvatica LeConte 1825, is a freeze-tolerant amphibian widely distributed in North America. Subarctic populations of this species can survive experimental freezing to temperatures below -16 °C, whereas temperate populations tolerate freezing only at temperatures above -6 °C. We investigated whether hepatocytes isolated from frogs indigenous to Interior Alaska (subarctic) or southern Ohio (temperate) had distinct characteristics that could contribute to this variation in freeze tolerance capacity. Following in vitro freezing, cell damage, as assessed from lactate dehydrogenase leakage, was similar between samples from Alaskan and Ohioan frogs. Preincubation of cells in media containing glucose or urea, the two primary cryoprotectants used by R. sylvatica, markedly reduced freezing damage to hepatocytes; however, results suggested that cells of the northern phenotype were comparatively more amenable to cryoprotection by urea. Stimulation of isolated hepatocytes with β-adrenergic agonists, which simulates the freezing-induced cryoprotectant mobilization response, gave rates of glucose production from endogenous glycogen reserves that were similar between the populations. Our findings suggest that extreme freeze tolerance in subarctic R. sylvatica does not require an enhanced ability of the liver to resist freezing stress or rapidly mobilize cryoprotectant. PMID:25581737

  14. Diversity and host specificity of the Verminephrobacter–earthworm symbiosis

    Lund, Marie Braad; Davidson, Seana; Holmstrup, Martin; James, Sam; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Stahl, David; Schramm, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria of the genus Verminephrobacter (Betaproteobacteria) were detected in the nephridia of 19 out of 23 investigated earthworm species (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). While all four Lumbricus species and...... evolution was determined using a relaxed clock model, and the rate was calibrated with paleogeographical estimates of the time of origin of Lumbricid earthworms. The calibrated rates of symbiont 16S rRNA gene evolution are 0.012–0.026 substitutions per site per 50 million years and thus similar to rates...... reported from other symbiotic bacteria....

  15. New data to the earthworm fauna of Israel (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae

    Szederjesi, T.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Elaborating several smaller earthworm samples collected in different parts of Israel resulted in recording 20 earthworm species including Bimastos parvus (Eisen, 1874 a North American peregrine which represents new record for the country. Three other species; Dendrobaena nevoi Csuzdi & Pavlíček, 1999, Healyella jordanis (Csuzdi & Pavlíček, 1999and Perelia shamsi Csuzdi & Pavlíček, 2005 were first recorded after their original descriptions. The present list of lumbricidearthworms recorded for Israel is raised to 28.

  16. Toxicity of Commercial Neem Extract to Earthworms (Pheretima peguana)

    Ravi Gooneratne; Ptumporn Muangphra

    2011-01-01

    The LC50 of commercial neem extract (Sadao Thai III containing azadirachtin; NEEM) on filter paper in the earthworm Pheretima peguana at 48 h and 72 h was 3.79 and 3.33  g  c m − 2 , respectively. In earthworms exposed to five NEEM concentrations from 0.39 (~10% of 48-h LC50) to 3.13 (~80% of 48-h LC50) g  c m − 2 , the radial thickness of the epidermis and body wall significantly ( < . 0 5 ) decreased, and thickness of intestinal epithelium increased but only at high doses, approximate...

  17. USE OF VARIOUS BAITS FOR EXTRACTION OF EARTHWORMS FROM VERMICOMPOST

    Joanna Kostecka; Vinod Kumar Garg

    2015-01-01

    During vermicomposting, earthworm grower has to overcome a lot of different problems. For instance, in case of a sudden requirement to sell earthworms it is useful to have the ability to collect them in one place. Fresh food extraction is an effective and neutral way to do it. The efficiency of gathering and extracting E. fetida from the vermicompost was studied, using a fresh bait method. Experiments were carried out in the laboratory (at the mean temperature of 20±0.5 °C) in pots filled wit...

  18. Ecotoxicity of aged uranium in soil using plant, earthworm and microarthropod toxicity tests.

    Sheppard, S C; Stephenson, G L

    2012-01-01

    Discrepancies about probable no effect concentrations (PNEC) for uranium in soils may be because toxicity tests used freshly contaminated soils. This study used 3 soils amended with a range of uranium concentrations 10 years previously. The toxicity tests with northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus); earthworm (Eisenia andrei) were not affected below ~1,000 mg U kg(-1), and the soil arthropod Folsomia candida was not affected below ~350 mg U kg(-1). Survival of Orthonychiurus folsomi was diminished 20% (EC(20)) by ~85-130 mg U kg(-1), supporting a PNEC in the range of 100-250 mg U kg(-1) as derived previously. PMID:22033655

  19. Freezing of a Liquid Marble

    Hashmi, Ali; Strauss, Adam; Xu, Jie

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we present for the first time the observations of a freezing liquid marble. In the experiment, liquid marbles are gently placed on the cold side of a Thermo-Electric Cooler (TEC) and the morphological changes are recorded and characterized thereafter. These liquid marbles are noticed to undergo a shape transition from a spherical to a flying-saucer shaped morphology. The freezing dynamics of liquid marbles is observed to be very different from that of a freezing water droplet o...

  20. Earthworm bioturbation influences the phytoavailability of metals released by particles in cultivated soils

    The influence of earthworm activity on soil-to-plant metal transfer was studied by carrying out six weeks mesocosms experiments with or without lettuce and/or earthworms in soil with a gradient of metal concentrations due to particles fallouts. Soil characteristics, metal concentrations in lettuce and earthworms were measured and soil porosity in the mesocosms was determined. Earthworms increased the soil pH, macroporosity and soil organic matter content due to the burying of wheat straw provided as food. Earthworm activities increased the metals concentrations in lettuce leaves. Pb and Cd concentrations in lettuce leaves can increase up to 46% with earthworm activities … These results and the low correlation between estimated by CaCl2 and EDTA and measured pollutant phytoavailability suggest that earthworm bioturbation was the main cause of the increase. Bioturbation could affect the proximity of pollutants to the roots and soil organic matter. - Highlights: • Earthworm bioturbation increases phytoavailability of Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu. • Earthworm activity influences soil structure and increases pH. • Plant metal uptake was not correlated with CaCl2, EDTA estimated phytoavailability. • Increased metal phytoavailability with bioturbation could increase human exposure. - Earthworm activities can increase metal phytoavailability and subsequent human exposure to metals in consumed vegetables

  1. Arsenic resistance and cycling in earthworms residing at a former gold mine in Canada

    Earthworms (Lumbricus castaneous and Dendrodrilus rubidus), their host soils and leaf litter were collected from a former gold mine with widespread arsenic (As) contamination in Nova Scotia, Canada and determined for total and speciated As. Resistance to As toxicity was investigated by measurement of DNA damage in exposed earthworm populations using the comet assay. Arsenobetaine (AB) was observed at low concentration in the earthworms but not in the host soil or leaf litter. Several different organoarsenic species were observed in the leaf litter and only inorganic As was found in the host soils. The results suggest that 1) adaptation to As toxicity in earthworms is widespread and not particular to a single species, 2) AB originates in the earthworm and not the consumed soil or leaf litter and 3) as previously hypothesised (), biotransformation of inorganic As to AB is not likely involved in the adaptation. - Highlights: ► Adaptation to toxicity and cycling of arsenic in earthworms investigated at Canadian gold mine. ► Earthworms resistant to highly contaminated, genotoxic soils. ► Arsenobetaine present in earthworms but not soil or leaf litter. ► Arsenic resistance in earthworms is widespread and not species specific. - Adaptation of earthworms to arsenic contaminated soils is widespread and not species specific.

  2. Aggregate formation and soil carbon sequestration by earthworms at the ORNL FACE experiment

    Sanchez-de Leon, Y.; Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.; Lugo-Perez, J.; Wise, D. H.; Jastrow, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Earthworms have an important role in soil carbon sequestration, but their contribution to carbon sequestration in soils exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations has been largely overlooked. Previous studies at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Free Air CO2 Experiment (ORNL FACE) site showed that the formation of soil aggregates is a key mechanism for soil carbon sequestration. We did a microcosm experiment to quantify earthworm-mediated aggregate formation and compare between two earthworm species with different feeding habits (endogeic vs. epi-edogeic). In addition, we wanted to identify the carbon source (soil, leaf litter or root litter) within aggregates formed by earthworms. We used 13C-depleted soil and 15N-enriched sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) leaf and root litter collected from the ORNL FACE site to assess soil aggregate formation of the native, endogeic earthworm Diplocardia sp. and European, epi-endogeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Both earthworm species are present at the ORNL FACE site. We crushed, sieved ( 250 μm) were higher in treatments with earthworms (III and IV) than in treatments without earthworms (I and II) (p = 0.02). Within macroaggregates, most of the carbon was soil-derived. Leaf and root-derived carbon was found in treatment IV only. Our results suggest that earthworms at the ORNL FACE site directly contribute to the formation of soil aggregates, thus contributing to soil carbon sequestration. Carbon source within macroaggregates correspond with earthworm feeding habits, with endogeic earthworms (Diplocardia sp.) feeding mostly on mineral soil and epi-endogeic earthworm (L. rubellus) feeding on both plant residues and soil organic matter.

  3. Invasion by Exotic Earthworms Alters Biodiversity and Communities of Litter- and Soil-dwelling Oribatid Mites

    John C. Maerz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Exotic earthworms are drivers of biotic communities in invaded North American forest stands. Here we used ecologically important oribatid mite (Arachnida: Acari communities, as model organisms to study the responses of litter- and soil-dwelling microarthropod communities to exotic earthworm invasion in a northern temperate forest. Litter- and soil-dwelling mites were sampled in 20082009 from forest areas: (1 with no earthworms; (2 those with epigeic and endogeic species, including Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister; and (3 those with epigeic, endogeic, and anecic earthworms including L.terrestris L. Species richness and diversity of litter- and soil-dwelling (02 cm soil depth oribatid mites was 12 times higher in sites without earthworms than in sites with worms. Similarly, litter-dwelling oribatid mites were between 72 and 1,210 times more abundant in earthworm-free sites than in sites with worms. Among earthworm invaded sites, abundance of litter-dwelling oribatid mites in sites without the anecic L. terrestris was twice as high in May and 28 times higher in October, compared to sites with L.terrestris. Species richness, diversity, and abundance of oribatid mites were greater in litter-layers than in the soil-layers that showed a varied response to earthworm invasion. Species compositions of both litter- and soil-dwelling oribatid mite communities of forests with no earthworms were markedly different from those with earthworms. We conclude that exotic earthworm invasions are associated with significant declines of species diversity, numbers, and compositional shifts in litter- and soil-inhabiting communities. These faunal shifts may contribute to earthworm effects on soil processes and food web dynamics in historically earthworm-free, northern temperate forests.

  4. Freeze. How you can help prevent nuclear war

    In their book the Senators Kennedy and Hatfield prove that the United States will not be able to survive a nuclear war. The report on the freeze movement is followed by a chapter on the history of the efforts for disarmament which had been abruptly ended by President Reagan's call for the enhanced modernization of nuclear arms. But ''we have reached the unique moment in the history of the atomic age where it is possible and where it must be tried to freeze nuclear armament'', as Kennedy and Hatfield write, for ''the present nuclear balance is relatively stable''. Only by freezing the standard of armament can this balance which decides on worldwide peace be granted. (orig.)

  5. MEMS earthworm: a thermally actuated peristaltic linear micromotor

    This paper examines the design, fabrication and testing of a bio-mimetic MEMS (micro-electro mechanical systems) earthworm motor with external actuators. The motor consists of a passive mobile shuttle with two flexible diamond-shaped segments; each segment is independently squeezed by a pair of stationary chevron-shaped thermal actuators. Applying a specific sequence of squeezes to the earthworm segments, the shuttle can be driven backward or forward. Unlike existing inchworm drives that use clamping and thrusting actuators, the earthworm actuators apply only clamping forces to the shuttle, and lateral thrust is produced by the shuttle's compliant geometry. The earthworm assembly is fabricated using the PolyMUMPs process with planar dimensions of 400 µm width by 800 µm length. The stationary actuators operate within the range of 4–9 V and provide a maximum shuttle range of motion of 350 µm (approximately half its size), a maximum shuttle speed of 17 mm s−1 at 10 kHz, and a maximum dc shuttle force of 80 µN. The shuttle speed was found to vary linearly with both input voltage and input frequency. The shuttle force was found to vary linearly with the actuator voltage.

  6. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL DETECTION OF SUBLETHAL NEUROTOXIC EFFECTS IN INTACT EARTHWORMS

    The nervous system of earthworms is a logical site for studying the deleterious effects of many toxic substances because neural functions are often more sensitive to disruption than other physiological processes. However, the sublethal effects of toxicants on neural and behaviora...

  7. EARTHWORMS OF THE WESTERN UNITED STATES. PART 1. LUMBRICIDAE

    The earthworm fauna of the western United States is an amalgam of native and introduced elements. While the native species are mostly members of the family Megascolecidae, and closely related to those of Australia and Southeast Asia, the introduced species are, at least in the No...

  8. The Earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae)of Wyoming, USA, Revisited.

    This survey of the earthworms from 22 of the 23 counties of Wyoming recorded 13 species of terrestrial Oligochaeta, all members of the family Lumbricidae. One of these species, Aporrectodea limicola, is reported for the first time from the state. Current nomenclature is applied to historical records...

  9. Sublethal effects of epoxiconazole on the earthworm Aporrectodea icterica.

    Pelosi, C; Lebrun, M; Beaumelle, L; Cheviron, N; Delarue, G; Nélieu, S

    2016-02-01

    Earthworms play a key role in agroecosystem soil processes. This study aims to assess the effects of different doses of a commercial formulation of epoxiconazole (Opus®), a persistent and widely used fungicide, on the earthworm Aporrectodea icterica. A laboratory study was conducted in a natural soil in order to measure effects of Opus® on earthworm mortality, uptake, weight gain, enzymatic activities (catalase and glutathione-S-transferase), and energy resources (lipids and glycogens). The estimated LC50 was 45.5 mg kg(-1), or 268 times the recommended dose. Weight gains were 28, 19, and 13 % of the initial weight after 28 days of exposure in the control and D1 and D10 (1 and 10 times the recommended dose) treatments, respectively. No difference was observed for catalase activity between the three treatments, at 7, 14, or 28 days. The glutathion-S-transferase (GST) activity was two times as high in D1 as in D0 at 14 days. At 28 days, glycogen concentration was lower in D10 than in the D1 treatment. This study highlighted moderate sublethal effects of the commercial formulation Opus® for earthworms. Considering that these effects were observed on a species found in cultivated fields, even at recommended rates, much more attention should be paid to this pesticide. PMID:26081777

  10. The role of earthworm defense mechanisms in ecotoxicity studies

    Roubalová, Radka; Procházková, Petra; Dvořák, Jiří; Škanta, František; Bilej, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2015 (2015), s. 203-213. ISSN 1824-307X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : pollution * immune system * earthworms Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 0.929, year: 2014

  11. Freeze concentration of dairy products

    Amarnath, K.R. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States). Systems and Materials Dept.; Swinkels, W. [Holland Energy Technology BV (Netherlands)

    1992-12-31

    Freeze concentration as a separation process was discussed. It separates mixed liquids by converting one or more of them to a solid. The process is more energy efficient in many applications than either evaporation or distillation, the most common industrial separation methods today. An EPRI report has shown that annual heat energy consumption would decrease an estimated 1.4 quads if industry replaced evaporation and distillation in every feasible case where freezing can be used. The freeze concentration process was employed to replace thermal evaporation in the dairy industry. The goals of the project were to save energy by converting concentration processes to an efficient electrically powered refrigeration system, and to create higher quality dairy products. Tests showed equal or superior quality from freeze concentrates. 2 tabs.

  12. Freeze concentration of fruit juices.

    Deshpande, S S; Cheryan, M; Sathe, S K; Salunkhe, D K

    1984-01-01

    Concentration of aqueous foods such as fruit juices, milk, beer, wine, coffee, and tea, is a major unit operation in the food industry. Technically feasible processes that are commercially available for the concentration of liquid foods include evaporation, freeze concentration, reverse osmosis, and ultrafiltration. Evaporation is considered to be the most economical and most widely used method of concentration. However, it is not suited for food products with very delicate flavors. Commercial processes for the concentration of such products by membrane separation techniques are not yet available. As compared to the conventional evaporation processes, concentration by freezing is potentially a superior and economic process for aroma-rich liquid foods. In the past, the process, however, was seldom used because of the investment cost and the considerable loss of concentrate in the withdrawn ice, and hence, the quality. Recent technological developments have minimized these two drawbacks associated with the earlier freeze concentration processes. In the coming decade, freeze concentration is seen as a potentially attractive method for the concentration of aroma-rich liquid foods, including fruit juices, coffee, tea, and selected alcoholic beverages. In this article, several aspects of the theoretical considerations behind freeze concentration of fruit juices, the development of new and cheaper designs, and commercially available freeze concentration processes are reviewed. The economics of the process and its application to several other areas of the food industry are also discussed. PMID:6383717

  13. MicroRNA regulation in heart and skeletal muscle over the freeze-thaw cycle in the freeze tolerant wood frog.

    Bansal, Saumya; Luu, Bryan E; Storey, Kenneth B

    2016-02-01

    The North American wood frog, Rana sylvatica, is one of just a few anuran species that tolerates whole body freezing during the winter and has been intensely studied to identify the biochemical adaptations that support freeze tolerance. Among these adaptations is the altered expression of many genes, making freeze-responsive changes to gene regulatory mechanisms a topic of interest. The present study focuses on the potential involvement of microRNAs as one such regulatory mechanism and aims to better understand freeze/thaw stress-induced microRNA responses in the freeze-tolerant wood frog. Using quantitative PCR, relative levels of 53 microRNAs were measured in heart and skeletal muscle of control, 24h frozen, and 8h thawed frogs. MicroRNAs showed tissue specific expression patterns: 21 microRNAs decreased in the heart during thawing, whereas 16 microRNAs increased during freezing stress in skeletal muscle. These findings suggest that select genes may be activated and suppressed in heart and skeletal muscle, respectively, in response to freezing. Bioinformatics analysis using the DIANA miRPath program (v.2.0) predicted that the differentially expressed microRNAs may collectively regulate tissue-specific cellular pathways to promote survival of wood frogs undergoing freezing and thawing. PMID:26660652

  14. A review of studies performed to assess metal uptake by earthworms.

    Nahmani, Johanne; Hodson, Mark E; Black, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    Earthworms perform a number of essential functions in soil; the impacts of metals on earthworms are often investigated. In this review we consider the range of earthworm species, types of soil and forms of metal for which metal uptake and accumulation have been studied, the design of these experiments and the quantitative relationships that have been derived to predict earthworm metal body burden. We conclude that there is a need for more studies on earthworm species other than Eisenia fetida in order to apply the large existing database on this earthworm to other, soil dwelling species. To aid comparisons between studies agreement is needed on standard protocols that define exposure and depuration periods and the parameters, such as soil solution composition, soil chemical and physical properties to be measured. It is recommended that more field or terrestrial model ecosystem studies using real contaminated soil rather than metal-amended artificial soils are performed. PMID:16815606

  15. Do earthworms impact metal mobility and availability in soil? - A review

    Sizmur, Tom, E-mail: t.p.sizmur@reading.ac.u [Department of Soil Science, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E., E-mail: m.e.hodson@reading.ac.u [Department of Soil Science, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    The importance of earthworms to ecosystem functioning has led to many studies on the impacts of metals on earthworms. Far less attention has been paid to the impact that earthworms have on soil metals both in terms of metal mobility and availability. In this review we consider which earthworms have been used in such studies, which soil components have been investigated, which types of soil have been used and what measures of mobility and availability applied. We proceed to review proposed reasons for effects: changes in microbial populations, pH, dissolved organic carbon and metal speciation. The balance of evidence suggests that earthworms increase metal mobility and availability but more studies are required to determine the precise mechanism for this. - We review the impact of earthworms on metal mobility and availability and suggest areas for further investigation.

  16. Do earthworms impact metal mobility and availability in soil? - A review

    The importance of earthworms to ecosystem functioning has led to many studies on the impacts of metals on earthworms. Far less attention has been paid to the impact that earthworms have on soil metals both in terms of metal mobility and availability. In this review we consider which earthworms have been used in such studies, which soil components have been investigated, which types of soil have been used and what measures of mobility and availability applied. We proceed to review proposed reasons for effects: changes in microbial populations, pH, dissolved organic carbon and metal speciation. The balance of evidence suggests that earthworms increase metal mobility and availability but more studies are required to determine the precise mechanism for this. - We review the impact of earthworms on metal mobility and availability and suggest areas for further investigation.

  17. Heavy Metals Bioaccumulation by Iranian and Australian Earthworms (Eisenia fetida in the Sewage Sludge Vermicomposting

    MR Shahmansouri, H Pourmoghadas, AR Parvaresh, H Alidadi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Vermicomposting of organic waste has an important part to play in an integrated waste management strategy. In this study, the possibility of heavy metals accumulation with two groups of Iranian and Australian earthworms in sewage sludge vermicompost was investigated. Eisenia fetida was the species of earthworms used in the vermicomposting process. The bioaccumulation of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn as heavy metals by Iranian and Australian earthworms was studied. The results indicated that heavy metals concentration decreased with increasing vermicomposting time. Comparison of the two groups of earthworms showed that the Iranian earthworms consumed higher quantities of micronutrients such as Cu and Zn comparing with the Australian earthworms, while the bioaccumulation of non-essential elements such as Cr, Cd, and Pb by the Australian group was higher. The significant decrease in heavy metal concentrations in the final vermicompost indicated the capability of both Iranian and Australian E.fetida species in accumulating heavy metals in their body tissues.

  18. Facing freeze: social threat induces bodily freeze in humans.

    Roelofs, Karin; Hagenaars, Muriel A; Stins, John

    2010-11-01

    Freezing is a common defensive response in animals threatened by predators. It is characterized by reduced body motion and decreased heart rate (bradycardia). However, despite the relevance of animal defense models in human stress research, studies have not shown whether social threat cues elicit similar freeze-like responses in humans. We investigated body sway and heart rate in 50 female participants while they were standing on a stabilometric force platform and viewing cues that were socially threatening, socially neutral, and socially affiliative (angry, neutral, and happy faces, respectively). Posturographic analyses showed that angry faces (compared with neutral faces and happy faces) induced significant reductions in body sway. In addition, the reduced body sway for angry faces was accompanied by bradycardia and correlated significantly with subjective anxiety. Together, these findings indicate that spontaneous body responses to social threat cues involve freeze-like behavior in humans that mimics animal freeze responses. These findings open avenues for studying human freeze responses in relation to various sociobiological markers and social-affective disorders. PMID:20876881

  19. Earthworm transport of heavy metals from sewage sludge: a micro-PIXE application in soil science

    Protz, R.; Teesdale, W. J.; Maxwell, J. A.; Campbell, J. L.; Duke, C.

    1993-05-01

    Micro-PIXE was used to analyze earthworm fecal material and the linings of earthworm channels in the soil below a land area on which sewage sludge had been applied. Metals present in the sludge were identified both in fecal pellets and in the linings of the channels, at concentration markedly higher than in the soil matrix. PIXE elemental data in raster format were spatially analyzed during image analysis demonstrating in a quantitative manner the spatial correlations among elements transported by the earthworms.

  20. The soil-dwelling earthworm Allolobophora chlorotica modifies its burrowing behaviour in response to carbendazim applications

    Ellis, Sian R.; Hodson, Mark E.; Wege, P.

    2010-01-01

    Carbendazim-amended soil was placed above or below unamended soil. Control tests comprised two layers of unamended soil. Allolobophora chlorotica earthworms were added to either the upper or the unamended soil. After 72 h vertical distributions of earthworms were compared between control and carbendazim-amended experiments. Earthworm distributions in the carbendazim-amended test containers differed significantly from the ‘normal’ distribution observed in the control tests. In the majority of ...

  1. Invasion by Exotic Earthworms Alters Biodiversity and Communities of Litter- and Soil-dwelling Oribatid Mites

    John C. Maerz; Milanovich, Joseph R.; Gandhi, Kamal J K; Melany C. Fisk; Jordan L. Burke

    2011-01-01

    Exotic earthworms are drivers of biotic communities in invaded North American forest stands. Here we used ecologically important oribatid mite (Arachnida: Acari) communities, as model organisms to study the responses of litter- and soil-dwelling microarthropod communities to exotic earthworm invasion in a northern temperate forest. Litter- and soil-dwelling mites were sampled in 2008–2009 from forest areas: (1) with no earthworms; (2) those with epigeic and endogeic species, including Lumbric...

  2. Impacts of epigeic, anecic and endogeic earthworms on metal and metalloid mobility and availability

    Sizmur, Tom; Tilston, Emma L.; Charnock, John; Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Watts, Michael J.; Hodson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of earthworms into soils contaminated with metals and metalloids has been suggested to aid restoration practices. Eisenia veneta (epigeic), Lumbricus terrestris (anecic) and Allolobophora chlorotica (endogeic) earthworms were cultivated in columns containing 900 g soil with 1130, 345, 113 and 131 mg kg−1 of As, Cu, Pb and Zn, respectively, for up to 112 days, in parallel with earthworm-free columns. Leachate was produced by pouring water on the soil surface to saturate the so...

  3. Species Richness, Community Organization, and Spatiotemporal Distribution of Earthworms in the Pineapple Agroecosystems of Tripura, India

    Animesh Dey; Chaudhuri, P. S.

    2016-01-01

    The impact that plant communities may have on underground faunal diversity is unclear. Therefore, understanding the links between plants and organisms is of major interest. Earthworm population dynamics were studied in the pineapple agroecosystems of Tripura to evaluate the impact of monoculture plantation on earthworm communities. A total of thirteen earthworm species belonging to four families and five genera were collected from different sampling sites. Application of sample-based rarefact...

  4. Abundance, Biomass and Vertical Distribution of Earthworms in Ecosystem Units of Hornbeam Forest

    Y. Kooch; H Jalilvand; M. A. Bahmanyar; M.R. Pormajidian

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the abundance, biomass and practical distribution of earthworms in ecosystem and tried to identify the factors affecting earthworm populations during different environmental conditions. Density and biomass of earthworms were studied in ecosystem unit`s khanikan forests (North of Iran) in July 2006. Eighteen soil profiles (50x50 cm) to the depth of 30 cm were digged and soil samples were taken from organic horizon (litter layer) and minera...

  5. Earthworms Dilong: Ancient, Inexpensive, Noncontroversial Models May Help Clarify Approaches to Integrated Medicine Emphasizing Neuroimmune Systems

    Cooper, Edwin L.; Mariappan Balamurugan; Chih-Yang Huang; Tsao, Clara R.; Jesus Heredia; Mila Tommaseo-Ponzetta; Paoletti, Maurizio G.

    2012-01-01

    Earthworms have provided ancient cultures with food and sources of medicinal cures. Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and practices in Japan, Vietnam, and Korea have focused first on earthworms as sources of food. Gradually fostering an approach to potential beneficial healing properties, there are renewed efforts through bioprospecting and evidence-based research to understand by means of rigorous investigations the mechanisms of action whether earthworms are used as food and/or ...

  6. Heavy Metals Bioaccumulation by Iranian and Australian Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in the Sewage Sludge Vermicomposting

    MR Shahmansouri, H Pourmoghadas, AR Parvaresh, H Alidadi

    2005-01-01

    Vermicomposting of organic waste has an important part to play in an integrated waste management strategy. In this study, the possibility of heavy metals accumulation with two groups of Iranian and Australian earthworms in sewage sludge vermicompost was investigated. Eisenia fetida was the species of earthworms used in the vermicomposting process. The bioaccumulation of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn as heavy metals by Iranian and Australian earthworms was studied. The results indicated that heavy me...

  7. Acclimation of earthworms to chemicals in anthropogenic landscapes, physiological mechanisms and soil ecological implications

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Wiegand, Claudia; Le Bot, Barbara; Renault, David; Pallois, Frédérique; Llopis, Stéphanie; Binet, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Because earthworms sustain soil functioning and fertility, there is a need to advance the knowledge of their adaptation potential to chemicals in anthropogenic landscapes. Our hypothesis is that there is acclimation to organic chemicals (pesticides) in earthworms that durably persist under conventional farming in anthropogenic landscapes. The adaptation capability of two populations of earthworms (Aporectodea caliginosa) having a different chemical exposure history, - one originating from 20 ...

  8. Biotic interaction between earthworms and pesticide degrading bacteria - Impact on the detoxification service of soil

    Monard, Cécile; Vandenkoornhuyse, Philippe; Martin-laurent, Fabrice; Binet, Françoise

    2010-01-01

    Earthworms are efficient soil engineers that change the physical and chemical properties of soil and act in turn on soil microbial communities. Earthworm bioturbation will thus impact microbial processes in soil and also the generated ecosystemic services such as detoxification function. By using RNA based Stable Isotope Probing we demonstrated that the bacterial communities responsive to 13 C enrichments in earthworm casts were different from those in bulk soil resulting in different degrada...

  9. Valorisation of a water hyacinth in vermicomposting using an epigeic earthworm Perionyx excavatus in Central Vietnam

    Zirbes, L.; Renard, Q.; Dufey, J.; Tu, PK.; Duyet, HN.; Lebailly, P.; Francis, F.; Haubruge, E.

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of vermicomposting water hyacinth (WH) [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] mixed with pig manure (PM) in different proportions was tested using tropical composting earthworm Perionyx excavatus. Earthworms grew and reproduced normally until the incorporation of 50% WH in initial substrate. Higher water hyacinth proportions induced earthworms' mortality and significantly affected the numbers of hatchlings and cocoons produced during vermicomposting period. The influence of the ...

  10. Impact of earthworms on the diversity of microarthropods in a vertisol (Martinique)

    Loranger, Gladys; Ponge, Jean-Franois; Blanchart, ric; LAVELLE, Patrick

    1998-01-01

    In a study of a 15-year-old pasture in Martinique (French West Indies), abundance and organization of microarthropod communities were correlated with the spatial distribution of the earthworm #Polypheretima elongata$ (Megascolecidae). In patches of high earthworm density (133 individuals/sq m), microarthropod density was significantly higher (80 000 individuals/sq m) than in patches with few earthworms (31 worms/sq m and 49 000 microarthropods/sq m). The diversity of microarthropod communitie...

  11. Effects of Pesticides on the Growth and Reproduction of Earthworm: A Review

    Doris D'Souza; Shahla Yasmin

    2010-01-01

    Scientific literature addressing the influence of pesticides on the growth and reproduction of earthworm is reviewed. Earthworms are considered as important bioindicators of chemical toxicity in the soil ecosystem. Studies on this aspect are important because earthworms are the common prey of many terrestrial vertebrate species such as birds and small mammals, and thus they play a key role in the biomagnification process of several soil pollutants. Majority of the studies have used mortality ...

  12. New earthworm records from Turkey, with description of three new species (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae).

    Szederjesi, Tímea; Pavlíček, Tomás; Coşkun, Yüksel; Csuzdi, Csaba

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the earthworm material recently collected in different parts of Turkey (Marmara Region, Upper Mesopotamia, Hatay Province and East Anatolia) resulted in records of 29 earthworm species including three lumbricids new to science: Dendrobaena cevdeti, D. szalokii and Eisenia patriciae spp. nov. In addition, Dendrobaena cognettii is reported for the first time from the country. With this contribution, the number of earthworm species and subspecies registered in Turkey is raised to 80. PMID:24870656

  13. Potential utilization of bagasse as feed material for earthworm Eisenia fetida and production of vermicompost.

    Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2015-01-01

    In the present work bagasse (B) i.e waste of the sugar industry, was fed to Eisenia fetida with cattle dung (CD) support as feed material at various ratios (waste: CD) of 0:100 (B0), 25:75 (B25), 50:50 (B50), 75:25 (B75) and 100:0 (B100) on dry weight basis. Co-composting with cattle dung helped to improve their acceptability for E. fetida and also improved physico-chemical characteristics. Best appropriate ratio for survival, maximum growth and population buildup of E. fetida was determined by observing population buildup, growth rate, biomass, mortality and cocoon formation. Minimum mortality and highest population size of worms was observed in 50:50 (B50) ratio. Increasing concentrations of wastes significantly affected the growth and reproduction of worms. Nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and sodium increased from pre-vermicompost to post-vermicompost, while organic carbon, and C:N ratio decreased in all the end products of post-vermicomposting. Heavy metals decreased significantly from initial except zinc, iron and manganese which increased significantly. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to recognize the changes in texture in the pre and post-vermicomposted samples. The post-vermicomposted ratios in the presence of earthworms validate more surface changes that prove to be good manure. The results observed from the present study indicated that the earthworm E. fetida was able to change bagasse waste into nutrient-rich manure and thus play a major role in industrial waste management. PMID:25625035

  14. Heavy Metal-Induced Oxidative DNA Damage in Earthworms: A Review

    Earthworms can be used as a bio-indicator of metal contamination in soil, Earlier reports claimed the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in earthworm tissues, while the metal-induced mutagenicity reared in contaminated soils for long duration. But we examined the metal-induced mutagenicity in earthworms reared in metal containing culture bedding. In this experiment we observed the generation of 8-oxo guanine (8-oxo-Gua) in earthworms exposed to cadmium and nickel in soil. 8-oxo-Gua is a major pre mutagenic form of oxidative DNA damage that induces GC-to-TA point mutations, leading to carcinogenesis.

  15. Vermicomposting of Solid Waste Using Local and Exotic Earthworms: A Comparative Study.

    Amit, Krishan; Ajit, Kumar; Arthanareeswari, M; Kamaraj, P

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the decomposition efficiency of earthworms, local (L.mauritii) as well as exotic (Eisenia foetida) in vermicomposting of garden litter in SRM University campus. The vermicompost produced through vermicomposting of garden litter mixed with cow dung in the ratio of 3:1 by using local and exotic earthworms (Eisenia foetida) was rich in ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, available phosphorus, total potassium and TKN, and there was a reduction in total organic carbon and carbon to nitrogen ratio. The study reveals that the decomposition efficiency of exotic earthworms is better compared to local earthworms. PMID:26563089

  16. Accumulation of mercury and methylmercury by mushrooms and earthworms from forest soils

    Rieder, Stephan R. [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Institute for Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zuerich, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Brunner, Ivano [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Horvat, Milena [Jozef Stefan Institute, 1001 Ljubliana (Slovenia); Jacobs, Anna [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Department of Environmental Chemistry, University of Kassel, 37213 Witzenhausen (Germany); Frey, Beat, E-mail: beat.frey@wsl.ch [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2011-10-15

    Accumulation of total and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms was studied in thirty-four natural forest soils strongly varying in soil physico-chemical characteristics. Tissue Hg concentrations of both receptors did hardly correlate with Hg concentrations in soil. Both total and methyl-Hg concentrations in tissues were species-specific and dependent on the ecological groups of receptor. Methyl-Hg was low accounting for less than 5 and 8% of total Hg in tissues of mushrooms and earthworms, respectively, but with four times higher concentrations in earthworms than mushrooms. Total Hg concentrations in mushrooms averaged 0.96 mg Hg kg{sup -1} dw whereas litter decomposing mushrooms showed highest total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations. Earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations (1.04 mg Hg kg{sup -1} dw) whereas endogeic earthworms accumulated highest amounts of Hg and methyl-Hg. - Highlights: > Hg and MeHg concentrations in mushrooms and earthworms at unpolluted forest soils. > Mushrooms and earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations. > MeHg was present in traces but four times higher in earthworms than in mushrooms. > Ecophysiological group influenced Hg and MeHg concentration in both receptors. - Accumulation of Hg and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms is species- and ecophysiological group dependent.

  17. In Vivo Emission of Dinitrogen by Earthworms via Denitrifying Bacteria in the Gut

    Horn, Marcus A.; Mertel, Ralph; Gehre, Matthias; Kästner, Matthias; Drake, Harold L.

    2006-01-01

    Earthworms emit the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), and ingested denitrifiers in the gut appear to be the main source of this N2O. The primary goal of this study was to determine if earthworms also emit dinitrogen (N2), the end product of complete denitrification. When [15N]nitrate was injected into the gut, the earthworms Aporrectodea caliginosa and Lumbricus terrestris emitted labeled N2 (and also labeled N2O) under in vivo conditions; emission of N2 by these two earthworms was relative...

  18. Accumulation of mercury and methylmercury by mushrooms and earthworms from forest soils

    Accumulation of total and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms was studied in thirty-four natural forest soils strongly varying in soil physico-chemical characteristics. Tissue Hg concentrations of both receptors did hardly correlate with Hg concentrations in soil. Both total and methyl-Hg concentrations in tissues were species-specific and dependent on the ecological groups of receptor. Methyl-Hg was low accounting for less than 5 and 8% of total Hg in tissues of mushrooms and earthworms, respectively, but with four times higher concentrations in earthworms than mushrooms. Total Hg concentrations in mushrooms averaged 0.96 mg Hg kg-1 dw whereas litter decomposing mushrooms showed highest total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations. Earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations (1.04 mg Hg kg-1 dw) whereas endogeic earthworms accumulated highest amounts of Hg and methyl-Hg. - Highlights: → Hg and MeHg concentrations in mushrooms and earthworms at unpolluted forest soils. → Mushrooms and earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations. → MeHg was present in traces but four times higher in earthworms than in mushrooms. → Ecophysiological group influenced Hg and MeHg concentration in both receptors. - Accumulation of Hg and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms is species- and ecophysiological group dependent.

  19. Heavy Metal-Induced Oxidative DNA Damage in Earthworms: A Review

    Kazuyoshi Tamae; Takeshi Hirano

    2010-01-01

    Earthworms can be used as a bio-indicator of metal contamination in soil, Earlier reports claimed the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in earthworm tissues, while the metal-induced mutagenicity reared in contaminated soils for long duration. But we examined the metal-induced mutagenicity in earthworms reared in metal containing culture beddings. In this experiment we observed the generation of 8-oxoguanine (8-oxo-Gua) in earthworms exposed to cadmium and nickel in soil. 8-oxo-Gua is a major pr...

  20. Bioaccumulation and enantioselectivity of type I and type II pyrethroid pesticides in earthworm.

    Chang, Jing; Wang, Yinghuan; Wang, Huili; Li, Jianzhong; Xu, Peng

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the bioavailability and enantioselectivity differences between bifenthrin (BF, type?pyrethroid) and lambad-cyhalothrin (LCT, type ? pyrethroid) in earthworm (Eisenia fetida) were investigated. The bio-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) of BF was about 4 times greater than that of LCT. LCT was degraded faster than BF in soil while eliminated lower in earthworm samples. Compound sorption plays an important role on bioavailability in earthworm, and the soil-adsorption coefficient (Koc) of BF and LCT were 22 442 and 42 578, respectively. Metabolic capacity of earthworm to LCT was further studied as no significant difference in the accumulation of LCT between the high and low dose experiment was found. 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBCOOH), a metabolite of LCT produced by earthworm was detected in soil. The concentration of PBCOOH at high dose exposure was about 4.7 times greater than that of in low dose level at the fifth day. The bioaccumulation of BF and LCT were both enantioselective in earthworm. The enantiomer factors of BF and LCT in earthworm were approximately 0.12 and 0.65, respectively. The more toxic enantiomers ((+)-BF and (-)-LCT) had a preferential degradation in earthworm and leaded to less toxicity on earthworm for racemate exposure. In combination with other studies, a liner relationship between Log BSAFS and Log Kow was observed, and the Log BSAFS decreased with the increase of Log Kow. PMID:26490429

  1. Earthworm responses to Cd and Cu under fluctuating environmental conditions: a comparison with results from laboratory exposures

    Laboratory toxicity tests are usually conducted under stable ambient conditions, while exposures in ecosystems occur in a fluctuating climate. To assess how climate influences the toxicity of Cu and Cd for the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus, this study compared effects for life-cycle parameters (survival, reproduction), cellular status (lysosomal membrane stability), gene expression (transcript of the metal binding protein metallothionein-2) and tissue metal concentration measured under outdoor conditions, with the same responses under constant conditions as measured by Spurgeon et al. [Spurgeon, D.J., Svendsen, C., Weeks, J.M., Hankard, P.K., Stubberud, H.E., Kammenga, J.E., 2003. Quantifying copper and cadmium impacts on intrinsic rate of population increase in the terrestrial oligochaete Lumbricus rubellus. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22, 1465-1472]. Both metals were found to significantly influence earthworm reproduction, compromise lysosomal membrane stability and induce MT-2 gene expression in the outdoor system. Comparison with physiological and life-cycle responses in the laboratory indicated similar response patterns and effect concentrations for Cu. For Cd, lysosomal membrane stability and MT-2expression showed comparable responses in both exposures. Juvenile production rate, however, gave different dose response relationships, with the EC-50 in the outdoor test approximately half that in the laboratory test. A difference in Cd accumulation was also seen. Overall, however, the comparison indicated only a marginal effect of environmental fluctuations typical for northern temperate Europe on earthworm sensitivity to the two metals. - Comparative analysis of life-cycle, physiological and molecular responses to Cu and Cd indicate similar responses under static and fluctuating climate regimes

  2. Freeze-in through portals

    The popular freeze-out paradigm for Dark Matter (DM) production, relies on DM-baryon couplings of the order of the weak interactions. However, different search strategies for DM have failed to provide a conclusive evidence of such (non-gravitational) interactions, while greatly reducing the parameter space of many representative models. This motivates the study of alternative mechanisms for DM genesis. In the freeze-in framework, the DM is slowly populated from the thermal bath while never reaching equilibrium. In this work, we analyse in detail the possibility of producing a frozen-in DM via a mediator particle which acts as a portal. We give analytical estimates of different freeze-in regimes and support them with full numerical analyses, taking into account the proper distribution functions of bath particles. Finally, we constrain the parameter space of generic models by requiring agreement with DM relic abundance observations

  3. Water Freezing and Ice Melting.

    Małolepsza, Edyta; Keyes, Tom

    2015-12-01

    The generalized replica exchange method (gREM) is designed to sample states with coexisting phases and thereby to describe strong first order phase transitions. The isobaric MD version of the gREM is presented and applied to the freezing of liquid water and the melting of hexagonal and cubic ice. It is confirmed that coexisting states are well-sampled. The statistical temperature as a function of enthalpy, TS(H), is obtained. Hysteresis between freezing and melting is observed and discussed. The entropic analysis of phase transitions is applied and equilibrium transition temperatures, latent heats, and surface tensions are obtained for hexagonal ice ↔ liquid and cubic ice ↔ liquid with excellent agreement with published values. A new method is given to assign water molecules among various symmetry types. Pathways for water freezing, ultimately leading to hexagonal ice, are found to contain intermediate layered structures built from hexagonal and cubic ice. PMID:26642983

  4. Freeze Protection in Gas Holders

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Duursma, Gail

    In cold weather, the water seals of gasholders need protection from freez- ing to avoid compromising the seal. These holders have a large reservoir of “tank water” at the base which is below ground. At present freeze- protection is achieved by external heating of the seal water which is in a...... slotted channel called a cup. Electrical heating or circulation of heated tank water to the cup are examples of systems presently used. The tank water has a large thermal capacity and National Grid wishes to inves- tigate whether circulation of the tank water without external heating could provide...... sufficient energy input to avoid freezing. Only tanks in which the tank water is below ground are investigated in the report. The soil temperature under the reservoir at depth of 10m and lower is almost constant....

  5. Freezing of a liquid marble.

    Hashmi, Ali; Strauss, Adam; Xu, Jie

    2012-07-17

    In this study, we present for the first time the observations of a freezing liquid marble. In the experiment, liquid marbles are gently placed on the cold side of a thermo-electric cooler (TEC), and the morphological changes are recorded and characterized thereafter. These liquid marbles are noticed to undergo a shape transition from a spherical to a flying-saucer-shaped morphology. The freezing dynamics of liquid marbles is observed to be very different from that of a freezing water droplet on a superhydrophobic surface. For example, the pointy tip appearing on a frozen water drop could not be observed for a frozen liquid marble. In the end, we highlight a possible explanation of the observed morphology. PMID:22746403

  6. Freezing singularities in water drops

    Enriquez, Oscar R; Winkels, Koen G; Snoeijer, Jacco H

    2011-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video we show how a drop of water freezes into a singular shape when deposited on a cold surface. The process of solidification can be observed very clearly due to the change in refraction when water turns into ice. The drop remains approximately spherical during most of the process, with a freezing front moving upwards and smoothly following the interface. However, at the final stage of freezing, when the last cap of liquid turns into ice, a singular tip develops spontaneously. Interestingly, the sharp tip of the ice drop acts as a preferential site for deposition of water vapour, and a beautiful "tree" of ice crystals develops right at the tip. The tip singularity attracts the vapour in analogy to a sharp lightning rod attracting lightning.

  7. Effect of temperature and season on reproduction, neutral red retention and metallothionein responses of earthworms exposed to metals in field soils

    This study investigated the short-term survival, reproduction and physiological (lysosomal membrane stability, metallothionein transcript copy number, body tissue metal concentrations) responses of Lumbricus rubellus exposed to metal contaminated field soils under different laboratory temperatures (10, 15 and 20 oC) and physiological responses of earthworms collected from the field in three different seasons (spring, autumn, winter). In the laboratory, metal contaminated soils had significant effects on reproduction (p < 0.001), metallothionein-2 (MT-2) expression (p = 0.033) and earthworm As (p = 0.003), Cd (p = 0.001), Pb (p < 0.001) and Zn (p < 0.001) concentration, but not lysosomal membrane stability and tissue Hg and Cu. No effect of temperature was found for any parameter. Principal component analysis of extractable and tissue metal concentrations indicated PC1 as a measure of metal stress. Both cocoon production (r = - 0.75) and MT-2 induction (r = 0.41) were correlated with PC1. A correlation was also found between cocoon production and MT-2 expression (r = - 0.41). Neutral red retention and MT-2 measurements in worms collected from the field sites in three seasons confirmed the absence of a temperature effect on these responses. - Laboratory and field studies demonstrate metal effects on earthworm life-cycle and biochemical responses are not influenced by temperature regime

  8. Promotion of leaf degradation by earthworms under laboratory conditions. Paper presented at Joint Organic Congress, Odense, Denemarken

    Heijne, B.; Jager, de, C.P.C.; De, Jong

    2006-01-01

    Organic materials were applied to leaves from organic apple trees. Then, leaves were fed to earthworms in a laboratory culture. The objective was to select materials which promote leaf degradation by earthworms and consequently reduce the inoculum pressure of apple scab in orchards. Used earthworms were fully grown and consequently no effect of the leaf treatments was found on earthworm weights. However, leaf consumption tended to be increased by addition of amino acids and beet pulp to leave...

  9. Earthworm's immunity in the nanomaterial world: new room, future challenges

    Hayashi, Yuya; Engelmann, Péter

    2013-01-01

    Since the advent of the nanotechnology era, the environmental sink has been continuously receiving engineered nanomaterials as well as their derivatives. Our current understanding of the potential impact of nanomaterials on invertebrate immunity is limited to only a handful of initial studies...... including those on earthworms. Recently, we reported selective accumulation of silver nanoparticles in the amoebocyte population of Eisenia fetida coelomocytes in vitro. In this review, we give an overview of available literature on the life-history impacts on earthworms, and what we have learnt of the...... immune responses to nanoparticles with references to other invertebrate species and vertebrate counterparts. We discuss the significant contribution of amoebocytes as nanoparticle scavengers and suggest a possibility of studying inter-cellular communications in coelomocytes. Implications from the leading...

  10. Earthworm Is a Versatile and Sustainable Biocatalyst for Organic Synthesis

    Guan, Zhi; Chen, Yan-Li; Yuan, Yi; Song, Jian; Yang, Da-Cheng; Xue, Yang; He, Yan-Hong

    2014-01-01

    A crude extract of earthworms was used as an eco-friendly, environmentally benign, and easily accessible biocatalyst for various organic synthesis including the asymmetric direct aldol and Mannich reactions, Henry and Biginelli reactions, direct three-component aza-Diels-Alder reactions for the synthesis of isoquinuclidines, and domino reactions for the synthesis of coumarins. Most of these reactions have never before seen in nature, and moderate to good enantioselectivities in aldol and Mannich reactions were obtained with this earthworm catalyst. The products can be obtained in preparatively useful yields, and the procedure does not require any additional cofactors or special equipment. This work provides an example of a practical way to use sustainable catalysts from nature. PMID:25148527

  11. Non-native earthworms promote plant invasion by ingesting seeds and modifying soil properties

    Clause, Julia; Forey, Estelle; Lortie, Christopher J.; Lambert, Adam M.; Barot, Sébastien

    2015-04-01

    Earthworms can have strong direct effects on plant communities through consumption and digestion of seeds, however it is unclear how earthworms may influence the relative abundance and composition of plant communities invaded by non-native species. In this study, earthworms, seed banks, and the standing vegetation were sampled in a grassland of central California. Our objectives were i) to examine whether the abundances of non-native, invasive earthworm species and non-native grassland plant species are correlated, and ii) to test whether seed ingestion by these worms alters the soil seed bank by evaluating the composition of seeds in casts relative to uningested soil. Sampling locations were selected based on historical land-use practices, including presence or absence of tilling, and revegetation by seed using Phalaris aquatica. Only non-native earthworm species were found, dominated by the invasive European species Aporrectodea trapezoides. Earthworm abundance was significantly higher in the grassland blocks dominated by non-native plant species, and these sites had higher carbon and moisture contents. Earthworm abundance was also positively related to increased emergence of non-native seedlings, but had no effect on that of native seedlings. Plant species richness and total seedling emergence were higher in casts than in uningested soils. This study suggests that there is a potential effect of non-native earthworms in promoting non-native and likely invasive plant species within grasslands, due to seed-plant-earthworm interactions via soil modification or to seed ingestion by earthworms and subsequent cast effects on grassland dynamics. This study supports a growing body of literature for earthworms as ecosystem engineers but highlights the relative importance of considering non-native-native interactions with the associated plant community.

  12. Invasive and exotic earthworms: an unaccounted change to mercury cycling in northeastern US forest soils

    Richardson, J. B.; Friedland, A. J.; Görres, J. H.; Renock, D. J.; Jackson, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Invasive and exotic earthworms are now present in many forested areas of the northeastern US with currently unquantified consequences to abiotic and biotic Hg cycling. To quantify these effects, we measured Hg concentrations (mg kg-1) and amounts (μg m-2) in earthworms and soil horizons at 45 soil pits from 9 sites in northern New England. Seven earthworm species were observed in varying assemblages. Most earthworm species attained concentrations of Hg potentially hazardous to wildlife that may ingest them, with highest concentrations found in shallow-burrowing, litter-feeders. Specifically, Aporrectodea rosea and Amynthas agrestis had the greatest Hg concentrations (0.9 ± 0.1) and Hg amounts (8 ± 2) μg m-2. Aporrectodea rosea and Amynthas agrestis were found to inhabit the forest floor and the top 5 cm of the mineral horizons in high abundance, potentially making it a readily accessible prey species. Bioaccumulation of Hg by invasive and exotic earthworms may be an important mechanism that transfers Hg to ground foraging predators, such as thrushes, red-backed salamanders and foxes, which is generally unaccounted for in terrestrial food chains. Earthworm Hg concentrations were poorly correlated with their respective soil Hg concentrations, suggesting a species dependence for Hg bioaccumulation rather than site effects. We observed that forest floor Hg concentrations and amounts were 23% and 57% lower, respectively, at soil pits with earthworms compared to those without. Moreover, Hg amounts in forest floor-feeding earthworms exceeded the remaining forest floor Hg pools. Mercury concentrations and pools in the mineral soil were 21% and 33% lower, respectively, for soil pits with earthworms compared to those without. We hypothesize that enhanced decomposition, horizon disturbance and bioaccumulation by earthworms has decreased Hg amounts in the forest floor and mineral soil. Our results suggest that earthworms are decreasing Hg storage in forest soils with potential hazardous impacts for predatory animals in northeastern US forests and other ecosystems.

  13. Earthworm Population Density in Sugarcane Cropping System Applied with Various Quality of Organic Matter

    Nurhidayati Nurhidayati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms population in the soil are greatly impacted by agricultural management, yet little is known about how the quality and quantity of organic matter addition interact in sugarcane cropping system to earthworm population. This study describes the effect of various organic matter and application rates on earthworms in sugarcane cropping system. Earthworms were collected in April, July and December from 48 experimental plots under five kinds of organic matter application : (1 cattle manure, (2 filter cake of sugar mill, (3 sugarcane trash, (4 mixture of cattle manure+filter cake, and (5 mixture of cattle manure+sugarcane trash. There were three application rates of the organic matter (5, 10, and 15 ton ha-1. The treatments were arranged in factorial block randomize design with three replications and one treatment as a control (no organic input. Earthworms were collected using monolith sampling methods and hand-sorted from each plot, and measured its density (D (indiv.m-2, biomass (B (g m-2 and B/D ratio (g/indiv.. All the plots receiving organic matter input had higher earthworm density, biomass, and B/D ratio than the control. The highest earthworm population density was found in the plot receiving application of sugarcane trash (78 indiv.m-2 and the mixture of cattle manure+sugarcane trash (84 indiv.m-2. The increase in application rates of organic matter could increase the earthworm density and biomass. Earthworm population density also appeared to be strongly influenced by the quality of organic matter, such as the C-organic, N, C/N ratio, lignin, polyphenols, and cellulose content. Earthworm preferred low quality organic matter. It was caused by the higher energy of low quality organic matter than high quality organic matter. Our findings suggest that the input of low quality organic matter with application rate as 10 ton ha-1 is important for maintaining earthworm population and soil health in sugarcane land.

  14. Effects of Earthworms on Phosphorus Dynamics – A Review

    Le Bayon, Renée-Claire; Milleret, Roxane

    2009-01-01

    Belowground biotic interactions are known to influence soil fertility and plant growth by changing the physical environment and the soil nutrient cycles. Among the great diversity of soil biota, earthworms are keystone soil organisms in regulating nutrient cycling through: (i) their own metabolism that leads to high availability of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) from metabolic wastes such as urine, mucus and tissue, (ii) the dispersal and the stimulation of soil microorganism activity associated...

  15. Further records of non-cryptic New Zealand earthworms

    Robert Blakemore

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Current descriptions add natives Aporodrilus aotea sp. n., Aporodrilus ponga sp. n. and Notoscolex repanga sp. n., plus new exotic records to the numbers of megadrile earthworms known from New Zealand, which are now raised from 193 to 222 species in five families, viz: Acanthodrilidae, Octochaetidae and Megascolecidae, plus Lumbricidae and Glossoscolecidae for exotics. Overlooked spermathecal diverticula have been located for Notoscolex equestris Benham, 1942 and for Megascolex anima...

  16. Earthworms newly from Mongolia (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae, Eisenia)

    Robert Blakemore

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new megadrile earthworms from the steppes, the first species wholly from Outer Mongolia, are ascribed to the partially parthenogenetic Eisenia nordenskioldi (Eisen, 1879) species-complex. Taxonomic justification of sympatric Eisenia nordenskioldi mongol and Eisenia nordenskioldi onon ssp. n. are supported by mtDNA COI barcodes. The unreliability of molecular differentiation based on voucher names compared to definitive types is again demonstrated, as pertains to the ultimate Eise...

  17. Unearthing the genome of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus

    Elsworth, Benjamin Lloyd

    2013-01-01

    The earthworm has long been of interest to biologists, most notably Charles Darwin, who was the first to reveal their true role as eco-engineers of the soil. However, to fully understand an animal one needs to combine observational data with the fundamental building blocks of life, DNA. For many years, sequencing a genome was an incredibly costly and time-consuming process. Recent advances in sequencing technology have led to high quality, high throughput data being available a...

  18. Earthworm-produced calcite granules: A new terrestrial palaeothermometer?

    Versteegh, Emma A. A.; Black, Stuart; Canti, Matthew G.; Hodson, Mark E.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we show for the first time that calcite granules, produced by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, and commonly recorded at sites of archaeological interest, accurately reflect temperature and soil water δ18O values. Earthworms were cultivated in an orthogonal combination of two different (granule-free) soils moistened by three types of mineral water and kept at three temperatures (10, 16 and 20 °C) for an acclimatisation period of three weeks followed by transfer to identical treatments and cultivation for a further four weeks. Earthworm-secreted calcite granules were collected from the second set of soils. δ18O values were determined on individual calcite granules (δ18Oc) and the soil solution (δ18Ow). The δ18Oc values reflect soil solution δ18Ow values and temperature, but are consistently enriched by 1.51 (± 0.12)‰ in comparison to equilibrium in synthetic carbonates. The data fit the equation 1000 ln α = [20.21 ± 0.92] (103 T-1) - [38.58 ± 3.18] (R2 = 0.95; n = 96; p < 0.0005). As the granules are abundant in modern soils, buried soils and archaeological contexts, and can be dated using U-Th disequilibria, the developed palaeotemperature relationship has enormous potential for application to Holocene and Pleistocene time intervals.

  19. Biological response of earthworm, Eisenia fetida, to five neonicotinoid insecticides.

    Wang, Kai; Pang, Sen; Mu, Xiyan; Qi, Suzhen; Li, Dongzhi; Cui, Feng; Wang, Chengju

    2015-08-01

    Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) are one of the most abundant terrestrial species, and play an important role in maintaining the ecological function of soil. Neonicotinoids are some of the most widely used insecticides applied to crops. Studies on the effect of neonicotinoids on E. fetida are limited. In the present work, we evaluated the effects of five neonicotinoid insecticides on reproduction, cellulase activity and the tissues of E. fetida. The results showed that, the LC50 of imidacloprid, acetamiprid, nitenpyram, clothianidin and thiacloprid was 3.05, 2.69, 4.34, 0.93 and 2.68mgkg(-1), respectively. They also could seriously affect the reproduction of E. fetida, reducing the fecundity by 84.0%, 39.5%, 54.3%, 45.7% and 39.5% at the sub-lethal concentrations of 2.0, 1.5, 0.80, 2.0 and 1.5mgkg(-1), respectively. The cellulase activity of E. fetida was most sensitive to clothianidin. Significant disruption of the epidermal and midgut tissue was observed after 14d exposure. In summary, we demonstrate that imidacloprid, acetamiprid, nitenpyram, clothianidin and thiacloprid have high toxic to earthworm, and can significantly inhibited fecundity and cellulase activity of E. fetida, and they also damage the epidermal and midgut cells of earthworm. PMID:25828917

  20. PREDICTION OF BIOAVAILABILITY OF CHLORPYRIFOS RESIDUES IN SOIL TO EARTHWORMS

    X.M Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An incubation test was conducted to investigate the effect of aging on bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil and to assess the feasibility of chemical extraction techniques for predicting bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil. Chlorpyrifos was spiked into sterilized soil and aged in microcosms for up to 120 days. The earthworms were incubated in the spiked soils, at 0, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 120 days after spiking, for a period of 7 days. After exposure, chlorpyrifos concentrations in the earthworm tissues were determined. Change in chemical extractability of soil-chlorpyrifos was measured using a several solvent systems including methanol, methanol-water (9:1, acetone-water (5:3, and water. The results show that chemical extractability and earthworm bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil decreased with aging. The amount of aged and unaged chlorpyrifos recovered from soil varied with the individual chemical extractant and extraction method. Concentrations of chlorpyrifos in Eisenia foetida were significantly higher than in Allolobophora caliginosa, suggesting that the bioavailability of chlorpyrifos was a species-dependent process. The extractability of chlorpyrifos by chemical solvents was significantly correlated with bioavailability fraction of E. foetida and A. caliginosa, showing that these extraction techniques may be efficient for predicting bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in soil.

  1. Toxicity of selected organic chemicals to the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Neuhauser, E.F.; Loehr, R.C.; Malecki, M.R.; Milligan, D.L.; Durkin, P.R.

    A number of methods recently have been developed to biologically evaluate the impact of man's activities on soil ecosystems. Two test methods, the 2-d contact test and the 14-d artificial soil test, were used to evaluate the impact of six major classes of organic chemicals on the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny). Of the organic chemicals tested, phenols and amines were the most toxic to the worms, followed in descending order of toxicity by the substituted aromatics, halogenated aliphatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and phthalates. No relationship was found between earthworm toxicity as determined by the contact test and rat, Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout and mouse, Mus musculus L. LD/sub 50/ values. The physicochemical parameters of water solubility, vapor pressure, and octanol/water partition coefficient for the chemicals tested in the contact test did not show a significant relationship to the E. fetida LC/sub 50/ values. These studies indicate that: (i) earthworms can be a suitable biomonitoring tool to assist in measuring the impact of organic chemicals in wastes added to soils and (ii) contact and artificial soil tests can be useful in measuring biological impacts.

  2. The Earthworm Eisenia fetida Can Help Desalinate a Coastal Saline Soil in Tianjin, North China

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Suyan; Sun, Xiangyang; Zhang, Yang; Gong, Xiaoqiang; Fu, Ying; Jia, Liming

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory microcosm experiment was conducted to determine whether the earthworm Eisenia fetida could survive in a saline soil from a field site in North China, and an experiment using response surface methodology was conducted at that field site to quantify the effects of E. fetida and green waste compost (GWC) on the salt content of the soil. The microcosm results showed that E. fetida survived in GWC-amended saline soil and increased the contents of humic acid, available N, and available P in the GWC-amended soil. The data from the field experiment were described by the following second-order model:y^=-1.76+0.091x1+0.48x2-0.00083x1x2-0.00078x12-0.022x22, where y is the decrease in soil salinity (g of salt per kg of dry soil) relative to the untreated control, x1 is the number of E. fetida added per m2, and x2 is the quantity of GWC added in kg per m2. The model predicted that the total salt content of the saline soil would decrease by > 2 g kg-1 (p<0.05) when 2990 individuals m-2 of E. fetida and 6.115.0 kg m-2 of GWC were applied. We conclude that the use of E. fetida for soil desalination is promising and warrants additional investigation. PMID:26699869

  3. Time dependence of immersion freezing

    A. Welti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The time dependence of immersion freezing was studied for temperatures between 236 K and 243 K. Droplets with single immersed, size-selected 400 nm and 800 nm kaolinite particles were produced at 300 K, cooled down to supercooled temperatures typical for mixed-phase cloud conditions, and the fraction of frozen droplets with increasing residence time was detected. To simulate the conditions of immersion freezing in mixed-phase clouds we used the Zurich Ice Nucleation Chamber (ZINC and its vertical extension, the Immersion Mode Cooling chAmber (IMCA. We observed that the frozen fraction of droplets increased with increasing residence time in the chamber. This suggests that there is a time dependence of immersion freezing and supports the importance of a stochastic component in the ice nucleation process. The rate at which droplets freeze was observed to decrease towards higher temperatures and smaller particle sizes. Comparison of the laboratory data with four different ice nucleation models, three based on classical nucleation theory with different representations of the particle surface properties and one singular, suggest that the classical, stochastic approach combined with a distribution of contact angles is able to reproduce the ice nucleation observed in these experiments most accurately. Using the models to calculate the increase in frozen fraction at typical mixed-phase cloud temperatures over an extended period of time, yields an equivalent effect of −1 K temperature shift and an increase in time scale by a factor of ~10.

  4. Distribution of bacteria and fungi in the earthworm Libyodrillus violaceous (Annelida: Oligochaeta, a native earthworm from Nigeria

    A. B Idowu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are soil invertebrates that play a key role in recycling organic matter in soils.In Nigeria, earthworms include Libyodrillus violaceous. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial counts, as well as fungal counts of viable microorganisms in soils and gut sections, were made on twenty L. violaceous collected from different sites on the campus of the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. The samples were collected between April and November, 2002. Numbers of microorganisms were higher in castings and gut sections than in uningested soil samples. The guts and their contents also had higher moisture and total nitrogen contents than the uningested soils. Bacteria and fungi isolated from the samples were identified by standard microbiological procedures on the bases of their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Isolated bacteria were identified as Staphylococcus, Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus mutans, Clostridium, Spirocheata spp., Azotobacter spp., Micrococcus lylae, Acinetobacter spp., Halobacterium for bacteria. Yeast isolates were identified as Candida spp., Zygosaccharomyces spp., Pichia spp., and Saccharomyces spp while molds were identified as, Aspergillus spp., Pytium spp., Penicillium spp., Fusarium spp and Rhizopus spp. Of the five locations examined, the refuse dump area had the highest numbers of both aerobic and anaerobic organisms, followed by the arboretum while the cultivated land area recorded the lowest counts. The higher numbers of microorganisms observed in the gut sections and casts of the earthworms examined in this work reinforce the general concept that the gut and casts of earthworms show higher microbial diversity and activity than the surrounding soil. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (1: 49-58. Epub 2006 Mar 31.

  5. Effects of earthworm activity on fertility and heavy metal bioavailability in sewage sludge.

    Liu, Xiaoli; Hu, Chengxiao; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2005-08-01

    The potential for using earthworms (Eisenia fetida) to improve fertility and reduce copper and cadmium availability in sewage sludge was tested by laboratory incubation experiments. Results comparing sewage sludge with and without earthworm treatment showed that earthworm activity decreased the contents of organic matter, total nitrogen, but increased the contents of available nitrogen and phosphorus and had no significant effect on the contents of total phosphorus, total potassium and available potassium. After incubation of the sewage sludge with earthworms for 60 days, the contents of Cu and Cd in the earthworms increased with the increase of additional Cu up to 250 mg kg(-1) and Cd up to 10 mg kg(-1). Bioconcentration factors (BCF) were higher than 1 only for Cd when the addition rate was lower than 5 mg kg(-1), which indicates that the earthworms can only accumulate Cd when the concentration of Cd is low in sewage sludge. Bioavailability of Cd and Cu was evaluated by applying sewage sludge with and without earthworm treatment to soil and then growing cabbage plants. The results showed that earthworm treatment increased the biomass of cabbage and decreased the bioaccumulation of Cd and Cu in the cabbage plants. PMID:15979143

  6. Influence of earthworm mucus and amino acids on tomato seedling growth and cadmium accumulation

    Zhang Shujie [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Hu Feng, E-mail: fenghu@njau.edu.c [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li Huixin; Li Xiuqiang [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2009-10-15

    The effects on the growth of tomato seedlings and cadmium accumulation of earthworm mucus and a solution of amino acids matching those in earthworm mucus was studied through a hydroponic experiment. The experiment included four treatments: 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} (CC), 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} + 100 mL L{sup -1} earthworm mucus (CE), 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} + 100 mL L{sup -1} amino acids solution (CA) and the control (CK). Results showed that, compared with CC treatment, either earthworm mucus or amino acids significantly increased tomato seedling growth and Cd accumulation but the increase was much higher in the CE treatment compared with the CA treatment. This may be due to earthworm mucus and amino acids significantly increasing the chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement uptake and transport in the tomato seedlings. The much greater increase in the effect of earthworm mucus compared with amino acid treatments may be due to IAA-like substances in earthworm mucus. - Earthworm mucus increased tomato seedlings growth and Cd accumulation through increasing chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement accumulation.

  7. Earthworms as phoretic hosts for Steinernema carpocapsae and Beauveria bassiana: Implications for enhanced biological control

    Prior research indicated that earthworms may serve as phoretic hosts to entomopathogenic nematodes. Therefore, we hypothesized that biocontrol efficacy of nematodes could be enhanced in the presence of earthworms based on increased nematode dispersal through the soil. We also hypothesized that ear...

  8. Earthworms, Microbes and the Release of C and N in Biochar Amended Soil

    Land application of biochar has the potential to increase soil fertility and sequester carbon. It is unclear how soil microbes and earthworms interact with biochar and affect release or retention of nutrients. In order to determine the effects and interactions among soil microbes, earthworms, and bi...

  9. Earthworms enhance soil health and may also assist in improving biological insect pest suppression in pecans

    Prior research indicated that earthworms may serve as phoretic hosts to entomopathogenic nematodes. Therefore, we hypothesized that biocontrol efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes could be enhanced in the presence of earthworms based on increased nematode dispersal through the soil. We also hypo...

  10. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MASS OF NEWLY HATCHED INDIVIDUALS AND COCOON MASS IN LUMBRICID EARTHWORMS

    Bruus, Marianne; Bjerre, Arne

    1991-01-01

    Earthworm cocoons from laboratory cultures were collected and their mass was determined. When hatched, the mass of the young worms was found. Cocoon mass and the mass of hatchlings varied considerably within species. The hygromass of newly hatched earthworms was found to correlate linearly with...

  11. Influence of earthworm mucus and amino acids on tomato seedling growth and cadmium accumulation

    The effects on the growth of tomato seedlings and cadmium accumulation of earthworm mucus and a solution of amino acids matching those in earthworm mucus was studied through a hydroponic experiment. The experiment included four treatments: 5 mg Cd L-1 (CC), 5 mg Cd L-1 + 100 mL L-1 earthworm mucus (CE), 5 mg Cd L-1 + 100 mL L-1 amino acids solution (CA) and the control (CK). Results showed that, compared with CC treatment, either earthworm mucus or amino acids significantly increased tomato seedling growth and Cd accumulation but the increase was much higher in the CE treatment compared with the CA treatment. This may be due to earthworm mucus and amino acids significantly increasing the chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement uptake and transport in the tomato seedlings. The much greater increase in the effect of earthworm mucus compared with amino acid treatments may be due to IAA-like substances in earthworm mucus. - Earthworm mucus increased tomato seedlings growth and Cd accumulation through increasing chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement accumulation.

  12. Temperature-dependent alterations in metabolic enzymes and proteins of three ecophysiologically different species of earthworms

    G, Tripathi; N., Kachhwaha; I., Dabi; N., Bandooni.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of varying temperatures (12 - 44 C) on the specific activity of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase ((cMDH), mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of some earthworms (Metaphire posthuma, Perionyx sansibaricus and Lampito mauritii) were studied. The effec [...] ts of different temperatures on supernatant and mitochondrial protein contents were also investigated. The specific activities of cMDH, mMDH and LDH of the earthworms decreased gradually as a function of increasing temperature from 12 to 44C. Higher metabolic energy was needed to maintain the activity at low temperatures. Hence, the earthworms showed increased enzyme specific activity at low temperatures. However, the protein content increased upto 28C. Afterwards, with the increase in the temperature from 28 to 42C, the proteins in the earthworms showed a significant decrease. The temperature-associated changes in the protein content could be explained by the fact that protein synthesizing capacity was hampered above and below the optimum temperature range. The most pronounced effects of varying temperatures were on P. sansibaricus. It might be due to the epigeic nature of the earthworm species. Then minimum effect was on the endogeic earthworm M. posthuma. Virtually, the differences in the enzymes physiology were associated with the differences in the ecological categories of the earthworms. This clearly demonstrate a possible link between the physiology and ecology at aerobic (cMDH, mMDH) and anaerobic (LDH) levels in the tropical earthworms.

  13. Portable Conduction Velocity Experiments Using Earthworms for the College and High School Neuroscience Teaching Laboratory

    Shannon, Kyle M.; Gage, Gregory J.; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Wilson, W. Jeffrey; Marzullo, Timothy C.

    2014-01-01

    The earthworm is ideal for studying action potential conduction velocity in a classroom setting, as its simple linear anatomy allows easy axon length measurements and the worm's sparse coding allows single action potentials to be easily identified. The earthworm has two giant fiber systems (lateral and medial) with different conduction…

  14. The effects of production systems on earthworm assemblages in vineyards and apple orchards

    Pižl, Václav

    Xalapa : Instituto de Ecología, A.C, 2010. s. 114. [International Symposium on Earthworm Ecology /9./. 05.09.2010-10.09.2010, Xalapa] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : earthworm assemblages * vineyards * apple orchards Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. Portable Conduction Velocity Experiments Using Earthworms for the College and High School Neuroscience Teaching Laboratory

    Shannon, Kyle M.; Gage, Gregory J.; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Wilson, W. Jeffrey; Marzullo, Timothy C.

    2014-01-01

    The earthworm is ideal for studying action potential conduction velocity in a classroom setting, as its simple linear anatomy allows easy axon length measurements and the worm's sparse coding allows single action potentials to be easily identified. The earthworm has two giant fiber systems (lateral and medial) with different conduction

  16. Status of chemical freeze-out

    The status of the energy dependence of the chemical freeze-out temperature and chemical potential obtained in heavy-ion collisions is presented. Recent proposals for chemical freeze-out conditions are compared

  17. Freeze out in heavy ion reactions

    In fluid dynamical models the freeze out of particles across a three dimensional space-time hypersurface is discussed. The calculation of final momentum distribution of emitted particles is described for freeze out surfaces, with both space-like and time-like normals, taking into account conservation laws across the freeze out discontinuity. Generally the conservation laws lead to a change of temperature, baryon density and flow velocity at freeze out. (author)

  18. Mercury, cadmium and lead concentrations in different ecophysiological groups of earthworms in forest soils

    Bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd and Pb by eight ecophysiologically distinct earthworm species was studied in 27 polluted and uncontaminated forest soils. Lowest tissue concentrations of Hg and Cd occurred in epigeic Lumbricus rubellus and highest in endogeic Octolasion cyaneum. Soils dominated by Dendrodrilus rubidus possess a high potential of risk of Pb biomagnification for secondary predators. Bioconcentration factors (soil-earthworm) followed the sequence ranked Cd > Hg > Pb. Ordination plots of redundancy analysis were used to compare HM concentrations in earthworm tissues with soil, leaf litter and root concentrations and with soil pH and CEC. Different ecological categories of earthworms are exposed to Hg, Cd and Pb in the topsoil by atmospheric deposition and accumulate them in their bodies. Species differences in HM concentrations largely reflect differences in food selectivity and niche separation. - Accumulation of non-essential heavy metals by earthworms is species-dependent and is affected by soil characteristics in natural forest soils

  19. Earthworms modify microbial community structure and accelerate maize stover decomposition during vermicomposting.

    Chen, Yuxiang; Zhang, Yufen; Zhang, Quanguo; Xu, Lixin; Li, Ran; Luo, Xiaopei; Zhang, Xin; Tong, Jin

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, maize stover was vermicomposted with the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida. The results showed that, during vermicomposting process, the earthworms promoted decomposition of maize stover. Analysis of microbial communities of the vermicompost by high-throughput pyrosequencing showed more complex bacterial community structure in the substrate treated by the earthworms than that in the control group. The dominant microbial genera in the treatment with the earthworms were Pseudoxanthomonas, Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, Streptomyces, Cryptococcus, Guehomyces, and Mucor. Compared to the control group, the relative abundance of lignocellulose degradation microorganisms increased. The results indicated that the earthworms modified the structure of microbial communities during vermicomposting process, activated the growth of lignocellulose degradation microorganisms, and triggered the lignocellulose decomposition. PMID:26139410

  20. Microflora dynamics in earthworms casts in an artificial soil (biosynthesol containing lactic acid oligomers

    Alauzet Nathalie

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were performed to appreciate the presence of micro-organisms able to degrade OLA, in earthworms casts or in the surroundings. Worms were grown in biosynthesol, an artificial soil. The counting of bacteria and fungi in earthworms casts and in biosynthesol without earthworms suggested that earthworms ate some of the micro-organisms. The main filamentous fungi genera found were Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Fusarium and Penicillium. Previous results in the literature have shown that some species from the Aspergillus and Fusarium genera were able to degrade OLA and other aliphatic esters. It could be suggested that these two genera and some bacteria were responsible for the pre-degradation of OLA, and that earthworms might eat them.

  1. The relationship of freeze tolerance with intracellular compounds in baker's yeasts.

    Shi, Xiaojian; Miao, Yelian; Chen, Jie Yu; Chen, Jun; Li, Wenli; He, Xun; Wang, Jining

    2014-03-01

    Freeze-tolerant baker's yeasts are required for the processing of frozen doughs. The present study was carried out to investigate the cell survival rate after frozen storage and the change of fermentability in dough due to frozen storage, and to discuss quantitatively the relationship of freeze tolerance with intracellular trehalose, amino acids, and glycerol, using six types of baker's yeasts as the test materials. The experimental results showed that the fermentability of yeast cells in frozen dough was strongly correlated with the cell survival rate. The baker's yeast with a higher level of cell survival rate had a larger increase in the total intracellular compound content after frozen storage, and the cell survival rate increased linearly with increasing total intracellular compound content in frozen yeast cells. Trehalose was a primary compound affecting freeze tolerance, followed by glutamic acid, arginine, proline, asparagic acid, and glycerol. The basic information provided by the present study is useful for exploring the freeze-tolerance mechanisms of baker's yeast cells, breeding better freeze-tolerant baker's yeast strains, and developing more effective cryoprotectants. PMID:24482281

  2. Earthworms influenced by reduced tillage, conventional tillage and energy forest in Swedish agricultural field experiments

    Lagerloef, Jan (SLU, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)), Email: Jan.Lagerlof@ekol.slu.se; Paalsson, Olof; Arvidsson, Johan (SLU, Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2012-03-15

    We compared earthworm density, depth distribution and species composition in three soil cultivation experiments including the treatments ploughless tillage and mouldboard ploughing. Sampling was done in September 2005 and for one experiment also in 1994. By yearly sampling 1995-2005, earthworms in an energy forest of Salix viminalis were compared with those in an adjacent arable field. Sampling method was digging of soil blocks and hand sorting and formalin sampling in one cultivation experiment. Both methods were used in the energy forest and arable land comparison. In two soil cultivation experiments, highest abundances or biomass were found in ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was higher in the upper 10 cm, especially in the ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was significantly higher in the energy forest than in the arable field. Formalin sampling revealed c. 36% of the earthworm numbers found by digging in the energy forest and gave almost no earthworms in the arable field. In all treatments with soil cultivation, species living and feeding in the rhizosphere and soil dominated. One such species, Allolobophora chlorotica, was more abundant under mouldboard ploughing than ploughless tillage. Lumbricus terrestris, browsing on the surface and producing deep vertical burrows, was more common in the ploughless tillage. Species living and feeding close to the soil surface were almost only found in the energy forest, which had not been soil cultivated since 1984. The findings support earlier studies pointing out possibilities to encourage earthworms by reduced soil cultivation. This is one of the first published studies that followed earthworm populations in an energy forest plantation during several years. Explanation of earthworm reactions to management and environmental impacts should be done with consideration of the ecology of species or species groups. Earthworm sampling by formalin must always be interpreted with caution and calibrated by digging and hand-sorting sampling

  3. Denitrifying Bacteria in the Earthworm Gastrointestinal Tract and In Vivo Emission of Nitrous Oxide (N(inf2)O) by Earthworms

    Karsten, G. R.; H. L. Drake

    1997-01-01

    Earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Octolasium lacteum) and gut homogenates did not produce CH(inf4), and methanogens were not readily culturable from gut material. In contrast, the numbers of culturable denitrifiers averaged 7 x 10(sup7) and 9 x 10(sup6) per g (dry weight) of gut material for L. rubellus and O. lacteum, respectively; these values were 256- and 35-fold larger than the numbers of culturable denitrifiers in the soil from which the earthworms were obtained. Anaerobically incubate...

  4. Effects of low voltage electrolysis and freezing on coliform content of contaminated water

    A sewage sample was mixed with drinking water and subjected to low voltage (15V) electrolysis in the presence of 1% NaCl. The prepared sample was also kept in freezer with and without the presence of sodium chloride for 4-hours. Among these treatments the electrolysis proved to kill the coliforms, while the freezing reduced the bacterial content. Antibiotics sensitivity patterns revealed that certain of the coliform strains survived the freezing and thawing shocks. Nature of such surviving bacteria and need to study chemical parameters of electrolyzed water are discussed. (author)

  5. Elemental and mineralogical changes in soils due to bioturbation along an earthworm invasion chronosequence in Northern Minnesota

    Minnesota forested soils have evolved without the presence of earthworms since the last glacial retreat. When exotic earthworms arrive, enhanced soil bioturbation often results in dramatic morphological and chemical changes in soils with negative implications for the forests' sustainability. However, the impacts of earthworm invasion on geochemical processes in soils are not well understood. This study attempts to quantify the role of earthworm invasion in mineral chemical weathering and nutrient dynamics along an earthworm invasion chronosequence in a sugar maple forest in Northern Minnesota. Depth and rates of soil mixing can be tracked with atmospherically derived short lived radioisotopes 210Pb and 137Cs. Their radioactivities increase in the lower A horizon at the expense of the peak activities near the soil surface, which indicate that soil mixing rate and its depth reach have been enhanced by earthworms. Enhanced soil mixing by earthworms is consistent with the ways that the vertical profiles of elemental and mineralogical compositions were affected by earthworm invasion. Biologically cycled Ca and P have peak concentrations near the soil surface prior to earthworm invasion. However, these peak abundances significantly declined in the earthworm invaded soils presumably due to enhanced soil mixing. It is clear that enhanced soil mixing due to earthworms also profoundly altered the vertical distribution of most mineral species within A horizons. Though the mechanisms are not clear yet, earthworm invasion appears to have contributed to net losses of clay mineral species and opal from the A horizons. As much as earthworms vertically relocated minerals and elements, they also intensify the contacts between organic matter and cations as shown in the increased amount of Ca and Fe in organically complexed and in exchangeable pools. With future studies on soil mixing rates and elemental leaching, this study will quantitatively and mechanically address the role of earthworms in geochemical evolution of soils and forests' nutrient dynamics.

  6. Elemental and mineralogical changes in soils due to bioturbation along an earthworm invasion chronosequence in Northern Minnesota

    Resner, Kathryn [Dept. of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota, 439 Borlaug Hall, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN, 55108-6028 (United States); Yoo, Kyungsoo, E-mail: kyoo@umn.edu [Dept. of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota, 439 Borlaug Hall, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN, 55108-6028 (United States); Hale, Cindy [University of Minnesota Duluth, The Natural Resources Research Institute, 5013 Miller Trunk Hwy. Duluth, MN 55811 (United States); Aufdenkampe, Anthony [Assistant Research Scientist - Isotope and Organic Geochemistry, Stroud Water Research Center, 970 Spencer Road, Avondale, PA 19311 (United States); Blum, Alex [US Geological Survey, 3215 Marine St., Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Sebestyen, Stephen [Research Hydrologist, USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Grand Rapids, MN 55744-3399 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Minnesota forested soils have evolved without the presence of earthworms since the last glacial retreat. When exotic earthworms arrive, enhanced soil bioturbation often results in dramatic morphological and chemical changes in soils with negative implications for the forests' sustainability. However, the impacts of earthworm invasion on geochemical processes in soils are not well understood. This study attempts to quantify the role of earthworm invasion in mineral chemical weathering and nutrient dynamics along an earthworm invasion chronosequence in a sugar maple forest in Northern Minnesota. Depth and rates of soil mixing can be tracked with atmospherically derived short lived radioisotopes {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs. Their radioactivities increase in the lower A horizon at the expense of the peak activities near the soil surface, which indicate that soil mixing rate and its depth reach have been enhanced by earthworms. Enhanced soil mixing by earthworms is consistent with the ways that the vertical profiles of elemental and mineralogical compositions were affected by earthworm invasion. Biologically cycled Ca and P have peak concentrations near the soil surface prior to earthworm invasion. However, these peak abundances significantly declined in the earthworm invaded soils presumably due to enhanced soil mixing. It is clear that enhanced soil mixing due to earthworms also profoundly altered the vertical distribution of most mineral species within A horizons. Though the mechanisms are not clear yet, earthworm invasion appears to have contributed to net losses of clay mineral species and opal from the A horizons. As much as earthworms vertically relocated minerals and elements, they also intensify the contacts between organic matter and cations as shown in the increased amount of Ca and Fe in organically complexed and in exchangeable pools. With future studies on soil mixing rates and elemental leaching, this study will quantitatively and mechanically address the role of earthworms in geochemical evolution of soils and forests' nutrient dynamics.

  7. Freeze Technology for Nuclear Applications - 13590

    Rostmark, Susanne C.; Knutsson, Sven [Lulea University of Technology (Sweden); Lindberg, Maria [Studsvik Nuclear AB, 611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    Freezing of soil materials is a complicated process of a number of physical processes: - freezing of pore water in a thermal gradient, - cryogenic suction causing water migration and - ice formation expanding pores inducing frost heave. Structural changes due to increase of effective stress during freezing also take place. The over consolidation gives a powerful dewatering/drying effect and the freeze process causes separation of contaminates. Artificial ground freezing (AGF is a well established technique first practiced in south Wales, as early as 1862. AGF is mostly used to stabilize tunnels and excavations. During the last ten years underwater applications of freeze technologies based on the AGF have been explored in Sweden. The technology can, and has been, used in many different steps in a remediation action. Freeze Sampling where undisturbed samples are removed in both soft and hard sediment/sludge, Freeze Dredging; retrieval of sediment with good precision and minimal redistribution, and Freeze Drying; volume reduction of contaminated sludge/sediment. The application of these technologies in a nuclear or radioactive environment provides several advantages. Sampling by freezing gives for example an advantage of an undisturbed sample taken at a specified depth, salvaging objects by freezing or removal of sludges is other applications of this, for the nuclear industry, novel technology. (authors)

  8. Freeze Technology for Nuclear Applications - 13590

    Freezing of soil materials is a complicated process of a number of physical processes: - freezing of pore water in a thermal gradient, - cryogenic suction causing water migration and - ice formation expanding pores inducing frost heave. Structural changes due to increase of effective stress during freezing also take place. The over consolidation gives a powerful dewatering/drying effect and the freeze process causes separation of contaminates. Artificial ground freezing (AGF is a well established technique first practiced in south Wales, as early as 1862. AGF is mostly used to stabilize tunnels and excavations. During the last ten years underwater applications of freeze technologies based on the AGF have been explored in Sweden. The technology can, and has been, used in many different steps in a remediation action. Freeze Sampling where undisturbed samples are removed in both soft and hard sediment/sludge, Freeze Dredging; retrieval of sediment with good precision and minimal redistribution, and Freeze Drying; volume reduction of contaminated sludge/sediment. The application of these technologies in a nuclear or radioactive environment provides several advantages. Sampling by freezing gives for example an advantage of an undisturbed sample taken at a specified depth, salvaging objects by freezing or removal of sludges is other applications of this, for the nuclear industry, novel technology. (authors)

  9. Toxicity assessment of free form of heavy metals in aqueous media on earthworm Eudrillus eugeniae.

    Sharma, V; Chaudhari, P R; Satyanarayan, S

    2011-01-01

    Metals are found in free and also in combined forms. In order to get information on the effect of free forms of heavy metals on earthworms the aqueous extracts of metals were tested on earthworms both in individual form and also in combined form. Different concentrations, i.e. 1 ppm, 5 ppm, and 10 ppm, were selected arbitrarily and were used in the experiments. Metals like copper, cadmium, chromium, zinc and lead were used. Earthworms' Eudrillus eugeniae activity, i.e. their response to the toxicity of metals, was monitored continuously for 5 h. It can be concluded that free form/ionic form/dissolved form of heavy metals are more toxic for earthworms, concurrent with findings of workers who have drawn same inference during studies on aquatic organisms. Earthworms can serve as biomarkers for wastewater and sludge treatment studies as they have shown typical adverse body reactions and symptoms altogether different in reaction to each of the metals during aqueous medium studies. It can be inferred that, if earthworms are utilised for treating wastewater and sludges containing these five heavy metals, one can ascertain the presence of individual metal concentrations in the wastewaters and sludges by studying the typical body reactions of earthworms during the treatment. PMID:21977671

  10. A review of studies performed to assess metal uptake by earthworms

    Nahmani, Johanne [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Berkshire, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: j.y.nahmani@reading.ac.uk; Hodson, Mark E. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Berkshire, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: m.e.hodson@reading.ac.uk; Black, Stuart [Department of Archaeology, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Whiteknights, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    Earthworms perform a number of essential functions in soil; the impacts of metals on earthworms are often investigated. In this review we consider the range of earthworm species, types of soil and forms of metal for which metal uptake and accumulation have been studied, the design of these experiments and the quantitative relationships that have been derived to predict earthworm metal body burden. We conclude that there is a need for more studies on earthworm species other than Eisenia fetida in order to apply the large existing database on this earthworm to other, soil dwelling species. To aid comparisons between studies agreement is needed on standard protocols that define exposure and depuration periods and the parameters, such as soil solution composition, soil chemical and physical properties to be measured. It is recommended that more field or terrestrial model ecosystem studies using real contaminated soil rather than metal-amended artificial soils are performed. - We review species, soil and experimental designs used to study metal uptake and accumulation by earthworms and suggest priorities for further studies.

  11. Impact of earthworms on trace element solubility in contaminated mine soils amended with green waste compost

    The common practice of remediating metal contaminated mine soils with compost can reduce metal mobility and promote revegetation, but the effect of introduced or colonising earthworms on metal solubility is largely unknown. We amended soils from an As/Cu (1150 mgAs kg-1 and 362 mgCu kg-1) and Pb/Zn mine (4550 mgPb kg-1 and 908 mgZn kg-1) with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% compost and then introduced Lumbricus terrestris. Porewater was sampled and soil extracted with water to determine trace element solubility, pH and soluble organic carbon. Compost reduced Cu, Pb and Zn, but increased As solubility. Earthworms decreased water soluble Cu and As but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. The effect of the earthworms decreased with increasing compost amendment. The impact of the compost and the earthworms on metal solubility is explained by their effect on pH and soluble organic carbon and the environmental chemistry of each element. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → Compost reduced the mobility of Cu, Pb and Zn. → Compost increased the mobility of As. → Earthworms decreased water soluble As and Cu but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. → These effects are explained by the impact of the earthworms and compost on pH and DOC. - The effect of earthworms on metal solubility was due to changes in dissolved organic carbon and pH but was reduced with increasing compost amendments.

  12. Warming shifts `worming': effects of experimental warming on invasive earthworms in northern North America

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Stefanski, Artur; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy; Reich, Peter B.

    2014-11-01

    Climate change causes species range shifts and potentially alters biological invasions. The invasion of European earthworm species across northern North America has severe impacts on native ecosystems. Given the long and cold winters in that region that to date supposedly have slowed earthworm invasion, future warming is hypothesized to accelerate earthworm invasions into yet non-invaded regions. Alternatively, warming-induced reductions in soil water content (SWC) can also decrease earthworm performance. We tested these hypotheses in a field warming experiment at two sites in Minnesota, USA by sampling earthworms in closed and open canopy in three temperature treatments in 2010 and 2012. Structural equation modeling revealed that detrimental warming effects on earthworm densities and biomass could indeed be partly explained by warming-induced reductions in SWC. The direction of warming effects depended on the current average SWC: warming had neutral to positive effects at high SWC, whereas the opposite was true at low SWC. Our results suggest that warming limits the invasion of earthworms in northern North America by causing less favorable soil abiotic conditions, unless warming is accompanied by increased and temporally even distributions of rainfall sufficient to offset greater water losses from higher evapotranspiration.

  13. Impact of earthworms on trace element solubility in contaminated mine soils amended with green waste compost

    Sizmur, Tom, E-mail: t.p.sizmur@reading.ac.uk [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Palumbo-Roe, Barbara [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E. [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    The common practice of remediating metal contaminated mine soils with compost can reduce metal mobility and promote revegetation, but the effect of introduced or colonising earthworms on metal solubility is largely unknown. We amended soils from an As/Cu (1150 mgAs kg{sup -1} and 362 mgCu kg{sup -1}) and Pb/Zn mine (4550 mgPb kg{sup -1} and 908 mgZn kg{sup -1}) with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% compost and then introduced Lumbricus terrestris. Porewater was sampled and soil extracted with water to determine trace element solubility, pH and soluble organic carbon. Compost reduced Cu, Pb and Zn, but increased As solubility. Earthworms decreased water soluble Cu and As but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. The effect of the earthworms decreased with increasing compost amendment. The impact of the compost and the earthworms on metal solubility is explained by their effect on pH and soluble organic carbon and the environmental chemistry of each element. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Compost reduced the mobility of Cu, Pb and Zn. > Compost increased the mobility of As. > Earthworms decreased water soluble As and Cu but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. > These effects are explained by the impact of the earthworms and compost on pH and DOC. - The effect of earthworms on metal solubility was due to changes in dissolved organic carbon and pH but was reduced with increasing compost amendments.

  14. How within field abundance and spatial distribution patterns of earthworms and macropores depend on soil tillage

    van Schaik, Loes; Palm, Juliane; Schröder, Boris

    2014-05-01

    Earthworms play a key role in soil systems. They are ecosystem engineers affecting soil structure as well as the transport and availability of water and solutes through their burrowing behaviour. There are three different ecological earthworm types with different burrowing behaviour that can result in varying local infiltration patterns: from rapid deep vertical infiltration to a stronger diffuse distribution of water and solutes in the upper soil layers. The small scale variation in earthworm abundance is often very high and within fields earthworm population processes might result in an aggregated pattern. The question arises how the local distribution of earthworms affects spatial distributions of macroporosity and how both are influenced by soil tillage. Therefore we performed a total number of 430 earthworm samplings on four differently tilled agricultural fields in the Weiherbach catchment (South East Germany). Additionally, at a limited amount of 32 locations on two of the fields we performed sprinkling experiments with brilliant blue and excavated the soil to count macropores at different soil depths (10 cm, 30 cm and 50 cm) to compare macropore distributions to the earthworm distributions.

  15. The Role of Earthworms in Tropics with Emphasis on Indian Ecosystems

    The paper highlights the research carried out by different scientists in India on aspects of earthworm population dynamics and species diversity, associated with other soil fauna and microflora. It also deals with the importance of earthworm activity on physicochemical properties of soil with reference to India and other tropical countries. Stress is laid on the earthworm plant association and importance of the secretions of earthworms as plant growth stimulators. Moreover, the earthworm species reported and being utilized for vermicomposting in India are discussed, since vermicomposting is the ultimate technology which renders for the improvement of soil fertility status and plant growth. Earthworms serve as indicators of soil status such as the level of contamination of pollutants: agrochemicals, heavy metals, toxic substances, and industrial effluents; human-induced activities: land-management practices and forest degradation. In all these fields there is lacuna with respect to contributions from India when compared to the available information from other tropical countries. There is lot of scope in the field of research on earthworms to unravel the importance of these major soil macro fauna from holistic ecological studies to the molecular level.

  16. Antioxidant defense system responses and DNA damage of earthworms exposed to Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)

    The use of earthworms as a sublethal endpoint has significantly contributed to the ecological risk assessment of contaminated soils. Few studies have focused on the potential toxicity of PFOS to earthworms in the soil. In this work, artificial soils were tested, and contact filter paper studies were used. The results showed that earthworm growth was generally inhibited. The antioxidant activities of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were initially activated and then inhibited. Reduced glutathione content was observed, and malondialdehyde content was elevated over the duration of the exposure. These results suggested that PFOS induced oxidative stress in earthworms. In addition, the values of olive tail moment, tail DNA% and tail length using SCGE showed similar frequency distributions and increased with increases in the PFOS concentration. These results suggest that all concentrations of PFOS cause DNA damage. Highlights: ► We studied the potential ecotoxicity of PFOS to earthworm in soil. ► Eisenia foetida was used as a model organism and its growth was generally inhibited. ► Antioxidant enzyme activities were initially activated and then inhibited. ► Reduced glutathione content was observed and malondialdehyde content was elevated. ► PFOS induced DNA damage in earthworms. -- Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in earthworms

  17. Earthworms drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities in post-mining sites

    Mudrák, Obdřej; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Previous field observations indicated that earthworms promote late-successional plant species and reduce collembolan numbers at post-mining sites in the Sokolov coal mining district (Czech Republic). Here, we established a laboratory pot experiment to test the effect of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm.) and litter of low, medium, and high quality (the grass Calamagrostis epigejos, the willow Salix caprea, and the alder Alnus glutinosa, respectively) on late successional plants (grasses Arrhenatherum elatius and Agrostis capillaris, legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium medium, and non-leguminous dicots Centaurea jacea and Plantago lanceolata) in spoil substrate originating from Sokolov post-mining sites and naturally inhabited by abundant numbers of Collembola. The earthworms increased plant biomass, especially that of the large-seeded A. elatius, but reduced the number of plant individuals, mainly that of the small-seeded A. capillaris and both legumes. Litter quality affected plant biomass, which was highest with S. caprea litter, but did not change the number of plant individuals. Litter quality did not modify the effect of earthworms on plants; the effect of litter quality and earthworms was only additive. Species composition of Collembola community was altered by litter quality, but earthworms reduced the number of individuals, increased the number of species, and increased species evenness consistently across the litter qualities. Because the results of this experiment were consistent with the field observations, we conclude that earthworms help drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities on post-mining sites.

  18. A review of studies performed to assess metal uptake by earthworms

    Earthworms perform a number of essential functions in soil; the impacts of metals on earthworms are often investigated. In this review we consider the range of earthworm species, types of soil and forms of metal for which metal uptake and accumulation have been studied, the design of these experiments and the quantitative relationships that have been derived to predict earthworm metal body burden. We conclude that there is a need for more studies on earthworm species other than Eisenia fetida in order to apply the large existing database on this earthworm to other, soil dwelling species. To aid comparisons between studies agreement is needed on standard protocols that define exposure and depuration periods and the parameters, such as soil solution composition, soil chemical and physical properties to be measured. It is recommended that more field or terrestrial model ecosystem studies using real contaminated soil rather than metal-amended artificial soils are performed. - We review species, soil and experimental designs used to study metal uptake and accumulation by earthworms and suggest priorities for further studies

  19. Communicating research with the public: evaluation of an invasive earthworm education program

    Erin Cameron

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecologists are increasingly encouraged by funding agencies and professional societies to communicate their research with the public. However, most receive relatively little training in how to do this effectively. Furthermore, evaluation of whether such an investment by ecologists actually achieves conservation objectives is rare. We created an education program, involving print, television, radio, and internet media, to increase awareness about earthworm invasions and to discourage anglers from dumping earthworm bait. Using pre- and post-surveys, we evaluated our programs success in reaching its target audience and in changing knowledge and behavior. Few participants (4.1% recalled seeing the program material and knowledge of the fact that earthworms are non-native in Alberta remained low (15.8% before, 15.1% after. Further, after being told about the negative effects of earthworms in forests, 46.7% of the anglers surveyed stated they would not change their bait disposal behavior in the future, with many commenting that they did not believe earthworms could be harmful. These results highlight the importance of evaluating education programs, rather than assuming they are successful. Given many participants doubts that earthworms have negative effects, both regulations and education may be needed to reduce earthworm introductions.

  20. Metallothionein gene expression differs in earthworm populations with different exposure history.

    Mustonen, M; Haimi, J; Visnen, A; Knott, K E

    2014-11-01

    Metals are persistent pollutants in soils that can harm soil organisms and decrease species diversity. Animals can cope with metal contamination with the help of metallothioneins, small metal-binding proteins involved in homeostasis and detoxification of metals. We studied the expression of metallothionein with qPCR in a small, epigeic earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra. We compared expression patterns and metal body content in earthworms collected from two sites with different metal contamination histories: Harjavalta, contaminated by a Cu-Ni smelter operational for over 50years, and Jyvskyl, an uncontaminated site. Earthworms from both sites were also experimentally exposed to different concentrations of Cu (control, 50, 100 or 200mg/kg) or Zn (control, 75, 150 or 300mg/kg) for 7, 14 or 28days to determine if there is a time related dose-response in gene expression. Population comparison showed that metallothionein expression was higher in earthworms from the contaminated site. In the exposure experiment, exposure time affected expression, but only in the earthworms from the uncontaminated site, suggesting that there is a delay in the metallothionein response of earthworms in this population. In contrast, earthworms from the contaminated site showed higher and constant levels of metallothionein expression at all exposure concentrations and durations. The constant metallothionein expression in earthworms from the contaminated site suggests that inducibility of metallothionein response could be lost in earthworms with metal exposure history. Adaptation of D. octaedra to metal exposure could explain the differences between the populations and explain the persistence of this species in contaminated forest soils. PMID:25179588

  1. Co-Speciation of Earthworms and their nephridial symbionts, Acidovorax Spp

    Lund, Marie Braad; Fritz, Michael; Holmstrup, Martin; Schramm, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    sequencing the extracted DNA. The presence of the symbionts in the ampulla was verified by performing fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on all worm species using an Acidovorax-specific probe. Earthworm and symbiont phylogeny was largely congruent, indicating that host and symbiont have indeed co......-evolved since the initial bacterial colonization of an ancestral lumbricid worm. However, the association is complicated by the recent discovery of additional, putative symbiotic bacteria which have been detected in the ampulla of several earthworms by FISH. Identity, distribution among earthworms, and function...

  2. Methylation of Mercury in Earthworms and the Effect of Mercury on the Associated Bacterial Communities

    Rieder, Stephan Raphael; Brunner, Ivano; Daniel, Otto; Liu, Bian; Frey, Beat

    2013-01-01

    Methylmercury compounds are very toxic for most organisms. Here, we investigated the potential of earthworms to methylate inorganic-Hg. We hypothesized that the anaerobic and nutrient-rich conditions in the digestive tracts of earthworm's promote the methylation of Hg through the action of their gut bacteria. Earthworms were either grown in sterile soils treated with an inorganic (HgCl2) or organic (CH3HgCl) Hg source, or were left untreated. After 30 days of incubation, the total-Hg and meth...

  3. Production and utilization of earthworms as feeds for broilers in the Philippines

    Barcelo P., M.

    1988-01-01

    A study on the production of earthworms was conducted using a 50 : 50 by volume of animal manures in combination with Leucaena leucocephala. A combination of sawdust, rice hull and rice bran at a proportion of 55, 35 and 10 respectively was also used as a substrate. The earthworms in each box were supplemented with either 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 g kitchen scraps. On harvesting, hand picking the earthworms from the castings and arranging the contents of the box in a pyramid were tested. Blanc...

  4. Soil Organic Matter Particle and Presence of Earthworm Under Different Tillage Systems

    Hortensia Brito-Vega; David Espinosa-Victoria; Carlos Fragoso; Daniel Mendoza; Nancy De la Cruz Landero; Angel Alderete-Chavez

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to study the particle of organic matter and the presence of earthworm under conservation and traditional tillage during winter and spring seasons. The sampling site was experimental field of FIRA in Villadiego, Guanajuato. The soil and earthworm sampling was carried out in monoliths of 25x25x30 cm (sidexsidexdepth), dividing the depth into strata: 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm. An earthworm species was identified namely Phoenicodrilus taste under con...

  5. Using of ants and earthworm to modify of soil biological quality and its effect on cocoa seedlings growth

    Kilowasid, Laode Muhammad Harjoni; Budianto, Wayan; Syaf, Hasbullah; Tufaila, Muhammad; Safuan, La Ode

    2015-09-01

    Ant and earthworm can act as soil ecosystem engineers. Ant and earthworm are very dominant in smallholder cocoa plantation. The first experiment aimed to study the effect of the abundance of ants and earthworms on soil microbial activity and microfauna, and the second experiment to analyse the effect of soil modified by ants and earthworms on the cocoa seedlings growth. Ant (Ponera sp.) and earthworm (Pontoscolex sp.) collected from smallholder cocoa plantation, and kept in a container up to applied. In the first experiment, nine combinations of the abundance of ants and earthworms applied to each pot containing 3 kg of soil from smallholder cocoa plantation, and each combination of the abundance was repeated five times in a completely randomized design. After the soil was incubated for thirty days, ants and earthworms removed from the soil using hand sorting techniques. Soil from each pot was analysed for soil microbial activity, abundance of flagellates and nematodes. In the second experiment, the soil in each pot was planted with cocoa seedlings and maintained up to ninety days. The results showed the FDA hydrolytic activity of microbes, the abundance of flagellates and nematodes between the combination of the abundance of ants and earthworms have been significantly different. Dry weight of root, shoot and seedling cacao have been significantly different between the combination of the abundance of ants and earthworms. It was concluded that the combination of the abundance of ants and earthworms can be used in ecological engineering to improve soil quality.

  6. Acute toxicity of virgin and used engine oil enriched with copper nano particles in the earthworm

    Khodabandeh, M; Koohi, M K; Shahroziyan, E; Badri, B; Pourfallah, A; Shams, Gh; Sadeghi-Hashjin, G [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Roshani, A [Industrial and Environmental Protection Division, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RRIPI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hobbenaghi, R, E-mail: gsadeghi@ut.ac.ir [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-06

    In spite of development of nanotechnology and creation of new opportunities for industry, new applications and products initiated by this technology may cause harmful effects on human health and environment. Unfortunately, there is no sufficient information on the harmful effects caused by application of some nano materials; the current knowledge in this field is limited solely to the nano particles but not the final products. Nano cupper particles, as one of the common materials produced in industrial scale is widely used as additives into engine oil to reduce friction and improve lubrication. However, the difference between the effects of virgin and used conventional engine oil (CEO) and the engine oil containing cupper nano particles (NEO) on the environment is not known. Earthworm, as a one of the species which could live and survive in different sorts of earth and has a certain role in protecting the soil structure and fertility, was used in this experiment. In accordance with the recommended method of OECD.1984, Filter Paper test in 24 and 48 h based on 8 concentrations in the range of 3x10{sup -3} - 24x10{sup -3} ml/cm{sup 2} and Artificial Soil test in 7 and 14 days based on 7 concentrations in the range of 0.1 mg/kg - 100 g/kg were carried out to study earthworms in terms of lifetime (LC50), morphology and pathology. It was shown that the 48 h LC50 for virgin CEO, virgin NEO, used CEO(8000 km) and used NEO (8000 km) were 6x10{sup -3}, 23x10{sup -3}, 24x10{sup -3} and 16x10{sup -3} ml/cm{sup 2} respectively. Furthermore, 14-day LC50 in artificial soil for all cases were above 100 g/kg. It is concluded that virgin CEO is more toxic than virgin NEO. Meanwhile, the CEO shows significant reduction in toxicity after consumption and the used NEO shows more toxicity in comparison to virgin product. It seems that more investigations on the effects of final products specifically after consumption is necessary because the products after consumption have the most contact with environment and subsequently human health.

  7. Acute toxicity of virgin and used engine oil enriched with copper nano particles in the earthworm

    In spite of development of nanotechnology and creation of new opportunities for industry, new applications and products initiated by this technology may cause harmful effects on human health and environment. Unfortunately, there is no sufficient information on the harmful effects caused by application of some nano materials; the current knowledge in this field is limited solely to the nano particles but not the final products. Nano cupper particles, as one of the common materials produced in industrial scale is widely used as additives into engine oil to reduce friction and improve lubrication. However, the difference between the effects of virgin and used conventional engine oil (CEO) and the engine oil containing cupper nano particles (NEO) on the environment is not known. Earthworm, as a one of the species which could live and survive in different sorts of earth and has a certain role in protecting the soil structure and fertility, was used in this experiment. In accordance with the recommended method of OECD.1984, Filter Paper test in 24 and 48 h based on 8 concentrations in the range of 3x10-3 - 24x10-3 ml/cm2 and Artificial Soil test in 7 and 14 days based on 7 concentrations in the range of 0.1 mg/kg - 100 g/kg were carried out to study earthworms in terms of lifetime (LC50), morphology and pathology. It was shown that the 48 h LC50 for virgin CEO, virgin NEO, used CEO(8000 km) and used NEO (8000 km) were 6x10-3, 23x10-3, 24x10-3 and 16x10-3 ml/cm2 respectively. Furthermore, 14-day LC50 in artificial soil for all cases were above 100 g/kg. It is concluded that virgin CEO is more toxic than virgin NEO. Meanwhile, the CEO shows significant reduction in toxicity after consumption and the used NEO shows more toxicity in comparison to virgin product. It seems that more investigations on the effects of final products specifically after consumption is necessary because the products after consumption have the most contact with environment and subsequently human health.

  8. LBP/BPI homologue in Eisenia andrei earthworms.

    Škanta, František; Procházková, Petra; Roubalová, Radka; Dvořák, Jiří; Bilej, Martin

    2016-01-01

    LBP/BPIs are pattern recognition receptors that are often present in vertebrates and in invertebrates, and they play a defense role against pathogens. We have identified 1698 bp cDNA sequence from the Eisenia andrei earthworm with predicted amino acid sequence that shares homology with the LBP/BPI family (EaLBP/BPI). Sequence analysis of EaLBP/BPI proved the existence of two conserved domains with the potential ability to bind LPS. The predicted molecular mass of the EaLBP/BPI protein is 53.5 kDa, and its high basicity (pI 9.8) is caused by its high arginine content. Constitutive transcription of the Ealbp/bpi gene was shown in all tested tissues, with the highest level in coelomocytes and seminal vesicles; the lowest level was detected in the intestine. On the contrary, another earthworm LPS-binding molecule CCF (coelomic cytolytic factor) was expressed only in the intestine and coelomocytes. In E. andrei coelomocytes, the transcription of Ealbp/bpi gene was up-regulated in response to bacterial stimulation, reaching a maximum at 8 and 16 h post stimulation with Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, respectively. PMID:26297397

  9. Biosynthesis of luminescent quantum dots in an earthworm

    Stürzenbaum, S. R.; Höckner, M.; Panneerselvam, A.; Levitt, J.; Bouillard, J.-S.; Taniguchi, S.; Dailey, L.-A.; Khanbeigi, R. Ahmad; Rosca, E. V.; Thanou, M.; Suhling, K.; Zayats, A. V.; Green, M.

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of designer solid-state materials by living organisms is an emerging field in bio-nanotechnology. Key examples include the use of engineered viruses as templates for cobalt oxide (Co3O4) particles, superparamagnetic cobalt-platinum alloy nanowires and gold-cobalt oxide nanowires for photovoltaic and battery-related applications. Here, we show that the earthworm's metal detoxification pathway can be exploited to produce luminescent, water-soluble semiconductor cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots that emit in the green region of the visible spectrum when excited in the ultraviolet region. Standard wild-type Lumbricus rubellus earthworms were exposed to soil spiked with CdCl2 and Na2TeO3 salts for 11 days. Luminescent quantum dots were isolated from chloragogenous tissues surrounding the gut of the worm, and were successfully used in live-cell imaging. The addition of polyethylene glycol on the surface of the quantum dots allowed for non-targeted, fluid-phase uptake by macrophage cells.

  10. The bioavailability of chemicals in soil for earthworms

    Lanno, R.; Wells, J.; Conder, Jason M.; Bradham, K.; Basta, N.

    2004-01-01

    The bioavailability of chemicals to earthworms can be modified dramatically by soil physical/chemical characteristics, yet expressing exposure as total chemical concentrations does not address this problem. In order to understand the effects of modifying factors on bioavailability, one must measure and express chemical bioavailability to earthworms in a consistent, logical manner. This can be accomplished by direct biological measures of bioavailability (e.g., bioaccumulation, critical body residues), indirect biological measures of bioavailability (e.g., biomarkers, reproduction), or indirect chemical measures of bioavailability (e.g., chemical or solid-phase extracts of soil). If indirect chemical measures of bioavailability are to be used, they must be correlated with some biological response. Bioavailability can be incorporated into ecological risk assessment during risk analysis, primarily in the estimation of exposure. However, in order to be used in the site-specific ecological risk assessment of chemicals, effects concentrations must be developed from laboratory toxicity tests based on exposure estimates utilizing techniques that measure the bioavailable fraction of chemicals in soil, not total chemical concentrations. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Scaling of the hydrostatic skeleton in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris.

    Kurth, Jessica A; Kier, William M

    2014-06-01

    The structural and functional consequences of changes in size or scale have been well studied in animals with rigid skeletons, but relatively little is known about scale effects in animals with hydrostatic skeletons. We used glycol methacrylate histology and microscopy to examine the scaling of mechanically important morphological features of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris over an ontogenetic size range from 0.03 to 12.89 g. We found that L. terrestris becomes disproportionately longer and thinner as it grows. This increase in the length to diameter ratio with size means that, when normalized for mass, adult worms gain ~117% mechanical advantage during radial expansion, compared with hatchling worms. We also found that the cross-sectional area of the longitudinal musculature scales as body mass to the ~0.6 power across segments, which is significantly lower than the 0.66 power predicted by isometry. The cross-sectional area of the circular musculature, however, scales as body mass to the ~0.8 power across segments, which is significantly higher than predicted by isometry. By modeling the interaction of muscle cross-sectional area and mechanical advantage, we calculate that the force output generated during both circular and longitudinal muscle contraction scales near isometry. We hypothesize that the allometric scaling of earthworms may reflect changes in soil properties and burrowing mechanics with size. PMID:24871920

  12. Neurotropic and neuroprotective activities of the earthworm peptide Lumbricusin

    Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Ik Hwan; Nam, Seung Taek; Hong, Ji; Zhang, Peng [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Science, Daejin University, Pocheon, Gyeonggido 487-711 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae Sam [Department of Agricultural Biology, National Academy of Agricultural Science, RDA, Suwon 441-707 (Korea, Republic of); Seok, Heon [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Jungwon University, Goesan, Chungcheongbukdo 367-700 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyemin; Lee, Dong Gun [School of Life Sciences, KNU Creative Bioresearch Group (BK21 Plus Program), College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daehak-ro 80, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Il [School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho, E-mail: hokim@daejin.ac.kr [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Science, Daejin University, Pocheon, Gyeonggido 487-711 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-06

    Highlights: • 11-mer peptide Lumbricusin, a defensin like peptide, is isolated from earthworm. • We here demonstrated that Lumbricusin has neurotropic and neuroprotective effects. • p27 degradation by Lumbricusin mediates effects of Lumbricusin on neuronal cells. - Abstract: We recently isolated a polypeptide from the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris that is structurally similar to defensin, a well-known antibacterial peptide. An 11-mer antibacterial peptide (NH{sub 2}-RNRRWCIDQQA), designated Lumbricusin, was synthesized based on the amino acid sequence of the isolated polypeptide. Since we previously reported that CopA3, a dung beetle peptide, enhanced neuronal cell proliferation, we here examined whether Lumbricusin exerted neurotropic and/or neuroprotective effects. Lumbricusin treatment induced a time-dependent increase (∼51%) in the proliferation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Lumbricusin also significantly inhibited the apoptosis and decreased viability induced by treatment with 6-hydroxy dopamine, a Parkinson’s disease-mimicking agent. Immunoblot analyses revealed that Lumbricusin treatment increased ubiquitination of p27{sup Kip1} protein, a negative regulator of cell-cycle progression, in SH-SY5Y cells, and markedly promoted its degradation. Notably, adenoviral-mediated over-expression of p27{sup Kip1} significantly blocked the antiapoptotic effect of Lumbricusin in 6-hydroxy dopamine-treated SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggest that promotion of p27{sup Kip1} degradation may be the main mechanism underlying the neuroprotective and neurotropic effects of Lumbricusin.

  13. Neurotropic and neuroprotective activities of the earthworm peptide Lumbricusin

    Highlights: • 11-mer peptide Lumbricusin, a defensin like peptide, is isolated from earthworm. • We here demonstrated that Lumbricusin has neurotropic and neuroprotective effects. • p27 degradation by Lumbricusin mediates effects of Lumbricusin on neuronal cells. - Abstract: We recently isolated a polypeptide from the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris that is structurally similar to defensin, a well-known antibacterial peptide. An 11-mer antibacterial peptide (NH2-RNRRWCIDQQA), designated Lumbricusin, was synthesized based on the amino acid sequence of the isolated polypeptide. Since we previously reported that CopA3, a dung beetle peptide, enhanced neuronal cell proliferation, we here examined whether Lumbricusin exerted neurotropic and/or neuroprotective effects. Lumbricusin treatment induced a time-dependent increase (∼51%) in the proliferation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Lumbricusin also significantly inhibited the apoptosis and decreased viability induced by treatment with 6-hydroxy dopamine, a Parkinson’s disease-mimicking agent. Immunoblot analyses revealed that Lumbricusin treatment increased ubiquitination of p27Kip1 protein, a negative regulator of cell-cycle progression, in SH-SY5Y cells, and markedly promoted its degradation. Notably, adenoviral-mediated over-expression of p27Kip1 significantly blocked the antiapoptotic effect of Lumbricusin in 6-hydroxy dopamine-treated SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggest that promotion of p27Kip1 degradation may be the main mechanism underlying the neuroprotective and neurotropic effects of Lumbricusin

  14. USE OF VARIOUS BAITS FOR EXTRACTION OF EARTHWORMS FROM VERMICOMPOST

    Joanna Kostecka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During vermicomposting, earthworm grower has to overcome a lot of different problems. For instance, in case of a sudden requirement to sell earthworms it is useful to have the ability to collect them in one place. Fresh food extraction is an effective and neutral way to do it. The efficiency of gathering and extracting E. fetida from the vermicompost was studied, using a fresh bait method. Experiments were carried out in the laboratory (at the mean temperature of 20±0.5 °C in pots filled with vermicompost. Generally, two hundreds of adult E. fetida were put in every pot and left there for 24 hours. After such acclimatization, various baits were inserted to every pot. Different experiments allowed to conclude that: 1 repeated bait exchange was more efficient in extracting worms from vermicompost than bait laid once for a longer time; 2 extracting worms from the bait in the morning was quicker than extracting them in the evening; 3 addition of valerian (Valeriana officinalis, nettle (Urtica dioica, and flaxseeds to cattle manure could resulted in better extraction than pure manure; 4 dry valerian was more effective than steamed one, but on other hand, steaming of nettle and flaxseeds was giving better results in collecting worms in the bait.

  15. Rapid bioassessment methods for assessing the toxicity of terrestrial waste sites at the Savannah River Site using the earthworm, Eisenia foetida

    Studies were conducted to assess the feasibility of using the earthworm, Eisenia foetida, to evaluate the toxicity of contaminated soils at the Savannah River Site. Survival was assessed in several uncontaminated soils, including sandy loams and clayey loams, as well as in soils contaminated with coal fines, ash, diesel fuel, and heavy metals. In addition, behavior responses, changes in biomass, and bioaccumulation of heavy metals were assessed as sublethal indicators of toxicity. The results indicate excellent survival of Eisenia foetida in uncontaminated sandy and clayey soils. No amendment of these uncontaminated soils or addition of food was necessary to sustain the worms for the 14-day test period. In contaminated soils, no significant mortality was observed, except in soils which have very low pH (< 3). However, sublethal responses were observed in earthworms exposed to several of the contaminated soils. These responses included worms clumping on the surface of the soil, worms clumping between the sides of the test container and the soil, increased burrowing times, reductions in biomass, and elevated concentrations of heavy metals in worm tissue

  16. Rapid bioassessment methods for assessing the toxicity of terrestrial waste sites at the Savannah River Site using the earthworm, Eisenia foetida

    Specht, W.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Sydow, S.N. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Studies were conducted to assess the feasibility of using the earthworm, Eisenia foetida, to evaluate the toxicity of contaminated soils at the Savannah River Site. Survival was assessed in several uncontaminated soils, including sandy loams and clayey loams, as well as in soils contaminated with coal fines, ash, diesel fuel, and heavy metals. In addition, behavior responses, changes in biomass, and bioaccumulation of heavy metals were assessed as sublethal indicators of toxicity. The results indicate excellent survival of Eisenia foetida in uncontaminated sandy and clayey soils. No amendment of these uncontaminated soils or addition of food was necessary to sustain the worms for the 14-day test period. In contaminated soils, no significant mortality was observed, except in soils which have very low pH (< 3). However, sublethal responses were observed in earthworms exposed to several of the contaminated soils. These responses included worms clumping on the surface of the soil, worms clumping between the sides of the test container and the soil, increased burrowing times, reductions in biomass, and elevated concentrations of heavy metals in worm tissue.

  17. Atmospheric freeze drying assisted by power ultrasound

    Santacatalina Bonet, Juan Vicente; Carcel Carrión, Juan Andrés; García Pérez, José Vicente; Mulet Pons, Antonio; Simal, S.

    2012-01-01

    [EN] Atmospheric freeze drying (AFD) is considered an alternative to vacuum freeze drying to keep the quality of fresh product. AFD allows continuous drying reducing fix and operating costs, but presents, as main disadvantage, a long drying time required. The application of power ultrasound (US) can accelerate AFD process. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the application of power ultrasound to improve atmospheric freeze drying of carrot. For that pur...

  18. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    Wetterich, C.

    2014-01-01

    We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple crossover model without a big bang singularity. In the infinite...

  19. Interdependence of Measures in Pavlovian Conditoned Freezing

    Wood, Suzanne C.; Anagnostaras, Stephan G.

    2011-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioned freezing is an intensively utilized paradigm that has become a standard model of memory and cognition. Despite its widespread use, the interdependence among each measure commonly reported in fear conditioning studies has not been described. Using mice, we examine the relationship of each common freezing measure (Training Baseline, Post-Shock freezing, Contextual Fear, Tone Baseline, and Tone Fear), as well as baseline locomotor activity measures, to better understand the...

  20. Survival analysis

    The primary endpoint in the majority of the studies has been either disease recurrence or death. This kind of analysis requires a special method since all patients in the study experience the endpoint. The standard method for estimating such survival distribution is Kaplan Meier method. The survival function is defined as the proportion of individuals who survive beyond certain time. Multi-variate comparison for survival has been carried out with Cox's proportional hazard model

  1. Function test of radiopharmaceutical freeze dryer

    Freeze Dryer is the main tool for radiopharmaceutical production process such as drying of radiopharmaceutical kits. To increase research and development activity of radiopharmaceutical product needs new freeze dryer type of 7948030 Freezone-Stoppering Tray Dryer to obtain high quality radiopharmaceutical dry kit. The aim of this research is ensuring freeze dryer machine can be operated well and fulfilling quality assurance programme. The working principle of freeze dryer is freeze drying process. Liquid material that originally frozen then dried with a heating process at low temperature in the vacuum freeze dryer chamber and will result phorous lyophilized product. Therefore, there are some parameters on freeze dryer operation, such as temperature, pressure, and time. They will effect on quality of radiopharmaceutical kit products. This research try for dry DTPA kit with manual or auto method for ± 31 hours following the procedure of drying DTPA kit. The results showed that freeze dryer can function properly in accordance with the specifications that with manual methods, freezing process reached -40°C and -34 °C in the auto, the drying process at 15°C and 0.050 mbar on each method, and obtain dry product of DTPA kit powder (lyophilized). (author)

  2. Freeze dehydration of milk using microwave energy

    This paper presents the results of experimental studies on heat and mass transfer during a microwave freeze dehydration process. An experimental system and procedure was developed to freeze dry milk. A 2500-W microwave system with an appropriate wave guide was set up and instrumented, and a procedure was experimentally developed to obtain milk powder first by freezing milk and then dehydrating it at low pressure using microwave energy. An unsteady-state analysis was used to derive a one-dimensional mathematical model of the freeze dehydration process in a microwave electromagnetic field

  3. Taxonomic composition and physiological and biochemical properties of bacteria in the digestive tracts of earthworms

    Byzov, B. A.; Tikhonov, V. V.; Nechitailo, T. Yu.; Demin, V. V.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2015-03-01

    Several hundred bacterial strains belonging to different taxa were isolated and identified from the digestive tracts of soil and compost earthworms. Some physiological and biochemical properties of the bacteria were characterized. The majority of intestinal bacteria in the earthworms were found to be facultative anaerobes. The intestinal isolates as compared to the soil ones had elevated activity of proteases and dehydrogenases. In addition, bacteria associated with earthworms' intestines are capable of growth on humic acids as a sole carbon source. Humic acid stimulated the growth of the intestinal bacteria to a greater extent than those of the soil ones. In the digestive tracts, polyphenol oxidase activity was found. Along with the data on the taxonomic separation of the intestinal bacteria, the features described testified to the presence of a group of bacteria in the earthworms intestines that is functionally characteristic and is different from the soil bacteria.

  4. Glyphosate herbicide affects belowground interactions between earthworms and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi in a model ecosystem

    Zaller, Johann G.; Heigl, Florian; Ruess, Liliane; Grabmaier, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    Herbicides containing glyphosate are widely used in agriculture and private gardens, however, surprisingly little is known on potential side effects on non-target soil organisms. In a greenhouse experiment with white clover we investigated, to what extent a globally-used glyphosate herbicide affects interactions between essential soil organisms such as earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We found that herbicides significantly decreased root mycorrhization, soil AMF spore biomass, vesicles and propagules. Herbicide application and earthworms increased soil hyphal biomass and tended to reduce soil water infiltration after a simulated heavy rainfall. Herbicide application in interaction with AMF led to slightly heavier but less active earthworms. Leaching of glyphosate after a simulated rainfall was substantial and altered by earthworms and AMF. These sizeable changes provide impetus for more general attention to side-effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on key soil organisms and their associated ecosystem services.

  5. METAL CONTENT OF EARTHWORMS IN SLUDGE AMENDED SOILS: UPTAKE AND LOSS

    The widespread practice of landspreading of sludge has raised concern about increasing concentrations of potentially toxic metals in soils, with the possibility of these metals adversely impacting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Earthworms, as one of the largest components of...

  6. FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIONS ARE ESTABLISHED BETWEEN GIANT NERVE FIBERS IN GRAFTED EARTHWORMS

    Giant fiber interconnections were examined in successful grafts between two posterior portions of earthworms (Eisenia foetida). Electrophysiological and histological results indicated that cell-specific interanimal connections were formed between the medial giant fibers (MGF) in ...

  7. Earthworm populations in soils contaminated by the Chernobyl atomic power station accident, 1986-1988

    A study of earthworm populations in the 30 km zone around the Chernobyl atomic power station was carried out in 1986-1988. Significant differences in earthworm population numbers were found between highly contaminated and control plots in summer and autumn 1986 and in April 1987. But in the autumn of 1988 the earthworm population numbers in contaminated plots were higher than in the control plots. The ratio of mature to immature specimens was higher in 1986 in the contaminated plots in comparison with the control plots. Only one species of earthworms, Dendrobaena octahedra, was found in contaminated forest plots during the first 2 yr following the accident but in the control forest plots Apporectodea caliginosa was also found. (author)

  8. NON-INVASIVE ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL MONITORING: A SENSITIVE METHOD FOR DETECTING SUBLETHAL NEUROTOXICITY IN EARTHWORMS

    Earthworms were exposed, by external surface contact, to three chemical pollutants: dieldrin (a known neurotoxicant), dimethyl phthalate and fluorene (a possible neurotoxicant). After 48 h of exposure, LC50 values were determined and compared with concentrations required for subl...

  9. Earthworm Casts (Pheretema sp. Nutrient Contents of Nampong Soil Series (Ustoxic Quartzipsamment in Northeast Thailand

    T. Chuasavathi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This earthworm cast experiment was carried out at four different sites of Nampong soil series (Ustoxic quartzipsamment namely dipterocarp forest, tamarind orchard farm, grazing pasture, and sugarcane plantation. The results showed that earthworm casts of the four locations contented different levels of nutrients. The highest nutrient contents were found with Tamarind orchard farm followed by Dipterocarp forest, grazing pasture, and sugarcane plantation, respectively. Data on nutrient contents (NPK, Ca, Mg, and Na of earthworm casts of each location were much higher than that of their respective soils. Earthworm casts could help to improve soil properties particularly Nampong soil series, which contented low level of soil fertility. This may help to improve crop yield for sustainable agriculture.

  10. Effects of earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus on distribution of acaricida dicofol in a Podzolic soil

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of earthworm on pesticides distribution in a Podzolic soil. The experimental model used was a microcosm filled with sieved soil to a final density of 1.25 g cm-3. In microcosms with or without Pontoscolex corethurus 14C-dicofol was applied, and after a period of 52 days strong rain simulation was performed. In the layer of 0-1 cm 75% of the radioactivity in the soil without earthworms were recovered, and in the soil with earthworms the recovery was 9% inferior. In the deepest layers the values of the radioactivity were below 20% and the differences among the treatments did not surpass 2%. This earthworm species of large occurrence in Brazil showed no important influence on the distribution of the pesticide in soil

  11. Assemblages of earthworms and collembolans in fen soil as affected by landslide

    Sterzyńska, M.; Nicia, P.; Pižl, Václav

    Coimbra : University of Coimbra, 2012. s. 30. [International Colloquium on Soil Zoology /16./. 06.08.2012-10.08.2012, Coimbra] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : earthworms * collembolans * fen soil * landslide Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  12. Earthworm Ecology in the Northern Part of Iran: With an Emphasis on Compost Worm Eisenia fetida

    G.A. Omrani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Northern part of Iran was chosen as study area. Four hundred samples of earthworms were collected by three methods (hand-sorting, chemical and heat extraction of which 352 and 20 were mature and immature earthworms, respectively from different parts of the area. Following the method introduced by Graff the earthworms were placed in formaldehyde (5 and 10% and ethyl alcohol (60%. The morphological observations showed the presence of eight species including seven specimens of Lumbricidae: A. caliginosa, A. kaznakovi, A. jassyensis, A. rosea, D. veneta, D. byblica, E. fetida and a specimen of Megascolecidae: P. indica. The abundance of E. fetida was 18.1% with large distribution over the area that makes this species an easily available earthworm in rearing industry and in organic waste management.

  13. The influence of freezing rates on bovine pericardium tissue Freeze-drying

    Camila Figueiredo Borgognoni; Virgilio Tattini Junior; Ana Maria Irene Bartolomeu Ayrosa; Bronislaw Polakiewicz; Adolfo Alberto Leirner; Marina Junko Shiotsu Maizato; Olga Zazuco Higa; Marisa Masumi Beppu; Ronaldo Nogueira de Moraes Pitombo

    2009-01-01

    The bovine pericardium has been used as biomaterial in developing bioprostheses. Freeze-drying is a drying process that could be used for heart valve's preservation. The maintenance of the characteristics of the biomaterial is important for a good heart valve performance. This paper describes the initial step in the development of a bovine pericardium tissue freeze-drying to be used in heart valves. Freeze-drying involves three steps: freezing, primary drying and secondary drying. The freezin...

  14. Earthworms as Ecosystem Engineers and the Most Important Detritivors in Forest Soils

    Yahya Kooch; Hamid Jalilvand

    2008-01-01

    Earthworms are considered as soil engineers because of their effects on soil properties and their influence on the availability of resources for other organisms, including microorganisms and plants. However, the links between their impacts on the soil environment and the resulting modification of natural selection pressures on engineer as well as on other organisms have received little attention. Earthworms are known to have a positive influence on the soil fabric and on the decompositi...

  15. Screening of actinomycetes from earthworm castings for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes

    Kumar, Vijay; Bharti, Alpana; Negi, Yogesh Kumar; Gusain, Omprakash; Pandey, Piyush; Bisht, Gajraj Singh

    2012-01-01

    Actinomycetes from earthworm castings were isolated and screened for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes. A total of 48 isolates were obtained from 12 samples of earthworm castings. Highest numbers of isolates were recovered from forest site (58.33 %) as compared to grassland (25%) and agricultural land (16.66%). The growth patterns, mycelial coloration of abundance actinomycetes were documented. The dominant genera Identified by cultural, morphological and physiological chara...

  16. Earthworm distribution and abundance predicted by a process-based model

    Johnston, A. S .A.; Holmstrup, M.; Hodson, M. E.; Thorbek, P.; Alvarez, T; Sibly, R M

    2014-01-01

    Earthworms are significant ecosystem engineers and are an important component of the diet of many vertebrates and invertebrates, so the ability to predict their distribution and abundance would have wide application in ecology, conservation and land management. Earthworm viability is known to be affected by the availability and quality of food resources, soil water conditions and temperature, but has not yet been modelled mechanistically to link effects on individuals to field population resp...

  17. Immunohistochemistry of Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70) on Earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) in Gold Mining Sites

    Setya Widi Ayuning; Diana Arfiati; Yenny Risjani

    2014-01-01

    The traditional gold mining in Cempaka, Banjarbaru, South Kalimantan, Indonesia used mercury in order to separate the gold with a fine sand and rocks. Mercury can impair the function of the cellular and organism physiology that live in the mining sites. In cellular on earthworm may adapt to help in repairing cell damage with expression of HSP70 proteins. This study was conducted in November 2012 to September 2014. Sampling of soil and earthworms do in Banjarbaru village (control) and in paddy...

  18. Soil properties and grape yield affected by rock biofertilisers with earthworm compound

    N Pereira-Stamford; I Pereira-Andrade; S da Silva-Junior; M Lira-Junior; C Silva-Santos; A Santiago de Freitas; P Van-Straaten

    2011-01-01

    Grapes are an important crop in several countries, including Brazil. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of PK rock biofertilisers on grapes (Vitis vinif-era) grown in the San Francisco Valley of the Brazilian semi-arid region. Three sources of PK fertilisers, PK soluble fertilisers, PK rock biofertilisers, and powdered PK rocks, which were all mixed with earthworm compound, and a control treatment consisting only of earthworm compound were tested at three rates. The soil pH, a...

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of a Pheretimoid earthworm Metaphire vulgaris (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae).

    Zhang, Liangliang; Jiang, Jibao; Dong, Yan; Qiu, Jiangping

    2016-01-01

    We have determined the mitochondrial genome of the first Pheretimoid earthworm, Metaphire vulgaris (Chen, 1930). This mitogenome is 15,061 bp in length containing 37 genes typical of other annelid. All genes are encoded by the same strand, ATP8 is not adjacent to ATP6, all 13 PCGs use ATG as a start codon. These features are consistent with first determined earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, but unusual among animal mtDNAs. PMID:24617491

  20. Earthworms and plant residues modify nematodes in tropical cropping soils (Madagascar): a mesocosm experiment

    Eric Blanchart; Djibril Djigal; Emilie Kichenin; Bodo Rabary; Cécile Villenave

    2010-01-01

    Free-living nematodes present several characteristics that have led to their use as bioindicators of soil quality. Analyzing the structure of nematofauna is a pertinent way to understand soil biological processes. Earthworms play an important role in soil biological functioning and organic matter dynamics. Their effects on soil nematofauna have seldom been studied. We studied the effect of the tropical endogeic earthworm, Pontoscolex corethrurus, on nematode community structure in a 5-month f...

  1. Radioresistance of aboriginal earthworms of Absheron peninsula in radioactive model systems

    Full tex:Soil animals are the most suitable biological indicators of radioactive pollution because they are parts of nutritional chains and webs, occur in relatively high numbers and can be collected during most parts of the year.The use of earthworms in the soils from Ramana iodine plant area of Absheron peninsula, which is rich with radionuclide and in the soil mixed with RaCl2 and UO2SO4 salt solutions in different concentrations, for resistance to ionizing radiation in soil is reviewed.Effect of radionuclides on vital functions of earthworms and determination of radionuclides (before and after experiments) in contaminated soils by ?-spectrometer were carried out in laboratory condition during a month. Regarding to ?-spectrometric results there were determined that earthworms had absorbed most of radioactive elements and allocated them as coprogenous substances on the upper layer of soil. In Ramana soils mostly the 238U radionuclides were highly accumulated in gut cells of the earthworms. By the influence of radioactive elements it was shown that the earthworms from Ramana iodine plant territory variants had proved particularly sensitive to an increased Ra-radiation background and to iodine factor.It was interestingly established the proportional dependence between rising level of accumulation in earthworms' body and in their coprolites and increasing of radioactive salts containing in the soils treated by UO2SO4 and RaCl2 solutions.Thus there is different level of radioresistance for earthworms and they are among the best bioindicators of polluted soils. There was an obvious perspective of using of earthworms as bioremediators in polluted soil with radionuclides in future as well.

  2. Earthworms - role in soil fertility to the use in medicine and as a food

    M Grdiša; K Gršić; MD Grdiša

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms are important regulators of soil structure and dynamics of soil organic matter. They are a major component of soil fauna communities in most ecosystems and comprise a large proportion of macro fauna biomass. Their activities are beneficial because they can enhance soil nutrient cycling through the rapid incorporation of detritus into mineral soil. However, mucus production associated with water excretion in earthworm guts also enhances the activity of other beneficial soil microorg...

  3. Herbivory of an invasive slug is affected by earthworms and the composition of plant communities

    Johann G. Zaller; Parth, Myriam; Szunyogh, Ilona; Semmelrock, Ines; Sochurek, Susanne; Pinheiro, Marcia; Frank, Thomas; Drapela, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Biodiversity loss and species invasions are among the most important human-induced global changes. Moreover, these two processes are interlinked as ecosystem invasibility is considered to increase with decreasing biodiversity. In temperate grasslands, earthworms serve as important ecosystem engineers making up the majority of soil faunal biomass. Herbivore behaviour has been shown to be affected by earthworms, however it is unclear whether these effects differ with the composition ...

  4. Heavy metal accumulation in earthworms exposed to spatially variable soil contamination.

    Marinussen, M.P.J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Ecotoxicity of contaminated soil is commonly tested in standard laboratory tests. Extrapolation of these data to the field scale is complicated due to considerable differences between conditions in laboratory tests and conditions in situ in contaminated soils. In this thesis, heavy metal accumulation in earthworms was studied under various laboratory conditions to identify and obtain knowledge that is needed to predict accumulation in earthworms exposed to in situ soil contamination. Both Cu ...

  5. Temperature-dependent alterations in metabolic enzymes and proteins of three ecophysiologically different species of earthworms

    Tripathi, G; N. Kachhwaha; I. Dabi; N. Bandooni

    2011-01-01

    The effects of varying temperatures (12 - 44° C) on the specific activity of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase ((cMDH), mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of some earthworms (Metaphire posthuma, Perionyx sansibaricus and Lampito mauritii) were studied. The effects of different temperatures on supernatant and mitochondrial protein contents were also investigated. The specific activities of cMDH, mMDH and LDH of the earthworms decreased gradually as a funct...

  6. Radioresistance of aboriginal earthworms of Absheron peninsula in radioactive model systems

    Full text : Soil animals are the most suitable biological indicators of radioactive pollution because they are parts of nutritional chains and webs, occur in relatively high numbers and can be collected during most parts of the year. The use of earthworms in the soils from Ramana (Baku) iodine plant area of Absheron peninsula, which is rich with radionuclide and in the soil mixed with RaCl2 and UO2SO4 salt solutions in different concentrations, for resistance to ionizing radiation in soil is reviewed. Effect of radionuclides on vital functions of earthworms and determination of radionuclides (before and after experiments) in contaminated soils by γ-spectrometer were carried out in laboratory condition during a month. Regarding to γ-spectrometric results there were determined that earthworms had absorbed most of radioactive elements and allocated them as coprogenous substances on the upper layer of soil. In Ramana soils mostly the 238U radionuclides were highly accumulated in gut cells of the earthworms. By the influence of radioactive elements it was shown that the earthworms from Ramana iodine plant territory variants had proved particularly sensitive to an increased Ra-radiation background and to iodine factor. It was interestingly established the proportional dependence between rising level of accumulation in earthworms body and in their coprolites and increasing of radioactive salts containing in the soils treated by UO2SO4 and RaCl2 solutions. Thus there is different level of radioresistance for earthworms and they are among the best bioindicators of polluted soils. There was an obvious perspective of using of earthworms as bioremediators in polluted soil with radionuclides in future as well.

  7. Earthworm-Mycorrhiza Interactions Can Affect the Diversity, Structure and Functioning of Establishing Model Grassland Communities

    Johann G. Zaller; Heigl, Florian; Grabmaier, Andrea; Lichtenegger, Claudia; Piller, Katja; Allabashi, Roza; Frank, Thomas; Drapela, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Both earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important ecosystem engineers co-occurring in temperate grasslands. However, their combined impacts during grassland establishment are poorly understood and have never been studied. We used large mesocosms to study the effects of different functional groups of earthworms (i.e., vertically burrowing anecics vs. horizontally burrowing endogeics) and a mix of four AMF taxa on the establishment, diversity and productivity of plant communi...

  8. Quantitative arsenic speciation in two species of earthworms from a former mine site

    Watts, Michael; Button, Mark; Brewer, T. S.; Jenkin, G.W.T.; Harrington, C.F.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between the total arsenic concentration and the chemical speciation of arsenic in two species of earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrodillus rubidus) in relation to the host soil, was investigated for 13 sites of varying arsenic content, including a 10 background level garden soil and a former mine site at the Devon Great Consols, UK. Earthworms were collected with the host soil (As soil concentration range 16 - 12,466 mg kg-1 dry weight) and measured for th...

  9. Implementation of earthworm-assisted constructed wetlands to treat wastewater and possibility of using alternative plants in constructed wetlands

    Chiarawatchai, Nathasith

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to add the earthworms into the constructed wetlands, both in Germany and Thailand, in order to investigate whether they could improve the treatment performances. For Germany, earthworm-assisted constructed wetlands exhibited better treatment efficiency than conventional vertical subsurface-flow constructed wetlands and the unplanted constructed wetlands with earthworms. For Thailand, the production of sludge on the surface of wetlands was reduced by 40% with eart...

  10. Glyphosate-based herbicides reduce the activity and reproduction of earthworms and lead to increased soil nutrient concentrations

    Mailin Gaupp-Berghausen; Martin Hofer; Boris Rewald; Johann G. Zaller

    2015-01-01

    Herbicide use is increasing worldwide both in agriculture and private gardens. However, our knowledge of potential side-effects on non-target soil organisms, even on such eminent ones as earthworms, is still very scarce. In a greenhouse experiment, we assessed the impact of the most widely used glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup on two earthworm species with different feeding strategies. We demonstrate, that the surface casting activity of vertically burrowing earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris...

  11. Regulation of soil structure by geophagous earthworm activities in humid savannas of Côte d'Ivoire

    Blanchart, Eric; Lavelle, P. (ed.); Braudeau, Erik; Le Bissonnais, Y.; Valentin, Christian

    1997-01-01

    The role of endogeic earthworms in the maintenance of the structure of an African savanna soil has been investigated in a 28-month field experiment. Changes of aggregate size distribution, porosity and aggregate stability were analysed in undisturbed soil monoliths from which earthworms had been removed and which had then been submitted to four treatments : recolonization by natural savanna fauna (control, 12 replicates) ; introduction of a population of #Millsonia anomala$, a large earthworm...

  12. Searching for a more sensitive earthworm species to be used in pesticide homologation tests A meta-analysis.

    Joimel, Sophie; MAKOWSKI, DAVID; Makowski, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide risk assessments include experiments designed to measure the effect of pesticides on earthworms using the Eisenia fetida fetida or Eisenia fetida andrei species. There is no clear consensus in the literature on the sensitivity of different earthworm species to pesticides. We performed a meta-analysis on the sensitivity of several earthworm species to pesticides to determine the most sensitive species, and to discuss their suitability for European homologation tests. A dataset i...

  13. Isolation and characterization of aerobic microorganisms with cellulolytic activity in the gut of endogeic earthworms.

    Fujii, Katsuhiko; Ikeda, Kana; Yoshida, Seo

    2012-09-01

    The ability of earthworms to decompose lignocellulose involves the assistance of microorganisms in their digestive system. While many studies have revealed a diverse microbiota in the earthworm gut, including aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, it remains unclear which of these species contribute to lignocellulose digestion. In this study, aerobic microorganisms with cellulolytic activity isolated from the gut of two endogeic earthworms, Amynthas heteropoda (Megascolecidae) and Eisenia fetida (Lumbricidae) were isolated by solid culture of gut homogenates using filter paper as a carbon source. A total of 48 strains, including four bacterial and four fungal genera, were isolated from two earthworm species. Characterization of these strains using enzyme assays showed that the most representative ones had exocellulase and xylanase activities, while some had weak laccase activity. These findings suggest that earthworms digest lignocellulose by exploiting microbial exocellulase and xylanase besides their own endocellulase. Phylogenetic analysis showed that among the cellulolytic isolates in both earthworm species Burkholderia and Chaetomium were the dominant bacterial and fungal members. PMID:23847816

  14. Comparative toxicity and bioaccumulation of fenvalerate and esfenvalerate to earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Ye, Xiaoqing; Xiong, Kang; Liu, Jing

    2016-06-01

    More attention is being paid to the enantioselective toxicity of chiral pesticides. However, limited investigations have been done to assess the ecological risks of chiral pesticides to soil community. Fenvalerate (FV), an extensively used synthetic pyrethroid, is a typical chiral pesticide. The most insecticidally active enantiomer of FV, esfenvalerate (ESFV), also has been marketed and widely used. In this study, the toxicological sensitivity and bioaccumulation of FV and ESFV in earthworms were assessed. The results showed that FV was less toxic than ESFV, but more accumulated in earthworms. ESFV was at least 4 times more toxic to earthworms than FV according to the filter paper contact toxicity test and the artificial soil test. Enantiospecific induction in oxidative stress was observed in earthworms exposed to FV and ESFV. The bioaccumulation of FV and ESFV in earthworm tissues was also enantioselective, preferentially accumulating FV. The uptake of ESFV by earthworms was lower than that of FV, so that the biota to soil accumulation factor (BSAF) value of ESFV was lower than that of FV. Our findings suggest that the enantioselective toxicity and bioaccumulation of chiral pesticides should be considered for evaluating ecological risks of these compounds to non-target organisms. PMID:26900980

  15. The influence of earthworms on nutrient dynamics during the process of vermicomposting.

    Domínguez, Jorge; Gómez-Brandón, María

    2013-08-01

    In the present study the potential of the earthworm Eisenia andrei to modify chemical and microbiological properties, with a special focus on the nutrient content of fresh organic matter, was evaluated during 16 weeks of vermicomposting of cattle manure and sewage sludge. Samples were periodically collected in order to determine the changes in inorganic nitrogen (N), in total microbial biomass and activity, as well as in the total and available content of macro- and micronutrients. An optimal moisture level, ranging from 75% to 88%, was maintained throughout the process. The content of organic matter decreased over time, but no changes were found in this parameter as a result of earthworm activity. The carbon/N ratio rapidly decreased, but only in the manure, reflecting rapid decomposition and mineralisation of the organic matter by the earthworms. An increase in N mineralisation was also attributable to the presence of earthworms, although in the manure this effect was hardly detectable before the eighth week of vermicomposting. Earthworm activity also enhanced the total content of potassium, calcium and iron together with an increase in the availability of phosphorus and zinc. We did not detect a significant earthworm effect on microbial respiration, but their activity increased greatly microbial biomass nitrogen in sewage sludge. PMID:23831778

  16. Persistence in earthworms and potential hazards to birds of soil applied DDT, dieldrin, and heptachlor

    Beyer, W.N.; Gish, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    (1) DDT, dieldrin, and heptachlor were each applied to separate replicate plots in a hay field at 0.6, 2.2, or 9.0 kg/ha. For 11 yr thereafter, soil and earthworms were analysed for residues. (2) The average ratios of residues in earthworms (dry weight) to residues in soil (dry weight) were: total DDT, 5; dieldrin, 8; and heptachlor epoxide, 10. The average time for the initial residues in soil to be reduced by 50% were: total DDT, 3.2 yr; dieldrin, 5.1 yr; and heptachlor epoxide, 3.2 yr. The corresponding times for residues in earthworms were: total DDT, 3.2 yr; dieldrin, 2.6 yr; and heptachlor epoxide, 3.0 yr. (3) DDE was most persistent, and in plots treated at 9.0 kg/ha its concentration remained constant at about 0.4 ppm in soil and about 7 ppm in earthworms. (4) When applied at 9.0 kg/ha, DDT accumulated in earthworms to concentrations (32 ppm) which laboratory studies have shown to be hazardous to some sensitive bird species. When heptachlor was applied at 2.2 or 9.0 kg/ha, heptachlor epoxide in earthworms reached concentrations (8 ppm) potentially hazardous to woodcock. Dieldrin remained at potentially hazardous concentrations (8 ppm) for 3 yr in plots treated with 2.2 kg/ha and for 11 yr in plots treated with 9.0 kg/ha.

  17. Can we predict How Earthworm Effects on Plant Growth Vary with Soil Properties

    Earthworms are usually assumed to enhance plant growth through different mechanisms which are now clearly identified. It is however difficult to determine their relative importance, and to predict a priori the strength and direction of the effects of a given earthworm species on a given plant. Soil properties are likely to be very influential in determining plant responses to earthworm activities. They are likely to change the relative strength of the various mechanisms involved in plant-earthworm interactions. In this paper, we review the different rationales used to explain changes in earthworm effect due to soil type. Then, we systematically discuss the effect of main soil characteristics (soil texture, OM, and nutrient contents) on the different mechanisms allowing earthworm to influence plant growth. Finally, we identify the main shortcomings in our knowledge and point out the new experimental and meta-analytical approaches that need to be developed. An example of such a meta-analysis is given and means to go further are suggested. The result highlights a strong positive effect size in sandy soil and a weakly negative effect in clayey soil.

  18. Radiocesium (137Cs) from the Chernobyl reactor in Eurasian woodcock and earthworms in Norway

    To understand the ecological effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident, we investigated radiocesium (137Cs) levels in Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola), earthworms (Lambricidae), litter (dead organic materials lying on the ground), humus (beneath litter 2 cm deep), and mineral soil samples (3-6 cm deep) from a heavily effected (20-60 kBq/m2[1 Bq = 1 nuclear fission/sec]) area in Norway. The highest concentrations measured in earthworms (1988 median = 142 Bq/Kg) and woodcock (1986 median = 730 Bq/kg) for human food (600 Bq/kg fresh mass) only were found in woodcock during 1986. Radiocesium concentrations decreased (P < 0.001) in earthworms (40%) and woodcock (95%) from 1986 to 1990. There was no reduction in total radiocesium in soil over the same period. The relatively high radiocesium concentrations in woodcock during 1986 and the decreasing radiocesium ratio in woodcock to earthworms during the first years following fallout could have been caused by woodcock ingesting abiotic radiocesium with earthworms. The decrease in radiocesium in woodcock and earthworms during the study (1986-90) probably resulted from decreasing bioavailability of radiocesium during the first years after fallout rather than by radiocesium disappearing from the ecosystem. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Aporrectodea caliginosa, a suitable earthworm species for field based genotoxicity assessment?

    There is a growing interest for the application of biomakers to field-collected earthworms. Therefore we have evaluated the usability of native populations of endogeic, widely distributed earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa in the assessment of soil genotoxicity using the Comet assay. Validation of the Comet assay on earthworm coelomocytes has been established using commercially available Eisenia fetida exposed to copper, cadmium, and pentachlorophenol, along with A. caliginosa exposed to copper in a filter paper contact test. Neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay was conducted on copper exposed and field-collected earthworms. Significant DNA and lysosomal damage was measured using Comet and NRRT assays in native populations of A. caliginosa sampled from the polluted soils in the urban area in comparison to the earthworms from the reference site. The results of this study confirm the employment of A. caliginosa as a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Research highlights: → Native A. caliginosa has shown significant biological effect measured by the Comet and NRRT assays. → The Comet assay on A. caliginosa and E. fetida has shown to be of similar sensitivity as the NRRT assay. → A. caliginosa is a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Native populations of endogeic earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa can be successfully applied in the genotoxicity field surveys using Comet assay.

  20. Soil bioturbation by earthworms and plant roots- mechanical and energetic considerations

    Ruiz, S.; Or, D.; Schymanski, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Soil structure is a key factor shaping hydrological and ecological functions including water storage, deep recharge and plant growth. Compaction adversely impacts soil ecosystem services over extended periods (years to decades) until structure and functionality are restored. An important class of soil structural restoration processes are related to biomechanical activity associated with borrowing of earthworms and root proliferation in impacted soils. This study employs a new biomechanical model to estimate stresses required for earthworm and plant root bioturbation under different conditions and the mechanical energy required. We consider steady state plastic cavity expansion to determine burrowing pressures of earthworms and plant roots as linked with models for cone penetration required for initial burrowing into soil volumes. We use earthworm physical and ecological parameters (e.g., population density, burrowing rate, and burrowing behavior) to convert mechanical deformation to estimation of energy and soil organic carbon (energy source for earthworms). Results illustrate a reduction in strain energy with increasing water content and trade-offs between pressure and energy investment for various root and earthworm geometries and soil hydration. The study provides a quantitative framework for estimating energy costs of bioturbation in terms of soil organic carbon or plant assimilates and delineates mechanical and hydration conditions that promote or constrain such activities.

  1. Aporrectodea caliginosa, a suitable earthworm species for field based genotoxicity assessment?

    Klobucar, Goeran I.V., E-mail: gklobuca@zg.biol.pmf.hr [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Stambuk, Anamaria; Srut, Maja [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Husnjak, Ivana [Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction, Ulica Republike Austrije 14, Zagreb (Croatia); Merkas, Martina [Croatian Institute for Brain Research, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Salata 12, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Traven, Luka [Department of Environmental Medicine, Medical Faculty, University of Rijeka, Brace Branchetta 20a, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Teaching Institute of Public Health of the Primorsko-goranska County, Kresimirova 52a, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Cvetkovic, Zelimira [Department of Ecology, Institute of Public Health, Mirogojska c. 16, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-04-15

    There is a growing interest for the application of biomakers to field-collected earthworms. Therefore we have evaluated the usability of native populations of endogeic, widely distributed earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa in the assessment of soil genotoxicity using the Comet assay. Validation of the Comet assay on earthworm coelomocytes has been established using commercially available Eisenia fetida exposed to copper, cadmium, and pentachlorophenol, along with A. caliginosa exposed to copper in a filter paper contact test. Neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay was conducted on copper exposed and field-collected earthworms. Significant DNA and lysosomal damage was measured using Comet and NRRT assays in native populations of A. caliginosa sampled from the polluted soils in the urban area in comparison to the earthworms from the reference site. The results of this study confirm the employment of A. caliginosa as a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Research highlights: > Native A. caliginosa has shown significant biological effect measured by the Comet and NRRT assays. > The Comet assay on A. caliginosa and E. fetida has shown to be of similar sensitivity as the NRRT assay. > A. caliginosa is a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Native populations of endogeic earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa can be successfully applied in the genotoxicity field surveys using Comet assay.

  2. Modification of root density in pot experiments with two tropical earthworm species

    George G. BROWN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three greenhouse experiments were performed to assess the role of two common tropical geophagous endogeic earthworm species, Pontoscolex corethrurus and Polypheretima elongata, on root density of several plant species in two soil types, a clayey Andosol and a sandy Alfisol, from Veracruz, Mexico. The equivalent of about 12 kg dry soil were placed into 20 l plastic pots and 3-14 individuals were inoculated to pots planted with common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, Brachiaria decumbens pasture grass under four P fertilization regimes (0, 1.6, 8.4 and 10 kg P ha-1 and maize (Zea mays with or without surface residues. Pots received only one species of earthworms (either P. corethrurus or P. elon-gata. At harvest, the pots were cut in half and a transparent plastic sheet (overheads used to draw root and earthworm structures (burrows, casts in vertical and horizontal (every 5 cm planes. The drawings were scanned, binarized and submitted to image analysis techniques to determine the density of roots, casts and burrows. Root density was generally higher and there was a trend for more even distribution of roots in the soil, both horizontally and vertically, in the presence of earthworms. Nevertheless, few relationships were observed between root density and shoot biomass or the density of earthworm casts and burrows. A more diffuse (less aggregated root distribution due to earthworms may aid plants in resistance to stress, although the induced changes in the root system may not necessarily lead to greater yields

  3. Physiological and molecular responses of the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) to soil chlortetracycline contamination

    This study aims to evaluate toxic effects of exposure to chlortetracycline (CTC) in soil on reproductive endpoints (juvenile counts and cocoon counts), biochemical responses, and genotoxic potentials of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Results showed that juvenile counts and cocoon counts of the tested earthworms were reduced after exposure to CTC. The effective concentrations (EC50 values) for juvenile and cocoon counts were 96.1 and 120.3 mg/kg, respectively. Treatment of earthworms with CTC significantly changed the activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). An increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) indicated that CTC could cause cellular lipid peroxidation in the tested earthworms. The percentage of DNA in the tail of single-cell gel electrophoresis of coelomocytes as an indication of DNA damage increased after treatment with different doses of CTC, and a dose-dependent DNA damage of coelomocytes was found. In conclusion, CTC induces physiological responses and genotoxicity on earthworms. - Highlights: ► Reproductive endpoints were assessed for Eisenia fetida exposed to chlortectracyline (CTC). ► CTC may induce physiological and molecular responses in E. fetida. ► A clear relationship was observed between CTC doses and DNA damage of coelomocytes. - Chlortetracycline in soil could induce physiological responses and genotoxicity on earthworms at realistic environmental concentrations.

  4. Earthworms as Ecosystem Engineers and the Most Important Detritivors in Forest Soils

    Yahya Kooch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are considered as soil engineers because of their effects on soil properties and their influence on the availability of resources for other organisms, including microorganisms and plants. However, the links between their impacts on the soil environment and the resulting modification of natural selection pressures on engineer as well as on other organisms have received little attention. Earthworms are known to have a positive influence on the soil fabric and on the decomposition and mineralization of litter by breaking down organic matter and producing large amounts of fasces, thereby mixing litter with the mineral soil. Therefore, they play an important part in changes from one humus from to another according to forest succession patterns. Consequently, they are also expected to be good bio-indicators for forest site quality and are thus useful when planning forest production improvement. Earthworm`s populations are as indicator that in exploited regions is destruction indicator and reclamation plans is nature return indicator. In this study we summarized the current knowledge in relation to earthworm`s ecology in forest soils as ecosystem engineers.

  5. Functional attributes: Compacting vs decompacting earthworms and influence on soil structure

    Arnauth Martinez GUÉI, Yannick BAIDAI, Jérôme Ebagnerin TONDOH,Jeroen HUISING

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A short term field mesocosm experiment was performed in semi-deciduous forest areas of Ivory Coast to assess the impact of a decompacting (Hyperiodrilus africanus, Eudrilidae and two compacting (Millsonia omodeoi and Dichogaster terraenigrae, Acanthodrilidae earthworm species on soil properties. These species have been selected for their predominance in the region and their contrasting impact on soil structure. The experimental design consisted of a treatment without worms (control, and treatments with one, two or three species of earthworms. Both compacting and decompacting earthworms increased water infiltration rate in all treatments, with marked impact in H. africanus and M. omodeoi+D. terraenigrae treatments. Interactions between compacting and decompacting species resulted in more large aggregates in comparison to when the compacting species D. terraenigrae was alone. This may be accounted for by their compacting attribute as compacting earthworms are responsible for producing the highest number of large aggregates. The low values of mean weight diameter in treatments combining decompacting and compacting earthworms compared with compacting "M. omodeoi" one also confirmed the trend of decline in soil compaction in the presence of the decompacting species. These results showed positive impact of species richness on soil structure regulation, which is crucial in ecosystem productivity and support consequently the insurance hypothesis. In fact, this study showed that the preservation of earthworm species belonging to these two contrasting functional groups is essential for the maintenance of stable soil structure regulation in agro-tropical ecosystems [Current Zoology 58 (4: 556–565, 2012].

  6. Stability evaluation of freeze-dried Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in oral capsules.

    Jalali, M; Abedi, D; Varshosaz, J; Najjarzadeh, M; Mirlohi, M; Tavakoli, N

    2012-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a common preservation technology in the pharmaceutical industry. Various studies have investigated the effect of different cryoprotectants on probiotics during freeze-drying. However, information on the effect of cryoprotectants on the stability of some Lactobacillus strains during freeze-drying seems scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish production methods for preparation of oral capsule probiotics containing Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus. It was also of interest to examine the effect of various formulations of cryoprotectant media containing skim milk, trehalose and sodium ascorbate on the survival rate of probiotic bacteria during freeze-drying at various storage temperatures. Without any cryoprotectant, few numbers of microorganisms survived. However, microorganisms tested maintained higher viability after freeze-drying in media containing at least one of the cryoprotectants. Use of skim milk in water resulted in an increased viability after lyophilization. Media with a combination of trehalose and skim milk maintained a higher percentage of live microorganisms, up to 82%. In general, bacteria retained a higher number of viable cells in capsules containing freeze-dried bacteria with sodium ascorbate after three months of storage. After this period, a marked decline was observed in all samples stored at 23°C compared to those stored at 4°C. The maximum survival rate (about 72-76%) was observed with media containing 6% skim milk, 8% trehalose and 4% sodium ascorbate. PMID:23181077

  7. Avoiding gas bubble formation during freeze substitution.

    Fisher, D B

    1991-01-01

    Gas bubbles frequently are formed during freeze substitution, especially when tissues are warmed to room temperature. The problem arises largely from the extreme solubility of CO2 in the freeze substitution solvent. Gas bubbles may be minimized by briefly transferring the tissue to freshly chilled solvent before warming to room temperature. PMID:1790241

  8. Improving Forecasts of Freezing Rain at ECMWF

    Tsonevsky, Ivan; Forbes, Richard; Hewson, Tim

    2015-04-01

    Freezing rain events, though relatively rare, can be extremely debilitating and dangerous for society, with recovery times of order months or even years. Analysis of forecasts of past events by the operational ECMWF Integrated Forecast System (IFS) showed a strong tendency to incorrectly represent freezing rain as snow. Investigations highlighted that this was primarily because the re-freezing process in IFS, following hydrometeors as they descend, was parametrised with the same time-scale as the melting process. In reality the time-scale for re-freezing should, in general, be much longer. The model physics were changed accordingly, and the results in terms of forecast quality were positive and very striking. Coupled with these physics changes new IFS output was developed for users which shows precipitation type at the surface (rain, snow, wet snow, sleet, freezing rain, ice pellets). The changes to the physics will be described in detail, and their impact will be illustrated by comparing forecast output for past events in new and old model versions, in terms of precipitation type and intensity. Illustrations will include short-range deterministic forecasts from 'HRES' (the high resolution ECMWF model), and longer range probabilistic forecasts of freezing rain occurrence from the ensemble. There will also be reference to issues requiring further work/investigation, such as high level convection in potential freezing rain cases, freezing drizzle generated in supercooled shallow clouds, and IFS retention of the 'warm nose' in which melting occurs.

  9. Freeze concentration of lime juice

    Ampawan Tansakul

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to study the effects of processing conditions, i.e. cooling medium temperature (-6, -12 and -18C and scraper blade rotational speed (50, 100 and 150 rpm on the freeze concentration of lime juice. The initial soluble solid content of lime juice was 7.6 Brix. Results showed that soluble solid content of lime juice increased as cooling medium temperature decreased while scraper blade rotational speed increased. It was also found that the processing condition with -18˚C cooling medium temperature and 150 rpm rotational speed of the scraper blade was the best among all studied conditions, although the loss of the soluble solids with ice crystals during ice separation was relatively high at 35%.

  10. Vacuolar membrane lesions induced by a freeze-thaw cycle in protoplasts isolated from deacclimated tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.).

    Murai, M; Yoshida, S

    1998-01-01

    The processes of freezing injury in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers were studied using protoplasts isolated from cold-acclimated and deacclimated tubers. Prior to freezing, protoplasts were preloaded with 10 microM fluorescein diacetate (FDA) in an isotonic sorbitol solution. After freeze-thawing at various temperatures, cell viability was evaluated under a fluorescence microscope. In cold-acclimated tubers, more than 80% of protoplasts survived freezing to -20 degrees C. By contrast, in deacclimated tubers, the cell survival abruptly declined after freezing to temperatures below -5 degrees C. Thus, freezing tolerance differed significantly between protoplasts isolated from cold-acclimated and deacclimated tubers. Two distinct types of cell injury, which were caused by either damage to plasma membrane (cell-lysis type) or by damage to the vacuolar membrane (abnormal-staining type), were observed, depending on the cold hardiness and freezing temperature. In the cells of the abnormal-staining type, shrinkage of the central vacuolar space and simultaneous acidification of the cytoplasmic space were characteristically observed immediately before complete cell-rehydration during thawing. The decrease in freezing tolerance of protoplasts after deacclimation was suggested to be due mainly to destabilization of the vacuolar membrane by freeze-induced dehydration stress. PMID:9517005

  11. Escape and avoidance learning in the earthworm Eisenia hortensis

    W. Jeffrey Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in instrumental learning in earthworms dates back to 1912 when Yerkes concluded that they can learn a spatial discrimination in a T-maze. Rosenkoetter and Boice determined in the 1970s that the “learning” that Yerkes observed was probably chemotaxis and not learning at all. We examined a different form of instrumental learning: the ability to learn both to escape and to avoid an aversive stimulus. Freely moving “master” worms could turn off an aversive white light by increasing their movement; the behavior of yoked controls had no effect on the light. We demonstrate that in as few as 12 trials the behavior of the master worms comes under the control of this contingency.

  12. Comparative Genotoxicity of Cadmium and Lead in Earthworm Coelomocytes

    Muangphra, Ptumporn; Gooneratne, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    To determine genotoxicity to coelomocytes, Pheretima peguana earthworms were exposed in filter paper studies to cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) for 48 h, at concentrations less than the LC10—Cd: 0.09, 0.19, 0.38, 0.75, and 1.50 μg cm−2; Pb: 1.65, 3.29, 6.58, 13.16, and 26.32 μg cm−2. For Cd at 0.75 μg cm−2, in the micronucleus test (detects chromosomal aberrations), significant increases ( < . 0 5 ) in micronuclei and binucleate cells were observed, and in the comet assay (detects DNA single-str...

  13. Comparative Genotoxicity of Cadmium and Lead in Earthworm Coelomocytes

    To determine genotoxicity to coelomocytes, Pheretima peguana earthworms were exposed in filter paper studies to cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) for 48 h, at concentrations less than the LC10 Cd: 0.09, 0.19, 0.38, 0.75, and 1.50 μg cm-2; Pb: 1.65, 3.29, 6.58, 13.16, and 26.32 μg cm-2. For Cd at 0.75 μg cm-2, in the micronucleus test (detects chromosomal aberrations), significant increases (P-2. This study shows that Cd is more acutely toxic and sublethally genotoxic than Pb to P. peguana. Cadmium caused chromosomal aberrations and DNA single-strand breaks at 45% of the LC10 concentration. Lead, in contrast, did not induce DNA damage but caused cytokinesis defects.

  14. Diversification patterns in cosmopolitan earthworms: similar mode but different tempo.

    Fernández, Rosa; Novo, Marta; Marchán, Daniel F; Díaz Cosín, Darío J

    2016-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography of widespread species that span the same geographic areas can elucidate the influence of historical events on current patterns of biodiversity, identify patterns of co-vicariance, and therefore aid the understanding of general evolutionary processes. Soil-dwelling animals present characteristics that make them suitable for testing the effect of the palaeogeographical events on their distribution and diversification, such as their low vagility and population structure. In this study, we shed light on the spatial lineage diversification and cladogenesis of two widely-distributed cosmopolitan and invasive earthworms (Aporrectodea rosea and A. trapezoides) in their putative ancestral area of origin, the Western Palearctic, and a few populations in North America. Molecular analyses were conducted on mitochondrial and nuclear markers from 220 (A. rosea) and 198 (A. trapezoides) individuals collected in 56 and 57 localities, respectively. We compared the lineage diversification pattern, genetic variability and cladogenesis in both species. Our findings showed that both species underwent a similar diversification from the Western Mediterranean plates to (i) Northern Europe and (ii) the Iberian Peninsula, establishing their two main lineages. Their diversification was in concordance with the main palaeogeographical events in the Iberian Peninsula and Western Mediterranean, followed by a later colonization of North America from individuals derived exclusively from the Eurosiberian lineage. Their diversification occurred at different times, with the diversification of A. rosea being potentially more ancient. Cladogenesis in both species seems to have been modelled only by the Mediterranean plate shifts, ignoring historical climatic oscillations such as the Messinian salinity crisis. Their high genetic variability, strong population structure, lack of gene flow and stepping-stone-like cladogenesis suggest the existence of different cryptic lineages. Our results may indicate a recurrent event in invasive earthworms within their ancestral distribution areas in the Western Palearctic. PMID:26299880

  15. Cryoprotectants and extreme freeze tolerance in a subarctic population of the wood frog.

    Costanzo, Jon P; Reynolds, Alice M; do Amaral, M Clara F; Rosendale, Andrew J; Lee, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) exhibit marked geographic variation in freeze tolerance, with subarctic populations tolerating experimental freezing to temperatures at least 10-13 degrees Celsius below the lethal limits for conspecifics from more temperate locales. We determined how seasonal responses enhance the cryoprotectant system in these northern frogs, and also investigated their physiological responses to somatic freezing at extreme temperatures. Alaskan frogs collected in late summer had plasma urea levels near 10 μmol ml-1, but this level rose during preparation for winter to 85.5 ± 2.9 μmol ml-1 (mean ± SEM) in frogs that remained fully hydrated, and to 186.9 ± 12.4 μmol ml-1 in frogs held under a restricted moisture regime. An osmolality gap indicated that the plasma of winter-conditioned frogs contained an as yet unidentified osmolyte(s) that contributed about 75 mOsmol kg-1 to total osmotic pressure. Experimental freezing to -8°C, either directly or following three cycles of freezing/thawing between -4 and 0°C, or -16°C increased the liver's synthesis of glucose and, to a lesser extent, urea. Concomitantly, organs shed up to one-half (skeletal muscle) or two-thirds (liver) of their water, with cryoprotectant in the remaining fluid reaching concentrations as high as 0.2 and 2.1 M, respectively. Freeze/thaw cycling, which was readily survived by winter-conditioned frogs, greatly increased hepatic glycogenolysis and delivery of glucose (but not urea) to skeletal muscle. We conclude that cryoprotectant accrual in anticipation of and in response to freezing have been greatly enhanced and contribute to extreme freeze tolerance in northern R. sylvatica. PMID:25688861

  16. Viability of Bifidobacterium Pseudocatenulatum G4 after Spray-Drying and Freeze-Drying

    Stephenie Wong; Barka Mohammed Kabeir; Shuhaimi Mustafa; Rosfarizan Mohamad; Anis Shobirin Meor Hussin; Mohd Yazid Manap

    2010-01-01

    Viability of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 following spray-drying and freeze-drying in skim milk was evaluated. After spray-drying, the strain experienced over 99% loss in viability regardless of the air outlet temperature (75 and 85 °C) and the heat-adaptation temperature (45 and 65 °C, 30 min). The use of heat-adaptation treatment to improve the thermotolerance of this strain was ineffective. On the other hand, the strain showed a superior survival at 71.65%–82.07% after freeze-dryin...

  17. Beneficial effect of Verminephrobacter nephridial symbionts on the fitness of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata

    Lund, Marie Braad; Holmstrup, Martin; Lomstein, Bente Aagaard; Damgaard, Christian; Schramm, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Almost all lumbricid earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) harbor species-specific Verminephrobacter (Betaproteobacteria) symbionts in their nephridia (excretory organs). The function of the symbiosis, and whether the symbionts have a beneficial effect on their earthworm host, is unknown; however......, the symbionts have been hypothesized to enhance nitrogen retention in the earthworms. The effect of Verminephrobacter on the life-history traits of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen) was investigated by comparing growth, development, and fecundity of worms with and without symbionts, given...

  18. Modelling spatiotemporal distribution patterns of earthworms in order to indicate hydrological soil processes

    Palm, Juliane; Klaus, Julian; van Schaik, Loes; Zehe, Erwin; Schröder, Boris

    2010-05-01

    Soils provide central ecosystem functions in recycling nutrients, detoxifying harmful chemicals as well as regulating microclimate and local hydrological processes. The internal regulation of these functions and therefore the development of healthy and fertile soils mainly depend on the functional diversity of plants and animals. Soil organisms drive essential processes such as litter decomposition, nutrient cycling, water dynamics, and soil structure formation. Disturbances by different soil management practices (e.g., soil tillage, fertilization, pesticide application) affect the distribution and abundance of soil organisms and hence influence regulating processes. The strong relationship between environmental conditions and soil organisms gives us the opportunity to link spatiotemporal distribution patterns of indicator species with the potential provision of essential soil processes on different scales. Earthworms are key organisms for soil function and affect, among other things, water dynamics and solute transport in soils. Through their burrowing activity, earthworms increase the number of macropores by building semi-permanent burrow systems. In the unsaturated zone, earthworm burrows act as preferential flow pathways and affect water infiltration, surface-, subsurface- and matrix flow as well as the transport of water and solutes into deeper soil layers. Thereby different ecological earthworm types have different importance. Deep burrowing anecic earthworm species (e.g., Lumbricus terrestris) affect the vertical flow and thus increase the risk of potential contamination of ground water with agrochemicals. In contrast, horizontal burrowing endogeic (e.g., Aporrectodea caliginosa) and epigeic species (e.g., Lumbricus rubellus) increase water conductivity and the diffuse distribution of water and solutes in the upper soil layers. The question which processes are more relevant is pivotal for soil management and risk assessment. Thus, finding relevant environmental predictors which explain the distribution and dynamics of different ecological earthworm types can help us to understand where or when these processes are relevant in the landscape. Therefore, we develop species distribution models which are a useful tool to predict spatiotemporal distributions of earthworm occurrence and abundance under changing environmental conditions. On field scale, geostatistical distribution maps have shown that the spatial distribution of earthworms depends on soil parameters such as food supply, soil moisture, bulk density but with different patterns for earthworm stages (adult, juvenile) and ecological types (anecic, endogeic, epigeic). On landscape scales, earthworm distribution seems to be strongly controlled by management/disturbance-related factors. Our study shows different modelling approaches for predicting distribution patterns of earthworms in the Weiherbach area, an agricultural site in Kraichtal (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). We carried out field studies on arable fields differing in soil management practices (conventional, conservational), soil properties (organic matter content, texture, soil moisture), and topography (slope, elevation) in order to identify predictors for earthworm occurrence, abundance and biomass. Our earthworm distribution models consider all ecological groups as well as different life stages, accounting for the fact that the activity of juveniles is sometimes different from those of adults. Within our BIOPORE-project it is our final goal to couple our distribution models with population dynamic models and a preferential flow model to an integrated ecohydrological model to analyse feedbacks between earthworm engineering and transport characteristics affecting the functioning of (agro-) ecosystems.

  19. Soil Aggregate Stability in the Presence of Earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L. and Different Organic Materials in a Calcareous Soil

    F. S. Moosavi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the crucial function of earthworms in improvement of soil physical properties is well -know, but very little is known of the interactive influence of earthworms and organic materials on soil properties such as soil aggregate stability, particularly in arid and semi-arid soils. The low organic matter content and the significant role of earthworms in improving physical properties of arid and semi-arid soils necessitate studying the interactive effects of organic materials and earthworms. Thus, the main objective of this study was to identify the interactive effects of anecic earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris L. and various organic residues (including alfalfa, compost, mixture of alfalfa and compost and cow dung on soil aggregate stability expressed as the Mean Weight Diameter (MWD, Geometric Mean Diameter (GMD and Aggregation Ratio (AR, and furthermore soil Ca and Mg contents. The experiment consisted of a 2×5 factorial treatment organized in a completely randomized design with four replications under controlled greenhouse conditions, lasted for 150 days. Results showed that earthworm inoculation and organic materials addition alone increased significantly all the indices of soil aggregation and aggregate stability, and Ca and Mg contents. However, the combined use of earthworms and organic residues resulted in more stable aggregates. Results indicated that earthworm inoculation in the presence of organic materials resulted in 39, 58, 2, 67, 43 and 74% increases, respectively in MWD, AR, GMD, Ca, Mg and macroaggregates whereas microaggregates were reduced by 13.5% in earthworm-worked soils. We observed a significant relationship (R2=0.945 between soil Ca content and MWD, demonstrating that earthworms apparently excrete calcite that helps bonding clay particles and soil organic matter via cationic (Ca+2 bridging. In summary, results of this study show that the simultaneous applications of anecic earthworms and organic materials may considerably help in improving the structure of arid and semi-arid soils with low carbon level.

  20. Exploring the Nature of Contact Freezing

    Kiselev, A. A.; Hoffmann, N.; Duft, D.; Leisner, T.

    2012-12-01

    The freezing of supercooled water droplets upon contact with aerosol particles (contact nucleation of ice) is the least understood mechanism of ice formation in atmospheric clouds. Although experimental evidences suggest that some aerosols can be better IN in the contact than in the immersion mode (that is, triggering ice nucleation at higher temperature), no final explanation of this phenomena currently exists. On the other hand, the contact freezing is believed to be responsible for the enhanced rate of secondary ice formation occasionally observed in LIDAR measurements in the cold mixed phase clouds. Recently we have been able to show that the freezing of supercooled droplets electrodynamically levitated in the laminar flow containing mineral dust particles (kaolinite) is a process solely governed by a rate of collisions between the supercooled droplet and the aerosol particles. We have shown that the probability of droplet freezing on a single contact with aerosol particle may differ over an order of magnitude for kaolinite particles having different genesis and morphology. In this presentation we extend the study of contact nucleation of ice and compare the IN efficiency measured for DMA-selected kaolinite, illite and hematite particles. We show that the freezing probability increases towards unity as the temperature decreases and discuss the functional form of this temperature dependence. We explore the size dependence of the contact freezing probability and show that it scales with the surface area of the particles, thus resembling the immersion freezing behavior. However, for all minerals investigated so far, the contact freezing has been shown to dominate over immersion freezing on the short experimental time scales. Finally, based on the combined ESEM and electron microprobe analysis, we discuss the significance of particle morphology and variability of chemical composition on its IN efficiency in contact mode.

  1. Effect of acute gamma radiation and protective action of different concentration of extracts of safora japonica and hypericum perforatum on the life of aboriginal earthworms of Absheron

    Full text : As atomic power is increasingly recognized as a potential energy source to sustain future human development, radiological protection of the environment will become an even more important environmental safety concern. Thus, an understanding of the effects of ionizing radiation on non-human biota is required by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the radiological protection of the environment. Soil processes are vital to sustainable terrestrial ecosystems, and soil invertebrates play an important role in nutrient cycling by feeding on microbiota. Because of their ecological importance, soil invertebrates are used for ecological impact assessments of terrestrial ecosystem pollutants. For chemical substances, single-species laboratory tests are used to understand toxicity. Standard tests using earthworms and spring tails have been developed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Laboratory toxicity tests are also applicable in field contamination monitoring to determine if test organisms have been exposed to field-corrected soils. In such assays, gene expression as a biomarker has been receiving increased attention as it may produce fast, sensitive and diagnostic assays. A similar use of laboratory tests can be applied to assess the environmental impact of ionizing radiation. An understanding of the dose-effect relations of ionising radiation for non-human biota establishes important baselines for radiobiological protection of ecosystems. We used standard laboratory tests to examine dose-effect relationships of gamma radiation on the survival, biomass changing, feeding activity, coprolite excretion of aboriginal earthworms

  2. Well-plate freeze-drying

    Trnka, Hjalte; Rantanen, Jukka; Grohganz, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context: Freeze-drying in presence of excipients is a common practice to stabilize biomacromolecular formulations. The composition of this formulation is known to affect the quality of the final product. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate freeze-drying in well-plates as a...... no significant edge effect was found for any of the quality attributes analyzed. Conclusion: Freeze-drying in well-plates was found to be a suitable and representative high throughput platform for formulation screening....

  3. Stability of Freeze-Dried Lactobacillus acidophilus in Banana, Soybean and Pearl Barley Powders

    Nathanon Trachoo; Panomkorn Wechakama; Anuchita Moongngarm; Maitree Suttajit

    2008-01-01

    Effect of banana, soybean, pearl barley powders and nonfat dry milk on the viability of freeze-dried Lactobacillus acidophilus at 4 and 25°C was studied during 30 days of storage. The survival of freeze-dried L. acidophilus at 4°C was greater than that at 25°C. The survival of L. acidophilus in banana, pearl barley, soybean powders and nonfat dry milk powder was higher than that in control (0.1% peptone water) at both temperatures indicating that addition of banana, soybean and pearl barley p...

  4. Harnessing the energy accompanying freezing

    Research highlights: → Ice pressurization allows the burst and leak testing of practically all tubular materials. → The assembly can be made fully portable for maintenance operations without the use of liquid CO2 and N2. → Ice pressurization can work where conventional interference fitting, axial pressing and heat treatment fail. → Uniform pressures can be developed in ice pressurization as opposed to Herzian distributions under plungers. -- Abstract: The progression of freezing of water inside a pipe is reviewed, with special emphasis on bursting. The process of pressure rise in confined bodies of water is discussed. The development of a method utilizing liquid carbon dioxide and liquid nitrogen, for the development of pressures inside closed containers is summarized. Then a novel method, utilizing mechanical refrigeration, is explained for the generation of high pressures. An experimental setup for the latter technique is described and results of experiments are summarized. A number of ways of utilizing the ice-pressurization technique are presented. Certain characteristics and advantages of ice-pressurization are enumerated as regards to burst and leak testing. It is noted that a number of other techniques such as shrink fitting, embossing and compaction of powders also seem to be particularly suitable. It is concluded that, with the advent of the portable and novel chilling apparatus, new vistas are approachable for undertaking maintenance operations in hospitals, power plants, nuclear facilities, and other systems that require uninterrupted operation.

  5. Evaluation of spin freezing versus conventional freezing as part of a continuous pharmaceutical freeze-drying concept for unit doses.

    De Meyer, L; Van Bockstal, P-J; Corver, J; Vervaet, C; Remon, J P; De Beer, T

    2015-12-30

    Spin-freezing as alternative freezing approach was evaluated as part of an innovative continuous pharmaceutical freeze-drying concept for unit doses. The aim of this paper was to compare the sublimation rate of spin-frozen vials versus traditionally frozen vials in a batch freeze-dryer, and its impact on total drying time. Five different formulations, each having a different dry cake resistance, were tested. After freezing, the traditionally frozen vials were placed on the shelves while the spin-frozen vials were placed in aluminum vial holders providing radial energy supply during drying. Different primary drying conditions and chamber pressures were evaluated. After 2h of primary drying, the amount of sublimed ice was determined in each vial. Each formulation was monitored in-line using NIR spectroscopy during drying to determine the sublimation endpoint and the influence of drying conditions upon total drying time. For all tested formulations and applied freeze-drying conditions, there was a significant higher sublimation rate in the spin-frozen vials. This can be explained by the larger product surface and the lower importance of product resistance because of the much thinner product layers in the spin frozen vials. The in-line NIR measurements allowed evaluating the influence of applied drying conditions on the drying trajectories. PMID:25981618

  6. Real-time measurement of metabolic rate during freezing and thawing of the wood frog, Rana sylvatica: implications for overwinter energy use.

    Sinclair, Bremxnt J; Stinziano, Joseph R; Williams, Caroline M; Macmillan, Heath A; Marshall, Katie E; Storey, Kenneth B

    2013-01-15

    Ectotherms overwintering in temperate ecosystems must survive low temperatures while conserving energy to fuel post-winter reproduction. Freeze-tolerant wood frogs, Rana sylvatica, have an active response to the initiation of ice formation that includes mobilising glucose from glycogen and circulating it around the body to act as a cryoprotectant. We used flow-through respirometry to measure CO(2) production ( ) in real time during cooling, freezing and thawing. CO(2) production increases sharply at three points during freeze-thaw: at +1°C during cooling prior to ice formation (total of 104±17 μl CO(2) frog(-1) event(-1)), at the initiation of freezing (565±85 μl CO(2) frog(-1) freezing event(-1)) and after the frog has thawed (564±75 μ l CO(2) frog(-1) freezing event(-1)). We interpret these increases in metabolic rate to represent the energetic costs of preparation for freezing, the response to freezing and the re-establishment of homeostasis and repair of damage after thawing, respectively. We assumed that frogs metabolise lipid when unfrozen and that carbohydrate fuels metabolism during cooling, freezing and thawing, and when frozen. We then used microclimate temperature data to predict overwinter energetics of wood frogs. Based on the freezing and melting points we measured, frogs in the field were predicted to experience as many as 23 freeze-thaw cycles in the winter of our microclimate recordings. Overwinter carbohydrate consumption appears to be driven by the frequency of freeze-thaw events, and changes in overwinter climate that affect the frequency of freeze-thaw will influence carbohydrate consumption, but changes that affect mean temperatures and the frequency of winter warm spells will modify lipid consumption. PMID:23255194

  7. Impact of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (L.) on As, Cu, Pb and Zn mobility and speciation in contaminated soils

    Sizmur, Tom, E-mail: t.p.sizmur@reading.ac.uk [Soil Research Centre, Department of Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Watts, Michael J. [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E. [Soil Research Centre, Department of Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    To assess the risks that contaminated soils pose to the environment properly a greater understanding of how soil biota influence the mobility of metal(loid)s in soils is required. Lumbricus terrestris L. were incubated in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. The concentration and speciation of metal(loid)s in pore waters and the mobility and partitioning in casts were compared with earthworm-free soil. Generally the concentrations of water extractable metal(loid)s in earthworm casts were greater than in earthworm-free soil. The impact of the earthworms on concentration and speciation in pore waters was soil and metal specific and could be explained either by earthworm induced changes in soil pH or soluble organic carbon. The mobilisation of metal(loid)s in the environment by earthworm activity may allow for leaching or uptake into biota. - Research highlights: > Earthworms increase the mobility and availability of metals and metalloids in soils. > We incubated L. terrestris in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. > Earthworms increased the mobility of As, Cu, Pb and Zn in their casts. > The mechanisms for this could be explained by changes in pH or organic carbon. - Lumbricus terrestris change the partitioning of metal(loid)s between soil constituents and increase the mobility of metal(loid)s in casts and pore water.

  8. Impact of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (L.) on As, Cu, Pb and Zn mobility and speciation in contaminated soils

    To assess the risks that contaminated soils pose to the environment properly a greater understanding of how soil biota influence the mobility of metal(loid)s in soils is required. Lumbricus terrestris L. were incubated in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. The concentration and speciation of metal(loid)s in pore waters and the mobility and partitioning in casts were compared with earthworm-free soil. Generally the concentrations of water extractable metal(loid)s in earthworm casts were greater than in earthworm-free soil. The impact of the earthworms on concentration and speciation in pore waters was soil and metal specific and could be explained either by earthworm induced changes in soil pH or soluble organic carbon. The mobilisation of metal(loid)s in the environment by earthworm activity may allow for leaching or uptake into biota. - Research highlights: → Earthworms increase the mobility and availability of metals and metalloids in soils. → We incubated L. terrestris in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. → Earthworms increased the mobility of As, Cu, Pb and Zn in their casts. → The mechanisms for this could be explained by changes in pH or organic carbon. - Lumbricus terrestris change the partitioning of metal(loid)s between soil constituents and increase the mobility of metal(loid)s in casts and pore water.

  9. Assessing ecotoxicity and uptake of metals and metalloids in relation to two different earthworm species (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris)

    Due to diffuse atmospheric fallouts of process particles enriched by metals and metalloids, polluted soils concern large areas at the global scale. Useful tools to assess ecotoxicity induced by these polluted soils are therefore needed. Earthworms are currently used as biotest, however the influence of specie and earthworm behaviour, soil characteristics are poorly highlighted. Our aim was therefore to assess the toxicity of various polluted soils with process particles enriches by metals and metalloids (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, As and Sb) collected from a lead recycling facility on two earthworm species belonging to different ecological types and thus likely to have contrasted behavioural responses (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris). The combination of behavioural factors measurements (cast production and biomass) and physico-chemical parameters such as metal absorption, bioaccumulation by earthworms and their localization in invertebrate tissues provided a valuable indication of pollutant bioavailability and ecotoxicity. Soil characteristics influenced ecotoxicity and metal uptake by earthworms, as well as their soil bioturbation. -- Highlights: •Historically polluted soils collected from a lead recycling facility were studied. •Cast production is a sensitive parameter to assess ecotoxicity on earthworms. •Both soil parameters, like organic matter content and pH and earthworm specie influence metal uptake and ecotoxicity. -- Behavioural factors and inorganic pollutant uptake by earthworms provide a valuable indication of bioavailability and ecotoxicity

  10. Effects of metal pollution on earthworm communities in a contaminated floodplain area: Linking biomarker, community and functional responses

    Effects on earthworms in the contaminated floodplain area the Biesbosch, the Netherlands, were determined at different levels of organization using a combination of field and laboratory tests. The species Lumbricus rubellus, collected from different polluted sites in the Biesbosch, showed reduced values for the biomarker neutral red retention time (NRRT), mainly explained by high metal concentrations in the soil and the resulting high internal copper concentrations in the earthworms. Organic pollutant levels in earthworms were low and did not explain reduced NRRTs. Earthworm abundance and biomass were not correlated with pollutant levels in the soil. Litterbag decomposition and bait-lamina feeding activity, measures of the functional role of earthworms, were not affected by metal pollution and did not show any correlation with metal concentrations in soil or earthworms nor with NRRT. Effects at the biochemical level therefore did not result in a reduced functioning of earthworm communities. - Metal pollution in floodplain soils does affect earthworm biomarker response but not their activity in decomposition processes

  11. Assessing soil ecotoxicity of methyl tert-butyl ether using earthworm bioassay; closed soil microcosm test for volatile organic compounds

    An earthworm bioassay was conducted to assess ecotoxicity in methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-amended soils. Ecotoxicity of MTBE to earthworms was evaluated by a paper contact method, natural field soil test, and an OECD artificial soil test. All tests were conducted in closed systems to prevent volatilization of MTBE out of test units. Test earthworm species were Perionyx excavatus and Eisenia andrei. Mortality and abnormal morphology of earthworms exposed to different concentrations of MTBE were examined. MTBE was toxic to both earthworm species and the severity of response increased with increasing MTBE concentrations. Perionyx excavatus was more sensitive to MTBE than Eisenia andrei in filter papers and two different types of soils. MTBE toxicity was more severe in OECD artificial soils than in field soils, possibly due to the burrowing behavior of earthworms into artificial soils. The present study demonstrated that ecotoxicity of volatile organic compounds such as MTBE can be assessed using an earthworm bioassay in closed soil microcosm with short-term exposure duration. - Earthworm bioassay can be a good protocol to assess soil ecotoxicity of volatile organic compounds such as MTBE

  12. Effects of spatial and temporal variation in metal availability on earthworms in floodplain soils of the river Dommel, The Netherlands

    Regarding impact on ecological soil functioning, metal pollution is often considered a constant factor for certain sampling sites. However, especially bioavailable concentrations may differ in space and time. This aspect was investigated on four sites along a metal-polluted river, differing in soil characteristics and metal concentrations. Every four weeks earthworm densities, soil characteristics, and metal concentrations in soil and earthworms were determined. Earthworm biomass and density fluctuated in time and increased with increasing metal contamination, indicating the presence of compensating factors. Multivariate analysis suggested organic matter and moisture content to be the main factors explaining earthworm biomass. Metal concentrations in the earthworms increased with increasing total or 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable soil concentrations, but no time-related trends were seen. Cadmium concentrations in the earthworms exceeded background values, suggesting a potential risk. The neutral red retention biomarker assay, however, did not show any signs of metal stress in the earthworms. - Soil characteristics appear to dominate earthworm abundance and metal bioaccumulation in contaminated floodplain soils

  13. Mutual impacts of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and earthworms (Eisenia fetida) on the bioavailability of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in soil

    Wheat and earthworms were exposed individually and together to soils contaminated with 11 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Wheat accumulated PFASs from soil with root concentration factors and bioconcentration factors that decreased as the number of perfluorinated carbons in the molecule increased. Earthworms accumulated PFASs from soil with biota-to-soil accumulation factors that increased with the number of carbons. Translocation factors (TF) of perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) in wheat peaked at perfluorohexanoic acid and decreased significantly as the number of carbons increased or decreased. Perfluorohexane sulfonate produced the greatest TF of the three perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) examined. Wheat increased the bioaccumulation of all 11 PFASs in earthworms and earthworms increased the bioaccumulation in wheat of PFCAs containing seven or less perfluorinated carbons, decreased bioaccumulation of PFCAs with more than seven carbons, and decreased bioaccumulation of PFSAs. In general, the co-presence of wheat and earthworms enhanced the bioavailability of PFASs in soil. -- Highlights: • PFASs can be taken up by root of wheat from soil and translocated to shoot. • The RCFs and BCFs of PFASs in wheat decreased with perfluorinated carbon chain length. • PFHxA had the highest TF, which decreased exponentially with the carbon chain length. • The BSAFs in earthworm increased with carbon chain length. • The co-presence of wheat and earthworm enhanced the bioavailability of PFASs in soil. -- PFASs can be uptake by root of wheat from soil and translocated to shoot and co-presence of wheat and earthworm enhance the bioavailability of PFASs in soil

  14. Species-specific differences in biomarker responses in two ecologically different earthworms exposed to the insecticide dimethoate.

    Velki, Mirna; Hackenberger, Branimir K

    2012-08-01

    Earthworms ingest large amounts of soil and therefore are continuously exposed to contaminants through their alimentary surfaces. Additionally, several studies have shown that earthworm skin is a significant route of contaminant uptake as well. In order to determine effects of dimethoate, a broad-spectrum organophosphorous insecticide, two ecologically different earthworm species were used - Eisenia andrei and Octolasion lacteum. Although several studies used soil organisms to investigate the effects of dimethoate, none of these studies included investigations of dimethoate effects on biochemical biomarkers in earthworms. Earthworms were exposed to 0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.5 and 1 μg/cm(2) of dimethoate for 24 h, and the activities of acetylcholinesterase, carboxylesterase, catalase and efflux pump were measured. In both earthworm species dimethoate caused significant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and carboxylesterase activities, however in E. andrei an hormetic effect was evident. Efflux pump activity was inhibited only in E. andrei, and catalase activity was significantly inhibited in both earthworm species. Additionally, responses of earthworm acetylcholinesterase, carboxylesterase and catalase activity to dimethoate were examined through in vitro experiments. Comparison of responses between E. andrei and O. lacteum has shown significant differences, and E. andrei has proved to be less susceptible to dimethoate exposure. PMID:22609974

  15. The second wave of earthworm invasion: soil organic matter dynamics from the stable isotope perspective

    Chang, C.; Szlavecz, K. A.; Bernard, M.; Pitz, S.

    2013-12-01

    Through transformation of plant litter into soil organic matter (SOM) and translocation of ingested organic material among different soil depths, soil organisms, especially earthworms, are one of the major factors affecting SOM dynamics. In North America temperate soil, historical human activity has lead to invasion of European earthworms into habitats that were previously earthworm-free or inhabited only by native species. By consuming leaf litter and SOM, burrowing, and casting, invasive earthworms have been known for reducing the understory vegetation and leaf litter layer while increasing the thickness of organic soil, causing changes in the soil habitat and the distribution of SOM. Recently, another group of invasive earthworm, namely Amynthas from Asia, has been reported invading habitats already dominated by European species, causing a 'second wave of invasion' where the soil ecosystem, already modified by European species, is going through another transition. The mechanisms through which these functionally (ecologically) different species affect C and N transformation could be better understood by tracing the carbon and nitrogen derived from 13C- and 15N-labeled leaf litter into earthworm tissues and SOM. The objective of this study is to understand how earthworm species that differ ecologically, including the Asian Amynthas, interact with each other and how these interactions affect SOM dynamics. We hypothesized that 1) species feeding on different food resources will have different isotopic signature and their tissue 13C and 15N values will change due to facilitation or interspecific competition on food resources, and 2) the short-term fate of litter-derived carbon differs depending on the presence or absence of different earthworm species. These hypotheses were tested by field sampling and lab mesocosm experiments using 13C and 15N double-enriched Tulip Poplar leaf litter (mean 13C = 124‰, mean 15N = 1667‰) produced from tree saplings growing in an airtight chamber. Stable isotope mass balance calculation is used to estimate the recovery of litter-derived carbon from three pools (earthworm tissue, SOM, remaining litter), the loss of litter-derived carbon through soil respiration, and the contribution of different carbon sources to soil CO2 efflux in different earthworm treatments. Our results show that earthworm species recognized as 'soil feeders' have 13C and 15N values that are 1.2‰ and 3.8‰ higher than those of 'litter feeders', and 15N also differ significantly amount different soil feeders, suggesting different food resource usage even within the same functional group. There are strong species effects on both leaf litter disappearance rate and CO2 efflux rate, both being high when Amynthas earthworms are present. Our results suggest that changing earthworm species composition leads to changing resource use, which alters the fate of organic carbon in the forest floor and soil and could potentially affect long-term SOM dynamics in temperate forests.

  16. Subacute toxicity of copper and glyphosate and their interaction to earthworm (Eisenia fetida)

    Glyphosate (GPS) and copper (Cu) are common pollutants in soils, and commonly co-exist. Due to the chemical structure of GPS, it can form complexes of heavy metals and interface their bioavailability in soil environment. In order to explore the interactions between GPS and Cu, subacute toxicity tests of Cu and GPS on soil invertebrate earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were conducted. The relative weight loss and whole-worm metal burdens increased significantly with the increasing exposure concentration of Cu, while the toxicity of GPS was insignificant. The joint toxicity data showed that the relative weight loss and the uptake of Cu, as well as the superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde activities, were significantly alleviated in the present of GPS, which indicated that GPS could reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cu in the soil because of its strong chelating effects. Highlights: •Cu markedly increased the weight loss ratio of earthworm. •Cu decreased the cocoon production of earthworm. •The toxicity of GPS on earthworm was insignificant. •The presence of GPS could reduce the toxicity of Cu on earthworm. -- The presence of glyphosate could reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cu in the soil because of its strong chelating effects

  17. Feasibility of vermicomposting dairy biosolids using a modified system to avoid earthworm mortality.

    Nogales, R; Elvira, C; Bentez, E; Thompson, R; Gomez, M

    1999-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to examine the feasibility of vermicomposting dairy biosolids (dairy sludge), either alone or with either of the bulking agents-cereal straw or wood shavings, using the epigeic earthworm-Eisinea andrei. Earthworms added directly to these three substrates died within 48 hours. A system was developed to overcome the toxic effect of unprocessed dairy biosolids. The substrates were placed over a layer of vermicomposted sheep manure into which the earthworms were inoculated. Within two weeks, all earthworms were within the upper layer of substrate. Compared to sheep manure which is a favourable substrate for vermicomposting, the three substrates containing dairy biosolids were more effective in supporting earthworm growth and reproduction. The final products obtained after 63 days of vermicomposting had 39-53% less organic carbon than the initial substrates. Organic fractionation indicated that vermicomposting increased the stability of the materials to biological decomposition. The vermicomposts obtained from the three substrates with dairy biosolids had low heavy metal contents and electrical conductivities, and did not inhibit plant growth when compared with a commercial vermicompost in a bioassay. PMID:10048210

  18. The Mechanics and Energetics of Soil Bioturbation by Plant Roots and Earthworms - Plastic Deformation Considerations

    Ruiz, Siul; Or, Dani; Schymanski, Stanislaus

    2014-05-01

    Soil structure plays a critical factor in the agricultural, hydrological and ecological functions of soils. These services are adversely impacted by soil compaction, a damage that could last for many years until functional structure is restored. An important class of soil structural restoration processes are related to biomechanical activity associated with burrowing of earthworms and root proliferation in impacted soil volumes. We study details of the mechanical processes and energetics associated with quantifying the rates and mechanical energy required for soil structural restoration. We first consider plastic cavity expansion to describe earthworm and plant root radial expansion under various conditions. We then use cone penetration models as analogues to wedging induced by root tip growth and worm locomotion. The associated mechanical stresses and strains determine the mechanical energy associated with bioturbation for different hydration conditions and root/earthworm geometries. Results illustrate a reduction in strain energy with increasing water content and trade-offs between pressure and energy investment for various root and earthworm geometries. The study provides the basic building blocks for estimating rates of soil structural alteration, the associated energetic requirements (soil carbon, plant assimilates) needed to sustain structure regeneration by earthworms and roots, and highlights potential mechanical cut-offs for such activities.

  19. Fifteen new earthworm mitogenomes shed new light on phylogeny within the Pheretima complex

    Zhang, Liangliang; Sechi, Pierfrancesco; Yuan, Minglong; Jiang, Jibao; Dong, Yan; Qiu, Jiangping

    2016-01-01

    The Pheretima complex within the Megascolecidae family is a major earthworm group. Recently, the systematic status of the Pheretima complex based on morphology was challenged by molecular studies. In this study, we carry out the first comparative mitogenomic study in oligochaetes. The mitogenomes of 15 earthworm species were sequenced and compared with other 9 available earthworm mitogenomes, with the main aim to explore their phylogenetic relationships and test different analytical approaches on phylogeny reconstruction. The general earthworm mitogenomic features revealed to be conservative: all genes encoded on the same strand, all the protein coding loci shared the same initiation codon (ATG), and tRNA genes showed conserved structures. The Drawida japonica mitogenome displayed the highest A + T content, reversed AT/GC-skews and the highest genetic diversity. Genetic distances among protein coding genes displayed their maximum and minimum interspecific values in the ATP8 and CO1 genes, respectively. The 22 tRNAs showed variable substitution patterns between the considered earthworm mitogenomes. The inclusion of rRNAs positively increased phylogenetic support. Furthermore, we tested different trimming tools for alignment improvement. Our analyses rejected reciprocal monophyly among Amynthas and Metaphire and indicated that the two genera should be systematically classified into one. PMID:26833286

  20. Effects of biochar on the transformation and earthworm bioaccumulation of organic pollutants in soil.

    Gu, Jianqiang; Zhou, Wenqiang; Jiang, Bingqi; Wang, Lianhong; Ma, Yini; Guo, Hongyan; Schulin, Rainer; Ji, Rong; Evangelou, Michael W H

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the effects of biochar on the fate and behavior of micropollutants in soil, especially in the presence of soil macrofauna. Using a 14C-tracer, we studied the fate of 2,4-dichlorophenol and phenanthrene, after 30 days in soil in the presence of a biochar (0-5%, dry weight) produced from China fir at 400 °C and/or the earthworm Metaphire guillelmi. Application of the biochar significantly reduced the degradation and mineralization of both pollutants and strongly increased the accumulation of their metabolites in soil. The earthworm had no significant effects on the degradation of parent molecules of the pollutants but it significantly reduced the mineralization of the pollutants independent of the presence of the biochar. Although at an application rate of earthworm. Our results demonstrate the complex effects of biochar on the fate, transformation, and earthworm bioaccumulation of organic pollutants in soil. They show that biochar application may not be an appropriate strategy for treating soil contaminated with hydrophobic organic pollutants and underline the importance of soil-feeding earthworms in risk assessments of biochar effects on soil remediation. PMID:26694792

  1. Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs) by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in soil

    Earthworms were exposed to artificially contaminated soils with ten perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). PFASs with longer perfluorinated carbon chain displayed higher uptake rate coefficients (ku), longer half-life (t1/2) and time to steady-state (tss) but lower elimination rate coefficients (ke) than the shorter ones. Similarly, perfluorosulfonates acids (PFSAs) displayed higher ku, longer t1/2 and tss but lower ke than perflurocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) with the same perfluorinated chain length. All the studied PFASs, including those with seven or less perfluorinated carbons, were bioaccumulated in the earthworms and the biota-to-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) increased with perfluorinated carbon chain length and were greater for PFSAs than for PFCAs of equal perfluoroalkyl chain length. The BSAFs were found to be dependent on the concentrations of PFASs in soil and decreased as the level of PFASs in soil increased. -- Highlights: •PFASs with seven or less perfluoroalkyl carbons were bioaccumulated in earthworm. •The BSAFs of PFASs in earthworm increased with perfluoroalkyl chain length. •The BSAFs of PFSAs were greater than PFCAs of equal perfluoroalkyl chain length. •The ku increased with perfluorinated chain length while ke decreased. •The BSAFs of PFASs decreased as their concentrations in soil increased. -- Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) can be effectively bioaccumulated in earthworms including those with seven or less perfluoroalkyl carbon chain length

  2. Fifteen new earthworm mitogenomes shed new light on phylogeny within the Pheretima complex.

    Zhang, Liangliang; Sechi, Pierfrancesco; Yuan, Minglong; Jiang, Jibao; Dong, Yan; Qiu, Jiangping

    2016-01-01

    The Pheretima complex within the Megascolecidae family is a major earthworm group. Recently, the systematic status of the Pheretima complex based on morphology was challenged by molecular studies. In this study, we carry out the first comparative mitogenomic study in oligochaetes. The mitogenomes of 15 earthworm species were sequenced and compared with other 9 available earthworm mitogenomes, with the main aim to explore their phylogenetic relationships and test different analytical approaches on phylogeny reconstruction. The general earthworm mitogenomic features revealed to be conservative: all genes encoded on the same strand, all the protein coding loci shared the same initiation codon (ATG), and tRNA genes showed conserved structures. The Drawida japonica mitogenome displayed the highest A + T content, reversed AT/GC-skews and the highest genetic diversity. Genetic distances among protein coding genes displayed their maximum and minimum interspecific values in the ATP8 and CO1 genes, respectively. The 22 tRNAs showed variable substitution patterns between the considered earthworm mitogenomes. The inclusion of rRNAs positively increased phylogenetic support. Furthermore, we tested different trimming tools for alignment improvement. Our analyses rejected reciprocal monophyly among Amynthas and Metaphire and indicated that the two genera should be systematically classified into one. PMID:26833286

  3. Genotoxicity assessment of cobalt chloride in Eisenia hortensis earthworms coelomocytes by comet assay and micronucleus test.

    Ciğerci, İbrahim Hakkı; Ali, Muhammad Muddassir; Kaygısız, Şöhret Yüksek; Liman, Recep

    2016-02-01

    Cobalt and its different compounds are extensively used worldwide and considered as possible environmental pollutant. Earthworms are useful model organism and its different species are used to monitor soil pollution. No study has been found to detect cobalt chloride (CoCl2) genotoxicity in earthworms. So, current study aimed to evaluate CoCl2 induced genotoxicity in Eisenia hortensis earthworms coelomocytes by alkaline comet assay (CA) and micronucleus (MN) test. The earthworms (n = 10 for each group) were exposed to different series of CoCl2 concentrations (100 ppm, 200 ppm, 300 ppm, 400 ppm, 500 ppm, 600 ppm) to find LD50. The LD50 for CoCl2 was found at 226 ppm. Then, doses of LD50/2, LD50 and 2XLD50 for 48 h were used. CA and MN demonstrated the significant increase (P damage and chromosomal aberrations. Dose dependent relationship was found. Highest DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations were noticed at 2XLD50. The results concluded that CoCl2 induced DNA damage, cytokinesis failure and chromosomal aberrations in E. hortensis earthworms. PMID:26408983

  4. Engineering of Soil Biological Quality from Nickel Mining Stockpile Using Two Earthworm Ecological Groups

    L M H Kilowasid

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms have the ability in modifying soil biological quality for plant growth. Their ability is mostly depending on its ecological groups. The objectives of the research were to study the influence of two ecological groups of earthworms on soil microbial activity and soil micro-fauna abundance, and to know the potential of soil modified by earthworms as plant growth medium. Eight combination of individual earthworm from epigeic and endogeic groups was applied into pot that was filled by soil from two years of nickel stockpile and each treatment was repeated by five times. The experiment was following complete randomize design procedure. After sixteen days of research, the soil sample from each pot was analyzed for soil FDA activity, number of flagellate and nematodes. Furthermore, one kg of the soil from each pot was taken and every pot was grown by Paraserianthes falcataria seedling with the age of five days and continued its growth for two months. The results indicated that the soil FDA activity, number of flagellate and nematodes among treatments were significantly differences. In addition, it indicated the significant differences in dry weight of shoot, root, total plant, and root to shoot ratio of P. falcataria seedlings. It concluded that the combination of an individual number of epigeic and endogeic earthworms improved soil biological quality of stock pile, amd most suitable for seedlings growth in nickel mining area.

  5. Residues effects of isoproturon in mature earthworm (Aporrectodea caliginosa) under laboratory conditions.

    Youssef, Yahia; Mosleh, Ismaili

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the residues of isoproturon and its metabolites, 1-(4-isopropylphenyl)-3-methylurea, 1-(4-isopropylphenyl) urea, and 4-isopropylanilin in soil and mature earthworms under laboratory conditions. Mature earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) were exposed for various durations (7, 15, 30, and 60 days) to soils contaminated with isoproturon concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mg.kg(-1) soil). The decrease in isoproturon concentration in the soil depended on initial concentration it was slower at higher concentrations. The isoproturon and its metabolites accumulated in earthworms it increased during the first 15 days and decreased thereafter. Acute toxicity of isoproturon was determined together with total soluble protein content and glycogen of worms. These parameters were related to isoproturon concentration in soil and earthworms. No lethal effect of isoproturon was observed even at the concentration 1000 mg.kg(-1) soil after 60 days of exposure. A reduction of total soluble protein was observed in all treated worms (maximum 59.54%). This study is suggesting the use of the total soluble protein content and glycogen of earthworms as biomarker of exposure to isoproturon. PMID:18399432

  6. Role of Earthworms in Soil Fertility Maintenance through the Production of Biogenic Structures

    The soil biota benefits soil productivity and contributes to the sustainable function of all ecosystems. The cycling of nutrients is a critical function that is essential to life on earth. Earthworms (EWs) are a major component of soil fauna communities in most ecosystems and comprise a large proportion of macro fauna biomass. Their activity is beneficial because it can enhance soil nutrient cycling through the rapid incorporation of detritus into mineral soils. In addition to this mixing effect, mucus production associated with water excretion in earthworm guts also enhances the activity of other beneficial soil microorganisms. This is followed by the production of organic matter. So, in the short term, a more significant effect is the concentration of large quantities of nutrients (N, P, K, and Ca) that are easily assimilable by plants in fresh cast depositions. In addition, earthworms seem to accelerate the mineralization as well as the turnover of soil organic matter. Earthworms are known also to increase nitrogen mineralization, through direct and indirect effects on the microbial community. The increased transfer of organic C and N into soil aggregates indicates the potential for earthworms to facilitate soil organic matter stabilization and accumulation in agricultural systems, and that their influence depends greatly on differences in land management practices. This paper summarises information on published data on the described subjects.

  7. Rapid dissemination of Mycobacterium bovis from cattle dung to soil by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris.

    Barbier, Elodie; Chantemesse, Benoit; Rochelet, Murielle; Fayolle, Léon; Bollache, Loïc; Boschiroli, Maria Laura; Hartmann, Alain

    2016-04-15

    Indirect transmission of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), between wildlife and livestock is thought to occur by inhalation or ingestion of environmental substrates contaminated through animal shedding. The role of the soil fauna, such as earthworms, in the circulation of M. bovis from contaminated animal feces is of interest in the epidemiology of bTB. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of earthworm activity on M. bovis transfer from animal dung to castings and the surrounding soil. For this purpose, microcosms of soil containing the anecic eathworms Lumbricus terrestris were prepared and covered with cattle feces spiked with the M. bovis BCG strain Pasteur to carry out two separate experiments. The dissemination, the gut carriage and the excretion of M. bovis were all monitored using a specific qPCR-based assay. Our results showed that the earthworm L. terrestris was able to rapidly disseminate M. bovis from the contaminated cattle feces to the surrounding soil through casting egestion. Moreover, contaminated earthworms were shown to shed the bacteria for 4days when transferred to a M. bovis-free soil. This study highlights for the first time the possible role of earthworms in the dissemination and the persistence of M. bovis in soils within bTB endemic areas. PMID:27016750

  8. Global Annual Freezing and Thawing Indices

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The total annual freezing and thawing indices are defined as the cumulative number of degree-days when air temperatures are below and above zero degrees Celsius....

  9. Global Annual Freezing and Thawing Indices

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration The total annual freezing and thawing indices are defined as the cumulative number of degree-days when air temperatures are below and above zero degrees Celsius....

  10. Snow Melting and Freezing on Older Townhouses

    Nielsen, Anker; Claesson, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The snowy winter of 2009/2010 in Scandinavia prompted many newspaper articles on icicles falling from buildings and the risk this presented for people walking below. The problem starts with snow melting on the roof due to heat loss from the building. Melt water runs down the roof and some of it...... will freeze on the overhang. The rest of the water will either run off or freeze in gutters and downpipes or turn into icicles. This paper describes use of a model for the melting and freezing of snow on roofs. Important parameters are roof length, overhang length, heat resistance of roof and overhang......, outdoor and indoor temperature, snow thickness and thermal conductivity. If the snow thickness is above a specific limit value the snow melting limit- some of the snow will melt. Another interesting limit value is the dripping limit. All the melt water will freeze on the overhang, if the snow thickness...

  11. Microbial enzyme and biomass responses: Deciphering the effects of earthworms and seasonal variation on treating excess sludge.

    Ma, Xiaojie; Xing, Meiyan; Wang, Yin; Xu, Zhe; Yang, Jian

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports on a seasonal pattern comparison of microbial enzymatic activities and biomass responses based on a conventional biofilter (BF, without earthworm) and a vermifilter (VF, with earthworm, Eisenia fetida) for excess sludge treatment. The volatile suspended solids (VSS) reduction, viable cell number and enzyme activities were assayed to probe what made the VF operate stably. The results indicated that the earthworm activities can polish the VSS reduction with 27.17% more than the BF. Though the VF had a lower level in the viable cell number compared with the BF, the earthworm strongly improved the microbial enzymatic activities such as INT-dehydrogenase, protease, β-glucosidase and amylase, which can explain the excellent performance of VSS reduction. The correlation analysis documented that the VSS reduction was positively correlated with microbial enzyme activities. More importantly, the earthworm enabled the VF to avoid the detrimental influence of temperature, which guaranteed a stable performance during seasonal variations. PMID:26840985

  12. Continuous decoupling and freeze-out

    Knoll, Joern

    2009-01-01

    The decoupling and freeze-out of energetic nuclear collisions is analysed in terms of transparent semi-classical decoupling formulae. They provide a smooth transition and generalise frequently employed instantaneous freeze-out procedures. Simple relations between the damping width and the duration of the decoupling process are presented and the implications on various physical phenomena arising from the expansion and decay dynamics of the highly compressed hadronic matter generated in high energy nuclear collisions are discussed.

  13. Continuous decoupling and freeze-out

    Knoll, Joern

    2009-01-01

    The decoupling and freeze-out of energetic nuclear collisions is analysed in terms of transparent semi-classical decoupling formulae. They provide a smooth transition and generalise frequently employed instantaneous freeze-out procedures. Simple relations between the damping width and the duration of the decoupling process are presented and the implications on various physical phenomena arising from the expansion and decay dynamics of the highly compressed hadronic matter generated in high en...

  14. Uptake and retention of radio-caesium in earthworms cultured in soil contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    To understand the effects of radionuclides on non-human biota and the environment, it is essential to study the intake and metabolism of radio-isotopes in earthworms which are among the most important soil organisms, and Eisenia fetida, which were used in this study, are known to be sufficiently sensitive to chemicals and representative of common earthworms. In this study, we assessed the concentration ratios, uptake and retention, absorbed dose rate, and distribution of radio-caesium in earthworms. The concentration ratios of 137Cs (i.e., the concentrations of radio-caesium in earthworms relative to those in dry soil) were higher early in the culturing period and decreased gradually over the experimental period. 137Cs taken up by E. fetida was cleared rapidly after the worms were cultured in radio-caesium-free soil, suggesting that the metabolism of radio-caesium in earthworms is very rapid. Autoradiography demonstrated that the concentration of radio-caesium within the digestive tract was as high as that in the soil, while radio-caesium in the body tissue was lower than radio-caesium in the soil and was almost uniformly distributed among earthworm tissues. The highest absorbed dose rate of total exposure to radio-caesium (137Cs + 134Cs) was calculated to be 1.9 × 103 (μGy/day) in the earthworms. - Highlights: • We assessed the concentration ratios of 137Cs in earthworms/dry soil. • The distribution of radio-caesium was relatively uniform throughout the earthworm body without any distinguishable accumulation in specific organs or tissues. • We estimated the absorbed dose rate of radio-caesium for earthworms

  15. Survival of Cold-Stressed Campylobacter jejuni on Ground Chicken and Chicken Skin during Frozen Storage

    Bhaduri, Saumya; Cottrell, Bryan

    2004-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is prevalent in poultry, but the effect of combined refrigerated and frozen storage on its survival, conditions relevant to poultry processing and storage, has not been evaluated. Therefore, the effects of refrigeration at 4°C, freezing at −20°C, and a combination of refrigeration and freezing on the survival of C. jejuni in ground chicken and on chicken skin were examined. Samples were enumerated using tryptic soy agar containing sheep's blood and modified cefoperazone c...

  16. Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycerol/H+ symporter Stl1p is essential for cold/near-freeze and freeze stress adaptation. A simple recipe with high biotechnological potential is given

    Ferreira Célia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Freezing is an increasingly important means of preservation and storage of microbial strains used for many types of industrial applications including food processing. However, the yeast mechanisms of tolerance and sensitivity to freeze or near-freeze stress are still poorly understood. More knowledge on this regard would improve their biotechnological potential. Glycerol, in particular intracellular glycerol, has been assigned as a cryoprotectant, also important for cold/near-freeze stress adaptation. The S. cerevisiae glycerol active transporter Stl1p plays an important role on the fast accumulation of glycerol. This gene is expressed under gluconeogenic conditions, under osmotic shock and stress, as well as under high temperatures. Results We found that cells grown on STL1 induction medium (YPGE and subjected to cold/near-freeze stress, displayed an extremely high expression of this gene, also visible at glycerol/H+ symporter activity level. Under the same conditions, the strains harbouring this transporter accumulated more than 400 mM glycerol, whereas the glycerol/H+ symporter mutant presented less than 1 mM. Consistently, the strains able to accumulate glycerol survive 25-50% more than the stl1Δ mutant. Conclusions In this work, we report the contribution of the glycerol/H+ symporter Stl1p for the accumulation and maintenance of glycerol intracellular levels, and consequently cell survival at cold/near-freeze and freeze temperatures. These findings have a high biotechnological impact, as they show that any S. cerevisiae strain already in use can become more resistant to cold/freeze-thaw stress just by simply adding glycerol to the broth. The combination of low temperatures with extracellular glycerol will induce the transporter Stl1p. This solution avoids the use of transgenic strains, in particular in food industry.

  17. The identification of proteomic markers of sperm freezing resilience in ram seminal plasma.

    Rickard, J P; Leahy, T; Soleilhavoup, C; Tsikis, G; Labas, V; Harichaux, G; Lynch, G W; Druart, X; de Graaf, S P

    2015-08-01

    The source and composition of seminal plasma has previously been shown to alter the ability of spermatozoa to survive cryopreservation. In the present study, the ionic and proteomic composition of seminal plasma from rams with high (HSP; n = 3) or low (LSP; n = 3) freezing resilient spermatozoa was assessed. 75 proteins were identified to be more abundant in HSP and 48 proteins were identified to be more abundant in LSP. Individual seminal plasma proteomes were established for each of the six rams examined. For each ram, correlations were conducted between previously recorded freezing resilience [1] and individual spectral counts in order to identify markers of freezing resilience. 26S proteasome complex, acylamino acid releasing enzyme, alpha mannosidase class 2C, heat shock protein 90, tripeptidyl-peptidase 2, TCP-1 complex, sorbitol dehydrogenase and transitional endoplasmic reticulum ATPase were found to be positively correlated (r(2) > 0.7) with freezing resilience. Cystatin, zinc-2-alpha glycoprotein, angiogenin-2-like protein, cartilage acidic protein-1, cathepsin B and ribonuclease 4 isoform 1 were found to be negatively correlated (r(2) > 0.7) with freezing resilience. Several negative markers were found to originate from the accessory sex glands, whereas many positive markers originated from spermatozoa and were part of or associated with the 26S proteasome or CCT complex. PMID:26025878

  18. Metal accumulation in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Model predictions compared to field data

    The mechanistic bioaccumulation model OMEGA (Optimal Modeling for Ecotoxicological Applications) is used to estimate accumulation of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Our validation to field accumulation data shows that the model accurately predicts internal cadmium concentrations. In addition, our results show that internal metal concentrations in the earthworm are less than linearly (slope < 1) related to the total concentration in soil, while risk assessment procedures often assume the biota-soil accumulation factor (BSAF) to be constant. Although predicted internal concentrations of all metals are generally within a factor 5 compared to field data, incorporation of regulation in the model is necessary to improve predictability of the essential metals such as zinc and copper. - Earthworm metal concentrations are less than linearly related to total soil concentrations and predicted pore water concentrations

  19. Infestation of natural populations of earthworm cocoons by rhabditid and cephalobid nematodes

    Kraglund, HO; Ekelund, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    Nematodes infested 13 of 100 earthworm cocoons from a compost pile and 17 of 197 cocoons from a permanent pasture soil. Between one and 2000 nematodes were found within the infested cocoons. All nematodes found in cocoons from the compost pile belonged to the genus Rhabditis, while Rhabditis spp....... as well as members of Cephalobidae infested earthworm cocoons in the pasture soil. In cultures established from cocoons found in the pasture soil, at least five different types of nematodes belonging to the family Cephalobidae were found. Acrobeloides nanus was found in six cocoons, Cephalobus...... persegnis was found in four and Chiloplacus minimus was found in one cocoon. We suggest that earthworm - nematode interactions may be an important pathway for the transfer of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems, and that the inclusion of these pathways may lead to a better understanding of soil food web...

  20. Histopathological changes in the earthworm Eisenia andrei associated with the exposure to metals and radionuclides.

    Lourenço, Joana; Silva, Ana; Carvalho, Fernando; Oliveira, João; Malta, Margarida; Mendo, Sónia; Gonçalves, Fernando; Pereira, Ruth

    2011-11-01

    Earthworms were exposed for 56 d to a contaminated soil, from an abandoned uranium mine, and to the natural reference soil LUFA 2.2. Histological changes in earthworm's body wall (epidermis, circular and longitudinal muscles) and gastrointestinal tract (chloragogenous tissue and intestinal epithelium) were assessed, after 0, 14 and 56 d of exposure. Results have shown alterations in all the studied tissues after 14 d of exposure (except for the intestinal epithelium), yet more severe effects were registered after 56 d of exposure. Herein we report histopathological alterations as a good biomarker for the evaluation of soil quality. We also demonstrate that morphological changes in the body wall and gastrointestinal tract, are important endpoints that could be added to earthworm's standardized tests, for the evaluation of soil toxicity, as part of the risk assessment of contaminated areas. PMID:21911243

  1. Soil physical ambient and its relation ships with the earthworm's biomass in some Colombian Andean hillsides

    The work presented here describes on the one hand the relationship between diversity, density and biomass of the earthworm's side and humidity, total porosity and resistance to penetration in the hillsides soils (secondary forest, Inceptisol and Pennsisetum clandestinum pastured, Andisol) on the other hand side. Results indicate that there were significant differences between sites for density and biomass of earthworms, and that their presence was affected by the physical parameters. Resistance to soil penetrability and humidity were significantly different only in the first 20 cm; while in deeper soil layers these were no such difference between sites, this is of importance, since the surface of the soil suffers changes due to the management, thus affecting the conditions that regulate the earthworm populations

  2. Bioaccumulation and biological effects in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to natural and depleted uranium

    The accumulations of both natural (U) and depleted (DU) uranium in the earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were studied to evaluate corresponding biological effects. Concentrations of metals in the experimental soil ranged from 1.86 to 600 mg kg-1. Five biological endpoints: mortality, animals' weight increasing, lysosomal membrane stability by measuring the neutral red retention time (the NRRT), histological changes and genetic effects (Comet assay) were used to evaluate biological effects in the earthworms after 7 and 28 days of exposure. No effects have been observed in terms of mortality or weight reduction. Cytotoxic and genetic effects were identified at quite low U concentrations. For some of these endpoints, in particular for genetic effects, the dose (U concentration)-effect relationships have been found to be non-linear. The results have also shown a statistically significant higher level of impact on the earthworms exposed to natural U compared to depleted U.

  3. Bioaccumulation and biological effects in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to natural and depleted uranium

    Giovanetti, Anna, E-mail: anna.giovanetti@enea.i [ENEA, Institute of Radiation Protection, CR Casaccia Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Fesenko, Sergey [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Cozzella, Maria L. [ENEA, National Institute for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation, CR Casaccia Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Asencio, Lisbet D. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales, Carretera a Castillo de Jagua, CP. 59350 C. Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Sansone, Umberto [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2010-06-15

    The accumulations of both natural (U) and depleted (DU) uranium in the earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were studied to evaluate corresponding biological effects. Concentrations of metals in the experimental soil ranged from 1.86 to 600 mg kg{sup -1}. Five biological endpoints: mortality, animals' weight increasing, lysosomal membrane stability by measuring the neutral red retention time (the NRRT), histological changes and genetic effects (Comet assay) were used to evaluate biological effects in the earthworms after 7 and 28 days of exposure. No effects have been observed in terms of mortality or weight reduction. Cytotoxic and genetic effects were identified at quite low U concentrations. For some of these endpoints, in particular for genetic effects, the dose (U concentration)-effect relationships have been found to be non-linear. The results have also shown a statistically significant higher level of impact on the earthworms exposed to natural U compared to depleted U.

  4. DNA Repair Inhibition by Mercuric Chloride in Earthworms after Exposure to Radiation

    Ryu, Tae Ho; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nili, Mohammad [Dawnesh Radiation Research Institute, Barcelona (Spain); An, Kwang Guk [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    All organisms are being exposed to harmful factors present in the environment. Ionizing radiation can damage DNA through a series of molecular events depending on the radiation energy. The biological effects due to the combined action of ionizing radiation with the other factor are hard to estimate and predict in advance. Recently International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) requires the effect data of ionizing radiation on non-human biota for the radiological protection of the environment. Earthworms have been identified by the ICRP as one of the reference animals and plants to be used in environmental radiation protection. Particularly, the earthworm Eisenia fetida can be used as a bio-indicator of pollution in soil. This study was performed to investigate the acute genotoxic effects of radiation and the synergistic effects between radiation and mercury in earthworm, E. fetida

  5. DNA Repair Inhibition by Mercuric Chloride in Earthworms after Exposure to Radiation

    All organisms are being exposed to harmful factors present in the environment. Ionizing radiation can damage DNA through a series of molecular events depending on the radiation energy. The biological effects due to the combined action of ionizing radiation with the other factor are hard to estimate and predict in advance. Recently International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) requires the effect data of ionizing radiation on non-human biota for the radiological protection of the environment. Earthworms have been identified by the ICRP as one of the reference animals and plants to be used in environmental radiation protection. Particularly, the earthworm Eisenia fetida can be used as a bio-indicator of pollution in soil. This study was performed to investigate the acute genotoxic effects of radiation and the synergistic effects between radiation and mercury in earthworm, E. fetida

  6. Associations between soil texture, soil water characteristics and earthworm populations of grassland

    Holmstrup, Martin; Lamand, Mathieu; Torp, Sren Bent; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog; Heckrath, Goswin

    2011-01-01

    types of Denmark. Eleven earthworm species were found, but populations were mainly dominated by Aporrectodea tuberculata and A. longa. Despite considerable variation in soil parameters across the five study sites the results suggest that the biomass of anecic worms (or A. longa as a species) was not......The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between soil physical characteristics and earthworms in a regional-scale field study in Denmark. The earthworm populations along within-field gradients in soil texture were quantified at five field sites, representing dominant soil...... causally associated with the soil parameters studied. This indicates that there must be other causal factors associated with the abundance (and composition) of anecic worms that are not among the soil texture and structure parameters studied. On the other hand, soil texture (Coarse sand) was associated...

  7. Long-term persistence of dieldrin, DDT, and heptachlor epoxide in earthworms

    Beyer, W.N.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Earthworms can accumulate persistent soilborne insecticides and are an important source of contamination of terrestrail wildlife. We treated experimental plots once with dieldrin, DDT, or heptachlor, and measured changes in insecticide concentrations in earthworms over a 20-year period. We estimated 'half-times,' defined as the time for a concentration in earthworms to be reduced by half. Deldrin had a half-time of 5.4 years. DDE, the metabolite of DDT most important to wildlife, increased until the third year and then decreased with a half-time of 5.7 years. Heptachlor epoxide, the metabolite of hepatachlor most important to wildlife, increased until the second year and then decreased with a half-time of 4.3 years. The declining parts of the curves of all three compounds fit exponential decay equations reasonably well. The estimates persistence are relevant to insecticides at low or moderate concentrations in relatively undistrubed soils in temperate climates.

  8. Effects of Pesticides on the Growth and Reproduction of Earthworm: A Review

    Scientific literature addressing the influence of pesticides on the growth and reproduction of earthworm is reviewed. Earthworms are considered as important bio indicators of chemical toxicity in the soil ecosystem. Studies on this aspect are important because earthworms are the common prey of many terrestrial vertebrate species such as birds and small mammals, and thus they play a key role in the bio magnification process of several soil pollutants. Majority of the studies have used mortality as an endpoint rather than subtler endpoints such as reproductive output. It is now emphasized that, whereas higher concentrations of a pollutant can easily be assessed with the acute (mortality) test, contaminated soils with lower (sublethal) pollutant concentrations require more sensitive test methods such as reproduction test in their risk assessment.

  9. Earthworms and Humans in Vitro: Characterizing Evolutionarily Conserved Stress and Immune Responses to Silver Nanoparticles

    Hayashi, Yuya; Engelmann, Péter; Foldbjerg, Rasmus; Szabó, Mariann; Somogyi, Ildikó; Pollák, Edit; Molnár, László; Autrup, Herman; Sutherland, Duncan S; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck James; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    conserved biological processes, and provide the first in vitro analysis of molecular and cellular toxicity mechanisms in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to AgNPs (83 ± 22 nm). While we observed a clear difference in cytotoxicity of dissolved silver salt on earthworm coelomocytes and human cells (THP-1......Little is known about the potential threats of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to ecosystem health, with no detailed report existing on the stress and immune responses of soil invertebrates. Here we use earthworm primary cells, cross-referencing to human cell cultures with a particular emphasis on the...... methods including transmission electron microscopy. Molecular signatures of oxidative stress and selected biomarker genes probed in a time-resolved manner suggest early regulation of oxidative stress genes and subsequent alteration of immune signaling processes following the onset of AgNP exposure in the...

  10. [Organic waste treatment by earthworm vermicomposting and larvae bioconversion: review and perspective].

    Zhang, Zhi-jian; Liu, Meng; Zhu, Jun

    2013-05-01

    There is a growing attention on the environmental pollution and loss of potential regeneration of resources due to the poor handling of organic wastes, while earthworm vermicomposting and larvae bioconversion are well-known as two promising biotechnologies for sustainable wastes treatments, where earthworms or housefly larvae are employed to convert the organic wastes into humus like material, together with value-added worm product. Taken earthworm ( Eisenia foetida) and housefly larvae ( Musca domestica) as model species, this work illustrates fundamental definition and principle, operational process, technical mechanism, main factors, and bio-chemical features of organisms of these two technologies. Integrated with the physical and biochemical mechanisms, processes of biomass conversion, intestinal digestion, enzyme degradation and microflora decomposition are comprehensively reviewed on waste treatments with purposes of waste reduction, value-addition, and stabilization. PMID:23914515

  11. The anti-cell death FNK protein protects cells from death induced by freezing and thawing

    The FNK protein, constructed from anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL with enhanced activity, was fused with the protein transduction domain (PTD) of the HIV/Tat protein to mediate the delivery of FNK into cells. The fusion protein PTD-FNK was introduced into chondrocytes in isolated articular cartilage-bone sections, cultured neurons, and isolated bone marrow mononuclear cells to evaluate its ability to prevent cell death induced by freezing and thawing. PTD-FNK protected the cells from freeze-thaw damage in a concentration-dependent manner. Addition of PTD-FNK with conventional cryoprotectants (dimethyl sulfoxide and hydroxyethyl starch) increased surviving cell numbers around 2-fold compared with controls treated only with the cryoprotectants. Notably, PTD-FNK allowed CD34+ cells among bone marrow mononuclear cells to survive more efficiently (12-fold more than the control cells) from two successive freeze-thaw cycles. Thus, PTD-FNK prevented cell death induced by freezing and thawing, suggesting that it provides for the successful cryopreservation of biological materials

  12. A new freeze casting technique for ceramics

    Araki, Kiyoshi

    A new freeze casting technique for ceramics capable of manufacturing near room temperature with a sublimable vehicle has been developed in order to eliminate expensive processes under extremely cold temperatures in the conventional freeze casting. Fluid concentrated slurries of Al2O 3 powder in molten camphene (C10H16) were successfully prepared at 55C with a small amount of a dispersant. These slurries were quickly solidified (frozen) at room temperature to yield a rigid solid green body, where the frozen camphene was easily removed by sublimation (freeze-drying) with negligible shrinkage. Sintering was successfully conducted without any special binder burnout process to yield dense sintered bodies (over 98% T.D). An organic alloy with a eutectic composition in the naphthalene (C 10H8)-camphor (C10H16O) binary system with a eutectic temperature of 31C was also found to be a successful vehicle for the new ceramic freeze casting. The fabrication processes are almost the same as those with camphene. It was found that vehicles with off-eutectic compositions resulted in large voids in the sintered body due to the ceramic particle rejection by pro-eutectic crystals during freezing. At the eutectic composition, fine lamellar microstructure in the solidified vehicle inhibits the particle rejection. The proposed advantages of the new freeze casting technique with a sublimable vehicle include; (1) elimination of extremely cold temperatures used in conventional freeze casting; (2) elimination of troublesome binder burnout process; and (3) fast manufacturing cycle due to quick solidification. Porous ceramic bodies with unique interconnected pore channels were fabricated by the new freeze casting with lower solid content. The unique channels surrounded by fully dense walls have nearly circular cross-sections unlike conventional aqueous freeze casting. The porosity and the channel diameters are controllable by the solid content in the slurry. The unique channels are replicas of entangled dendrites of frozen camphene, which sublimes during freeze-drying process. The unique porous structure with interconnected pore channels, which is completely new, is considered potentially useful in many applications such as filters and implantable bone scaffolds.

  13. Effects of freezing on soil temperature, freezing front propagation and moisture redistribution in peat: laboratory investigations

    R. M. Nagare

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There are not many studies that report water movement in freezing peat. Soil column studies under controlled laboratory settings can help isolate and understand the effects of different factors controlling freezing of the active layer in organic covered permafrost terrain. In this study, four peat Mesocosms were subjected to temperature gradients by bringing the Mesocosm tops in contact with sub-zero air temperature while maintaining a continuously frozen layer at the bottom (proxy permafrost. Soil water movement towards the freezing front (from warmer to colder regions was inferred from soil freezing curves, liquid water content time series and from the total water content of frozen core samples collected at the end of freezing cycle. A substantial amount of water, enough to raise the upper surface of frozen saturated soil within 15 cm of the soil surface at the end of freezing period appeared to have moved upwards during freezing. Diffusion under moisture gradients and effects of temperature on soil matric potential, at least in the initial period, appear to drive such movement as seen from analysis of freezing curves. Freezing front (separation front between soil zones containing and free of ice propagation is controlled by latent heat for a long time during freezing. A simple conceptual model describing freezing of an organic active layer initially resembling a variable moisture landscape is proposed based upon the results of this study. The results of this study will help in understanding, and ultimately forecasting, the hydrologic response of wetland-dominated terrain underlain by discontinuous permafrost.

  14. Snakes mimic earthworms: propulsion using rectilinear travelling waves

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Bridges, Jacob; Hu, David L.

    2013-01-01

    In rectilinear locomotion, snakes propel themselves using unidirectional travelling waves of muscular contraction, in a style similar to earthworms. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we film rectilinear locomotion of three species of snakes, including red-tailed boa constrictors, Dumeril's boas and Gaboon vipers. The kinematics of a snake's extension–contraction travelling wave are characterized by wave frequency, amplitude and speed. We find wave frequency increases with increasing body size, an opposite trend than that for legged animals. We predict body speed with 73–97% accuracy using a mathematical model of a one-dimensional n-linked crawler that uses friction as the dominant propulsive force. We apply our model to show snakes have optimal wave frequencies: higher values increase Froude number causing the snake to slip; smaller values decrease thrust and so body speed. Other choices of kinematic variables, such as wave amplitude, are suboptimal and appear to be limited by anatomical constraints. Our model also shows that local body lifting increases a snake's speed by 31 per cent, demonstrating that rectilinear locomotion benefits from vertical motion similar to walking. PMID:23635494

  15. [Comparative studies on vermicomposting of sewage sludge with two epigeic earthworms].

    Chen, Xue-min; Huang, Kui; Fu, Xiao-yong; Ni, Shao-ren

    2010-05-01

    A comparative study was conducted two epigeic species earthworms (Bimastus parvus and Eisenia foetida) for the evaluation of their efficacy in vermicomposting of sewage sludge. The various changes studied during pot experiments were the physiochemical properties of the sewage sludge, sludge reduction and earthworm biomass. Vermicomposting resulted that both epigeic species earthworms showed same capability among sewage sludge mineralization and decomposition rate and reduction. By the end of experiment, the pH value declined to 6.27 with B. parvus and 7.07 with E. foetida, but both epigeic species earthworms showed same mineralization and decomposition rate. B. parvus produced 31.96%, 5.76% and 17.91% increases in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium as well as 44.14% and 30.69% decreases in C/N and C/P ratios as compared to initial after 30 days of inoculation. In contrast, E. foetida produced 35.48% and 11.58% increases in nitrogen and potassium as well as 10.12%, 46.73% and 20.50% decreases in phosphorus, C/N and C/P ratios as compared to initial after 30 days of earthworm activity. At the same time, both epigeic species earthworms resulted in significant reduction in heavy metal content. The reduction in heavy metal content for B. parvus and E. foetida was found in the order: Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr and Cu > Zn > Ph > Cr. At the end of experiment, the weight and cocoons of B. parvus and E. foetida showed significant increase, which the growth rate and the reproductive rate were 76%-86% and 156%-131% respectively. PMID:20623864

  16. Influence of soil properties on bioaccumulation of 14C-simazine in earthworms Eisenia foetida.

    de Andra, Mara M; Papini, Solange

    2005-01-01

    The toxicity of pesticides has been evaluated by several methods including tests with earthworms in both artificial and natural soils treated with the compounds. The ecological niches of earthworms make them good bioindicators of soil contamination. The bioaccumulation of 14C-simazine (6-chloro-N2-N4-diethyl- 1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) was evaluated in earthworms (Eisenia foetida) maintained during three months in two substrates with different physical-chemical characteristics. The substrates were treated with 3.0 mg and 330 kBq of 14C-simazine kg(-1) substrate. Results indicated that worms did not influence simazine dissipation in both substrates as indicated by similar recoveries and with no statistical differences with and without earthworms. The radiocarbon recoveries were 86.8 and 95.3%, respectively in the substrates with lower and higher organic matter contents with earthworms, and 91.0 and 107.4% in the same substrates without worms. However, in earthworms the recoveries were statistically higher when they were maintained in the substrate with lower amount of organic matter (0.89%) than from the higher one (0.33%). Consequently, 14C-simazine bioconcentration factor (BCF) was also greater in the substrate with lower organic matter (6.89+/-1.55) than in the substrate with higher organic matter content (0.88+/-0.06). The results suggest that the higher soil organic matter content will cause lower probability of contamination of soil organisms with simazine. PMID:15656162

  17. Balkanized Research in Ecological Engineering Revealed by a Bibliometric Analysis of Earthworms and Ecosystem Services

    Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

    2013-08-01

    Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically-based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evolution of the association of "earthworms" and other terms such as ecosystem services (primary production, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, soil structure, and pollution remediation), "ecological engineering" or "biodiversity," to assess their convergence or divergence through time. In this aim, we calculated the similarity index, an indicator of the paradigmatic proximity defined in applied epistemology, for each year between 1900 and 2009. We documented the scientific fields and the geographical origins of the studies, as well as the land uses, and compare these characteristics with a 25 years old review on earthworm management. The association of earthworm related keywords with ecosystem services related keywords was increasing with time, reflecting the growing interest in earthworm use in biodiversity and ecosystem services management. Conversely, no significant increase in the association between earthworms and disciplines such as ecological engineering or restoration ecology was observed. This demonstrated that general ecologically-based approaches have yet to emerge and that there is little exchange of knowledge, methods or concepts among balkanized application realms. Nevertheless, there is a strong need for crossing the frontiers between fields of application and for developing an umbrella discipline to provide a framework for the use of organisms to manage ecosystem services.

  18. Earthworm activity in a simulated landfill cover soil shifts the community composition of active methanotrophs

    Kumaresan, Deepak; Héry, Marina; Bodrossy, Levente; Singer, Andrew C.; Stralis-Pavese, Nancy; Thompson, Ian P.; Murrell, J. Colin

    2011-01-01

    Landfills represent a major source of methane into the atmosphere. In a previous study, we demonstrated that earthworm activity in landfill cover soil can increase soil methane oxidation capacity (Héry et al., 2008). In this study, a simulated landfill cover soil mesocosm (1 m x 0.15 m) was used to observe the influence of earthworms (Eisenia veneta) on the active methanotroph community composition, by analyzing the expression of the pmoA gene, which is responsible for methane oxidation. mRN...

  19. Background internal dose rates of earthworm and arthropod species in the forests of Aomori, Japan

    In this study, we measured the concentrations of several natural radionuclides in samples of one earthworm species and 11 arthropod species collected from four coniferous forests in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture, Japan, and we assessed the background internal radiation dose rate for each species. Dose rates were calculated by using the radionuclide concentrations in the samples and dose conversion coefficients obtained from the literature. The mean internal dose rate in the earthworm species was 0.28 μGy h-1, and the mean internal dose rates in the arthropod species ranged between 0.036 and 0.69 μGy h-1. (author)

  20. Visualization of enzyme activities inside earthworm biopores by in situ soil zymography

    Thu Duyen Hoang, Thi; Razavi, Bahar. S.; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Earthworms can strongly activate microorganisms, increase microbial and enzyme activities and consequently the turnover of native soil organic matter. In extremely dynamic microhabitats and hotspots as biopores made by earthworms, the in situ enzyme activities are a footprint of complex biotic interactions. The effect of earthworms on the alteration of enzyme activities inside biopores and the difference between bio-pores and earthworm-free soil was visualized by in situ soil zymography (Spohn and Kuzyakov, 2014). For the first time, we prepared quantitative imaging of enzyme activities in biopores. Furthermore, we developed the zymography technique by direct application of a substrate saturated membrane to the soil to obtain better spatial resolution. Lumbricus terrestris L. was placed into transparent box (152015cm). Simultaneously, maize seed was sown in the soil. Control soil box with maize and without earthworm was prepared in the same way. After two weeks when bio-pore systems were formed by earthworm, we visualized in situ enzyme activities of five hydrolytic enzymes (?-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, chitinase, xylanase, leucine aminopeptidase) and phosphatase. Followed by non-destructive zymography, biopore samples and control soil were destructively collected to assay enzyme kinetics by fluorogenically labeled substrates method. Zymography showed higher activity of ?-glucosidase, chitinase, xylanase and phosphatase in biopores comparing to bulk soil. These differences were further confirmed by fluorimetric microplate enzyme assay detected significant difference of Vmax in four above mentioned enzymes. Vmax of ?-glucosidase, chitinase, xylanase and phosphatase in biopores is 68%, 108%, 50% and 49% higher than that of control soil. However, no difference in cellobiohydrolase and leucine aminopeptidase kinetics between biopores and control soil were detected. This indicated little effect of earthworms on protein and cellulose transformation in soil. In conclusion, earthworms contribute to the decomposition of carbohydrates through promoting enzyme activities involved in the C-cycle except for leucine aminopeptidase and cellobiohydrolase. References Spohn M, Kuzyakov Y. (2014) Spatial and temporal dynamics of hotspots of enzyme activity in soil as affected by living and dead roots - a soil zymography analysis, Plant Soil 379: 67-77

  1. OPTIMISATION OF PRODUCTION, FREEZE-DRYING AND STORAGE OF Pseudomonas fluorescens BTP1

    MPUTU K.J.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The optimisation of production and freeze-drying of P. fluorescens used as a bio-control agent was investigated. P. fluorescens BTP1 was produced in a bioreactor with different against-pressure value (0.1 and 0.3 bar for bioreactor 1 and 2 respectively and cells were harvested during the stationary phase (2Hrs. and 4Hrs. for bioreactor 1 and 2 respectively. A mixture of protective compounds were tested for freeze-drying, and the highest result was found for glycerol and maltodextrine (26% followed by glycerol, maltodextrine and ascorbic acid (18.9% and glycerol with ascorbic acid (8.5%. We observed that the survival rate is better at 4°C than at room temperature and those powders with protective compounds have a survival rate greater than the powder without protective compounds during storage.

  2. Advantages of liquid nitrogen freezing of Penaeus monodon over conventional plate freezing

    Chakrabarti, R; Chaudhury, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Liquid nitrogen frozen products are biochemically and organoleptically superior to conventional plate frozen products but beneficial effect of liquid nitrogen freezing over conventional plate freezing can exist only up to 59 days at a commercial storage temperature of -18°C.

  3. The equilibrated state of freezing as a basis for distinguishing lethal stresses of freezing in plants

    A model for coordination of stresses that limit winterhardiness in plants based on the thermodynamic equilibrated state of freezing and melting provides a rational basis for distinction of freeze-induced energies which can stress and injure living organisms in various ways. The departure from equili...

  4. Aquaporin Expression Correlates with Freeze Tolerance in Baker's Yeast, and Overexpression Improves Freeze Tolerance in Industrial Strains

    Tanghe, An; Van Dijck, Patrick; Dumortier, Françoise; Teunissen, Aloys; Hohmann, Stefan; Thevelein, Johan M.

    2002-01-01

    Little information is available about the precise mechanisms and determinants of freeze resistance in baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genomewide gene expression analysis and Northern analysis of different freeze-resistant and freeze-sensitive strains have now revealed a correlation between freeze resistance and the aquaporin genes AQY1 and AQY2. Deletion of these genes in a laboratory strain rendered yeast cells more sensitive to freezing, while overexpression of the respective genes...

  5. Effectivity of the Earthworms Pheretima hupiensis, Eudrellus sp. and Lumbricus sp. on the Organic Matter Decomposition Process

    Ea Kosman Anwar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The earthworms are the one of soil fauna component in soil ecosystem have an important role in organic matter decomposition procces. The earthworm feed plant leaf and plant matter up to apart and dissolved. Earthworm metabolisms produce like faeces that mixed with decomposed organic matter mean vermicompost. The vermicompost fertility varies because of some kind of earthworm differ in “niche” and attitude. The experiment was to study the effectivity of earthworm on organic matter decomposition which has been conducted in Soil Biological and Healthy Laboratory and Green House of Soil Research Institute Bogor, during 2006 Budget Year. The three kind of earthworms i.e Pheretima hupiensis, Lumbricus sp. and Eudrellus sp. combined with three kind of organic matter sources i.e rice straw, trash and palm oil plant waste (compost heap. The result shows that the Lumbricus sp. are the most effective decomposer compared to Pheretima hupiensis and Eudrellus sp. and the organic matter decomposed by Lumbricus sp. as followed: market waste was decomposed of 100%, palm oil empty fruit bunch (compost heap 95.8 % and rice straw 84.9%, respectively. Earthworm effectively decreased Fe, Al, Mn, Cu dan Zn.

  6. Effect of earthworm Eisenia fetida and wetland plants on nitrification and denitrification potentials in vertical flow constructed wetland.

    Xu, Defu; Li, Yingxue; Howard, Alan; Guan, Yidong

    2013-06-01

    The response of nitrification potentials, denitrification potentials, and N removal efficiency to the introduction of earthworms and wetland plants in a vertical flow constructed wetland system was investigated. Addition of earthworms increased nitrification and denitrification potentials of substrate in non-vegetated constructed wetland by 236% and 8%, respectively; it increased nitrification and denitrification potentials in rhizosphere in vegetated constructed wetland (Phragmites austrail, Typha augustifolia and Canna indica), 105% and 5%, 187% and 12%, and 268% and 15% respectively. Denitrification potentials in rhizosphere of three wetland plants were not significantly different, but nitrification potentials in rhizosphere followed the order of C. indica>T. augustifolia>P. australis when addition of earthworms into constructed wetland. Addition of earthworms to the vegetated constructed significantly increased the total number of bacteria and fungi of substrates (Pindica were significantly higher in the constructed wetland with earthworms (P<0.05). Earthworms had greater impact on nitrification potentials than denitrification potentials. The removal efficiency of N was improved via stimulated nitrification potentials by earthworms and higher N uptake by wetland plants. PMID:23591133

  7. Survival Analysis

    Miller, Rupert G

    2011-01-01

    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  8. Radiocesium concentrations in epigeic earthworms at various distances from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant 6 months after the 2011 accident

    We investigated the concentrations of radiocesium in epigeic earthworms, litter, and soil samples collected from forests in Fukushima Prefecture 6 months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011. Radiocesium concentrations in litter accumulated on the forest floor were higher than those in the soil (0–5 cm depth). The highest average 134+137Cs concentrations in earthworms (approximately 19 Bq g−1 of wet weight with gut contents and 108 Bq g−1 of dry weight without gut contents) were recorded from a plot that experienced an air dose rate of 3.1 μSv h−1, and earthworm concentrations were found to increase with litter and/or soil concentrations. Average 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations (with or without gut contents) were intermediate between accumulated litter and soil. Different species in the same ecological groups on the same plots had similar concentrations because of their use of the same habitats or their similar physiological characteristics. The contribution of global fallout 137Cs to earthworms with gut contents was calculated to be very low, and most 137Cs in earthworms was derived from the Fukushima accident. Transfer factors from accumulated litter to earthworms, based on their dry weights, ranged from 0.21 to 0.35, in agreement with previous field studies. -- Highlights: • Radiocesium concentrations in earthworms were intermediate between litter and soil. • Three earthworm species in epigeic groups had similar radiocesium concentrations. • Transfer factors from accumulated litter to earthworms ranged from 0.21 to 0.35

  9. Determining the bioavailability and toxicity of lead contamination to earthworms requires using a combination of physicochemical and biological methods

    This study aimed at assessing the bioavailability and toxicity of lead to Eisenia andrei in shooting range soils representing different land uses (forest, grassland, bullet plot). Soils contained 47–2398 mg Pb/kg dry weight (dw), but also had different pH-CaCl2 (3.2–6.8) and organic matter contents (3.8–13%). Therefore artificial soils with different pH and organic matter contents and two natural soils were included as control soils. Earthworms were exposed for 28 days and toxicity and uptake of Pb were related to total, water and 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable and porewater Pb concentrations as well as to soil characteristics. Pb uptake in the earthworms linearly increased with increasing soil concentrations. At >2000 mg Pb/kg dw and pH 3.3–3.5, high earthworm mortality with significant weight loss and complete inhibition of reproduction were recorded. At <1000 mg/kg dw, earthworm reproduction was more related to differences in pH and other soil characteristics than to Pb. -- Highlights: • Availability and earthworm toxicity of Pb determined in field-contaminated soils. • Earthworm toxicity of most-polluted soils explained from available Pb levels. • Earthworm response in less polluted soils mainly determined by soil pH. • Earthworm toxicity correlated with Pb uptake from the soil. • Soil properties explained differences in earthworm Pb uptake and effects. -- Combination of physicochemical and biological assays helped explaining Pb toxicity in shooting range soils from available Pb concentrations and soil characteristics

  10. Application of Pb isotopes to track the sources and routes of metal uptake in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Bader Albogami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to determine the important routes of metal uptake in earthworms to enable a better understanding of the primary source of metal uptake in the environment. Earthworms can take up chemicals from pore water and soil both by ingestion and through contact with their skin. However, it is unclear which pathway is the most important for metal uptake. An experiment was designed in which both soil chemistry and foods were artificially manipulated, producing different pools of soil lead (Pb with different isotope compositions at a range of Pb concentrations. Earthworms (Eiseniafetida were exposed to different lead concentrations through the addition of 500 mg/kg lead oxide (Pb3O4 to soil and 500 mg/kg lead nitrate to food (manure, with distinctly different isotopic compositions. Earthworms were also exposed to combinations of soil only and soil plus food in order to quantify the proportions of Pb taken up from each component. After acid digestion of the earthworm tissues, the Pb isotope composition of the accumulated lead in the earthworms was measured using a Thermo-fisher, iCAPQ, ICP-MS for 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios measured relative to NIST SRM 981, allowing us to determine the pathway of lead uptake. Mixing calculations have been used to deconvolute the lead isotope signatures and identify the amount of lead taken up by the earthworms from the different soil pools. Differences in bioaccumulation factors and the relative amounts of lead accumulated from different pools changes as a function of concentration in the different pools. Earthworms were shown to uptake lead from bothsoil and food sources through ingestion route. Our findings suggest that a major pathway of lead uptake in earthworm species is heavily influenced by their ecology.

  11. Droplet coalescence and freezing on hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and biphilic surfaces

    Van Dyke, Alexander S.; Collard, Diane; Derby, Melanie M.; Betz, Amy Rachel

    2015-10-01

    Frost and ice formation can have severe negative consequences, such as aircraft safety and reliability. At atmospheric pressure, water heterogeneously condenses and then freezes at low temperatures. To alter this freezing process, this research examines the effects of biphilic surfaces (surfaces which combine hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions) on heterogeneous water nucleation, growth, and freezing. Silicon wafers were coated with a self-assembled monolayer and patterned to create biphilic surfaces. Samples were placed on a freezing stage in an environmental chamber at atmospheric pressure, at a temperature of 295 K, and relative humidities of 30%, 60%, and 75%. Biphilic surfaces had a significant effect on droplet dynamics and freezing behavior. The addition of biphilic patterns decreased the temperature required for freezing by 6 K. Biphilic surfaces also changed the size and number of droplets on a surface at freezing and delayed the time required for a surface to freeze. The main mechanism affecting freezing characteristics was the coalescence behavior.

  12. [Embryo freezing: status survey in France (1985-1993). Federation of BLEFCO].

    1996-09-01

    The French Federation of IVF Biologists (BLEFCO) reports the first survey on the fate of 102812 human embryos frozen in France during a nine-year period (1985-1993). 94% of surviving embryos were transferred to the parental couple, 6% were thawed to conclude their storage while embryon donation remained exceptional (0.2%). 55% of all thawed embryos survived the freeze-thaw procedure. However, only 3.5% of transferred embryos achieved full-term development (as compared to 9% for unfrozen embryos). Thus, embryo freezing efficiency remains low but highly variable among different centers. Therefore, cryopreservation has led to the birth or more than 1200 babies and for several group, has contributed up to 22% of IVF deliveries. The variability observed in the results can be largely related to the adequacy of programmable freezers. Indeed, 68% of frozen embryos survived after thawing in case of manual seeding (15% pregnancy per transfer) versus 42% in case of automatic seeding (9% pregnancy per transfer, p < 0,001). Freezing has no adverse effect on the rate of anomalies at birth (1.8%). PMID:8998516

  13. UltraViolet Freeze-in

    Elahi, Fatemeh; Unwin, James

    2014-01-01

    If dark matter is thermally decoupled from the visible sector, the observed relic density can potentially be obtained via freeze-in production of dark matter. Typically in such models it is assumed that the dark matter is connected to the thermal bath through feeble renormalisable interactions. Here, rather, we consider the case in which the hidden and visible sectors are coupled only via non-renormalisable operators. This is arguably a more generic realisation of the dark matter freeze-in scenario, as it does not require the introduction of diminutive renormalisable couplings. We examine general aspects of freeze-in via non-renormalisable operators in a number of toy models and present several motivated implementations in the context of Beyond the Standard Model physics. Specifically, we study models related to the Peccei-Quinn mechanism and Z' portals.

  14. Heat transfer coefficient of cryotop during freezing.

    Li, W J; Zhou, X L; Wang, H S; Liu, B L; Dai, J J

    2013-01-01

    Cryotop is an efficient vitrification method for cryopreservation of oocytes. It has been widely used owing to its simple operation and high freezing rate. Recently, the heat transfer performance of cryotop was studied by numerical simulation in several studies. However, the range of heat transfer coefficient in the simulation is uncertain. In this study, the heat transfer coefficient for cryotop during freezing process was analyzed. The cooling rates of 40 percent ethylene glycol (EG) droplet in cryotop during freezing were measured by ultra-fast measurement system and calculated by numerical simulation at different value of heat transfer coefficient. Compared with the results obtained by two methods, the range of the heat transfer coefficient necessary for the numerical simulation of cryotop was determined, which is between 9000 W/(m(2)K) and 10000 W/(m (2)K). PMID:23812315

  15. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    Wetterich, C.

    2014-09-07

    We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze — a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple “crossover model” without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space–time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe.

  16. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze — a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple “crossover model” without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space–time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe

  17. Effects of non-native earthworms on on below- and aboveground processes in the Mid-Atlantic region

    Szlavecz, K. A.; McCormick, M. K.; Xia, L.; Pitz, S.; O'Neill, J.; Bernard, M.; Chang, C.; Whigham, D. F.

    2011-12-01

    Many biotic and abiotic disturbances have shaped the structure of the deciduous forests in the Mid-Atlantic region. One major anthropogenic factor is land use history. Agricultural practices in the past undoubtedly facilitated non-native earthworm colonization and establishment. Today most secondary forests are dominated by European lumbricid earthworms, although native species also occur in some habitats. To investigate how earthworm community composition and abundance affect belowground processes and tree seedling growth we set up a field manipulation experiment at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, MD. A total of 66 experimental plots were set up in successional (70 yrs) and mature (150 yrs) Tulip-poplar-Oak associations. We manipulated earthworm abundance and leaf litter input, and planted seedlings of Tulip poplar, Red maple, Red oak, and American beech. The experiment lasted for two years during which we regularly monitored density, biomass and species composition of earthworm assemblages and measured soil respiration. Soil moisture, temperature and air temperature were also continuously monitored using a wireless sensor network. At harvest, soil bulk density, pH, N pools, C:N ratio, potential N-mineralization rates, and enzyme activity were determined. We used quantitative PCR to assess the community composition of soil fungi. We also determined the extent of mycorrhizal colonization and biomass of roots, shoots and leaves. We conducted likelihood ratio tests for random and fixed effects based on mixed model analyses of variance. Differences between soil depths and among sites and plots accounted for a large portion of the variation in many soil properties. Litter quality affected soil pH and N mineralization. Earthworm densities affected bulk density, inorganic N content, and N mineralization. Both mycorrhizal groups were more abundant in mature than in successional forests. Both ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and arbuscular (AM) fungi were less abundant in the earthworm removal plots. There was a significant positive earthworm effect on the rate and thermal sensitivity of soil respiration. Soil respiration was consistently higher in plots with tulip poplar litter than those with beech litter, indicating a strong influence of plant residue quality. However, the differences were smaller in the second year than in the first one indicating an adaptation of the soil system. Oak and beech seedlings were smaller in high density earthworm plots, while the reverse was true for maple and tulip poplar seedlings. Non-native earthworms affect below- and aboveground processes, however, these effects depend on forest type and land use history. The earthworm effects also appear to be dynamic, as witnessed by a recent invasion of an Asian earthworm species in one of our forest stands.

  18. Unitarity constraints on asymmetric freeze-in

    This paper considers unitarity and CPT constraints on asymmetric freeze-in, the use of freeze-in to store baryon number in a dark sector. In this scenario, Sakharov's out-of-equilibrium condition is satisfied by placing the visible and hidden sectors at different temperatures while a net visible baryon number is produced by storing negative baryon number in a dark sector. It is shown that unitarity and CPT lead to unexpected cancellations. In particular, the transfer of baryon number cancels completely at leading order.

  19. Unitarity constraints on asymmetric freeze-in

    Hook, Anson

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers unitarity and CPT constraints on asymmetric freeze-in, the use of freeze-in to store baryon number in a dark sector. In this scenario, Sakharov's out of equilibrium condition is satisfied by placing the visible and hidden sectors at different temperatures while a net visible baryon number is produced by storing negative baryon number in a dark sector. It is shown that unitarity and CPT lead to unexpected cancellations. In particular, the transfer of baryon number cancels completely at leading order.

  20. Effects of the geophagous earthworm Metaphire guillelmi on sorption, mineralization, and bound-residue formation of 4-nonylphenol in an agricultural soil

    Effects of earthworms on fate of nonylphenol (NP) are obscure. Using 14C-4-NP111 as a representative, we studied the fate of 4-NP in an agricultural soil with or without the earthworm Metaphire guillelmi and in fresh cast of the earthworm. Sorption of 4-NP on the cast (Kd 1564) was significantly higher than on the parent soil (Kd 1474). Mineralization of 4-NP was significantly lower in the cast (13.2%) and the soil with earthworms (10.4%) than in the earthworm-free soil (16.0%). One nitro metabolite of 4-NP111 (2-nitro-4-NP111) was identified in the soil and cast, and the presence of the earthworm significantly decreased its amounts. The presence of earthworm also significantly decreased formation of bound residues of 4-NP in the soil. Our results demonstrate that earthworms could significantly change the fate of 4-NP, underlining that earthworm effects should be considered when evaluating behavior and risk of 4-NP in soil. - Highlights: • The earthworm Metaphire guillelmi inhibited mineralization of 4-NP in the soil. • A less-polar metabolite of 4-NP (2-nitro-4-NP111) was detected in the soil and cast. • The presence of earthworm reduced the amount of 2-nitro-4-NP111 in the soil. • M. guillelmi significantly reduced formation of bound residues of 4-NP in the soil. - Earthworms significantly changed the fate of 4-NP, highlighting that effects of earthworm should be considered when evaluating the behavior and risk of 4-NP in soil

  1. To freeze or not to freeze embryos: clarity, confusion and conflict.

    Goswami, Mohar; Murdoch, Alison P; Haimes, Erica

    2015-06-01

    Although embryo freezing is a routine clinical practice, there is little contemporary evidence on how couples make the decision to freeze their surplus embryos, or of their perceptions during that time. This article describes a qualitative study of 16 couples who have had in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment. The study question was 'What are the personal and social factors that patients consider when deciding whether to freeze embryos?' We show that while the desire for a baby is the dominant drive, couples' views revealed more nuanced and complex considerations in the decision-making process. It was clear that the desire to have a baby influenced couples' decision-making and that they saw freezing as 'part of the process'. However, there were confusions associated with the term 'freezing' related to concerns about the safety of the procedure. Despite being given written information, couples were confused about the practical aspects of embryo freezing, which suggests they were preoccupied with the immediate demands of IVF. Couples expressed ethical conflicts about freezing 'babies'. We hope the findings from this study will inform clinicians and assist them in providing support to couples confronted with this difficult decision-making. PMID:25660099

  2. Reproducing Black's experiments: freezing point depression and supercooling of water

    We carried out two historical experiments referred to by Joseph Black, one on freezing mixtures of salted water with ice and another on freezing supercooled pure water by a small disturbance. The results confirm thermodynamical predictions for the depression of the freezing point of salted water and for the latent heat of freezing of supercooled water respectively, which came after Black. The depression of the freezing point can hardly be fitted in the framework of the caloric theory of heat, which was taken for granted by Black, and the instantaneous freezing of supercooled water also poses some difficulties for that theory. (author)

  3. Detrimental Influence of Invasive Earthworms on North American Cold-Temperate Forest Soils

    Enerson, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The topic of invasive earthworms is a timely concern that goes against many preconceived notions regarding the positive benefits of all worms. In the cold-temperate forests of North America invasive worms are threatening forest ecosystems, due to the changes they create in the soil, including decreases in C:N ratios and leaf litter, disruption of…

  4. Earthworms and Plant Residues Modify Nematodes in Tropical Cropping Soils (Madagascar): A Mesocosm Experiment

    Free-living nematodes present several characteristics that have led to their use as bio indicators of soil quality. Analyzing the structure of nematofauna is a pertinent way to understand soil biological processes. Earthworms play an important role in soil biological functioning and organic matter dynamics. Their effects on soil nematofauna have seldom been studied. We studied the effect of the tropical endogeic earthworm, Pontoscolex corethrurus, on nematode community structure in a 5-month field mesocosm experiment conducted in Madagascar. Ten different treatments with or without earthworms and with or without organic residues (rice, soybean) were compared. Organic residues were applied on the soil surface or mixed with the soil. The abundance of nematodes (bacterial and fungal feeders) was higher in presence of P. corethrurus than in their absence. The type of plant residues as well as their localisation had significant effects on the abundance and composition of soil nematodes. The analysis of nematode community structure showed that earthworm activity led to an overall activation of the microbial compartment without specific stimulation of the bacterial or fungal compartment.

  5. Chlorpyrifos causes decreased organic matter decomposition by suppressing earthworm and termite communities in tropical soil

    Effects of pesticides on structural and functional properties of ecosystems are rarely studied under tropical conditions. In this study litterbag and earthworm field tests were performed simultaneously at the same tropical field site sprayed with chlorpyrifos (CPF). The recommended dose of CPF (0.6 kg a.i. ha-1) and two higher doses (4.4-8.8 kg a.i. ha-1) significantly decreased litter decomposition during the first 3 months after application, which could be explained from lower earthworm and termite abundances during this period. Species-specific effects of CPF on organism abundance and biomass were observed, with termites being mostly affected followed by the earthworm Perionyx excavatus; the earthworm Megascolex sp. was least affected. Recovery was completed within 6 months. Decomposition in the controls and lowest two treatments was completed within 4 months, which suggests the need for modification of standard test guidelines to comply with faster litter degradation under tropical conditions. - Effects of chlorpyrifos on functional and structural endpoints in soil.

  6. Slow desiccation improves dehydration tolerance and accumulation of compatible osmolytes in earthworm cocoons (Dendrobaena octaedra Savigny)

    Petersen, Christina Rask; Holmstrup, Martin; Malmendal, Anders; Bayley, Mark; Overgaard, Johannes

    The earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra, is a common species in temperate and subarctic regions of the northern hemisphere. The egg capsules ('cocoons') of D. octaedra are deposited in the upper soil layers where they may be exposed to desiccation. Many previous studies on desiccation tolerance in so...

  7. Earthworm functioning in soil ecosystem services in relation to land use intensity

    Faber, Jack H; Peres, Guénola; de Groot, Arjen,G.; Krogh, Paul Henning; Sudaholc, Marjetka; Mihelic, Rok; Rombke, Jörg; Jaensch, Stefan; Schmelz, Rüdiger; Keith, A.K.; Schmidt, O.; Andriuzzi, Walter; Chabbi, Abad

    2014-01-01

    The FP7 EcoFINDERS project aimed to assess the relationship between soil biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. We studied functional responses for earthworms and fungi on soil formation and water regulation under different agricultural land uses representing a range in land use intensity. The aim was to establish and quantify these functional relationships by literature and field studies.

  8. Vermiremediation of dyeing sludge from textile mill with the help of exotic earthworm Eisenia fetida Savigny.

    Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2013-09-01

    The aim of present study was for the vermiremediation of dyeing sludge from textile mill into nutrient-rich vermicompost using earthworm Eisenia fetida. The dyeing sludge was mixed with cattle dung in different ratios, i.e., 0:100 (D0), 25:75 (D25), 50:50 (D50), 75:25 (D75), and 100:0 (D100) with earthworms, and 0:100 (S0), 25:75 (S25), 50:50 (S50), 75:25 (S75), and 100:0 (S100) without earthworms. Minimum mortality and maximum population build-up were observed in a 25:75 mixture. Nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium, and pH increased from the initial to the final products with earthworms, while electrical conductivity, C/N ratio, organic carbon, and potassium declined in all the feed mixtures. Vermicomposting with E. fetida was better for composting to change this sludge into nutrient-rich manure. PMID:23508537

  9. The effects of environmental parameters on the availability of cesium for earthworms

    The concentrations of potassium, stable cesium, calcium and ammonium in soil, and pH are known to affect the uptake of 134Cs from soil. Uncertain is whether this is a direct effect on the uptake (e.g. through competition for binding sites) or an indirect effect through a changing distribution of 134Cs between the solid and liquid phase of the soil. The uptake of 134Cs by earthworms from solution and soil has been studied to investigate these effects. The effects of potassium and stable cesium expressed per mmol added, were comparable: 134Cs accumulation decreases with potassium and stable cesium concentration in solution. No significant effects from varying pH or calcium and ammonium concentrations on 134Cs uptake from liquid medium were observed. 134Cs concentrations in the earthworms increased with temperature, which could mainly be explained by earthworm-related factors such as increased metabolism or feeding rate. Addition of calcium, potassium, ammonium and organic matter to soil increased the amount of 134Cs in soil solution significantly. However, the overall effects of additions of K+, Ca++, NH4+ and organic matter on the 134Cs concentrations in earthworms were non-significant. Based on the experiments in liquid medium increasing the concentration of potassium in soil solution showed to be most effective and most realistic in reducing 134Cs uptake. The results in soil indicate that the effect of potassium will depend on other soil characteristics as well

  10. Earthworms (Oligochaeta: Acanthodrilidae and Lumbricidae) associated with Hornsby Bend Biosolids Management Plant, Travis County, Texas, USA

    Earthworm populations were surveyed in soils from a variety of habitats associated with the Hornsby Bend Biosolids Management Plant, Austin, Texas, from November 2009 through March 2010. Seven species of terrestrial Oligochaeta, including one species new to science, are reported from two families, ...

  11. SUBLETHAL NEUROTOXIC EFFECTS OF THE FUNGICIDE BENOMYL ON EARTHWORMS ('EISENIA FETIDA')

    Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were treated by surface contact exposure for four days with the fungicide benomyl. Non-invasive electrophysiological recordings after treatment with sublethal concentrations of 0.2-25 mg benomyl/litre of water indicated concentration-dependent decrease...

  12. Some Guides to Discovery About Elm Trees, Owls, Cockroaches, Earthworms, Cement and Concrete.

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    The introduction emphasizes the need for environmental and conservation education, and advocates an inquiry approach. Outdoor resources available to every school are listed. Detailed suggestions are made for investigating cement and concrete, cockroaches, earthworms, elm trees, and owls. In each case general background information and a list of…

  13. Toxicological Effects of Organophosphate Pesticide on Ceolomocytes Viability of Earthworm E. Foetida Using NRRA

    Sameena Farrukh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the development of sub-lethal earthworm biomarkers as they are relevant indicators of environmental change and they are among the five key indicators for ecotoxicological testing of industrial chemicals determined by the OECD. In the present study, the effects of an organophosphate pesticide dichlorovos on lysosomes of coelomocytes of earthworm E. foetida are studied using Neutral Red Retention Assay (NRRA. Methods: Earthworms were exposed to three sub-lethal concentrations of the pesticide for 7, 14, 21, and 28 days and neutral red retention assay was done following the method employed by Weeks and Sevendsen and Booth et al. Results: It was observed that the pesticide significantly affected the coelomocyte viability within 28 days of exposure. The neutral red retention time of lysosomal membrane significantly decreased at all concentrations when compared with well-matched controls. Conclusion: After the analysis of results, it was concluded that the neutral red retention time assay in earthworms can be used to link changes in the permeability of lysosomal membranes to ecologically relevant life cycle effects caused by such toxic substances.

  14. Earthworms facilitate carbon sequestration through unequal amplification of carbon stabilization compared with mineralization

    A recent review concluded that earthworm presence increases CO2 emissions by 33% but does not affect soil organic carbon stocks. However, the findings are controversial and raise new questions. Here we hypothesize that neither an increase in CO2 emission nor in stabilized carbon...

  15. Evaluation of epoxiconazole bioavailability in soil to the earthworm Aporrectodea icterica.

    Nélieu, S; Delarue, G; Ollivier, E; Awad, P; Fraillon, F; Pelosi, C

    2016-02-01

    In soil, the determination of total concentration using an exhaustive extraction method has little relevance to evaluate the exposure of an organism to a chemical, because of sorption processes. This study aims to propose a mild extraction method to evaluate the bioavailability of the fungicide epoxiconazole to the earthworm Aporrectodea icterica. Experiments were conducted in soils presenting various textures and organic carbon contents, spiked with formulated epoxiconazole 7 to 56 days prior to their extraction. In parallel, the epoxiconazole concentration was determined in exposed earthworms and the fungicide's effects were evaluated by measuring weight gain, enzymatic activities and total protein contents. Among the various mild chemical solvents tested to evaluate the environmental availability of the fungicide, the 50 mM hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin solution allowed to extract around 30 % of epoxiconazole. This percentage corresponded to the ratio determined in exposed A. icterica under similar soil conditions. Furthermore, this mild method was demonstrated to be sensitive to soil sorption capacities and to ageing. The mild extraction method was then applied to explore the relationship between total and (bio)available concentrations in soil and in A. icterica, over 7- or 28-day exposure time. This demonstrated the proportionality between epoxiconazole concentration in earthworm and available in soil (up to 96 %, with regression coefficient R (2) = 0.98). Sublethal effects on earthworm remained not significant. PMID:26315591

  16. USE OF EARTHWORMS TO ACCELERATE THE RESTORATION OF OIL AND BRINE IMPACTED SITES

    The restoration of soil ecosystems following remediation of oil and brine spills can be a lengthy process. This project has investigated the efficacy of the re-introduction of earthworms to sites which have undergone remediation for crude oil or brine spills in order to accele...

  17. Earthworm assemblages in a forest-arable field ecotone and their relations with soil properties

    Pižl, Václav; Zeithaml, J.; Sklenička, P.

    Curitiba : Positivo University, 2008. [Biodiversity, Conservation and Sustainable Management of Soil Animals. International Colloquium on Soil Zoology /15./. 25.08.2008-29.08.2008, Curitiba] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : earthworm assemblages * forest -arable field ecotone * soil properties Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  18. Nitric oxide production in celomocytes of the earthworm Eisenia hortensis following bacterial challenge

    SR Cook

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this in vitro investigation, nitric oxide (NO production was induced within celomocytes of the earthworm Eisenia hortensis following microbial challenge. Celomocytes were pre-loaded with the fluorescent indicator 4-amino-5-methylamino-2’, 7’-difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF-FM DA in order to detect the presence of intracellular nitric oxide subsequent to a 16 h incubation with chemically-fixed soil bacteria including Bacillus megaterium, Arthrobacter globiformis, Pseudomonas stutzeri, and Azotobacter chroococcum at a range of multiplicities of infection (MOIs. Flow cytometric analysis measuring increases in relative fluorescence intensity (RFI, which is directly proportional to the amount of intracellular NO produced, permitted determination of statistical significance (p < 0.05 of exposed celomocytes compared to baseline controls. Significant increases in NO were detected reproducibly in celomocytes treated with all bacterial species used. The most prominent results were observed after exposure to Gram positive B. megaterium and A. globiformis where 100 % of earthworms tested exhibited statistically significant increases of RFI at MOIs of 100:1 and 500:1, respectively. Furthermore, significant decreases in NO production in bacteria-stimulated earthworm celomocytes incubated with the NOS inhibitor aminoguanidine hydrochloride were observed. These results demonstrate microbial induction of NO synthesis in earthworms and provide evidence of an antimicrobial role of NO in the innate immune system.

  19. Detrimental Influence of Invasive Earthworms on North American Cold-Temperate Forest Soils

    Enerson, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The topic of invasive earthworms is a timely concern that goes against many preconceived notions regarding the positive benefits of all worms. In the cold-temperate forests of North America invasive worms are threatening forest ecosystems, due to the changes they create in the soil, including decreases in C:N ratios and leaf litter, disruption of

  20. The influence of earthworms on the mobility of microelements in soil and their availability for plants

    Bityutskii, N. P.; Kaidun, P. I.

    2008-12-01

    The influence of earthworms ( Aporrectodea caliginosa, Lumbricus rubellus, L. terrestris, and Eisenia fetida) on the mobility of microelements and their availability for plants was studied. The contents of water-soluble Fe and Mn compounds extracted from the coprolites were 5-10 times higher than that in the soil (enriched in calcium carbonate and dried) consumed by the earthworms. This digestion-induced effect became higher with the age of the coprolites (up to 9 days) and took place under their alkalization. In the excreta (surface + enteric) of earthworms, the Fe concentration exceeded those of Mn and Zn by many times. Iron and manganese were mostly concentrated (>80% and >60%, respectively) in the organic part of the excrements. In the tests with hydroponics, the excreta were found to be a source of iron compounds available for plants that were similar to Fe2(SO4)3 or Fe-citrate by their physiological effect in the case when the Fe concentration in the excretions was above 0.7 μM. However, the single application of excreta of different earthworm species into the CaCO3 enriched soil did not significantly affect the plant (cucumber) nutrition. The analysis of the transport of microelements with xylem sap showed that this fact appeared to be due to the absence of an Fe deficit in the cucumber plants because of their high capability for the absorption of weakly soluble iron compounds.

  1. Ecotoxicological effects of earthworm following long-term Dechlorane Plus exposure.

    Yang, Yang; Ji, Funian; Cui, Yibin; Li, Mei

    2016-02-01

    Dechlorane Plus (DP), similar to persistent organic pollutants, has been widely detected in environmental matrices, especially in sediment and soil. In this study, earthworms Eisenia fetida were exposed to 0.1, 0.5, 6.25 and 12.5 mg kg(-1) DP for 28 d. Lethality, oxidative stress, neurotoxicity and cellulase of E. fetida were assessed to investigate ecotoxicological effects of DP after long-term exposure. Results showed that the direct toxicity of DP was very low. However, death rate, as well as SOD activity, together with changes in activities of CAT, GSH-Px, and GSH levels, indicating that oxidative stress may play a significant role in DP exposure. In addition, DP also changes the AChE and cellulase activity of earthworms even under low DP concentration after long-term exposure. Moreover, comet assay results showed that DP exposure increased the levels of tDNA significantly (p damage and comet assay, it can be suggested that earthworms experience more stress of DP during long-time exposure. This study provides insight into the toxicological effects of DP on earthworm model, and may be useful for risk assessment of DP on soil ecosystems. PMID:26619313

  2. Management of plant communities on set-aside land and its effects on earthworm communities

    Gormsen, D.; Hedlund, K.; Korthals, G. W.; Mortimer, S. R.; Pižl, Václav; Šmilauerová, M.; Sugg, E.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 40, 3-4 (2004), s. 123-128. ISSN 1164-5563 Grant ostatní: Evropská unie(XE) ENV4-CT95-0002 Keywords : earthworm community * plant community * land use Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.776, year: 2004

  3. Earthworm succession in afforested colliery spoil heaps in the Sokolov region, Czech Republic

    Pižl, Václav

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2001), s. 359-364. ISSN 1061-2971 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : earthworms * colliery spoil heaps * succession Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.011, year: 2001

  4. Earthworm populations in initial successional stages of restored species-rich meadows on arable soil

    Pižl, Václav

    Budapest : Institute of Ecology and Botany HAS, 2002. s. 95. [European Conference on Restoration Ecology /3./. 25.08.2002-31.08.2002, Budapest] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : earthworm populations * arable soil Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  5. The effects of production systems on earthworm assemblages in vineyards and apple orchards

    Pižl, Václav

    Washington : Society for Ecological Restoration, 2011. s. 162. [World Conference on Ecological Restoration /4./. 21.08.2011-25.08.2011, Mérida] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : earthworm assemblages * vineyards * apple orchards Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. The effects of production systems on earthworm assemblages in vineyards and apple orchards

    Pižl, Václav

    Brno : Ústav biologie obratlovců AV ČR, 2011. s. 178-179. ISBN 978-80-87189-09-2. [Zoologické dny Brno 2011. 17.02.2011-18.02.2011, Brno] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : earthworm assemblages * vineyards * apple orchards Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  7. The effects of earthworms .i.Eisenia./i. spp. on microbial community are habitat dependent

    Koubová, Anna; Chroňáková, Alica; Pižl, Václav; Sánchez-Monedero, M.A.; Elhottová, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 68, May-June (2015), s. 42-55. ISSN 1164-5563 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600200704; GA MŠk LC06066 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : earthworms * soil * compost * vermiculture * archaea * bacteria Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.719, year: 2014

  8. Effect on enzymes and histopathology in earthworm (Eisenia foetida) induced by triazole fungicides.

    Gao, Minling; Song, Wenhua; Zhang, Jinyang; Guo, Jing

    2013-05-01

    Earthworms are an ideal biological model in toxicity assays and environment monitoring studies, especially for the toxicity of pesticides on soil ecosystem. However, There are very little data on the toxicity of triazoles on earthworms despite the fact that such data are critical in assessing their fate and potential toxic effects in soil organisms. To address this issue, earthworms were exposed to triazoles (triadimefon, triadimenol, difenoconazole and propiconazole) to study biochemical and histopathological examination. The results showed protein content significantly increased in treatment of difenoconazole compared to control. There were no significant differences between controls and triadimefon treated groups, while the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity is significantly lower than control. Other triazoles also had an inhibitory effect on GSH-Px activity at higher concentration. The histopathological examination showed the epidermis and the epidermis cell of earthworm was ruined at lower triazoles concentration. The arrangement of smooth muscle layer disordered, and some cell disintegrated with concentration increasing of pesticides. Cell pyknosis, cytoplasm deep stained, nucleus concentrations were observed in the treated group with propiconazole. PMID:23474400

  9. Characterization of the organic fraction of earthworm humus and composts taken place starting from different substrates

    In order to evaluate the quality and the humification degree of different composted materials, the organic fraction of earthworm humus obtained from kitchen and farm residues, coffee pulp, biodegradable garbage and roses residues and of composts from roses and carnation residues were characterized chemically. Thus, determination and analysis of the C/N ratio, as well as the fractionation of the organic matter and the purification and characterization of the humic acids by C, H, N, 0 elemental analysis, UV-VIS spectroscopy were done and different humification parameters were found. The fractionation of the organic matter showed a low content of extracted carbon with respect to the normal content found in the soil humus. The elemental analysis data of the humic acids from the composts and the earthworm humus did not reveal important differences between these materials, while the E4/E6 ratio provided more evident changes. The results showed that the C/N ratio is not an absolute indicative of the Maturity State of the studied materials. The best parameters to estimate the maturity degree of the composts and the earthworm humus turned out to be the polymerization ratio, the humification index and the extracted carbon/non extracted carbon ratio. Among the evaluated materials, the earthworm of roses residues showed the best conditions with respect to content and quality of the organic matter to be added to a soil

  10. Earthworms as ecosystem engineers and the most important detritivors in forest soils.

    Kooch, Yahya; Jalilvand, Hamid

    2008-03-15

    Earthworms are considered as soil engineers because of their effects on soil properties and their influence on the availability of resources for other organisms, including microorganisms and plants. However, the links between their impacts on the soil environment and the resulting modification of natural selection pressures on engineer as well as on other organisms have received little attention. Earthworms are known to have a positive influence on the soil fabric and on the decomposition and mineralization of litter by breaking down organic matter and producing large amounts of fasces, thereby mixing litter with the mineral soil. Therefore, they play an important part in changes from one humus from to another according to forest succession patterns. Consequently, they are also expected to be good bio-indicators for forest site quality and are thus useful when planning forest production improvement. Earthworm's populations are as indicator that in exploited regions is destruction indicator and reclamation plans is nature return indicator. In this study we summarized the current knowledge in relation to earthworm's ecology in forest soils as ecosystem engineers. PMID:18814642

  11. Interactions between earthworms and arsenic in the soil environment: a review

    Relationships between earthworms and As-rich soils are discussed, examining mechanisms of tolerance, soil factors and possible trophic transfers. - Chemical pollution of the environment has become a major source of concern. In particular, many studies have investigated the impact of pollution on biota in the environment. Studies on metalliferous contaminated mine spoil wastes have shown that some soil organisms have the capability to become resistant to metal/metalloid toxicity. Earthworms are known to inhabit arsenic-rich metalliferous soils and, due to their intimate contact with the soil, in both the solid and aqueous phases, are likely to accumulate contaminants present in mine spoil. Earthworms that inhabit metalliferous contaminated soils must have developed mechanisms of resistance to the toxins found in these soils. The mechanisms of resistance are not fully understood; they may involve physiological adaptation (acclimation) or be genetic. This review discusses the relationships between earthworms and arsenic-rich mine spoil wastes, looking critically at resistance and possible mechanisms of resistance, in relation to soil edaphic factors and possible trophic transfer routes

  12. The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of metalaxy-M on earthworms (Eisenia fetida).

    Liu, Tong; Zhu, Lusheng; Han, Yingnan; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Yan

    2014-10-01

    As the main optical isomer of metalaxyl, metalaxyl-M has been widely used worldwide in recent years because of its notable effect on the prevention and control of crop diseases. Together with the toxicity and degradation of metalaxyl-M, the chemical has attracted the attention of researchers. The present study examined the toxic effects of metalaxyl-M on earthworms at 0 mg kg(-1) , 0.1 mg kg(-1) , 1 mg kg(-1) , and 3 mg kg(-1) on days 7, 14, 21 and 28 after exposure. The results showed that metalaxyl-M could cause an obvious increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) when the concentration was higher than 0.1 mg kg(-1) , which led to lipid peroxidation in earthworms. Metalaxyl-M can induce DNA damage in earthworms, and the level of DNA damage markedly increased with increasing the concentration of metalaxyl-M. Metalaxyl-M also has a serious influence on the activities of antioxidant enzymes, which results in irreversible oxidative damage in cells. The changes of these indicators all indicated that metalaxyl-M may cause cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on earthworms. PMID:25043480

  13. Earthworms and Humans in Vitro: Characterizing Evolutionarily Conserved Stress and Immune Responses to Silver Nanoparticles

    Hayashi, Yuya; Engelmann, Pter; Foldbjerg, Rasmus; Szab, Mariann; Somogyi, Ildik; Pollk, Edit; Molnr, Lszl; Autrup, Herman; Sutherland, Duncan S; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck James; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the potential threats of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to ecosystem health, with no detailed report existing on the stress and immune responses of soil invertebrates. Here we use earthworm primary cells, cross-referencing to human cell cultures with a particular emphasis on t...

  14. NaCl stress impact on the key enzymes in glycolysis from Lactobacillus bulgaricus during freeze-drying

    Chun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe viability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus in freeze-drying is of significant commercial interest to dairy industries. In the study, L.bulgaricus demonstrated a significantly improved (p < 0.05 survival rate during freeze-drying when subjected to a pre-stressed period under the conditions of 2% (w/v NaCl for 2 h in the late growth phase. The main energy source for the life activity of lactic acid bacteria is related to the glycolytic pathway. To investigate the phenomenon of this stress-related viability improvement in L. bulgaricus, the activities and corresponding genes of key enzymes in glycolysis during 2% NaCl stress were studied. NaCl stress significantly enhanced (p < 0.05 glucose utilization. The activities of glycolytic enzymes (phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase decreased during freeze-drying, and NaCl stress were found to improve activities of these enzymes before and after freeze-drying. However, a transcriptional analysis of the corresponding genes suggested that the effect of NaCl stress on the expression of the pfk2 gene was not obvious. The increased survival of freeze-dried cells of L. bulgaricus under NaCl stress might be due to changes in only the activity or translation level of these enzymes in different environmental conditions but have no relation to their mRNA transcription level.

  15. Summer freezing resistance decreased in high-elevation plants exposed to experimental warming in the central Chilean Andes.

    Sierra-Almeida, Angela; Cavieres, Lohengrin A

    2010-05-01

    Alpine habitats have been proposed as particularly sensitive to climate change. Shorter snow cover could expose high-elevation plants to very low temperatures, increasing their risk of suffering damage by freezing, hence decreasing their population viability. In addition, a longer and warmer growing season could affect the hardening process on these species. Thus, understanding the ability of these species to withstand freezing events under warmer conditions is essential for predicting how alpine species may respond to future climate changes. Here we assessed the freezing resistance of 11 species from the central Chilean Andes by determining their low temperature damage (LT(50)) and freezing point (FP) after experimental warming in the field. Plants were exposed during two growing seasons to a passive increase in the air temperature using open top chambers (OTCs). OTCs increased by ca. 3 K the mean air and soil daytime temperatures, but had smaller effects on freezing temperatures. Leaf temperature of the different species was on average 5.5 K warmer inside OTCs at midday. While LT(50) of control plants ranged from -9.9 to -22.4, that of warmed plants ranged from -7.4 to -17.3 degrees C. Overall, high-Andean species growing inside OTCs increased their LT(50) ca. 4 K, indicating that warming decreased their ability to survive severe freezing events. Moreover, plants inside OTCs increased the FP ca. 2 K in some studied species, indicating that warming altered processes of ice crystal formation. Resistance of very low temperatures is a key feature of high-elevation species; our results suggest that current climate warming trends will seriously threaten the survival of high-elevation plants by decreasing their ability to withstand severe freezing events. PMID:20237942

  16. Earthworms as bio-indicators of metal pollution in dump sites of Abeokuta City, Nigeria

    O. Bamgbose

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Metal concentrations (Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, Cd and Cr and contents were measured in earthworms (Libyodrilus violaceus and soil samples from three non-contaminated sites and ten dump sites located in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Samples from control sites show (in general levels of metals to be higher in earthworms than in soil samples, as shown by the mean concentrations, (earthworms-soil: - Zn:7.02, 6.74, Pb:5.04, 4.94, Mn 10.54, 10.41, Cu:1.03, 1.60., Cd: 0.80, 0.81 and Cr:0.55, 0.49 g/g while for samples from dump sites, irrespective of the degree of pollution, the ratio of metal concentration in earthworms to soil samples were less than unity with the exception of Cd and Cr. The availability of metals in soils was also co-determined by the soil pH and soil organic matter which accounted for the trend of metal concentration at the various dump sites. For the control sites, the pH ranged from 5.40 - 6.74 and soil organic matter from 3.25% to 3.40%, while for the dump sites, values of 7.44-10.10 and 5.79% - 7.59% were obtained for soil pH and soil organic matter respectively. The metal ion concentration in both soil and earthworm samples followed the trend Pb > Zn > Mn > Cu > Cr > Cd. Dump sites with high levels of Pb were located by roadsides of busy highways.

  17. Earthworms as bio-indicators of metal pollution in dump sites of Abeokuta City, Nigeria

    Metal concentrations (Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, Cd and Cr) and contents were measured in earthworms (Libyodrilus violaceus) and soil samples from three non-contaminated sites and ten dump sites located in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Samples from control sites show (in general) levels of metals to be higher in earthworms than in soil samples, as shown by the mean concentrations, (earthworms-soil: - Zn:7.02, 6.74, Pb:5.04, 4.94, Mn 10.54, 10.41, Cu:1.03, 1.60., Cd: 0.80, 0.81 and Cr:0.55, 0.49 μg/g) while for samples from dump sites, irrespective of the degree of pollution, the ratio of metal concentration in earthworms to soil samples were less than unity with the exception of Cd and Cr. The availability of metals in soils was also co-determined by the soil pH and soil organic matter which accounted for the trend of metal concentration at the various dump sites. For the control sites, the pH ranged from 5.40 - 6.74 and soil organic matter from 3.25% to 3.40%, while for the dump sites, values of 7.44-10.10 and 5.79% - 7.59% were obtained for soil pH and soil organic matter respectively. The metal ion concentration in both soil and earthworm samples followed the trend Pb > Zn > Mn > Cu > Cr > Cd. Dump sites with high levels of Pb were located by roadsides of busy highways. (Author) Mgtr.Julieta Soto Rojas Subdirectora Sistema de Bibliotecas, Documentacion e Informacion Universidad de Costa Rica jsotoatsibdi.ucr.ac.cr Tel. 207-4750, 207-4238, 207-4461, 207-5316 y 253-6152 Fax: 2342809

  18. Effects of earthworm cast and powdered activated carbon on methane removal capacity of landfill cover soils.

    Park, Soyoung; Lee, Incheol; Cho, Changhwan; Sung, Kijune

    2008-01-01

    Landfill gases could be vented through a layer of landfill cover soil that could serve as a biofilter to oxidize methane to carbon dioxide and water. Properly managed landfill cover soil layers may reduce atmospheric CH4 emissions from landfills. In the present study, the effects of earthworm cast and powdered activated carbon (PAC) on the CH4 removal capacity of the landfill cover soil was investigated. For this purpose, column and batch tests were conducted using three different materials: typical landfill cover soil, landfill cover soil amended with earthworm cast, and landfill cover soil amended with PAC. The maximum CH4 removal rate of the columns filled with landfill cover soil amended with earthworm cast was 14.6mol m(-2)d(-1), whereas that of the columns filled with typical landfill cover soil was 7.4mol m(-2)d(-1). This result shows that amendment with earthworm cast could stimulate the CH4-oxidizing capacity of landfill cover soil. The CH4 removal rate of the columns filled with landfill cover soil amended with PAC also showed the same removal rate, but the vertical profile of gas concentrations in the columns and the methanotrophic population measured in the microbial assay suggested that the decrease of CH4 concentration in the columns is mainly due to sorption. Based on the results from this study, amendment of landfill cover soil with earthworm cast and PAC could improve its CH4 removal capacity and thus achieve a major reduction in atmospheric CH4 emission as compared with the same landfill cover soil without any amendment. PMID:17764722

  19. Aversive life events enhance human freezing responses.

    Hagenaars, Muriel A; Stins, John F; Roelofs, Karin

    2012-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of prior aversive life events on freezing-like responses. Fifty healthy females were presented neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant images from the International Affective Picture System while standing on a stabilometric platform and wearing a polar band to assess body sway and heart rate. In the total sample, only unpleasant pictures elicited reduced body sway and reduced heart rate (freezing). Moreover, participants who had experienced 1 or more aversive life events showed greater reductions in heart rate for unpleasant versus pleasant pictures than those who had experienced no such event. In addition, relative to no-event participants, single-event participants showed reduced body sway to unpleasant pictures, while multiple-event participants showed reduced body sway in response to all picture categories. These results indicate that aversive life events affect automatic freezing responses and may indicate the cumulative effect of multiple trauma. The experimental paradigm presented is a promising method to study freezing as a primary defense response in trauma-related disorders. PMID:21767043

  20. Unitarity Constraints on Asymmetric Freeze-In

    This paper considers unitarity and CPT constraints on asymmetric freeze-in, the use of freeze-in to store baryon number in a dark sector. In this scenario, Sakharov's out of equilibrium condition is satisfied by placing the visible and hidden sectors at different temperatures while a net visible baryon number is produced by storing negative baryon number in a dark sector. It is shown that unitarity and CPT lead to unexpected cancellations. In particular, the transfer of baryon number cancels completely at leading order. This note has shown that if two sectors are in thermal equilibrium with themselves, but not with each other, then the leading effect transferring conserved quantities between the two sectors is of order the the weak coupling connecting them to the third power. When freeze-in is used to produce a net baryon number density, the leading order effect comes from Ο(λ3) diagrams where the intermediate state that goes on-shell has a different visible baryon number than the final state visible baryon number. Models in which the correct baryon number is generated with freeze-in as the dominant source of abundance, typically require λ ∼> 10-6 and mbath ∼> TeV. mbath is the mass of the visible particle which communicates with the hidden sector. The lower window is potentially observable at the LHC.

  1. A bilateral nuclear-weapon freeze

    In many of the current elections in the U.S. there is a referendum on whether to urge a halt in the production of new nuclear weapons and delivery systems. The nature of such a freeze is discussed here. (orig.)

  2. Freeze block testing of buried waste lines

    An investigation was conducted to demonstrate application of freeze blocking in waste transfer lines such that a hydrostatic pressure test can be applied. A shop test was conducted on a 20-foot length, 3-inch schedule 40, carbon steel pipe using a coolant of dry ice and Freon. The positive results from these tests prompted a similar employment of the freeze block method in hydrostatic pressure testing the feed inlet leading to 241-S-101 Waste Tank. This pipeline is a 3-inch schedule 10, stainless steel pipe approximately 800 feet long. The freeze block was formed near the lower end of the pipe as it entered the 101-S Waste Tank and a pressure hold test was applied to this pipeline. This test proved the integrity of the pipeline in question, and demonstrated the validity of freeze blocking an open-ended pipeline which could not be hydrotested in other conventional ways. The field demonstration facility, costing $30,200 was completed late in 1975

  3. Freezing Technique May Ease 'Phantom Limb' Pain for Amputees

    ... news/fullstory_158216.html Freezing Technique May Ease 'Phantom Limb' Pain for Amputees Targeted treatment of nerve and ... News) -- A freezing technique may reduce the debilitating phantom limb pain that many amputees experience, according to a ...

  4. Land use intensity impact on functional diversity in earthworms regarding regulation of soil structure and water infiltration

    Faber, Jack H.; Pérès, G.; de Groot, Arjen; Krogh, Paul Henning

    discuss the functional ecology of earthworms at the level of functional group and the individual species, focussing on burrow morphology and vulnerability towards agricultural management practices. Results contribute to the understanding of the linkage between soil biodiversity and provision of ecosystem......Earthworms can be distinguished into three groups that represent different clusters of morphological and behavioural traits. These so-called ecological groups (sensu Bouché 1977) have traditionally been considered to represent different functional groups with respect to soil processes. In this......- 4mm soil aggregates significantly increased with increasing biomass of both anecic and endogeic earthworms. Earthworm burrow distribution over the soil profile was strongly impacted by land management (e.g. total number was higher under grassland vs crop), and specific relationships were identified...

  5. Acceleration of cellulose and organic matter decomposition as a result of earthworms effect on soil microbial community

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Khomyakov, Nikita; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Myachina, Olga; Byzov, Boris; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2010-05-01

    The biotic activity of earthworms alters soil carbon turnover 1) indirectly by the disturbance of soil structure which increases the availability of organic matter; or 2) directly changing the structure of soil microbial community which is mainly in the dormant state in undisturbed soil. The activation of soil microorganisms by earthworms can strongly change the turnover of native soil organic matter (SOM), i.e. cause priming effects (PE). The effects of earthworms on mineralization of SOM and plant residues during PE induced by the input of available organic substances remains unclear. Our study aimed to evaluate how the microbial community modified by earthworms alters the decomposition of SOM and 14C-cellulose added to soil. Two-factorial experiment to assess the interactive effect of 1) earthworms Aporrectodea caliginosa and of 2) 14C-uniformly labeled cellulose on soil organic matter mineralization was carried out during 30 days incubation. The following variables were determined: 1) dynamics of CO2 evolution; 2) 14CO2 originated from the added cellulose; 3) microbial biomass C and 14C by fumigation-extraction; 4) specific growth rates of microorganisms by the kinetics of substrate induced respiration and 5) activities of extracellular enzymes (?-glucosidase, chitinase, cellobiogidrolase and xylanase) with fluorogenically labeled substrates. The experimental design allowed us to distinguish the contribution of different microbial communities to priming-effects, i.e. soil microbial community activated by cellulose; earthworms and their own microbial community; soil microbial community changed by earthworms. Maximal intensity of CO2 and 14CO2 efflux as well as of enzyme activities was observed between 5th and 15th days after cellulose application. Contribution of earthworms to total soil respiration (calculated as difference between CO2 efflux from soil with and without earthworms) amounted up to 60%. Earthworms accelerated SOM decomposition for 50% while cellulose mineralization was accelerated by A. caliginosa for 15.8 % as compared to soil without earthworms. Increased activity of enzymes which release monomer units from polymeric chains (?-glucosidase for 32 % and chitinase for 19 %) was observed in the presence of earthworms in soil. However, strong decrease in activity of cellulolytic enzymes: xylanase (for 25 %) and especially of cellobiogidrolase ( for 87 %) was caused by A. caliginosa in 15 days after cellulose addition. The maximal specific growth rates of soil microorganisms were 20 - 30 % lower in soil with application of earthworms as compared with worms-free soil. No significant effect of earthworms on total microbial biomass C was observed. However, the changes in microbial growth kinetics as well as in enzyme activities prove the shift in microbial community structure to domination of slow growing K-strategists caused by earthworms. We conclude that earthworms strongly affect soil microbial populations resulting in accelerated decomposition of both SOM and plant residues.

  6. 23 CFR 658.23 - LCV freeze; cargo-carrying unit freeze.

    2010-04-01

    ... OPERATIONS TRUCK SIZE AND WEIGHT, ROUTE DESIGNATIONS-LENGTH, WIDTH AND WEIGHT LIMITATIONS § 658.23 LCV freeze.... 141. (f) The Federal Highway Administrator, on his or her own motion or upon a request by any...

  7. Earthworm biomass as additional information for risk assessment of heavy metal biomagnification: a case study for dredged sediment-derived soils and polluted floodplain soils

    The important role of earthworms in the biomagnification of heavy metals in terrestrial ecosystems is widely recognised. Differences in earthworm biomass between sites is mostly not accounted for in ecological risk assessment. These differences may be large depending on soil properties and pollution status. A survey of earthworm biomass and colonisation rate was carried out on dredged sediment-derived soils (DSDS). Results were compared with observations for the surrounding alluvial plains. Mainly grain size distribution and time since disposal determined earthworm biomass on DSDS, while soil pollution status of the DSDS was of lesser importance. Highest earthworm biomass was observed on sandy loam DSDS disposed at least 40 years ago. - Polluted clayey dredged sediment-derived soils have a relatively low risk for heavy metal biomagnification due to slow earthworm colonisation

  8. Bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals and other anthropogenic waste indicators in earthworms from agricultural soil amended with biosolid or swine manure

    Kinney, C.A.; Furlong, E.T.; Kolpin, D.W.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Zaugg, S.D.; Werner, S.L.; Bossio, J.P.; Benotti, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of earthworms offers potential for assessing the transfer of organic anthropogenic waste indicators (AWIs) derived from land-applied biosolid or manure to biota. Earthworms and soil samples were collected from three Midwest agricultural fields to measure the presence and potential for transfer of 77 AWIs from land-applied biosolids and livestock manure to earthworms. The sites consisted of a soybean field with no amendments of human or livestock waste (Site 1), a soybean field amended with biosolids from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (Site 2), and a cornfield amended with swine manure (Site 3). The biosolid applied to Site 2 contained a diverse composition of 28 AWIs, reflecting the presence of human-use compounds. The swine manure contained 12 AWIs, and was dominated by biogenic sterols. Soil and earthworm samples were collected in the spring (about 30 days after soil amendment) and fall (140-155 days after soil amendment) at all field sites. Soils from Site 1 contained 21 AWIs and soil from Sites 2 and 3 contained 19 AWIs. The AWI profiles at Sites 2 and 3 generally reflected the relative composition of AWIs present in waste material applied. There were 20 AWIs detected in earthworms from Site 1 (three compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 ??g/kg), 25 AWIs in earthworms from Site 2 (seven compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 ??g/kg), and 21 AWIs in earthworms from Site 3 (five compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 ??g/kg). A number of compounds thatwere present in the earthworm tissue were at concentrations less than reporting levels in the corresponding soil samples. The AWIs detected in earthworm tissue from the three field sites included pharmaceuticals, synthetic fragrances, detergent metabolites, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), biogenic sterols, disinfectants, and pesticides, reflecting a wide range of physicochemical properties. For those contaminants detected in earthworm tissue and soil, bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged from 0.05 (galaxolide) to 27 (triclosan). This study documents that when AWIs are present in source materials that are land applied, such as biosolids and swine manure, AWIs can be transferred to earthworms. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  9. Freeze-drying microscopy in mathematical modeling of a biomaterial freeze-drying

    Camila Figueiredo Borgognoni; Joyce da Silva Bevilacqua; Ronaldo Nogueira de Moraes Pitombo

    2012-01-01

    Transplantation brings hope for many patients. A multidisciplinary approach on this field aims at creating biologically functional tissues to be used as implants and prostheses. The freeze-drying process allows the fundamental properties of these materials to be preserved, making future manipulation and storage easier. Optimizing a freeze-drying cycle is of great importance since it aims at reducing process costs while increasing product quality of this time-and-energy-consuming process. Math...

  10. The hyphae of Uromyces appendiculatus within the leaf tissue after high pressure freezing and freeze substitution

    Welter, Klaus; Mller, M.; Mendgen, Kurt

    1988-01-01

    The fine structure of the intercellular dikaryotic hyphae of the biotrophic fungus Uromyces appendiculatus was studied. High pressure freezing and freeze substitution were used to achieve a closer approximation of the native state than with conventional fixation and dehydration techniques. In addition to organelles previously described in rust fungi, heavily decorated multivesicular bodies (star bodies) were found close to the nuclei. Two types of tubular-vesicular complexes were distributed...

  11. Comparison of conventional and directional freezing for the cryopreservation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Bing Qi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare conventional slow equilibrium cooling and directional freezing (DF by gauze package for cryopreservation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs.METHODS: HUVECs were randomly assigned to conventional freezing (CF and DF by gauze package group. The two groups of HUVECs were incubated with a freezing liquid consisting of 10% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, 60% fetal bovine serum(FBS and 30% Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium(DMEM and then put into cryopreserved tubes. CF group, slow equilibrium cooling was performed with the following program:precool in 4℃ for 30min, -20℃ for 1h, and then immersion in -80℃ refrigerator. DF group, the tubes were packaged with gauze and then directional freezing in -80℃ refrigerator straightly. One month later, the vitality of HUVECs were calculated between two groups.RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the survival rate and growth curve between CF and DF groups. The DF group was significantly better than CF group in adherent rates, morphological changes and proliferative ability.CONCLUSION:In the conventional cryopreserved method, cells are slow equilibrium cooling by steps (4℃, -20℃ and finally -80℃, which is a complicated and time-consuming process. But the improved DF by gauze package method is better than conventional method, for which is convenient and easy to operate.

  12. Production of freeze-dried yeast culture for the brewing of traditional sorghum beer, tchapalo.

    N'Guessan, Florent K; Coulibaly, Hermann W; Alloue-Boraud, Mireille W A; Cot, Marlne; Dj, Koffi Marcellin

    2016-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a well-known dehydration method widely used to preserve microorganisms. In order to produce freeze-dried yeast starter culture for the brewing purpose of African sorghum beer, we tested protective agents (sucrose, glucose, glycerol) in combination with support materials (millet, maize, sorghum, and cassava flours) at 1:1 ratio (v/v). The yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae F 12-7 and Candida tropicalis C 0-7 previously isolated from sorghum beer were used in a mixed culture at a ratio of 2:1 (C.tropicalis/S.cerevisiae). After the freeze-drying, the residual water contents were between 0.78 -2.27%, 0.55 -4.09%, and 0.40-2.61%, respectively, with sucrose, glucose and glycerol. The dried yeasts viabilities were between 4.0% and 10.6%. Among the protective agents used, sucrose was found to be the best protectant giving cell viabilities of 8.4-10.6%. Considering the support materials, millet flour was the best support after drying. When the freeze-dried yeast powders were stored at 4C and room temperature (25-28C) for up to 3months, the survival rates were the highest with cassava flour as the support material. PMID:26788308

  13. Effect of Glycerol, as Cryoprotectant in the Encapsulation and Freeze Drying of Microspheres Containing Probiotic Cells

    Oana Lelia Pop

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is reported that probiotics provide several health benefits as they help in maintaining a good balance and composition of intestinal flora, and increase the resistance against invasion of pathogens. Ensuring adequate dosages of probiotics at the time of consumption is a challenge, because several factors during processing and storage affect the viability of probiotic organisms. Major emphasis has been given to protect the microorganisms with the help of encapsulation technique, by addition of different protectants. In this study, probiotic cells (Bifidobacterium lactis 300B were entrapped in alginate/pullulan microspheres. In the encapsulation formula glycerol was used as cryoprotectant in the freeze drying process for long time storage. It was observed that the survival of Bifidobacterium lactis 300B when encapsulated without cryoprotectant was higher than the formula with glycerol in the fresh obtained microspheres. The addition of glycerol was in order to reduce the deep freezing and freeze drying damages. In the chosen formulations, glycerol did not proved protection for the entrapped probiotic cells in the freeze drying process, for which the use of glycerol as cryoprotectant for alginate/pullulan Bifidobacterium lactis 300B entrapment is not recommended.

  14. Idealized freeze-out in relativistic fluid dynamical models

    Freeze-out of particles across a three-dimensional space-time hypersurface is discussed. The calculation of final momentum distribution of emitted particles is described for space-like and time-like freeze-out surfaces, taking into account conservation laws across the freeze-out discontinuity. Generally the conservation laws lead to a change of temperature, baryon density and flow velocity at freeze-out. (author)

  15. NaCl stress impact on the key enzymes in glycolysis from Lactobacillus bulgaricus during freeze-drying

    Chun Li; Jinwei Sun; Xiaoxi Qi; Libo Liu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The viability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus in freeze-drying is of significant commercial interest to dairy industries. In the study, L.bulgaricus demonstrated a significantly improved (p < 0.05) survival rate during freeze-drying when subjected to a pre-stressed period under the conditions of 2% (w/v) NaCl for 2 h in the late growth phase. The main energy source for the life activity of lactic acid bacteria is related to the glycolytic pathway. To investigate the phenomenon of this st...

  16. Patterns of earthworm communities and species traits in relation to the perturbation gradient of a restored floodplain

    Fournier, Bertrand; Samaritani, Emanuela; Shrestha, Juna; Mitchell, Edward A.D.; Le Bayon Renée-Claire

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the diversity and ecology of earthworms in floodplains, as well as their response to natural and anthropic perturbations (e.g. floods, river channelisation, floodplain restoration). We characterised the patterns of earthworm communities and species traits in the different habitats of a lowland restored floodplain in Switzerland. In addition to classical species-based metrics, such as species richness and Shannon diversity, species traits were used to calculate the commun...

  17. The effects of earthworm functional diversity on microbial biomass and the microbial community level physiological profile of soils

    Sheehan, Crna; Kirwan, Laura; Connolly, John; Bolger, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A novel experiment design based on the axial simplex design was used to study the effects of earthworm functional diversity on microbial biomass and microbial community level physiological profiles in soils. This mesocosm experiment was carried out at two densities of earthworm and at two levels of food supply. Soil mesocosms were maintained for 7 months and watered each week with 300 ml of distilled water. At the end of this period the soil columns were divided into upper and ...

  18. Species-Specific Effects of Epigeic Earthworms on Microbial Community Structure during First Stages of Decomposition of Organic Matter

    Gmez-Brandn, Mara; Lores, Marta; Domnguez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Background Epigeic earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with microorganisms. The earthworm species and the quality and/or substrate availability are expected to be major factors influencing the outcome of these interactions. Here we tested whether and to what extent the epigeic earthworms Eisenia andrei, Eisenia fetida and Perionyx excavatus, widely used in vermicomposting, are capable of altering the microbiological properties of fresh organic matter in the short-term. We also questioned if the earthworm-induced modifications to the microbial communities are dependent on the type of substrate ingested. Methodology/Principal Findings To address these questions we determined the microbial community structure (phospholipid fatty acid profiles) and microbial activity (basal respiration and microbial growth rates) of three types of animal manure (cow, horse and rabbit) that differed in microbial composition, after being processed by each species of earthworm for one month. No differences were found between earthworm-worked samples with regards to microbial community structure, irrespective of type of manure, which suggests the existence of a bottleneck effect of worm digestion on microbial populations of the original material consumed. Moreover, in mesocosms containing cow manure the presence of E. andrei resulted not only in a decrease in bacterial and fungal biomass, but also in a reduced bacterial growth rate and total microbial activity, while no such reduction was found with E. fetida and P. excavatus. Conclusions/Significance Our results point to the species of earthworm with its associated gut microbiota as a strong determinant of the process shaping the structure of microbial communities in the short-term. This must nonetheless be weighed against the fact that further knowledge is necessary to evaluate whether the changes in the composition of microbiota in response to the earthworm species is accompanied by a change in the microbial community diversity and/or function. PMID:22363763

  19. 90Sr accumulation of the earthworms and the influence of those upon the radionuclide dissipation in the soil

    The study is aimed at the obtaining of quantitative characteristics of 90Sr accumulation process by puberal earthworms (Nicodrilius caliginosus Savigny) when they dwell in soils of different types (grey forest and leached black earth, and to evaluate the purticipation of earthworms in the processes of radiostrontium redistribution over the soil priofile. In the experiments on the study of accumulation dynamics it is shown, that in the first days after earthworm entrance into contaminated soil the intensive accumulation of the radionuclide by the animals takes place, at that, the rate of 90Sr concentrating in the variant with grey forrest soil is 2.6 times lower, than in the case of leached black earth, and, it is somewhat lower to the end of the first stage. Stabilization of radiostrontium concentration in the earthworm organism took place in both variants of the experiment practically at the same level (KH=0.75). Radioactivity of caprolytes of the earthworms increased rapidly and all over the observation period it exceeded the radioactivity of soil on the average by 1.2-1.9. Experiments with the radionuclide redistribution have shown, that in experimental plastic vessels earthworms quite activily dispersed 90Sr. In the variant with ''contaminated'' lower soil the earthworms in time transferred approximately 11% 90Sr to the upper ''pure layers'', when the radionuclide was introduced in the upper layers of soil in ''non-contaminated'' loswer layers of soil approximately 8% 90Sr was introduced. According to preliminary calculations the rate of 90Sr dispersion by earthworms in soil constitutes approximately 0.003 cm/day and, provided the rate is constant, gradual distribution of the radionuclide over the soil profile under experimental conditions will take place in 55 years

  20. Effects of Cry1Ab Transgenic Maize on Lifecycle and Biomarker Responses of the Earthworm, Eisenia Andrei

    Mark Maboeta; Johnnie Van den Berg; Frances van der Merwe; Carlos Bezuidenhout

    2012-01-01

    A 28-day study was conducted to determine the effects of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin on the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Previously, investigations have been limited to life-cycle level effects of this protein on earthworms, and mostly on E. fetida. In this study several endpoints were compared which included biomass changes, cocoon production, hatching success, a cellular metal-stress biomarker (Neutral Red Retention Time; NRRT) and potential genotoxic effects in terms of Randomly A...